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Sample records for endocrine pancreas differential

  1. Well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For the difference from poorly differentiated, well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas are the tumours in whom with aggressive surgery and chemotherapy fair results can be achieved. Objective. The aim of the study was to point out the importance of such treatment. Methods. Over a 6-year period eight patients (seven female and one male of average age 51 years (ranging from 23 to 71 years were operated on for well differentiated endocrine carcinoma: six of the head and two of the tail of the pancreas. There were two functional and six nonfunctional tumours. Pain in the upper part of the abdomen in seven, mild loss in weight in two, strong heartburn in two, obstructive jaundice in three, diarrhoea in one, sudden massive bleeding from gastric varicosities due to prehepatic portal hypertension caused by pancreatic head tumour in one, and bruise in one patient were registered preoperatively. US and CT in all, angiography in one, octreoscan in two and PET scan in one patient were performed. Whipple’s procedure was performed in six and distal pancreatectomy in two patients, as well as systemic lymphadenectomy in all and excision of liver secondary tumours in two patients. In the patient with massive gastric bleeding a total gastrectomy was performed first, followed by Whipple’s procedure a month later. Results. R0 resection was achieved in all patients. Lymph nodes metastases were found in six patients. Six patients were given chemotherapy. One patient died 3 years after surgery, seven are still alive, on average 2.5 years. A local recurrence after distal pancreatectomy that occurred 5 years after surgery was successfully reresected and the patient is on peptide-receptor radiotherapy. In other six patients there were no local recurence or distant metastases. Conclusion. With aggressive surgery and chemotherapy fair results can be achieved in well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas.

  2. Cell cycle-dependent differentiation dynamics balances growth and endocrine differentiation in the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Yung Hae; Larsen, Hjalte List; Rué, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Organogenesis relies on the spatiotemporal balancing of differentiation and proliferation driven by an expanding pool of progenitor cells. In the mouse pancreas, lineage tracing at the population level has shown that the expanding pancreas progenitors can initially give rise to all endocrine...

  3. Retinol dehydrogenase-10 regulates pancreas organogenesis and endocrine cell differentiation via paracrine retinoic acid signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arregi, Igor; Climent, Maria; Iliev, Dobromir

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A-derived retinoic acid (RA) signals are critical for the development of several organs, including the pancreas. However, the tissue-specific control of RA synthesis in organ and cell lineage development has only poorly been addressed in vivo. Here we show that Retinol dehydrogenase-10 (Rdh......10), a key enzyme in embryonic RA production, has important functions in pancreas organogenesis and endocrine cell differentiation. Rdh10 was expressed in the developing pancreas epithelium and surrounding mesenchyme. Rdh10 null mutant mouse embryos exhibited dorsal pancreas agenesis...... and a hypoplastic ventral pancreas with retarded tubulogenesis and branching. Conditional disruption of Rdh10 from the endoderm caused increased mortality, reduced body weight and lowered blood glucose levels after birth. Endodermal Rdh10 deficiency led to a smaller dorsal pancreas with a reduced density of early...

  4. A case report of mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas treated with S-1 chemotherapy: Does it work or induce endocrine differentiation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokode, Masataka; Itai, Ryosuke; Yamashita, Yukimasa; Zen, Yoh

    2017-11-01

    Acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) and mixed acinar-endocrine carcinomas (MAECs) of the pancreas are rare, accounting for only 1% of pancreatic tumors. Although both typically present at an advanced stage, chemotherapeutic regimes have not yet been standardized. A 65-year-old man presented with a large mass in the pancreatic tail with multiple liver metastases. He was initially treated with gemcitabine for suspected ductal carcinoma of the pancreas, but no response was observed. S-1, administered as second-line chemotherapy, showed an approximately 38% reduction in the size of the primary tumor and metastatic deposits with therapeutic effects being maintained for 12 months. When the tumor progressed again, he underwent a percutaneous liver biopsy, which led to the diagnosis of MAEC. Combination therapy with cisplatin and etoposide targeting the endocrine component was administered, and this was based on the endocrine component potentially being less sensitive to S-1 than the ACC element. However, therapy was stopped due to the development of neutropenia, and the patient is currently receiving best supportive care. Given the previous studies suggested that S-1 is more effective for ACCs than gemcitabine, MAECs may also respond to S-1 chemotherapy, similar to ACCs. Another potential interpretation is that S-1 was effective when the condition was ACC, and eventually showed decreased effectiveness when the condition shifted to MAEC. Future studies are needed to conclude whether S-1 chemotherapy truly works against MAECs or induces endocrine differentiation in ACCs as a part of the drug-resistance process.

  5. Physiology of the endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelking, L R

    1997-11-01

    The endocrine pancreas is composed of nests of cells called the islets of Langerhans, which comprise only about 20% of pancreatic cell mass and secrete insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide. Insulin is anabolic, increasing storage of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids, while glucagon namely stimulates hepatic glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and ketogenesis. Somatostatin acts as a paracrine agent to inhibit both insulin and glucagon release, and, therefore, to modulate their output. This article explores factors controlling release of these hormones, as well as the way in which they affect fuel metabolism in the whole animal.

  6. Physiology of fish endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plisetskaya, E M

    1989-06-01

    From the very beginning of physiological studies on the endocine pancreas, fish have been used as experimental subjects. Fish insulin was one of the first vertebrate insulins isolated and one of the first insulins whose primary and then tertiary structures were reported. Before a second pancreatic hormone, glucagon, was characterized, a physiologically active 'impurity', similar to that in mammalian insulin preparations, was found in fish insulins.Fish have become the most widely used model for studies of biosynthesis and processing of the pancreatic hormones. It seems inconceivable, therefore, that until the recent past cod and tuna insulins have been the only purified piscine islet hormones available for physiological experiments. The situation has changed remarkably during the last decade.In this review the contemporary status of physiological studies on the fish pancreas is outlined with an emphasis on the following topics: 1) contents of pancreatic peptides in plasma and in islet tissue; 2) actions of piscine pancreatic hormones in fish; 3) specific metabolic consequences of an acute insufficiency of pancreatic peptides; 4) functional interrelations among pancreatic peptides which differ from those of mammals. The pitfalls, lacunae and the perspectives of contemporary physiological studies on fish endocrine pancreas are outlined.

  7. Trefoil factors are expressed in human and rat endocrine pancreas: differential regulation by growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackerott, Malene; Lee, Ying C; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2006-01-01

    Trefoil factors (TFFs) 1, 2, and 3 are expressed in mucosal epithelia. TFFs are particular abundant in the intestine in which they play a crucial role in maintenance and restitution of the epithelium. Because pancreas developmentally arises from the primitive foregut, we explored the expression o...

  8. CT and MR imaging findings of endocrine tumor of the pancreas according to WHO classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rha, Sung Eun; Jung, Seung Eun; Lee, Kang Hoon; Ku, Young Mi; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Jae Mun

    2007-01-01

    The pancreatic endocrine tumors are rare neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas originating from totipotential stem cells or differentiated mature endocrine cells within the exocrine gland. Endocrine tumors are usually classified into functioning and non-functioning tumors and presents with a range of benignity or malignancy. In this article, we present the various CT and MR imaging findings of endocrine tumors of pancreas according to recent WHO classification

  9. REST represses a subset of the pancreatic endocrine differentiation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, David; Kim, Yung-Hae; Sever, Dror

    2015-01-01

    in neurons and in endocrine cells, which is necessary for their normal function. During development, REST represses a subset of genes in the neuronal differentiation program and Rest is down-regulated as neurons differentiate. Here, we investigate the role of REST in the differentiation of pancreatic...... endocrine cells, which are molecularly close to neurons. We show that Rest is widely expressed in pancreas progenitors and that it is down-regulated in differentiated endocrine cells. Sustained expression of REST in Pdx1(+) progenitors impairs the differentiation of endocrine-committed Neurog3...

  10. Purinergic receptors in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I

    2008-01-01

    The pancreas is a complex gland performing both endocrine and exocrine functions. In recent years there has been increasing evidence that both endocrine and exocrine cells possess purinergic receptors, which influence processes such as insulin secretion and epithelial ion transport. Most commonly......, there is also evidence for other P2 and adenosine receptors in beta cells (P2Y(2), P2Y(4), P2Y(6), P2X subtypes and A(1) receptors) and in glucagon-secreting alpha cells (P2X(7), A(2) receptors). In the exocrine pancreas, acini release ATP and ATP-hydrolysing and ATP-generating enzymes. P2 receptors...

  11. Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas: new clinical and pathological features in a contemporary series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Run; Jih, Lily; Zhai, Jing; Nissen, Nicholas N; Colquhoun, Steven; Wolin, Edward; Dhall, Deepti

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the novel clinical and pathological features of mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. This was a retrospective review of medical records and surgical pathology specimens of patients with a diagnosis of mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center between 2005 and 2011. Additional immunohistochemistry was performed on the specimens of some patients. Five patients were identified. The median age at presentation was 74 years (range, 59-89 years), and all patients were male. The presenting symptoms were all related to tumor mass effects. The median size of the tumor was 10 cm (range, 3.9-16 cm). Preoperative clinical diagnosis aided by fine-needle aspiration biopsy was incorrect in all 5 cases. Most tumors (3/5) exhibited predominantly endocrine differentiation without hormonal production. Only 10% to 30% of cells were truly amphicrine, whereas most were differentiated into either endocrine or acinar phenotype. The clinical behavior ranged from moderate to aggressive with postoperative survival from 2.5 months to more than 3 years. Four patients received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy with variable responses. Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas appears to be not uncommon in men, may harbor predominantly endocrine component, is often misdiagnosed by cytology, and exhibits variable clinical behavior. Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas should be considered in older patients with sizable pancreatic mass and may warrant aggressive surgical resection and chemotherapy.

  12. Endocrine pancreas development at weaning in goat kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabia Rosi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen three-day old Saanen goat kids were divided into MILK and WEAN groups. MILK kids received goat milk to age 48 days; WEAN kids were initially fed milk but started weaning at 25 days and were completely weaned by 40 days. Total intake per group was recorded daily. On day 25, 40 and 48, body weights were recorded, and plasma samples were taken and analyzed for glucose, free amino-acids and insulin. On day 48, all animals were slaughtered and pancreas samples were analyzed for total DNA and RNA content. Histological sections of pancreas were examined by light microscope and images analyzed by dedicated software. Seven days after the beginning of the weaning program, dry matter intake in the WEAN group began to decrease compared to the MILK one. Nonetheless, body weight did not differ throughout the study period. Weaning significantly decreased plasma levels of glucose, amino-acids and insulin. No difference was observed in pancreatic DNA and RNA content. Histological analysis of pancreas showed that the size of pancreatic islets was not different, but islet number per section was lower in the pancreas of WEAN animals. In conclusion, weaning affects glucose and amino-acid metabolism and influences endocrine pancreas activity and morphology.

  13. Pancreas Volume and Fat Deposition in Diabetes and Normal Physiology: Consideration of the Interplay Between Endocrine and Exocrine Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisho, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The pancreas is comprised of exocrine and endocrine components. Despite the fact that they are derived from a common origin in utero, these two compartments are often studied individually because of the different roles and functions of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas. Recent studies have shown that not only type 1 diabetes (T1D), but also type 2 diabetes (T2D), is characterized by a deficit in beta-cell mass, suggesting that pathological changes in the pancreas are critical events in the natural history of diabetes. In both patients with T1D and those with T2D, pancreas mass and exocrine function have been reported to be reduced. On the other hand, pancreas volume and pancreatic fat increase with obesity. Increased beta-cell mass with increasing obesity has also been observed in humans, and ectopic fat deposits in the pancreas have been reported to cause beta-cell dysfunction. Moreover, neogenesis and transdifferentiation from the exocrine to the endocrine compartment in the postnatal period are regarded as a source of newly formed beta-cells. These findings suggest that there is important interplay between the endocrine and exocrine pancreas throughout life. This review summarizes the current knowledge on physiological and pathological changes in the exocrine and endocrine pancreas (i.e., beta-cell mass), and discusses the potential mechanisms of the interplay between the two compartments in humans to understand the pathophysiology of diabetes better.

  14. Pancreas Volume and Fat Deposition in Diabetes and Normal Physiology: Consideration of the Interplay Between Endocrine and Exocrine Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisho, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The pancreas is comprised of exocrine and endocrine components. Despite the fact that they are derived from a common origin in utero, these two compartments are often studied individually because of the different roles and functions of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas. Recent studies have shown that not only type 1 diabetes (T1D), but also type 2 diabetes (T2D), is characterized by a deficit in beta-cell mass, suggesting that pathological changes in the pancreas are critical events in the natural history of diabetes. In both patients with T1D and those with T2D, pancreas mass and exocrine function have been reported to be reduced. On the other hand, pancreas volume and pancreatic fat increase with obesity. Increased beta-cell mass with increasing obesity has also been observed in humans, and ectopic fat deposits in the pancreas have been reported to cause beta-cell dysfunction. Moreover, neogenesis and transdifferentiation from the exocrine to the endocrine compartment in the postnatal period are regarded as a source of newly formed beta-cells. These findings suggest that there is important interplay between the endocrine and exocrine pancreas throughout life. This review summarizes the current knowledge on physiological and pathological changes in the exocrine and endocrine pancreas (i.e., beta-cell mass), and discusses the potential mechanisms of the interplay between the two compartments in humans to understand the pathophysiology of diabetes better. PMID:28012279

  15. An immunohistochemical study of the endocrine pancreas in raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, C; Shivaprasad, H L

    2014-12-01

    The cytoarchitecture of the endocrine pancreas of 10 raptors (golden eagles, peregrine falcons, Saker falcon, turkey vultures, red-tailed hawk and unspecified falcon) was examined by immunohistochemistry. Three islet types were identified: type A mixed islets composed mainly by glucagon (A)-secreting cells, type B mixed islets with predominantly insulin (B)-secreting cell component and type M mixed islets (type M) consisting of variable number of glucagon-, insulin- and somatostatin (D)-secreting cells. The latter were further characterized into Type I, II or III according to the cell distribution of the three cell types. A and D cells were also randomly scattered within the exocrine pancreas. The results of this study suggest that the classical concept in birds of a segregation of A and B cells in well-defined and distinct islets is not applicable in raptors, reflecting an evolutionary adaptation to different dietary habits and variation in developmental mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pancreas Volume and Fat Deposition in Diabetes and Normal Physiology: Consideration of the Interplay Between Endocrine and Exocrine Pancreas

    OpenAIRE

    Saisho, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The pancreas is comprised of exocrine and endocrine components. Despite the fact that they are derived from a common origin in utero, these two compartments are often studied individually because of the different roles and functions of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas. Recent studies have shown that not only type 1 diabetes (T1D), but also type 2 diabetes (T2D), is characterized by a deficit in beta-cell mass, suggesting that pathological changes in the pancreas are critical events in the ...

  17. Chronology of endocrine differentiation and beta-cell neogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatsuka, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic and incurable disease, which results from absolute or relative insulin insufficiency. Therefore, pancreatic beta cells, which are the only type of cell that expresses insulin, is considered to be a potential target for the cure of diabetes. Although the findings regarding beta-cell neogenesis during pancreas development have been exploited to induce insulin-producing cells from non-beta cells, there are still many hurdles towards generating fully functional beta cells that can produce high levels of insulin and respond to physiological signals. To overcome these problems, a solid understanding of pancreas development and beta-cell formation is required, and several mouse models have been developed to reveal the unique features of each endocrine cell type at distinct developmental time points. Here I review our understanding of pancreas development and endocrine differentiation focusing on recent progresses in improving temporal cell labeling in vivo.

  18. Some endocrinal aspects of pancreas in beta thalassemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badder, M A; Megahed, Y M; Gafer, M; Abdel Kariem, M M [Pediatric dept., faculty of medicine, Zagazig university and Middle eastern regional Radioisotope Center for The Arab Countries, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate endocrinal aspects of the pancreas in thalassemia children, ages 5 - 10 years maintained under either regular or irregular iron chelation therapy. A matched control on healthy children, was included for comparison. As regards laboratory findings, fasting and post prandial blood sugar was significantly elevated in thalassemia children than the control and serum insulin was significantly lower in the irregular iron chelation group than both in the regular one and in the control group. Most cases of diabetic thalassemia children clinically and biochemically were of irregular iron chelation and with older age. They were frequently higher transfused. There is significant rise of serum ferritin in diabetic group than in diabetic thalassemia children. In conclusion, pancreatic dysfunction can be detected in thalassemia children, but regular iron chelation can reduce its occurrence. 10 tabs.

  19. Some endocrinal aspects of pancreas in beta thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badder, M.A.; Megahed, Y.M.; Gafer, M.; Abdel Kariem, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate endocrinal aspects of the pancreas in thalassemia children, ages 5 - 10 years maintained under either regular or irregular iron chelation therapy. A matched control on healthy children, was included for comparison. As regards laboratory findings, fasting and post prandial blood sugar was significantly elevated in thalassemia children than the control and serum insulin was significantly lower in the irregular iron chelation group than both in the regular one and in the control group. Most cases of diabetic thalassemia children clinically and biochemically were of irregular iron chelation and with older age. They were frequently higher transfused. There is significant rise of serum ferritin in diabetic group than in diabetic thalassemia children. In conclusion, pancreatic dysfunction can be detected in thalassemia children, but regular iron chelation can reduce its occurrence. 10 tabs

  20. Purinergic receptors in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, I

    2008-09-01

    The pancreas is a complex gland performing both endocrine and exocrine functions. In recent years there has been increasing evidence that both endocrine and exocrine cells possess purinergic receptors, which influence processes such as insulin secretion and epithelial ion transport. Most commonly, these processes have been viewed separately. In beta cells, stimulation of P2Y(1) receptors amplifies secretion of insulin in the presence of glucose. Nucleotides released from secretory granules could also contribute to autocrine/paracrine regulation in pancreatic islets. In addition to P2Y(1) receptors, there is also evidence for other P2 and adenosine receptors in beta cells (P2Y(2), P2Y(4), P2Y(6), P2X subtypes and A(1) receptors) and in glucagon-secreting alpha cells (P2X(7), A(2) receptors). In the exocrine pancreas, acini release ATP and ATP-hydrolysing and ATP-generating enzymes. P2 receptors are prominent in pancreatic ducts, and several studies indicate that P2Y(2), P2Y(4), P2Y(11), P2X(4) and P2X(7) receptors could regulate secretion, primarily by affecting Cl(-) and K(+) channels and intracellular Ca(2+) signalling. In order to understand the physiology of the whole organ, it is necessary to consider the full complement of purinergic receptors on different cells as well as the structural and functional relation between various cells within the whole organ. In addition to the possible physiological function of purinergic receptors, this review analyses whether the receptors could be potential therapeutic targets for drug design aimed at treatment of pancreatic diseases.

  1. Competence of failed endocrine progenitors to give rise to acinar but not ductal cells is restricted to early pancreas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beucher, Anthony; Martín, Mercè; Spenle, Caroline; Poulet, Martine; Collin, Caitlin; Gradwohl, Gérard

    2012-01-15

    During mouse pancreas development, the transient expression of Neurogenin3 (Neurog3) in uncommitted pancreas progenitors is required to determine endocrine destiny. However it has been reported that Neurog3-expressing cells can eventually adopt acinar or ductal fates and that Neurog3 levels were important to secure the islet destiny. It is not known whether the competence of Neurog3-induced cells to give rise to non-endocrine lineages is an intrinsic property of these progenitors or depends on pancreas developmental stage. Using temporal genetic labeling approaches we examined the dynamic of endocrine progenitor differentiation and explored the plasticity of Neurog3-induced cells throughout development. We found that Neurog3(+) progenitors develop into hormone-expressing cells in a fast process taking less then 10h. Furthermore, fate-mapping studies in heterozygote (Neurog3(CreERT/+)) and Neurog3-deficient (Neurog3(CreERT/CreERT)) embryos revealed that Neurog3-induced cells have different potential over time. At the early bud stage, failed endocrine progenitors can adopt acinar or ductal fate, whereas later in the branching pancreas they do not contribute to the acinar lineage but Neurog3-deficient cells eventually differentiate into duct cells. Thus these results provide evidence that the plasticity of Neurog3-induced cells becomes restricted during development. Furthermore these data suggest that during the secondary transition, endocrine progenitor cells arise from bipotent precursors already committed to the duct/endocrine lineages and not from domain of cells having distinct potentialities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bombesin-stimulated serum immunoreactive trypsin in the different diagnosis between endocrine and exocrine tumors of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonora, G.; De Giorgio, R.; Toni, R.; Fanti, M.P.; Cariani, G.; Vezzadini, P.

    1987-01-01

    Bombesin administration was recently found to induce a marked increase in circulating immunoreactive trypsin (IRT), whose magnitude seems to reflect the functional capacity of pancreatic acinar cell mass. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of bombesin infusion on serum IRT concentration in patients with endocrine or exocrine tumors of the pancreas. Fifteen patients with pancreatic endocrine tumor, 17 patients with pancreatic exocrine carcinoma and 15 healty subjects were investigated. Serum IRT was measured by radioimmunoassay before and for 120 minutes after the start of bombesin infusion (9 ng/kg/min over 30 min). The integrated serum IRT response to bombesin administration in patients with endocrine tumor of the pancreas did not differ significantly from controls, but were significantly higher than in patients with exocrine carcinoma. In the latter the integrated IRT responses to bombesin infusion in patients with endocrine tumor can probably be explained by small tumor size and/or little invasion of the glandular parenchyma, resulting in an undetectable impairment of exocrine pancreatic function. The very low IRT responses in patients with exocrine carcinoma could reflect the presence of severe pancreatic damage. The results suggest that this newly proposed bombesin test may be useful in the preoperative differential diagnosis between endocrine and exocrine tumors of the pancreas

  3. Ductuloinsular tumors of the pancreas - Endocrine tumors with entrapped nonneoplastic ductules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eeden, Susanne; de Leng, Wendy W. J.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Morsink, Folkert H.; Weterman, Marian A. J.; de Krijger, Ronald R.; Klöppel, Günter; Klimstra, David S.

    2004-01-01

    Rare pancreatic neoplasms have been reported that show both endocrine and exocrine differentiation in the neoplastic components. In addition, pancreatic endocrine tumors may contain small, cytologically bland ductules intimately admixed with the endocrine component. It was recently suggested that

  4. Gravity in mammalian organ development: differentiation of cultured lung and pancreas rudiments during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, B. S.; Hardman, P.; Paulsen, A.

    1994-01-01

    Organ culture of embryonic mouse lung and pancreas rudiments has been used to investigate development and differentiation, and to assess the effects of microgravity on culture differentiation, during orbital spaceflight of the shuttle Endeavour (mission STS-54). Lung rudiments continue to grow and branch during spaceflight, an initial result that should allow future detailed study of lung morphogenesis in microgravity. Cultured embryonic pancreas undergoes characteristic exocrine acinar tissue and endocrine islet tissue differentiation during spaceflight, and in ground controls. The rudiments developing in the microgravity environment of spaceflight appear to grow larger than their ground counterparts, and they may have differentiated more rapidly than controls, as judged by exocrine zymogen granule presence.

  5. Central control of glucose homeostasis: the brain--endocrine pancreas axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorens, B

    2010-10-01

    A large body of data gathered over the last decades has delineated the neuronal pathways that link the central nervous system with the autonomic innervation of the endocrine pancreas, which controls alpha- and beta-cell secretion activity and mass. These are important regulatory functions that are certainly keys for preserving the capacity of the endocrine pancreas to control glucose homeostasis over a lifetime. Identifying the cells involved in controlling the autonomic innervation of the endocrine pancreas, in response to nutrient, hormonal and environmental cues and how these cues are detected to activate neuronal activity are important goals of current research. Elucidation of these questions may possibly lead to new means for preserving or restoring defects in insulin and glucagon secretion associated with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Transplant Living > Organ facts and surgeries > Pancreas Pancreas Beneath your ribs, you’ll find the pancreas, ... shape. Location of the pancreas How does the pancreas work? The pancreas controls your sugar levels and ...

  7. The Cdk4-E2f1 pathway regulates early pancreas development by targeting Pdx1+ progenitors and Ngn3+ endocrine precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Yoon; Rane, Sushil G.

    2011-01-01

    Cell division and cell differentiation are intricately regulated processes vital to organ development. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are master regulators of the cell cycle that orchestrate the cell division and differentiation programs. Cdk1 is essential to drive cell division and is required for the first embryonic divisions, whereas Cdks 2, 4 and 6 are dispensable for organogenesis but vital for tissue-specific cell development. Here, we illustrate an important role for Cdk4 in regulating early pancreas development. Pancreatic development involves extensive morphogenesis, proliferation and differentiation of the epithelium to give rise to the distinct cell lineages of the adult pancreas. The cell cycle molecules that specify lineage commitment within the early pancreas are unknown. We show that Cdk4 and its downstream transcription factor E2f1 regulate mouse pancreas development prior to and during the secondary transition. Cdk4 deficiency reduces embryonic pancreas size owing to impaired mesenchyme development and fewer Pdx1+ pancreatic progenitor cells. Expression of activated Cdk4R24C kinase leads to increased Nkx2.2+ and Nkx6.1+ cells and a rise in the number and proliferation of Ngn3+ endocrine precursors, resulting in expansion of the β cell lineage. We show that E2f1 binds and activates the Ngn3 promoter to modulate Ngn3 expression levels in the embryonic pancreas in a Cdk4-dependent manner. These results suggest that Cdk4 promotes β cell development by directing E2f1-mediated activation of Ngn3 and increasing the pool of endocrine precursors, and identify Cdk4 as an important regulator of early pancreas development that modulates the proliferation potential of pancreatic progenitors and endocrine precursors. PMID:21490060

  8. Cystic degeneration of neuro endocrine tumor of pancreas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) or islet cell tumors are rare lesions, the incidence of which is estimated to be less than 1 per 100,000 person-years in the general population . PETs can be divided into functional (exhibit a distinct clinical syndrome due to hormone hypersecretion) and non-functional tumors. The majority ...

  9. CCAR1 is required for Ngn3-mediated endocrine differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Chung-Kuang; Lai, Yi-Chyi; Lin, Yung-Fu; Chen, Hau-Ren; Chiang, Ming-Ko

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We identify CCAR1 to directly interact with Ngn3. ► CCAR1 is co-localized with Ngn3 in the nucleus. ► CCAR1 cooperates with Ngn3 in activating NeuroD expression. ► CCAR1 is required for Ngn3-mediated PANC-1 transdifferentiation. -- Abstract: Neurogenin3 (Ngn3) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that specifies pancreatic endocrine cell fates during pancreas development. It can also initiate a transdifferentiation program when expressed in pancreatic exocrine and ductal cells. However, how Ngn3 initiates a transcriptional cascade to achieve endocrine differentiation is still poorly understood. Here, we show that cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 1 (CCAR1), which is a transcriptional coactivator for nuclear receptors, also interacts with Ngn3. The association between Ngn3 and CCAR1 was verified by pull-down assays and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. Using gene reporter assays, we found that CCAR1 is essential for Ngn3 to activate the expression of the reporter genes containing the NeuroD promoter. Moreover, down-regulation of endogenous CCAR1 in the PANC-1 pancreatic ductal cell line inhibits the transdifferentiation program initiated by Ngn3. CCAR1 is, therefore, a novel partner of Ngn3 in mediating endocrine differentiation.

  10. Competence of failed endocrine progenitors to give rise to acinar but not ductal cells is restricted to early pancreas development

    OpenAIRE

    Beucher, Anthony; Martín, Mercè; Spenle, Caroline; Poulet, Martine; Collin, Caitlin; Gradwohl, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    During mouse pancreas development, the transient expression of Neurogenin3 (Neurog3) in uncommitted pancreas progenitors is required to determine endocrine destiny. However it has been reported that Neurog3-expressing cells can eventually adopt acinar or ductal fates and that Neurog3 levels were important to secure the islet destiny. It is not known whether the competence of Neurog3-induced cells to give rise to non-endocrine lineages is an intrinsic property of these progenitors or depends o...

  11. The gastrin-releasing peptide analog bombesin preserves exocrine and endocrine pancreas morphology and function during parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph F.; Neuman, Joshua C.; Brill, Allison L.; Brar, Harpreet K.; Thompson, Mary F.; Cadena, Mark T.; Connors, Kelsey M.; Busch, Rebecca A.; Heneghan, Aaron F.; Cham, Candace M.; Jones, Elaina K.; Kibbe, Carly R.; Davis, Dawn B.; Groblewski, Guy E.; Kudsk, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of digestive organs by enteric peptides is lost during total parental nutrition (PN). Here we examine the role of the enteric peptide bombesin (BBS) in stimulation of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas during PN. BBS protects against exocrine pancreas atrophy and dysfunction caused by PN. BBS also augments circulating insulin levels, suggesting an endocrine pancreas phenotype. While no significant changes in gross endocrine pancreas morphology were observed, pancreatic islets isolated from BBS-treated PN mice showed a significantly enhanced insulin secretion response to the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist exendin-4, correlating with enhanced GLP-1 receptor expression. BBS itself had no effect on islet function, as reflected in low expression of BBS receptors in islet samples. Intestinal BBS receptor expression was enhanced in PN with BBS, and circulating active GLP-1 levels were significantly enhanced in BBS-treated PN mice. We hypothesized that BBS preserved islet function indirectly, through the enteroendocrine cell-pancreas axis. We confirmed the ability of BBS to directly stimulate intestinal enteroid cells to express the GLP-1 precursor preproglucagon. In conclusion, BBS preserves the exocrine and endocrine pancreas functions during PN; however, the endocrine stimulation is likely indirect, through the enteroendocrine cell-pancreas axis. PMID:26185331

  12. Pancreas Transplantation With Portal-Enteric Drainage for Patients With Endocrine and Exocrine Insufficiency From Extensive Pancreatic Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Barbas, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Although the primary indication for pancreas transplantation is type I diabetes, a small number of patients requires pancreas transplantation to manage combined endocrine and exocrine insufficiency that develops after extensive native pancreatic resection. The objective of this case report was to describe the operative and clinical course in 3 such patients and present an alternative technical approach.

  13. Pancreas Transplantation With Portal-Enteric Drainage for Patients With Endocrine and Exocrine Insufficiency From Extensive Pancreatic Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbas, Andrew S; Al-Adra, David P; Goldaracena, Nicolas; Dib, Martin J; Selzner, Markus; Sapisochin, Gonzalo; Cattral, Mark S; McGilvray, Ian D

    2017-09-01

    Although the primary indication for pancreas transplantation is type I diabetes, a small number of patients requires pancreas transplantation to manage combined endocrine and exocrine insufficiency that develops after extensive native pancreatic resection. The objective of this case report was to describe the operative and clinical course in 3 such patients and present an alternative technical approach.

  14. Structure of neuro-endocrine and neuro-epithelial interactions in human foetal pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivova, Yuliya; Proshchina, Alexandra; Barabanov, Valeriy; Leonova, Olga; Saveliev, Sergey

    2016-12-01

    In the pancreas of many mammals including humans, endocrine islet cells can be integrated with the nervous system components into neuro-insular complexes. The mechanism of the formation of such complexes is not clearly understood. The present study evaluated the interactions between the nervous system components, epithelial cells and endocrine cells in the human pancreas. Foetal pancreas, gestational age 19-23 weeks (13 cases) and 30-34 weeks (7 cases), were studied using double immunohistochemical labeling with neural markers (S100 protein and beta III tubulin), epithelial marker (cytokeratin 19 (CK19)) and antibodies to insulin and glucagon. We first analyse the structure of neuro-insular complexes using confocal microscopy and provide immunohistochemical evidences of the presence of endocrine cells within the ganglia or inside the nerve bundles. We showed that the nervous system components contact with the epithelial cells located in ducts or in clusters outside the ductal epithelium and form complexes with separate epithelial cells. We observed CK19-positive cells inside the ganglia and nerve bundles which were located separately or were integrated with the islets. Therefore, we conclude that neuro-insular complexes may forms as a result of integration between epithelial cells and nervous system components at the initial stages of islets formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Endoscopic Ultrasound in Endocrinology: Imaging of the Adrenals and the Endocrine Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Peter Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) imaging of adrenal glands and its application to diagnostic procedures of adrenal diseases has been reported since 1998. It can be considered a relevant advantage in the field of adrenal diseases. Indeed, EUS allows the detection of adrenal lesions (even very small ones) and their characterization, the assessment of malignancy criteria, the early detection of neoplastic recurrences, the preoperative identification of morphologically healthy parts of the glands, the differentiation of extra-adrenal from adrenal tumors, and of the pathological entities associated with adrenal insufficiency, and the fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA) of suspicious lesions. At the same time, its clinical relevance depends on the experience of the endosonographer. Moreover, EUS is also by far the best and most sensitive imaging technique to detect and assess the follow-up of pancreatic manifestation of MEN1 disease. It furthermore enables the preoperatively localization of insulinomas and critical structures in their neighborhood, and may be relevant in planning surgical strategy. A positive EUS in a case of insulinoma furthermore confirms the endocrine diagnosis, especially considering the differential diagnosis of hypoglycemia factitia by oral antidiabetics. It can be supplemented by EUS-FNA. Again, it has to be considered that EUS may reveal false positive and false negative results, and the quality of the findings largely depends on the endosonographer's skills and experience. The most important technical details together with the advantages and limitations of EUS, and the pathognomonic characteristic of benign and malignant disorders of the adrenals and pancreas are presented here. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Relationship between the exocrine and endocrine pancreas after acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Stephanie L M; Kennedy, James I C; Murphy, Rinki; Phillips, Anthony R J; Windsor, John A; Petrov, Maxim S

    2014-12-07

    To determine the prevalence and time course of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in individuals with newly diagnosed prediabetes or diabetes mellitus after acute pancreatitis. Relevant literature cited in three major biomedical journal databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Scopus) was reviewed independently by two authors. There were no language constraints but the search was limited to human studies. Studies included were cohort studies of adult patients who were discharged after an attack of acute pancreatitis. Patients were excluded if they were under 18 years of age or had a previous diagnosis of prediabetes or diabetes mellitus, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, or chronic pancreatitis. The main outcome measure was the prevalence of concomitant pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in patients who were diagnosed with prediabetes and diabetes mellitus after an attack of acute pancreatitis. Subgroup analysis was conducted for patients who were diagnosed with prediabetes only and those who were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus only. Subgroup analysis looking at the time course of concomitant pancreatic exocrine and endocrine insufficiency was also conducted. Pooled prevalence and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all outcome measures and P-values pancreatitis was 43% (95%CI: 30%-56%). The pooled prevalence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in individuals after acute pancreatitis was 29% (95%CI: 19%-39%). The prevalence of concomitant pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in individuals with newly diagnosed prediabetes or diabetes was 40% (95%CI: 25%-55%). The prevalence of concomitant pancreatic exocrine insufficiency among individuals with prediabetes alone and diabetes mellitus alone was 41% (95%CI: 12%-75%) and 39% (95%CI: 28%-51%), respectively. Further analysis showed that the prevalence of concomitant pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in individuals with prediabetes or diabetes decreases over time after an attack of acute pancreatitis

  17. Epigenetics in formation, function, and failure of the endocrine pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. Golson

    2017-09-01

    Major conclusions: The improved understanding of the epigenetic underpinnings of islet cell differentiation, function and breakdown, as well as the development of innovative tools for their manipulation, is key to islet cell biology and the discovery of novel approaches to therapies for islet cell failure.

  18. Stochastic Differential Equations in Artificial Pancreas Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine

    Type 1 diabetes accounts for approximately 5% of the total diabetes population. It is caused by the destruction of insulin producing β-cells in the pancreas. Various treatment strategies are available today, some of which include advanced technological devices such as an insulin pump and a contin......Type 1 diabetes accounts for approximately 5% of the total diabetes population. It is caused by the destruction of insulin producing β-cells in the pancreas. Various treatment strategies are available today, some of which include advanced technological devices such as an insulin pump...... of the insulin pump and the CGM has paved the way for a fully automatic treatment regime, the artificial pancreas. The idea is to connect the CGM with the insulin pump via a control algorithm running on e.g. the patients smart phone. The CGM observations are sent to the smart phone and based on this information...... of the system directly. The purpose of this PhD-project was to investigate the potential of SDEs in the artificial pancreas development. Especially, the emerging continuous monitoring of glucose levels makes SDEs highly applicable to this field. The current thesis aims at demonstrating and discussing...

  19. Polyamine biosynthesis is critical for growth and differentiation of the pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastracci, Teresa L.; Robertson, Morgan A.; Mirmira, Raghavendra G.; Anderson, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    The pancreas, in most studied vertebrates, is a compound organ with both exocrine and endocrine functions. The exocrine compartment makes and secretes digestive enzymes, while the endocrine compartment, organized into islets of Langerhans, produces hormones that regulate blood glucose. High concentrations of polyamines, which are aliphatic amines, are reported in exocrine and endocrine cells, with insulin-producing β cells showing the highest concentrations. We utilized zebrafish as a model organism, together with pharmacological inhibition or genetic manipulation, to determine how polyamine biosynthesis functions in pancreatic organogenesis. We identified that inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis reduces exocrine pancreas and β cell mass, and that these reductions are at the level of differentiation. Moreover, we demonstrate that inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, phenocopies inhibition or knockdown of the enzyme deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS). These data identify that the pancreatic requirement for polyamine biosynthesis is largely mediated through a requirement for spermidine for the downstream posttranslational modification of eIF5A by its enzymatic activator DHS, which in turn impacts mRNA translation. Altogether, we have uncovered a role for polyamine biosynthesis in pancreatic organogenesis and identified that it may be possible to exploit polyamine biosynthesis to manipulate pancreatic cell differentiation. PMID:26299433

  20. MR imaging of non-functioning endocrine tumors of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Hiroyuki; Honda, Hiroshi; Kuroiwa, Toshiro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the MR imaging characteristics of patients with non-functioning endocrine tumors of the pancreas. Fourteen patients with these tumors underwent MR imaging. The signal characteristics of the tumor on T 1 -, T 2 -, and contrast-enhanced T 1 -weighted images were evaluated. The enhancement pattern of the tumor on dynamic study was also examined. The degree of stromal fibrosis was evaluated on the pathologic specimen, and was then classified as mild, moderate, or marked fibrosis. On T 1 -weighted images, the tumors were hypointense in 12 of 14 cases. The signals of the tumors on T 2 -weighted images were varied. The tumors were hypointense in 1 case, isointense in 2 cases, hyperintense in 6 cases, and very hyperintense in the other 5 cases. On contrast-enhanced T 1 -weighted images, the tumors were hyperintense in 8 cases and very hyperintense in 5 cases. On T 2 - and contrast-enhanced T 1 -weighted images, 4 of 5 malignant tumors were very hyperintense. Dynamic study revealed prolonged enhancement in 10 of 11 cases. Pathologic analysis revealed moderate or marked fibrosis in 10 of 14 cases, and prolonged enhancement was considered to be related stromal fibrosis. In conclusion, MR imaging findings of non-functioning endocrine tumors of the pancreas vary in relation to pathological variety. Prolonged enhancement of the tumor on dynamic study is considered to be one of the characteristic MR imaging findings that corresponds to stromal fibrosis of the tumor. (author)

  1. GLUT4 in the endocrine pancreas--indicating an impact in pancreatic islet cell physiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähr, I; Bazwinsky-Wutschke, I; Wolgast, S; Hofmann, K; Streck, S; Mühlbauer, E; Wedekind, D; Peschke, E

    2012-06-01

    The glucose transporter GLUT4 is well known to facilitate the transport of blood glucose into insulin-sensitive muscle and adipose tissue. In this study, molecular, immunohistochemical, and Western blot investigations revealed evidence that GLUT4 is also located in the mouse, rat, and human endocrine pancreas. In addition, high glucose decreased and insulin elevated the GLUT4 expression in pancreatic α-cells. In contrast, high glucose increased GLUT4 expression, whereas insulin led to a reduced expression level of the glucose transporter in pancreatic β-cells. In vivo experiments showed that in pancreatic tissue of type 2 diabetic rats as well as type 2 diabetic patients, the GLUT4 expression is significantly increased compared to the nondiabetic control group. Furthermore, type 1 diabetic rats exhibited reduced GLUT4 transcript levels in pancreatic tissue, whereas insulin treatment of type 1 diabetic animals enhanced the GLUT4 expression back to control levels. These data provide evidence for the existence of GLUT4 in the endocrine pancreas and indicate a physiological relevance of this glucose transporter as well as characteristic changes in diabetic disease. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Considerations concerning a tailored, individualized therapeutic management of patients with (neuro)endocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.W. de Herder (Wouter); E.P. Krenning (Eric); C.H.J. van Eijck (Casper); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractEndocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas may present at different disease stages with either hormonal or hormone-related symptoms/syndromes, or without hormonal symptoms. They may occur either sporadically or as part of hereditary syndromes. In the

  3. Exocrine dysfunction correlates with endocrinal impairment of pancreas in Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H R Prasanna Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic abnormal metabolic condition, which manifests elevated blood sugar level over a prolonged period. The pancreatic endocrine system generally gets affected during diabetes, but often abnormal exocrine functions are also manifested due to its proximity to the endocrine system. Fecal elastase-1 (FE-1 is found to be an ideal biomarker to reflect the exocrine insufficiency of the pancreas. Aim: The aim of this study was conducted to assess exocrine dysfunction of the pancreas in patients with type-2 DM (T2DM by measuring FE levels and to associate the level of hyperglycemia with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction. Methodology: A prospective, cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on both T2DM patients and healthy nondiabetic volunteers. FE-1 levels were measured using a commercial kit (Human Pancreatic Elastase ELISA BS 86-01 from Bioserv Diagnostics. Data analysis was performed based on the important statistical parameters such as mean, standard deviation, standard error, t-test-independent samples, and Chi-square test/cross tabulation using SPSS for Windows version 20.0. Results: Statistically nonsignificant (P = 0.5051 relationship between FE-1 deficiency and age was obtained, which implied age as a noncontributing factor toward exocrine pancreatic insufficiency among diabetic patients. Statistically significant correlation (P = 0.003 between glycated hemoglobin and FE-1 levels was also noted. The association between retinopathy (P = 0.001 and peripheral pulses (P = 0.001 with FE-1 levels were found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: This study validates the benefit of FE-1 estimation, as a surrogate marker of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, which remains unmanifest and subclinical.

  4. Exocrine Dysfunction Correlates with Endocrinal Impairment of Pancreas in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna Kumar, H R; Gowdappa, H Basavana; Hosmani, Tejashwi; Urs, Tejashri

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic abnormal metabolic condition, which manifests elevated blood sugar level over a prolonged period. The pancreatic endocrine system generally gets affected during diabetes, but often abnormal exocrine functions are also manifested due to its proximity to the endocrine system. Fecal elastase-1 (FE-1) is found to be an ideal biomarker to reflect the exocrine insufficiency of the pancreas. The aim of this study was conducted to assess exocrine dysfunction of the pancreas in patients with type-2 DM (T2DM) by measuring FE levels and to associate the level of hyperglycemia with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction. A prospective, cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on both T2DM patients and healthy nondiabetic volunteers. FE-1 levels were measured using a commercial kit (Human Pancreatic Elastase ELISA BS 86-01 from Bioserv Diagnostics). Data analysis was performed based on the important statistical parameters such as mean, standard deviation, standard error, t -test-independent samples, and Chi-square test/cross tabulation using SPSS for Windows version 20.0. Statistically nonsignificant ( P = 0.5051) relationship between FE-1 deficiency and age was obtained, which implied age as a noncontributing factor toward exocrine pancreatic insufficiency among diabetic patients. Statistically significant correlation ( P = 0.003) between glycated hemoglobin and FE-1 levels was also noted. The association between retinopathy ( P = 0.001) and peripheral pulses ( P = 0.001) with FE-1 levels were found to be statistically significant. This study validates the benefit of FE-1 estimation, as a surrogate marker of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, which remains unmanifest and subclinical.

  5. Expansion of Adult Human Pancreatic Tissue Yields Organoids Harboring Progenitor Cells with Endocrine Differentiation Potential

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    Cindy J.M. Loomans

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Generating an unlimited source of human insulin-producing cells is a prerequisite to advance β cell replacement therapy for diabetes. Here, we describe a 3D culture system that supports the expansion of adult human pancreatic tissue and the generation of a cell subpopulation with progenitor characteristics. These cells display high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDHhi, express pancreatic progenitors markers (PDX1, PTF1A, CPA1, and MYC, and can form new organoids in contrast to ALDHlo cells. Interestingly, gene expression profiling revealed that ALDHhi cells are closer to human fetal pancreatic tissue compared with adult pancreatic tissue. Endocrine lineage markers were detected upon in vitro differentiation. Engrafted organoids differentiated toward insulin-positive (INS+ cells, and circulating human C-peptide was detected upon glucose challenge 1 month after transplantation. Engrafted ALDHhi cells formed INS+ cells. We conclude that adult human pancreatic tissue has potential for expansion into 3D structures harboring progenitor cells with endocrine differentiation potential. : In the context of β cell replacement therapy for diabetes, de Koning and colleagues describe a 3D culture platform that supports ex vivo expansion of human pancreatic tissue as organoids. These organoids harbor a subpopulation of ALDHhi cells that display proliferative capacity and can differentiate to an endocrine fate. Keywords: pancreas, organoid, human, ALDH, endocrine differentiation, beta cells, insulin, progenitor, fetal, diabetes

  6. Predictive factors of endocrine and exocrine insufficiency after resection of a benign tumour of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neophytou, Hélène; Wangermez, Marc; Gand, Elise; Carretier, Michel; Danion, Jérôme; Richer, Jean-Pierre

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the risk factors of endocrine and exocrine insufficiency occurring few years after pancreatic resections in a consecutive series of patients who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy (PD), left pancreatectomy (LP) or enucleation for benign neoplasms at a referral centre. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) was defined by the onset of steatorrhea associated with weight loss, and endocrine insufficiency was determinate by fasting plasma glucose. Association between pancreatic insufficiency and clinical, pathological, and perioperative features was studied using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. A prospective cohort of 92 patients underwent PD (48%), LP (44%) or enucleation (8%) for benign tumours, from 2005 to 2016 in the University Hospital in Poitiers (France). The median follow-up was 68.6±42.4months. During the following, 54 patients developed exocrine insufficiency whereas 32 patients presented endocrine insufficiency. In the Cox model, a BMI>28kg/m 2 , being a man and presenting a metabolic syndrome were significantly associated with a higher risk to develop postoperative diabetes. The risks factors for the occurrence of PEI were preoperative chronic pancreatitis, a BMIpancreatic head, biological markers of chronic obstruction and fibrotic pancreas. Undergoing LP or enucleation were protective factors of PEI. Histological categories such as neuroendocrine tumours and cystadenomas were also associated with a decreased incidence of PEI. Men with metabolic syndrome and obesity should be closely followed-up for diabetes, and patients with obstructive tumours, pancreatic fibrosis or chronic pancreatitis require a vigilant follow up on their pancreatic exocrine function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Mouse pancreas tissue slice culture facilitates long-term studies of exocrine and endocrine cell physiology in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Anja; Selck, Claudia; Friedrich, Betty; Speier, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Studies on pancreatic cell physiology rely on the investigation of exocrine and endocrine cells in vitro. Particularly, in the case of the exocrine tissue these studies have suffered from a reduced functional viability of acinar cells in culture. As a result not only investigations on dispersed acinar cells and isolated acini were limited in their potential, but also prolonged studies on pancreatic exocrine and endocrine cells in an intact pancreatic tissue environment were unfeasible. To overcome these limitations, we aimed to establish a pancreas tissue slice culture platform to allow long-term studies on exocrine and endocrine cells in the intact pancreatic environment. Mouse pancreas tissue slice morphology was assessed to determine optimal long-term culture settings for intact pancreatic tissue. Utilizing optimized culture conditions, cell specificity and function of exocrine acinar cells and endocrine beta cells were characterized over a culture period of 7 days. We found pancreas tissue slices cultured under optimized conditions to have intact tissue specific morphology for the entire culture period. Amylase positive intact acini were present at all time points of culture and acinar cells displayed a typical strong cell polarity. Amylase release from pancreas tissue slices decreased during culture, but maintained the characteristic bell-shaped dose-response curve to increasing caerulein concentrations and a ca. 4-fold maximal over basal release. Additionally, endocrine beta cell viability and function was well preserved until the end of the observation period. Our results show that the tissue slice culture platform provides unprecedented maintenance of pancreatic tissue specific morphology and function over a culture period for at least 4 days and in part even up to 1 week. This analytical advancement now allows mid -to long-term studies on the cell biology of pancreatic disorder pathogenesis and therapy in an intact surrounding in situ.

  8. Mouse pancreas tissue slice culture facilitates long-term studies of exocrine and endocrine cell physiology in situ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Marciniak

    Full Text Available Studies on pancreatic cell physiology rely on the investigation of exocrine and endocrine cells in vitro. Particularly, in the case of the exocrine tissue these studies have suffered from a reduced functional viability of acinar cells in culture. As a result not only investigations on dispersed acinar cells and isolated acini were limited in their potential, but also prolonged studies on pancreatic exocrine and endocrine cells in an intact pancreatic tissue environment were unfeasible. To overcome these limitations, we aimed to establish a pancreas tissue slice culture platform to allow long-term studies on exocrine and endocrine cells in the intact pancreatic environment. Mouse pancreas tissue slice morphology was assessed to determine optimal long-term culture settings for intact pancreatic tissue. Utilizing optimized culture conditions, cell specificity and function of exocrine acinar cells and endocrine beta cells were characterized over a culture period of 7 days. We found pancreas tissue slices cultured under optimized conditions to have intact tissue specific morphology for the entire culture period. Amylase positive intact acini were present at all time points of culture and acinar cells displayed a typical strong cell polarity. Amylase release from pancreas tissue slices decreased during culture, but maintained the characteristic bell-shaped dose-response curve to increasing caerulein concentrations and a ca. 4-fold maximal over basal release. Additionally, endocrine beta cell viability and function was well preserved until the end of the observation period. Our results show that the tissue slice culture platform provides unprecedented maintenance of pancreatic tissue specific morphology and function over a culture period for at least 4 days and in part even up to 1 week. This analytical advancement now allows mid -to long-term studies on the cell biology of pancreatic disorder pathogenesis and therapy in an intact surrounding in situ.

  9. Unraveling the role of the ghrelin gene peptides in the endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Riccarda; Baragli, Alessandra; Settanni, Fabio; Scarlatti, Francesca; Ghigo, Ezio

    2010-09-01

    The ghrelin gene peptides include acylated ghrelin (AG), unacylated ghrelin (UAG), and obestatin (Ob). AG, mainly produced by the stomach, exerts its central and peripheral effects through the GH secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a). UAG, although devoid of GHS-R1a-binding affinity, is an active peptide, sharing with AG many effects through an unknown receptor. Ob was discovered as the G-protein-coupled receptor 39 (GPR39) ligand; however, its physiological actions remain unclear. The endocrine pancreas is necessary for glucose homeostasis maintenance. AG, UAG, and Ob are expressed in both human and rodent pancreatic islets from fetal to adult life, and the pancreas is the major source of ghrelin in the perinatal period. GHS-R1a and GPR39 expression has been shown in beta-cells and islets, as well as specific binding sites for AG, UAG, and Ob. Ghrelin colocalizes with glucagon in alpha-islet cells, but is also uniquely expressed in epsilon-islet cells, suggesting a role in islet function and development. Indeed, AG, UAG, and Ob regulate insulin secretion in beta-cells and isolated islets, promote beta-cell proliferation and survival, inhibit beta-cell and human islet cell apoptosis, and modulate the expression of genes that are essential in pancreatic islet cell biology. They even induce beta-cell regeneration and prevent diabetes in streptozotocin-treated neonatal rats. The receptor(s) mediating their effects are not fully characterized, and a signaling crosstalk has been suggested. The present review summarizes the newest findings on AG, UAG, and Ob expression in pancreatic islets and the role of these peptides on beta-cell development, survival, and function.

  10. Early endocrine disruptors exposure acts on 3T3-L1 differentiation and endocrine activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Boudalia

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: This study confirms that EDs singularly or in mixtures, introduced during early stages of life, could affect the differentiation and the endocrine activity of adipocytes, and can act as potential factors for obesity.

  11. A comparison of caspase 3 expression in the endocrine and exocrine parts of the pancreas after cladribine application according to the "leukemic" schema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasinski Ludwik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic effects of the immunosuppressive agent, cladribine, have been demonstrated by its toxicity to cells. However, its effects on healthy cells of the body is poorly understood. The aim of study was, hence, to, firstly, evaluate the morphology of the endocrine and exocrine pancreas after the administration of cladribine according to the "leukemic" schema, and, secondly, to assess its impact on the intensity of apoptosis. The experiment was carried out on female Wistar rats which were placed within the control group KA, and the experimental groups: A and A-bis. In the experimental groups, Cladribine was administered according to the cycle used to treat human hairy cell leukemia. In group A, the material was taken 24 hours after administration of the last dose of the drug, while in group A-bis, this was done after a 4 weeks break. The reaction was assessed to be average in 80% of all cells in group A, and in 64% of all acinar cells in group KA, while in group A-bis, the majority of the exocrine cells demonstrated a lack of immunohistochemical response (72%. Moreover, most endocrine cells (60% in group A-bis revealed a strong reaction, while in Group A, the corresponding figure is a little over 34%. A comparison of the severity of the caspase 3 expression in both the exocrine and endocrine pancreas showed significant differentiation results between the group KA and group A-bis, and between group A and A-bis (p < 0.0001. In can be concluded that endocrine cells are more sensitive to cladribine than are exocrine cells.

  12. Characterization of Insulin-Immunoreactive Cells and Endocrine Cells Within the Duct System of the Adult Human Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Yu, Lan; Zou, Xia; Zhao, Hailu

    2016-01-01

    The adult pancreatic duct system accommodates endocrine cells that have the potential to produce insulin. Here we report the characterization and distribution of insulin-immunoreactive cells and endocrine cells within the ductal units of adult human pancreas. Sequential pancreas sections from 12 nondiabetic adults were stained with biomarkers of ductal epithelial cells (cytokeratin 19), acinar cells (amylase), endocrine cells (chromogranin A; neuron-specific enolase), islet hormones (insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide), cell proliferation (Ki-67), and neogenesis (CD29). The number of islet hormone-immunoreactive cells increased from large ducts to the terminal branches. The insulin-producing cells outnumbered endocrine cells reactive for glucagon, somatostatin, or pancreatic polypeptide. The proportions of insulin-immunoreactive count compared with local islets (100% as a baseline) were 1.5% for the main ducts, 7.2% for interlobular ducts, 24.8% for intralobular ducts, 67.9% for intercalated ducts, and 348.9% for centroacinar cells. Both Ki-67- and CD29-labeled cells were predominantly localized in the terminal branches around the islets. The terminal branches also showed cells coexpressing islet hormones and cytokeratin 19. The adult human pancreatic ducts showed islet hormone-producing cells. The insulin-reactive cells predominantly localized in terminal branches where they may retain potential capability for β-cell neogenesis.

  13. Exercise Ameliorates Endocrine Pancreas Damage Induced by Chronic Cola Drinking in Rats.

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    Matilde Otero-Losada

    Full Text Available This study evaluates whether the daily practice of an exercise routine might protect from endocrine pancreas damage in cola drinking rats.Forty-eight Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups depending on a beverage consumption ad libitum, water (W or cola beverage (C, and b physical activity, sedentary (S or treadmill running (R. Accordingly, 4 groups were studied: WS (water sedentary, WR (water runner, CS (cola sedentary and CR (cola runner. Body weight, nutritional data, plasma levels of glucose, creatinine, total cholesterol and cholesterol fractions, and triglycerides (enzymocolorimetry, and systolic blood pressure (plethysmography were measured. After 6 months, euthanasia was performed (overdose sodium thiopental. Pancreatic tissue was immediately excised and conventionally processed for morphometrical and immunohistochemical determinations.The effects of running and chronic cola drinking on pancreas morphology showed interaction (p<0.001 rather than simple summation. Cola drinking (CS vs WS reduced median pancreatic islet area (-30%, 1.8 104 μm2 vs 2.58 104 μm2, p<0.0001 and median β-cell mass (-43%, 3.81 mg vs 6.73 mg, p<0.0001, and increased median α/β ratio (+49%, 0.64 vs 0.43, p< 0.001. In water drinking rats (WR vs WS, running reduced median α-cell mass (-48%, 1.48 mg vs 2.82 mg, p<0.001 and α/β ratio (-56%, 0.19 vs 0.43, p<0.0001. Differently, in cola drinking rats (CR vs CS, running partially restored median islet area (+15%, 2.06 104 μm2 vs 1.79 104 μm2, p<0.05, increased median β-cell mass (+47%, 5.59 mg vs 3.81 mg, p <0.0001 and reduced median α/β ratio (-6%, 0.60 vs 0.64, p<0.05.This study is likely the first reporting experimental evidence of the beneficial effect of exercise on pancreatic morphology in cola-drinking rats. Presently, the increase of nearly 50% in β cells mass by running in cola drinking rats is by far the most relevant finding. Moderate running, advisably indicated in cola consumers and

  14. Functional and morphological changes in endocrine pancreas following cola drink consumption in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Otero-Losada

    Full Text Available We report the effects of long-term cola beverage drinking on glucose homeostasis, endocrine pancreas function and morphology in rats.Wistar rats drank: water (group W, regular cola beverage (group C, sucrose sweetened or "light" cola beverage (group L, artificially sweetened. After 6 months, 50% of the animals in each group were euthanized and the remaining animals consumed water for the next 6 months when euthanasia was performed. Biochemical assays, insulinemia determination, estimation of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, morphometry and immunohistochemistry evaluations were performed in pancreas.Hyperglycemia (16%, p<0.05, CoQ10 (coenzyme-Q10 decrease (-52%,p<0.01, strong hypertriglyceridemia (2.8-fold, p<0.01, hyperinsulinemia (2.4 fold, p<0.005 and HOMA-IR increase (2.7 fold, p<0.01 were observed in C. Group C showed a decrease in number of α cells (-42%, p<0.01 and β cells (-58%, p<0.001 and a moderate increase in α cells' size after wash-out (+14%, p<0.001. Group L showed reduction in β cells' size (-9%, p<0.001 and only after wash-out (L12 a 19% increase in size (p<0.0001 with 35% decrease in number of α cells (p<0.01. Groups C and L showed increase in α/β-cell ratio which was irreversible only in C (α/β = +38% in C6,+30% in C12, p<0.001vs.W6. Regular cola induced a striking increase in the cytoplasmic expression of Trx1 (Thioredoxin-1 (2.25-fold in C6 vs. W6; 2.7-fold in C12 vs. W12, p<0.0001 and Prx2 (Peroxiredoxin-2 (3-fold in C6 vs. W6; 2-fold in C12 vs. W12, p<0.0001. Light cola induced increase in Trx1 (3-fold and Prx2 (2-fold after wash-out (p<0.0001, L12 vs. W12.Glucotoxicity may contribute to the loss of β cell function with depletion of insulin content. Oxidative stress, suggested by increased expression of thioredoxins and low circulating levels of CoQ10, may follow sustained hyperglycemia. A likely similar panorama may result from the effects of artificially sweetened cola though via other downstream routes.

  15. Role of the endocannabinoid system in food intake, energy homeostasis and regulation of the endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Jones, Peter M; Persaud, Shanta J

    2011-03-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a signalling cascade consisting of CB1 and CB2 receptors, and enzymes for the synthesis and degradation of endogenous ligands for these receptors. Central CB1 receptors have been most widely studied since they play key roles in energy homeostasis and rimonabant, a CB1 receptor antagonist, was used clinically to treat obesity. Less is known about CB2 receptors, but their abundant expression by lymphocytes and macrophages has led to suggestions of their importance in immune and inflammatory reactions. More recently, it has become apparent that both CB1 and CB2 receptors are more widely expressed than originally thought, and the capacity of endocannabinoids to regulate energy balance also occurs through their interactions with cannabinoid receptors on a variety of peripheral tissues. In general, pathological overactivation of the ECS contributes to weight gain, reduced sensitivity to insulin and glucose intolerance, and blockade of CB1 receptors reduces body weight through increased secretion of anorectic signals and improved insulin sensitivity. However, the notion that the ECS per se is detrimental to energy homeostasis is an oversimplification, since activation of cannabinoid receptors expressed by islet cells can stimulate insulin secretion, which is obviously beneficial under conditions of impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. We propose that under normal physiological conditions cannabinoid signalling in the endocrine pancreas is a bona fide mechanism of regulating insulin secretion to maintain blood glucose levels, but that energy balance becomes dysregulated with excessive food intake, leading to adipogenesis and fat accumulation through enhanced cannabinoid synthesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lnx2 ubiquitin ligase is essential for exocrine cell differentiation in the early zebrafish pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Minho; Ro, Hyunju; Dawid, Igor B

    2015-10-06

    The gene encoding the E3 ubiquitin ligase Ligand of Numb protein-X (Lnx)2a is expressed in the ventral-anterior pancreatic bud of zebrafish embryos in addition to its expression in the brain. Knockdown of Lnx2a by using an exon 2/intron 2 splice morpholino resulted in specific inhibition of the differentiation of ventral bud derived exocrine cell types, with little effect on endocrine cell types. A frame shifting null mutation in lnx2a did not mimic this phenotype, but a mutation that removed the exon 2 splice donor site did. We found that Lnx2b functions in a redundant manner with its paralog Lnx2a. Inhibition of lnx2a exon 2/3 splicing causes exon 2 skipping and leads to the production of an N-truncated protein that acts as an interfering molecule. Thus, the phenotype characterized by inhibition of exocrine cell differentiation requires inactivation of both Lnx2a and Lnx2b. Human LNX1 is known to destabilize Numb, and we show that inhibition of Numb expression rescues the Lnx2a/b-deficient phenotype. Further, Lnx2a/b inhibition leads to a reduction in the number of Notch active cells in the pancreas. We suggest that Lnx2a/b function to fine tune the regulation of Notch through Numb in the differentiation of cell types in the early zebrafish pancreas. Further, the complex relationships among genotype, phenotype, and morpholino effect in this case may be instructive in the ongoing consideration of morpholino use.

  17. Trend Toward Individualization of the Endocrine and Exocrine Portions of the Giant Anteater Pancreas (Myrmecophaga Tridactyla, Xenarthra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Luciana Pedrosa; Favaron, Phelipe Oliveira; Borghesi, Jéssica; Oliveira Carreira, Ana Claudia; Miglino, Maria Angelica; de Melo, Alan Perez Ferraz

    2017-06-01

    Considering the physiological importance of the pancreas as an endocrine and exocrine organ, this study described the characteristics of the gross and microscopic morphology of this organ using 16 Myrmecophaga tridactyla individuals. The pancreas was located in the left antimere of the body, was pale in colour and exhibited an elongated shape with a central body and lobulated surface. It was positioned in the abdomen, following the curvatura ventriculi major of the stomach, and was attached to the initial portion of the duodenum. The corpus pancreatis was elongated and showed a caudal curvature of 45°. The pancreas exhibited a facies dorsalis (related to the spleen and stomach) and a facies ventralis (related to the renal capsule and intestine). Macroscopically, a craniodorsal, medial, and caudoventral regions were identified, in addition to the left lobe. Structurally, the organ exhibited two distinct parts: the first had exocrine characteristics, consisting of acini and ducts; the second, which was the endocrine portion, consisted of the pancreatic islets, which were located in the medial, caudoventral and left lobe regions. Ultrastructural analysis identified secretory vesicles containing zymogen granules, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus and rough endoplasmic reticulum in pancreatic centroacinar cells. Morphological data on the anatomy of members of the Xenarthra have revealed important peculiarities of several organs and systems, adding great biological value to the representatives of this group. In addition, these studies significantly contribute not only to knowledge of the biology, taxonomy and, consequently, preservation of these animals but also to the discovery of new experimental models. Anat Rec, 300:1104-1113, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Differential diagnosis of pancreas cancer and chronic pancreatitis in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Nobuyuki; Saitou, Hiroya; Hiromura, Tadao; Takahashi, Hiromichi; Shinohara, Masahiro; Morita, Yutaka; Irie, Goro

    1987-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of pancreas cancer and chronic pancreatitis in Computed Tomography. CT pictures of 46 cases of pancreas cancer and 16 cases of chronic pancreatitis were reviewed to clarify a way of differential diagnosis of these two disorders. The conclusion obtained in this study is as below. 1) Well-defined cystic central low density is a sign of chronic pancreatitis, and in the other hand, the solid central low density is a sign of pancreas cancer. 2) Effect of contrast enhancement was greater in chronic pancreatitis than in pancreas cancer. 3) Possibility of pancreas cancer is high in a case which has a sign of vascular involvement but no definite sign of tumor. 4) Sensitivity, specificity, total accuracy is 76.7 %, 87.5 %, 75.8 % respectively. (author)

  19. Breast Carcinoma With Unrecognized Neuroendocrine Differentiation Metastasizing to the Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lene Svendstrup; Mortensen, Michael Bau; Detlefsen, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    , a second panel revealed positivity for estrogen receptors and GATA3. On review of the lumpectomy specimen, a significant neuroendocrine component was found, leading to the final diagnosis of breast carcinoma with neuroendocrine features metastasizing to the pancreas. Neuroendocrine markers...... are not routinely analyzed in breast tumors. Hence, metastases from breast carcinomas with unrecognized neuroendocrine features may lead to false diagnoses of primary neuroendocrine tumors at different metastatic sites, such as the pancreas....

  20. Immunohistochemical localization of glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide on rat endocrine pancreas: coexistence in rat islet cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YH Huang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We used immunofluorescence double staining method to investigate the cellular localization of glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide (PP in rat pancreatic islets. The results showed that both A-cells (glucagon-secreting cells and PP-cells (PPsecreting cells were located in the periphery of the islets. However, A-cells and PP-cells had a different regional distribution. Most of A-cells were located in the splenic lobe but a few of them were in the duodenal lobe of the pancreas. In contrast, the majority of PP-cells were found in the duodenal lobe and a few of them were in the splenic lobe of the pancreas. Furthermore, we found that 67.74% A-cells had PP immunoreactivity, 70.92% PP-cells contained glucagon immunoreactivity with immunofluorescence double staining. Our data support the concept of a common precursor stem cell for pancreatic hormone-producing cells.

  1. FA1 immunoreactivity in endocrine tumours and during development of the human fetal pancreas; negative correlation with glucagon expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornehave, D; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Teisner, B

    1996-01-01

    Fetal antigen 1 (FA1) is a glycoprotein containing six epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats. It is closely similar to the protein translated from the human delta-like (dlk) cDNA and probably constitutes a proteolytically processed form of dlk. dlk is homologous to the Drosophila homeotic...... proteins delta and notch and to the murine preadipocyte differentiation factor Pref-1. These proteins participate in determining cell fate choices during differentiation. We now report that FA1 immunoreactivity is present in a number of neuroectodermally derived tumours as well as in pancreatic endocrine...... tumours. A negative correlation between FA1 and glucagon immunoreactants in these tumours prompted a reexamination of FA1 immunoreactants during fetal pancreatic development. At the earliest stages of development, FA1 was expressed by most of the non-endocrine parenchymal cells and, with ensuing...

  2. [Physiology and disease of the endocrine function of the pancreas (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbe, P

    1980-12-01

    Qualitative and quantitative immunocytochemistry, electronmicroscopy and radio-immuno-assays led to the discovery of 5 pancreatic polypeptide hormones under physiological conditions. The active endocrine cells and the produced hormones are termed A, B, D, D1, and PP cell and glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) respectively. Beside the physiology of secretion and action a survey of pathological conditions in the paediatric age group is given. Insulin is the most important of pancreatic hormones in childhood. Therefore diagnosis and treatment of hyperinsulinism are described in extension.

  3. Effect of truncated glucagon-like peptide-1 [proglucagon-(78-107) amide] on endocrine secretion from pig pancreas, antrum, and nonantral stomach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orskov, C; Holst, J J; Nielsen, O V

    1988-01-01

    We studied the effect of truncated glucagon-like peptide-1 [naturally occurring GLP-1; proglucagon-(78-107) amide], a potent insulinotropic peptide from the pig ileum, on endocrine and exocrine secretion of potential gastrointestinal target organs using isolated perfused preparations of the porcine...... pancreas, antrum, and nonantral part of the stomach. Truncated GLP-1 significantly increased somatostatin secretion from the pancreas at 10(-10) mol/liter and more than doubled the secretion at 10(-9) mol/liter, but had no effect on either somatostatin or gastrin secretion from the antrum...... or on somatostatin secretion from the nonantral stomach in concentrations up to 10(-8) mol/liter. Insulin secretion from the pancreas (with 7 mmol/liter glucose in the perfusate) increased 2-fold with truncated GLP-1 at 10(-10) mol/liter and almost 5-fold at 10(-9) mol/liter. Pancreatic glucagon secretion...

  4. Effect of ionizing radiation on the primate pancreas: an endocrine and morphologic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.; Smit, B.

    1987-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the endocrine, biochemical, and haematological derangements as well as pancreatic and histological changes of the bonemarrow in the primate following external fractionated subtotal marrow irradiation without bonemarrow reconstitution. The irradiation was administered in preparation for pancreatic transplantation. Two groups of animals (ten in each group) received 800 rad (8 Gy) and 1000 rad (10 Gy) respectively over 4 to 5 weeks. A maximum of 200 rads (2 Gy) were administered weekly as photons from a 6 MV linear accelerator. During irradiation the animals remained normoglycaemic in the presence of transiently elevated liver enzymes and serum amylase values, which returned to normal on completion of the irradiation. Insulin release was significantly reduced in both groups during irradiation and was associated with minimally decreased K-values in the presence of mild glucose intolerance. Pancreatic light morphologic changes included structural changes of both exocrine and endocrine elements and included necrosis of the islet cells and acinar tissue. Islet histology demonstrated striking cytocavitary network changes of alpha and beta cells, including degranulation, vacuolization, mitochondrial destruction, and an increase in lysosomes. A hypoplastic bonemarrow ranging from moderate to severe was observed in all irradiated recipients. Near total fractionated body irradiation in the primate is therefore associated with elevated liver enzymes, pancytopenia, transient hyperamylasaemia, hypoinsulinaemia, a varying degree of pancreatitis, and bonemarrow hypoplasia

  5. Pak3 promotes cell cycle exit and differentiation of β-cells in the embryonic pancreas and is necessary to maintain glucose homeostasis in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccand, Julie; Meunier, Aline; Merle, Carole; Jia, Zhengping; Barnier, Jean-Vianney; Gradwohl, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor neurogenin3 (Ngn3) triggers islet cell differentiation in the developing pancreas. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms coupling cell cycle exit and differentiation in Ngn3(+) islet progenitors. We identified a novel effector of Ngn3 endocrinogenic function, the p21 protein-activated kinase Pak3, known to control neuronal differentiation and implicated in X-linked intellectual disability in humans. We show that Pak3 expression is initiated in Ngn3(+) endocrine progenitor cells and next maintained in maturing hormone-expressing cells during pancreas development as well as in adult islet cells. In Pak3-deficient embryos, the proliferation of Ngn3(+) progenitors and β-cells is transiently increased concomitantly with an upregulation of Ccnd1. β-Cell differentiation is impaired at E15.5 but resumes at later stages. Pak3-deficient mice do not develop overt diabetes but are glucose intolerant under high-fat diet (HFD). In the intestine, Pak3 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells but is not necessary for their differentiation. Our results indicate that Pak3 is a novel regulator of β-cell differentiation and function. Pak3 acts downstream of Ngn3 to promote cell cycle exit and differentiation in the embryo by a mechanism that might involve repression of Ccnd1. In the adult, Pak3 is required for the proper control of glucose homeostasis under challenging HFD.

  6. Bicaudal C1 promotes pancreatic NEUROG3+ endocrine progenitor differentiation and ductal morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemaire, Laurence A; Goulley, Joan; Kim, Yung Hae

    2015-01-01

    that line the ducts during development, and in the ducts after birth, but not in differentiated endocrine or acinar cells. Genetic inactivation of Bicc1 leads to ductal cell over-proliferation and cyst formation. Transcriptome comparison between WT and Bicc1 KO pancreata, before the phenotype onset, reveals......(+) endocrine progenitor production. Its deletion leads to a late but sustained endocrine progenitor decrease, resulting in a 50% reduction of endocrine cells. We show that BICC1 functions downstream of ONECUT1 in the pathway controlling both NEUROG3(+) endocrine cell production and ductal morphogenesis...

  7. Development of the endocrine pancreas and novel strategies for β-cell mass restoration and diabetes therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Márquez-Aguirre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus represents a serious public health problem owing to its global prevalence in the last decade. The causes of this metabolic disease include dysfunction and/or insufficient number of β cells. Existing diabetes mellitus treatments do not reverse or control the disease. Therefore, β-cell mass restoration might be a promising treatment. Several restoration approaches have been developed: inducing the proliferation of remaining insulin-producing cells, de novo islet formation from pancreatic progenitor cells (neogenesis, and converting non-β cells within the pancreas to β cells (transdifferentiation are the most direct, simple, and least invasive ways to increase β-cell mass. However, their clinical significance is yet to be determined. Hypothetically, β cells or islet transplantation methods might be curative strategies for diabetes mellitus; however, the scarcity of donors limits the clinical application of these approaches. Thus, alternative cell sources for β-cell replacement could include embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells. However, most differentiated cells obtained using these techniques are functionally immature and show poor glucose-stimulated insulin secretion compared with native β cells. Currently, their clinical use is still hampered by ethical issues and the risk of tumor development post transplantation. In this review, we briefly summarize the current knowledge of mouse pancreas organogenesis, morphogenesis, and maturation, including the molecular mechanisms involved. We then discuss two possible approaches of β-cell mass restoration for diabetes mellitus therapy: β-cell regeneration and β-cell replacement. We critically analyze each strategy with respect to the accessibility of the cells, potential risk to patients, and possible clinical outcomes.

  8. On the regulatory functions of neuropeptide Y (NPY) with respect to vascular resistance and exocrine and endocrine secretion in the pig pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Orskov, C; Knuhtsen, S

    1989-01-01

    We compared the effects of electrical stimulation of the splanchnic nerves and infusions of neuropeptide Y, noradrenaline or a combination of the two on pancreatic vascular resistance and exocrine and endocrine secretion. For these studies we used isolated perfused pig pancreas with preserved...... splanchnic nerve supply. The exocrine secretion was stimulated with physiological concentrations of secretin and cholecystokinin octapeptide. Noradrenaline and NPY at 10(-8) M both increased pancreatic perfusion pressure. Their effects were additive and similar in magnitude to that of electrical stimulation...

  9. Monocytes infiltrate the pancreas via the MCP-1/CCR2 pathway and differentiate into stellate cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuko Ino

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that monocytes possess pluripotent plasticity. We previously reported that monocytes could differentiate into hepatic stellate cells. Although stellate cells are also present in the pancreas, their origin remains unclear. An accumulation of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP(+CD45(- cells was observed in the pancreases and livers of chimeric mice, which were transplanted with a single hematopoietic stem cell isolated from EGFP-transgenic mice and treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. Because the vast majority of EGFP(+CD45(- cells in the pancreas expressed stellate cell-associated antigens such as vimentin, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, procollagen-I, and α-smooth muscle actin, they were characterized as pancreatic stellate cells (PaSCs. EGFP(+ PaSCs were also observed in CCl4-treated mice adoptively transferred with monocytes but not with other cell lineages isolated from EGFP-transgenic mice. The expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and angiotensin II (Ang II increased in the pancreas of CCl4-treated mice and their respective receptors, C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2 and Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R, were expressed on Ly6C(high monocytes isolated from EGFP-transgenic mice. We examined the effect of an AT1R antagonist, irbesartan, which is also a CCR2 antagonist, on the migration of monocytes into the pancreas. Monocytes migrated toward MCP-1 but not Ang II in vitro. Irbesartan inhibited not only their in vitro chemotaxis but also in vivo migration of adoptively transferred monocytes from peripheral blood into the pancreas. Irbesartan treatment significantly reduced the numbers of EGFP(+F4/80(+CCR2(+ monocytic cells and EGFP(+ PaSCs in the pancreas of CCl4-treated chimeric mice receiving EGFP(+ bone marrow cells. A specific CCR2 antagonist RS504393 inhibited the occurrence of EGFP(+ PaSCs in injured mice. We propose that CCR2(+ monocytes migrate into the pancreas possibly via the

  10. Endocrine Pancreas Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    conditions and then counted using Neubauer Hemocytometer (Hausser Scientific, Horsham, A), as previously published [4,25]. .3. UASMC Ki-67 staining As another...digital camera and interfaced with a computer. . Statistical analysis Results from each experiment were averaged and xpressed as mean± S.D. Comparisons...Images were captured by a Photometrics Cool SNAP digital camera (Roper Scientific, Tucson, AZ) and Nikon C1 confocal system at 40× objective lens and

  11. Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the pancreas responsive to combination therapy with gemcitabine and S-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mitsuyoshi; Miyagawa, Koichiro; Hiura, Masaaki; Taguchi, Masashi; Kihara, Yasuyuki; Abe, Shintaro; Shimajiri, Shohei; Harada, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma is a very rare malignancy, but it is characterized by agressive histological features and a poor clinical prognosis. We report a 42-year-old man who had poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the pancreas with multiple liver metastases. We administrated combined chemotherapy with S-1 and gemcitabine. This treatment was efficacious and well tolerated, and then this patient obtained objective partial response for 7 months and survived for 13 months after the diagnosis. This case suggests that S-1 and gemcitabine combination produce beneficial responses for patients with this disease.

  12. Differential Diagnosis of Cystic Lymphangioma of the Pancreas Based on Imaging Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Kai Leung

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphangioma is a benign tumor, which is a consequence of lymphatic malformation with blockage of lymphatic flow. Most lymphangiomas occur in the neck and axillary region, and < 1% occur in the mesentery or retroperitoneum. Lymphangiomas arising from the pancreas are extremely rare. We report the case of a 34-year-old woman with cystic lymphangioma of the pancreas without major symptoms or signs. A 6 × 6 cm intra-abdominal cystic mass was incidentally revealed by sonography during a health examination. It is always a challenge to differentiate the lesion from other possible cystic-like pancreatic neoplasms. Differential diagnosis of cystic lymphangioma from other cystic-like tumors of the pancreas can be performed based on their imaging characteristics, including presence of septa, cystic or wall calcification, soft tissue, wall thickness, single or multiple loculation, and dilatation of the pancreatic duct. Post-gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging is excellent in defining the origin of intra-abdominal cystic mass and intracystic septa.

  13. Laser Capture and Deep Sequencing Reveals the Transcriptomic Programmes Regulating the Onset of Pancreas and Liver Differentiation in Human Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Jennings

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To interrogate the alternative fates of pancreas and liver in the earliest stages of human organogenesis, we developed laser capture, RNA amplification, and computational analysis of deep sequencing. Pancreas-enriched gene expression was less conserved between human and mouse than for liver. The dorsal pancreatic bud was enriched for components of Notch, Wnt, BMP, and FGF signaling, almost all genes known to cause pancreatic agenesis or hypoplasia, and over 30 unexplored transcription factors. SOX9 and RORA were imputed as key regulators in pancreas compared with EP300, HNF4A, and FOXA family members in liver. Analyses implied that current in vitro human stem cell differentiation follows a dorsal rather than a ventral pancreatic program and pointed to additional factors for hepatic differentiation. In summary, we provide the transcriptional codes regulating the start of human liver and pancreas development to facilitate stem cell research and clinical interpretation without inter-species extrapolation.

  14. [Dementia due to Endocrine Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Akiko; Yoneda, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    Endocrine diseases affecting various organs, such as the pituitary gland, the thyroid, the parathyroid, the adrenal glands and the pancreas, occasionally cause dementia. While Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia in the elderly and is untreatable, dementia caused by endocrine diseases is treatable in most cases. However, patients with dementia associated with endocrine diseases show memory impairments similar to those found in AD, often leading to misdiagnoses. Patients with endocrine diseases often present with other characteristic systemic and neuropsychiatric symptoms caused by altered hormone levels. Such neuropsychiatric symptoms include involuntary movements, depression, seizures, and muscle weakness. In these cases, abnormalities in imaging and blood or urine tests are helpful in making a differential diagnosis. As delays in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients may cause irreversible brain damage, it is imperative for clinicians to carefully exclude the possibility of latent endocrine diseases when treating patients with dementia.

  15. Mouse Pancreas Tissue Slice Culture Facilitates Long-Term Studies of Exocrine and Endocrine Cell Physiology in situ

    OpenAIRE

    Marciniak, Anja; Selck, Claudia; Friedrich, Betty; Speier, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Studies on pancreatic cell physiology rely on the investigation of exocrine and endocrine cells in vitro. Particularly, in the case of the exocrine tissue these studies have suffered from a reduced functional viability of acinar cells in culture. As a result not only investigations on dispersed acinar cells and isolated acini were limited in their potential, but also prolonged studies on pancreatic exocrine and endocrine cells in an intact pancreatic tissue environment were unfeasible. To ove...

  16. Immunocytochemical detection of glucagon and insulin cells in endocrine pancreas and cyclic disparity of plasma glucose in the turtle Melanochelys trijuga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandavar, Vidya R; Naik, Prakash R

    2008-06-01

    The present investigation was carried out to know the seasonal variation in plasma glucose,insulin and glucagon cells during the reproductive cycle of untreated Melanochelys trijuga. Pancreatic endocrine cells were immunochemically localized.Insulin-immunoreactive (IR) cells occurred in groups of 3-20 and were in close apposition, while glucagon-IR cells were distributed individually between the exocrine pancreas or formed anastomosing cords where cells were not intimately attached. Whenever both IR cell types were present together forming an islet,insulin-IR cells formed clusters in the centre with glucagon-IR cells being scattered at the periphery. Glucagon-IR cells seemed to be secretory throughout the pancreas during the reproductive cycle,while insulin-IR cells were found to be pulsating in their secretion. Mean size of the islet was 1.306, 0.184 and 2.558 mm in the regenerative, reproductive and regressive periods,respectively. In general,insulin-IR cells measured 5.18 (mu)m and glucagon-IR cells 5.22 (mu)m in their longest axis. Invariably, glucagon-IR cells were more in number than insulin-IR cells. The fasting plasma glucose level was 69.97 mg% during the regenerative period, which increased to 97.96 mg% during the reproductive period,and reached a peak value of 113.52 mg% in the regressive period.

  17. In vitro pancreas organogenesis from dispersed mouse embryonic progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greggio, Chiara; De Franceschi, Filippo; Figueiredo-Larsen, Evan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The pancreas is an essential organ that regulates glucose homeostasis and secretes digestive enzymes. Research on pancreas embryogenesis has led to the development of protocols to produce pancreatic cells from stem cells (1). The whole embryonic organ can be cultured at multiple stages...... expanding progenitors and differentiate into endocrine, acinar and ductal cells and which spontaneously self-organize to resemble the embryonic pancreas. We show here that the in vitro process recapitulates many aspects of natural pancreas development. This culture system is suitable to investigate how...... cells cooperate to form an organ by reducing its initial complexity to few progenitors. It is a model that reproduces the 3D architecture of the pancreas and that is therefore useful to study morphogenesis, including polarization of epithelial structures and branching. It is also appropriate to assess...

  18. Poorly differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas with rapid progression in a young man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, Koji; Ishiyama, Tomoharu; Takeshita, Akiko; Matsumoto, Hidekazu; Jingu, Akira; Kikuchi, Jiro; Yamaya, Hideyuki; Ohe, Rintaro; Ishizawa, Tetsuya

    2018-04-16

    Pancreatic cancer in young adults is very rare. We report a case of young-onset poorly differentiated pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma with rapid progression and poor prognosis in a 31-year-old Japanese man with no obvious family history of malignancy. Preoperative examinations revealed a mass lesion in the body of the pancreas, accompanied by a slightly dilated main pancreatic duct distal to the mass lesion. Pancreatic cancer with acute pancreatitis was suspected because of an elevation of serum pancreatic enzyme and tumor marker, along with imaging findings. Distal pancreatectomy with resection of the common hepatic artery and splenectomy along with lymph node dissection was performed. Microscopically, the tumor was mainly composed of poorly differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma. The postoperative course was uneventful, but the patient had multiple liver metastases 2 months postoperatively, in spite of adjuvant chemotherapy, and died 8 months postoperatively. This case may represent a rare instance of young-onset poorly differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma with rapid progression and may indicate potential risk factors of pancreatic cancer in young adults.

  19. The Protective Effect of Aloe Vera on Histological Structure of Endocrine Portion of Pancreas Gland in the Diabetic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Erfani-Majd

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since aloe vera plant has many medical benefits, the present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of Aloe vera gel on the pancreatic islets and beta cells. Methods: This experimental study consisted of 50 mature male rats aged 2-3 months and weighed 200-250 g, who were randomly divided into five groups (n=10. Group I (control did not receive any treatments, and group II were diabetized via Streptozotocin (IP in 65 mg/kg, whose blood sample was taken after one week. Rats with blood glucose more than 250 mg/dL were considered as diabetic. Group III diabetic rats received the Aloe vera gel daily with dosage of 400 mg/kg, and group IV diabetic rats received insulin in 10 units/rat. Group V involved healthy rats which received only Aloe vera gel. After the last Aloe vera gel administration, blood glucose and body weight of all groups were measured on 15th and 30th days. Animals were euthanized with ether. Then tissues samples were collected from pancreas gland and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin solution. The 5-6 µ sections were made by paraffin embedding method and stained using haematoxylin-eosin (H&E and Aldehyde fuchsin stains. Ultimately, the histomorphometrical parameters were evaluated. Results: The mean number and size of pancreatic islets and beta cells of Langerhans islets decreased significantly in the diabetic group compared to the control group. The number of beta cells and diameter of langerhans islets increased significantly in the rats treated by Aloe vera gel in comparison to diabetic group at the end of 15th and 30th days. Conclusion: Applying Aloe vera gel seems to improve the renewal and restoration of langerhans islets and beta cells of pancreas gland in the diabetic rat.

  20. Thymoma (World Health Organization type B3) with neuroendocrine differentiation in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita, Masaki; Ichiki, Nobuhiko; Ayabe, Takanori; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Kunihide

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Thymic epithelial tumors occur in 1?5% of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1). Majority of these thymic epithelial tumors are thymic carcinoids and patients with thymoma in MEN 1 is rare. Furthermore, thymoma with neuroendocrine differentiation was also rarely reported. Herein, we report a 68-year-old man having type B3 thymoma with neuroendocrine differentiation in MEN 1 and to the best of our knowledge this is the first such case ever reported.

  1. Ultrasound compared with computed tomography and pancreatic arteriography in the detection of endocrine tumours of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paeivaensalo, M.; Maekaeraeinen, H.; Siniluoto, T.; Staahlberg, M.; Jalovaara, P.; Oulu Univ. Central Hospital

    1989-01-01

    We have evaluated ultrasound, computed tomography and arteriographic findings in 15 patients with 17 endocrine pancreatic tumours having a mean diameter of 2.3 cm (range 1-7 cm). All patients underwent computed tomography, and all but one ultrasound and arteriography. Ultrasound was the initial investigation in 11 patients, and identified 10 of the 16 tumours present in 14 patients. Two tumours were found at ultrasound reexamination after having been identified by other radiological methods. Computed tomography revealed 8 out of 17 tumours, while arteriography identified 8 out of 16 tumours. Computed tomography was the initial investigation in 4 patients,and identified one tumour. In only 4 patients were tumours not detected by any of the imaging methods. The sensitivities of ultrasound, computed tomography and arteriography in the detection of pancreatic tumours were 62.5% (95% confidence interval 50.4-74.6%), 47.1% (95% confidence interval 35.0-59.2%), and 50.0% (95% confidence interval 37.5-62.5%), respectively. Ultrasound was thus more accurate than computed tomography or arteriography in detecting endocrine pancreatic tumours, and should be the initial radiological investigation. (orig.)

  2. Hypervascular solid-appearing serous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas: Differential diagnosis with neuroendocrine tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Sun; Kim, So Yeon; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Seung Soo; Byun, Jae Ho; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Moon-Gyu [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Seung-Mo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To describe imaging findings of arterial hypervascular solid-appearing serous cystic neoplasms (SCNs) of the pancreas on CT and MR and determine imaging features differentiating them from neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). We retrospectively identified 15 arterial hypervascular solid-appearing SCNs and randomly chose 30 size-matched pancreatic NETs. On CT, two radiologists in consensus assessed the size, morphology, and CT attenuation. On MR, predominant signal intensity and the amount of the cystic component on T2-weighted images and ADC maps were evaluated and compared using Fisher's exact and Student's t-test. The mean SCN size was 2.6 cm (range, 0.8-8.3). The CT findings were similar between the two tumours: location, shape, margin, and enhancement pattern. SCNs were significantly more hypodense on non-enhanced CT images than NETs (P =.03). They differed significantly on MR: bright signal intensity (P =.01) and more than a 10 % cystic component on T2-weighted images (P =.01) were more common in SCNs than in NETs. All SCNs showed a non-restrictive pattern on the ADC map, while NETs showed diffusion restriction (P <.01). Arterial hypervascular solid-appearing SCNs and NETs share similar imaging features. Non-enhanced CT and MR images with T2-weighted images and ADC maps can facilitate the differentiation. (orig.)

  3. Radiologic features of cystic, endocrine and other pancreatic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balci, N. Cem; Semelka, Richard C.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents imaging features of cystic, endocrine and other pancreatic neoplasms. Microcystic adenoma which is composed of small cysts ( 2 cm) are accounted for mucinous cystic neoplasms, its variant along pancreatic duct is ductectatic mucinous cystic neoplasm. Endocrine tumors of pancreas are hypervascular and can be depicted on early dynamic enhanced crosssectional imaging modalities or on angiography when they are <1 cm. Pancreatic metastases and lymphomas are rare neoplasms which should also be included in differential diagnosis for pancreatic masses

  4. CT differentiation of masses in the head of the pancreas area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neufang, K.F.R.; Moedder, U.; Heuser, L.

    1985-01-01

    Masses in the head of the pancreas area may be caused by neoplastic, inflammatory and a variety of other processes originating within the pancreas or in adjacent structures and organs. CT following intraveneous bolus injection of the contrast agent and oral staining of the small bowel allows the precise anatomic localization of the lesion and helps to evaluate its dignity and pathology. Nevertheless, frequently the final can be established only at open surgery and by histopathologic examination of the resected specimen. (orig.) [de

  5. Endocrine system: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella; Johnstone, Carolyn

    2014-06-03

    This article, the last in the life sciences series, is the second of two articles on the endocrine system. It discusses human growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands. The relationships between hormones and their unique functions are also explored. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health to provide effective care to patients. Several disorders caused by human growth hormone or that affect the pancreas and adrenal glands are examined.

  6. Reversible immortalization of Nestin-positive precursor cells from pancreas and differentiation into insulin-secreting cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Pei; Li, Li; Qi, Hui [The Clinical Medical Research Center, The Second Clinical Medical College (Shenzhen People' s Hospital), Jinan University, 518020 Shenzhen (China); Zhou, Han-xin [Department of General Surgery, First Hospital (Shenzhen Second People' s Hospital) of Shenzhen University, 518020 Shenzhen (China); Deng, Chun-yan [The Clinical Medical Research Center, The Second Clinical Medical College (Shenzhen People' s Hospital), Jinan University, 518020 Shenzhen (China); Li, Fu-rong, E-mail: frli62@yahoo.com [The Clinical Medical Research Center, The Second Clinical Medical College (Shenzhen People' s Hospital), Jinan University, 518020 Shenzhen (China); Shenzhen Institution of Gerontology, 518020 Shenzhen (China)

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The NPPCs from mouse pancreas were isolated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tet-on system for SV40 large in NPPCs was used to get RINPPCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The RINPPCs can undergo at least 80 population doublings without senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The RINPPCs can be induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The combination of GLP-1 and sodium butyrate promoted the differentiation process. -- Abstract: Pancreatic stem cells or progenitor cells posses the ability of directed differentiation into pancreatic {beta} cells. However, these cells usually have limited proliferative capacity and finite lifespan in vitro. In the present study, Nestin-positive progenitor cells (NPPCs) from mouse pancreas that expressed the pancreatic stem cells or progenitor cell marker Nestin were isolated to obtain a sufficient number of differentiated pancreatic {beta} cells. Tet-on system for SV40 large T-antigen expression in NPPCs was used to achieve reversible immortalization. The reversible immortal Nestin-positive progenitor cells (RINPPCs) can undergo at least 80 population doublings without senescence in vitro while maintaining their biological and genetic characteristics. RINPPCs can be efficiently induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells that contain a combination of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and sodium butyrate. The results of the present study can be used to explore transplantation therapy of type I diabetes mellitus.

  7. Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in distinct ontogenetic windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biemann, Ronald, E-mail: ronald.biemann@medizin.uni-halle.de [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Navarrete Santos, Anne [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Navarrete Santos, Alexander [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Riemann, Dagmar [Department of Immunology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Knelangen, Julia [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Blueher, Matthias [Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Koch, Holger [Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-University Bochum (IPA), Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Fischer, Bernd [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany)

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adipogenic impact depends strongly on the window of exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bisphenol A reduces the potential of MSC to differentiate into adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DEHP and TBT trigger the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BPA, DEHP and TBT did not affect adipogenesis in embryonic stem cells. -- Abstract: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) like bisphenol A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and tributyltin (TBT) are ubiquitously present in the environment and in human tissues. They bind to nuclear hormone receptors and affect cellular and developmental processes. In this study, we show that BPA, DEHP and TBT affect the adipogenic differentiation of murine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, C3H/10T1/2) in a concentration-, stage- and compound-specific manner. C3H/10T1/2 cells and embryonic stem cells (CGR8) were exposed to BPA, DEHP or TBT at different stages of cell determination and differentiation (undifferentiated growth, adipogenic induction and terminal adipogenic differentiation). The final amount of differentiated adipocytes, cellular triglyceride content and mRNA expression of adipogenic marker genes (adiponectin, FABP4, PPAR{gamma}2, LPL) were quantified and compared with corresponding unexposed cells. BPA (10 {mu}M) decreased subsequent adipogenic differentiation of MSC, when cells were exposed during undifferentiated growth. In contrast, DEHP (100 {mu}M) during the hormonal induction period, and TBT (100 nM) in all investigated stages, enhanced adipogenesis. Importantly, exposure of undifferentiated murine embryonic stem cells did not show any effect of the investigated EDC on subsequent adipogenic differentiation.

  8. Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in distinct ontogenetic windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biemann, Ronald; Navarrete Santos, Anne; Navarrete Santos, Alexander; Riemann, Dagmar; Knelangen, Julia; Blüher, Matthias; Koch, Holger; Fischer, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). ► The adipogenic impact depends strongly on the window of exposure. ► Bisphenol A reduces the potential of MSC to differentiate into adipocytes. ► DEHP and TBT trigger the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. ► BPA, DEHP and TBT did not affect adipogenesis in embryonic stem cells. -- Abstract: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) like bisphenol A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and tributyltin (TBT) are ubiquitously present in the environment and in human tissues. They bind to nuclear hormone receptors and affect cellular and developmental processes. In this study, we show that BPA, DEHP and TBT affect the adipogenic differentiation of murine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, C3H/10T1/2) in a concentration-, stage- and compound-specific manner. C3H/10T1/2 cells and embryonic stem cells (CGR8) were exposed to BPA, DEHP or TBT at different stages of cell determination and differentiation (undifferentiated growth, adipogenic induction and terminal adipogenic differentiation). The final amount of differentiated adipocytes, cellular triglyceride content and mRNA expression of adipogenic marker genes (adiponectin, FABP4, PPARγ2, LPL) were quantified and compared with corresponding unexposed cells. BPA (10 μM) decreased subsequent adipogenic differentiation of MSC, when cells were exposed during undifferentiated growth. In contrast, DEHP (100 μM) during the hormonal induction period, and TBT (100 nM) in all investigated stages, enhanced adipogenesis. Importantly, exposure of undifferentiated murine embryonic stem cells did not show any effect of the investigated EDC on subsequent adipogenic differentiation.

  9. CT diagnosis and differential diagnosis of masses located in the junctional space adjacent to stomach, spleen and pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xueling

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT diagnosis and differential diagnosis of masses located in the junctional space adjacent to stomach, spleen and pancreas, with analysis of cases in which misdiagnosis was made. Methods: CT manifestations were retrospectively investigated in 20 cases of masses located in the junctional space adjacent to stomach, spleen and pancreas. Lesions had been located with the images and then qualitative diagnosis had been made. All the cases were eventually confirmed by pathology. Results: The lesions were in round shape in 6 cases out of 20 irregular masses were revealed in 14 showed, unclear demarcated lesions were showed in 16 cases. Inhomogeneous enhancement of the masses was visualized when the contrast agent was given. The central spot and maximum plain of the mass were different among different pathology types of the masses. 6 of 20 were original from stomach, 7 of 20 from pancreas, 3 from spleen and 4 from peritoneal cavity. 6 of 20 were wrong located (30%), 8 of 20 (40%)were wrong pathological diagnosis. Conclusion: Location is more important than pathological character diagnosis. It is valuable to locate the maximum plain of the masses and shape changed of organs nearby. (authors)

  10. Cigarette smoke-induced differential expression of the genes involved in exocrine function of the rat pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittel, Uwe A; Singh, Ajay P; Henley, Brandon J; Andrianifahanana, Mahefatiana; Akhter, Mohammed P; Cullen, Diane M; Batra, Surinder K

    2006-11-01

    Little is known about the molecular and biological aspects of the epidemiological association between smoking and pancreatic pathology, such as chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Recently, we reported that tobacco smoke exposure induced morphological alterations in the rat pancreas. Here, we have investigated the alterations in the expression of genes associated with exocrine pancreatic function and cellular differentiation upon exposure to cigarette smoke. Female rats were exposed to environmental smoke inhalation for 2 d/wk (70 min/d) for 12 weeks. The expression profiles of trypsinogen, pancreas-specific trypsin inhibitor, cholecystokinin A receptor, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), carbonic anhydrase, and Muc1 and Muc4 mucins transcripts were analyzed by RNA slot blot analysis. Muc4 expression was also examined by immunohistochemistry. Our data revealed that the ratio of trypsinogen to that of the protective pancreas-specific trypsin inhibitor was elevated upon cigarette smoke exposure. The expression of carbonic anhydrase and CFTR remained unaltered when inflammatory signs were not detected in histological examinations. On the other hand, when pancreatic inflammation was present, the levels of CFTR and carbonic anhydrase were increased, indicating ductal and/or centroacinar cell involvement. No changes in the expression of Muc1 and Muc4 mucins were observed. Our data show that cigarette smoke exposure leads to an increased vulnerability to pancreatic self-digestion. Moreover, the concomitant involvement of pancreatic ducts occurs only when focal pancreatic inflammation is present.

  11. Inhibitor of Differentiation-3 and Estrogenic Endocrine Disruptors: Implications for Susceptibility to Obesity and Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur Doke

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The rising global incidence of obesity cannot be fully explained within the context of traditional risk factors such as an unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, aging, or genetics. Adipose tissue is an endocrine as well as a metabolic organ that may be susceptible to disruption by environmental estrogenic chemicals. Since some of the endocrine disruptors are lipophilic chemicals with long half-lives, they tend to bioaccumulate in the adipose tissue of exposed populations. Elevated exposure to these chemicals may predispose susceptible individuals to weight gain by increasing the number and size of fat cells. Genetic studies have demonstrated that the transcriptional regulator inhibitor of differentiation-3 (ID3 promotes high fat diet-induced obesity in vivo. We have shown previously that PCB153 and natural estrogen 17β-estradiol increase ID3 expression. Based on our findings, we postulate that ID3 is a molecular target of estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EEDs in the adipose tissue and a better understanding of this relationship may help to explain how EEDs can lead to the transcriptional programming of deviant fat cells. This review will discuss the current understanding of ID3 in excess fat accumulation and the potential for EEDs to influence susceptibility to obesity or metabolic disorders via ID3 signaling.

  12. Inflammation increases cells expressing ZSCAN4 and progenitor cell markers in the adult pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Sakiko; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Yamamoto, Akiko; Kyokane, Kazuhiro; Niida, Shumpei; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Ko, Minoru S. H.

    2013-01-01

    We have recently identified the zinc finger and SCAN domain containing 4 (Zscan4), which is transiently expressed and regulates telomere elongation and genome stability in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of ZSCAN4 in the adult pancreas and elucidate the role of ZSCAN4 in tissue inflammation and subsequent regeneration. The expression of ZSCAN4 and other progenitor or differentiated cell markers in the human pancreas was immunohistochemically examined. Pancreas sections of alcoholic or autoimmune pancreatitis patients before and under maintenance corticosteroid treatment were used in this study. In the adult human pancreas a small number of ZSCAN4-positive (ZSCAN4+) cells are present among cells located in the islets of Langerhans, acini, ducts, and oval-shaped cells. These cells not only express differentiated cell markers for each compartment of the pancreas but also express other tissue stem/progenitor cell markers. Furthermore, the number of ZSCAN4+ cells dramatically increased in patients with chronic pancreatitis, especially in the pancreatic tissues of autoimmune pancreatitis actively regenerating under corticosteroid treatment. Interestingly, a number of ZSCAN4+ cells in the pancreas of autoimmune pancreatitis returned to the basal level after 1 yr of maintenance corticosteroid treatment. In conclusion, coexpression of progenitor cell markers and differentiated cell markers with ZSCAN4 in each compartment of the pancreas may indicate the presence of facultative progenitors for both exocrine and endocrine cells in the adult pancreas. PMID:23599043

  13. Pancreas Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pancreas is a gland behind your stomach and in front of your spine. It produces the juices that ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. A pancreas transplant is surgery to place a healthy pancreas ...

  14. Analyses of pancreas development by generation of gfp transgenic zebrafish using an exocrine pancreas-specific elastaseA gene promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Haiyan; Korzh, Svitlana; Li Zhen; Mudumana, Sudha Puttur; Korzh, Vladimir; Jiang Yunjin; Lin Shuo; Gong Zhiyuan

    2006-01-01

    In contrast to what we know on development of endocrine pancreas, the formation of exocrine pancreas remains poorly understood. To create an animal model that allows observation of exocrine cell differentiation, proliferation, and morphogenesis in living animals, we used the zebrafish elastaseA (elaA) regulatory sequence to develop transgenic zebrafish that display highly specific exocrine pancreas expression of GFP in both larvae and adult. By following GFP expression, we found that the pancreas in early development was a relatively compact organ and later extended posterior along the intestine. By transferring the elaA:gfp transgene into slow muscle omitted mutant that is deficient in receiving Hedgehog signals, we further showed that Hedgehog signaling is required for exocrine morphogenesis but not for cell differentiation. We also applied the morpholino knockdown and toxin-mediated cell ablation approaches to this transgenic line. We showed that the development of exocrine pancreas is Islet-1 dependent. Injection of the diphtheria toxin A (DTA) construct under the elastaseA promoter resulted in selective ablation of exocrine cells while the endocrine cells and other endodermal derivatives (liver and intestine) were not affected. Thus, our works demonstrated the new transgenic line provided a useful experimental tool in analyzing exocrine pancreas development

  15. Growth of the endocrine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaarn, Louise Winkel

    Diabetes er karakteriseret ved en enten absolut eller relativ mangel paa insulin producerende ß-celler (henholdsvis type 1 og 2 diabetes). Den mest oplagte behandling ville vaere at genskabe den funktionelle ß-cellemasse ved enten regenerering eller celle terapi og dermed genindfoere normal gluco...

  16. Differential metamorphosis alters the endocrine response in anuran larvae exposed to T3 and atrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, Jennifer L.; Beccue, Nathan; Rayburn, A. Lane

    2005-01-01

    Pesticide chemical contamination is one of the suspected contributors of the amphibian population decline. The herbicide atrazine is one of the major surface water contaminants in the U.S. A previous study has shown that atrazine at concentrations as low as 100 parts per billion (ppb) increased the time to metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis tadpoles. However, questions remain as to the applicability of a study of a non-native species to a native organism. The possible effects of atrazine on developing Bufo americanus were explored. Atrazine at potentially (albeit high) environmental concentrations was found not to delay the metamorphosis of developing B. americanus tadpoles as observed in X. laevis. Several studies have indicated that atrazine affects thyroid hormones. Since thyroid hormones are critical in amphibian metamorphosis, B. americanus and X. laevis tadpoles were exposed to exogenous 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T 3 ). X. laevis were found to be more responsive to the effects of exogenous T 3 compared to B. americanus, indicating that X. laevis may be more sensitive to endocrine active chemicals than B. americanus. In X. laevis, nuclear heterogeneity has been associated with metamorphosis. Flow cytometric analysis of the nuclei of normal metamorphing B. americanus indicates a decrease in the amount of thyroid mediated chromatin alterations relative to the nuclei of metamorphing X. laevis. Indications are that the differential response to endocrine disruption is due to the differential role of chromatin associated gene expression during metamorphosis of B. americanus versus X. laevis. A second native species, Hyla versicolor, was observed to have the X. laevis nuclear pattern with respect to metamorphosis. As such, sensitivity to endocrine disruption is hypothesized not to be limited to laboratory non-native species

  17. Comparison between MRI with MR cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography for differentiating malignant from benign mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jiyoung; Hong, Seong Sook; Kim, Hyun-joo; Kim, Young Kon; Jeong, Woo Kyung; Min, Ji Hye

    2018-01-01

    To compare diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for differentiating malignant from benign intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCN) of the pancreas. This retrospective study included 55 patients with 47 surgically confirmed IPMNs (12 malignant, 35 benign) and eight MCNs (two malignant, six benign) who underwent contrast-enhanced pancreas MRI and EUS. Contrast enhancement was not routinely used at EUS examination. Two observers independently evaluated the MRIs, and another reviewed EUS images. They recorded their confidence for malignancy with each imaging modality. We calculated diagnostic performance using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (A z ), and to determine the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative predictive (NPV) values. The A z values of MRI were higher than those of EUS (0.712 and 0.688 for MRI vs. 0.543 for EUS; p = 0.007). The diagnostic accuracies (74.5%), specificity (78.0% and 80.5%) and PPV (50.0%) of MRI in two observers were higher than those (56.4%, 58.5% and 29.2%, respectively) of EUS (p = 0.013-0.049). MRI showed better diagnostic performance than EUS for differentiating malignant from benign pancreatic IPMN and MCN. (orig.)

  18. Comparison between MRI with MR cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography for differentiating malignant from benign mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jiyoung; Hong, Seong Sook; Kim, Hyun-joo [Seoul Hospital, Department of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kon; Jeong, Woo Kyung [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Min, Ji Hye [Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-01-15

    To compare diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for differentiating malignant from benign intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCN) of the pancreas. This retrospective study included 55 patients with 47 surgically confirmed IPMNs (12 malignant, 35 benign) and eight MCNs (two malignant, six benign) who underwent contrast-enhanced pancreas MRI and EUS. Contrast enhancement was not routinely used at EUS examination. Two observers independently evaluated the MRIs, and another reviewed EUS images. They recorded their confidence for malignancy with each imaging modality. We calculated diagnostic performance using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (A{sub z}), and to determine the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative predictive (NPV) values. The A{sub z} values of MRI were higher than those of EUS (0.712 and 0.688 for MRI vs. 0.543 for EUS; p = 0.007). The diagnostic accuracies (74.5%), specificity (78.0% and 80.5%) and PPV (50.0%) of MRI in two observers were higher than those (56.4%, 58.5% and 29.2%, respectively) of EUS (p = 0.013-0.049). MRI showed better diagnostic performance than EUS for differentiating malignant from benign pancreatic IPMN and MCN. (orig.)

  19. Differential diagnosis of benign and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous tumors of the pancreas: MR cholangiopancreatography and MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Se; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kim, Ah Young; Kim, Kyoung Won; Park, Sung Won; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Ha, Kyun Kwon; Lee, Moon Gyu; Kim, Song Cheol

    2003-01-01

    To compare the usefulness of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and MR angiography (MRA) in differentiating malignant from benign intraductal papillary mucinous tumors of the pancreas (IPMTs), and to determine the findings which suggest malignancy. During a 6-year period, 46 patients with IPMT underwent MRCP. Morphologically, tumor type was classified as main duct, branch duct, or combined. The diameter of the main pancreatic duct (MPD), the extent of the dilated MPD, and the location and size of the cystic lesion, septum, and communicating channel were assessed. For all types of IPMTs, enhanced mural nodules and portal vein narrowing were evaluated at MRA. Combined-type IPMTs were more frequently malignant (78%) than benign (42%) (p<0.05). Compared with benign lesions, malignant lesions were larger, and the caliber of the communicating channel was also larger (p < 0.05). Their dilated MPD was more extensive and of greater diameter (p<0.05), and the presence of mural nodules was more frequent (p<0.001). Combined MRCP and MRA might be useful for the differential diagnosis of malignant and benign IPMTs of the pancreas

  20. FGF-2b and h-PL Transform Duct and Non-Endocrine Human Pancreatic Cells into Endocrine Insulin Secreting Cells by Modulating Differentiating Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Donadel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a multifactorial disease orphan of a cure. Regenerative medicine has been proposed as novel strategy for DM therapy. Human fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2b controls β-cell clusters via autocrine action, and human placental lactogen (hPL-A increases functional β-cells. We hypothesized whether FGF-2b/hPL-A treatment induces β-cell differentiation from ductal/non-endocrine precursor(s by modulating specific genes expression. Methods: Human pancreatic ductal-cells (PANC-1 and non-endocrine pancreatic cells were treated with FGF-2b plus hPL-A at 500 ng/mL. Cytofluorimetry and Immunofluorescence have been performed to detect expression of endocrine, ductal and acinar markers. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and annexin-V quantified cells proliferation and apoptosis. Insulin secretion was assessed by RIA kit, and electron microscopy analyzed islet-like clusters. Results: Increase in PANC-1 duct cells de-differentiation into islet-like aggregates was observed after FGF-2b/hPL-A treatment showing ultrastructure typical of islets-aggregates. These clusters, after stimulation with FGF-2b/hPL-A, had significant (p < 0.05 increase in insulin, C-peptide, pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX-1, Nkx2.2, Nkx6.1, somatostatin, glucagon, and glucose transporter 2 (Glut-2, compared with control cells. Markers of PANC-1 (Cytokeratin-19, MUC-1, CA19-9 were decreased (p < 0.05. These aggregates after treatment with FGF-2b/hPL-A significantly reduced levels of apoptosis. Conclusions: FGF-2b and hPL-A are promising candidates for regenerative therapy in DM by inducing de-differentiation of stem cells modulating pivotal endocrine genes.

  1. Pancreas grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, D.; Buell, U.; Land, W.; Unertl, K.

    1981-01-01

    Perfusion studies with sup(99m)Tc-DTPA, which has hitherto been used routinely to investigate renal grafts, have also proved useful for monitoring the perfusion of pancreas grafts. A total perfusion failure is equally reliably demonstrable as in renal grafts. Quantitatively smaller perfusion alterations can be demonstrated by monitoring the course. It seems possible to differentiate the salivary edema of a rejection reaction, well known from animal experiments, with the help of other paramters (e.g. creatinine). Further clinical studies are however necessary to confirm these results. (orig.) [de

  2. The endocrine disruptor diethylstilbestrol induces adipocyte differentiation and promotes obesity in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Chan-Juan; Cheng, Xue-Jia; Xia, Hong-Fei, E-mail: hongfeixia@yahoo.com.cn; Ma, Xu

    2012-08-15

    Epidemiology studies indicate that exposure to endocrine disruptors during developmental “window” contributes to adipogenesis and the development of obesity. Implication of endocrine disruptor such as diethylstilbestrol (DES) on adipose tissue development has been poorly investigated. Here we evaluated the effects of DES on adipocyte differentiation in vitro and in vivo, and explored potential mechanism involved in its action. DES induced 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner, and activated the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and peroxisome proliferator-acivated receptor (PPAR) γ as well as its target genes required for adipogenesis in vitro. ER mediated the enhancement of DES-induced PPARγ activity. Moreover, DES perturbed key regulators of adipogenesis and lipogenic pathway in vivo. In utero exposure to low dose of DES significantly increased body weight, liver weight and fat mass in female offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60. In addition, serum triglyceride and glucose levels were also significantly elevated. These results suggest that perinatal exposure to DES may be expected to increase the incidence of obesity in a sex-dependent manner and can act as a potential chemical stressor for obesity and obesity-related disorders. -- Highlights: ► DES induced adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner in 3T3-L1 cells. ► DES activated adipogenic critical regulators and markers in vitro and in vivo. ► Perinatal exposure to DES led to the obese phenotype in female offspring. ► DES might be a potential chemical stressor for obesity and obesity-related disorders.

  3. The endocrine disruptor diethylstilbestrol induces adipocyte differentiation and promotes obesity in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Chan-Juan; Cheng, Xue-Jia; Xia, Hong-Fei; Ma, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiology studies indicate that exposure to endocrine disruptors during developmental “window” contributes to adipogenesis and the development of obesity. Implication of endocrine disruptor such as diethylstilbestrol (DES) on adipose tissue development has been poorly investigated. Here we evaluated the effects of DES on adipocyte differentiation in vitro and in vivo, and explored potential mechanism involved in its action. DES induced 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner, and activated the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and peroxisome proliferator-acivated receptor (PPAR) γ as well as its target genes required for adipogenesis in vitro. ER mediated the enhancement of DES-induced PPARγ activity. Moreover, DES perturbed key regulators of adipogenesis and lipogenic pathway in vivo. In utero exposure to low dose of DES significantly increased body weight, liver weight and fat mass in female offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60. In addition, serum triglyceride and glucose levels were also significantly elevated. These results suggest that perinatal exposure to DES may be expected to increase the incidence of obesity in a sex-dependent manner and can act as a potential chemical stressor for obesity and obesity-related disorders. -- Highlights: ► DES induced adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner in 3T3-L1 cells. ► DES activated adipogenic critical regulators and markers in vitro and in vivo. ► Perinatal exposure to DES led to the obese phenotype in female offspring. ► DES might be a potential chemical stressor for obesity and obesity-related disorders.

  4. Radiomorphometric examination of the sceleton in differential diagnostics of the endocrine dwarfism in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preden, N.; Bannert, N.; Mohnike, K.; Keller, E.

    1984-01-01

    To determine the thickness of the cortical bone means to get a criterion for differential diagnostics of endocrine dwarfism in children. The somatotrophic hormone (STH) has besides other factors a deciding influence on the thickness of the compact substance. After the 4th year of life a positive exclusion of a deficiency in STH becomes possible by measurements of the thickness of the cortical substance. By the therapy of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal dwarfism used at present a making up growth in respect to the thickness of the cortical substance was not demonstrable. A deficiency in STH may be suspected in children suffering from a constitutional retardation in growth, but there was no positive delimitation to the group of hypothalamic-hypophyseal dwarfism. Generally all other relevant clinical pictures, also going along with a thinning of the cortical substance, may be discriminated from a deficiency in STH by the -2s limit. (author)

  5. Radiomorphometric examination of the sheleton in differential diagnostics of endocrine dwarfism in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preden, N.; Bannert, N.; Mohnike, K.; Keller, E.

    1984-01-01

    To determine the thickness of the cortical bone means to get a criterion for differential diagnostics of endocrine dwarfism in children. The somatotrophic hormone (STH) has besides other factors a deciding influence on the thickness of the compact substance. After the 4th year of life a positive exclusion of a deficiency in STH becomes possible by measurements of the thickness of the cortical substance. In the therapy of hypothalamic-hypophyseal dwarfism used at present a making up growth in respect to the thickness of the cortical substance was not demonstrable. A deficiency in STH may be suspected in children suffering from a constitutional retardation in growth, but there was no positive delimitation to the group of hypothalamic-hypophyseal dwarfism. Generally all other relevant clinical pictures, also going along with a thinning of the cortical substance, may be discriminated from a deficiency in STH by the -2s limit.

  6. Significance of radioimmunological analysis of tumor-associated antigens in the differential diagnosis of tumors of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putseva, N.M.; Chebotareva, Eh.D.; Chernyj, V.A.; Tashchiev, V.K.; Evtushenko, O.I.

    1989-01-01

    Radioimmunologic investigations are conducted in 329 patients and 118 healthy people. The content of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), ferritin (FER) and β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 -mg) is determined in the blood serum according to instructions, proposed by domestic and foreign firms. It is ascertained that in the majority of patients suffering from pancreatitis normal CA 19-9 and CEA levels are observed, and β 2 -mg indices allow one to differentiate acute pancreatitis and chronic one. Increased CA 19-9 level points out to the presence of pancreas cancer in 90% of patients, CEA - to its frequency, β 2 -mg- to the criticality of the patient condition (the presence of renal-hepatic insufficiency). Involvement of liver (hepatitis, primary cancer or metastatic injury) into the pathologic process is accompanied by a sufficient TPA and FER increase

  7. Endocrine system: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    2014-05-27

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series and is the first of two articles on the endocrine system, examines the structure and function of the organs of the endocrine system. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health. The role of the endocrine system and the types, actions and control of hormones are explored. The gross structure of the pituitary and thyroid glands are described along with relevant physiology. Several disorders of the thyroid gland are outlined. The second article examines growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands.

  8. Annular pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001142.htm Annular pancreas To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An annular pancreas is a ring of pancreatic tissue that encircles ...

  9. Computed tomographic criteria for differential diagnosis between exacerbation of focal chronic pancreatitis and carcinoma located in the head of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.; Tonchev, Z.

    1995-01-01

    A group of 126 patients with CT-finding of tumor mass in the head of the pancreas is studied. Signs of acute exacerbation of focal chronic pancreatitis are found in 28 of them. Carcinoma of the head of pancreas is diagnosed in 98 patients. Surgical and histological verification is performed in 84 (86%) patients with carcinoma of the pancreas. In 77 (92%) cases the computed tomographic diagnosis coincides with the histological one, while in the remaining 7 (8%) it fails to coincide. The morphological and densitometric changes were analyzed with respect to their frequency. On account of the nonspecific character of the computed tomographic signs a symptom constellation is developed which facilitates the differential diagnosis of the acute exacerbation of focal pancreatitis and the carcinoma. The changes in density of lesions observed after application of contrast media were found to be of significant value. 16 refs., 6 figs. (author)

  10. What Is the Pancreas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pancreas Function of the Pancreas What is the pancreas? The pancreas is a long flattened gland located ... controller of blood sugar levels. Where is the pancreas? The pancreas is located deep in the abdomen. ...

  11. Preganglionic innervation of the pancreas islet cells in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUITEN, PGM; TERHORST, GJ; KOOPMANS, SJ; RIETBERG, M; STEFFENS, AB

    1984-01-01

    The position and number of preganglionic somata innervating the insulin-secreting β-cells of the endocrine pancreas were investigated in Wistar rats. This question was approached by comparing the innervation of the pancreas of normal rats with the innervation of the pancreas in alloxan-induced

  12. Modeling endocrine regulation of the menstrual cycle using delay differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Leona A; Selgrade, James F

    2014-11-01

    This article reviews an effective mathematical procedure for modeling hormonal regulation of the menstrual cycle of adult women. The procedure captures the effects of hormones secreted by several glands over multiple time scales. The specific model described here consists of 13 nonlinear, delay, differential equations with 44 parameters and correctly predicts blood levels of ovarian and pituitary hormones found in the biological literature for normally cycling women. In addition to this normal cycle, the model exhibits another stable cycle which may describe a biologically feasible "abnormal" condition such as polycystic ovarian syndrome. Model simulations illustrate how one cycle can be perturbed to the other cycle. Perturbations due to the exogenous administration of each ovarian hormone are examined. This model may be used to test the effects of hormone therapies on abnormally cycling women as well as the effects of exogenous compounds on normally cycling women. Sensitive parameters are identified and bifurcations in model behavior with respect to parameter changes are discussed. Modeling various aspects of menstrual cycle regulation should be helpful in predicting successful hormone therapies, in studying the phenomenon of cycle synchronization and in understanding many factors affecting the aging of the female reproductive endocrine system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Endocrine diseases in ferrets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, N.J.; van Zeeland, Y.R.A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Endocrine diseases are among the most commonly seen conditions in ferrets. Tumours of the islet cells in the pancreas, referred to as insulinomas, and tumours of the adrenal glands, referred to as hyperadrenocorticism, are more commonly described in this species than in any other species.

  14. A computational proof of concept of a machine-intelligent artificial pancreas using Lyapunov stability and differential game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Nigel J C; Gunton, Jenny E

    2014-07-01

    This study demonstrated the novel application of a "machine-intelligent" mathematical structure, combining differential game theory and Lyapunov-based control theory, to the artificial pancreas to handle dynamic uncertainties. Realistic type 1 diabetes (T1D) models from the literature were combined into a composite system. Using a mixture of "black box" simulations and actual data from diabetic medical histories, realistic sets of diabetic time series were constructed for blood glucose (BG), interstitial fluid glucose, infused insulin, meal estimates, and sometimes plasma insulin assays. The problem of underdetermined parameters was side stepped by applying a variant of a genetic algorithm to partial information, whereby multiple candidate-personalized models were constructed and then rigorously tested using further data. These formed a "dynamic envelope" of trajectories in state space, where each trajectory was generated by a hypothesis on the hidden T1D system dynamics. This dynamic envelope was then culled to a reduced form to cover observed dynamic behavior. A machine-intelligent autonomous algorithm then implemented game theory to construct real-time insulin infusion strategies, based on the flow of these trajectories through state space and their interactions with hypoglycemic or near-hyperglycemic states. This technique was tested on 2 simulated participants over a total of fifty-five 24-hour days, with no hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic events, despite significant uncertainties from using actual diabetic meal histories with 10-minute warnings. In the main case studies, BG was steered within the desired target set for 99.8% of a 16-hour daily assessment period. Tests confirmed algorithm robustness for ±25% carbohydrate error. For over 99% of the overall 55-day simulation period, either formal controller stability was achieved to the desired target or else the trajectory was within the desired target. These results suggest that this is a stable, high

  15. Differentiation between benign and malignant solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas by MDCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Qihua; Wang, Mingliang; Wang, Chengsheng; Wu, Zhiyuan; Yuan, Fei; Chen, Kun; Tang, Yonghua; Zhao, Xuesong; Miao, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if characteristic features on computed tomographic and (or) magnetic resonance imaging can differentiate benign and malignant solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPN). Materials and methods: A total of 82 pathologically diagnosed SPN patients were included. CT and MRI were reviewed by 3 radiologists. Each tumor was analyzed through the clinical and imaging features. Results: The highest occurrence of malignant SPN was observed in the group of patients (11–19 years old) followed by the group of patients (50–65 years old). When the tumor was located in the tail and the size was equal or larger than 6.0 cm, the positive and predictive value, the predictive value, sensitivity and specificity for a malignant SPN were 61.5%, 100%, 100% and 78.6%, respectively. Presence of complete encapsulation was more frequent in benign SPNs, but focal discontinuity in the malignant SPNs. Amorphous or scattered calcifications, all near-solid tumors and presence of upstream pancreatic ductal was found in the benign SPNs. Conclusion: A focal discontinuity of the capsule, large tumor size (>6.0 cm) and a pancreatic tail location may suggest malignancy of SPN. In contrast, tumors with amorphous or scattered calcifications, and all near-solid tumors may be indicative of benignancy. Age (less than 20 or more than 50 years old) is a possible risk factor of SPN. In comparison to other pancreatic neoplasms, such as ductal adenocarcinoma, a complete/incomplete pseudo-capsule, without upstream pancreatic duct dilatation and lymph nodes metastasis, and the presence of internal calcification and hemorrhage are more likely SPN.

  16. MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 - pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma cell lines with neuroendocrine differentiation and somatostatin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradiz, Rui; Silva, Henriqueta C; Carvalho, Lina; Botelho, Maria Filomena; Mota-Pinto, Anabela

    2016-02-17

    Studies using cell lines should always characterize these cells to ensure that the results are not distorted by unexpected morphological or genetic changes possibly due to culture time or passage number. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe those MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cell line phenotype and genotype characteristics that may play a crucial role in pancreatic cancer therapeutic assays, namely neuroendocrine chemotherapy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. Epithelial, mesenchymal, endocrine and stem cell marker characterization was performed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, and genotyping by PCR, gene sequencing and capillary electrophoresis. MIA PaCa-2 (polymorphism) expresses CK5.6, AE1/AE3, E-cadherin, vimentin, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, SSTR2 and NTR1 but not CD56. PANC-1 (pleomorphism) expresses CK5.6, MNF-116, vimentin, chromogranin A, CD56 and SSTR2 but not E-cadherin, synaptophysin or NTR1. MIA PaCA-1 is CD24(-), CD44(+/++), CD326(-/+) and CD133/1(-), while PANC-1 is CD24(-/+), CD44(+), CD326(-/+) and CD133/1(-). Both cell lines have KRAS and TP53 mutations and homozygous deletions including the first 3 exons of CDKN2A/p16(INK4A), but no SMAD4/DPC4 mutations or microsatellite instability. Both have neuroendocrine differentiation and SSTR2 receptors, precisely the features making them suitable for the therapies we propose to assay in future studies.

  17. GPR39 splice variants versus antisense gene LYPD1: expression and regulation in gastrointestinal tract, endocrine pancreas, liver, and white adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Kristoffer L; Holst, Birgitte; Petersen, Pia S

    2007-01-01

    nervous system as characterized with both quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization analysis. A functional analysis of the GPR39 promoter region identified sites for the hepatocyte nuclear factors 1alpha and 4alpha (HNF-1alpha and -4alpha) and specificity protein 1 (SP1) transcription factors as being......G protein-coupled receptor 39 (GPR39) is a constitutively active, orphan member of the ghrelin receptor family that is activated by zinc ions. GPR39 is here described to be expressed in a full-length, biologically active seven-transmembrane form, GPR39-1a, as well as in a truncated splice variant...... five-transmembrane form, GPR39-1b. The 3' exon of the GPR39 gene overlaps with an antisense gene called LYPD1 (Ly-6/PLAUR domain containing 1). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that GPR39-1a is expressed selectively throughout the gastrointestinal tract, including the liver and pancreas...

  18. Endocrine carcinoma of the pancreatic tail exhibiting gastric variceal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yuan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonfunctional endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas is uncommon. Without excess hormone secretion, it is clinically silent until the enlarging or metastatic tumor causes compressive symptoms. Epigastric pain, dyspepsia, jaundice, and abdominal mass are the usual symptoms, whereas upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding is rare. Here, we describe the case of a 24-year-old man with the chief complaint of hematemesis. Upper GI panendoscopy revealed isolated gastric varices at the fundus and upper body. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a tumor mass at the pancreatic tail causing a splenic vein obstruction, engorged vessels near the fundus of the stomach, and splenomegaly. After distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy, the bleeding did not recur. The final pathologic diagnosis was endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. Gastric variceal bleeding is a possible manifestation of nonfunctional endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas if the splenic vein is affected by a tumor. In non-cirrhotic patients with isolated gastric variceal bleeding, the differential diagnosis should include pancreatic disorders.

  19. A Notch-dependent molecular circuitry initiates pancreatic endocrine and ductal cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shih, Hung Ping; Kopp, Janel L; Sandhu, Manbir

    2012-01-01

    necessitates subsequent Sox9 downregulation and evasion from Notch activity via cell-autonomous repression of Sox9 by Ngn3. If high Notch levels are maintained, endocrine progenitors retain Sox9 and undergo ductal fate conversion. Taken together, our findings establish a novel role for Notch in initiating both...

  20. Use of Chemical Mixtures to Differentiate Mechanisms of Endocrine Action in a Small Fish Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various assays with adult fish have been developed to identify potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which may cause toxicity via alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis via different mechanisms/modes of action (MOA). These assays can be sensitive ...

  1. Protein differential expression induced by endocrine disrupting compounds in a terrestrial isopod.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemos, M.F.L.; Esteves, A.C.; Samyn, B.; Timperman, I.; van Beeumen, J.; Correia, A.D.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Soares, A.M.V.M.

    2010-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have been studied due to their impact on human health and increasing awareness of their impact on wildlife species. Studies concerning the organ-specific molecular effects of EDC in invertebrates are important to understand the mechanisms of action of this class

  2. Artifical Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Jiangfeng

    2013-03-01

    In 2006, JDRF launched the Artificial Pancreas Project (APP) to accelerate the development of a commercially-viable artificial pancreas system to closely mimic the biological function of the pancreas individuals with insulin-dependent diabetes, particularly type 1 diabetes. By automating detection of blood sugar levels and delivery of insulin in response to those levels, an artificial pancreas has the potential to transform the lives of people with type 1 diabetes. The 6-step APP development pathway serves as JDRF's APP strategic funding plan and defines the priorities of product research and development. Each step in the plan represents incremental advances in automation beginning with devices that shut off insulin delivery to prevent episodes of low blood sugar and progressing ultimately to a fully automated ``closed loop'' system that maintains blood glucose at a target level without the need to bolus for meals or adjust for exercise.

  3. Tissue-specific deletion of c-Jun in the pancreas has limited effects on pancreas formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kaoru; Miyatsuka, Takeshi; Tanaka, Ayako; Toyoda, Shuichi; Kato, Ken; Shiraiwa, Toshihiko; Fujitani, Yoshio; Yamasaki, Yoshimitsu; Hori, Masatsugu; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Matsuoka, Taka-aki; Kaneto, Hideaki

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that activating protein-1 (AP-1) is involved in a variety of cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and oncogenesis. AP-1 is a dimer complex consisting of different subunits, and c-Jun is known to be one of its major components. In addition, it has been shown that mice lacking c-Jun are embryonic lethal and that c-Jun is essential for liver and heart development. However, the role of c-Jun in the pancreas is not well known. The aim of this study was to examine the possible role of c-Jun in the pancreas. First, c-Jun was strongly expressed in pancreatic duct-like structures at an embryonic stage, while a lower level of expression was observed in some part of the adult pancreas, implying that c-Jun might play a role during pancreas development. Second, to address this point, we generated pancreas-specific c-Jun knock-out mice (Ptf1a-Cre; c-Jun flox/flox mice) by crossing Ptf1a-Cre knock-in mice with c-Jun floxed mice. Ptf1a is a pancreatic transcription factor and its expression is confined to pancreatic stem/progenitor cells, which give rise to all three types of pancreatic tissue: endocrine, exocrine, and duct. Contrary to our expectation, however, there was no morphological difference in the pancreas between Ptf1a-Cre; c-Jun flox/flox and control mice. In addition, there was no difference in body weight, pancreas weight, and the expression of various pancreas-related factors (insulin, glucagon, cytokeratin, and amylase) between the two groups. Furthermore, there was no difference in glucose tolerance between Ptf1a-Cre; c-Jun flox/flox and control mice. Taken together, although we cannot exclude the possibility that c-Jun ablation is compensated by some unknown factors, c-Jun appears to be dispensable for pancreas development at least after ptf1a gene promoter is activated

  4. Differential metamorphosis alters the endocrine response in anuran larvae exposed to T{sub 3} and atrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Jennifer L. [University of Illinois, Department of Crop Sciences, 1201 W. Gregory Drive, 320 ERML, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Beccue, Nathan [University of Illinois, Department of Crop Sciences, 1201 W. Gregory Drive, 320 ERML, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Rayburn, A. Lane [University of Illinois, Department of Crop Sciences, 1201 W. Gregory Drive, 320 ERML, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)]. E-mail: arayburn@uiuc.edu

    2005-11-10

    Pesticide chemical contamination is one of the suspected contributors of the amphibian population decline. The herbicide atrazine is one of the major surface water contaminants in the U.S. A previous study has shown that atrazine at concentrations as low as 100 parts per billion (ppb) increased the time to metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis tadpoles. However, questions remain as to the applicability of a study of a non-native species to a native organism. The possible effects of atrazine on developing Bufo americanus were explored. Atrazine at potentially (albeit high) environmental concentrations was found not to delay the metamorphosis of developing B. americanus tadpoles as observed in X. laevis. Several studies have indicated that atrazine affects thyroid hormones. Since thyroid hormones are critical in amphibian metamorphosis, B. americanus and X. laevis tadpoles were exposed to exogenous 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}). X. laevis were found to be more responsive to the effects of exogenous T{sub 3} compared to B. americanus, indicating that X. laevis may be more sensitive to endocrine active chemicals than B. americanus. In X. laevis, nuclear heterogeneity has been associated with metamorphosis. Flow cytometric analysis of the nuclei of normal metamorphing B. americanus indicates a decrease in the amount of thyroid mediated chromatin alterations relative to the nuclei of metamorphing X. laevis. Indications are that the differential response to endocrine disruption is due to the differential role of chromatin associated gene expression during metamorphosis of B. americanus versus X. laevis. A second native species, Hyla versicolor, was observed to have the X. laevis nuclear pattern with respect to metamorphosis. As such, sensitivity to endocrine disruption is hypothesized not to be limited to laboratory non-native species.

  5. Pulp and paper mill effluent treatments have differential endocrine-disrupting effects on rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, Rodrigo; Guchardi, John; Hernandez, Victor; Krause, Rachelle; Roti, Lucia; Armour, Jeffrey; Ganeshakumar, Mathumai; Holdway, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine disruption (ED) effects due to pulp and paper mill effluents extracts involving different industrial procedures and effluent treatments (nontreated, primary, and secondary treated) were evaluated using immature triploid rainbow trout in a pulse-exposure toxicity experiment. The protocol involved the use of intraperitoneal injection of mill extracts (solid-phase extraction [SPE]) corrected for individual fish weight and included several laboratory standards (steroidal hormones and phytosterols). Biological endpoints at two different levels of biological organization were analyzed (molecular and individual organism). Results indicated that nonsignificant changes were observed in the individual physiological indices represented by condition factor, liver somatic index, and gonad somatic index during the experiment. Significant induction of liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity was observed between different effluent treatments and experimental controls. Significant endocrine-disrupting effects at the reproductive level were observed in all effluent treatments involving significant increments in plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels. Fish exposed to untreated effluent extracts had significantly higher VTG levels compared to fish exposed to primary and secondary treatment effluent extracts, indicating a decrease of the estrogenic effect due to the effluent treatment. The present study has shown that for the Chilean pulp and paper mill SPE extracts evaluated, an endocrine disruption effect was induced in immature triploid rainbow, reaffirming the significant estrogenic effects demonstrated previously in laboratory and field experiments.

  6. ENDOCRINE PANCREATIC FUNCTION IN ACUTE PANCREATITIS

    OpenAIRE

    P. V. Novokhatny

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Among the organs of internal secretion pancreas has a special place thanks to active exocrine function and a wide range of physiological actions of produced hormones. Violations of endocrine pancreas arises in 6.5-38 % of patients with acute pancreatitis. However, there is still no clear understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of hormonal dysfunction of the pancreas in acute pancreatitis, there is no uniform algorithms for its correction. Aim of the research was to study...

  7. Pancreas cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Shigeru; Kato, Hirotoshi; Hara, Ryusuke

    2006-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas continues to be a significant source of cancer mortality in Japan, resulting in approximately 19,000 deaths a year. It is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Japan, with a less than 5% 5-year expected survival rate. About 70-75% of patients with pancreas cancer present with locally advanced disease or distant metastases and have a median survival time of only 6 months. For unresectable pancreas cancer, the median survival time with external beam radiation (EBRT) was better than with surgical bypass or stents alone. The median survival of EBRT alone was 4 to 7 months. The median survival with combined EBRT and chemotherapy for locally unresectable tumor are 8 to 10 months and better than with the EBRT alone. Local failure of these combined therapies was still 26 to 48%. On the other hand, surgery with curative intent is undertaken in 15-20% of patients. Even after resection, the predicted 5-year survival rates are still less than 20%. Local recurrences in the pancreatic bed are seen in 50% of the patients undergoing presumed curative resection. We examined the effect of carbon ion therapy in terms of reducing the rate of local recurrence in patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the pancreas or undergoing resection for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. (author)

  8. Insulin-Producing Endocrine Cells Differentiated In Vitro From Human Embryonic Stem Cells Function in Macroencapsulation Devices In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulnick, Alan D; Ambruzs, Dana M; Moorman, Mark A; Bhoumik, Anindita; Cesario, Rosemary M; Payne, Janice K; Kelly, Jonathan R; Haakmeester, Carl; Srijemac, Robert; Wilson, Alistair Z; Kerr, Justin; Frazier, Mauro A; Kroon, Evert J; D'Amour, Kevin A

    2015-10-01

    The PEC-01 cell population, differentiated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), contains pancreatic progenitors (PPs) that, when loaded into macroencapsulation devices (to produce the VC-01 candidate product) and transplanted into mice, can mature into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells and other pancreatic endocrine cells involved in glucose metabolism. We modified the protocol for making PEC-01 cells such that 73%-80% of the cell population consisted of PDX1-positive (PDX1+) and NKX6.1+ PPs. The PPs were further differentiated to islet-like cells (ICs) that reproducibly contained 73%-89% endocrine cells, of which approximately 40%-50% expressed insulin. A large fraction of these insulin-positive cells were single hormone-positive and expressed the transcription factors PDX1 and NKX6.1. To preclude a significant contribution of progenitors to the in vivo function of ICs, we used a simple enrichment process to remove remaining PPs, yielding aggregates that contained 93%-98% endocrine cells and 1%-3% progenitors. Enriched ICs, when encapsulated and implanted into mice, functioned similarly to the VC-01 candidate product, demonstrating conclusively that in vitro-produced hESC-derived insulin-producing cells can mature and function in vivo in devices. A scaled version of our suspension culture was used, and the endocrine aggregates could be cryopreserved and retain functionality. Although ICs expressed multiple important β cell genes, the cells contained relatively low levels of several maturity-associated markers. Correlating with this, the time to function of ICs was similar to PEC-01 cells, indicating that ICs required cell-autonomous maturation after delivery in vivo, which would occur concurrently with graft integration into the host. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) affects approximately 1.25 million people in the U.S. alone and is deadly if not managed with insulin injections. This paper describes the production of insulin-producing cells in vitro and a new

  9. Iterative use of nuclear receptor Nr5a2 regulates multiple stages of liver and pancreas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Sahar; Weeks, Olivia; Talbot, Jared C.; Hedgepeth, John W.; Wucherpfennig, Julia; Schatzman-Bone, Stephanie; Swinburne, Ian; Cortes, Mauricio; Alexa, Kristen; Megason, Sean; North, Trista E.; Amacher, Sharon L.; Goessling, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    The stepwise progression of common endoderm progenitors into differentiated liver and pancreas organs is regulated by a dynamic array of signals that are not well understood. The nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 2 gene nr5a2, also known as Liver receptor homolog-1 (Lrh-1) is expressed in several tissues including the developing liver and pancreas. Here, we interrogate the role of Nr5a2 at multiple developmental stages using genetic and chemical approaches and uncover novel pleiotropic requirements during zebrafish liver and pancreas development. Zygotic loss of nr5a2 in a targeted genetic null mutant disrupted the development of the exocrine pancreas and liver, while leaving the endocrine pancreas intact. Loss of nr5a2 abrogated exocrine pancreas markers such as trypsin, while pancreas progenitors marked by ptf1a or pdx1 remained unaffected, suggesting a role for Nr5a2 in regulating pancreatic acinar cell differentiation. In the developing liver, Nr5a2 regulates hepatic progenitor outgrowth and differentiation, as nr5a2 mutants exhibited reduced hepatoblast markers hnf4α and prox1 as well as differentiated hepatocyte marker fabp10a. Through the first in vivo use of Nr5a2 chemical antagonist Cpd3, the iterative requirement for Nr5a2 for exocrine pancreas and liver differentiation was temporally elucidated: chemical inhibition of Nr5a2 function during hepatopancreas progenitor specification was sufficient to disrupt exocrine pancreas formation and enhance the size of the embryonic liver, suggesting that Nr5a2 regulates hepatic versus pancreatic progenitor fate choice. Chemical inhibition of Nr5a2 at a later time during pancreas and liver differentiation was sufficient to block the formation of mature acinar cells and hepatocytes. These findings define critical iterative and pleiotropic roles for Nr5a2 at distinct stages of pancreas and liver organogenesis, and provide novel perspectives for interpreting the role of Nr5a2 in disease. PMID:27474396

  10. Cellular and molecular mechanisms coordinating pancreas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas-Ponce, Aimée; Scheibner, Katharina; Lickert, Heiko; Bakhti, Mostafa

    2017-08-15

    The pancreas is an endoderm-derived glandular organ that participates in the regulation of systemic glucose metabolism and food digestion through the function of its endocrine and exocrine compartments, respectively. While intensive research has explored the signaling pathways and transcriptional programs that govern pancreas development, much remains to be discovered regarding the cellular processes that orchestrate pancreas morphogenesis. Here, we discuss the developmental mechanisms and principles that are known to underlie pancreas development, from induction and lineage formation to morphogenesis and organogenesis. Elucidating such principles will help to identify novel candidate disease genes and unravel the pathogenesis of pancreas-related diseases, such as diabetes, pancreatitis and cancer. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Trauma and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Joana; Varela, Ana; Medina, José Luís

    2010-12-01

    The endocrine system may be the target of different types of trauma with varied consequences. The present article discusses trauma of the hypothalamic-pituitary axes, adrenal glands, gonads, and pancreas. In addition to changes in circulating hormone levels due to direct injury to these structures, there may be an endocrine response in the context of the stress caused by the trauma. Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Computed tomography of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolmannskog, F.; Kolbenstvedt, A.; Aakhus, T.; Bergan, A.; Fausa, O.; Elgjo, K.

    1980-01-01

    The findings by computed tomography in 203 cases of suspected pancreatic tumours, pancreatitis or peripancreatic abnormalities were evaluated. The appearances of the normal and the diseased pancreas are described. Computed tomography is highly accurate in detecting pancreatic masses, but can not differentiate neoplastic from inflammatory disease. The only reliable signs of pancreatic carcinoma are a focal mass in the pancreas, together with liver metastasis. When a pancreatic mass is revealed by computed tomography, CT-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the pancreas is recommended. Thus the need for more invasive diagnostic procedures and explorative laparotomy may be avoided in some patients. (Auth.)

  13. Morphological and transcriptomic effects of endocrine modulators on the gonadal differentiation of chicken embryos: The case of tributyltin (TBT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheider, Jessica; Afonso-Grunz, Fabian; Jessl, Luzie; Hoffmeier, Klaus; Winter, Peter; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2018-03-01

    Morphological malformations induced by tributyltin (TBT) exposure during embryonic development have already been characterized in various taxonomic groups, but, nonetheless, the molecular processes underlying these changes remain obscure. The present study provides the first genome-wide screening for differentially expressed genes that are linked to morphological alterations of gonadal tissue from chicken embryos after exposure to TBT. We applied a single injection of TBT (between 0.5 and 30 pg as Sn/g egg) into incubated fertile eggs to simulate maternal transfer of the endocrine disruptive compound. Methyltestosterone (MT) served as a positive control (30 pg/g egg). After 19 days of incubation, structural features of the gonads as well as genome-wide gene expression profiles were assessed simultaneously. TBT induced significant morphological and histological malformations of gonadal tissue from female embryos that show a virilization of the ovaries. This phenotypical virilization was mirrored by altered expression profiles of sex-dependent genes. Among these are several transcription and growth factors (e.g. FGF12, CTCF, NFIB), whose altered expression might serve as a set of markers for early identification of endocrine active chemicals that affect embryonic development by transcriptome profiling without the need of elaborate histological analyses. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of the Endocrine-Disrupting Chemical DDT on Self-Renewal and Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Amy L.; Shi, Zhenzhen; Strong, Michael J.; Miller, David F.B.; Rusch, Douglas B.; Buechlein, Aaron M.; Flemington, Erik K.; McLachlan, John A.; Nephew, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the global use of the endocrine-disrupting chemical DDT has decreased, its persistence in the environment has resulted in continued human exposure. Accumulating evidence suggests that DDT exposure has long-term adverse effects on development, yet the impact on growth and differentiation of adult stem cells remains unclear. Objectives: Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exposed to DDT were used to evaluate the impact on stem cell biology. Methods: We assessed DDT-treated MSCs for self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation potential. Whole genome RNA sequencing was performed to assess gene expression in DDT-treated MSCs. Results: MSCs exposed to DDT formed fewer colonies, suggesting a reduction in self-renewal potential. DDT enhanced both adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation, which was confirmed by increased mRNA expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), lipoprotein lipase (LpL), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), leptin, osteonectin, core binding factor 1 (CBFA1), and FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (c-Fos). Expression of factors in DDT-treated cells was similar to that in estrogen-treated MSCs, suggesting that DDT may function via the estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated pathway. The coadministration of ICI 182,780 blocked the effects of DDT. RNA sequencing revealed 121 genes and noncoding RNAs to be differentially expressed in DDT-treated MSCs compared with controls cells. Conclusion: Human MSCs provide a powerful biological system to investigate and identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of environmental agents on stem cells and human health. MSCs exposed to DDT demonstrated profound alterations in self-renewal, proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression, which may partially explain the homeostatic imbalance and increased cancer incidence among those exposed to long-term EDCs. Citation: Strong AL, Shi Z, Strong MJ, Miller DF, Rusch DB, Buechlein AM, Flemington EK

  15. Small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the pancreas are genetically similar and distinct from well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yachida, Shinichi; Vakiani, Efsevia; White, Catherine M; Zhong, Yi; Saunders, Tyler; Morgan, Richard; de Wilde, Roeland F; Maitra, Anirban; Hicks, Jessica; Demarzo, Angelo M; Shi, Chanjuan; Sharma, Rajni; Laheru, Daniel; Edil, Barish H; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Schulick, Richard D; Hruban, Ralph H; Tang, Laura H; Klimstra, David S; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A

    2012-02-01

    Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) of the pancreas are rare malignant neoplasms with a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to determine the clinicopathologic and genetic features of poorly differentiated NECs and compare them with other types of pancreatic neoplasms. We investigated alterations of KRAS, CDKN2A/p16, TP53, SMAD4/DPC4, DAXX, ATRX, PTEN, Bcl2, and RB1 by immunohistochemistry and/or targeted exomic sequencing in surgically resected specimens of 9 small cell NECs, 10 large cell NECs, and 11 well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) of the pancreas. Abnormal immunolabeling patterns of p53 and Rb were frequent (p53, 18 of 19, 95%; Rb, 14 of 19, 74%) in both small cell and large cell NECs, whereas Smad4/Dpc4, DAXX, and ATRX labeling was intact in virtually all of these same carcinomas. Abnormal immunolabeling of p53 and Rb proteins correlated with intragenic mutations in the TP53 and RB1 genes. In contrast, DAXX and ATRX labeling was lost in 45% of PanNETs, whereas p53 and Rb immunolabeling was intact in these same cases. Overexpression of Bcl-2 protein was observed in all 9 small cell NECs (100%) and in 5 of 10 (50%) large cell NECs compared with only 2 of 11 (18%) PanNETs. Bcl-2 overexpression was significantly correlated with higher mitotic rate and Ki67 labeling index in neoplasms in which it was present. Small cell NECs are genetically similar to large cell NECs, and these genetic changes are distinct from those reported in PanNETs. The finding of Bcl-2 overexpression in poorly differentiated NECs, particularly small cell NEC, suggests that Bcl-2 antagonists/inhibitors may be a viable treatment option for these patients.

  16. A possible role for the canonical Wnt pathway in endocrine cell development in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Anna Hauntoft; Heller, R. Scott

    2005-01-01

    Wnt signalling is involved in many developmental processes such as proliferation, differentiation, cell fate decisions, and morphogenesis. However, little is known about Wnt signalling during pancreas development. Multiple Wnt ligands and Frizzled receptors are expressed in the embryonic mouse pancreas, the surrounding mesenchyme, and have also been detected in the chicken endoderm during development. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of canonical Wnt signalling on endocrine cell development by use of the in ovo electroporation of the chicken endoderm. Overexpression with a constitutive active form of β-catenin in combination with Ngn3 resulted in reduced numbers of glucagon cells. dnLEF-1 or naked-1 did not alter endocrine cell differentiation when co-expressed with Ngn3, but dnLEF-1 appeared to have some potential for inhibiting delamination of Ngn3 cells. In addition, neuronal β-III-tubulin, which had previously been considered a specific marker for neuronal cells, was observed in the pancreas and was upregulated in the electroporated Ngn3 cells and thus may be a new endocrine marker in the chicken

  17. In vitro reprogramming of rat bmMSCs into pancreatic endocrine-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Tu; Jiang, Fang-Xu; Shi, Ping; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Lin, Xue-Wen; San, Zhong-Yan; Pang, Xi-Ning

    2017-02-01

    Islet transplantation provides curative treatments to patients with type 1 diabetes, but donor shortage restricts the broad use of this therapy. Thus, generation of alternative transplantable cell sources is intensively investigated worldwide. We previously showed that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) can be reprogrammed to pancreatic-like cells through simultaneously forced suppression of Rest/Nrsf (repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor/neuronal restrictive silencing factor) and Shh (sonic hedgehog) and activation of Pdx1 (pancreas and duodenal transcription factor 1). We here aimed to reprogram bmMSCs further along the developmental pathway towards the islet lineages by improving our previous strategy and by overexpression of Ngn3 (neurogenin 3) and NeuroD1 (neurogenic differentiation 1), critical regulators of the development of endocrine pancreas. We showed that compared to the previous protocol, the overexpression of only Pdx1 and Ngn3 reprogrammed bmMSCs into cells with more characteristics of islet endocrine lineages verified with bioinformatic analyses of our RNA-Seq datasets. These analyses indicated 2325 differentially expressed genes including those involved in the pancreas and islet development. We validated with qRT-PCR analysis selective genes identified from the RNA-Seq datasets. Thus, we reprogrammed bmMSCs into islet endocrine-like cells and advanced the endeavor to generate surrogate functional insulin-secreting cells.

  18. Radiotherapy for unresectable endocrine pancreatic carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennvall, J.; Ljungberg, O.; Ahren, B.; Gustavsson, A.; Nillson, L.O.

    1992-01-01

    Surgery, when possible, is the treatment of choice for the uncommon endocrine tumours of pancreas. Unresectable cases are usually treated with cytostatic drugs or α-interferon. We describe a patient with unresectable, locally advanced endocrine pancreatic carcinoma (measuring 5 x 5 x 6 cm) that was totally cured by external radiation therapy only (40 Gy). This case together with four cases in the literature indicate that external radiation therapy should be considered in locally unresectable endocrine pancreatic carcinomas. (author)

  19. Endocrine disorders in mitochondrial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Andrew M; Walker, Mark; Turnbull, Douglass M; Taylor, Robert W

    2013-10-15

    Endocrine dysfunction in mitochondrial disease is commonplace, but predominantly restricted to disease of the endocrine pancreas resulting in diabetes mellitus. Other endocrine manifestations occur, but are relatively rare by comparison. In mitochondrial disease, neuromuscular symptoms often dominate the clinical phenotype, but it is of paramount importance to appreciate the multi-system nature of the disease, of which endocrine dysfunction may be a part. The numerous phenotypes attributable to pathogenic mutations in both the mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA creates a complex and heterogeneous catalogue of disease which can be difficult to navigate for novices and experts alike. In this article we provide an overview of the endocrine disorders associated with mitochondrial disease, the way in which the underlying mitochondrial disorder influences the clinical presentation, and how these factors influence subsequent management. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... 1586x1534 View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows ...

  1. The molecular and morphogenetic basis of pancreas organogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Hjalte List; Grapin-Botton, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The pancreas is an essential endoderm-derived organ that ensures nutrient metabolism via its endocrine and exocrine functions. Here we review the essential processes governing the embryonic and early postnatal development of the pancreas discussing both the mechanisms and molecules controlling...... review of human pancreas development (Jennings et al., 2015) [1]. The understanding of pancreas development in model organisms provides a framework to interpret how human mutations lead to neonatal diabetes and may contribute to other forms of diabetes and to guide the production of desired pancreatic...

  2. Metabolic regulation of cellular plasticity in the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninov, Nikolay; Hesselson, Daniel; Gut, Philipp; Zhou, Amy; Fidelin, Kevin; Stainier, Didier Y R

    2013-07-08

    Obese individuals exhibit an increase in pancreatic β cell mass; conversely, scarce nutrition during pregnancy has been linked to β cell insufficiency in the offspring [reviewed in 1, 2]. These phenomena are thought to be mediated mainly through effects on β cell proliferation, given that a nutrient-sensitive β cell progenitor population in the pancreas has not been identified. Here, we employed the fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell-cycle indicator system to investigate β cell replication in real time and found that high nutrient concentrations induce rapid β cell proliferation. Importantly, we found that high nutrient concentrations also stimulate β cell differentiation from progenitors in the intrapancreatic duct (IPD). Furthermore, using a new zebrafish line where β cells are constitutively ablated, we show that β cell loss and high nutrient intake synergistically activate these progenitors. At the cellular level, this activation process causes ductal cell reorganization as it stimulates their proliferation and differentiation. Notably, we link the nutrient-dependent activation of these progenitors to a downregulation of Notch signaling specifically within the IPD. Furthermore, we show that the nutrient sensor mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is required for endocrine differentiation from the IPD under physiological conditions as well as in the diabetic state. Thus, this study reveals critical insights into how cells modulate their plasticity in response to metabolic cues and identifies nutrient-sensitive progenitors in the mature pancreas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pancreas transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, J.; Phillips, R.R.; Boardman, P.; Gleeson, F.V.; Anderson, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Cadaveric, whole pancreas transplantation has proved an effective therapy in the treatment of long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus and is capable of achieving an insulin-independent eugyclaemic state. As a result, this procedure is being increasingly performed. However, the surgical procedure is complex and unfamiliar to many radiologists. Imaging with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives excellent results and can be used confidently to diagnose vascular, enteric, and immune-mediated complications. We present a review of the normal post-transplantation appearance and the features of early and late complications.

  4. Pancreas transplants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, J.; Phillips, R.R.; Boardman, P.; Gleeson, F.V. [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom); Anderson, E.M. [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ewan.anderson@orh.nhs.uk

    2009-07-15

    Cadaveric, whole pancreas transplantation has proved an effective therapy in the treatment of long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus and is capable of achieving an insulin-independent eugyclaemic state. As a result, this procedure is being increasingly performed. However, the surgical procedure is complex and unfamiliar to many radiologists. Imaging with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives excellent results and can be used confidently to diagnose vascular, enteric, and immune-mediated complications. We present a review of the normal post-transplantation appearance and the features of early and late complications.

  5. Pancreas transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, J.F.; Hunter, D.W.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.; Letourneau, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Pancreas transplantation can be complicated by vascular thrombosis, stenosis, or anastomotic leak, complications that predispose to transplant pancreatectomy. The relative roles of noninvasive radiologic studies in such vascular complications have been correlated with angiographic or pathologic data. The results of 54 scintigraphic studies, 25 CT studies, 16 sonograms, and 23 color Doppler examinations have been correlated with those of 40 angiograms and 28 pathologic studies in a population of 185 recipients. CT (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 75%; accuracy, 92%) and US (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 80%; accuracy, 85%) were most helpful in noninvasive screening for vascular complications, while angiography remains nearly definite in the radiographic diagnosis of these problems

  6. Pancreas lineage allocation and specification are regulated by sphingosine-1-phosphate signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafimidis, Ioannis; Rodriguez-Aznar, Eva; Lesche, Mathias; Yoshioka, Kazuaki; Takuwa, Yoh; Dahl, Andreas; Pan, Duojia; Gavalas, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    During development, progenitor expansion, lineage allocation, and implementation of differentiation programs need to be tightly coordinated so that different cell types are generated in the correct numbers for appropriate tissue size and function. Pancreatic dysfunction results in some of the most debilitating and fatal diseases, including pancreatic cancer and diabetes. Several transcription factors regulating pancreas lineage specification have been identified, and Notch signalling has been implicated in lineage allocation, but it remains unclear how these processes are coordinated. Using a combination of genetic approaches, organotypic cultures of embryonic pancreata, and genomics, we found that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1p), signalling through the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) S1pr2, plays a key role in pancreas development linking lineage allocation and specification. S1pr2 signalling promotes progenitor survival as well as acinar and endocrine specification. S1pr2-mediated stabilisation of the yes-associated protein (YAP) is essential for endocrine specification, thus linking a regulator of progenitor growth with specification. YAP stabilisation and endocrine cell specification rely on Gαi subunits, revealing an unexpected specificity of selected GPCR intracellular signalling components. Finally, we found that S1pr2 signalling posttranscriptionally attenuates Notch signalling levels, thus regulating lineage allocation. Both S1pr2-mediated YAP stabilisation and Notch attenuation are necessary for the specification of the endocrine lineage. These findings identify S1p signalling as a novel key pathway coordinating cell survival, lineage allocation, and specification and linking these processes by regulating YAP levels and Notch signalling. Understanding lineage allocation and specification in the pancreas will shed light in the origins of pancreatic diseases and may suggest novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:28248965

  7. Expanding the indications of pancreas transplantation alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, Arianeb; Golriz, Mohammad; Adili-Aghdam, Fatemeh; Hafezi, Mohammadreza; Ashrafi, Maryam; Morath, Christian; Zeier, Martin; Hackert, Thilo; Schemmer, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Total pancreatectomy (TP) is associated with postoperative endocrine and exocrine insufficiency. Especially, insulin therapy reduces quality of life and may lead to long-term complications. We review the literature with regard to the potential option of pancreas transplantation alone (PTA) after TP in patients with chronic pancreatitis or benign tumors. A MEDLINE search (1958-2013) using the terminologies pancreas transplantation, pancreas transplantation alone, total pancreatectomy, morbidity, mortality, insulin therapy, and quality of life was performed. In addition, the current book and congress publications were reviewed. Total pancreatectomy after benign and borderline tumors as well as chronic pancreatitis is continuously increasing. Despite improvement of exogenous insulin therapy, more than 50% of these patients experience severe glucose control problems, which cause up to 50% long-term mortality. Pancreas transplantation alone can cure both endocrine and exocrine insufficiency and reduce the associated risks. The 3-year graft and patient survival rates after PTA are up to 73% and 100%, respectively. Pancreas transplantation alone after TP in patients with pancreatitis or benign tumors improves the recipient's quality of life and reduces long-term mortality. Considering the amount of available organs and potential candidates, PTA can be a treatment option for patients after TP with chronic pancreatitis or benign tumors.

  8. Purinergic signalling in the pancreas in health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burnstock, G; Novak, I

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cells contain specialised stores for ATP. Purinergic receptors (P2 and P1) and ecto-nucleotidases are expressed in both endocrine and exocrine calls, as well as in stromal cells. The pancreas, especially the endocrine cells, were an early target for the actions of ATP. After the histor......Pancreatic cells contain specialised stores for ATP. Purinergic receptors (P2 and P1) and ecto-nucleotidases are expressed in both endocrine and exocrine calls, as well as in stromal cells. The pancreas, especially the endocrine cells, were an early target for the actions of ATP. After...... the historical perspective of purinergic signalling in the pancreas, the focus of this review will be the physiological functions of purinergic signalling in the regulation of both endocrine and exocrine pancreas. Next, we will consider possible interaction between purinergic signalling and other regulatory...... systems and their relation to nutrient homeostasis and cell survival. The pancreas is an organ exhibiting several serious diseases - cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and diabetes - and some are associated with changes in life-style and are increasing in incidence. There is upcoming...

  9. Single-Cell Gene Expression Analysis of a Human ESC Model of Pancreatic Endocrine Development Reveals Different Paths to β-Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Maja Borup Kjær; Azad, Ajuna; Ingvorsen, Camilla; Hess, Katja; Hansson, Mattias; Grapin-Botton, Anne; Honoré, Christian

    2017-10-10

    The production of insulin-producing β cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in vitro represents a promising strategy for a cell-based therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus. To explore the cellular heterogeneity and temporal progression of endocrine progenitors and their progeny, we performed single-cell qPCR on more than 500 cells across several stages of in vitro differentiation of hESCs and compared them with human islets. We reveal distinct subpopulations along the endocrine differentiation path and an early lineage bifurcation toward either polyhormonal cells or β-like cells. We uncover several similarities and differences with mouse development and reveal that cells can take multiple paths to the same differentiation state, a principle that could be relevant to other systems. Notably, activation of the key β-cell transcription factor NKX6.1 can be initiated before or after endocrine commitment. The single-cell temporal resolution we provide can be used to improve the production of functional β cells. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HUMAN PANCREAS WITH OTHER MAMMALIAN PANCREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Bhuyan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human pancreas is the largest digestive gland in the body. It has both endocrine and exocrine functions. Pancreas secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon. Insulin keeps the body in euglycaemic state as the main function of insulin is metabolism of carbohydrate. Diabetes is a disease of altered carbohydrate metabolism. At present, pancreatic transplantation is the only definitive therapy that can establish a euglycaemic state. AIM AND OBJECTIVE Keeping the importance of pancreatic hormones in human, the present study was carried out where we compared the pancreatic morphology of human with that of pig and goat in terms of length, breadth and weight. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, Assam Medical College, Dibrugarh. A total of 90 specimens were included in the study and these were obtained from human, pig and goat. The human specimen (30 in number were collected from the Forensic Medicine Department of AMCH after fulfilling the official requirements. The specimen of pig and goat (30 each in number were collected from the local slaughter house after obtaining ethical clearance from the concerned authority. In all specimens, the length, breadth and weight was recorded with the help of measuring tape, vernier callipers and electronic weighing machine. INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION CRITERIA Specimen showing signs of putrefaction, any cut or crush injury and congenital anomalies were excluded from the study. RESULT AND OBSERVATIONS In human, the length of the pancreas ranged from 12.11 to 15.09 cm. Maximum breadth of the human pancreas ranged from 4.03 to 5.12 cm and the weight ranged from 79.13 to 102.22 gram. In goat, the length of the pancreas ranged from 12.43 to 13.79 cm, the breadth ranged from 3.03 to 4.93 cm and the weight ranged from 48.43 to 70.03 gram. In pig, the length of the pancreas ranged from 12.46 to 15.87 cm. Maximum breadth of pig pancreas ranged from 3.76 to 4.78 cm and the weight ranged

  11. Planar Cell Polarity Controls Pancreatic Beta Cell Differentiation and Glucose Homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortijo, Cedric; Gouzi, Mathieu; Tissir, Fadel

    2012-01-01

    glucose clearance. Loss of Celsr2 and 3 leads to a reduction of Jun phosphorylation in progenitors, which, in turn, reduces beta cell differentiation from endocrine progenitors. These results highlight the importance of the PCP pathway in cell differentiation in vertebrates. In addition, they reveal.......5 synchronously to apicobasal polarization of pancreas progenitors. Loss of function of the two PCP core components Celsr2 and Celsr3 shows that they control the differentiation of endocrine cells from polarized progenitors, with a prevalent effect on insulin-producing beta cells. This results in a decreased...

  12. Proteins Differentially Expressed in the Pancreas of Hepatic Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Deficient Deer Mice Fed Ethanol For 3 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopale, Kamlesh K; Amer, Samir M; Kaphalia, Lata; Soman, Kizhake V; Wiktorowicz, John E; Shakeel Ansari, Ghulam A; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed proteins in the pancreatic tissue of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient deer mice fed ethanol to understand metabolic basis and mechanism of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Mice were fed liquid diet containing 3.5 g% ethanol daily for 3 months, and differentially expressed pancreatic proteins were identified by protein separation using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identification by mass spectrometry. Nineteen differentially expressed proteins were identified by applying criteria established for protein identification in proteomics. An increased abundance was found for ribosome-binding protein 1, 60S ribosomal protein L31-like isoform 1, histone 4, calcium, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding proteins and the proteins involved in antiapoptotic processes and endoplasmic reticulum function, stress, and/or homeostasis. Low abundance was found for endoA cytokeratin, 40S ribosomal protein SA, amylase 2b isoform precursor, serum albumin, and ATP synthase subunit β and the proteins involved in cell motility, structure, and conformation. Chronic ethanol feeding in alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient deer mice differentially expresses pancreatic functional and structural proteins, which can be used to develop biomarker(s) of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, particularly amylase 2b precursor, and 60 kDa heat shock protein and those involved in ATP synthesis and blood osmotic pressure.

  13. Pediatric endocrine surgery development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan I. Dedov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Department of pediatric surgery at the Endocrinology Research Centre has been around for nearly two years. During operation, surgical treatment has received more than 500 patients with various endocrine disorders. The article discusses modern diagnostic approaches and surgical options for diseases included in the new direction of pediatric surgery – endocrine surgery in children. There are discussions about options for radical treatment of Graves disease in children, positive and negative aspects of surgical and radioactive iodine treatment. Is own stats of postoperative hyperparathyroidism. Is proposed to optimize the algorithm of actions in identifying thyroid nodules in children. In primary hyperparathyroidism, the emphasis is on the complexity of the postoperative management of patients related to the feature of children’s age in determining the severity of the reactions on the water-electrolyte disorders. Separately reviewed the literature of the adrenal glands diseases in children, demonstrating their own clinical cases which required surgical intervention. The authors describe the possibilities of modern neurosurgical equipment in the Endocrinology Research Centre in operations on the pituitary gland in children. Patients of different age groups performed transnasal transsphenoidal removal of tumors of the chiasm-sellar region using endoscopic assistance. The article also cited research data of pancreas diseases and their surgical treatment. Much attention is paid to the gender section of endocrine surgery in children. Discusses the tactics in disorders of sex development, gonadal tumors in children, diseases of the breast. In conclusion outlines the prospects for the development of endocrine surgery in children.

  14. Getting a New Pancreas: Facts about Pancreas Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2003 December 2006 March 2012 Getting A New Pancreas Facts About Pancreas Transplants American Society of Transplantation 1120 Route 73, ... the views of the Society. _________________________________________________________________ Getting a New Pancreas Facts About Pancreas Transplants When you get a ...

  15. The Increasing Prevalence in Intersex Variation from Toxicological Dysregulation in Fetal Reproductive Tissue Differentiation and Development by Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa L. Rich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of children are born with intersex variation (IV; ambiguous genitalia/hermaphrodite, pseudohermaphroditism, etc.. Evidence shows that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs in the environment can cause reproductive variation through dysregulation of normal reproductive tissue differentiation, growth, and maturation if the fetus is exposed to EDCs during critical developmental times in utero. Animal studies support fish and reptile embryos exhibited IV and sex reversal when exposed to EDCs. Occupational studies verified higher prevalence of offspring with IV in chemically exposed workers (male and female. Chemicals associated with endocrine-disrupting ability in humans include organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, bisphenol A, phthalates, dioxins, and furans. Intersex individuals may have concurrent physical disorders requiring lifelong medical intervention and experience gender dysphoria. An urgent need exists to determine which chemicals possess the greatest risk for IV and the mechanisms by which these chemicals are capable of interfering with normal physiological development in children.

  16. National Pancreas Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stay Informed - Join The Fight Animated Pancreas Patient Animations, Expert and Patient interviews on Pancreas Diseases State ... pancreatic experts at the American Pancreatic Association … Continue Reading More NPF News Social Media Post Read More ...

  17. Pancreas transplant - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100129.htm Pancreas transplant - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 6 out of 6 Overview The pancreas resides in the back of the abdomen. It ...

  18. Annular pancreas (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annular pancreas is an abnormal ring or collar of pancreatic tissue that encircles the duodenum (the part of the ... intestine that connects to stomach). This portion of pancreas can constrict the duodenum and block or impair ...

  19. Morphological analysis and differentiation of benign cystic neoplasms of the pancreas using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieser, Christian; Heine, G.; Stelter, L.; Steffen, I.G.; Rothe, J.H.; Walter, T.C.; Denecke, T. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie; Fischer, C. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum (Germany). Medizinische Klinik m. S. Hepatologie und Gastroenterologie; Bahra, M. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum (Germany). Klinik fuer Allgemein, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate morphologic characteristics and establish a standardized diagnostic algorithm to differentiate benign cystic pancreatic tumors (CPTs) in non-pancreatitis patients using multidetector computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods: Patients with histopathologically proven CPTs who had undergone MRI and/or CT and subsequent tumor resection in our institution were retrospectively identified. Images were analyzed for morphology and enhancement patterns by three independent blinded observers. Preoperative image findings were correlated with histopathological results. Based on the evaluated morphologic parameters, a standardized diagnostic algorithm was designed to help characterize the lesions. Results: A total of 62 consecutive patients with 64 CPTs were identified from the surgical database (21 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms; 10 mucinous cystic neoplasms; 12 serous microcystic adenomas; 3 serous oligocystic adenomas; 6 solid pseudopapillary tumors; 12 neuroendocrine neoplasms). The overall averaged accuracy for the 3 observers was 89.9 % for CT and 93.1 % for MRI with increasing overall accuracy in relation to the experience of the observer (88.2 %, 91.5 %, and 93.8 %, respectively). Overall, the generalized kappa value was 0.69 (CT, 0.64; MRI, 0.76); p < 0.001. The accuracy of the standardized diagnostic algorithm was 91.1 %. Conclusion: It is possible to characterize benign CPTs with MRI and CT, while MRI appears to be superior to CT. Diagnostic accuracy depends on the observer's experience. The standardized algorithm can aid in the differential diagnosis but still needs to be tested in other patient populations. (orig.)

  20. Diagnostic Dilemma in a Patient with Jaundice: How to Differentiate between Autoimmune Pancreatitis, Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and Pancreas Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Buechter

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A 68-year-old male patient was referred to our institution in May 2011 for a suspected tumor in the pancreatic head with consecutive jaundice. Using magnetic resonance imaging, further differentiation between chronic inflammation and a malignant process was not possible with certainty. Apart from cholestasis, laboratory studies showed increased values for CA 19-9 to 532 U/ml (normal <37 U/ml and hypergammaglobulinemia (immunoglobulin G, IgG of 19.3% (normal 8.0–15.8% with an elevation of the IgG4 subtype to 2,350 mg/l (normal 52–1,250 mg/l. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed a prominent stenosis of the distal ductus hepaticus communis caused by pancreatic head swelling and also a bihilar stenosis of the main hepatic bile ducts. Cytology demonstrated inflammatory cells without evidence of malignancy. Under suspicion of autoimmune pancreatitis with IgG4-associated cholangitis, immunosuppressive therapy with steroids and azathioprine was started. Follow-up endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography after 3 months displayed regressive development of the diverse stenoses. Jaundice had disappeared and blood values had returned to normal ranges. Moreover, no tumor of the pancreatic head was present in the magnetic resonance control images. Due to clinical and radiological similarities but a consecutive completely different prognosis and therapy, it is of fundamental importance to differentiate between pancreatic cancer and autoimmune pancreatitis. Especially, determination of serum IgG4 levels and associated bile duct lesions induced by inflammation should clarify the diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis and legitimate immunosuppressive therapy.

  1. OVO homologue-like 1 (Ovol1) transcription factor: a novel target of neurogenin-3 in rodent pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetere, A; Li, W-C; Paroni, F; Juhl, K; Guo, L; Nishimura, W; Dai, X; Bonner-Weir, S; Sharma, A

    2010-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor neurogenin-3 (NGN3) commits the fates of pancreatic progenitors to endocrine cell types, but knowledge of the mechanisms regulating the choice between proliferation and differentiation of these progenitors is limited. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation cloning approach, we searched for direct targets of NGN3 and identified a zinc-finger transcription factor, OVO homologue-like 1 (OVOL1). Transactivation experiments were carried out to elucidate the functional role of NGN3 in Ovol1 gene expression. Embryonic and adult rodents pancreases were immunostained for OVOL1, Ki67 and NGN3. We showed that NGN3 negatively regulates transcription of Ovol1 in an E-box-dependent fashion. The presence of either NGN3 or NEUROD1, but not MYOD, reduced endogenous Ovol1 mRNA. OVOL1 was detected in pancreatic tissue around embryonic day 15.5, after which OVOL1 levels dramatically increased. In embryonic pancreas, OVOL1 protein levels were low in NGN3(+) or Ki67(+) cells, but high in quiescent differentiated cells. OVOL1 presence was maintained in adult pancreas, where it was detected in islets, pancreatic ducts and some acinar cells. Additionally OVOL1 presence was lacking in proliferating ductules in regenerating pancreas and induced in cells as they began to acquire their differentiated phenotype. The timing of OVOL1 appearance in pancreas and its increased levels in differentiated cells suggest that OVOL1 promotes the transition of cells from a proliferating, less-differentiated state to a quiescent more-differentiated state. We conclude that OVOL1, a downstream target of NGN3, may play an important role in regulating the balance between proliferation and differentiation of pancreatic cells.

  2. Hippo Signaling Regulates Pancreas Development through Inactivation of Yap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Caroline E.; Boerner, Brian P.; Johnson, Randy L.; Sarvetnick, Nora E.

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian pancreas is required for normal metabolism, with defects in this vital organ commonly observed in cancer and diabetes. Development must therefore be tightly controlled in order to produce a pancreas of correct size, cell type composition, and physiologic function. Through negative regulation of Yap-dependent proliferation, the Hippo kinase cascade is a critical regulator of organ growth. To investigate the role of Hippo signaling in pancreas biology, we deleted Hippo pathway components in the developing mouse pancreas. Unexpectedly, the pancreas from Hippo-deficient offspring was reduced in size, with defects evident throughout the organ. Increases in the dephosphorylated nuclear form of Yap are apparent throughout the exocrine compartment and correlate with increases in levels of cell proliferation. However, the mutant exocrine tissue displays extensive disorganization leading to pancreatitis-like autodigestion. Interestingly, our results suggest that Hippo signaling does not directly regulate the pancreas endocrine compartment as Yap expression is lost following endocrine specification through a Hippo-independent mechanism. Altogether, our results demonstrate that Hippo signaling plays a crucial role in pancreas development and provide novel routes to a better understanding of pathological conditions that affect this organ. PMID:23071096

  3. Pancreas preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Yasuhiro; Sutherland, David E.R.; Harmon, James V.; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize advances and limitations in pancreas procurement and preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation, and review advances in islet protection and preservation. Recent findings Pancreases procured after cardiac death, with in-situ regional organ cooling, have been successfully used for islet transplantation. Colloid-free Celsior and histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate preservation solutions are comparable to University of Wisconsin solution when used for cold storage before pancreas transplantation. Colloid-free preservation solutions are inferior to University of Wisconsin solution for pancreas preservation prior to islet isolation and transplantation. Clinical reports on pancreas and islet transplants suggest that the two-layer method may not offer significant benefits over cold storage with the University of Wisconsin solution: improved oxygenation may depend on the graft size; benefits in experimental models may not translate to human organs. Improvements in islet yield and quality occurred from pancreases treated with inhibitors of stress-induced apoptosis during procurement, storage, isolation or culture. Pancreas perfusion may be desirable before islet isolation and transplantation and may improve islet yields and quality. Methods for real-time, noninvasive assessment of pancreas quality during preservation have been implemented and objective islet potency assays have been developed and validated. These innovations should contribute to objective evaluation and establishment of improved pancreas preservation and islet isolation strategies. Summary Cold storage may be adequate for preservation before pancreas transplants, but insufficient when pancreases are processed for islets or when expanded donors are used. Supplementation of cold storage solutions with cytoprotective agents and perfusion may improve pancreas and islet transplant outcomes. PMID:18685343

  4. Pancreas developing markers expressed on human mononucleated umbilical cord blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessina, A.; Eletti, B.; Croera, C.; Savalli, N.; Diodovich, C.; Gribaldo, L.

    2004-01-01

    Haematopoietic system represents the main source of haematopoietic stem cells and probably of multipotential adult progenitor cells and mesenchimal stem cells at first described as colony forming unit-fibroblast. Whereas there are many studies on the gene expression profile of the different precursors along their haematopoietic differentiation, few data (sometimes conflicting) have been reported about the phenotype of the cells (present in bone marrow and possibly in cord blood) able to differentiate into non-haematopoietic cells. As both postnatal bone marrow and umbilical cord blood contain nestin positive cells able to proliferate and differentiate into the main neural phenotype (neuron, astroglia and oligodendroglia) many authors considered nestin a neuroepithelial precursor marker that seems to be essential also in multipotential progenitor cells of pancreas present both in rat and in human pancreatic islets (called nestin positive islet derived progenitors). Although the importance of nestin in these cells appears to be evident, it remains yet to clarify the number and the sequential expression of the genes coding all the transcription factors essential for beta cells differentiation and therefore the conditions able to induce the expression of many important transcription factors genes such as isl-1, pax-4, pdx-1 and ngn-3. Among them pdx-1 is a gene essential for pancreas development which is able to control ngn-3 in activating the expression of other differentiation factors for endocrine cells. Here, we describe for the first time in human umbilical cord blood cells (UCB) the pattern of expression of a panel of markers (nestin, CK-8, CK-18) and transcription factors (Isl-1, Pdx-1, Pax-4, Ngn-3) considered important for beta cells differentiation. Our data demonstrate that UCB contains a cell population having a phenotype very similar to endocrine cell precursors in transition to beta cells

  5. ENDOCRINE PANCREATIC FUNCTION IN ACUTE PANCREATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Novokhatny

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Among the organs of internal secretion pancreas has a special place thanks to active exocrine function and a wide range of physiological actions of produced hormones. Violations of endocrine pancreas arises in 6.5-38 % of patients with acute pancreatitis. However, there is still no clear understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of hormonal dysfunction of the pancreas in acute pancreatitis, there is no uniform algorithms for its correction. Aim of the research was to study the endocrine function of pancreas in acute pancreatitis. To define the role of endocrine pancreatic function in the etiology and pathogenesis of the acute pancreatitis. To assess the prospects of the use of pancreatic hormones in the treatment and predicting the outcomes of acute pancreatitis. Materials and methods of the research Survey of publications in specialized periodical medical journals, PubMed sources developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Search in PubMed was carried out in the following databases: MEDLINE, Pre MEDLINE. Results of the research. In a significant proportion of patients who recovered from acute pancreatitis, exocrine and endocrine functional impairments were found. This finding was not detected only in patients after severe acute pancreatitis. Routine evaluation of pancreatic function after acute pancreatitis should be considered. The comparative analysis of the synthetic analogues (somatostatin, calcitonin, leu-enkefalin-dalargin influence on the glucose metabolism of rats in acute pancreatitis of was made. Physiological reaction of beta-cells is preserved in infusion of somatostatin. However, infusion of calcitonin results in the distortion of counterregulatory action of insulin and glucagon. It was detected that pancreatic renin-angiotensin system is markedly activated in the experimental rat models of chronic hypoxia and acute pancreatitis. The activation of the pancreatic renin-angiotensin system by

  6. Ultraviolet filters differentially impact the expression of key endocrine and stress genes in embryos and larvae of Chironomus riparius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozáez, Irene; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2016-07-01

    Several organic UV filters have hormonal activity in vertebrates, as demonstrated in fishes, rodents and human cells. Despite the accumulation of filter contaminants in aquatic systems, research on their effects on the endocrine systems of freshwaters invertebrates is scarce. In this work, the effects of five frequently used UV filters were investigated in embryos and larvae of Chironomus riparius, which is a reference organism in ecotoxicology. LC50 values for larvae as well as the percentage of eclosion of eggs were determined following exposures to: octyl-p-methoxycinnamate (OMC) also known as 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC); 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC); 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4HB); octocrylene (OC); and octyldimethyl-p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA). To assess sublethal effects, expression levels of the genes coding for the ecdysone receptor (EcR) and heat shock protein HSP70 were investigated as biomarkers for endocrine and stress effects at the cellular level. Life-stage-dependent sensitivity was found. In embryos, all of the UV filters provoked a significant overexpression of EcR at 24h after exposure. OC, 4MBC and OD-PABA also triggered transcriptional activation of the hsp70 stress gene in embryos. In contrast, in larvae, only 4MBC and OMC/EHMC increased EcR and hsp70 mRNA levels and OD-PABA upregulated only the EcR gene. These results revealed that embryos are particularly sensitive to UV filters, which affect endocrine regulation during development. Most UV filters also triggered the cellular stress response, and thus exhibit proteotoxic effects. The differences observed between embryos and larvae and the higher sensitivity of embryos highlight the importance of considering different life stages when evaluating the environmental risks of pollutants, particularly when analyzing endocrine effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Requirement for Pdx1 in specification of latent endocrine progenitors in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellertsdottir Elin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin-producing beta cells emerge during pancreas development in two sequential waves. Recently described later-forming beta cells in zebrafish show high similarity to second wave mammalian beta cells in developmental capacity. Loss-of-function studies in mouse and zebrafish demonstrated that the homeobox transcription factors Pdx1 and Hb9 are both critical for pancreas and beta cell development and discrete stage-specific requirements for these genes have been uncovered. Previously, exocrine and endocrine cell recovery was shown to follow loss of pdx1 in zebrafish, but the progenitor cells and molecular mechanisms responsible have not been clearly defined. In addition, interactions of pdx1 and hb9 in beta cell formation have not been addressed. Results To learn more about endocrine progenitor specification, we examined beta cell formation following morpholino-mediated depletion of pdx1 and hb9. We find that after early beta cell reduction, recovery occurs following loss of either pdx1 or hb9 function. Unexpectedly, simultaneous knockdown of both hb9 and pdx1 leads to virtually complete and persistent beta cell deficiency. We used a NeuroD:EGFP transgenic line to examine endocrine cell behavior in vivo and developed a novel live-imaging technique to document emergence and migration of late-forming endocrine precursors in real time. Our data show that Notch-responsive progenitors for late-arising endocrine cells are predominantly post mitotic and depend on pdx1. By contrast, early-arising endocrine cells are specified and differentiate independent of pdx1. Conclusions The nearly complete beta cell deficiency after combined loss of hb9 and pdx1 suggests functional cooperation, which we clarify as distinct roles in early and late endocrine cell formation. A novel imaging approach permitted visualization of the emergence of late endocrine cells within developing embryos for the first time. We demonstrate a pdx1-dependent

  8. Roentgenodiagnosis of endocrinic osteopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spuzyak, M.I.

    1988-01-01

    Roentgenological symptoms of skeleton and bone joints pathological changes in diseases of pituitary gland, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, genitals and adrenal glands are described. Modern data on hormone effect on growth, development and differentiation of bone tissue of various age periods are given. Information on anatomy, physiology and age-dependent roentgenoanatomy of locomotor system is presented. The book is of interest to endocrinologists, pediatrists, orthopedists

  9. Atypical E2f functions are critical for pancreas polyploidization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matondo, Ramadhan B; Moreno, Eva; Toussaint, Mathilda J M; Tooten, Peter C J; van Essen, Saskia C; van Liere, Elsbeth A; Youssef, Sameh A; Bongiovanni, Laura; de Bruin, Alain

    2018-01-01

    The presence of polyploid cells in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas has been reported for four decades. In rodents, pancreatic polyploidization is initiated after weaning and the number of polyploid cells increases with age. Surprisingly the molecular regulators and biological functions of

  10. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ... Hormones and Health › Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) EDCs Myth vs. ...

  11. Endocrine Therapy of Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Cells: Early Differential Effects on Stem Cell Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euphemia Y. Leung

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionEndocrine therapy of breast cancer, which either deprives cancer tissue of estrogen or prevents estrogen pathway signaling, is the most common treatment after surgery and radiotherapy. We have previously shown for the estrogen-responsive MCF-7 cell line that exposure to tamoxifen, or deprivation of estrogen, leads initially to inhibition of cell proliferation, followed after several months by the emergence of resistant sub-lines that are phenotypically different from the parental line. We examined the early responses of MCF-7 cells following either exposure to 4-hydroxytamoxifen or deprivation of estrogen for periods of 2 days–4 weeks.MethodsEndocrine-sensitive or -resistant breast cancer cell lines were used to examine the expression of the stem cell gene SOX2, and the Wnt effector genes AXIN2 and DKK1 using quantitative PCR analysis. Breast cancer cell lines were used to assess the anti-proliferative effects (as determined by IC50 values of Wnt pathway inhibitors LGK974 and IWP-2.ResultsHormone therapy led to time-dependent increases of up to 10-fold in SOX2 expression, up to threefold in expression of the Wnt target genes AXIN2 and DKK1, and variable changes in NANOG and OCT4 expression. The cells also showed increased mammosphere formation and increased CD24 surface protein expression. Some but not all hormone-resistant MCF-7 sub-lines, emerging after long-term hormonal stress, showed up to 50-fold increases in SOX2 expression and smaller increases in AXIN2 and DKK1 expression. However, the increase in Wnt target gene expression was not accompanied by an increase in sensitivity to Wnt pathway inhibitors LGK974 and IWP-2. A general trend of lower IC50 values was observed in 3-dimensional spheroid culture conditions (which allowed enrichment of cells with cancer stem cell phenotype relative to monolayer cultures. The endocrine-resistant cell lines showed no significant increase in sensitivity to Wnt inhibitors

  12. Pancreas Center Data Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Composite Allograft Organ Transport Living Donation Informing Patients Ethics Guidance Calendar of Events Glossary Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network Pancreas Home Data Organ Datasource ...

  13. Computed tomography in pancreas cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Nobuyuki; Matsuoka, Yoshisuke; Choji, Kiyoshi; Mizuo, Hideyo; Shinohara, Masahiro; Morita, Yutaka; Irie, Goro

    1985-01-01

    We reviewed CT pictures of 31 cases of pancreas cancer to examine detectability of vascular involvement. To demonstrate vascular abnormalities distinctly, we performed bolus injection of contrast medium, followed by drip infusion. The vessels included in this study were portal vein, superior mesenteric vein, and splenic vein. We concluded as below, 1) CT is valuable tool for detection of the vascular abnormality, and can demonstrate vascular involvement distinctly in a case of pancreas cancer. 2) The detectability of the vascular abnormality was correlated well with the result of angiography. 3) The differentiation between stenosis and obstruction was thought to be impossible only with the local vascular changes. But with an information of the collateral pathway, the diagnosis of obstruction was possible. CT can demonstrate these collaterals in 7 of 8 cases. (author)

  14. Ultrasonography of the canine pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Avante

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the ultrasonographic techniques currently used in the evaluation of the canine pancreas. Ultrasonography was the first method to enable direct visualization of the pancreas in humans and it has been subsequently applied to animals. Currently, it is the method of choice for pancreatic evaluation and is essential as a diagnostic tool in the detection of abnormalities, especially tumors. Innovative equipment technology has led to the emergence of techniques complementary to B-mode ultrasound; such as Doppler, elastography, and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, which have enabled more accurate diagnosis. Doppler provides information on vascular architecture and the hemodynamic aspect of blood vessels in multiple organs. ARFI elastography provides detailed images of the alterations detected by conventional examination (qualitative method and assists in differentiating between benign and malignant processes (quantitative method. Microbubble contrast agents determine parameters related to homogeneous and heterogeneous filling of organs with microbubbles, mainly nodular areas, thus defining high and low intensity patterns.

  15. PET and endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigo, P.; Belhocine, T.; Hustinx, R.; Foidart-Willems, J.

    2000-01-01

    The authors review the main indications of PET examination, and specifically of 18 FDG, in the assessment of endocrine tumors: of the thyroid, of the parathyroid, of the adrenal and of the pituitary glands. Neuroendocrine tumors, gastro-entero-pancreatic or carcinoid tumors are also under the scope. Usually, the most differentiated tumors show only poor uptake of the FDG as they have a weak metabolic and proliferative activity. In the assessment of endocrine tumors, FDG-PET should be used only after most specific nuclear examinations been performed. (author)

  16. Endocrine Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Syndrome (PCOS) Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease Primary Hyperparathyroidism Prolactinoma Thyroid Tests Turner Syndrome Contact Us The National ... Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información de la ...

  17. Radiology of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baert, A.L.; Delorme, G.

    1994-01-01

    This book, written by internationally recognized experts, fully illustrates the diagnosis of both common and rarer diseases of the pancreas, the latest technical developments in relevant imaging modalities are thoroughly discussed and appraised with respect to the pancreas. The book will appeal to both clinicians and researchers in radiology and oncology. (orig.)

  18. Combined exposure to endocrine disrupting pesticides impairs parturition, causes pup mortality and affects sexual differentiation in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Risk assessment is currently based on the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for single compounds. Humans are exposed to a mixture of chemicals and recent studies in our laboratory have shown that combined exposure to endocrine disrupters can cause adverse effects on male sexual development...... were gavaged during gestation and lactation with five doses of a mixture of the fungicides procymidone, mancozeb, epoxyconazole, tebuconazole and prochloraz. The mixture ratio was chosen according to the doses of each individual pesticide that produced no observable effects on pregnancy length and pup...... survival in our laboratory and the dose levels used ranged from 25 to 100% of this mixture. All dose levels caused increased gestation length and dose levels above 25% caused impaired parturition leading to markedly decreased number of live born offspring and high pup perinatal mortality. The sexual...

  19. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Pancreas: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shaun Kian Hong; Chuah, Khoon Leong

    2016-06-01

    The pancreas is an unusual site for tumor metastasis, accounting for only 2% to 5% of all malignancies affecting the pancreas. The more common metastases affecting the pancreas include renal cell carcinomas, melanomas, colorectal carcinomas, breast carcinomas, and sarcomas. Although pancreatic involvement by nonrenal malignancies indicates widespread systemic disease, metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the pancreas often represents an isolated event and is thus amenable to surgical resection, which is associated with long-term survival. As such, it is important to accurately diagnose pancreatic involvement by metastatic renal cell carcinoma on histology, especially given that renal cell carcinoma metastasis may manifest more than a decade after its initial presentation and diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the clinicopathologic findings of isolated renal cell carcinoma metastases of the pancreas, with special emphasis on separating metastatic renal cell carcinoma and its various differential diagnoses in the pancreas.

  20. Cystic tumors of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambs, H.J.; Juchems, M.

    2008-01-01

    Cystic lesions of the pancreas encompass a broad spectrum of benign, premalignant, and malignant tumors which are primarily cystic or result from cystic necroses of solid neoplasms. Because of the wide use of cross-sectional imaging techniques they are increasingly being identified in asymptomatic patients as well as in patients presenting with abdominal pain, jaundice or pancreatitis. Among these lesions, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, serous cystic neoplasms and mucinous cystic neoplasms represent the majority of cases. With increasing experience with these tumors, a refinement of our understanding of their morphology and of their natural course has emerged. It is important to be familiar with the CT and MR imaging features of these lesions to differentiate these tumors and to orient the diagnosis towards benign or malignant forms. Because characterization of cystic tumors of the pancreas can sometimes be difficult due to overlapping imaging features, additional criteria such as clinical symptoms, localization, age and gender have to be taken into account. If appropriately treated, these tumors can usually be cured by resection and the decreasing risk of pancreatic surgery has led to an increasing number of resections of pancreatic tumors. The management of cystic tumors of the pancreas has not yet been standardized and the correct evaluation and subsequent management of the disease in asymptomatic patients have not been fully defined. (orig.) [de

  1. The Human Pancreas Proteome Defined by Transcriptomics and Antibody-Based Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M.; Schwenk, Jochen M.; Uhlén, Mathias; Korsgren, Olle; Lindskog, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    The pancreas is composed of both exocrine glands and intermingled endocrine cells to execute its diverse functions, including enzyme production for digestion of nutrients and hormone secretion for regulation of blood glucose levels. To define the molecular constituents with elevated expression in the human pancreas, we employed a genome-wide RNA sequencing analysis of the human transcriptome to identify genes with elevated expression in the human pancreas. This quantitative transcriptomics data was combined with immunohistochemistry-based protein profiling to allow mapping of the corresponding proteins to different compartments and specific cell types within the pancreas down to the single cell level. Analysis of whole pancreas identified 146 genes with elevated expression levels, of which 47 revealed a particular higher expression as compared to the other analyzed tissue types, thus termed pancreas enriched. Extended analysis of in vitro isolated endocrine islets identified an additional set of 42 genes with elevated expression in these specialized cells. Although only 0.7% of all genes showed an elevated expression level in the pancreas, this fraction of transcripts, in most cases encoding secreted proteins, constituted 68% of the total mRNA in pancreas. This demonstrates the extreme specialization of the pancreas for production of secreted proteins. Among the elevated expression profiles, several previously not described proteins were identified, both in endocrine cells (CFC1, FAM159B, RBPJL and RGS9) and exocrine glandular cells (AQP12A, DPEP1, GATM and ERP27). In summary, we provide a global analysis of the pancreas transcriptome and proteome with a comprehensive list of genes and proteins with elevated expression in pancreas. This list represents an important starting point for further studies of the molecular repertoire of pancreatic cells and their relation to disease states or treatment effects. PMID:25546435

  2. Endocrine pathology: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa, Sylvia L; Mete, Ozgur

    2018-01-01

    Endocrine pathology is the subspecialty of diagnostic pathology which deals with the diagnosis and characterisation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the endocrine system. This relatively young subspecialty was initially focused mainly on thyroid and parathyroid pathology, with some participants also involved in studies of the pituitary, the endocrine pancreas, and the adrenal glands. However, the endocrine system involves much more than these traditional endocrine organs and the discipline has grown to encompass lesions of the dispersed neuroendocrine cells, including neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, thymus, breast and prostate, as well as paraganglia throughout the body, not just in the adrenals. Indeed, the production of hormones is the hallmark of the endocrine system, and some aspects of gynecological/testicular, bone and liver pathology also fall into the realm of this specialty. Many of the lesions that are the focus of this discipline are increasing in incidence and their pathology is becoming more complex with increased understanding of molecular pathology and a high incidence of familial disease. The future of endocrine pathology will demand a depth of understanding of structure, function, prognosis and prediction as pathologists play a key role in the multidisciplinary care team of patients with endocrine diseases. It is anticipated that new technologies will allow increased subspecialisation in pathology and growth of this important area of expertise. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pax4 acts as a key player in pancreas development and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Tiziana; Avolio, Fabio; Courtney, Monica; Vieira, Andhira; Druelle, Noémie; Ben-Othman, Nouha; Hadzic, Biljana; Navarro, Sergi; Collombat, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    The embryonic development of the pancreas is orchestrated by a complex and coordinated transcription factor network. Neurogenin3 (Neurog3) initiates the endocrine program by activating the expression of additional transcription factors driving survival, proliferation, maturation and lineage allocation of endocrine precursors. Among the direct targets of Neurog3, Pax4 appears as one of the key regulators of β-cell specification. Indeed, mice lacking Pax4 die a few days postpartum, as they develop severe hyperglycemia due to the absence of mature pancreatic β-cells. Pax4 also directly regulates the expression of Arx, a gene that plays a crucial role in α-cell specification. Comparative analysis of Pax4 and Arx mutants, as well as Arx/Pax4 double mutants, showed that islet subtype destiny is mainly directed by cross-repression of the Pax4 and Arx factors. Importantly, the ectopic expression of Pax4 in α-cells was found sufficient to induce their neogenesis and conversion into β-like cells, not only during development but also in adult rodents. Therefore, differentiated endocrine α-cells can be considered as a putative source for insulin-producing β-like cells. These findings have clearly widened our understanding regarding pancreatic development, but they also open new research avenues in the context of diabetes research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen simulating tumors of the tail of pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Sinha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen, a rare condition may present as pseudocyst of pancreas and other cystic tumors of the pancreas. This case report along with the review of literature attributes some clinical features and investigative pattern to differentiate between epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen and other cystic tumor of pancreas.

  5. Fibromyxoid sarcoma of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fibromyxoid sarcoma is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm, usually appearing in the soft tissue of the extremities, less frequently in the groin, trunk, neck, and upper extremities. Within the abdomen, the tumour is usually localised within the retroperitoneum. Case OutlineWe present a 56-year-old woman in whom, during the routinely performed investigation for atacks of choking with lots of bronchial secretion, and arterial hypertension, an ultrasonographer found a tumour within the head of the pancreas 6×6 cm in diameter. At operation, a dark pink, lobulated soft tumour, surrounded by a tiny capsule, clearly different from the completely normal pancreatic tissue of the posterior side of the head of the pancreas, was easily and ideally excised.The postoperative recovery was stormy. She developed postoperative pancreatitis, temporary biliary and duodenal fistula, which all settled by conservative treatment. The histology of the 80 g weighing tumour showed a circumscribed fibromyxoid sarcoma of low malignancy. Immunohistochemistry showed diffuse vimentin and CD34 strong positivity, as well as focal anti-SMA and anti-EMA immunopositivity. Six months after surgery, she died with signs of cerebrovascular insult, asthmatic status, and recurrent suppurative abdominal fistula, probably related to the previous pancreatitis. Ultrasonography showed a possible liver secondary. The exact cause of death was not confirmed as the autopsy was refused by the family. Conclusion Primary sarcomas of the pancreas are very rare, but should be considered in differential diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no previously described fibromyxoid sarcoma of the pancreas. .

  6. Specifying pancreatic endocrine cell fates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collombat, Patrick; Hecksher-Sørensen, Jacob; Serup, Palle; Mansouri, Ahmed

    2006-07-01

    Cell replacement therapy could represent an attractive alternative to insulin injections for the treatment of diabetes. However, this approach requires a thorough understanding of the molecular switches controlling the specification of the different pancreatic cell-types in vivo. These are derived from an apparently identical pool of cells originating from the early gut endoderm, which are successively specified towards the pancreatic, endocrine, and hormone-expressing cell lineages. Numerous studies have outlined the crucial roles exerted by transcription factors in promoting the cell destiny, defining the cell identity and maintaining a particular cell fate. This review focuses on the mechanisms regulating the morphogenesis of the pancreas with particular emphasis on recent findings concerning the transcription factor hierarchy orchestrating endocrine cell fate allocation.

  7. Knowledge Gaps in Rodent Pancreas Biology: Taking Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells into Our Own Hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Munirah Mohamad; Low, Blaise Su Jun; Pek, Nicole Min Qian; Teo, Adrian Kee Keong

    2015-01-01

    In the field of stem cell biology and diabetes, we and others seek to derive mature and functional human pancreatic β cells for disease modeling and cell replacement therapy. Traditionally, knowledge gathered from rodents is extended to human pancreas developmental biology research involving human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). While much has been learnt from rodent pancreas biology in the early steps toward Pdx1(+) pancreatic progenitors, much less is known about the transition toward Ngn3(+) pancreatic endocrine progenitors. Essentially, the later steps of pancreatic β cell development and maturation remain elusive to date. As a result, the most recent advances in the stem cell and diabetes field have relied upon combinatorial testing of numerous growth factors and chemical compounds in an arbitrary trial-and-error fashion to derive mature and functional human pancreatic β cells from hPSCs. Although this hit-or-miss approach appears to have made some headway in maturing human pancreatic β cells in vitro, its underlying biology is vaguely understood. Therefore, in this mini-review, we discuss some of these late-stage signaling pathways that are involved in human pancreatic β cell differentiation and highlight our current understanding of their relevance in rodent pancreas biology. Our efforts here unravel several novel signaling pathways that can be further studied to shed light on unexplored aspects of rodent pancreas biology. New investigations into these signaling pathways are expected to advance our knowledge in human pancreas developmental biology and to aid in the translation of stem cell biology in the context of diabetes treatments.

  8. The Normal Fetal Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivilevitch, Zvi; Achiron, Reuven; Perlman, Sharon; Gilboa, Yinon

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the sonographic feasibility of measuring the fetal pancreas and its normal development throughout pregnancy. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study between 19 and 36 weeks' gestation. The study included singleton pregnancies with normal pregnancy follow-up. The pancreas circumference was measured. The first 90 cases were tested to assess feasibility. Two hundred ninety-seven fetuses of nondiabetic mothers were recruited during a 3-year period. The overall satisfactory visualization rate was 61.6%. The intraobserver and interobserver variability had high interclass correlation coefficients of of 0.964 and 0.967, respectively. A cubic polynomial regression described best the correlation of pancreas circumference with gestational age (r = 0.744; P pancreas circumference percentiles for each week of gestation were calculated. During the study period, we detected 2 cases with overgrowth syndrome and 1 case with an annular pancreas. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of sonography for measuring the fetal pancreas and established a normal reference range for the fetal pancreas circumference throughout pregnancy. This database can be helpful when investigating fetomaternal disorders that can involve its normal development. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  9. Assessment of pancreas cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanoss, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Pancreatic islets were obtained from guinea pig pancreas by the collagenase method and kept alive in tissue culture prior to further studies. Pancreas cell morphology was studied by standard histochemical techniques using light microscopy. Preparative vertical electrophoresis-levitation of dispersed fetal guinea pig pancreas cells was conducted in phosphate buffer containing a heavy water (D20) gradient which does not cause clumping of cells or alter the osmolarity of the buffers. The faster migrating fractions tended to be enriched in beta-cell content. Alpha and delta cells were found to some degree in most fractions. A histogram showing the cell count distribution is included.

  10. Serous cystadenocarcinoma of pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, M. U.; Arif, A.; Umair, B.

    2013-01-01

    Serous cystic neoplasms of pancreas are relatively rare tumours. Malignancy in these tumours is even more rare which is confirmed by metastasis to other organs or by perineural, vascular or surrounding soft tissue invasion. A 60 years old lady presented with vague upper abdominal pain. Computed tomography scan showed multiloculated cystic mass in the body of pancreas measuring 9 x 6 x 5 cm and not involving spleen. Pancreatectomy specimen showed a multicystic tumour having sponge-like appearance which showed vascular and soft tissue invasion of surrounding stroma on microscopic examination and was diagnosed as serous cystadenocarcinoma of pancreas. (author)

  11. Disorders of the pediatric pancreas: imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijs, Els; Callahan, Michael J.; Taylor, George A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to provide an overview of the normal development of the pancreas as well as pancreatic pathology in children. Diagnostic imaging plays a major role in the evaluation of the pancreas in infants and children. Familiarity with the range of normal appearance and the diseases that commonly affect this gland is important for the accurate and timely diagnosis of pancreatic disorders in the pediatric population. Normal embryology is discussed, as are the most common congenital anomalies that occur as a result of aberrant development during embryology. These include pancreas divisum, annular pancreas, agenesis of the dorsal pancreatic anlagen and ectopic pancreatic tissue. Syndromes that can manifest pancreatic pathology include: Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome, von Hippel-Lindau disease and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Children and adults with cystic fibrosis and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome frequently present with pancreatic insufficiency. Trauma is the most common cause of pancreatitis in children. In younger children, unexplained pancreatic injury must always alert the radiologist to potential child abuse. Pancreatic pseudocysts are a complication of trauma, but can also be seen in the setting of acute or chronic pancreatitis from other causes. Primary pancreatic neoplasms are rare in children and are divided into exocrine tumors such as pancreatoblastoma and adenocarcinoma and into endocrine or islet cell tumors. Islet cell tumors are classified as functioning (insulinoma, gastrinoma, VIPoma and glucagonoma) and nonfunctioning tumors. Solid-cystic papillary tumor is probably the most common pancreatic tumor in Asian children. Although quite rare, secondary tumors of the pancreas can be associated with certain primary malignancies. (orig.)

  12. Disorders of the pediatric pancreas: imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijs, Els [University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Callahan, Michael J.; Taylor, George A. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to provide an overview of the normal development of the pancreas as well as pancreatic pathology in children. Diagnostic imaging plays a major role in the evaluation of the pancreas in infants and children. Familiarity with the range of normal appearance and the diseases that commonly affect this gland is important for the accurate and timely diagnosis of pancreatic disorders in the pediatric population. Normal embryology is discussed, as are the most common congenital anomalies that occur as a result of aberrant development during embryology. These include pancreas divisum, annular pancreas, agenesis of the dorsal pancreatic anlagen and ectopic pancreatic tissue. Syndromes that can manifest pancreatic pathology include: Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome, von Hippel-Lindau disease and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Children and adults with cystic fibrosis and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome frequently present with pancreatic insufficiency. Trauma is the most common cause of pancreatitis in children. In younger children, unexplained pancreatic injury must always alert the radiologist to potential child abuse. Pancreatic pseudocysts are a complication of trauma, but can also be seen in the setting of acute or chronic pancreatitis from other causes. Primary pancreatic neoplasms are rare in children and are divided into exocrine tumors such as pancreatoblastoma and adenocarcinoma and into endocrine or islet cell tumors. Islet cell tumors are classified as functioning (insulinoma, gastrinoma, VIPoma and glucagonoma) and nonfunctioning tumors. Solid-cystic papillary tumor is probably the most common pancreatic tumor in Asian children. Although quite rare, secondary tumors of the pancreas can be associated with certain primary malignancies. (orig.)

  13. Differential gene expression patterns in developing sexually dimorphic rat brain regions exposed to antiandrogenic, estrogenic, or complex endocrine disruptor mixtures: glutamatergic synapses as target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtensteiger, Walter; Bassetti-Gaille, Catherine; Faass, Oliver; Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Christiansen, Sofie; Rehrauer, Hubert; Georgijevic, Jelena Kühn; Hass, Ulla; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Schlumpf, Margret

    2015-04-01

    The study addressed the question whether gene expression patterns induced by different mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) administered in a higher dose range, corresponding to 450×, 200×, and 100× high-end human exposure levels, could be characterized in developing brain with respect to endocrine activity of mixture components, and which developmental processes were preferentially targeted. Three EDC mixtures, A-Mix (anti-androgenic mixture) with 8 antiandrogenic chemicals (di-n-butylphthalate, diethylhexylphthalate, vinclozolin, prochloraz, procymidone, linuron, epoxiconazole, and DDE), E-Mix (estrogenic mixture) with 4 estrogenic chemicals (bisphenol A, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate, and butylparaben), a complex mixture, AEP-Mix, containing the components of A-Mix and E-Mix plus paracetamol, and paracetamol alone, were administered by oral gavage to rat dams from gestation day 7 until weaning. General developmental endpoints were not affected by EDC mixtures or paracetamol. Gene expression was analyzed on postnatal day 6, during sexual brain differentiation, by exon microarray in medial preoptic area in the high-dose group, and by real-time RT-PCR in medial preoptic area and ventromedial hypothalamus in all dose groups. Expression patterns were mixture, sex, and region specific. Effects of the analgesic drug paracetamol, which exhibits antiandrogenic activity in peripheral systems, differed from those of A-Mix. All mixtures had a strong, mixture-specific impact on genes encoding for components of excitatory glutamatergic synapses and genes controlling migration and pathfinding of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, as well as genes linked with increased risk of autism spectrum disorders. Because development of glutamatergic synapses is regulated by sex steroids also in hippocampus, this may represent a general target of ECD mixtures.

  14. Arterioscanning of pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovskij, B.V.; Rabkin, I.Kh.; Matevosov, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated is the state of precapillary and capillary net of pancreas vessels by way of intra-arterial MAA 1 +H3+H1I injection. Posiible variants of pancreas form, shape and position, and the main sources of blood supply are presented. The knowledge of the above factors is necessary to avoid mistakes in the desiphering of arterioscannograms. Techniques for angiography and arterioscanning in cases of pancreas cancer, benign tumours, pancreas cyst and chronic pancreatitis are described. Arterioscanning is shown to be a valuable addition to angiography, which permits to judge on the angiographically invisible part of the organ arteriolocapillary channel, clarifying the nature of the process and damage length. The summary estimate of results of angiographic and arterioscannographic investigations considerably increases the diagnostic effectiveness

  15. Pancreas and cyst segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Konstantin; Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs from medical images is an essential part of surgical planning and computer-aided disease diagnosis. Many existing algorithms are specialized for the segmentation of healthy organs. Cystic pancreas segmentation is especially challenging due to its low contrast boundaries, variability in shape, location and the stage of the pancreatic cancer. We present a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for pancreata with cysts. In contrast to existing automatic segmentation approaches for healthy pancreas segmentation which are amenable to atlas/statistical shape approaches, a pancreas with cysts can have even higher variability with respect to the shape of the pancreas due to the size and shape of the cyst(s). Hence, fine results are better attained with semi-automatic steerable approaches. We use a novel combination of random walker and region growing approaches to delineate the boundaries of the pancreas and cysts with respective best Dice coefficients of 85.1% and 86.7%, and respective best volumetric overlap errors of 26.0% and 23.5%. Results show that the proposed algorithm for pancreas and pancreatic cyst segmentation is accurate and stable.

  16. Unlimited in vitro expansion of adult bi-potent pancreas progenitors through the Lgr5/R-spondin axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huch, Meritxell; Bonfanti, Paola; Boj, Sylvia F; Sato, Toshiro; Loomans, Cindy J M; van de Wetering, Marc; Sojoodi, Mozhdeh; Li, Vivian S W; Schuijers, Jurian; Gracanin, Ana; Ringnalda, Femke; Begthel, Harry; Hamer, Karien; Mulder, Joyce; van Es, Johan H; de Koning, Eelco; Vries, Robert G J; Heimberg, Harry; Clevers, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Lgr5 marks adult stem cells in multiple adult organs and is a receptor for the Wnt-agonistic R-spondins (RSPOs). Intestinal, stomach and liver Lgr5+ stem cells grow in 3D cultures to form ever-expanding organoids, which resemble the tissues of origin. Wnt signalling is inactive and Lgr5 is not expressed under physiological conditions in the adult pancreas. However, we now report that the Wnt pathway is robustly activated upon injury by partial duct ligation (PDL), concomitant with the appearance of Lgr5 expression in regenerating pancreatic ducts. In vitro, duct fragments from mouse pancreas initiate Lgr5 expression in RSPO1-based cultures, and develop into budding cyst-like structures (organoids) that expand five-fold weekly for >40 weeks. Single isolated duct cells can also be cultured into pancreatic organoids, containing Lgr5 stem/progenitor cells that can be clonally expanded. Clonal pancreas organoids can be induced to differentiate into duct as well as endocrine cells upon transplantation, thus proving their bi-potentiality. PMID:24045232

  17. Solid and papillary neoplasm of the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L J; Hansen, A B; Burcharth, F

    1992-01-01

    In two cases of solid and papillary neoplasm of the pancreas (SPN), positive staining for argyrophil granules, chromogranin-A, neuron-specific enolase, chymotrypsin, alpha 1-antitrypsin, vimentin, cytokeratin, and estrogen receptors was present. Ultrastructurally, neurosecretory as well as zymoge......In two cases of solid and papillary neoplasm of the pancreas (SPN), positive staining for argyrophil granules, chromogranin-A, neuron-specific enolase, chymotrypsin, alpha 1-antitrypsin, vimentin, cytokeratin, and estrogen receptors was present. Ultrastructurally, neurosecretory as well...... as zymogenlike granules were demonstrated. Measurements of mean nuclear volume and volume-corrected mitotic index discriminated between SPN and well-differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, with notably lower values being seen in SPN. Silver-stained nucleolar organizer region counts showed wide...

  18. MR imaging of the normal pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hisao; Takahashi, Norio; Uchida, Yoshie; Nakayama, Gen; Bito, Kaoru; Haba, Hirotsugu; Kawamura, Masashi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Hamamoto, Ken.

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate current 1.5-T MR imaging with respiratory ordered phase encoding (ROPE) technique in the identification of pancreatic contour and main pancreatic duct, 100 normal subjects examined with spin echo technique including transaxial scans of T 1 -WI,T 2 -WI, and proton density (PD)-WI were reviewed. The results of MR imaging were then compared with computed tomography (CT). Pancreatic contour was divided into 3 parts; head, body, and tail. T 1 -WI was the best pulse sequence in describing pancreas and the rates of specific identification of head, body, and tail were 69%, 97%, and 92%, respectively. While these rates were 62%, 90%, and 92% with plain CT and 69%, 94%, and 94% with contrast-enhanced CT, respectively. A combination of MR imaging and CT yielded better rates of identification. The main pancreatic duct was visible in 44% as a low intensity line on T 1 -WI and in 16% on plain CT. Dorsal to pancreas, all of the major vessels were seen in every patients. Ventrally, retroperitoneal fat was important, however, it was not a limiting factor. When respiratory compensation using ROPE functioned well, it was possible to differentiate bowel from pancreas in patients with sparse fat because signal intensity of the pancreas tended to be higher than that of gastrointestinal wall and its contents on T 1 -WI. Current MR imaging seemed to be a complementary method with CT in the identification of the pancreas. (author)

  19. Histological features of the pancreas in a patient with congenital hyperinsulinism due to Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lene; Christesen, Henrik Boye Thybo; Brusgaard, Klaus

    throughout the entire pancreas. Genetic testing revealed paternal uniparental disomy of the entire chromosome 11, consistent with BWS, while ABCC8, KCNJ11 and other known CHI genes were normal. The left-sided resection specimen measured 10x20x70 mm. Histologically, confluent small islets...... and trabeculi of endocrine cells with uniform nuclei and sparse cytoplasm were observed throughout the pancreas. Most of the endocrine cells expressed insulin, while cells positive for glucagon and somatostatin were observed at the periphery of the confluent trabeculi and islets. The endocrine cells occupied...

  20. Dual-phase CT of the liver and the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragiyski, B.; Velkova, K.

    2004-01-01

    This survey covers the introduction of Spiral CT in the diagnostics of lesions of the liver and the pancreas. It describes the possibility to display separate images of the arterial and portal-venous phases of saturation of the liver and the pancreas. It also considers the indications leading to use of dual-phase Spiral CT on the liver and the pancreas. We trace the development of the dual-phase Spiral CT in visualization of the structure of blood vessels in the area of liver and pancreas. The survey puts forward the potential of the dual-phase method to improve the diagnostics and description of many primary and secondary malignant tumors of the liver and the pancreas, their differentiation from benign neoplasm, as well as the existing problems and some controversial aspects of its application

  1. Portal Annular Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnoss, Jonathan M.; Harnoss, Julian C.; Diener, Markus K.; Contin, Pietro; Ulrich, Alexis B.; Büchler, Markus W.; Schmitz-Winnenthal, Friedrich H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Portal annular pancreas (PAP) is an asymptomatic congenital pancreas anomaly, in which portal and/or mesenteric veins are encased by pancreas tissue. The aim of the study was to determine the role of PAP in pancreatic surgery as well as its management and potential complication, specifically, postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). On the basis of a case report, the MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science databases were systematically reviewed up to September 2012. All articles describing a case of PAP were considered. In summary, 21 studies with 59 cases were included. The overall prevalence of PAP was 2.4% and the patients' mean (SD) age was 55.9 (16.2) years. The POPF rate in patients with PAP (12 pancreaticoduodenectomies and 3 distal pancreatectomies) was 46.7% (in accordance with the definition of the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery). Portal annular pancreas is a quite unattended pancreatic variant with high prevalence and therefore still remains a clinical challenge to avoid postoperative complications. To decrease the risk for POPF, attentive preoperative diagnostics should also focus on PAP. In pancreaticoduodenectomy, a shift of the resection plane to the pancreas tail should be considered; in extensive pancreatectomy, coverage of the pancreatic remnant by the falciform ligament could be a treatment option. PMID:25207658

  2. Stem cells and the pancreas: from discovery to clinical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Dessì

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The existence of stem cells within the adult pancreas is supported by the ability of this organ to regenerate its endocrine component in various conditions such as pregnancy and following partial pancreatectomy. Several studies have shown that progenitor or adult stem cells may reside within the pancreas and particularly in the pancreatic ducts, including acinar cells and islets of Langerhans. The discovery of human pluripotent stem cells in the pancreas, and the possibility of development of strategies for generating these, represented a turning point for the therapeutic interventions of type 1 diabetes.Proceedings of the 2nd International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 26th-31st, 2015 · Cagliari (Italy · October 31st, 2015 · Stem cells: present and future Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Antonio Giordano

  3. Histopathological effects of doxorubicin on pancreas in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological side effects of doxorubicin on pancreas tissue in male albino rats Rattus norvegicus. This study were used 55 adult rats (2.5-3.5 month of age. The rats divided into two groups, the first group include (35 rats. The second group were (20 rats. Microscopial examination of pancreas lesion demonstrated oedema around the acini, swelling of the epithelial cells of acini, occurance of cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis at the concentration of (4,5 mg/kg of body weight ,occurrence of small islets that form of few cells and exocrine-endocrine transformation. There were thickness in the walls of blood vessels, thrombus, congestion of blood vessels, we conclude, that doxorubicin had histopathological effect on pancreas in sub-acute doses more than chronic doses.

  4. Solid-pseudo papillary tumor of the pancreas: Frantz's tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Bruno Righi Rodrigues de; Moreira, Reni Cecilia Lopes; Campos, Marcelo Esteves Chaves

    2010-01-01

    The pseudo papillary solid tumor of the pancreas, also known as Frantz's tumor, is a rare disease, taking place in approximately 0.17% to 2.7% of non-endocrine tumors of the pancreas. Recently, the increase of its incidence has been noted with more than two-thirds of the total cases described in the last 10 years. A possible explanation is a greater knowledge of the disease and a greater uniformity of conceptualization in the last years. Generally, it affects young adult females. In most of the series, the tumor principally attacks the body and tail of the pancreas. The objective of the present report is to present the diagnostic and therapeutic option used in this rare pancreatic tumor of low-grade malignancy. (author)

  5. Gastrin-releasing peptide in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1987-01-01

    to consist of one main form, namely the 27-amino acid peptide originally extracted from porcine stomach, and small amounts of a C-terminal fragment identical with the C-terminal 10-amino acid peptide. Gastrin-releasing peptide-like immunoreactivity released from the isolated perfused porcine pancreas during...... electrical vagal stimulation was shown by gel filtration to consist of the same two forms. By use of immunocytochemical techniques employing an antiserum directed against its N terminus, GRP was localized to varicose nerve fibers in close association with the exocrine tissue of the porcine pancreas...... in particular. Some fibers were found penetrating into pancreatic islets also. Immunoreactive nerve cell bodies as well as fibers were found within intrapancreatic ganglia. The potency of GRP in stimulating exocrine as well as endocrine secretion from the porcine pancreas, its presence in close contact...

  6. Intra-peritoneal administration of interleukin-1 beta induces impaired insulin release from the perfused rat pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wogensen, L; Helqvist, S; Pociot, F

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a stimulatory effect of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) on insulin and glucagon release from the perfused rat pancreas, accompanied by selective lysis of 20% of beta-cells as assessed by electronmicroscopy. However, we have not observed an inhibitory action of IL-1...... beta on insulin release from the perfused pancreas as shown for isolated islets. To test whether periodical exposure of the endocrine pancreas to circulating IL-1 beta in vivo affects insulin release from the intact perfused pancreas, rats were treated with daily intraperitoneal injections of 4...

  7. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasmas. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. This discussion will focus on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal, and parathyroid glands, and pancreas in companion animals and will concentrate on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis.

  8. Computed Tomographic Angiography of the Pancreas in Cats with Chronic Diabetes Mellitus Compared to Normal Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secrest, S; Sharma, A; Bugbee, A

    2018-03-02

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrinopathy in cats. No known diagnostic test or patient characteristic at the time of diagnosis can predict likely disease course, unlike in people in whom computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is used. No published data exist regarding the CTA appearance of the pancreas in cats with DM, and thus, it is unknown what if any CTA variables should be further assessed for associations with pancreatic endocrine function. A significant difference in pancreatic attenuation, volume, and size will be identified between normal cats and those with chronic DM on CTA. Ten healthy control cats and 15 cats with naturally occurring DM present for >12 months. Prospective cross-sectional study comparing pancreatic attenuation, enhancement pattern, size, volume, pancreatic volume-to-body weight ratio (V:BW), pancreatic arterial: portal phase ratio (A:P), time-to-arterial enhancement, and time-to-peak portal enhancement on CTA between sedated healthy control cats and those with chronic DM. The pancreas in cats with chronic DM was significantly larger, had higher volume, higher V:BW, and shorter time-to-peak portal enhancement on CTA when compared to normal cats. Peak portal enhancement time, pancreatic size, pancreatic volume, and V:BW can be used to differentiate normal sedated cats from those with chronic DM by CTA. These variables warrant further investigation to identify possible associations with endocrine function. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. Differential Proteomic Analysis of the Pancreas of Diabetic db/db Mice Reveals the Proteins Involved in the Development of Complications of Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoriano Pérez-Vázquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia and insulin-resistance. Diabetes results from pancreatic inability to secrete the insulin needed to overcome this resistance. We analyzed the protein profile from the pancreas of ten-week old diabetic db/db and wild type mice through proteomics. Pancreatic proteins were separated in two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE and significant changes in db/db mice respect to wild type mice were observed in 27 proteins. Twenty five proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI time-of-flight (TOF and their interactions were analyzed using search tool for the retrieval of interacting genes/proteins (STRING and database for annotation, visualization and integrated discovery (DAVID. Some of these proteins were Pancreatic α-amylase, Cytochrome b5, Lithostathine-1, Lithostathine-2, Chymotrypsinogen B, Peroxiredoxin-4, Aspartyl aminopeptidase, Endoplasmin, and others, which are involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins, as well as in oxidative stress, and inflammation. Remarkably, these are mostly endoplasmic reticulum proteins related to peptidase activity, i.e., they are involved in proteolysis, glucose catabolism and in the tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway. These results suggest mechanisms for insulin resistance, and the chronic inflammatory state observed in diabetes.

  10. Additional value of FDG PET/CT to contrast-enhanced CT in the differentiation between benign and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas with mural nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takanami, Kentaro; Hiraide, Tomomichi; Tsuda, Masashi; Nakamura, Yausuhiro; Kaneta, Tomohiro; Takase, Kei; Takahashi, Shoki; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the additional value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT to contrast-enhanced CT in the differentiation between benign and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas with mural nodules. This retrospective review of medical records was approved by our institutional review board. The preoperative PET/CT images of 16 non-diabetic patients with surgically proven IPMN, where mural nodules of 3 mm or larger were shown by preoperative contrast-enhanced CT, were retrospectively evaluated. The 16 patients were divided into two groups: 7 patients with benign IPMN [adenoma (n=1) and borderline tumor (n=6)] and 9 patients with malignant IPMN [carcinoma in situ (CIS) (n=8) and invasive carcinoma (n=1)]. Nuclear medicine physician blinded to the pathologic assessment of malignancy of IPMN set a spherical volume of interest (VOI) over the mural nodules on PET/CT images and recorded the peak standardized uptake value (SUV max ) in the VOI, referring the contrast-enhanced CT images. Statistical differences in the size of mural nodule, the diameter of main pancreatic duct (MPD), and SUV max of the tumors between benign IPMNs and malignant IPMNs were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Statistical significance was set at p max of the malignant IPMNs with mural nodules of 3 mm or larger was higher than that of benign IPMNs (2.7±0.6 vs. 1.9±0.3, p<0.01). Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in mural nodule diameter and MPD diameter between the two groups. FDG PET/CT showed an excellent diagnostic accuracy for the differentiation between malignant and benign IPMNs with mural nodules: the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy in malignant IPMN with mural nodule of FDG PET/CT were 77.8, 100, 100, 77.8, and 87.5 for the cutoff value of 2.3; and 100, 57.1, 75.0, 100, and 81.3 for the cutoff value of 2

  11. Hypothesis: Musculin is a hormone secreted by skeletal muscle, the body's largest endocrine organ. Evidence for actions on the endocrine pancreas to restrain the beta-cell mass and to inhibit insulin secretion and on the hypothalamus to co-ordinate the neuroendocrine and appetite responses to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that skeletal muscle may act as an endocrine organ by secreting interleukin-6 (IL-6) into the systemic circulation. From an analysis of the actions of IL-6 and of additional literature, we postulate that skeletal muscle also secretes an unidentified hormone, which we have named Musculin (Latin: musculus = muscle), which acts on the pancreatic beta-cell to restrain the size of the (beta-cell mass and to tonically inhibit insulin secretion and biosynthesis. It is suggested that the amount of Musculin secreted is determined by, and is positively correlated with, the prevailing insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle, thereby accounting for the hyperinsulinemia that occurs in insulin resistant disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and the polycystic ovary syndrome. In addition, it is postulated that Musculin acts on the hypothalamus (arcuate nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus) to co-ordinate the neuroendocrine and appetite responses to exercise. However, the possibilities that Musculin may act on additional central nervous system sites and that an additional hormone(s) may be responsible for these actions are not excluded. It is suggested that a search be made for Musculin, since analogues of such a substance may be of therapeutic benefit in the treatment of the current global diabetes and obesity epidemic.

  12. Method of pancreas scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michele, E.; Schmidt, H.A.E.

    1976-01-01

    Scintigraphy of the pancreas is important because of a lack of simple internal and x-ray pancreas diagnostic examination methods, non-burdening to the patient, yet providing sufficient evidence. We conceived a double isotope subtraction method aimed at widespread application; financially, it should be within the range even of smaller nuclear medicine departments. A scanner is combined with double impulse processing and a subtraction unit (Picker Dualscanner) and an adapted x-ray unit with the x-ray tube aimed at the scan-field. Commercial sup(Se-75)selenium methionine is used for pancreas imagining. sup(TC-99m)colloidal sulphur is used as a liver indicator. After barium-brei application orally, an x-ray is taken of the gastro-intestinal tract, so as to be able to delineate the pancreas from other epigastric organs also able to accumulate methionine. The subtraction photoscan is then inscribed on this pre-exposed film without any shift of the patient. It is also possible to use two parallel films (x-ray/photoscan) and then to superposition them

  13. Carcinoma of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, L.J.; Hartman, G.V.

    1974-01-01

    Experience with 17 patients with incurable carcinoma of the pancreas treated by radiation therapy and immunotherapy is described. Results observed have prompted a program of aggressive surgery, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and long-term chemotherapy. Optimism for significant palliation and survival for these patients with curable and incurable pancreatic carcinoma is warranted. (U.S.)

  14. Agenesis of pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldsgaard, P; Kryger-Baggesen, N; Lisse, I

    1994-01-01

    Complete agenesis of pancreas is a rare and lethal condition. Four cases have previously been reported in combination with other malformations, such as severe intrauterine growth retardation, hyperglycaemia and meconium ileus. We report a case of pancreatic agenesis as a single anomaly. The child...

  15. Update in Endocrine Autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The endocrine system is a common target in pathogenic autoimmune responses, and there has been recent progress in our understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune endocrine diseases.

  16. Thoracic fistulas of the pancreas and their complications in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, R; Schirg, E; Buerger, D

    1981-08-01

    The article reports on two thoracic fistulas of the pancreas in infants. Anamnesis revealed that recurring abdominal pain had occured in those children for years; at the time of their admission to hospital there was considerable dyspnoea with thoracic pain depending on the respiration. Fistulas of the pancreas with thoracic connection were identified as the cause. The article goes into the details of genesis, differential diagnosis and course of the disease.

  17. Cystic tumours of the pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itai, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Univ. (Japan); Ohtomo, K. [Univ. of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    In this pictorial essay we present the typical appearances of cystic pancreatic tumours, the wide spectrum of their features, and differential features among cystic pancreatic masses with an emphasis on CT. Pseudocysts are the most common cystic lesion in the pancreas and can be induced by pancreatitis, trauma or surgery. Pseudocysts appear as a round cystic mass with a definite wall. However, they can mimic cystic tumours associated with internal septation and/or necrotic mass of various shapes. Conversely, cystic tumours can appear as a simple cyst lacking any thickening of wall, septation or mural nodule. Pancreatic carcinoma not infrequently induces secondary cysts upstream of the obstructed pancreatic duct. The cysts are pseudocysts or retention cysts in nature. When cysts are formed in the pancreatic parenchyma or adjacent to pancreatic carcinoma they may mimic cystic tumour. (orig./VHE)

  18. Cystic tumours of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itai, Y.; Ohtomo, K.

    1996-01-01

    In this pictorial essay we present the typical appearances of cystic pancreatic tumours, the wide spectrum of their features, and differential features among cystic pancreatic masses with an emphasis on CT. Pseudocysts are the most common cystic lesion in the pancreas and can be induced by pancreatitis, trauma or surgery. Pseudocysts appear as a round cystic mass with a definite wall. However, they can mimic cystic tumours associated with internal septation and/or necrotic mass of various shapes. Conversely, cystic tumours can appear as a simple cyst lacking any thickening of wall, septation or mural nodule. Pancreatic carcinoma not infrequently induces secondary cysts upstream of the obstructed pancreatic duct. The cysts are pseudocysts or retention cysts in nature. When cysts are formed in the pancreatic parenchyma or adjacent to pancreatic carcinoma they may mimic cystic tumour. (orig./VHE)

  19. Atypical E2f functions are critical for pancreas polyploidization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhan B Matondo

    Full Text Available The presence of polyploid cells in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas has been reported for four decades. In rodents, pancreatic polyploidization is initiated after weaning and the number of polyploid cells increases with age. Surprisingly the molecular regulators and biological functions of polyploidization in the pancreas are still unknown. We discovered that atypical E2f activity is essential for polyploidization in the pancreas, using an inducible Cre/LoxP approach in new-born mice to delete ubiquitously the atypical E2f transcription factors, E2f7 and E2f8. In contrast to its critical role in embryonic survival, conditional deletion of both of both atypical E2fs in newborn mice had no impact on postnatal survival and mice lived until old age. However, deficiency of E2f7 or E2f8 alone was sufficient to suppress polyploidization in the pancreas and associated with only a minor decrease in blood serum levels of glucose, insulin, amylase and lipase under 4 hours starvation condition compared to wildtype littermates. In mice with fewer pancreatic polyploid cells that were fed ad libitum, no major impact on hormones or enzymes levels was observed. In summary, we identified atypical E2fs to be essential for polyploidization in the pancreas and discovered that postnatal induced loss of both atypical E2fs in many organs is compatible with life until old age.

  20. Atypical E2f functions are critical for pancreas polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matondo, Ramadhan B; Moreno, Eva; Toussaint, Mathilda J M; Tooten, Peter C J; van Essen, Saskia C; van Liere, Elsbeth A; Youssef, Sameh A; Bongiovanni, Laura; de Bruin, Alain

    2018-01-01

    The presence of polyploid cells in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas has been reported for four decades. In rodents, pancreatic polyploidization is initiated after weaning and the number of polyploid cells increases with age. Surprisingly the molecular regulators and biological functions of polyploidization in the pancreas are still unknown. We discovered that atypical E2f activity is essential for polyploidization in the pancreas, using an inducible Cre/LoxP approach in new-born mice to delete ubiquitously the atypical E2f transcription factors, E2f7 and E2f8. In contrast to its critical role in embryonic survival, conditional deletion of both of both atypical E2fs in newborn mice had no impact on postnatal survival and mice lived until old age. However, deficiency of E2f7 or E2f8 alone was sufficient to suppress polyploidization in the pancreas and associated with only a minor decrease in blood serum levels of glucose, insulin, amylase and lipase under 4 hours starvation condition compared to wildtype littermates. In mice with fewer pancreatic polyploid cells that were fed ad libitum, no major impact on hormones or enzymes levels was observed. In summary, we identified atypical E2fs to be essential for polyploidization in the pancreas and discovered that postnatal induced loss of both atypical E2fs in many organs is compatible with life until old age.

  1. Vascular development in the vertebrate pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizoglu, D. Berfin; Chong, Diana C.; Villasenor, Alethia; Magenheim, Judith; Barry, David M.; Lee, Simon; Marty-Santos, Leilani; Fu, Stephen; Dor, Yuval; Cleaver, Ondine

    2016-01-01

    The vertebrate pancreas is comprised of a highly branched tubular epithelium, which is intimately associated with an extensive and specialized vasculature. While we know a great deal about basic vascular anatomy of the adult pancreas, as well as islet capillaries, surprisingly little is known about the ontogeny of its blood vessels. Here, we analyze development of the pancreatic vasculature in the mouse embryo. We show that pancreatic epithelial branches intercalate with the fine capillary plexus of the surrounding pancreatic mesenchyme. Endothelial cells (ECs) within this mesenchyme are heterogeneous from the onset of organogenesis. Pancreatic arteries take shape before veins, in a manner analogous to early embryonic vessels. The main central artery forms during mid-gestation, as a result of vessel coalescence and remodeling of a vascular plexus. In addition, we show that vessels in the forming pancreas display a predictable architecture that is dependent on VEGF signaling. Over-expression of VEGF disrupts vascular patterning and arteriovenous differentiation within the developing pancreas. This study constitutes a first-time cellular and molecular characterization of pancreatic blood vessels, as they coordinately grow along with the pancreatic epithelium. PMID:27789228

  2. Vascular development in the vertebrate pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizoglu, D Berfin; Chong, Diana C; Villasenor, Alethia; Magenheim, Judith; Barry, David M; Lee, Simon; Marty-Santos, Leilani; Fu, Stephen; Dor, Yuval; Cleaver, Ondine

    2016-12-01

    The vertebrate pancreas is comprised of a highly branched tubular epithelium, which is intimately associated with an extensive and specialized vasculature. While we know a great deal about basic vascular anatomy of the adult pancreas, as well as islet capillaries, surprisingly little is known about the ontogeny of its blood vessels. Here, we analyze development of the pancreatic vasculature in the mouse embryo. We show that pancreatic epithelial branches intercalate with the fine capillary plexus of the surrounding pancreatic mesenchyme. Endothelial cells (ECs) within this mesenchyme are heterogeneous from the onset of organogenesis. Pancreatic arteries take shape before veins, in a manner analogous to early embryonic vessels. The main central artery forms during mid-gestation, as a result of vessel coalescence and remodeling of a vascular plexus. In addition, we show that vessels in the forming pancreas display a predictable architecture that is dependent on VEGF signaling. Over-expression of VEGF disrupts vascular patterning and arteriovenous differentiation within the developing pancreas. This study constitutes a first-time in-depth cellular and molecular characterization of pancreatic blood vessels, as they coordinately grow along with the pancreatic epithelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The molecular classification of hereditary endocrine diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lei; Ning, Guang

    2015-12-01

    Hereditary endocrine diseases are an important group of diseases with great heterogeneity. The current classification for hereditary endocrine disease is mostly based upon anatomy, which is helpful for pathophysiological interpretation, but does not address the pathogenic variability associated with different underlying genetic causes. Identification of an endocrinopathy-associated genetic alteration provides evidence for differential diagnosis, discovery of non-classical disease, and the potential for earlier diagnosis and targeted therapy. Molecular diagnosis should be routinely applied when managing patients with suspicion of hereditary disease. To enhance the accurate diagnosis and treatment of patients with hereditary endocrine diseases, we propose categorization of endocrine diseases into three groups based upon the function of the mutant gene: cell differentiation, hormone synthesis and action, and tumorigenesis. Each category was further grouped according to the specific gene function. We believe that this format would facilitate practice of precision medicine in the field of hereditary endocrine diseases.

  4. Heterotopic Pancreas: Histopathologic Features, Imaging Findings, and Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani, Maryam; Menias, Christine; Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan; Olpin, Jeffrey D; Elsayes, Khaled M; Shaaban, Akram M

    2017-01-01

    Heterotopic pancreas is a congenital anomaly in which pancreatic tissue is anatomically separate from the main gland. The most common locations of this displacement include the upper gastrointestinal tract-specifically, the stomach, duodenum, and proximal jejunum. Less common sites are the esophagus, ileum, Meckel diverticulum, biliary tree, mesentery, and spleen. Uncomplicated heterotopic pancreas is typically asymptomatic, with the lesion being discovered incidentally during an unrelated surgery, during an imaging examination, or at autopsy. The most common computed tomographic appearance of heterotopic pancreas is that of a small oval intramural mass with microlobulated margins and an endoluminal growth pattern. The attenuation and enhancement characteristics of these lesions parallel their histologic composition. Acinus-dominant lesions demonstrate avid homogeneous enhancement after intravenous contrast material administration, whereas duct-dominant lesions are hypovascular and heterogeneous. At magnetic resonance imaging, the heterotopic pancreas is isointense to the orthotopic pancreas, with characteristic T1 hyperintensity and early avid enhancement after intravenous gadolinium-based contrast material administration. Heterotopic pancreatic tissue has a rudimentary ductal system in which an orifice is sometimes visible at imaging as a central umbilication of the lesion. Complications of heterotopic pancreas include pancreatitis, pseudocyst formation, malignant degeneration, gastrointestinal bleeding, bowel obstruction, and intussusception. Certain complications may be erroneously diagnosed as malignancy. Paraduodenal pancreatitis is thought to be due to cystic degeneration of heterotopic pancreatic tissue in the medial wall of the duodenum. Recognizing the characteristic imaging features of heterotopic pancreas aids in differentiating it from cancer and thus in avoiding unnecessary surgery. © RSNA, 2017.

  5. Phenotype variability of infantile-onset multisystem neurologic, endocrine, and pancreatic disease IMNEPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picker-Minh, Sylvie; Mignot, Cyril; Doummar, Diane; Hashem, Mais; Faqeih, Eissa; Josset, Patrice; Dubern, Béatrice; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Kraemer, Nadine; Kaindl, Angela M

    2016-04-29

    Infantile-onset multisystem neurologic, endocrine, and pancreatic disease (IMNEPD) has been recently linked to biallelic mutation of the peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase 2 gene PTRH2. Two index patients with IMNEPD in the original report had multiple neurological symptoms such as postnatal microcephaly, intellectual disability, developmental delay, sensorineural deafness, cerebellar atrophy, ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy. In addition, distal muscle weakness and abnormalities of thyroid, pancreas, and liver were found. Here, we report five further IMNEPD patients with a different homozygous PTRH2 mutation, broaden the phenotypic spectrum of the disease and differentiate common symptoms and interindividual variability in IMNEPD associated with a unique mutation. We thereby hope to better define IMNEPD and promote recognition and diagnosis of this novel disease entity.

  6. Planar Cell Polarity Controls Pancreatic Beta Cell Differentiation and Glucose Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Cortijo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Planar cell polarity (PCP refers to the collective orientation of cells within the epithelial plane. We show that progenitor cells forming the ducts of the embryonic pancreas express PCP proteins and exhibit an active PCP pathway. Planar polarity proteins are acquired at embryonic day 11.5 synchronously to apicobasal polarization of pancreas progenitors. Loss of function of the two PCP core components Celsr2 and Celsr3 shows that they control the differentiation of endocrine cells from polarized progenitors, with a prevalent effect on insulin-producing beta cells. This results in a decreased glucose clearance. Loss of Celsr2 and 3 leads to a reduction of Jun phosphorylation in progenitors, which, in turn, reduces beta cell differentiation from endocrine progenitors. These results highlight the importance of the PCP pathway in cell differentiation in vertebrates. In addition, they reveal that tridimensional organization and collective communication of cells are needed in the pancreatic epithelium in order to generate appropriate numbers of endocrine cells.

  7. Tissue-type plasminogen activator in somatostatin cells of rat pancreas and hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsson, L I; Danø, K

    1987-01-01

    -PA, and immunoblotting analysis demonstrated one band with a similar electrophoretic mobility. No urokinase-type PA immunoreactivity was found in the rat endocrine pancreas. A granular t-PA immunoreactivity resembling that found in adjacent sections with somatostatin antiserum was found in the median eminence...

  8. Pancreas transplantation: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Ibrahim David

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pancreas transplantation is the only treatment able to reestablish normal glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels in insulin-dependent diabetic patients without the use of exogenous insulin. The evolution of pancreas transplantation in treatment of diabetes was determined by advances in the fields of surgical technique, organ preservation and immunosuppressants. The main complication leading to graft loss is technical failure followed by acute or chronic rejection. Technical failure means graft loss within the first three months following transplantation due to vascular thrombosis (50%, pancreatitis (20%, infection (18%, fistula (6.5% and bleeding (2.4%. Immunological complications still affect 30% of patients, and rejection is the cause of graft loss in 10% of cases. Chronic rejection is the most common late complication. Cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of late mortality in pancreas transplantation, so it remains the most effective treatment for type 1 diabetes patients. There is a significant improvement in quality of life and in patient’s survival rates. The development of islet transplantation could eliminate or minimize surgical complications and immunosuppression.

  9. Development of the Rabbit Pancreas with Particular Regard to the Argyrophilic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Titlbach

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was the description of the prenatal development of rabbit pancreas, cell modifications, and changes in their volume and mitotic activity. Immunohistochemical, light and electron microscopic procedures were employed. Stereological methods were used for estimation of cellular and nuclear volumes. hits on epithelial cells, tubular lumens, and endocrine progenitor cells were counted by systematic field sampling using test grid. Number of mitoses was registered in various cellular types after colchicine treatment. Data obtained were converted to 1 mm3 tissue. First granules were observed in cells on day 10 and 18 hours, however two different granular types are distinguishable by electron microscopy only on day 15, when insulin and glucagon can be detected immunohistochemically. Cellular volume increased remarkably in harmony with findings of granules in serous cells. Number of epithelial cells increased also exponentially. The increase was more rapid between days 13 and 15, later it appeared exponential. Value of mitotic index and length of cell cycle did not change considerably between days 15 and 24. Mitoses were observed in ductal, exocrine, as well as endocrine cells. The dividing endocrine cells were those that contained fine dense granules (progenitor cells. The sub-population of progenitor cells is able to divide, however, this source of cells appears insufficient for exponential growth. Results after colchicine treatment show the increase of cell population but the life-span and a period necessary for volume multiplication vary. Mitoses decrease in both sub-populations during the prenatal period. The progenitor cells arise probably by differentiation from the ducts, because their number increases proportionally to the main cell population.

  10. An unusual mixed tumor of the pancreas: sonographic and MDCT features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortelé, Koenraad J; Peters, Hope E; Odze, Robert D; Glickman, Jonathan N; Jajoo, Kunal; Banks, Peter A

    2009-03-09

    Mixed tumors of the pancreas are exceedingly rare. We herein report on a 54-year-old female who presented with an enlarging cystic lesion in the head of the pancreas. Right upper quadrant ultrasound and multidetector-row CT scan showed a well-defined unilocular cystic tumor located in the head of the pancreas and surrounded, in part, by a hypervascular solid mass. Although mixed exocrine/endocrine pancreatic tumors have been described previously, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a pancreatic mixed intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm/endocrine tumor with illustration of its ultrasound and CT features. Moreover, the importance of preoperative analysis of imaging features in the assessment of pancreatic neoplasms is discussed.

  11. Computed tomography and ultrasound of the normal pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolmannskog, F.; Swensen, T.; Vatn, M.H.; Larsen, S.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) were performed on 47 patients with a normal pancreas. CT was a significantly better method than US to demonstrate the pancreatic body and tail. The pancreatic head was also shown more often using CT than US, but this difference was not statistically significant. The diameters of the different parts of the pancreas measured at CT were significantly larger than measured at US. The explanation is most probably that the widths of the splenic and superior mesenteric veins are added to the diameters of the pancreas measured at CT, while using US, these vessels are clearly differentiated from the pancreatic tissue. US was a significantly better technique than CT to register the vascular structures surrounding the pancreas, except from the left renal vein, which was more often demonstrated at CT. (Auth.)

  12. Proteomic analysis of pancreas derived from adult cloned pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Jung-Il; Cho, Young Keun; Cho, Seong-Keun; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Han, Yong-Mahn; Koo, Deog-Bon; Lee, Kyung-Kwang

    2008-01-01

    The potential medical applications of animal cloning include xenotransplantation, but the complex molecular cascades that control porcine organ development are not fully understood. Still, it has become apparent that organs derived from cloned pigs may be suitable for transplantation into humans. In this study, we examined the pancreas of an adult cloned pig developed through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and Western blotting. Proteomic analysis revealed 69 differentially regulated proteins, including such apoptosis-related species as annexins, lamins, and heat shock proteins, which were unanimously upregulated in the SCNT sample. Among the downregulated proteins in SCNT pancreas were peroxiredoxins and catalase. Western blot results indicate that several antioxidant enzymes and the anti-apoptotic protein were downregulated in SCNT pancreas, whereas several caspases were upregulated. Together, these data suggest that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pancreas of an adult cloned pig leads to apoptosis

  13. CT diagnosis of annular pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Eiko; Isobe, Yoshinori; Niimi, Akiko; Shimizu, Yasushi; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Hanyu, Fujio

    1987-01-01

    CT scan was performed in two cases of annular pancreas which could be found in one case preoperatively and in the other case retrospectively. CT scan demonstrated secondary changes of annular pancreas such as medial displacement and dilatation of the duodenal bulb in the former case and stenosis of the duodenal loop and thickened soft tissue density around the narrow segment of the duodenal loop in the latter case, although it failed to demonstrate the peninsular protrusion of the parenchyma of the pancreas head. These findings suggest high possibility of diagnosing annular pancreas by CT scan. (author)

  14. SECONDARY (ENDOCRINE HYPERTENSION: LECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Yukina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a  very common disease with high morbidity and reduction in quality of life. Endocrine disorders are the most common cause of secondary hypertension affecting ~3% of the population. Primary aldosteronism can be the cause of endocrine hypertension more often than other endocrine disorders. Other less common causes of endocrine hypertension include Cushing syndrome, pheochromocytoma, thyroid disorders, and hyperparathyroidism. Endocrine hypertension is potentially curable if the underlying cause is identified and treated accordingly. Younger age at manifestation of resistance to multiple antihypertensive drugs, together with other clinical signs of an endocrine disorder, should raise the suspicion and prompt the appropriate evaluation.

  15. Serglycin proteoglycan is not implicated in localizing exocrine pancreas enzymes to zymogen granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Carsten U; Cowland, Jack B; Ralfkiaer, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Storage and release of proteins from granules forms the basis of cellular functions as diverse as cell mediated cytotoxicity, neuronal communication, activation of muscle fibres, and release of hormones or digestive enzymes from endocrine and exocrine glands, such as the pancreas. Serglycin...... is the major intracellular proteoglycan of haematopoietic cells. Serglycin is important for localization of proteins in granules of different haematopoietic cell types. Previous reports have indicated a role for serglycin in granule formation and localization of zymogens in granules of the exocrine pancreas...... in rat. We here present data showing that serglycin is not present at the protein level in human or murine pancreas. Furthermore, the amount and localization of three exocrine pancreas zymogens (amylase, trypsinogen, and carboxypeptidase A) is not affected by the absence of serglycin in a serglycin knock...

  16. Complete pancreas traumatic transsection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hodžić

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a case of a twenty-year old male with complete pancreas breakdown in the middle of its corpus, which was caused by a strong abdomen compression, with injuries of the spleen, the firstjejunumcurve,mesocolon transversum, left kidney, and appereance of retroperitoneal haemathoma. Surgical treatment started 70 minutes after the injury. The treatment consisted of left pancreatectomy with previous spleenectomy, haemostasis of ruptured mesocolon transversum blood vessels, left kidney exploration, suturing of the firstjejunumcurvelession and double abdomen drainage. Posttraumatic pancreatitis which appeared on the second postoperative day and prolonged drain secretion were successfully solved by conservative treatment.

  17. Precommitment low-level Neurog3 expression defines a long-lived mitotic endocrine-biased progenitor pool that drives production of endocrine-committed cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Matthew E.; Bankaitis, Eric D.; Hipkens, Susan B.; Ustione, Alessandro; Piston, David W.; Yang, Yu-Ping; Magnuson, Mark A.; Wright, Christopher V.E.

    2016-01-01

    The current model for endocrine cell specification in the pancreas invokes high-level production of the transcription factor Neurogenin 3 (Neurog3) in Sox9+ bipotent epithelial cells as the trigger for endocrine commitment, cell cycle exit, and rapid delamination toward proto-islet clusters. This model posits a transient Neurog3 expression state and short epithelial residence period. We show, however, that a Neurog3TA.LO cell population, defined as Neurog3 transcriptionally active and Sox9+ and often containing nonimmunodetectable Neurog3 protein, has a relatively high mitotic index and prolonged epithelial residency. We propose that this endocrine-biased mitotic progenitor state is functionally separated from a pro-ductal pool and endows them with long-term capacity to make endocrine fate-directed progeny. A novel BAC transgenic Neurog3 reporter detected two types of mitotic behavior in Sox9+ Neurog3TA.LO progenitors, associated with progenitor pool maintenance or derivation of endocrine-committed Neurog3HI cells, respectively. Moreover, limiting Neurog3 expression dramatically increased the proportional representation of Sox9+ Neurog3TA.LO progenitors, with a doubling of its mitotic index relative to normal Neurog3 expression, suggesting that low Neurog3 expression is a defining feature of this cycling endocrine-biased state. We propose that Sox9+ Neurog3TA.LO endocrine-biased progenitors feed production of Neurog3HI endocrine-committed cells during pancreas organogenesis. PMID:27585590

  18. The physiology of rodent beta-cells in pancreas slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupnik, M

    2009-01-01

    Beta-cells in pancreatic islets form complex syncytia. Sufficient cell-to-cell electrical coupling seems to ensure coordinated depolarization pattern and insulin release that can be further modulated by rich innervation. The complex structure and coordinated action develop after birth during fast proliferation of the endocrine tissue. These emergent properties can be lost due to various reasons later in life and can lead to glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus. Pancreas slice is a novel method of choice to study the physiology of beta-cells still embedded in their normal cellulo-social context. I present major advantages, list drawbacks and provide an overview on recent advances in our understanding of the physiology of beta-cells using the pancreas slice approach.

  19. Baseline plasma chromogranin A levels in patients with well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas: A potential predictor of postoperative recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanno, Yoshihide; Toyama, Hirochika; Matsumoto, Ippei; Otani, Kyoko; Asari, Sadaki; Goto, Tadahiro; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Zen, Yoh; Fukumoto, Takumi; Ku, Yonson

    The present study aimed to elucidate prognostic values of baseline plasma chromogranin A (CgA) concentrations in patients with resectable, well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). Preoperative CgA levels in 21 patients with PNET were correlated with clinicopathological factors and patients' survival. Plasma CgA levels ranged 2.9-30.8 pmol/mL (median 6.0), and were significantly elevated in patients with post-operative recurrence (P = 0.004). Using the receiver operating characteristic curve, the optimal cutoff value to predict tumor recurrence was determined as 17.0 pmol/mL. This threshold identified patients with recurrence with 60% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and 90% overall accuracy. Patients with higher CgA levels showed worse recurrence-free survival than those with low CgA levels, both in total (P < 0.001) and in G2 patients (P = 0.020). Combined plasma CgA concentrations and WHO grading may assist in better stratification of PNET patients in terms of the risk of recurrence. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Attenuation of endocrine-exocrine pancreatic communication in type 2 diabetes: pancreatic extracellular matrix ultrastructural abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Melvin R; Patel, Kamlesh; Habibi, Javad; Gupta, Deepa; Tekwani, Seema S; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Sowers, James R

    2008-01-01

    Ultrastructural observations reveal a continuous interstitial matrix connection between the endocrine and exocrine pancreas, which is lost due to fibrosis in rodent models and humans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Widening of the islet-exocrine interface appears to result in loss of desmosomes and adherens junctions between islet and acinar cells and is associated with hypercellularity consisting of pericytes and inflammatory cells in T2DM pancreatic tissue. Organized fibrillar collagen was closely associated with pericytes, which are known to differentiate into myofibroblasts-pancreatic stellate cells. Of importance, some pericyte cellular processes traverse both the connecting islet-exocrine interface and the endoacinar interstitium of the exocrine pancreas. Loss of cellular paracrine communication and extracellular matrix remodeling fibrosis in young animal models and humans may result in a dysfunctional insulino-acinar-ductal-incretin gut hormone axis, resulting in pancreatic insufficiency and glucagon-like peptide deficiency, which are known to exist in prediabetes and overt T2DM in humans.

  1. Endocrine disrupting compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, I B; Christensen, P; Dantzer, V

    2001-01-01

    of alkylphenols, these are disseminated in the environment with sewage sludge, and domestic animals and humans are likely to be exposed via the food chain. Using the pig as an in vivo model, we studied the effect of intrauterine exposure to tertiary octylphenol (OP) on essential reproductive parameters over 3......With the growing concern that environmental chemicals might impair human and animal fertility, it is important to investigate the possible influence of these substances on sexual differentiation and genital development of mammals. Many of these substances are suspected to interfere with endocrine...... processes, and exposure during critical periods of prenatal development might affect reproductive performance over several generations. Alkylphenols and their metabolites are lipophilic substances exerting apparent estrogenic action in in vitro and in vivo testing systems. With the widespread industrial use...

  2. Ontogeny of neuro-insular complexes and islets innervation in the human pancreas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra E. Proshchina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ontogeny of the neuro-insular complexes (NIC and the islets innervation in human pancreas has not been studied in detail. Our aim was to describe the developmental dynamics and distribution of the nervous system structures in the endocrine part of human pancreas. We used doublestaining with antibodies specific to pan-neural markers (neuron-specific enolase (NSE and S100 protein and to hormones of pancreatic endocrine cells. NSE and S100-positive nerves and ganglia were identified in the human fetal pancreas from gestation week (gw 10 onwards. Later the density of S100 and NSE-positive fibers increased. In adults this network was sparse. The islets innervation started to form from gw 14. NSE-containing endocrine cells were identified from gw 12 onwards. Additionally, S100-positive cells were detected both in the periphery and within some of the islets starting at gw 14. The analysis of islets innervation has shown that the fetal pancreas contained neuro-insular complexes and the number of these complexes was reduced in adults. The highest density of neuro-insular complexes is detected during middle and late fetal periods, when the mosaic islets, typical for adults, form. The close integration between the developing pancreatic islets and the nervous system structures may play an important role not only in the hormone secretion, but also in the islets morphogenesis.

  3. Ontogeny of neuro-insular complexes and islets innervation in the human pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proshchina, Alexandra E; Krivova, Yulia S; Barabanov, Valeriy M; Saveliev, Sergey V

    2014-01-01

    The ontogeny of the neuro-insular complexes (NIC) and the islets innervation in human pancreas has not been studied in detail. Our aim was to describe the developmental dynamics and distribution of the nervous system structures in the endocrine part of human pancreas. We used double-staining with antibodies specific to pan-neural markers [neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100 protein] and to hormones of pancreatic endocrine cells. NSE and S100-positive nerves and ganglia were identified in the human fetal pancreas from gestation week (gw) 10 onward. Later the density of S100 and NSE-positive fibers increased. In adults, this network was sparse. The islets innervation started to form from gw 14. NSE-containing endocrine cells were identified from gw 12 onward. Additionally, S100-positive cells were detected both in the periphery and within some of the islets starting at gw 14. The analysis of islets innervation has shown that the fetal pancreas contained NIC and the number of these complexes was reduced in adults. The highest density of NIC is detected during middle and late fetal periods, when the mosaic islets, typical for adults, form. The close integration between the developing pancreatic islets and the nervous system structures may play an important role not only in the hormone secretion, but also in the islets morphogenesis.

  4. Transcriptional Mechanisms Controlling miR-375 Gene Expression in the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tali Avnit-Sagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that play an important role in mediating a broad and expanding range of biological activities. miR-375 is expressed selectively in the pancreas. We have previously shown that selective expression of miR-375 in pancreatic beta cells is controlled by transcriptional mechanisms operating through a TATA box-containing promoter. Expression of miR-375 has been reported in non-beta cells within the endocrine pancreas, and indeed inactivation of miR-375 leads to perturbation in cell mass and number of both alpha and beta cells. Consistent with its expression throughout the endocrine pancreas, we now show that the promoter of the miR-375 gene shows selective activity in pancreatic endocrine alpha cells, comparable to that observed in beta cells. We previously identified a novel negative regulatory element located downstream of the miR-375 gene transcription start site. By generating luciferase reporter genes, we now show that the sequence is functional also when positioned upstream of a heterologous promoter, thus proving that the repressor effect is mediated at least in part at the level of transcription. Further characterization of the transcriptional control mechanism regulating expression of miR-375 and other pancreatic miRNAs will contribute to a better understanding of pancreas development and function.

  5. Transcriptional regulation of pancreas development and β-cell function [Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujitani, Yoshio

    2017-05-30

    A small number of cells in the adult pancreas are endocrine cells. They are arranged in clusters called islets of Langerhans. The islets make insulin, glucagon, and other endocrine hormones, and release them into the blood circulation. These hormones help control the level of blood glucose. Therefore, a dysfunction of endocrine cells in the pancreas results in impaired glucose homeostasis, or diabetes mellitus. The pancreas is an organ that originates from the evaginations of pancreatic progenitor cells in the epithelium of the foregut endoderm. Pancreas organogenesis and maturation of the islets of Langerhans occurs via a coordinated and complex interplay of transcriptional networks and signaling molecules, which guide a stepwise and repetitive process of the propagation of progenitor cells and their maturation, eventually resulting in a fully functional organ. Increasing our understanding of the extrinsic, as well as intrinsic mechanisms that control these processes should facilitate the efforts to generate surrogate β cells from ES or iPS cells, or to reactivate the function of important cell types within pancreatic islets that are lost in diabetes.

  6. Giant serous microcystic pancreas adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kerem

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Serous cystadenomas are rare tumors comprising 1-2% of exocrine pancreas tumors. They are mostly known as benign conditions but malign transformation as serous cystadenocarcinoma is also reported. It is usually seen in females. Non-specific symptoms, such as abdominal pain or symptoms due to mass affect, are usually seen. A 64-year old female patient was investigated for abdominal pain. Physical and laboratory findings were normal. Abdomen ultrasonography confirmed an 11x9.5 cm solid cystic lesion and abdomen computed tomography scan confirmed a 12x11 cm lobulated cystic solid lesion which had central cystic necrotic areas extending from liver hilus inferiorly. Fine needle biopsy confirmed benign cytology and trucut biopsy of the pan creatic mass reported chronic inflamation. Nevertheless, this mass could have malignant contents and transformation potential. A laparatomy was decided due to patient’s symptoms and mass effect. Due to vascular invasion of the tumor, Whipple procedure was performed. The pathology report confirmed serous microcystic adenoma. These rare tumors are usually benign but pre-operative malignity criterias are not identified. There are few differential diagnostic tools for excluding malignity. We suggest surgical resection as best treatment approach for selected cases.

  7. Demonstration of epidermal growth factor binding sites in the adult rat pancreas by light microscopic autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, J.G.; Walker, P.; Pelletier, G.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors was studied in the pancreas using light microscopic autoradiography, which was performed at different time intervals (2-60 min) after injecting 125 I-labeled EGF intravenously into the adult rat. In the exocrine pancreas, a labeling was found to occur over the pyramidal cells of the acini and cells lining the intercalated ducts. Moreover, substantial binding of EGF to cells of the islets of Langerhans was also revealed. At the 2-min time interval, most silver grains were found at the periphery of the target cells. The localization, as well as the diminution of silver grains over the cytoplasm of these cells, between 7 and 60 min, suggested the internalization and degradation of 125 I-labeled EGF. Control experiments indicated that the autoradiography reaction was due to specific interaction of 125 I-labeled EGF with its receptor. These results clearly indicate that EGF receptors are present in the acinar cells and the cells of intercalated ducts of the exocrine pancreas, as well as the cells of the endocrine pancreas. Finding that there are EGF binding sites in pancreatic acinar cells supports the physiological role of EGF in the regulation of pancreatic exocrine function. The presence of EGF receptors in cells of the islets of Langerhans suggests that EGF may play a role in the regulation of the endocrine pancreas

  8. Multiple Diagnostic Imaging of a Patient with Solid Pseudopapillary Tumour of the Pancreas: EUS, CT and FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Ari; Ha, Jungmin; Kwon, Seong Young

    2014-01-01

    Solid pseudopapillary neoplam of the pancreas (SPNP) is a rare tumour, making up approximately 1 % to 3 % of pancreatic tumours. About 90 % of SPNPs occur in young women (mean age 35 years). SPNP rarely causes symptoms and is usually detected incidentally. Differentiating SPNP from other pancreatic tumours is very important, because surgical resection may provide favourable outcomes. Metastases or invasion to other organs has been reported in 15% to 20% of patients with SPNP. Histologically, the uniform, bland-appearing, epithelial cells of SPNP are similar to the cells making up other pancreatic endocrine neoplasms. However, SPNP cannot be regarded as a pure pancreatic endocrine neoplasm because of the absence of chromogranin A expression and low expression of other endocrine markers. SPNP has not been associated with specific serum tumour markers. CT and MRI are used for the diagnosis and staging of SPNP. On contrast-enhanced CT, SPNP shows isoattenuation on precontrast CT, weak enhancement during the arterial phase and gradually increased enhancement during the portal venous phase. SPNP can appear as an encapsulated lesion with cystic degeneration, necrosis, haemorrhage or calcification. MRI can characterise internal signal intensities, including a blood component, which is helpful in making a differential diagnosis. Dong et al. analysed CT and MRI findings from eight patients with SPNP and reported that four lesions showed mixed solid and cystic components, and the others appeared almost completely solid. Stoita et al. reported that EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration was a minimally invasive, safe and reliable diagnostic method for SPNP. They reported that all seven lesions examined were hypoechoic, heterogeneous and well circumscribed. Their findings are very similar to the findings in our patient. In addition, it is clear from the EUS images of our patient that EUS provides better images for evaluating SPNP lesions than US of the pancreas (Figs. 1e and f and 2

  9. Synchronous Primary Tumors of the Kidney and Pancreas: Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the kidney and pancreas. We present a 62-year-old man who had weight loss of 9 kg and epigastric pain. Findings showed a Furhman grade II renal papillary carcinoma confined to the kidney and a synchronous well differentiated pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Key Words: Synchronous double cancer, renal cell ...

  10. Malignant Nonfunctioning Neuroendocrine Neoplasm of the Pancreas in a 10-Year-Old Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Marwan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant neoplasms of the pancreas are extremely rare in children and only represent a small percentage of pediatric cancer-related deaths. The paucity of cases reported in the literature, in addition to the lack of understanding of biologic behavior, has led to a lack of consensus concerning optimal management strategy. Presentation differs compared to adult counterparts and generally prognosis is improved even when lymph node metastases occur. Here we review the literature and report the case of a 10-year-old autistic female with a malignant nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine neoplasm of the head of the pancreas successfully extirpated via pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  11. Neurofunctional imaging of the pancreas utilizing the cholinergic PET radioligand [18F]4-fluorobenzyltrozamicol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, P.B.; Gage, H.D.; Brown-Proctor, C.; Buchheimer, N.; Morton, K.A.; Calles-Escandon, J.; Mach, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    The pancreas is one of the most heavily innervated peripheral organs in the body. Parasympathetic and sympathetic neurons terminate in the pancreas and provide tight control of endocrine and exocrine functions. The aim of this study was to determine whether the pancreas can be imaged with a radioligand that binds to specific neuroreceptors. Using fluorine-18 4-fluorobenzyltrozamicol (FBT), which binds to the presynaptic vesicular acetylcholine transporter, positron emission tomography scans were performed in four adult mice, two adult rhesus monkeys, and one adult human. In these mammals, the pancreas is intensely FBT avid, with uptake greater than in any other organ at 30, 60, and 90 min. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) ratios of pancreas to liver, for example, ranged from 1.4 to 1.7 in rhesus monkeys (mean 1.6; median 1.7) and from 1.9 to 4.7 (mean 3.24; median 3.02) in mice. The maximum SUV ratio of pancreas to liver in the human was 1.8. These data suggest that neuroreceptor imaging of the pancreas in vivo is feasible in animal models and humans. This imaging could allow researchers to interrogate functions under control of the autonomic nervous system in the pancreas, with applications possible in transplanted and native pancreata. Also, as beta cell function is intimately related to parasympathetic cholinergic input, FBT activity in the pancreas may correlate with insulin-producing beta cell mass. This could ultimately provide a method of in vivo imaging in animal models and humans for diabetes research. (orig.)

  12. Computerized tomography of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dondelinger, R.; Campos, R.O.; Lamarque, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Pancreatic anatomy is briefly reviewed. Tomographic images from normal pancreas and from pathological states (different kinds of pancreatitis; pancreatic tumors) of this organ are discussed. (M.A.) [pt

  13. Endoscopic ultrasound and pancreas divisum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Surinder S; Gonen, Can; Vilmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Pancreas divisum is the most common congenital anatomic variation of the pancreatic ductal anatomy and in most of the individuals it is asymptomatic. However, in minority of individuals it is presumed to cause recurrent acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiop......Pancreas divisum is the most common congenital anatomic variation of the pancreatic ductal anatomy and in most of the individuals it is asymptomatic. However, in minority of individuals it is presumed to cause recurrent acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic retrograde...... of the parenchyma also. Therefore EUS, both radial and linear, has potential for being a minimally invasive diagnostic modality for pancreas divisum. A number of EUS criteria have been suggested for the diagnosis of pancreas divisum. These criteria have varying sensitivity and specificity and hence there is a need...

  14. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of pancreas. Cytological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coufal, L.; Heger, L.

    1987-01-01

    The benefits are presented of cytological examination of bioptical material from the pancreas using computerized tomography (CT) or ultrasound. The case is presented of one patient who had repeatedly undergone endoscopy with no results. Only cytological examination of material sampled using fine needle aspiration under CT control helped to immediately diagnose the process. The cytological finding correlated with the histological examination of material later taken during surgery. The problems are discussed of the differential diagnosis of tumors of the pancreas. (author). 5 figs., 9 refs

  15. Our experience on the diagnostic possibilities of pancreas scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centi Colella, A.; Pistoni, F.

    1975-01-01

    Several years experience on the real diagnostic possibilities of a pancreas scintigraphy method are reported, with special reference to the differentiation between malignant neoplasias and chronic pancreatitis. In this respect, account is taken of certain eminently functional parameters which can be determined by traditional scintigraphy and by sequential static scintigraphy with the Anger gamma camera. The parameters in question are: degree of definition of the pancreas image; amount of 75 Se-labelled selenomethionine uptake by the stomach and the jejunum; time of appearance of the pancreatic radioactivity [fr

  16. Our experience on the diagnostic possibilities of pancreas scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centi Colella, A; Pistoni, F [Rome Univ. (Italy)

    1975-01-01

    Several years experience on the real diagnostic possibilities of a pancreas scintigraphy method are reported, with special reference to the differentiation between malignant neoplasias and chronic pancreatitis. In this respect, account is taken of certain eminently functional parameters which can be determined by traditional scintigraphy and by sequential static scintigraphy with the Anger gamma camera. The parameters in question are: degree of definition of the pancreas image; amount of /sup 75/Se-labelled selenomethionine uptake by the stomach and the jejunum; time of appearance of the pancreatic radioactivity.

  17. CT diagnosis of pancreatitis and carcinoma of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, W.D.; Nedden, D. zur; Lepuschuetz, H.; Zalaudek, G.; Bodner, E.; Fotter, R.; Lammer, J.; Innsbruck Univ.; Graz Univ.; Innsbruck Univ.

    1981-01-01

    The article reports on 78 CT scans of surgically diseases of the pancreas, 30 cases of chronic pancreatitis, 12 cases of haemorrhagic-necrotizing pancreatitis, and 36 cases of carcinoma of the pancreas. 12 of these cases were operable, whereas 234 were inoperable. The operable carcinomas were so small that proper diagnosis was effected in 50% only, whereas the inoperable carcinomas eluded CT identification in 17% of the cases only. The most important signs of an operable carcinoma of the pancreas are a well-defined enlargement and inhomogeneity of the parenchyma with reduced contrast, especially on bolus injection, as well as dilatation of the bile duct system. The most essential criteria for inoperability are absence of boundaries, especially towards the dorsal side, with infiltration of the retroperitoneal fatty tissue, and lack of delineation of the large vessels. According to the present state of the art, CT does not supply definite criteria for differentiating between an operable carcinoma of the pancreas and chronic fibrotic pancreatitis. Overstepping of the marginal contours is a reliably distinctive feature between carcinoma and pancreatitis, but it also points to the inoperable nature of the disease. Haemorrhagic-necrotizing pancreatitis is characterized by definite CT criteria, so that diagnosis is easy. Computerised tomography is a valuable diagnostic tool in diseases of the pancreas and can supply conclusive pointers towards the operability of a tumor. (orig.) [de

  18. Pediatric pancreas transplantation, including total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondoc, Alexander J; Abu-El-Haija, Maisam; Nathan, Jaimie D

    2017-08-01

    Unlike other solid-organ transplants, whole pancreas transplantation in children is relatively rare, and it occurs more frequently in the context of multivisceral or composite organ transplantation. Because children only infrequently suffer severe sequelae of type 1 diabetes mellitus, pancreas transplantation is rarely indicated in the pediatric population. More commonly, pediatric pancreas transplant occurs in the setting of incapacitating acute recurrent or chronic pancreatitis, specifically islet autotransplantation after total pancreatectomy. In this clinical scenario, total pancreatectomy removes the nidus of chronic pain and debilitation, while autologous islet transplantation aims to preserve endocrine function. The published experiences with pediatric total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) in children has demonstrated excellent outcomes including liberation from chronic opioid use, as well as improved mental and physical quality of life with good glycemic control. Given the complexity of the operation, risk of postoperative complication, and long-term physiologic changes, appropriate patient selection and comprehensive multidisciplinary care teams are critical to ensuring optimal outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hedgehog signaling: endocrine gland development and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-01-01

    The role of hedgehog signaling is analyzed in relation to the developing endocrine glands: pituitary, ovary, testis, adrenal cortex, pancreas, prostate, and epiphyseal growth. Experimental and pathological correlates of these organs are also discussed. The second section addresses a number of topics. First, the pituitary gland, no matter how hypoplastic, is present in most cases of human holoprosencephaly, unlike animals in which it is always said to be absent. The difference appears to be that animal mutations and teratogenic models involve both copies of the gene in question, whereas in humans the condition is most commonly heterozygous. Second, tests of endocrine function are not reported with great frequency, and an early demise in severe cases of holoprosencephaly accounts for this trend. Reported tests of endocrine function are reviewed. Third, diabetes insipidus has been recorded in a number of cases of holoprosencephaly. Its frequency is unknown because it could be masked by adrenal insufficiency in some cases and may not be recognized in others. Because of the abnormal hypothalamic-infundibular region in holoprosencephaly, diabetes insipidus could be caused by a defect in the supra-optic or paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei or in release of ADH via the infundibulum and posterior pituitary.

  20. The physiology of a local renin-angiotensin system in the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Po Sing

    2007-04-01

    The systemic renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in regulating blood pressure, electrolyte and fluid homeostasis. However, local RASs also exist in diverse tissues and organs, where they play a multitude of autocrine, paracrine and intracrine physiological roles. The existence of a local RAS is now recognized in pancreatic acinar, islet, duct, endothelial and stellate cells, the expression of which is modulated in response to physiological and pathophysiological stimuli such as hypoxia, pancreatitis, islet transplantation, hyperglycaemia, and diabetes mellitus. This pancreatic RAS has been proposed to have important endocrine and exocrine roles in the pancreas, regulating local blood flow, duct cell sodium bicarbonate secretion, acinar cell digestive enzyme secretion, islet beta-cell (pro)insulin biosynthesis, and thus, glucose-stimulated insulin release, delta-cell somatostatin secretion, and pancreatic cell proliferation and differentiation. It may further mediate oxidative stress-induced cell inflammation, apoptosis and fibrosis. Further exploration of this system would probably offer new insights into the pathogenesis of pancreatitis, diabetes, cystic fibrosis and pancreatic cancer formation. New therapeutic targets and strategies might thus be suggested.

  1. The physiology of a local renin–angiotensin system in the pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Po Sing

    2007-01-01

    The systemic renin–angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in regulating blood pressure, electrolyte and fluid homeostasis. However, local RASs also exist in diverse tissues and organs, where they play a multitude of autocrine, paracrine and intracrine physiological roles. The existence of a local RAS is now recognized in pancreatic acinar, islet, duct, endothelial and stellate cells, the expression of which is modulated in response to physiological and pathophysiological stimuli such as hypoxia, pancreatitis, islet transplantation, hyperglycaemia, and diabetes mellitus. This pancreatic RAS has been proposed to have important endocrine and exocrine roles in the pancreas, regulating local blood flow, duct cell sodium bicarbonate secretion, acinar cell digestive enzyme secretion, islet beta-cell (pro)insulin biosynthesis, and thus, glucose-stimulated insulin release, delta-cell somatostatin secretion, and pancreatic cell proliferation and differentiation. It may further mediate oxidative stress-induced cell inflammation, apoptosis and fibrosis. Further exploration of this system would probably offer new insights into the pathogenesis of pancreatitis, diabetes, cystic fibrosis and pancreatic cancer formation. New therapeutic targets and strategies might thus be suggested. PMID:17218353

  2. Characterisation of CART-containing neurons and cells in the porcine pancreas, gastro-intestinal tract, adrenal and thyroid glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsdóttir Anna

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The peptide CART is widely expressed in central and peripheral neurons, as well as in endocrine cells. Known peripheral sites of expression include the gastrointestinal (GI tract, the pancreas, and the adrenal glands. In rodent pancreas CART is expressed both in islet endocrine cells and in nerve fibers, some of which innervate the islets. Recent data show that CART is a regulator of islet hormone secretion, and that CART null mutant mice have islet dysfunction. CART also effects GI motility, mainly via central routes. In addition, CART participates in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis. We investigated CART expression in porcine pancreas, GI-tract, adrenal glands, and thyroid gland using immunocytochemistry. Results CART immunoreactive (IR nerve cell bodies and fibers were numerous in pancreatic and enteric ganglia. The majority of these were also VIP IR. The finding of intrinsic CART containing neurons indicates that pancreatic and GI CART IR nerve fibers have an intrinsic origin. No CART IR endocrine cells were detected in the pancreas or in the GI tract. The adrenal medulla harboured numerous CART IR endocrine cells, most of which were adrenaline producing. In addition CART IR fibers were frequently seen in the adrenal cortex and capsule. The capsule also contained CART IR nerve cell bodies. The majority of the adrenal CART IR neuronal elements were also VIP IR. CART IR was also seen in a substantial proportion of the C-cells in the thyroid gland. The majority of these cells were also somatostatin IR, and/or 5-HT IR, and/or VIP IR. Conclusion CART is a major neuropeptide in intrinsic neurons of the porcine GI-tract and pancreas, a major constituent of adrenaline producing adrenomedullary cells, and a novel peptide of the thyroid C-cells. CART is suggested to be a regulatory peptide in the porcine pancreas, GI-tract, adrenal gland and thyroid.

  3. Solid-pseudo papillary tumor of the pancreas: Frantz's tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Bruno Righi Rodrigues de; Moreira, Reni Cecilia Lopes; Campos, Marcelo Esteves Chaves [Instituto Mario Penna, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: brunorighi@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-01

    The pseudo papillary solid tumor of the pancreas, also known as Frantz's tumor, is a rare disease, taking place in approximately 0.17% to 2.7% of non-endocrine tumors of the pancreas. Recently, the increase of its incidence has been noted with more than two-thirds of the total cases described in the last 10 years. A possible explanation is a greater knowledge of the disease and a greater uniformity of conceptualization in the last years. Generally, it affects young adult females. In most of the series, the tumor principally attacks the body and tail of the pancreas. The objective of the present report is to present the diagnostic and therapeutic option used in this rare pancreatic tumor of low-grade malignancy. (author)

  4. Chronology of Islet Differentiation Revealed By Temporal Cell Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatsuka, Takeshi; Li, Zhongmei; German, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Neurogenin 3 plays a pivotal role in pancreatic endocrine differentiation. Whereas mouse models expressing reporters such as eGFP or LacZ under the control of the Neurog3 gene enable us to label cells in the pancreatic endocrine lineage, the long half-life of most reporter proteins makes it difficult to distinguish cells actively expressing neurogenin 3 from differentiated cells that have stopped transcribing the gene. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In order to separate the transient neurogenin 3 –expressing endocrine progenitor cells from the differentiating endocrine cells, we developed a mouse model (Ngn3-Timer) in which DsRed-E5, a fluorescent protein that shifts its emission spectrum from green to red over time, was expressed transgenically from the NEUROG3 locus. RESULTS In the Ngn3-Timer embryos, green-dominant cells could be readily detected by microscopy or flow cytometry and distinguished from green/red double-positive cells. When fluorescent cells were sorted into three different populations by a fluorescence-activated cell sorter, placed in culture, and then reanalyzed by flow cytometry, green-dominant cells converted to green/red double-positive cells within 6 h. The sorted cell populations were then used to determine the temporal patterns of expression for 145 transcriptional regulators in the developing pancreas. CONCLUSIONS The precise temporal resolution of this model defines the narrow window of neurogenin 3 expression in islet progenitor cells and permits sequential analyses of sorted cells as well as the testing of gene regulatory models for the differentiation of pancreatic islet cells. PMID:19478145

  5. Endocrine system and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashburn, Doyle D; Reed, Mary Jane

    2010-10-01

    Obesity is associated with significant alterations in endocrine function. An association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia has been well documented. This article highlights the complexities of treating endocrine system disorders in obese patients. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Pesticides Provoke Endocrine Disruption A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, M.A.S.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing numbers of environmental chemicals,including pesticides, have the ability to produce endocrine disruption by various mechanisms. such substances may affect hormone secretion from an endocrine gland and may alter the rate of hormone elimination from the body. environmental chemicals may also disrupt regulatory feedback mechanisms that exist between two endocrine organs; or may interact with a hormone receptor either by mimicking or antagonizing the actions of the natural hormone. these chemicals are referred to endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDC's). EDC's act to alter the blood hormone levels or the subsequent action of hormones . the use of radioimmunoassay(RIA) constitutes a superior and unrivalled tool for the determination and quantification of hormones.the endocrine system participates in virtually all important functions of an organism, such as sexual differentiation before birth, sexual maturation during puberty, reproduction in adulthood, growth, metabolism, digestion, cardiovascular function and excretion. hormones are also implicated in the etiology of certain cancers of hormone- dependent tissues, such as those of the breast, uterus, and prostate gland. therefore, endocrine disruption can potentially produce widespread effects. scientists should not stick to the past belief which presumes that pesticides have limited effect on some hormones. A paradigm shift in which a wider vision of understanding of the wholesome complex effects of pesticides on the whole body rather than a narrow limited understanding should take place

  7. Congenital anomalies, hereditary diseases of the pancreas, acute and chronic pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Juchems, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The most important congenital anomalies include pancreas divisum, annular pancreas and ectopic pancreas. Patients with pancreas divisum may be more susceptible to acute or chronic pancreatitis and patients with an annular pancreas may develop duodenal stenosis. In pancreas divisum the key finding is the visualization of the main duct draining into the duodenum via the small papilla, separated from the common bile duct. Annular pancreas may show as a well defined ring of pancreatic tissue that encircles the duodenum. Ectopic pancreas is usually asymptomatic but may give rise to abdominal complaints and may be confused with submucosal tumors. Acute pancreatitis is classified as mild or severe. In mild forms ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice whereas in severe forms with extensive pancreatic and peripancreatic necroses computed tomography is the favored method. It is crucial to identify signs and criteria that come along with an increased risk of infection of the necroses. MRI plays an inferior role in the assessment of acute pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis is a longstanding inflammatory and fibrosing process causing pain and loss of function. Cross-section imaging is particularly in demand for the detection of complications and the differentiation from pancreatic cancer. Autoimmune pancreatitis is a unique form of chronic pancreatitis characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and fibrosis, and favourable response to corticosteroid treatment. (orig.)

  8. An Integrated Cell Purification and Genomics Strategy Reveals Multiple Regulators of Pancreas Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Cecil M.; Qu, Kun; Sugiyama, Takuya; Pauerstein, Philip T.; Liu, Yinghua; Tsai, Jennifer; Gu, Xueying; Ghodasara, Amar; Arda, H. Efsun; Zhang, Jiajing; Dekker, Joseph D.; Tucker, Haley O.; Chang, Howard Y.; Kim, Seung K.

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory logic underlying global transcriptional programs controlling development of visceral organs like the pancreas remains undiscovered. Here, we profiled gene expression in 12 purified populations of fetal and adult pancreatic epithelial cells representing crucial progenitor cell subsets, and their endocrine or exocrine progeny. Using probabilistic models to decode the general programs organizing gene expression, we identified co-expressed gene sets in cell subsets that revealed patterns and processes governing progenitor cell development, lineage specification, and endocrine cell maturation. Purification of Neurog3 mutant cells and module network analysis linked established regulators such as Neurog3 to unrecognized gene targets and roles in pancreas development. Iterative module network analysis nominated and prioritized transcriptional regulators, including diabetes risk genes. Functional validation of a subset of candidate regulators with corresponding mutant mice revealed that the transcription factors Etv1, Prdm16, Runx1t1 and Bcl11a are essential for pancreas development. Our integrated approach provides a unique framework for identifying regulatory genes and functional gene sets underlying pancreas development and associated diseases such as diabetes mellitus. PMID:25330008

  9. An integrated cell purification and genomics strategy reveals multiple regulators of pancreas development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil M Benitez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The regulatory logic underlying global transcriptional programs controlling development of visceral organs like the pancreas remains undiscovered. Here, we profiled gene expression in 12 purified populations of fetal and adult pancreatic epithelial cells representing crucial progenitor cell subsets, and their endocrine or exocrine progeny. Using probabilistic models to decode the general programs organizing gene expression, we identified co-expressed gene sets in cell subsets that revealed patterns and processes governing progenitor cell development, lineage specification, and endocrine cell maturation. Purification of Neurog3 mutant cells and module network analysis linked established regulators such as Neurog3 to unrecognized gene targets and roles in pancreas development. Iterative module network analysis nominated and prioritized transcriptional regulators, including diabetes risk genes. Functional validation of a subset of candidate regulators with corresponding mutant mice revealed that the transcription factors Etv1, Prdm16, Runx1t1 and Bcl11a are essential for pancreas development. Our integrated approach provides a unique framework for identifying regulatory genes and functional gene sets underlying pancreas development and associated diseases such as diabetes mellitus.

  10. Clinical imaging of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, G.; Gardiner, R.

    1987-01-01

    Featuring more than 300 high-quality radiographs and scan images, clinical imaging of the pancreas systematically reviews all appropriate imaging modalities for diagnosing and evaluating a variety of commonly encountered pancreatic disorders. After presenting a succinct overview of pancreatic embryology, anatomy, and physiology, the authors establish the clinical indications-including postoperative patient evaluation-for radiologic examination of the pancreas. The diagnostic capabilities and limitations of currently available imaging techniques for the pancreas are thoroughly assessed, with carefully selected illustrations depicting the types of images and data obtained using these different techniques. The review of acute and chronic pancreatitis considers the clinical features and possible complications of their variant forms and offers guidance in selecting appropriate imaging studies

  11. Microcystic adenoma of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcystic adenoma of the pancreas is a rare benign tumour of the pancreas without malignant potential which usually appears in older women. Pain weight loss, palpable mass and jaundice (if the tumor is localized in the head of the pancreas are the main symptoms. Thanks to the modern imaging techniques (US, CT, FNB the tumor is discovered and with rising frequency exactly preoperatively diagnosed. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice. In risk patients without symptoms surgery is not necessary but patients have to be regularly followed-up. The authors present a 70-year old woman in whom, because of constant epigastric pain, a multicystic mass of the pancreatic body, 58 x 40 mm in diameter, was discovered and removed by distal pancreatectomy. The spleen could not be saved. Histologic examination showed a microcystic adenoma. Three years after surgery the patient is symptom-free with normal ultra-sonographic findings.

  12. Design of a bioartificial pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareta, Rajesh A; Farney, Alan C; Opara, Emmanuel C

    2013-01-01

    Summary Islet transplantation has been shown to be a viable treatment option for patients afflicted with Type 1 diabetes. However, the severe shortage of human pancreas and the need to use risky immunosuppressive drugs to prevent transplant rejection remain two major obstacles to routine use of islet transplantation in diabetic patients. Successful development of a bioartificial pancreas using the approach of microencapsulation with perm-selective coating of islets in hydrogels for graft immunoisolation holds tremendous promise for diabetic patients because it has great potential to overcome these two barriers. In this review article, we will discuss the need for bioartificial pancreas, provide a detailed description of the microencapsulation process, and review the status of the technology in clinical development. We will also critically review the various factors that need to be taken into consideration in order to achieve the ultimate goal of routine clinical application. PMID:23652283

  13. The effect of radiation on the function of the residual pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Yoshisuke; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Kamada, Tadashi; Irie, Goro

    1987-01-01

    For patients with carcinomas of the bile duct and the pancreas, a pancreatoduodenectomy is generally the first choise of treatment. In our institute, the residual pancreas after surgery is transplanted into the abdominal wall in order to prevent diabetes mellites. We irradiated the residual pancreas postoperatively with a dosage of 15 to 43 Gy in order to inhibit the exocrine function. We then removed the drainage catheter from the residual pancreas. In the treatment, the endocrine function can be preserved. With respect to the radiation effect on the exocrine function, the amount of pancreatic secretion showed a transient increase in the first few days after the start of the irradiation, followed by a mild decrease. The serum amylase decreased immediatelly after the start of irradiation and increased sequentially during long-term observations. The amylase in the pancreatic juice showed a remarkable decrease immediatelly after the start of irradiation, and this decrease was maintained during long-term observations (The minimum level was observed from the dosage of 20 to 30 Gy). In order to analyse the radiation effect on the endocrine function, 50 g OGTTs were performed before and after irradiation in thirteen patients. In two of the thirteen patients, the results of the tests showed a new diabetic pattern after irradiation, which required insulin in one patient. It was concluded from our study that irradiation to the residual pancreas with in the dosage of 15 to 43 Gy the catheters in the residual pancreas could be removed in fourteen of fifteen patients without any unfavorable effect. (author)

  14. Immunohistochemistry detected and localized cannabinoid receptor type 2 in bovine fetal pancreas at late gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Dall'Aglio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, data on the endocannabinoid system expression and distribution in the pancreatic gland appear scarce and controversial as descriptions are limited to humans and laboratory animals. Since the bovine pancreas is very similar to the human in endocrine portion development and control, studies on the fetal gland could prove to be very interesting, as an abnormal maternal condition during late pregnancy may be a predisposing trigger for adult metabolic disorders. The present investigation studied cannabinoid receptor type 2 presence and distribution in the bovine fetal pancreas towards the end of gestation. Histological analyses revealed numerous endocrinal cell clusters or islets which were distributed among exocrine adenomeri in connectival tissue. Immunohistochemistry showed that endocrine-islets contained some CB2-positive cells with a very peculiar localization that is a few primarily localized at the edges of islets and some of them also scattered in the center of the cluster. Characteristically, also the epithelium of the excretory ducts and the smooth muscle layers of the smaller arteries, in the interlobular glandular septa, tested positive for the CB2 endocannabinoid receptor. Conse - quently, the endocannabinoid system, via the cannabinoid receptor type 2, was hypothesized to play a major role in controlling pancreas function from normal fetal development to correct metabolic functioning in adulthood.

  15. The economics of pancreas surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Charles M

    2013-06-01

    Pancreas surgery is a paradigm for high-acuity surgical specialization. Given the current intrigue over containing health care expenditures, pancreas surgery provides an ideal model to investigate the cost of care. This article explores the economics of this field from literature accrued over the last 2 decades. The cost of performing a pancreatic resection is established and then embellished with a discussion of the effects of clinical care paths. Then the influence of complications on costs is explored. Next, cost is investigated as an emerging outcome metric regarding variations in pancreatic surgical care. Finally, the societal-level fiscal impact is considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Tachykinins in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Tornøe, K; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2000-01-01

    The localization, release, and effects of substance P and neurokinin A were studied in the porcine pancreas and the localization of substance P immunoreactive nerve fibers was examined by immunohistochemistry. The effects of electrical vagus stimulation and capsaicin infusion on tachykinin release...... and the effects of substance P and neurokinin A infusion on insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and exocrine secretion were studied using the isolated perfused porcine pancreas with intact vagal innervation. NK-1 and NK-2 receptor antagonists were used to investigate receptor involvement. Substance P immunoreactive...

  17. Nocardiosis in a Kidney-Pancreas Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fontana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available 34-year-old man with chronic renal and pancreas failure in complicated diabetic disease received a kidney-pancreas transplantation. On the 32nd postoperative day, an acute kidney rejection occurred and resolved with OKT3 therapy. The patient also presented refractory urinary infection by E. Fecalis and M. Morganii, and a focal bronchopneumonia in the right-basal lobe resolved with elective chemotherapy. During the 50th post-operative day, an intense soft tissue inflammation localized in the first left metatarsal-phalangeal articulation occurred (Figure 1 followed by an abscess with a cutaneous fistula and extension to the almost totality of foot area. The radiological exam revealed a small osteo-lacunar image localized in the proximal phalanx head of the first finger foot. From the cultural examination of the purulent material, N. Asteroides was identified. An amoxicillin-based treatment was started and continued for three months, with the complete resolution of infection This case is reported for its rarity in our casuistry, and for its difficult differential diagnosis with other potentially serious infections.

  18. MR imaging of pancreas in cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, S.; Robinson, A.E.; Mulvihill, D.M.; Stallworth, J.M.; Goyco, P.G.; Beckerman, R.C.; Hines, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The pancreatic regions of 18 patients with cystic fibrosis were analyzed with a 1.5 Tesla MR unit. Signal intensity of the pancreas was correlated with clinical data and ultrasound. A hyperintense pancreas on T1-weighted image was consistent with fatty replacement of pancreatic insufficiency. A pancreas of normal soft tissue intensity was found in two asymptomatic and one symptomatic patient. A very hypointense pancreas on any pulse sequence was considered to be an intermediate stage of pancreatic degeneration. (orig.)

  19. Squamous-lined cyst of the pancreas: Radiological–pathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, T.; Takeshita, T.; Shimono, T.; Hashimoto, S.; Miki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cystic lesions are increasingly being detected incidentally because of the increased use of cross-sectional imaging. Squamous-lined cysts of the pancreas (lymphoepithelial cyst, epidermoid cyst, and dermoid cyst) are rare cystic lesions lined with squamous epithelium. Distinguishing squamous-lined cysts from other cystic lesions of the pancreas is important to avoid unnecessary surgery, because squamous-lined cysts of the pancreas have no malignant potential. The purpose of this review is to describe findings on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and the histopathological characteristics of squamous-lined cysts, and to summarize the key points of differential diagnosis for pancreatic cystic lesions

  20. Surgical strategies in endocrine tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreinemakers, J.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Endocrine surgery has become more custom-made throughout the years. Endocrine tumors can be sporadic or develop as part of familial syndromes. Several familial syndromes are known to cause endocrine tumors. The most common are multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes type 1, 2A and 2B. This

  1. Early morphological and functional changes in pancreas following necrosectomy for acute severe necrotizing pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavare, Charudatta; Prabhu, Ramkrishna; Supe, Avinash

    2004-01-01

    Morphological and functional changes in the pancreas after surgical pancreatic necrosectomy have not been studied extensively. To study morphological changes in the pancreas, and exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function following pancreatic necrosectomy. Eighteen adult patients surviving at least one month after pancreatic necrosectomy for acute necrotizing pancreatitis were followed up. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography was done every six months. Stool fat was estimated at 3-month intervals, and need for and response to enzyme supplements were recorded. Blood sugar was measured every fortnight; in patients with hyperglycemia, need for oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin was recorded. Additional pancreatic imaging was done in some cases. Six weeks after surgery, nine of 18 patients had exocrine insufficiency. Thirteen patients developed endocrine insufficiency, including 5 who also had exocrine insufficiency. At the end of the study, 13 patients had endocrine insufficiency and 2 had exocrine insufficiency. Pancreatic size was subnormal in all patients at the end of six months. Pancreatography in three cases did not reveal any ductal abnormality. Necrotizing pancreatitis affects pancreatic exocrine or endocrine function in more than half the patients.

  2. SOLID PSEUDOPAPILLARY TUMOUR OF THE PANCREAS: A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingam Aruna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Solid pseudopapillary tumour of the pancreas is a rare tumour of low malignant potential occurring predominantly in young females. Its incidence has been increasing due to advanced imaging modalities. As this tumour offers a good prognosis, it is important to make a proper diagnosis to offer better treatment and reduce morbidity. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective study for a period of 2 years (From May 2014 to April 2016. Of the 52 pancreatic specimens we received after surgery, 9 cases had a prior radiological diagnosis of solid pseudopapillary tumour of the pancreas. The clinical and histopathological characteristics of SPT were studied along with review of literature. Whipple resection specimens which were radiologically diagnosed as adenocarcinoma of the periampullary region were excluded. RESULTS Nine cases were reported radiologically as papillary neoplasm of pancreas. On histopathology, 8 of them were confirmed as solid pseudopapillary tumours of the pancreas. One was a case of serous cystadenoma and other one was pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour. One case which was suspected as pancreatic endocrine tumour radiologically was diagnosed as SPT. CONCLUSION SPT typically is limited to the pancreas at the time of diagnosis, and even with metastasis, an extended complete surgical excision offers good prognosis. Hence, it is important to distinguish it from other tumours of similar morphology. In this study, we discuss the process of establishing the diagnosis accurately of SPN in young patients presenting with pancreatic mass.

  3. Clinical study on the size of the pancreas in young-onset diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Makoto

    1983-01-01

    The size and form of the pancreas were elucidated by the computed tomography (CT) and the relation between the size and function was investigated in 26 young-onset diabetics - 13 with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and 13 with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) - and 10 normal controls. The ventrodorsal (V-D) diameter of the pancreas was significantly smaller in IDDM (13.1 +- 2.2 mm, Mean +- SD) than in NIDDM (17.9 +- 3.5 mm) and in normal controls(18.7 +- 2.9 mm). The V-D diameter/height ratio was also significantly smaller in IDDM (0.79 +- 0.14%). There was no significant correlation between the size of pancreas and the duration of the disease, regardless of the type of diabetes. The values of Σ CPR, serum P-Am, serum IRT and PFD test were significantly lower in IDDM than in NIDDM. There was a significant correlation between the V-D diameter and either result of Σ CPR or PFD test (r=0.529; r=0.592). Many patients with IDDM had small pancreas and showed marked decrease in the pancreatic endocrine and exocrine functions. In NIDDM, however, neither the size nor the function showed prominent decrease. These results suggest that a hypoplasty of the pancreas is responsible for the occurrence of the disease in the case of IDDM. (J.P.N.)

  4. Cystic lesion of pancreas - Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Baijal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN of the pancreas is an intraductal mucin-producing epithelial neoplasm that arises from the main and/or branched pancreatic duct. It usually presents as cystic lesion of pancreas. There are well known differential diagnosis of cystic pancreatic lesion. Pancreatic cystic neoplasms are detected at an increasing frequency due to an increased use of abdominal imaging. The diagnosis and treatment of intraductal papillary mucinous tumors (IPMN of the pancreas has evolved over the past decade. IPMN represents a spectrum of disease, ranging from benign to malignant lesions, making the early detection and characterization of these lesions important. Definitive management is surgical resection for appropriate candidates, as benign lesions harbor malignant potential. IPMN has a prognosis, which is different from adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. We report a case of a 58-year-old male with intraductal papillary neoplasm involving main duct and side branches presenting to us with clinical symptoms of chronic pancreatitis with obstructive jaundice and cholangitis treated surgically.

  5. Update in endocrine autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark S

    2008-10-01

    The endocrine system is a common target in pathogenic autoimmune responses, and there has been recent progress in our understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune endocrine diseases. Rapid progress has recently been made in our understanding of the genetic factors involved in endocrine autoimmune diseases. Studies on monogenic autoimmune diseases that include endocrine phenotypes like autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 and immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked have helped reveal the role of key regulators in the maintenance of immune tolerance. Highly powered genetic studies have found and confirmed many new genes outside of the established role of the human leukocyte antigen locus with these diseases, and indicate an essential role of immune response pathways in these diseases. Progress has also been made in identifying new autoantigens and the development of new animal models for the study of endocrine autoimmunity. Finally, although hormone replacement therapy is still likely to be a mainstay of treatment in these disorders, there are new agents being tested for potentially treating and reversing the underlying autoimmune process. Although autoimmune endocrine disorders are complex in etiology, these recent advances should help contribute to improved outcomes for patients with, or at risk for, these disorders.

  6. Expression of SMAD signal transduction molecules in the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Michael; Hougaard, D.; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2001-01-01

    Members of the TGF-beta superfamily of cytokines have been implicated in pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis and in regulation and differentiation of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine cells. Different TGF-beta members signal through phosphorylation of different signal transduction proteins, which eve...

  7. Acinar Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas with Colon Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Asayama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas with colon involvement that was difficult to distinguish from primary colon cancer. A 60-year-old man was admitted with a 1-month history of diarrhea. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT revealed a large tumor (10.6×11.6 cm at the splenic flexure of the colon. Colonoscopy showed completely round ulcerative lesions, and biopsy revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Left hemicolectomy, resection of the jejunum and pancreas body and tail, and splenectomy were performed based on a diagnosis of descending colon cancer (cT4N0M0, stage IIB, and surgery was considered to be curative. Diagnosis was subsequently confirmed as moderately differentiated acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas by immunohistochemical staining (pT3N0M0, stage IIA. Multiple liver metastases with portal thrombosis were found 8 weeks postoperatively. Despite combination chemotherapy with oral S-1 and gemcitabine, the patient died of hepatic failure with no effect of chemotherapy 14 weeks postoperatively. Correct diagnosis was difficult to determine preoperatively from the clinical, CT, and colonoscopy findings. Moreover, the disease was extremely aggressive even after curative resection. Physicians should consider pancreatic cancer in the differential diagnosis of similar cases.

  8. Pancreas-specific deletion of mouse Gata4 and Gata6 causes pancreatic agenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Shouhong; Borok, Matthew J.; Decker, Kimberly J.; Battle, Michele A.; Duncan, Stephen A.; Hale, Michael A.; Macdonald, Raymond J.; Sussel, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic agenesis is a human disorder caused by defects in pancreas development. To date, only a few genes have been linked to pancreatic agenesis in humans, with mutations in pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1) and pancreas-specific transcription factor 1a (PTF1A) reported in only 5 families with described cases. Recently, mutations in GATA6 have been identified in a large percentage of human cases, and a GATA4 mutant allele has been implicated in a single case. In the mouse, Gata4 and Gata6 are expressed in several endoderm-derived tissues, including the pancreas. To analyze the functions of GATA4 and/or GATA6 during mouse pancreatic development, we generated pancreas-specific deletions of Gata4 and Gata6. Surprisingly, loss of either Gata4 or Gata6 in the pancreas resulted in only mild pancreatic defects, which resolved postnatally. However, simultaneous deletion of both Gata4 and Gata6 in the pancreas caused severe pancreatic agenesis due to disruption of pancreatic progenitor cell proliferation, defects in branching morphogenesis, and a subsequent failure to induce the differentiation of progenitor cells expressing carboxypeptidase A1 (CPA1) and neurogenin 3 (NEUROG3). These studies address the conserved and nonconserved mechanisms underlying GATA4 and GATA6 function during pancreas development and provide a new mouse model to characterize the underlying developmental defects associated with pancreatic agenesis. PMID:23006325

  9. Hematologic and pancreatic endocrine abnormalities after ionisingirradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.; Smit, B.

    1986-01-01

    Besides the use of ionizing irradiation in the treatment of malignant tumours of the abdominal cavity, irradiation has also been documented to suppress the classical organ allograft rejection response in man and experimental models. Recently, fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and subtotal bone-marrow irradiation has been proved successfull in suppressing rejection of liver and kidney allografts in primates resulting in permanent tolerance. This study evaluates the detrimental side-effects of fractionated irradiation on peripheral blood, bone-marrow, pancreatic morphology and function in our primate model. Twenty primates received fractionated irradiation in doses of 800 (8 Gy) and 1000 (10 Gy) rads respectively administered at 100 rad (1 Gy) biweekly over a 4 to 5 week period. During the last weeks of irradiation 300 millilitres (ml) of donor specific blood was transfused in 50 ml aliquotes to combat the myelosuppressive effects of irradiation. Within 1 week of irradiation marked bonemarrow suppression was characterized by pancytopaenia and hypoplasia Pancreatic endocrine disturbances include hypoin-sulinaemia associated with mild glucose intolerance and reduced K-values. Significant pathological changes of the pancreas included nuclear and cytocavitary network changes affecting both endocrine and exocrine pancreatic elements. Although irradiation has proved to be a powerful immunosuppressive modality, significant haematological and organ damage occurred despite fractionation over a 4 to 5 week period

  10. Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzapfel, Konstantin; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Gaertner, Florian C.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the pancreas are rare entities. Functioning tumors tend to present early with specific symptoms and typical abnormalities in laboratory values. In contrast, non-functioning NET are often diagnosed with delay and become evident by tumor-related symptoms like pain, weight-loss or jaundice. The role of imaging is to localize and delineate the primary tumor and to detect metastases. In the diagnosis of NET radiologic techniques like computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are applied. In certain cases nuclear medicine techniques like somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) and positron emission tomography (PET) using radioactively labelled somatostatin analogues are used. The present article reviews characteristic imaging findings of both functioning and non-functioning NET of the pancreas. (orig.)

  11. "Ductal adenocarcinoma in anular pancreas".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassai, Giacomo; Perrotta, Stefano; Furino, Ermenegildo; De Werra, Carlo; Aloia, Sergio; Del Giudice, Roberto; Amato, Bruno; Vigliotti, Gabriele; Limite, Gennaro; Quarto, Gennaro

    2015-09-01

    The annular pancreas is a congenital anomaly in which pancreatic tissue partially or completely surrounds the second portion of the duodenum. Its often located above of papilla of Vater (85%), rarely below (15%). This pancreatic tissue is often easily dissociable to the duodenum but there is same cases where it the tissue is into the muscolaris wall of the duodenum. We describe three case of annular pancreas hospitalized in our facility between January 2004 and January 2009. There were 2 male 65 and 69 years old respectively and 1 female of 60 years old, presented complaining of repeated episodes of mild epigastric pain. Laboratory tests (including tumor markers), a direct abdomen X-ray with enema, EGDS and total body CT scan were performed to study to better define the diagnosis. EUS showed the presence of tissue infiltrating the muscle layer all around the first part of duodenum. Biopsies performed found the presence of pancreatic tissue with focal areas of adenocarcinoma. Subtotal gastrectomy with Roux was performed. The histological examinations shows an annular pancreas of D1 with multiple focal area of adenocarcinoma. (T1aN0M0). We performed a follow up at 5 years. One patients died after 36 months for cardiovascular hit. Two patients, one male and one female, was 5-years disease-free. Annular pancreas is an uncommon congenital anomaly which usually presents itself in infants and newborn. Rarely it can present in late adult life with wide range of clinical severities thereby making its diagnosis difficult. Pre-operative diagnosis is often difficult. CT scan can illustrate the pancreatic tissue encircling the duodenum. ERCP and MRCP are useful in outlining the annular pancreatic duct. Surgery still remains necessary to confirm diagnosis and bypassing the obstructed segment. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PPARγ regulates exocrine pancreas lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danino, Hila; Naor, Ronny Peri-; Fogel, Chen; Ben-Harosh, Yael; Kadir, Rotem; Salem, Hagit; Birk, Ruth

    2016-12-01

    Pancreatic lipase (triacylglycerol lipase EC 3.1.1.3) is an essential enzyme in hydrolysis of dietary fat. Dietary fat, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), regulate pancreatic lipase (PNLIP); however, the molecular mechanism underlying this regulation is mostly unknown. As PUFA are known to regulate expression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and as we identified in-silico putative PPARγ binding sites within the putative PNLIP promoter sequence, we hypothesized that PUFA regulation of PNLIP might be mediated by PPARγ. We used in silico bioinformatics tools, reporter luciferase assay, PPARγ agonists and antagonists, PPARγ overexpression in exocrine pancreas AR42J and primary cells to study PPARγ regulation of PNLIP. Using in silico bioinformatics tools we mapped PPARγ binding sites (PPRE) to the putative promoter region of PNLIP. Reporter luciferase assay in AR42J rat exocrine pancreas acinar cells transfected with various constructs of the putative PNLIP promoter showed that PNLIP transcription is significantly enhanced by PPARγ dose-dependently, reaching maximal levels with multi PPRE sites. This effect was significantly augmented in the presence of PPARγ agonists and reduced by PPARγ antagonists or mutagenesis abrogating PPRE sites. Over-expression of PPARγ significantly elevated PNLIP transcript and protein levels in AR42J cells and in primary pancreas cells. Moreover, PNLIP expression was up-regulated by PPARγ agonists (pioglitazone and 15dPGJ2) and significantly down-regulated by PPARγ antagonists in non-transfected rat exocrine pancreas AR42J cell line cells. PPARγ transcriptionally regulates PNLIP gene expression. This transcript regulation resolves part of the missing link between dietary PUFA direct regulation of PNLIP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Piswanger-Soelkner, Claudia; Wallner, Sandra J; Krause, Robert; Lipp, Rainer W

    2009-01-01

    During the last 100 years in medical literature, there are only 54 reports, including the report of Pasaoglu et al (World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14: 2915-2916), with clinical descriptions of agenesis of the dorsal pancreas in humans. Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas, a rare congenital pancreatic malformation, is associated with some other medical conditions such as hyperglycemia, abdominal pain, pancreatitis and a few other diseases. In approximately 50% of reported patients with this congenital malformation, hyperglycemia was demonstrated. Evaluation of hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus in all patients with agenesis of the dorsal pancreas including description of fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, glycated hemoglobin and medical treatment would be a future goal. Since autosomal dominant transmission has been suggested in single families, more family studies including imaging technologies with demonstration of the pancreatic duct system are needed for evaluation of this disease. With this letter to the editor, we aim to increase available information for the better understanding of this rare disease. PMID:19140241

  14. Annular pancreas in adult: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira Neto, M.

    1992-01-01

    A case of a patient complaining of recurrent symptomatology of the upper abdomen and sub occlusion of the gastrointestinal tract with stenosis of the second portion of duodenum and mass evolving the head of pancreas at echographic study, confirmed by CT is presented. Contrasted oral studies confirmed that the mass evolved the stenotic segment, suggesting annular pancreas. Surgery confirmed the presence of annular pancreas surrounding the second portion of duodenum. (author)

  15. Management of endocrine orbitopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahaly, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    Endocrine orbitopathy is the most common extrathyroidal manifestation of Basedow's disease and is characterized by a lymphocyte infiltration of the peribulbar space. Infiltrating and activated T cells react with orbital target cells and secrete cytokines, leading to accumulation of glycosaminoglycans, interstitial edema, and enlargement of the extra ocular muscels. Interdisciplinary management is recommended for rapid diagnosis and effective therapy of patients with endocrine orbitopathy. Immunosuppressive treatment is often used initially, and by suppressing inflammatory changes, it can result in subjective and objective improvement of thyroid eye disease. (orig.) [de

  16. Endoscopic Ultrasound Elastography: Current Clinical Use in Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Utpal; Henkes, Nichole; Patel, Sandeep; Rosenkranz, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Elastography is a newer technique for the assessment of tissue elasticity using ultrasound. Cancerous tissue is known to be stiffer (hence, less elastic) than corresponding healthy tissue, and as a result, could be identified in an elasticity-based imaging. Ultrasound elastography has been used in the breast, thyroid, and cervix to differentiate malignant from benign neoplasms and to guide or avoid unnecessary biopsies. In the liver, elastography has enabled a noninvasive and reliable estimate of fibrosis. Endoscopic ultrasound has become a robust diagnostic and therapeutic tool for the management of pancreatic diseases. The addition of elastography to endoscopic ultrasound enabled further characterization of pancreas lesions, and several European and Asian studies have reported encouraging results. The current clinical role of endoscopic ultrasound elastography in the management of pancreas disorders and related literature are reviewed.

  17. What Is Men's Endocrine Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search form Search What is Men's Endocrine Health? Men's endocrine health incorporates physical activity and sound nutrition to maintain a strong body; however, a major emphasis includes male sexuality ...

  18. Statistical Data on 2556 Cases of Endocrine Glands Disorders in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BAHADORI

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a statistical and analytical review of endocrine glands disorders, seen in the Department of Pathology, Tehran University Medical School, and is based on approximately 40,000 surgical specimens and 2,500 autopsy cases. Of 42,500 combined routine surgical and autopsy cases reviewed, we had 2,556 cases of endocrine disorders of which there: thyroid 1,125 cases, ovary 970, testis 268, adrenal gland 170, pancreas 156, parathyroid 24 and pituitary gland 23. Principal lesions of each gland have been discussed, and in some cases attempt has been made to analyse and compare the clinical symptoms with the pathological findings.

  19. Copper, manganese, zinc and magnesium content in endocrine organs of horses, cattle and pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeckl, W; Weiser, M

    1968-07-01

    In horses, cattle and pigs the content of copper, manganese, zinc and magnesium was determined in the pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, pancreas, ovary and thymus, and the mean values and standard deviations were determined. Within the same animal there were considerable variations of each element as between the different endocrine glands and similar significant differences from one animal to another. These results are not extensive enough to permit any conclusion on the relationship of the examined elements to the endocrine function or their influence on the enzyme activity. 1 table.

  20. Processing, distribution, and function of VGF, a neuronal and endocrine peptide precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Andrea; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Watson, Elizabeth; Possenti, Roberta; Salton, Stephen R J

    2004-08-01

    1. The vgf gene encodes a neuropeptide precursor with a restricted pattern of expression that is limited to a subset of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems and to specific populations of endocrine cells in the adenohypophysis, adrenal medulla, gastrointestinal tract, and pancreas. In responsive neurons, vgf transcription is upregulated by neurotrophins. the basis for the original identification of VGF as nerve growth factor- (NGF) inducible in PC12 cells (A. Levi, J. D. Eldridge, and B. M. Paterson, Science 229:393-395, 1985). 2. In this review, we shall summarize data concerning the transcriptional regulation of vgf in vitro, the structural organization of the vgf promoter as well as the transcription factors which regulate its activity. 3. On the basis of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies, the in vivo tissue-specific expression of VGF during differentiation and in the adult will be summarized. 4. Parallel biochemical data will be reviewed, addressing the proteolytical processing of the pro-VGF precursor within the secretory compartment of neuroendocrine cells. 5. Finally, analysis of the phenotype of VGF knockout mice will be discussed, implying a nonredundant role of VGF products in the regulation of energy storage and expenditure.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a severe disorder that usually begins ...

  2. Incorporating an Exercise Detection, Grading, and Hormone Dosing Algorithm Into the Artificial Pancreas Using Accelerometry and Heart Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Peter G.; Resalat, Navid; El Youssef, Joseph; Reddy, Ravi; Branigan, Deborah; Preiser, Nicholas; Condon, John; Castle, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present several important contributions necessary for enabling an artificial endocrine pancreas (AP) system to better respond to exercise events. First, we show how exercise can be automatically detected using body-worn accelerometer and heart rate sensors. During a 22 hour overnight inpatient study, 13 subjects with type 1 diabetes wearing a Zephyr accelerometer and heart rate monitor underwent 45 minutes of mild aerobic treadmill exercise while controlling their glucose ...

  3. Sleep and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2015-07-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Imaging of endocrine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, B.K.; Noreen Norfaraheen Lee Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the role of nuclear medicine in the study of morphology and pathophysiology of various endocrine organs has greatly expanded. Newly developed radiopharmaceuticals, new instrumentation, innovative study designs and dual isotope techniques have contributed significantly to the evaluation of parathyroid and adrenal diseases. In selected cases, patients with metabolic bone disorders and infertility have greatly been benefited. (author)

  5. Endocrine System (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problems With the Endocrine System Print en español Sistema endócrino Although we rarely think about them, the ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  6. The Endocrine Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillman, David

    1987-01-01

    Promotes a reductionist approach to teaching about the endocrine system in high school biology and anatomy courses. Encourages the study of how hormones travel to the cells and affect them. Provides suggestions for activities and discussion questions, along with sample diagrams and flow charts. (TW)

  7. Nigerian Endocrine Practice: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Articles should be restricted to clinical or basic studies, particularly translational research, which add new information to the etiology, treatment, and outcomes of endocrine disorders that have not been published previously. These manuscripts should be restricted to 3,500 words, no more than 40 references, and no ...

  8. Nigerian Endocrine Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal accepts original contributions related to the practice and science of clinical endocrinology, articles updating the clinical endocrinologist on current areas of interest in the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine disorders, articles discussing dilemma facing endocrinologists in the clinical, social, and ethical arena of ...

  9. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-01-01

    The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...

  10. The pancreas from Aristotle to Galen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Ryoichi; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Eguchi, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    The first description of the pancreas in literature is found in Aristotle's Historia Animalium, but it is modified by "so-called". Therefore, the origin is pursued more extensively. The Greek-English Lexicon recommends three treatises as a possible original source. These three and Galen's other papers are investigated. In 2005, Sachs et al. suggested an origin of the pancreas might have derived from the intestinal divination using the avian pancreas. This report is evaluated. The avian pancreas which is the intraperitoneal organ, might have been well known by the intestinal divination, and people have called the organ pankreas or kallikreas. Anatomical dissection on human body was not accepted before the Aristotle's time. "So-called pancreas" in Historia must have been interpolated by Theophrastus. He was the most faithful and reliable disciple of Aristotle and succeeded the Aristotle's school. He and Macedonian ruler of Egypt Ptolemy I had known each other and there had been a strong link between them. The contemporary Herophilus performed many public dissections on both human and animal bodies in Alexandria. He named the various parts of the human body and designated the beginning intestine as duodenum. Yet in his extant works, the pancreas is not found. It is surmised that Herophilus may be the first to recognize the human pancreas, which is fixed with retroperitoneal tissue, and he named it "so-called pancreas". Theophrastus might have interpolated Herophilus' designation in Historia Animalium. Galen also uses "so-called pancreas" to designate the human pancreas. Galen's descriptions, that is, "Nature created 'so-called pancreas 'and spread it beneath all vessels" are not generally acceptable but propose the very rare portal vein anomalies. Since the early years of the 20th century, cases with a preduodenal portal vein or a prepancreatic portal vein have been reported. Although the incidence is very rare, its surgical importance is emphasized. Copyright © 2014

  11. CT-arteriography of pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Jun; Matsui, Osamu; Kitagawa, Kiyohide; Kamimura, Ryoichi; Kadoya, Masumi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Takashima, Tutomu

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate diagnostic effectiveness of CT-arteriography (CTA) in pancreatic disease, the pictures of pancreatic CTA were analysed in 50 cases without pancreatic disease. In the pancreatic body, irregular spotty stain was seen in 15 out of 50 cases(30%). Especially, in patients who had dorsal pancreatic artery arising from superior mesenteric artery, this stain was seen in 9 out of 13 cases(69%) and its mechanism was considered to be double blood supply both from celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery. As a consequence, we think that CTA of pancreas is unusefull in diagnosis of pancreatic insulinomas or carcinomas. (author)

  12. Diagnostic imaging of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tsutomu; Itai, Yuji

    1981-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging of the pancreas, ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), radionuclide (RN) scintigraphy, angiography, and endoscopic retrograde pancreaticography (ERP). First three noninvasive methods, were the most effective to diagnose psudo-cyst or cystoadenoma. Especially, CT gives the clear image of inflammation and shows pancreatic stones and calcification, with high sensitivity. As for pancreatic carcinomas there was no noninvasive methods to apply at an early stage. In order to diagnose the cancer the combination of angiography and ERP was preferable. The problem was how to select the candidates for the investigation of combined method out of the patients with negative CT or US. (Tsunoda, M.)

  13. Cybersecurity in Artificial Pancreas Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Derek T; Maraka, Spyridoula; Basu, Ananda; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Kudva, Yogish C

    2015-09-01

    Medical devices have transformed modern health care, and ongoing experimental medical technology trials (such as the artificial pancreas) have the potential to significantly improve the treatment of several chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus. However, we suggest that, to date, the essential concept of cybersecurity has not been adequately addressed in this field. This article discusses several key issues of cybersecurity in medical devices and proposes some solutions. In addition, it outlines the current requirements and efforts of regulatory agencies to increase awareness of this topic and to improve cybersecurity.

  14. CT-arteriography of pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Jun; Matsui, Osamu; Kitagawa, Kiyohide; Kamimura, Ryoichi; Kadoya, Masumi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Takashima, Tutomu

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate diagnostic effectiveness of CT-arteriography (CTA) in pancreatic disease, the pictures of pancreatic CTA were analysed in 50 cases without pancreatic disease. In the pancreatic body, irregular spotty stain was seen in 15 out of 50 cases(30%). Especially, in patients who had dorsal pancreatic artery arising from superior mesenteric artery, this stain was seen in 9 out of 13 cases(69%) and its mechanism was considered to be double blood supply both from celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery. As a consequence, we think that CTA of pancreas is unusefull in diagnosis of pancreatic insulinomas or carcinomas. (author).

  15. Arteriovenous Malformation of the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Charalabopoulos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic arteriovenous malformation (PAVM is a very rare and mostly congenital lesion, with less than 80 cases described in the English-published literature. It is defined as a tumorous vascular abnormality that is constructed between an anomalous bypass anastomosis of the arterial and venous networks within the pancreas. It represents about 5% of all arteriovenous malformations found in the gastrointestinal tract. Herein, we present a 64-year-old patient with symptomatic PAVM involving the body and tail of the organ, which was successfully treated by transcatheter arterial embolization. The disease spectrum and review of the literature are also presented.

  16. An Apparent Deficiency of Lymphatic Capillaries in the Islets of Langerhans in the Human Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsgren, Erik; Korsgren, Olle

    2016-04-01

    The lymphatic system is crucial for efficient immune surveillance and for the maintenance of a physiological pressure in the interstitial space. Even so, almost no information is available concerning the lymph drainage of the islets of Langerhans in the human pancreas. Immunohistochemical staining allowed us to distinguish lymphatic capillaries from blood capillaries. Almost no lymphatic capillaries were found within the islets in pancreatic biopsy specimens from subjects without diabetes or from subjects with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Lymphatic capillaries were, however, found at the islet-exocrine interface, frequently located along blood capillaries and other fibrotic structures within or close to the islet capsule. Lymphatic capillaries were regularly found in the exocrine pancreas, with small lymphatic vessels located close to and around acini. Larger collecting lymphatic vessels were located in fibrotic septa between the exocrine lobules and adjacent to the ductal system of the pancreas. In summary, we report a pronounced deficiency of lymphatic capillaries in human islets, a finding with implications for immune surveillance and the regulation of interstitial fluid transport in the endocrine pancreas as well as for the pathophysiology of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  17. Islet alloautotransplantation: Allogeneic pancreas transplantation followed by transplant pancreatectomy and islet transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhoff, M F; Dubbeld, J; van Erkel, A R; van der Boog, P J M; Rabelink, T J; Engelse, M A; de Koning, E J P

    2018-04-01

    Simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation is an important treatment option for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to complications, in up to 10% of patients, allograft pancreatectomy is necessary shortly after transplantation. Usually the donor pancreas is discarded. Here, we report on a novel procedure to rescue endocrine tissue after allograft pancreatectomy. A 39-year-old woman with T1D and ESRD who had undergone SPK transplantation required emergency allograft pancreatectomy due to bleeding at the vascular anastomosis. Islets were isolated from the removed pancreas allograft, and almost 480 000 islet equivalents were infused into the portal vein. The patient recovered fully. After 3 months, near-normal mixed meal test (fasting glucose 7.0 mmol/L, 2-hour glucose 7.5 mmol/L, maximal stimulated C-peptide 3.25 nmol/L, without insulin use in the preceding 36 hours) was achieved. Glycated hemoglobin while taking a low dose of long-acting insulin was 32.7 mmol/mol hemoglobin (5.3%). When a donor pancreas is lost after transplantation, rescue β cell therapy by islet alloautotransplantation enables optimal use of scarce donor pancreata to optimize glycemic control without additional HLA alloantigen exposure. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  18. Congenital anomalies, hereditary diseases of the pancreas, acute and chronic pancreatitis; Entwicklungsstoerungen, angeborene Erkrankungen des Pankreas, akute und chronische Pankreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Juchems, Markus [Universitaetsklinikum Ulm (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2011-06-15

    The most important congenital anomalies include pancreas divisum, annular pancreas and ectopic pancreas. Patients with pancreas divisum may be more susceptible to acute or chronic pancreatitis and patients with an annular pancreas may develop duodenal stenosis. In pancreas divisum the key finding is the visualization of the main duct draining into the duodenum via the small papilla, separated from the common bile duct. Annular pancreas may show as a well defined ring of pancreatic tissue that encircles the duodenum. Ectopic pancreas is usually asymptomatic but may give rise to abdominal complaints and may be confused with submucosal tumors. Acute pancreatitis is classified as mild or severe. In mild forms ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice whereas in severe forms with extensive pancreatic and peripancreatic necroses computed tomography is the favored method. It is crucial to identify signs and criteria that come along with an increased risk of infection of the necroses. MRI plays an inferior role in the assessment of acute pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis is a longstanding inflammatory and fibrosing process causing pain and loss of function. Cross-section imaging is particularly in demand for the detection of complications and the differentiation from pancreatic cancer. Autoimmune pancreatitis is a unique form of chronic pancreatitis characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and fibrosis, and favourable response to corticosteroid treatment. (orig.)

  19. Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davies, Karen

    2009-04-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors are rare neoplasms accounting for less than 5% of pancreatic malignancies. They are broadly classified into either functioning tumors (insulinomas, gastrinomas, glucagonomas, VIPomas, and somatostatinomas) or nonfunctioning tumors. The diagnosis of these tumors is difficult and requires a careful history and examination combined with laboratory tests and radiologic imaging. Signs and symptoms are usually related to hormone hypersecretion in the case of functioning tumors and to tumor size or metastases with nonfunctioning tumors. Surgical resection remains the treatment of choice even in the face of metastatic disease. Further development of novel diagnostic and treatment modalities offers potential to greatly improve quality of life and prolong disease-free survival for patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors.

  20. Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davies, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors are rare neoplasms accounting for less than 5% of pancreatic malignancies. They are broadly classified into either functioning tumors (insulinomas, gastrinomas, glucagonomas, VIPomas, and somatostatinomas) or nonfunctioning tumors. The diagnosis of these tumors is difficult and requires a careful history and examination combined with laboratory tests and radiologic imaging. Signs and symptoms are usually related to hormone hypersecretion in the case of functioning tumors and to tumor size or metastases with nonfunctioning tumors. Surgical resection remains the treatment of choice even in the face of metastatic disease. Further development of novel diagnostic and treatment modalities offers potential to greatly improve quality of life and prolong disease-free survival for patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors.

  1. Ectopic pancreas with pseudocyst and pseudoaneurysm formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surov, A.; Hainz, M.; Hinz, L.; Holzhausen, H.-J.; Finke, R.; Spielmann, R.-P.; Kunze, C.

    2009-01-01

    Ectopic pancreas is a rare congenital anomaly. It is usually asymptomatic, or presents with non specific gastrointestinal symptoms. We describe here a case of ectopic pancreas in the gastric antrum, with pseudocyst and pseudoaneurysm formation. This entity has not been reported previously in the literature.

  2. Ectopic pancreas in a giant mediastinal cyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Wilson W.; van Boven, Wim Jan; Jurhill, Roy R.; Bonta, Peter I.; Annema, Jouke T.; de Mol, Bas A.

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic pancreas located in the mediastium is an extremely rare anomaly. We present a case of an ectopic pancreas located in a giant mediastinal cyst in an 18-year-old man. He presented with symptoms of dyspnea due to external compression of the cyst on the left main bronchus. Complete surgical

  3. Developmental biology of the Psammomys obesus pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedtofte, Louise; Bödvarsdóttir, Thóra B; Karlsen, Allan E

    2007-01-01

    The desert gerbil Psammomys obesus, an established model of type 2 diabetes (T2D), has previously been shown to lack pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (Pdx-1) expression. Pdx-1 deficiency leads to pancreas agenesis in both mice and humans. We have therefore further examined the pancreas of ...

  4. Primary hydatid cysts of the pancreas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    Hydatid cysts of the pancreas are rare. The reported incidence varies from 0.1% to 2% of patients with hydatid disease.4-7. Management may be diffi- cult as a hydatid cyst in the head of the pancreas may closely simulate a cystic tumour. In this study we report 4 cases of primary hydatid cysts involving the head of the ...

  5. Resection for secondary malignancy of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jui-Hsia; Wang, Shin-E; Shyr, Yi-Ming; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Chen, Tien-Hua; Wu, Chew-Wun

    2012-01-01

    This study tried to clarify the role of pancreatic resection in the treatment of secondary malignancy with metastasis or local invasion to the pancreas in terms of surgical risk and survival benefit. Data of secondary malignancy of the pancreas from our 19 patients and cases reported in the English literature were pooled together for analysis. There were 329 cases of resected secondary malignancy of the pancreas, including 241 cases of metastasis and 88 cases of local invasion. The most common primary tumor metastatic to the pancreas and amenable to resection was renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (73.9%). More than half (52.3%) of the primary cancers with local invasion to the pancreas were colon cancer, and nearly half (40.9%) were stomach cancer. The median metastatic interval was 84 months (7 years) for overall primary tumors and 108 months (9 years) for RCC. The 5-year survival for secondary malignancy of the pancreas after resection was 61.1% for metastasis and 58.9% for local invasion, with 72.8% for RCC metastasis, 69.0% for colon cancer, and 43.8% for stomach cancer with local invasion to the pancreas. Pancreatic resection should not be precluded for secondary malignancy of the pancreas because long-term survival could be achieved with acceptable surgical risk in selected patients.

  6. Minimally Invasive Management of Ectopic Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Gerardo A; Cavnar, Michael J; Hajdu, Cristina; Khaykis, Inessa; Newman, Elliot; Melis, Marcovalerio; Pachter, H Leon; Cohen, Steven M

    2017-03-01

    The management of ectopic pancreas is not well defined. This study aims to determine the prevalence of symptomatic ectopic pancreas and identify those who may benefit from treatment, with a particular focus on robotically assisted surgical management. Our institutional pathology database was queried to identify a cohort of ectopic pancreas specimens. Additional clinical data regarding clinical symptomatology, diagnostic studies, and treatment were obtained through chart review. Nineteen cases of ectopic pancreas were found incidentally during surgery for another condition or found incidentally in a pathologic specimen (65.5%). Eleven patients (37.9%) reported prior symptoms, notably abdominal pain and/or gastrointestinal bleeding. The most common locations for ectopic pancreas were the duodenum and small bowel (31% and 27.6%, respectively). Three out of 29 cases (10.3%) had no symptoms, but had evidence of preneoplastic changes on pathology, while one harbored pancreatic cancer. Over the years, treatment of ectopic pancreas has shifted from open to laparoscopic and more recently to robotic surgery. Our experience is in line with existing evidence supporting surgical treatment of symptomatic or complicated ectopic pancreas. In the current era, minimally invasive and robotic surgery can be used safely and successfully for treatment of ectopic pancreas.

  7. Structural similarities and differences between the human and the mouse pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenšek, Jurij; Rupnik, Marjan Slak; Stožer, Andraž

    2015-01-01

    Mice remain the most studied animal model in pancreas research. Since the findings of this research are typically extrapolated to humans, it is important to understand both similarities and differences between the 2 species. Beside the apparent difference in size and macroscopic organization of the organ in the 2 species, there are a number of less evident and only recently described differences in organization of the acinar and ductal exocrine tissue, as well as in the distribution, composition, and architecture of the endocrine islets of Langerhans. Furthermore, the differences in arterial, venous, and lymphatic vessels, as well as innervation are potentially important. In this article, the structure of the human and the mouse pancreas, together with the similarities and differences between them are reviewed in detail in the light of conceivable repercussions for basic research and clinical application. PMID:26030186

  8. Functional imaging of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Fumiko

    1984-01-01

    An image processing technique for functional imaging of the pancreas was developed and is here reported. In this paper, clinical efficacy of the technique for detecting pancreatic abnormality is evaluated in comparison with conventional pancreatic scintigraphy and CT. For quantitative evaluation, functional rate, i.e. the rate of normal functioning pancreatic area, was calculated from the functional image and subtraction image. Two hundred and ninety-five cases were studied using this technique. Conventional image had a sensitivity of 65 % and a specificity of 78 %, while the use of functional imaging improved sensitivity to 88 % and specificity to 88 %. The mean functional rate in patients with pancreatic disease was significantly lower (33.3+-24.5 in patients with chronic pancreatitis, 28.1+-26.9 in patients with acute pancreatitis, 43.4+-22.3 in patients with diabetes mellitus, 20.4+-23.4 in patients with pancreatic cancer) than the mean functional rate in cases without pancreatic disease (86.4+-14.2). It is suggested that functional image of the pancreas reflecting pancreatic exocrine function and functional rate is a useful indicator of pancreatic exocrine function. (author)

  9. Postoperative CT in pancreas transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, F.E.; Harper, S.J.F.; Callaghan, C.J.; Shaw, A.; Godfrey, E.M.; Bradley, J.A.; Watson, C.J.E.; Pettigrew, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To examine the usage and value of computed tomography (CT) following simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) transplantation. Materials and methods: Indications for postoperative CT, key findings, and their influence on management were determined by retrospective analysis. Results: Ninety-eight patients underwent 313 CT examinations. Common indications for the examinations included suspected intra-abdominal collection (31.1%) and elevated serum amylase/lipase (24.1%). CT findings most frequently showed non-specific mild inflammation (27.6%), a normal scan (17.1%) and fluid collections (16.3%). High capillary blood glucose (CBG) was associated with resultant CT demonstration of graft vascular abnormalities, but otherwise, particular clinical indications were not associated with specific CT findings. Conclusion: Clinical findings in patients with SPK transplants are non-specific. The pattern of abnormalities encountered is significantly different to those seen in native pancreatic disease and demands a tailored protocol. CT enables accurate depiction of vascular abnormalities and fluid collections, thus reducing the number of surgical interventions that might otherwise be required. Elevated CBG should prompt urgent CT to exclude potentially reversible vascular complications. - Highlights: • The value of CT following simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation was assessed. • 313 CT scans were performed on 98 patients between January 2005 and August 2010. • Elevated blood glucose was associated with CT findings of graft vascular anomalities. • CT was particularly useful in directing operative versus non-operative intervention.

  10. Renal cell carcinoma metastases to the pancreas - Value of arterial phase imaging at MDCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corwin, Michael T.; Lamba, Ramit; McGahan, John P.; Wilson, Machelle

    2013-01-01

    Background: The pancreas is an increasingly recognized site of renal cell carcinoma metastases. It is important to determine the optimal MDCT protocol to best detect RCC metastases to the pancreas. Purpose: To compare the rate of detection of renal cell carcinoma metastases to the pancreas between arterial and portal venous phase MDCT. Material and Methods: A retrospective review of CTs of the abdomen yielded six patients with metastatic RCC to the pancreas. Five of six patients had pathologically proven clear cell RCC. Two blinded reviewers independently reported the number of pancreatic lesions seen in arterial and venous phases. Each lesion was graded as definite or possible. The number of lesions was determined by consensus review of both phases. Attenuation values were obtained for metastatic lesions and adjacent normal pancreas in both phases. Results: There were a total of 24 metastatic lesions to the pancreas. Reviewer 1 identified 20/24 (83.3%) lesions on the arterial phase images and 13/24 (54.2%) lesions on the venous phase. Seventeen of 20 (85.0%) arterial lesions were deemed definite and 9/13 (69.2%) venous lesions were definite. Reviewer 2 identified 19/24 (79.2%) lesions on the arterial phase and 14/24 (58.3%) on the venous phase. Seventeen of 19 (89.5%) arterial lesions were definite and 7/14 (50%) venous lesions were definite. Mean attenuation differential between lesion and pancreas was 114 HU and 39 HU for arterial and venous phases, respectively (P<0.0001). Conclusion: Detection of RCC metastases to the pancreas at MDCT is improved using arterial phase imaging compared to portal venous phase imaging

  11. Diabetic and endocrine emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, T; Dang, C

    2007-01-01

    Endocrine emergencies constitute only a small percentage of the emergency workload of general doctors, comprising about 1.5% of all hospital admission in England in 2004–5. Most of these are diabetes related with the remaining conditions totalling a few hundred cases at most. Hence any individual doctor might not have sufficient exposure to be confident in their management. This review discusses the management of diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state, hypoglycaemia, hyperca...

  12. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-01-01

    The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...... during gestation. The neuroendocrine events and their timing in the placental, foetal and maternal compartments are critical for initiation and maintenance of pregnancy, for foetal growth and development, and for parturition. As pregnancy advances, the relative number of trophoblasts increase...

  13. Radiotherapy of endocrine orbitopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weischedel, U.; Wieland, C.

    1985-01-01

    After a review of the history and a discussion of recent theories about pathogenesis of endocrine ophthalmopathy the authros give a report on their radiotherapeutical treatment results with cobalt-60-γ-rays in 50 patients. Amelioration was achieved in 50% of the cases, in the other 50% no progression was seen. Radiotherapy is of antiphlogistic and functional effectivity and should be integrated in the treatment regime in early stages. (orig.) [de

  14. Computed tomographic evaluation of the altered pancreas in dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posch, B.

    2002-11-01

    Eighteen dogs and 12 cats of varying breed, age and sex underwent a computed tomographic study of the pancreas. Length, diameter and density of each lobe of the pancreas were measured. Further, the gained results were compared to the information established by the clinical examination, sonography, haematology and histology. Contrast CT improved evaluation of the pancreas in all cases of normal life controls. CT criteria such as changes in size, density, delimitation of the pancreas and the peripancreatic structures were analyzed. Increased pancreatic size was seen in inflammatory as well as in neoplastic diseases. There were no reliable computed tomographic criteria to differentiate pancreatic neoplasia from inflammation without peripancreatic findings. Ultrasonography proved to be a good screening method in this study: sonographic and computed tomographic results correlated in all cases with the exception of 5 cases. In contrast to ultrasonography CT could differentiate normal pancreas from pancreas atrophy. Computed tomography was superior to sonography in determining the full extent of pancreatic and peripancreatic signs due to the good overview and overall image of the abdominal structures. Serum chemistry of a- amylase and lipase were obtained in 28 animals. Assays of serum lipase and a- amylase activities were only able to detect acute pancreatitis in half of the canine cases. Despite morphological alterations detected with the help of sonography or CT, there were no significant increases in a- amylase and lipase in cats. Following computed tomography the pancreas of 10 animals was examined pathohistologically. With the exception of 2 cases the computed tomographic results correlated with the pathohistological findings. In conclusion, computed tomography (CT) proved to be a valuable method to evaluate the localization, the full extent and the seriousness of pancreatic lesions. (author)

  15. [Endocrine function in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Castro, Paula; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Brandón-Sandá, Iria; Cordido, Fernando

    2011-10-01

    Obesity is associated to significant disturbances in endocrine function. Hyper insulinemia and insulin resistance are the best known changes in obesity, but their mechanisms and clinical significance are not clearly established. Adipose tissue is considered to be a hormone-secreting endocrine organ; and increased leptin secretion from the adipocyte, a satiety signal, is a well-established endocrine change in obesity. In obesity there is a decreased GH secretion. Impairment of somatotropic function in obesity is functional and may be reversed in certain circumstances. The pathophysiological mechanism responsible for low GH secretion in obesity is probably multifactorial. There are many data suggesting that a chronic state of somatostatin hypersecretion results in inhibition of GH release. Increased FFA levels, as well as a deficient ghrelin secretion, probably contribute to the impaired GH secretion. In women, abdominal obesity is associated to hyperandrogenism and low sex hormone-binding globulin levels. Obese men, particularly those with morbid obesity, have decreased testosterone and gonadotropin levels. Obesity is associated to an increased cortisol production rate, which is compensated for by a higher cortisol clearance, resulting in plasma free cortisol levels that do not change when body weight increases. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic factor, and has been found to be decreased in obese people. In obesity there is also a trend to increased TSH and free T3 levels. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. A pancreas-preserving technique for the management of symptomatic pancreatic anastomotic insufficiency refractory to conservative treatment after pancreas head resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königsrainer, Ingmar; Zieker, Derek; Beckert, Stefan; Glatzle, Jörg; Schroeder, Torsten H; Heininger, Alexandra; Nadalin, Silvio; Königsrainer, Alfred

    2010-08-01

    Management of symptomatic pancreatic anastomotic insufficiency after pancreas head resection remains controversial. Completion pancreatectomy as one frequently performed option is associated with poor prognosis. During a 4-year period, a two-step strategy was applied in four consecutive patients suffering from pancreatic anastomotic insufficiency refractory to conservative management after a pancreas head resection. In the first step, sepsis was overbridged by meticulous debridement and resection of the pancreaticojejunostomy, leaving the biliary anastomosis untouched, and selective drainage of the pancreatic duct as well as the peripancreatic area. In the second step, after recovery, the procedure was completed with a novel pancreaticojejunostomy. The surgical procedure was completed in three patients after a mean of 164 (range: 112-213) days. One patient died from cardiac arrest 54 days after the reoperation with resolved abdominal sepsis. No pancreatic anastomotic insufficiency occurred after the new pancreaticojejunostomy had been performed. Three patients are alive and tumor-free with normal exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function after a mean follow-up of 20.3 (3-38) months following the definitive reconstruction. The two-step pancreas-preserving strategy can be used as an alternative to completion pancreatectomy for patients suffering from severe pancreatic anastomotic insufficiency.

  17. Metastatic tumor of the pancreas: helical CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soon Jin; Lee, Won Jae; Lim, Hyo Keun; Kim, Seung Hoon; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Choi, Sang Hee; Jang, Hyun Jung; Lee, Ji Yeon

    2000-01-01

    To analyze the helical computed tomographic (CT) findings of distant metastatic tumors to the pancreas and to determine the differential points between these and primary pamcreatic carcinomas. We sruveyed 22 patients with metastatic tumor of the pancreas, proven on the basis of clinical and pathological findings. Seventeen patients were men, and five were women, and their ages ranged between 36 and 83 years. Their primary conditions were lung cancer (n=3D15), rectal cancer (n=3D2), melanoma of the foot, chondrosarcoma of the sacrum, cervical cancer, leiomyosarcoma of the uterus, and extragonadal choriocarcinoma of the mediastinum. We retrospectively reviewed the abdominal helical CT findings, analysing the number, location, size and attenuation of masses, as well as secondary change, which included dilatation of the pancreatic and biliary ducts and invasion of peripancreatic tissue or vessels. We also evaluated the differential findings of primary pancreatic cancer. Sixteen patients had a solitary focal mass, while in five, two masses were present. Among the 22 patients, low-density nodular masses were present in 21; in the other, in whom multiple metastasis from chondrosarcoma had occurred, there was dense calcification. The size of metastatic masses varied, ranging from 0.6 to 6 cm in diameter. The pancreatic duct proximal to the mass was dilated in ten cases, while the bile duct was dilated in six. The metastatic masses masses demonstrated no peripancreatic or vascular invasion, though they showed a discrete margin and contour bulging. Single metastasis to the pancreas was most common, and metastatic masses had a discrete margin, with contour bulging. There was no peripancreatic or vascular invasion. If the metastasis involved a single low-attenuated mass, however, with pancreatic or biliary dilatation, it was difficult to differentiate this from primary pancreatic cancer. (author)

  18. Distribution and developmental changes of ghrelin-immunopositive cells in the pancreas of African ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J X; Li, P; Zhang, X T; Ye, L X

    2017-09-01

    Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is produced by multiple cell types and affects feeding behavior, metabolic regulation, and energy balance. In the mammalian pancreas, the types of endocrine cells that are immunoreactive to ghrelin vary. However, little was known about its distribution and developmental changes in the pancreas of African ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus). In the present study, the distribution, morphological characteristics, and developmental changes of ghrelin-immunopositive (ghrelin-ip) cells in the pancreas of African ostrich chicks were investigated using immunohistochemistry. Ghrelin-ip cells were found in both the pancreatic islets and acinar cell regions. The greatest number of ghrelin-ip cells were found in the pancreatic islets, and were primarily observed at the periphery of the islets; some ghrelin-ip cells were also located in the central portion of the pancreatic islets. Interestingly, from postnatal d 1 to d 90, there was a steady decrease in the number of ghrelin-ip cells in the pancreatic islets and acinar cell regions. These results clearly demonstrated that ghrelin-ip cells exist and decreased with age in the African ostrich pancreas from postnatal d 1 to d90. Thus, these findings indicated that ghrelin may be involved in the development of the pancreas in the African ostrich. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Robotic surgery of the pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Daniel; Morris-Stiff, Gareth; Falk, Gavin A; El-Hayek, Kevin; Chalikonda, Sricharan; Walsh, R Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic surgery is one of the most challenging and complex fields in general surgery. While minimally invasive surgery has become the standard of care for many intra-abdominal pathologies the overwhelming majority of pancreatic surgery is performed in an open fashion. This is attributed to the retroperitoneal location of the pancreas, its intimate relationship to major vasculature and the complexity of reconstruction in the case of pancreatoduodenectomy. Herein, we describe the application of robotic technology to minimally invasive pancreatic surgery. The unique capabilities of the robotic platform have made the minimally invasive approach feasible and safe with equivalent if not better outcomes (e.g., decreased length of stay, less surgical site infections) to conventional open surgery. However, it is unclear whether the robotic approach is truly superior to traditional laparoscopy; this is a key point given the substantial costs associated with procuring and maintaining robotic capabilities. PMID:25356035

  20. Endocrine system on chip for a diabetes treatment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dao Thi Thuy; van Noort, Danny; Jeong, In-Kyung; Park, Sungsu

    2017-02-21

    The endocrine system is a collection of glands producing hormones which, among others, regulates metabolism, growth and development. One important group of endocrine diseases is diabetes, which is caused by a deficiency or diminished effectiveness of endogenous insulin. By using a microfluidic perfused 3D cell-culture chip, we developed an 'endocrine system on chip' to potentially be able to screen drugs for the treatment of diabetes by measuring insulin release over time. Insulin-secreting β-cells are located in the pancreas, while L-cells, located in the small intestines, stimulate insulin secretion. Thus, we constructed a co-culture of intestinal-pancreatic cells to measure the effect of glucose on the production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from the L-cell line (GLUTag) and insulin from the pancreatic β-cell line (INS-1). After three days of culture, both cell lines formed aggregates, exhibited 3D cell morphology, and showed good viability (>95%). We separately measured the dynamic profile of GLP-1 and insulin release at glucose concentrations of 0.5 and 20 mM, as well as the combined effect of GLP-1 on insulin production at these glucose concentrations. In response to glucose stimuli, GLUTag and INS-1 cells produced higher amounts of GLP-1 and insulin, respectively, compared to a static 2D cell culture. INS-1 combined with GLUTag cells exhibited an even higher insulin production in response to glucose stimulation. At higher glucose concentrations, the diabetes model on chip showed faster saturation of the insulin level. Our results suggest that the endocrine system developed in this study is a useful tool for observing dynamical changes in endocrine hormones (GLP-1 and insulin) in a glucose-dependent environment. Moreover, it can potentially be used to screen GLP-1 analogues and natural insulin and GLP-1 stimulants for diabetes treatment.

  1. Adult Intussusception Caused by Heterotopic Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Va-Kei Kok

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic pancreas causing small bowel intussusception is rare. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman who presented with intermittent episodes of abdominal cramping and pain that had persisted for 10 days. A target-shaped lesion consisting of multiple concentric rings was found on the left side on contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Surgical intervention demonstrated jejunal intussusception caused by a jejunal heterotopic pancreas. Microscopically, several nesidioblastoses of pancreas were identified. Although very rare, small intestinal pancreatic rests may cause subacute bowel obstruction.

  2. The ectopic expression of Pax4 in the mouse pancreas converts progenitor cells into alpha and subsequently beta cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collombat, Patrick; Xu, Xiaobo; Ravassard, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    We have previously reported that the loss of Arx and/or Pax4 gene activity leads to a shift in the fate of the different endocrine cell subtypes in the mouse pancreas, without affecting the total endocrine cell numbers. Here, we conditionally and ectopically express Pax4 using different cell......-specific promoters and demonstrate that Pax4 forces endocrine precursor cells, as well as mature alpha cells, to adopt a beta cell destiny. This results in a glucagon deficiency that provokes a compensatory and continuous glucagon+ cell neogenesis requiring the re-expression of the proendocrine gene Ngn3. However......, the newly formed alpha cells fail to correct the hypoglucagonemia since they subsequently acquire a beta cell phenotype upon Pax4 ectopic expression. Notably, this cycle of neogenesis and redifferentiation caused by ectopic expression of Pax4 in alpha cells is capable of restoring a functional beta cell...

  3. Radiological imaging in endocrine hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan J Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While different generations of assays have played important role in elucidating causes of different endocrine disorders, radiological techniques are instrumental in localizing the pathology. This statement cannot be truer in any disease entity other than endocrine hypertension. This review makes an effort to highlight the role of different radiological modalities, especially ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, in the evaluation of different causes of endocrine hypertension.

  4. Mining of biomarker genes from expressed sequence tags and differential display reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in the self-fertilizing fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus and their expression patterns in response to exposure to an endocrine-disrupting alkylphenol, bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Mi; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Kim, Il-Chan; Raisuddin, Sheikh; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2007-06-30

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and differentially expressed cDNAs from the self-fertilizing fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus were mined to develop alternative biomarkers for endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). 1,577 K. marmoratus cDNA clones were randomly sequenced from the 5'-end. These clones corresponded to 1,518 and 1,519 genes in medaka dbEST and zebrafish dbEST, respectively. Of the matched genes, 197 and 115 genes obtained Unigene IDs in medaka dbEST and zebrafish dbEST, respectively. Many of the annotated genes are potential biomarkers for environmental stresses. In a differential display reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (DD RT-PCR) study, 56 differential expressed genes were obtained from fish liver exposed to bisphenol A. Of these, 16 genes were identified after BLAST search to GenBank, and the annotated genes were mainly involved in catalytic activity and binding. The expression patterns of these 16 genes were validated by real-time RT-PCR of liver tissue from fish exposed to bisphenol A. Our findings suggest that expression of these 16 genes is modulated by endocrine disrupting chemicals, and therefore that they are potential biomarkers for environmental stress including EDCs exposure.

  5. Case Study: Pancreas cancer with Whipple's operation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: pancreas cancer, Whipple procedure, SASPEN case study ..... Grade A. Grade B. Grade C. Nasogastric tube required. 4-7 days or reinserted > postoperative day 3 .... malabsorption and vitamin and mineral deficiencies are the most.

  6. Computed tomographic evaluation of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, R.J.; Sagel, S.S.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of the clinical experience in the evaluation of the pancreas with computed tomography (CT) since October 1975 indicates that it is a reliable, often specific and relatively noninvasive method for the detection of pancreatic neoplasms and the varied manifestations of pancreatitis and its complications. The normal pancreas is clearly imaged in all but the leanest or uncooperative patients. Tumors of pancreas are identified as focal alteration in the size or contour of the gland. Obliteration of contiguous fat planes, areas of necrosis within the tumor, and secondary effects on the uninvolved parts of the pancreas and biliary tree can be identified. CBT has substantially reduced the need for pancreatic angiography, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, and endoscopic retrograde pancreatocholangiography at this medical center. Although a definitive comparison of ultrasound and CT has not yet been accomplished, initial experience indicates that a complementary rather than competitive relationship will develop between the two imaging methods. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MB [de

  7. Expression and Localization of microRNAs in Perinatal Rat Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Louise; Rosenstierne, Maiken Worsøe; Gaarn, Louise Winkel

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of pancreatic microRNAs (miRNAs) during the period of perinatal beta-cell expansion and maturation in rats, determine the localization of these miRNAs and perform a pathway analysis with predicted target mRNAs expressed in perinatal pancreas. RESEARCH DESIGN...... AND METHODS: RNA was extracted from whole pancreas at embryonic day 20 (E20), on the day of birth (P0) and two days after birth (P2) and hybridized to miRNA microarrays. Differentially expressed miRNAs were verified by northern blotting and their pancreatic localization determined by in situ hybridization...

  8. Solitary pancreas retransplant: Study of 22 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tércio Genzini

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present our experience with pancreas retransplantin patients previously submitted to simultaneous pancreas-kidneytransplant, pancreas after kidney transplant and pancreastransplant alone. Methods: Between January/1996 and December/2005, 330 pancreas transplants were performed: 308 primarytransplants and 22 (6% retransplants of solitary pancreas. Thefollowing variables were analyzed: patient age; time elapsedbetween the first and the second transplant; causes of loss of thefirst graft; technical characteristics of the transplant andretransplant and the criteria for selecting donors for retransplant.These clinical data were submitted to statistical analysis. Results:The mean age of patients was 34.3 years and the mean elapsedtime between the first and second transplant was 19.3 months.The causes of the first graft loss were venous (8; 35% and arterial(5; 23% thrombosis, chronic rejection (4; 18%, ischemia/reperfusion injury (2, reflux pancreatitis (1, primary non-function(1 and sepsis (1. A second transplant was performed in thesame iliac fossa in 16 patients (72%. Venous drainage wasperformed in the iliac vein in 16 patients (72%, in the inferior venacava in 5 patients (22% and in the portal vein in one patient. 6 allbladder drainage was the technique used in 18 (82% cases andenteric drainage, in 4 patients (18%. Immunosuppressive regimenapplied to all cases was quadruple therapy with antilymphocyteinduction, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and steroids. Therewas one early death due to sepsis. One-year patient and pancreasgraft survival rates for retransplants were, respectively, 95% and85%. There was no additional risk for removing the pancreas graftat retransplant. Conclusion: Pancreas retransplant was technicallyfeasible in all cases and results similar to those described in theliterature were found for primary pancreas transplant.

  9. Diagnosis and surgical therapy of pancreas tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heid, A.

    1981-01-01

    The efficiency of surgery and presurgical diagnosis on several tumorous diseases of the pancreas is investigated. If there is the clinical suspicion of a pancreas carcinoma, sonography computerized tomography, and endoscopic-retrograde cholangio-pancreaticography (ERCP) bring the best diagnostic results. In case of pancreatogenic hyperinsulinism a selective angiography should be carried out in any case for an exact presurgical localisation. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Gatekeepers of pancreas: TEAD and YAP

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Seguí, Santiago Andrés; Bessa, José

    2017-01-01

    The pancreas hosts some of the most debilitating and deadly diseases, including pancreatic cancer and diabetes mellitus. In autoimmune diabetes, for example, there is a massive destruction of the insulin producing cells of the pancreas. Pancreatic developmental defects can also result in a deficit of this cell type. To revert these important pancreatic diseases, researchers are currently trying to artificially generate insulin producing beta-cells for implantation and, in this way, suppress i...

  11. Demonstration of lactogenic receptors in rat endocrine pancreases by quantitative autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polak, M.; Scharfmann, R.; Ban, E.; Haour, F.; Postel-Vinay, M.C.; Czernichow, P.

    1990-01-01

    A direct effect of growth hormone and/or prolactin on the growth of the pancreatic beta-cell has been proposed. This study assessed the presence of human growth hormone (hGH)-binding sites in male adult rat endocrine pancreas via quantitative autoradiography. The binding of 125I-labeled hGH was evaluated by receptor autoradiography on frozen-pancreas cryostat cut sections. The sections were incubated with 125I-hGH (10(-10) M) for 75 min at room temperature, and nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of excess native hGH (5 X 10(-7) M). The specificity of the binding was assessed in competition experiments with bovine GH and ovine prolactin. The autoradiograms were quantified with a computer-assisted image-processing system. The sections were then stained to visualize the endocrine islets. Nondiabetic control and streptozocin (STZ)-injected rats were used. Our results show that (1) there is specific binding of iodinated hGH in small areas of the pancreas, which appear as the Langerhans islets when the autoradiogram and the stained sections are superimposed; (2) the specificity of hGH binding in rat islets is lactogenic; (3) the density of the hGH-binding sites in the endocrine pancreas is estimated at 4.8 fmol/mg protein, with IC50 ranging from 0.98 to 2.50 nM; and (4) binding sites may be present on the beta-cell, because specific binding disappears in STZ-injected rats. In conclusion, by use of a quantitative autoradiographic technique, we provide evidence for the presence of lactogenic receptors on rat beta-cells

  12. CT features of gastric heterotopic pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Guangyao; Tian Zhixiong; Zhang Zaipeng; Huang Xiong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To analyze CT findings correlated with pathologic findings in ectopic pancreas of the stomach. Methods: CT scans of 15 surgically proven eases of ectopic pancreas of the stomach were reviewed, and enhanced CT scan was performed in 11 cases. CT findings were correlated with the pathologic findings. Results: All cases had single lesion, and all lesions showed homogeneous density on plain scans without cystic or malignant changes. The size ranged from 1.3 to 3.1 cm, with mean diameter of (1.9±0.2) cm. The lesions were round or oval in shape with broad base against the gastric wall. Two showed central umbilication sign. Only 2 cases were correctly diagnosed prior to operation and the rest were misdiagnosed or diagnosed indistinctly. The locations were in the gastric antrum in 11 cases, in the body in 3, and in fundus in one; The ectopic pancreas located in the greater curvature in 10, and in the lesser curvature in 5. Homogeneous or inhomogeneous strong enhancement similar to the pancreas was seen in 8 cases and they consisted mainly of pancreatic acini with the same histologic features as the pancreas. Three cases showed poor enhancement and consisted mainly of ducts and hypertrophied muscle, pancreatic acini were a minor component. Conclusion: Ectopic pancreas of the stomach showed characteristic locations with the findings of submucosal diseases. Different enhancing patterns were correlated with their pathologic findings. (authors)

  13. Diabetic Foot Complications Despite Successful Pancreas Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Kyo; Lee, Ho Seong; Park, Jungu; Ryu, Chang Hyun; Han, Duck Jong; Seo, Sang Gyo

    2017-06-01

    It is known that successful pancreas transplantation enables patients with diabetes to maintain a normal glucose level without insulin and reduces diabetes-related complications. However, we have little information about the foot-specific morbidity in patients who have undergone successful pancreas transplantation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and predisposing factors for foot complications after successful pancreas transplantation. This retrospective study included 218 patients (91 males, 127 females) who had undergone pancreas transplantation for diabetes. The mean age was 40.7 (range, 15-76) years. Diabetes type, transplantation type, body mass index, and diabetes duration before transplantation were confirmed. After pancreas transplantation, the occurrence and duration of foot and ankle complications were assessed. Twenty-two patients (10.1%) had diabetic foot complications. Fifteen patients (6.9%) had diabetic foot ulcer and 7 patients (3.2%) had Charcot arthropathy. Three patients had both diabetic foot ulcer and Charcot arthropathy. Three insufficiency fractures (1.4%) were included. Mean time of complications after transplantation was 18.5 (range, 2-77) months. Creatinine level 1 year after surgery was higher in the complication group rather than the noncomplication group ( P = .02). Complications of the foot and ankle still occurred following pancreas transplantation in patients with diabetes. Level III, comparative study.

  14. Immunologic Endocrine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Aaron W.; Eisenbarth, George S.

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmunity affects multiple glands in the endocrine system. Animal models and human studies highlight the importance of alleles in HLA (human leukocyte antigen)-like molecules determining tissue specific targeting that with the loss of tolerance leads to organ specific autoimmunity. Disorders such as type 1A diabetes, Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Addison's disease, and many others result from autoimmune mediated tissue destruction. Each of these disorders can be divided into stages beginning with genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers, active autoimmunity, and finally metabolic derangements with overt symptoms of disease. With an increased understanding of the immunogenetics and immunopathogenesis of endocrine autoimmune disorders, immunotherapies are becoming prevalent, especially in type 1A diabetes. Immunotherapies are being used more in multiple subspecialty fields to halt disease progression. While therapies for autoimmune disorders stop the progress of an immune response, immunomodulatory therapies for cancer and chronic infections can also provoke an unwanted immune response. As a result, there are now iatrogenic autoimmune disorders arising from the treatment of chronic viral infections and malignancies. PMID:20176260

  15. Your Endocrine System (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids / Your Endocrine System Print en español Tu sistema endocrino You might say endocrine (say: EN-doh- ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  16. Mitochondrial disease and endocrine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jasmine; Rahman, Joyeeta; Achermann, John C; Dattani, Mehul T; Rahman, Shamima

    2017-02-01

    Mitochondria are critical organelles for endocrine health; steroid hormone biosynthesis occurs in these organelles and they provide energy in the form of ATP for hormone production and trafficking. Mitochondrial diseases are multisystem disorders that feature defective oxidative phosphorylation, and are characterized by enormous clinical, biochemical and genetic heterogeneity. To date, mitochondrial diseases have been found to result from >250 monogenic defects encoded across two genomes: the nuclear genome and the ancient circular mitochondrial genome located within mitochondria themselves. Endocrine dysfunction is often observed in genetic mitochondrial diseases and reflects decreased intracellular production or extracellular secretion of hormones. Diabetes mellitus is the most frequently described endocrine disturbance in patients with inherited mitochondrial diseases, but other endocrine manifestations in these patients can include growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadism, adrenal dysfunction, hypoparathyroidism and thyroid disease. Although mitochondrial endocrine dysfunction frequently occurs in the context of multisystem disease, some mitochondrial disorders are characterized by isolated endocrine involvement. Furthermore, additional monogenic mitochondrial endocrine diseases are anticipated to be revealed by the application of genome-wide next-generation sequencing approaches in the future. Understanding the mitochondrial basis of endocrine disturbance is key to developing innovative therapies for patients with mitochondrial diseases.

  17. Publication rates following pancreas meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, A; Blum, T; Lankisch, P G

    2001-08-01

    Publication rates and determinants of publication were studied based on abstracts presented at pancreatic meetings. All abstracts presented at the 1994 and 1995 annual meetings of the European Pancreatic Club (EPC) and the American Pancreatic Association (APA) were followed up by searching MEDLINE. Publication rates were compared using log-rank tests and multiple logistic regression. The prestige of the publishing journals was compared using Kruskal-Wallis tests on scientific impact factors (SIF). Overall, 340 abstracts were presented at the EPC, and 254 were presented at the APA. Of these, 203 (59.7%, EPC) and 138 (54.3%, APA) were later published in peer-reviewed journals. Publication rates did not differ by study type or country region of origin. In addition, median SIFs were similar by conference (APA vs. EPC) and research type (basic science vs. clinical studies) (overall, 1.7). However, North American and North/West European articles were published in higher impact journals as compared with those from other countries. Publication rates and median journal SIFs in pancreas research are similar to those reported from other medical specialty meetings. There is no difference by conference, type of research, or origin (North American vs. European).

  18. Role of endoscopic ultrasonography in evaluation of metastatic lesions to the pancreas: a tertiary cancer center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiq, Muslim; Bhutani, Manoop S; Ross, William A; Raju, Gottumukkala S; Gong, Yun; Tamm, Eric P; Javle, Milind; Wang, Xuemei; Lee, Jeffrey H

    2013-04-01

    Metastatic lesions to the pancreas pose diagnostic challenges with regards to their differentiation from primary pancreatic cancer. Data on the yield of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration in detection of these lesions are limited. This is a retrospective review of 23 patients referred to a tertiary referral center for further evaluation of suspected pancreatic metastases. Main outcome measures were diagnostic yield of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration in evaluation of metastatic lesions to the pancreas. Of 644 patients, 23 (3.6%) undergoing EUS of the pancreas were diagnosed to have metastatic disease to the pancreas based on clinical, radiological, and cytological results. Mean (SD) age was 64.3 (11.7) years. Of the 23 patients, 18 (78.3%) were asymptomatic. Mean (SD) size of lesion on EUS was 39.1 (19.9) mm. A diagnosis of malignant lesion was made in 21 of 23 cases, with a diagnostic accuracy of 91.3%. Metastatic lesions to the pancreas present as incidental, solitary mass lesions on staging or surveillance imaging. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration is an important tool in the characterization and further differentiation of metastatic lesions to the pancreas from primary pancreatic cancer.

  19. Methylation-associated down-regulation of RASSF1A and up-regulation of RASSF1C in pancreatic endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malpeli, Giorgio; Amato, Eliana; Dandrea, Mario; Fumagalli, Caterina; Debattisti, Valentina; Boninsegna, Letizia; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Falconi, Massimo; Scarpa, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    RASSF1A gene silencing by DNA methylation has been suggested as a major event in pancreatic endocrine tumor (PET) but RASSF1A expression has never been studied. The RASSF1 locus contains two CpG islands (A and C) and generates seven transcripts (RASSF1A-RASSF1G) by differential promoter usage and alternative splicing. We studied 20 primary PETs, their matched normal pancreas and three PET cell lines for the (i) methylation status of the RASSF1 CpG islands using methylation-specific PCR and pyrosequencing and (ii) expression of RASSF1 isoforms by quantitative RT-PCR in 13 cases. CpG island A methylation was evaluated by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and by quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP); pyrosequencing was applied to quantify the methylation of 51 CpGs also encompassing those explored by MSP and qMSP approaches. MSP detected methylation in 16/20 (80%) PETs and 13/20 (65%) normal pancreas. At qMSP, 11/20 PETs (55%) and 9/20 (45%) normals were methylated in at least 20% of RASSF1A alleles. Pyrosequencing showed variable distribution and levels of methylation within and among samples, with PETs having average methylation higher than normals in 15/20 (75%) cases (P = 0.01). The evaluation of mRNA expression of RASSF1 variants showed that: i) RASSF1A was always expressed in PET and normal tissues, but it was, on average, expressed 6.8 times less in PET (P = 0.003); ii) RASSF1A methylation inversely correlated with its expression; iii) RASSF1 isoforms were rarely found, except for RASSF1B that was always expressed and RASSF1C whose expression was 11.4 times higher in PET than in normal tissue (P = 0.001). A correlation between RASSF1A expression and gene methylation was found in two of the three PET cell lines, which also showed a significant increase in RASSF1A expression upon demethylating treatment. RASSF1A gene methylation in PET is higher than normal pancreas in no more than 75% of cases and as such it cannot be considered a marker for this neoplasm

  20. Cloning of the relative genes of endocrine exophthalmos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, JG

    2004-01-01

    Aim: In order to clarify the pathogenesis of endocrine exophthalmos, and lay foundations for finding the new functions of its relative genes, the cloning of its relative genes was carried out. Methods: The thyroid tissues of 10 hyperthyroidism patients, 5 of them with endocrine exophthalmos and 5 without that, were obtained. Their mRNA were collected respectively by using Quick Prep Micro mRNA purification kit. Then the same amount of the mRNA from 5 patients with endocrine exophthalmos was added into an eppendorf tube to form a mRNA pool. And that of the 5 patients without endocrine exophthalmos was also prepared as the other pool. As a model, the pool was used to synthesize the single and double chains of cDNA through SMART Tm PCR cDNA Synthesis Kit. The double chains cDNA from the endocrine exophthalmos patients, being used as tester, and that from the patients without endocrine exophthalmos, being used as driver, were digested by restriction endonucleases Hae III to get the fragments which was less than 500 bases. The tester cDNA was ligated with adapt or 1 or 2 respectively. Then the subtractive suppressive hybridization was performed between tester and driver cDNA. And the efficacies of subtraction were measured. The differential genes between the thyroid tissues of endocrine exophthalmos and the thyroid tissues without endocrine exophthalmos were obtained through two cycles of subtractive hybridization and two cycles PCR. The differential genes were cloned into the vector of pT-Adv, and then transformed into E.coliDH5a. 48 white clonies were selected to build the subtractive suppressive library of the relative genes of endocrine exophthalmos. The primer 2 was applied for the colony PCR of the relative genes. The amplified genes were obtained and purified by using Quaqwich Spine PCR Purification Kit. According to the principle of random primer, the double chains cDNA from the thyroid tissues with or without endocrine exophthalmos were digested by Hae III

  1. LGR5 and Nanog identify stem cell signature of pancreas beta cells which initiate pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsterdam, Abraham; Raanan, Calanit; Schreiber, Letizia; Polin, Nava; Givol, David

    2013-04-05

    Pancreas cancer, is the fourth leading cause of cancer death but its cell of origin is controversial. We compared the localization of stem cells in normal and cancerous pancreas using antibodies to the stem cell markers Nanog and LGR5. Here we show, for the first time, that LGR5 is expressed in normal pancreas, exclusively in the islets of Langerhans and it is co-localized, surprisingly, with Nanog and insulin in clusters of beta cells. In cancerous pancreas Nanog and LGR5 are expressed in the remaining islets and in all ductal cancer cells. We observed insulin staining among the ductal cancer cells, but not in metastases. This indicates that the islet's beta cells, expressing LGR5 and Nanog markers are the initiating cells of pancreas cancer, which migrated from the islets to form the ductal cancerous tissue, probably after mutation and de-differentiation. This discovery may facilitate treatment of this devastating cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional and morphological evolution of remnant pancreas after resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin-Young; Park, Keun-Myoung; Shin, Woo Young; Choe, Yun-Mee; Hur, Yoon-Seok; Lee, Keon-Young; Ahn, Seung-Ik

    2017-07-01

    Functional and morphological evolution of remnant pancreas after resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma is investigated.The medical records of 45 patients who had undergone radical resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma from March 2010 to September 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. There were 34 patients in the pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) group and 10 patients in the distal pancreatectomy (DP) group. One patient received total pancreatectomy. The endocrine function was measured using the glucose tolerance index (GTI), which was derived by dividing daily maximum serum glucose fluctuation by daily minimum glucose. Remnant pancreas volume (RPV) was estimated by considering pancreas body and tail as a column, and head as an ellipsoid, respectively. The pancreatic atrophic index (PAI) was defined as the ratio of pancreatic duct width to total pancreas width. Representative indices of each patient were compared before and after resection up to 2 years postoperatively.The area under receiver operating characteristic curve of GTI for diagnosing DM was 0.823 (95% confidence interval, 0.699-0.948, P < .001). Overall, GTI increased on postoperative day 1 (POD#1, mean ± standard deviation, 1.79 ± 1.40 vs preoperative, 1.02 ± 1.41; P = .001), and then decreased by day 7 (0.89 ± 1.16 vs POD#1, P < .001). In the PD group, the GTI on POD#14 became lower than preoperative (0.51 ± 0.38 vs 0.96 ± 1.37; P = .03). PAI in the PD group was significantly lower at 1 month postoperatively (0.22 ± 0.12 vs preoperative, 0.38 ± 0.18; P < .001). In the PD group, RPV was significantly lower at 1 month postoperatively (25.3 ± 18.3 cm vs preoperative, 32.4 ± 20.1 cm; P = .02), due to the resolution of pancreatic duct dilatation. RPV of the DP group showed no significant change. GTI was negatively related to RPV preoperatively (r = -0.317, P = .04), but this correlation disappeared postoperatively (r = -0

  3. Adenosquamous Carcinoma and Pure Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas: Report of two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Terada

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC and pure squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the pancreas are very rare diseases. The author herein reports two cases of ASC and SCC of the pancreas. The first case is ASC. An 80-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of abdominal pain and weakness. Imaging modalities including CT, MRI and ERCP revealed a pancreatic body tumor. Distal partial resection of the pancreas and splenectomy were performed. Grossly, an infiltrative solid tumor measuring 3 × 4 × 4 cm was present in the pancreatic body. Histologically, it was an ASC consisting of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma element (20% in area and SCC element (80%. There was a gradual transition between the two. Many perineural invasions and lymphovascular permeations were recognized. The patient died of systemic metastasis five months after operation. The second case is an SCC. A 69-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain and jaundice. Imaging modalities including CT, MRI and ERCP revealed a tumor in the head of the pancreas. Pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Grossly, an infiltrative solid tumor measuring 5 × 5 × 6 cm was present. Histologically, the tumor was pure SCC. The SCC was moderately differentiated SCC. A large number of perineural invasions and lymphovascular permeations were present. The patient died of systemic metastasis three months after operation. The author speculates that ASC of the pancreas may be derived from squamous tansdifferentiation of adenocarcinoma element or from pluripotent stem cells, and that SCC of the pancreas may arise from malignant transformation of squamous metaplasia of pancreatic ducts or from pluripotent stem cells.

  4. MODERN VIEWS ON ETIOLOGY OF CHRONIC PANCREATITIS AND CORRECTION OF FUNCTIONAL INSUFFICIENCY OF THE PANCREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. А. Kornienko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pancreatitis is a multietiological disorder characterized by progressive structural changes of the pancreas and development of its eccrine and endocrine insufficiency. The potential causes of chronic pancreatitis in children include obstruction of the pancreas ducts due to cholelithiasis, chronic cholecystitis with biliary sludge, excretory ducts anomalies; obesity and hyperlipidemia; abdominal traumas and infectious pancreatic diseases. Recently new possible variants of chronic pancreatitis — autoimmune and hereditary — have been diagnosed due to the widening of diagnostic potentials. Fifty children and adolescents with chronic pancreatitis were diagnosed. It was shown, that obstructive chronic pancreatitis was found in 50%, obesity-associated. According to the literature, more than 70% of children with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis have genetic mutations in genes SFTR, PRSS1 and SPINK1, both single and associated. These lead to imbalance of the trypsinogen activation and inactivation in the pancreas tissue. Severe mutations can be an independent cause of chronic pancreatitis, mild ones manifest after the impact of some external factors. Regardless of the cause of the disease, the mandatory component of the treatment is enzyme replacement therapy with the preference to microspherical forms.

  5. Activation of the transcription factor carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein by glucose leads to increased pancreatic beta cell differentiation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soggia, A; Flosseau, K; Ravassard, P; Szinnai, G; Scharfmann, R; Guillemain, G

    2012-10-01

    Pancreatic cell development is a tightly controlled process. Although information is available regarding the mesodermal signals that control pancreatic development, little is known about the role of environmental factors such as nutrients, including glucose, on pancreatic development. We previously showed that glucose and its metabolism through the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) promote pancreatic endocrine cell differentiation. Here, we analysed the role of the transcription factor carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) in this process. This transcription factor is activated by glucose, and has been recently described as a target of the HBP. We used an in vitro bioassay in which pancreatic endocrine and exocrine cells develop from rat embryonic pancreas in a way that mimics in vivo pancreatic development. Using this model, gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments were undertaken. ChREBP was produced in the endocrine lineage during pancreatic development, its abundance increasing with differentiation. When rat embryonic pancreases were cultured in the presence of glucose or xylitol, the production of ChREBP targets was induced. Concomitantly, beta cell differentiation was enhanced. On the other hand, when embryonic pancreases were cultured with inhibitors decreasing ChREBP activity or an adenovirus producing a dominant-negative ChREBP, beta cell differentiation was reduced, indicating that ChREBP activity was necessary for proper beta cell differentiation. Interestingly, adenovirus producing a dominant-negative ChREBP also reduced the positive effect of N-acetylglucosamine, a substrate of the HBP acting on beta cell differentiation. Our work supports the idea that glucose, through the transcription factor ChREBP, controls beta cell differentiation from pancreatic progenitors.

  6. Use of functional tests in radioimmune diagnosis of endocrine diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay for determining corticotropin (ACTH), somatotropin (STH), prolactin (LTH) and thyrotropin (TTH) concentration in blood for endocrine disease diagnosis are described. Reactions of earlier mentioned functional tests to specific stimulators and inhibitors for differential diagnosis of such diseases as Icenko-Cushing one, pituitary body and hypothalamus diseases, galactorrhea and amenorrhea syndrome are considered. The diagnosis reliability is underlined

  7. Endocrine Actions of Osteocalcin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Patti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteocalcin is the most abundant noncollagenous protein of bone matrix. Once transcribed, this protein undergoes posttranslational modifications within osteoblastic cells before its secretion, including the carboxylation of three glutamic residues in glutamic acid, which is essential for hydroxyapatite binding and deposition in the extracellular matrix of bone. Recent provocative data from experimental observations in mice showed that the circulating undercarboxylated fraction of osteocalcin increases insulin secretion and sensitivity, lowers blood glucose, and decreases visceral fat in both genders, while it enhances testosterone production by the testes in males. Moreover, both total and undercarboxylated osteocalcins increase following physical activity with potential positive effects on glucose tolerance. Despite that these evidences have been only in part confirmed in humans, further prospective investigations are needed to definitively establish the endocrine role of osteocalcin both in the general population and cohorts of patients with diabetes or other metabolic disorders.

  8. Abdominal MR: liver and pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolozzi, C.; Lencioni, R.; Donati, F.; Cioni, D.

    1999-01-01

    Following the introduction of rapid, high-quality scan techniques and the development of new, tissue-specific contrast agents, the applications of MRI for abdominal imaging are experiencing unprecedented growth. This article examines the current status of liver and pancreatic MRI, highlighting technical and methodological approach, use of contrast agents, and main clinical applications. The MRI technique appears to be the ideal diagnostic tool for detection and characterization of benign and malignant liver neoplasms, and for evaluating tumor response after nonsurgical treatments. Dynamic imaging after bolus injection of a gadolinium chelate is currently a fundamental component of an MRI examination of the liver in many instances. Optimal dynamic scanning depends on the use of a multisection spoiled gradient-echo technique that allows one to image the entire region of interest during a single suspended respiration. Images are obtained during four phases relative to the injection of the contrast agent: precontrast, arterial (pre-sinusoidal), portal (sinusoidal), and delayed (extracellular) phase. Liver-specific contrast agents, including hepatobiliary agents and reticuloendothelial system-targeted iron oxide particles, however, may offer advantages over gadolinium chelates in some clinical settings. Computed tomography is still preferred to MRI for imaging the pancreas. However, state-of-the-art MRI may currently be at least as accurate as spiral CT for depiction of inflammatory and neoplastic pancreatic diseases. Moreover, MRI has the advantage of allowing simultaneous investigation of the biliary tree, owing to cholangiopancreatography techniques. Hence, a comprehensive assessment of most pancreatic diseases can be achieved with a single examination. (orig.)

  9. Distribution of Pancreatic Polypeptide-secreting Endocrine Cells in Nondiabetic and Diabetic Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwińska-Mossoń, Mariola; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate the effects of cigarette smoking and ongoing inflammation in chronic pancreatitis on the functioning of pancreatic polypeptide (PP)-secreting cells and to determine the relationship between the occurrence of an increased number of PP cells in the pancreas, the change in their location, and the intensity of their inflammatory changes in the course of pancreatitis and diabetes. Samples of tissues from healthy persons and from patients were verified histopathologically, and then PP was localized by immunohistochemical staining using the monoclonal anti-human PP antibody. The histopathologic evaluation of the hormone expression intensity in tissue sections was carried out using the semiquantitative method and was calculated with digital image analysis. The present study showed a very strong PP expression in the pancreatic tissue (especially in the head of the pancreas) derived from smoking patients with diabetes. The increase in the percentage of cells in the PP islets, between the acinar cells in smoking patients with diabetes and a statistically significant increase in the expression of PP, indicates a pancreatic endocrine dysfunction and suggests that cigarette smoking has a negative impact on the organ's efficiency. Because of its properties, the PP appears to be a useful marker of the endocrine insufficiency of the pancreas and a specific prognostic parameter of developing diabetes due to chronic pancreatitis.

  10. Cholecystokinin receptors: Biochemical demonstration and autoradiographical localization in rat brain and pancreas using [3H] cholecystokinin8 as radioligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, A.; Richards, J.G.; Trzeciak, A.; Gillessen, D.; Moehler, H.

    1984-01-01

    Since cholecystokinin8 (CCK8) seems to be the physiological ligand of CCK receptors in the brain, it would be the most suitable probe for the characterization of CCK receptors in radioligand binding studies. [ 3 H]CCK8 was synthetized with a specific radioactivity sufficient for the detection of high affinity binding sites. [ 3 H]CCK8 binds saturably and reversibly to distinct sites in rat brain and pancreas with nanomolar affinity. While the C-terminal tetrapeptide of CCK is the minimal structure required for nanomolar affinity in the brain, the entire octapeptide sequence is required for binding affinity in pancreas. Desulfated CCK8 and several gastrin-I peptides, which are likewise unsulfated, show virtually no affinity to the binding sites in pancreas but high affinity in cerebral cortex. The ligand specificity of the CCK peptides corresponds to their electrophysiological potency in the brain and their stimulation of secretion in pancreas, respectively. Autoradiographically, high densities of [ 3 H]CCK8 binding sites were found in cerebral cortex and olfactory bulb, medium levels in nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, and striatum with virtually no labeling in cerebellum. This pattern is similar to the distribution of CCK-like immunoreactivity in the brain. In pancreas, equally high levels of [ 3 H]CCK8 labeling were found in the exocrine and endocrine region. [ 3 H]CCK8 binding sites differ from those identified previously with [ 125 I]Bolton-Hunter-CCK33 by their sensitivity to guanyl nucleotides in the brain, their ion dependency in the brain, and pancreas, and their different autoradiographical localization in some parts of the brain. The distribution of CCK binding sites labeled with [ 3 H]CCK8 appears to correlate better with the CCK immunoreactivity than those labeled with [ 125 I]Bolton-Hunter-CCK33. Thus, [ 3 H]CCK8 appears to be the radioligand of choice for the investigation of CCK receptors

  11. Perioperative management of endocrine insufficiency after total pancreatectomy for neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Ajay V; Sheikh, Raashid; Bhagia, Vinita

    2017-09-01

    Indications for total pancreatectomy (TP) have increased, including for diffuse main duct intrapapillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas and malignancy; therefore, the need persists for surgeons to develop appropriate endocrine post-operative management strategies. The brittle diabetes after TP differs from type 1/2 diabetes in that patients have absolute deficiency of insulin and functional glucagon. This makes glucose management challenging, complicates recovery, and predisposes to hospital readmissions. This article aims to define the disease, describe the cause for its occurrence, review the anatomy of the endocrine pancreas, and explain how this condition differs from diabetes mellitus in the setting of post-operative management. The morbidity and mortality of post-TP endocrine insufficiency and practical treatment strategies are systematically reviewed from the literature. Finally, an evidence-based treatment algorithm is created for the practicing pancreatic surgeon and their care team of endocrinologists to aid in managing these complex patients. A PubMed, Science Citation Index/Social sciences Citation Index, and Cochrane Evidence-Based Medicine database search was undertaken along with extensive backward search of the references of published articles to identify studies evaluating endocrine morbidity and treatment after TP and to establish an evidence-based treatment strategy. Indications for TP and the etiology of pancreatogenic diabetes are reviewed. After TP, ~80% patients develop hypoglycemic episodes and 40% experience severe hypoglycemia, resulting in 0-8% mortality and 25-45% morbidity. Referral to a nutritionist and endocrinologist for patient education before surgery followed by surgical reevaluation to determine if the patient has the appropriate understanding, support, and resources preoperatively has significantly reduced morbidity and mortality. The use of modern recombinant long-acting insulin analogues, continuous subcutaneous insulin

  12. Progress and challenges of the bioartificial pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Patrick T. J.; Shah, Dishant K.; Garcia, Jacob A.; Bae, Chae Yun; Lim, Dong-Jin; Huiszoon, Ryan C.; Alexander, Grant C.; Jun, Ho-Wook

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation has been validated as a treatment for type 1 diabetes since it maintains consistent and sustained type 1 diabetes reversal. However, one of the major challenges in pancreatic islet transplantation is the body's natural immune response to the implanted islets. Immunosuppressive drug treatment is the most popular immunomodulatory approach for islet graft survival. However, administration of immunosuppressive drugs gives rise to negative side effects, and long-term effects are not clearly understood. A bioartificial pancreas is a therapeutic approach to enable pancreatic islet transplantation without or with minimal immune suppression. The bioartificial pancreas encapsulates the pancreatic islets in a semi-permeable environment which protects islets from the body's immune responses, while allowing the permeation of insulin, oxygen, nutrients, and waste. Many groups have developed various types of the bioartificial pancreas and tested their efficacy in animal models. However, the clinical application of the bioartificial pancreas still requires further investigation. In this review, we discuss several types of bioartificial pancreases and address their advantages and limitations. We also discuss recent advances in bioartificial pancreas applications with microfluidic or micropatterning technology.

  13. The roles of the liver and pancreas in renal nutcracker syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Seong Jong, E-mail: zoomknight@naver.com [Department of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, 149 Sangil-dong, Kangdong-gu, Seoul 134-727 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Deok Ho, E-mail: namjindan@daum.net [Department of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, 149 Sangil-dong, Kangdong-gu, Seoul 134-727 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jung Kyu, E-mail: oddie2@naver.com [Department of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, 149 Sangil-dong, Kangdong-gu, Seoul 134-727 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Su, E-mail: js830808@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, 149 Sangil-dong, Kangdong-gu, Seoul 134-727 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The presence of the liver and pancreas may influence NCS by compressing SMA against the aorta. • The presence of the liver and pancreas at the level of the LRV is not yet recognized as an independent factor for NCS but should be. • The presence of the liver and the pancreas may allow clinicians to identify NCS patients and may influence the choice of treatment options. - Abstract: Introduction: To assess the frequency and significance of presence of the liver and pancreas at the left renal vein (LRV) level in patients with suspected renal nutcracker syndrome (NCS). Materials and methods: We included 101 patients with hematuria who underwent urography three-dimensional CT between April 2009 and November 2013. These patients were divided into NCS (n = 25) and non-NCS (n = 76) patients according to the following CT criteria: (1) the presence of beak sign and (2) hilar-aortomesenteric left renal vein diameter ratio >4. Patients were grouped according to the presence of the liver and pancreas at the LRV: group LP (both liver and pancreas), group L (only liver), group P (only pancreas), and group O (neither liver nor pancreas). The difference in the frequencies of groups was analyzed between NCS and non-NCS patients. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the independent factors between NCS and non-NCS patients. Results: The frequencies of group LP, group L, group P, and group O in NCS vs. non-NCS were 88% vs. 5.3% (p < 0.001), 4.0% vs. 2.6% (p = 0.75), 4.0% vs. 11.8% (p = 0.45), 4.0% vs. 80.3% (p < 0.001), respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that group was a predictor for differential diagnosis between NCS and non-NCS (p = 0.022), and group LP was an independent factor for the presence of NCS (odds ratio, 43.8; 95% confidence interval, 3.8–500.3; p < 0.002; reference, group O). Conclusion: The presence of the liver and pancreas at the level of the LRV was frequently found in NCS and was the independent factor

  14. The roles of the liver and pancreas in renal nutcracker syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Seong Jong; Nam, Deok Ho; Ryu, Jung Kyu; Kim, Ji Su

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The presence of the liver and pancreas may influence NCS by compressing SMA against the aorta. • The presence of the liver and pancreas at the level of the LRV is not yet recognized as an independent factor for NCS but should be. • The presence of the liver and the pancreas may allow clinicians to identify NCS patients and may influence the choice of treatment options. - Abstract: Introduction: To assess the frequency and significance of presence of the liver and pancreas at the left renal vein (LRV) level in patients with suspected renal nutcracker syndrome (NCS). Materials and methods: We included 101 patients with hematuria who underwent urography three-dimensional CT between April 2009 and November 2013. These patients were divided into NCS (n = 25) and non-NCS (n = 76) patients according to the following CT criteria: (1) the presence of beak sign and (2) hilar-aortomesenteric left renal vein diameter ratio >4. Patients were grouped according to the presence of the liver and pancreas at the LRV: group LP (both liver and pancreas), group L (only liver), group P (only pancreas), and group O (neither liver nor pancreas). The difference in the frequencies of groups was analyzed between NCS and non-NCS patients. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the independent factors between NCS and non-NCS patients. Results: The frequencies of group LP, group L, group P, and group O in NCS vs. non-NCS were 88% vs. 5.3% (p < 0.001), 4.0% vs. 2.6% (p = 0.75), 4.0% vs. 11.8% (p = 0.45), 4.0% vs. 80.3% (p < 0.001), respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that group was a predictor for differential diagnosis between NCS and non-NCS (p = 0.022), and group LP was an independent factor for the presence of NCS (odds ratio, 43.8; 95% confidence interval, 3.8–500.3; p < 0.002; reference, group O). Conclusion: The presence of the liver and pancreas at the level of the LRV was frequently found in NCS and was the independent factor

  15. The Miracle of an Artificial Pancreas | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes Follow us The Miracle of an Artificial Pancreas Four NIH-funded Artificial Pancreas Research Efforts Underway Thanks to investments in new ... diabetes are on the horizon, including the artificial pancreas. The artificial pancreas is an integrated system that ...

  16. Endoscopic findings following retroperitoneal pancreas transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchuk, Alexey V; Dmitriev, Ilya V; Shmarina, Nonna V; Teterin, Yury S; Balkarov, Aslan G; Storozhev, Roman V; Anisimov, Yuri A; Gasanov, Ali M

    2017-07-01

    An evaluation of the efficacy of endoscopic methods for the diagnosis and correction of surgical and immunological complications after retroperitoneal pancreas transplantation. From October 2011 to March 2015, 27 patients underwent simultaneous retroperitoneal pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPKT). Diagnostic oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with protocol biopsy of the donor and recipient duodenal mucosa and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) were performed to detect possible complications. Endoscopic stenting of the main pancreatic duct with plastic stents and three-stage endoscopic hemostasis were conducted to correct the identified complications. Endoscopic methods showed high efficiency in the timely diagnosis and adequate correction of complications after retroperitoneal pancreas transplantation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of the pancreas by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Hou, V.Y.; Chako, A.C.; Tempany, C.M.C.; Herold, C.J.; Zerhouni, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    Using T1-, P- and T2-weighted images of the upper abdomen obtained on 1.5 T MRI system, 18 items on the pancreas were evaluated in 89 controls. The items included pancreas sizes on T1-weighted image, pancreatic intensity compared with those of renal cortex, subcutaneous fat tissue, liver and spleen, obliteration of pancreas margin, and diameter of pancreatic duct on all images. Normal criteria, which were determined from data in the controls, were applied to images in the 40 patients with pancreatic or peripancreatic diseases. All 4 patients with an extrapancreatic tumor had no abnormality of pancreatic intensity, pancreatic margin, and pancreatic duct on T2-weighted image, except for pancreatic sizes and intensities at tumor sites. In contrast, 34 of 36 patients with pancreatic disease had abnormalities which pathologically depended on acute and/or chronic pancreatitis. (orig.)

  18. Fatty Pancreas: Should We Be Concerned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Shounak; Philip, Nissy A; Takahashi, Naoki; Levy, Michael J; Singh, Vijay P; Chari, Suresh T

    The metabolic consequences of visceral fat deposition are well known, and the presence of intrapancreatic fat (IPF) has been recognized for decades. However, our knowledge about the distribution of fat in the pancreas and its clinical implications is in a nascent stage. Various terms have been proposed to describe IPF; for the purpose of this narrative review, we chose the general term fatty pancreas. Herein, we describe the radiologic, endoscopic, and histopathologic aspects of diagnosing fatty pancreas and provide an overview of the diseases associated with this condition. Our purpose is to highlight diagnostic challenges and identify specific clinical questions that would benefit from further study. As evident in this review, IPF is associated with various metabolic diseases, pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, and precancer-yet establishing causality needs careful, further study.

  19. Pathophysiology of the Effects of Alcohol Abuse on the Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol can permeate virtually every organ and tissue in the body, resulting in tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Considerable evidence indicates that alcohol abuse results in clinical abnormalities of one of the body's most important systems, the endocrine system. This system ensures proper communication between various organs, also interfacing with the immune and nervous systems, and is essential for maintaining a constant internal environment. The endocrine system includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, and the hypothalamic-posterior pituitary axis, as well as other sources of hormones, such as the endocrine pancreas and endocrine adipose tissue. Alcohol abuse disrupts all of these systems and causes hormonal disturbances that may result in various disorders, such as stress intolerance, reproductive dysfunction, thyroid problems, immune abnormalities, and psychological and behavioral disorders. Studies in both humans and animal models have helped shed light on alcohol's effects on various components of the endocrine system and their consequences.

  20. Clinical evaluation of computed tomography of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Takashi; Nakao, Morio; Takayasu, Yukio; Inamoto, Kazuo; Yamazaki, Hideo

    1980-01-01

    The pancreas was observed from many directions on conventional CT images and reconstructed coronal and sagittal tomograms. Absorbed values of x-ray in the pancreas were also counted by setting ROI on conventional CT images. The subjects were 37 patients with pancreatic diseases or normal pancreas. Equipments used were Somatom SD and Evaluskop for analysis of images. Slice width and feed for reconstruction of CT images were 4 mm and 3 mm, respectively. Absorbed values of x-ray was significantly lower in patients with pancreatic carcinoma than in patients with normal pancreas. Slightly low absorbed values of x-ray in pancreas tail could suggest small carcinoma of pancreas even when CT images could not visualize it clearly. There was not a significant difference in absorbed values between chronic pancreatitis and normal pancreas, but their variations were big. Observation of the pancreas from many directions on reconstructed CT images were very useful for the diagnosis of pancreatic diseases. (Tsunoda, M.)

  1. Power of Your Pancreas: Keep Your Digestive Juices Flowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 Print this issue The Power of Your Pancreas Keep Your Digestive Juices Flowing En español Send ... in Check Better Check Your Bowels Wise Choices Pancreas Problems? Talk to your doctor if you have ...

  2. Torsion of wandering spleen and distal pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheflin, J.R.; Lee, C.M.; Kretchmar, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    Wandering spleen is the term applied to the condition in which a long pedicle allows the spleen to lie in an abnormal location. Torsion of a wandering spleen is an unusual cause of an acute abdomen and is rarely diagnosed preoperatively. Associated torsion of the distal pancreas is even more uncommon. The authors describe a patient with torsion of a wandering spleen and distal pancreas, who was correctly diagnosed, and define the merits of the imaging methods used. The initial examination should be 99 /sup m/Tc-sulfur colloid liner-spleen scanning

  3. What Is Women's Endocrine Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... harness the power to prevent endocrine disorders, the Power of Prevention. Childhood Childhood is a time of rapid growth and development to learn healthy living habits and priorities. It can, however, be a great ...

  4. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert

    2008-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., ̃40...

  5. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert

    2007-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., ̃40...

  6. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert S

    2005-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., -40...

  7. Skin Manifestations of Endocrine Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkesen, Cuyan

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine diseases may result in changes in cutaneous function and morphology, which cause various skin manifestations, including nonspecific or pathognomonic signs. Some of these manifestations are already known dermatologic diseases with only increased frequency in this patient group. As a result the skin may the play role of a screen displaying endocrine disorders, either due to hormone excess or deficiency. Awareness of the skin manifestations may permit prompt and adequate approach to the patients, and therefore facilitate the early diagnosis of the endocrine disease and even be life saving. Some of these manifestations may be recognized clinically, but sometimes they need to be confirmed histopathologically. In this article, many endocrine diseases and their associated skin lesions will be reviewed briefly.

  8. Radiologic findings of annular pancreas divisum : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Sik; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Han, Tae Il; Yoon, Youp; Dong, Suk Ho

    1996-01-01

    Annular pancreas divisum is a very rare congenital anomaly involving the coexistence of an annular pancreas and pancreatic divisum in one pancreas, and showing characteristic radiologic findings of ring-like pancreatic tissue surrounding the second portion of the duodenum and no evidence of connection between ventral and dorsal ductal systems. We described the radiologic findings of annular pancreas divisum, diagnosed by hypotonic duodenography, CT and ERCP

  9. Effects of chronic isoproterenol administration of β1-adrenoceptors and growth of pancreas of young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneyer, C.A.; Humphreys-Beher, M.

    1988-01-01

    [ 3 H]Dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding of membranes of adult pancreas differed from that of pancreas of young rats, and the DHA binding in the presence of atenolol or butoxamine also was different in the two age groups. The adult pancreas had 93% β 2 - and 7% β 1 -adrenoceptors and did not exhibit an increased incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) following 2 days of DL-isoproterenol (ISO) administration; in contrast, pancreas of the 20-day-old rat had 71% β 2 -adrenoceptors and 27% β 1 -adrenoceptors and exhibited a 34-fold increase over that of adult, and a 6-fold increase over that of the control 20-day-old pancreas. Acinar cell differentiation was also accelerated by a 7-day regimen of ISO administration from 13 to 20 days of age. These growth responses to ISO appear to be β 1 mediated. The lack of β 1 -adrenoceptors in the adult may account for the failure of the adult pancreas to exhibit a growth response to ISO

  10. Respiratory manifestations in endocrine diseases

    OpenAIRE

    LENCU, CODRU?A; ALEXESCU, TEODORA; PETRULEA, MIRELA; LENCU, MONICA

    2016-01-01

    The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary ? cortical, and involuntary ? metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthy...

  11. Endocrine myopathy: Case-based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babul Reddy Hanmayyagari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine myopathy means muscle weakness in the presence of an abnormal endocrine state. Most of the endocrine disorders are associated with myopathy and it is usually reversible with correction of the underlying disturbance, though, there is an increasing knowledge of the metabolic effects of hormones, endocrine myopathy is a less recognized and often overlooked entity in clinical practice. Here, we describe this association in three of our patients, then, we discuss systematically about endocrine myopathy.

  12. Complete agenesis of the dorsal pancreas: Case report with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pancreatic head and uncinate process were normal, but the distal neck, body ... The neck, body, tail, and cephalic aspects of the head of the pancreas originate from the .... Embryology, normal variation, and congenital anomalies of the pancreas. ... M. A 3D reconstruction of pancreas development in the human embryos.

  13. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with complete replacement of the pancreas by serous cystic neoplasms in a patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Shimpei; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Oana, Shuhei; Ariake, Kyohei; Mizuma, Masamichi; Morikawa, Takanori; Hayashi, Hiroki; Nakagawa, Kei; Kamei, Takashi; Naitoh, Takeshi; Unno, Michiaki

    2017-09-25

    von Hippel-Lindau disease is a dominantly inherited multi-system syndrome with neoplastic hallmarks. Pancreatic lesions associated with von Hippel-Lindau include serous cystic neoplasms, simple cysts, and neuroendocrine tumors. The combination of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and serous cystic neoplasms is relatively rare, and the surgical treatment of these lesions must consider both preservation of pancreatic function and oncological clearance. We report a patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease successfully treated with pancreas-sparing resection of a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor where the pancreas had been completely replaced by serous cystic neoplasms, in which pancreatic function was preserved. A 39-year-old female with von Hippel-Lindau disease was referred to our institution for treatment of a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a well-enhanced mass, 4 cm in diameter in the tail of the pancreas, and two multilocular tumors with several calcifications, 5 cm in diameter, in the head of the pancreas. There was complete replacement of the pancreas by multiple cystic lesions with diameters ranging from 1 to 3 cm. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed innumerable cystic lesions on the whole pancreas and no detectable main pancreatic duct. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of the mass in the pancreatic tail showed characteristic features of a neuroendocrine tumor. A diagnosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in the tail of the pancreas and mixed-type serous cystic neoplasms replacing the whole pancreas was made and she underwent distal pancreatectomy while avoiding total pancreatectomy. The stump of the pancreas was sutured as firm as possible using a fish-mouth closure. The patient made a good recovery and was discharged on postoperative day 9. She is currently alive and well with no symptoms of endocrine or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency 8 months after surgery. A pancreas

  14. Tumors of the endocrine/neuroendocrine system: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, R A; Nesland, J M

    1994-01-01

    For the sake of discussion, the markedly diversified tumors of the endocrine/neuroendocrine system are classified as those originating in classic epithelial endocrine organs (eg, adrenal cortical adenomas), from the diffuse endocrine cells (eg, jejunal carcinoid tumors), or from clusters of these cells (eg, islet cell tumors); and those arising from neurosecretory neurons (eg, neuroblastoma) or paraganglia (eg, carotid body tumor). Although traditional transmission electron microscopy is useful for identifying neurosecretory or endosecretory granules as such, with few exceptions (eg, insulin-containing granules with a complex paracrystalline core) it is not possible to ascribe a granule type (size, shape, or ultrastructure) to a distinct nosologic entity or secretory product because of their overlapping fine structures in different cell types. Immunoelectron microscopy methods utilizing colloidal gold-labeled secondary antibodies can be used to localize virtually any antigen (peptide or neuroamine) to a specific neurosecretory or endosecretory granule or other cell structure. General endocrine/neuroendocrine cell markers such as neuron-specific enolase, the chromogranins, and synaptophysin are useful in identifying neuroendocrine differentiation in a neoplasm using routine immunohistochemical procedures. The current relevance of the APUD concept of Pearse as well as the biologic importance of endocrine/neuroendocrine secretory products such as bombesin and insulinlike growth factors also are discussed.

  15. Role of increased insulin demand in the adaptation of the endocrine pancreas to pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, AG; Schuiling, GA; Moes, H; Koiter, TR

    During gestation the demand for insulin increases due to a decrease in insulin sensitivity of the maternal tissues. Simultaneously, pancreatic islet-cell proliferation, as well as insulin production and secretion increase. Both phenomena appear to be caused by the actions of pregnancy hormones. We

  16. EFFECT OF INSULIN ON ENDOCRINE PANCREAS FUNCTION DURING LATE PREGNANCY IN THE RAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIJKSTRA, S; MOES, H; SCHUILING, GA; KOITER, TR

    To partly or completely satisfy the increasing demand for insulin, pregnant rats were infused SC with human insulin (2.4 or 4.8 IU/day) from day 14 to day 20 of gestation. Cyclic control rats underwent the same procedure of 6 days of insulin-treatment. During the treatment all,stoups of rats were

  17. MR imaging in pancreas head cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Hajime; Yamanouchi, Baisetsu; Takarada, Akira; Tonami, Hisao; Okimura, Tetsuro; Miyamura, Toshio; Yamamoto, Itaru; Kinami, Yoshio

    1989-01-01

    To reduce artifacts associated with MRI, we used abdominal belts and anticholinergic during the examinations in patients with pancreas head cancer. In selected cases, foric pyrophosphate was injected into the common bile duct as a contrast medium. We made a comparative study of the results of MRI with those of CT with regard to lesion detectability and diagnostic ability of tumor invasion. MR examinations were performed at 0.5 Tesla superconducting unit using spin-echo (SE) pulse sequences. Eleven patients with pancreas head cancer were enrolled in this study. As to the lesion detectability, eight cases (73%) were detected clearly or moderately clearly on MRI, almost corresponding to 9 cases (82%) on CT. With regard to the neoplastic infiltration to the surrounding area, MRI and CT were almost equally efficient as to the capsular and the arterial invasion. However, as to the invasion to the posterion surface of pancreas and the portal system, MRI was a little superior to CT. In patients to whom foric pyrophosphate was injected, the choledochal duct was clearly separated from the tumor. In conclusion, our results suggest that MRI using abdominal belts, anticholinergic and foric pyrophosphate solution is extremely effective in the diagnosis of pancreas head cancer and is almost as efficient as CT. (author)

  18. Periduodenal Tuberculosis masquerading as Annular Pancreas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a patient who succumbed to an isolated mid duodenal tuberculosis, diagnosed at laparatomy, whose clinical presentation, endoscopy and computerised tomography scans resembled annular pancreas. The limitations of clinical evaluation, endoscopy and radiology are highlighted as the importance of diagnostic ...

  19. The cystic fibrosis of exocrine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilschanski, Michael; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein is highly expressed in the pancreatic duct epithelia and permits anions and water to enter the ductal lumen. This results in an increased volume of alkaline fluid allowing the highly concentrated proteins secreted by the acina...... (CF) and pancreatitis, and outline present and potential therapeutic approaches in CF treatment relevant to the pancreas....

  20. The artificial pancreas : From logic to life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kropff, J.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated the efficacy of real-life use of an artificial pancreas starting with use of these systems in a hotel setting and finally 24/7 long-term use at home. We investigated the accuracy of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems that act as input for the artificial

  1. ATP Release and Effects in Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Amstrup, Jan; Henriksen, Katrine Lütken

    2003-01-01

    ATP and other nucleotides are released from various cells, but the pathway and physiological stimulus for ATP release are often unclear. The focus of our studies is the understanding of ATP release and signaling in rat exocrine pancreas. In acinar suspension mechanical stimulation, hypotonic shock...

  2. Selected Mildly Obese Donors Can Be Used Safely in Simultaneous Pancreas and Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamad, Tarek; Malone, Andrew F; Lentine, Krista L; Brennan, Daniel C; Wellen, Jason; Chang, Su-Hsin; Chakkera, Harini A

    2017-06-01

    Donor obesity, defined as donor body mass index (D-BMI) of 30 kg/m or greater, has been associated with increased risk of technical failure and poor pancreas allograft outcomes. Many transplant centers establish a threshold of D-BMI of 30 kg/m to decline donor offers for pancreas transplantation. However, no previous studies differentiate the impact of mild (D-BMI, 30-35 kg/m) versus severe obesity (D-BMI, ≥35 kg/m) on pancreas allograft outcomes. We examined Organ Procurement Transplant Network database records for 9916 simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplants (SPKT) performed between 2000 and 2013. We categorized donor body mass index (D-BMI) into 4 groups: 20 to 25 (n = 5724), 25 to 30 (n = 3303), 30 to 35 (n = 751), and 35 to 50 kg/m (n= 138). Associations of D-BMI with pancreas and kidney allograft failure were assessed by multivariate Cox regression adjusted for recipient, donor, and transplant factors. Compared with D-BMI 20 to 25 kg/m, only D-BMI 35 to 50 kg/m was associated with significantly higher pancreas allograft [adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI], 1.04-1.79] and kidney allograft (aHR, 1.36; CI, 1.02-1.82) failure over the study period (13 years). Donor BMI 30 to 35 kg/m did not impact pancreas allograft (aHR, 0.99; CI, 0.86-1.37) or kidney allograft (aHR, 0.98; CI, 0.84-1.15) failure. Similar patterns were noted at 3 months, and 1, 5, and 10 years posttransplant. These data support that pancreata from mildly obese donors (BMI, 30-35 kg/m) can be safely used for transplantation, with comparable short-term and long-term outcomes as organs from lean donors. Consideration of pancreata from obese donors may decrease the pancreas discard rate.

  3. The role of volume perfusion CT in the diagnosis of pathologies of the pancreas; Die Rolle des Volumenperfusions-CT in der Diagnostik von Pankreaspathologika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groezinger, G.; Groezinger, A.; Horger, M. [Universitaetsklinik Tuebingen (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2014-12-15

    The review discusses the potential role of volume perfusion CT (VPCT) in the diagnosis and follow-up of different pathologies of the pancreas. VPCT enables a differentiation of different pancreatic tumors like adenocarcinoma or neuroendocrine tumors based on functional parameters like blood flow, blood volume and permeability. Furthermore, the article discusses the potential indications for VPCT imaging of inflammatory diseases of the pancreas such as acute or chronic pancreatitis and autoimmune pancreatitis.

  4. Celiac disease and endocrine autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahaly, George J; Schuppan, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a small-intestinal inflammatory disease that is triggered by the ingestion of the storage proteins (gluten) of wheat, barley and rye. Endocrine autoimmunity is prevalent in patients with CD and their relatives. The genes that predispose to endocrine autoimmune diseases, e.g. type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroid diseases, and Addison's disease, i.e. DR3-DQ2 and DR4-DQ8, are also the major genetic determinants of CD, which is the best understood HLA-linked disease. Thus, up to 30% of first-degree relatives both of patients with CD and/or endocrine autoimmunity are affected by the other disease. In CD, certain gluten proteins bind with high affinity to HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8 in the small-intestinal mucosa, to activate gluten-specific T cells which are instrumental in the destruction of the resorptive villi. Here, the autoantigen tissue transglutaminase increases the T cell response by generating deamidated gluten peptides that bind more strongly to DQ2 or DQ8. Classical symptoms such as diarrhea and consequences of malabsorption like anemia and osteoporosis are often absent in patients with (screening-detected) CD, but this absence does not significantly affect these patients' incidence of endocrine autoimmunity. Moreover, once autoimmunity is established, a gluten-free diet is not able to induce remission. However, ongoing studies attempt to address how far a gluten-free diet may prevent or retard the development of CD and endocrine autoimmunity in children at risk. The close relationship between CD and endocrine autoimmunity warrants a broader immune genetic and endocrine screening of CD patients and their relatives. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Laparoscopic removal of a needle from the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign bodies inside the pancreas are rare and usually occur after the ingestion of sharp objects like fish bone, sewing needle and toothpick. Most of the ingested foreign bodies pass spontaneously through the anus without being noticed but about 1% of them can perforate through the wall of stomach or duodenum to reach solid organs like pancreas or liver. Once inside the pancreas they can produce complications like abscess, pseudoaneurysm or pancreatits. Foreign bodies of pancreas should be removed by endoscopic or surgical methods. We hereby report our experience of successful removal one a sewing needle from pancreas.

  6. Intraoperative radiotherapy for cancer of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manabe, Tadao; Nagai, Toshihiro; Tobe, Takayoshi; Shibamoto, Yuta; Takahashi, Masaharu; Abe, Mitsuyuki

    1985-01-01

    Seven patients treated by intraoperative radiotherapy for cancer of the pancreas were evaluated. Three patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for cancer of the head of the pancreas received a dose of 2,500--3,000 rad (6--10 MeV Betatron) intraoperatively with or without external beam irradiation at a dose of 2,520 rad (10 MeV lineac X-ray). One patient developed radiation pancreatitis and died 0.8 month after surgery. Autopsy revealed the degeneration of cancer cells in the involved superior mesenteric artery. One died of hepatic metastasis 8.5 months after surgery, however, recurrence was not found in the irradiation field. The other patient who had external beam irradiation combined with intraoperative radiotherapy is alive 7.5 months after surgery. Four patients with unresectable cancer of the body of the pancreas received a dose of 2,500--3,000 rad (13--18 MeV Betatron) intraoperatively with or without external beam irradiation at a dose of 1,500--5,520 rad (10 MeV lineac X-ray). One patient died of peritonitis carcinomatosa 3.0 months after surgery. One patient died of DIC 0.6 month after surgery. Two patients are alive 1.0 and 6.5 months after surgery. In these patients with intraoperative radiotherapy for unresectable cancer of the pancreas, remarkable effects on relief of pain and shrinkage of tumor were obtained. Further pursuit of intraoperative and external beam radiotherapies in combination with pancreatectomy should be indicated in an attempt to prolong survival of patient with cancer of the pancreas. (author)

  7. Maternal microchimerism: increased in the insulin positive compartment of type 1 diabetes pancreas but not in infiltrating immune cells or replicating islet cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody Ye

    Full Text Available Maternal microchimeric cells (MMc transfer across the placenta during pregnancy. Increased levels of MMc have been observed in several autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes but their role is unknown. It has been suggested that MMc are 1 effector cells of the immune response, 2 targets of the autoimmune response or 3 play a role in tissue repair. The aim of this study was to define the cellular phenotype of MMc in control (n = 14 and type 1 diabetes pancreas (n = 8.Using sex chromosome-based fluorescence in-situ hybridization, MMc were identified in male pancreas and their phenotype determined by concomitant immunofluorescence.In normal pancreas, MMc positive for endocrine, exocrine, duct and acinar markers were identified suggesting that these cells are derived from maternal progenitors. Increased frequencies of MMc were observed in type 1 diabetes pancreas (p = 0.03 with particular enrichment in the insulin positive fraction (p = 0.01. MMc did not contribute to infiltrating immune cells or Ki67+ islet cell populations in type 1 diabetes.These studies provide support for the hypothesis that MMc in human pancreas are derived from pancreatic precursors. Increased frequencies of MMc beta cells may contribute to the initiation of autoimmunity or to tissue repair but do not infiltrate islets in type 1 diabetes.

  8. Production of pancreatic hormone-expressing endocrine cells from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Kevin A; Bang, Anne G; Eliazer, Susan; Kelly, Olivia G; Agulnick, Alan D; Smart, Nora G; Moorman, Mark A; Kroon, Evert; Carpenter, Melissa K; Baetge, Emmanuel E

    2006-11-01

    Of paramount importance for the development of cell therapies to treat diabetes is the production of sufficient numbers of pancreatic endocrine cells that function similarly to primary islets. We have developed a differentiation process that converts human embryonic stem (hES) cells to endocrine cells capable of synthesizing the pancreatic hormones insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide and ghrelin. This process mimics in vivo pancreatic organogenesis by directing cells through stages resembling definitive endoderm, gut-tube endoderm, pancreatic endoderm and endocrine precursor--en route to cells that express endocrine hormones. The hES cell-derived insulin-expressing cells have an insulin content approaching that of adult islets. Similar to fetal beta-cells, they release C-peptide in response to multiple secretory stimuli, but only minimally to glucose. Production of these hES cell-derived endocrine cells may represent a critical step in the development of a renewable source of cells for diabetes cell therapy.

  9. The nuclear hormone receptor family member NR5A2 controls aspects of multipotent progenitor cell formation and acinar differentiation during pancreatic organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Michael A; Swift, Galvin H; Hoang, Chinh Q; Deering, Tye G; Masui, Toshi; Lee, Youn-Kyoung; Xue, Jumin; MacDonald, Raymond J

    2014-08-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor NR5A2 is necessary for the stem-like properties of the epiblast of the pre-gastrulation embryo and for cellular and physiological homeostasis of endoderm-derived organs postnatally. Using conditional gene inactivation, we show that Nr5a2 also plays crucial regulatory roles during organogenesis. During the formation of the pancreas, Nr5a2 is necessary for the expansion of the nascent pancreatic epithelium, for the subsequent formation of the multipotent progenitor cell (MPC) population that gives rise to pre-acinar cells and bipotent cells with ductal and islet endocrine potential, and for the formation and differentiation of acinar cells. At birth, the NR5A2-deficient pancreas has defects in all three epithelial tissues: a partial loss of endocrine cells, a disrupted ductal tree and a >90% deficit of acini. The acinar defects are due to a combination of fewer MPCs, deficient allocation of those MPCs to pre-acinar fate, disruption of acinar morphogenesis and incomplete acinar cell differentiation. NR5A2 controls these developmental processes directly as well as through regulatory interactions with other pancreatic transcriptional regulators, including PTF1A, MYC, GATA4, FOXA2, RBPJL and MIST1 (BHLHA15). In particular, Nr5a2 and Ptf1a establish mutually reinforcing regulatory interactions and collaborate to control developmentally regulated pancreatic genes by binding to shared transcriptional regulatory regions. At the final stage of acinar cell development, the absence of NR5A2 affects the expression of Ptf1a and its acinar specific partner Rbpjl, so that the few acinar cells that form do not complete differentiation. Nr5a2 controls several temporally distinct stages of pancreatic development that involve regulatory mechanisms relevant to pancreatic oncogenesis and the maintenance of the exocrine phenotype. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Australia and New Zealand Islets and Pancreas Transplant Registry Annual Report 2017—Pancreas Waiting List, Recipients, and Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Angela C; Hedley, James; Patekar, Abhijit; Robertson, Paul; Kelly, Patrick J

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This is a registry report from the Australia and New Zealand Islet and Pancreas Transplant Registry. We report data for all solid organ pancreas transplant activity from inception in 1984 to end of 2016. Data analysis was performed using Stata Software version 14 (StataCorp, College Station, Tex). From 1984 to 2016 a total of 756 solid organ pancreas transplants have been performed in Australia and New Zealand, in 738 individuals. In 2016, 55 people received a pancreas transplant. These transplants were performed in Auckland (4), Monash (22), and Westmead (29). In 2016, 50 transplants were simultaneous pancreas kidney, 4 were pancreas after kidney, and 1 was a pancreas transplant alone. PMID:29026874

  11. Scintigraphic imaging of endocrine organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, M.D.; Shapiro, B.; Thrall, J.H.; Freitas, J.E.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The nuclear medicine approach to the portrayal of endocrine organs is unique; the scintigraphic images provide not only anatomic and localization information, but in many instances allow a quantitative assessment of organ function. The ability to image endocrine glands is based upon the design of radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals with characteristics to take advantage of many unique and specific biochemical and advantage of many unique and specific biochemical and metabolic functions of these tissues. The recent introduction of new radiopharmaceutical and tracers has provided the consulting endocrinologist with imaging procedures that allow localization and functional characterization not available by other single, noninvasive diagnostic modalities. This review will serve as an update of the available techniques to image and quantitate the function of the endocrine glands using the nuclear medicine approach

  12. Quantification of VGF- and pro-SAAS-derived peptides in endocrine tissues and the brain, and their regulation by diet and cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Tandra R; Tkalych, Oleg; Nanno, Daniela; Garcia, Angelo L; Devi, Lakshmi A; Salton, Stephen R J

    2006-05-17

    Two novel granin-like polypeptides, VGF and pro-SAAS, which are stored in and released from secretory vesicles and are expressed widely in nervous, endocrine, and neuroendocrine tissues, play roles in the regulation of body weight, feeding, and energy expenditure. Both VGF and pro-SAAS are cleaved into peptide fragments, several of which are biologically active. We utilized a highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) to immunoreactive, pro-SAAS-derived PEN peptides, developed another against immunoreactive, VGF-derived AQEE30 peptides, and quantified these peptides in various mouse tissues and brain regions. Immunoreactive AQEE30 was most abundant in the pituitary, while brain levels were highest in hypothalamus, striatum, and frontal cortex. Immunoreactive PEN levels were highest in the pancreas and spinal cord, and in brain, PEN was most abundant in striatum, hippocampus, pons and medulla, and cortex. Since both peptides were expressed in hypothalamus, a region of the brain that controls feeding and energy expenditure, double label immunofluorescence studies were employed. These demonstrated that 42% of hypothalamic arcuate neurons coexpress VGF and SAAS peptides, and that the intracellular distributions of these peptides in arcuate neurons differed. By RIA, cold stress increased immunoreactive AQEE30 and PEN peptide levels in female but not male hypothalamus, while a high fat diet increased AQEE30 and PEN peptide levels in female but not male hippocampus. VGF and SAAS-derived peptides are therefore widely expressed in endocrine, neuroendocrine, and neural tissues, can be accurately quantified by RIA, and are differentially regulated in the brain by diet and cold stress.

  13. Psychosocial approach to endocrine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonino, Nicoletta; Tomba, Elena; Fava, Giovanni A

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in the psychosocial aspects of endocrine disease, such as the role of life stress in the pathogenesis of some conditions, their association with affective disorders, and the presence of residual symptoms after adequate treatment. In clinical endocrinology, exploration of psychosocial antecedents may elucidate the temporal relationships between life events and symptom onset, as it has been shown to be relevant for pituitary (Cushing's disease, hyperprolactinemia) or thyroid (Graves' disease) conditions, as well as the role of allostatic load, linked to chronic stress, in uncovering a person's vulnerability. After endocrine abnormalities are established, they are frequently associated with a wide range of psychological symptoms: at times, such symptoms reach the level of psychiatric illness (mainly mood and anxiety disorders); at other times, however, they can only be identified by the subclinical forms of assessment provided by the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR). Indeed, in a population study, the majority of patients suffered from at least one of the three DCPR syndromes considered: irritable mood, demoralization, persistent somatization. In particular, irritable mood was found to occur in 46% of 146 patients successfully treated for endocrine conditions, a rate similar to that found in cardiology and higher than in oncology and gastroenterology. Long-standing endocrine disorders may imply a degree of irreversibility of the pathological process and induce highly individualized affective responses. In patients who showed persistence or even worsening of psychological distress upon proper endocrine treatment, the value of appropriate psychiatric interventions was underscored. As it happened in other fields of clinical medicine, a conceptual shift from a merely biomedical care to a psychosomatic consideration of the person and his/her quality of life appears to be necessary for improving

  14. Endocrine Disorders in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Scott M; Tangpricha, Vin

    2016-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis is frequently complicated by endocrine disorders. Diabetes can be expected to affect most with CF and pancreatic insufficiency and varies widely in age of onset, but early identification and treatment improve morbidity and mortality. Short stature can be exacerbated by relative delay of puberty and by use of inhaled corticosteroids. Bone disease in CF causes fragility fractures and should be assessed by monitoring bone mineral density and optimizing vitamin D status. Detecting and managing endocrine complications in CF can reduce morbidity and mortality in CF. These complications can be expected to become more common as the CF population ages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Endocrine ophthalmopathy and radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, F. Anders

    2006-01-01

    Endocrine ophthalmopathy is to some degree present in most patients with Graves' disease. In few cases, a severe form of the condition develops and in the majority of these cases, the course of the eye problems has been influenced by the treatment for thyrotoxicosis. In this regard, radioiodine therapy has been increasingly recognized as carrying a special risk. Here, the current understanding of endocrine ophthalmopathy and the risks associated with the development of severe eye disease are discussed. The results of a retrospective investigation of patients with severe eye disease in our hospital, and the experience with corticosteroid administration following radioiodine in order to reduce the risk of ophthalmopathy, are also presented

  16. Comparison between 68Ga-DOTA-NOC and 18F-DOPA PET for the detection of gastro-entero-pancreatic and lung neuro-endocrine tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, Valentina; Tomassetti, Paola; Castellucci, Paolo; Campana, Davide; Montini, Giancarlo; Rubello, Domenico; Nanni, Cristina; Rizzello, Anna; Franchi, Roberto; Fanti, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    18 F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) value for the assessment of neuro-endocrine tumours (NET) is limited. Preliminary studies indicate that 18 F-DOPA and 68 Ga-DOTA-NOC are more accurate for disease assessment and 68 Ga-DOTA peptides provide additional data on receptor status that are crucial for targeted radionuclide therapy. At present, there are no comparative studies investigating their role in NET. The aim of this study was to compare 68 Ga-DOTA-NOC and 18 F-DOPA for the evaluation of gastro-entero-pancreatic and lung neuro-endocrine tumours. Thirteen patients with biopsy-proven NET (gastro-entero-pancreatic or pulmonary) were prospectively enrolled and scheduled for 18 F-DOPA and 68 Ga-DOTA-NOC PET. PET results obtained with both tracers were compared with each other, with other conventional diagnostic procedures (CT, ultrasound) and with follow-up (clinical, imaging). The most common primary tumour site was the pancreas (8/13) followed by the ileum (2/13), the lung (2/13) and the duodenum (1/13). The carcinoma was well differentiated in 10/13 and poorly differentiated in 3/13 cases. 68 Ga-DOTA-NOC PET was positive, showing at least one lesion, in 13/13 cases while 18 F-DOPA PET was positive in 9/13. On a lesions basis, 68 Ga-DOTA-NOC identified more lesions than 18 F-DOPA (71 vs 45), especially at liver, lung and lymph node level. 68 Ga-DOTA-NOC correctly identified the primary site in six of eight non-operated cases (in five cases, the primary was surgically removed before PET), while 18 F-DOPA identified the primary only in two of eight cases. Although the patients studied are few and heterogeneous, our data show that 68 Ga-DOTA-NOC is accurate for the detection of gastro-entero-pancreatic and lung neuro-endocrine tumours in either the primary or metastatic site and that it offers several advantages over 18 F-DOPA. (orig.)

  17. Comparison between 68Ga-DOTA-NOC and 18F-DOPA PET for the detection of gastro-entero-pancreatic and lung neuro-endocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, Valentina; Tomassetti, Paola; Castellucci, Paolo; Campana, Davide; Montini, Giancarlo; Rubello, Domenico; Nanni, Cristina; Rizzello, Anna; Franchi, Roberto; Fanti, Stefano

    2008-08-01

    (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) value for the assessment of neuro-endocrine tumours (NET) is limited. Preliminary studies indicate that (18)F-DOPA and (68)Ga-DOTA-NOC are more accurate for disease assessment and (68)Ga-DOTA peptides provide additional data on receptor status that are crucial for targeted radionuclide therapy. At present, there are no comparative studies investigating their role in NET. The aim of this study was to compare (68)Ga-DOTA-NOC and (18)F-DOPA for the evaluation of gastro-entero-pancreatic and lung neuro-endocrine tumours. Thirteen patients with biopsy-proven NET (gastro-entero-pancreatic or pulmonary) were prospectively enrolled and scheduled for (18)F-DOPA and (68)Ga-DOTA-NOC PET. PET results obtained with both tracers were compared with each other, with other conventional diagnostic procedures (CT, ultrasound) and with follow-up (clinical, imaging). The most common primary tumour site was the pancreas (8/13) followed by the ileum (2/13), the lung (2/13) and the duodenum (1/13). The carcinoma was well differentiated in 10/13 and poorly differentiated in 3/13 cases. (68)Ga-DOTA-NOC PET was positive, showing at least one lesion, in 13/13 cases while (18)F-DOPA PET was positive in 9/13. On a lesions basis, (68)Ga-DOTA-NOC identified more lesions than (18)F-DOPA (71 vs 45), especially at liver, lung and lymph node level. (68)Ga-DOTA-NOC correctly identified the primary site in six of eight non-operated cases (in five cases, the primary was surgically removed before PET), while (18)F-DOPA identified the primary only in two of eight cases. Although the patients studied are few and heterogeneous, our data show that (68)Ga-DOTA-NOC is accurate for the detection of gastro-entero-pancreatic and lung neuro-endocrine tumours in either the primary or metastatic site and that it offers several advantages over (18)F-DOPA.

  18. Pancreas retransplantation: a second chance for diabetic patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buron, Fanny; Thaunat, Olivier; Demuylder-Mischler, Sandrine; Badet, Lionel; Brunet, Maria; Ber, Charles-Eric; Thivolet, Charles; Martin, Xavier; Berney, Thierry; Morelon, Emmanuel

    2013-01-27

    If pancreas transplantation is a validated alternative for type 1 diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease, the management of patients who have lost their primary graft is poorly defined. This study aims at evaluating pancreas retransplantation outcome. Between 1976 and 2008, 569 pancreas transplantations were performed in Lyon and Geneva, including 37 second transplantations. Second graft survival was compared with primary graft survival of the same patients and the whole population. Predictive factors of second graft survival were sought. Patient survival and impact on kidney graft function and survival were evaluated. Second pancreas survival of the 17 patients transplanted from 1995 was close to primary graft survival of the whole population (71% vs. 79% at 1 year and 59% vs. 69% at 5 years; P=0.5075) and significantly better than their first pancreas survival (71% vs. 29% at 1 year and 59% vs. 7% at 5 years; P=0.0008) regardless of the cause of first pancreas loss. The same results were observed with all 37 retransplantations. Survival of second simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantations was better than survival of second pancreas after kidney. Patient survival was excellent (89% at 5 years). Pancreas retransplantation had no impact on kidney graft function and survival (100% at 5 years). Pancreas retransplantation is a safe procedure with acceptable graft survival that should be proposed to diabetic patients who have lost their primary graft.

  19. Comparative functional scintigraphic and angiographic examination in pancreas diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendizov, A.; Brilski, V.; Bozhiyanov, A.; Romanova, A.; Mardzhanov, I.; Glavincheva, I.; Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia

    1979-01-01

    Pancreas scintigraphy with 75 seleno-methionine, pancreocimine-secretine test and selective abdominal angiography was carried out in patients with chronic pancreatitis, pancreas carcinoma and subjects without any pancreas diseases. Scintigraphic changes in pancreas was found in 95,6 per cent of the patients with chronic pancreatitis (136 patients), in 92 per cent of them with pancreas carcinoma (25 patients) and in 53,4 per cent from the subjects without pancreas diseases (30 examined). Pathological changes in pancreatic secretion was found in 93,4 per cent of the patients with chronic pancreatitis (105 patients), in 93,8 per cent of the subjects with pancreas carcinoma (32 patients) and only in 3,9 per cent from the examined without pancreatic diseases. The angiographic examination is informative mainly in case of tumours and cysts of the pancreas. The diagnostic potentialities of the separate methods for pancreas examination were critically assessed. The basic diagnostic problems in pancreas diseases are solved to a great extent with the combined examination with scintigraphy pancreocimine test and angiography (76 patients). (author)

  20. Arterial and venous thrombosis in endocrine diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zaane, Bregje; Stuijver, Danka J. F.; Squizzato, Alessandro; Gerdes, Victor E. A.

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine diseases have been associated with cardiovascular events. Both altered coagulation and fibrinolysis markers and thrombotic disorders have been described in several endocrine diseases. This review summarizes the evidence on the influence of thyroid diseases, cortisol excess and deficiency,

  1. Annular pancreas causing extrahepatic biliary obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogulin, M.; Jamar, B.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Annular pancreas is an uncommon congenital abnormality, consisting of a flat band of pancreatic tissue, which encircles duodenum or extrahepatic biliary duct. We present a case of obstructive jaundice, caused by annular pancreas. Case report. A 46 years old female was admitted because of a sudden onset of abdominal pain, vomiting and jaundice. For the last six years she occasionally noticed her skin was light yellow, in the last year she felt distension in the upper abdomen, especially after fatty meals. Conclusions. Two US examinations, the first one six months before the admission, showed dilated hepatic ducts. The reason of dilatation was unclear, even after the endoscopic US examination. At operation an almost complete obstruction of the common hepatic duct was found, caused by a narrow band of pancreatic tissue. (author)

  2. Solid pseudopapillary pancreas tumors. Often neglected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.A.; Reiser, M.F.; Zech, C.J.; Helmberger, T.; Bruns, C.

    2008-01-01

    Solid pseudopapillary tumors of the pancreas (SPTP) are rare tumors of the pancreas with low malignancy potential and a very good prognostic outcome after surgery. They typically occur in young women or adolescents and consist of solid, cystic and cystic-hemorrhagic components. Imaging findings in these tumors are characteristic and include a fibrotic capsule with a clear delineation and exhibit solid and cystic-hemorrhagic signal and density characteristics. Calcifications may be present in the periphery of the tumor. The tumor capsule shows contrast enhancement, the solid components in the periphery enhance in the early phase and gradually and inhomogeneously in late phases. MRI is superior to CT and other imaging modalities for characterization of SPTP. Awareness and knowledge of this tumor entity with an excellent prognosis is crucial to guide the patient towards effective, predominantly organ-sparing surgical treatment. (orig.) [de

  3. Informative importance of determination of trace elements in biologocal mediums in patients with endocrine pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Николаевна Андрусишина

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The changes of mineral metabolism in human organism caused by the deficiency or excess of trace elements in environment (air, food stuffs, water can lead to disorder of functional status of organism.An excess or deficiency of the certain metals disturb the balance of metabolic processes in organism that causes the different changes in endocrine system too. That is why the aim of research was to detect the peculiarities of distribution of macro and trace elements in patients with different endocrine pathology and to show the reasonability of the complex approach in assessment of microelementoses at hyperthyroidism and diabetes mellitus.Methods. The balance of 15 macro and trace elements in different biological mediums (hairs, whole blood, blood serum, urine was studied using EAAS and AES-ICP methods.Result. There was demonstrated the high informative importance of determination of K, Mg, Mn, Cr, Zn at pancreas pathology and Cr, Mn, Se, Zn- at thyroid pathology in human. There was detected that endocrine pathology is characterized with the surplus accumulation of Al, As and Pb in organism of examined patients.Conclusions. To increase the reliability and efficiency of the clinical diagnostics of endocrine human pathology there was demonstrated the high informative importance of the complex approach in choice of biological mediums at assessment of the trace elements imbalance. 

  4. Endocrine emergencies in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Amie

    2013-07-01

    Success in treatment of endocrine emergencies is contingent on early recognition and treatment. Many endocrine diseases presenting emergently have nonspecific signs and symptoms. In addition, these endocrine crises are often precipitated by concurrent disease, further making early identification difficult. This article concentrates on recognition and emergency management of the most common endocrine crises in dogs and cats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cystic tumors of the pancreas; Zystische Tumoren des Pankreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambs, H.J.; Juchems, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Ulm, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Ulm (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    Cystic lesions of the pancreas encompass a broad spectrum of benign, premalignant, and malignant tumors which are primarily cystic or result from cystic necroses of solid neoplasms. Because of the wide use of cross-sectional imaging techniques they are increasingly being identified in asymptomatic patients as well as in patients presenting with abdominal pain, jaundice or pancreatitis. Among these lesions, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, serous cystic neoplasms and mucinous cystic neoplasms represent the majority of cases. With increasing experience with these tumors, a refinement of our understanding of their morphology and of their natural course has emerged. It is important to be familiar with the CT and MR imaging features of these lesions to differentiate these tumors and to orient the diagnosis towards benign or malignant forms. Because characterization of cystic tumors of the pancreas can sometimes be difficult due to overlapping imaging features, additional criteria such as clinical symptoms, localization, age and gender have to be taken into account. If appropriately treated, these tumors can usually be cured by resection and the decreasing risk of pancreatic surgery has led to an increasing number of resections of pancreatic tumors. The management of cystic tumors of the pancreas has not yet been standardized and the correct evaluation and subsequent management of the disease in asymptomatic patients have not been fully defined. (orig.) [German] Zystische Pankreastumoren umfassen ein breites Spektrum gutartiger, praemaligner und maligner Veraenderungen, die primaer zystisch sind oder durch eine zystische Degeneration solider Tumoren entstehen. Wegen des breiten Einsatzes von Schnittbildtechniken werden sie zunehmend bei asymptomatischen Patienten und bei Patienten mit Bauchschmerzen, Pankreatitis und Ikterus entdeckt. Unter diesen Tumoren stellen die intraduktalen papillaeren muzinoesen Neoplasien, die seroesen zystischen Neoplasien und die

  6. Intestinal endocrine cells in radiation enteritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J. L.; Taat, C. W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W. H.; Becker, A. E.

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were

  7. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, H.J.; Lois, J.F.; Gomes, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    A case of multiple endocrine neoplasia (Men) consisting of an unusual combination of an insulin-producing islet cell tumour and an adrenal adenoma is reported. CT clearly demonstrated the adrenal mass whereas the pancreatic lesion remained questionable. Conversely angiography located the pancreatic tumour but the adrenal findings were subtle. (orig.)

  8. The Vitamin D Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Anthony W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the physiology and biochemistry of the vitamin D endocrine system, including role of biological calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D metabolism, and related diseases. A 10-item, multiple-choice test which can be used to obtain continuing medical education credit is included. (JN)

  9. Release of NPY in pig pancreas: Dual parasympathetic and sympathetic regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, S.P.; Holst, J.J.; Skak-Nielsen, T.; Knigge, U.; Warberg, J.; Theodorsson-Norheim, E.; Hoekfelt, T.; Lundberg, J.M.; Schwartz, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have connected neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36-residue polypeptide, to the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. The authors studied the localization, the molecular characteristics, and the release of NPY and norepinephrine (NE) in the porcine pancreas. Immunohistochemical investigations revealed that NPY nerves around blood vessels were likely to be of adrenergic nature, whereas NPY-immunoreactive fibers close to exocrine and endocrine cells may originate from local ganglia also containing VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) and PHI (peptide histidine isoleucine). Electrical stimulation of the splanchnic nerve supply to the isolated perfused pig pancreas resulted in a corelease of NPY and NE into the venous effluent. Stimulation of the vagal nerves caused a sevenfold larger release of NPY without affecting the NE secretion. Characterization of the NPY immunoreactivity in the pancreatic tissue and in the venous effluent by gel filtration, high-performance liquid chromatography, and isoelectric focusing shoed that the immunoreactive NPY was indistinguishable from synthetic porcine NPY. It is concluded that, although NPY is associated with sympathetic perivascular neurons, the majority of the pancreatic NPY-containing nerve fibers are likely to belong to the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system

  10. Tributyltin chloride leads to adiposity and impairs metabolic functions in the rat liver and pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuloso, Bruno D; Podratz, Priscila L; Merlo, Eduardo; de Araújo, Julia F P; Lima, Leandro C F; de Miguel, Emilio C; de Souza, Leticia N; Gava, Agata L; de Oliveira, Miriane; Miranda-Alves, Leandro; Carneiro, Maria T W D; Nogueira, Celia R; Graceli, Jones B

    2015-05-19

    Tributyltin chloride (TBT) is an environmental contaminant used in antifouling paints of boats. Endocrine disruptor effects of TBT are well established in animal models. However, the adverse effects on metabolism are less well understood. The toxicity of TBT in the white adipose tissue (WAT), liver and pancreas of female rats were assessed. Animals were divided into control and TBT (0.1 μg/kg/day) groups. TBT induced an increase in the body weight of the rats by the 15th day of oral exposure. The weight gain was associated with high parametrial (PR) and retroperitoneal (RP) WAT weights. TBT-treatment increased the adiposity, inflammation and expression of ERα and PPARγ proteins in both RP and PR WAT. In 3T3-L1 cells, estrogen treatment reduced lipid droplets accumulation, however increased the ERα protein expression. In contrast, TBT-treatment increased the lipid accumulation and reduced the ERα expression. WAT metabolic changes led to hepatic inflammation, lipid accumulation, increase of PPARγ and reduction of ERα protein expression. Accordingly, there were increases in the glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests with increases in the number of pancreatic islets and insulin levels. These findings suggest that TBT leads to adiposity in WAT specifically, impairing the metabolic functions of the liver and pancreas. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Pancreatic Stellate Cells : A Starring Role in Normal and Diseased Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoti eApte

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While the morphology and function of cells of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas have been studied over several centuries, one important cell type in the gland, the pancreatic stellate cell (PSC, had remained undiscovered until as recently as twenty years ago. Even after its first description in 1982, it was to be another 16 years before its biology could begin to be studied, because it was only in 1998 that methods were developed to isolate and culture PSCs from rodent and human pancreas. PSCs are now known to play a critical role in pancreatic fibrosis, a consistent histological feature of two major diseases of the pancreas - chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. In health, PSCs maintain normal tissue architecture via regulation of the synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM proteins. Recent studies have also implied other additional functions for PSCs as progenitor cells, immune cells or intermediaries in exocrine pancreatic secretion in humans.During pancreatic injury, PSCs transform from their quiescent phase into an activated, myofibroblast-like phenotype that secretes excessive amounts of ECM proteins leading to the fibrosis of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. An ever increasing number of factors that stimulate and/or inhibit PSC activation via paracrine and autocrine pathways are being identified and characterized. It is also now established that PSCs interact closely with pancreatic cancer cells to facilitate cancer progression. Based on these findings, several therapeutic strategies have been examined in experimental models of chronic pancreatitis as well as pancreatic cancer, in a bid to inhibit/retard PSC activation and thereby alleviate chronic pancreatitis or reduce tumour growth in pancreatic cancer. The challenge that remains is to translate these pre-clinical developments into clinically applicable treatments for patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

  12. De novo malignancy after pancreas transplantation in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomimaru, Y; Ito, T; Marubashi, S; Kawamoto, K; Tomokuni, A; Asaoka, T; Wada, H; Eguchi, H; Mori, M; Doki, Y; Nagano, H

    2015-04-01

    Long-term immunosuppression is associated with an increased risk of cancer. Especially, the immunosuppression in pancreas transplantation is more intensive than that in other organ transplantation because of its strong immunogenicity. Therefore, it suggests that the risk of post-transplant de novo malignancy might increase in pancreas transplantation. However, there have been few studies of de novo malignancy after pancreas transplantation. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of de novo malignancy after pancreas transplantation in Japan. Post-transplant patients with de novo malignancy were surveyed and characterized in Japan. Among 107 cases receiving pancreas transplantation in Japan between 2001 and 2010, de novo malignancy developed in 9 cases (8.4%): post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders in 6 cases, colon cancer in 1 case, renal cancer in 1 case, and brain tumor in 1 case. We clarified the incidence of de novo malignancy after pancreas transplantation in Japan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Surgical treatment of pancreatic endocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Cerqueira Cesar Machado

    Full Text Available Surgical approaches to pancreatic endocrine tumors associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may differ greatly from those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Presurgical diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is therefore crucial to plan a proper intervention. Of note, hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 should be surgically treated before pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 resection, apart from insulinoma. Non-functioning pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 >1 cm have a high risk of malignancy and should be treated by a pancreatic resection associated with lymphadenectomy. The vast majority of patients with gastrinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 present with tumor lesions at the duodenum, so the surgery of choice is subtotal or total pancreatoduodenectomy followed by regional lymphadenectomy. The usual surgical treatment for insulinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is distal pancreatectomy up to the mesenteric vein with or without spleen preservation, associated with enucleation of tumor lesions in the pancreatic head. Surgical procedures for glucagonomas, somatostatinomas, and vipomas/ multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are similar to those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Some of these surgical strategies for pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 still remain controversial as to their proper extension and timing. Furthermore, surgical resection of single hepatic metastasis secondary to pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may be curative and even in multiple liver metastases surgical resection is possible. Hepatic trans-arterial chemo-embolization is usually associated with surgical resection. Liver transplantation may be needed for select cases. Finally, pre-surgical clinical and genetic diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome and

  14. Endocrine pancreatic development: impact of obesity and diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline F O'Dowd

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During embryonic development, multipotent endodermal cells differentiate to form the pancreas. Islet cell clusters arising from the pancreatic bud form the acini tissue and exocrine ducts whilst pancreatic islets form around the edges of the clusters. The successive steps of islet differentiation are controlled by a complex network of transcription factors and signals that influence cell differentiation, growth and lineage. A Westernised lifestyle has led to an increased consumption of a high saturated fat diet, and an increase in maternal obesity. The developing fetus is highly sensitive to the intrauterine environment, therefore any alteration in maternal nutrition during gestation and lactation which affects the in-utero environment during the key developmental phases of the pancreas may change the factors controlling β-cell development and β-cell mass. Whilst the molecular mechanisms behind the adaptive programming of β-cells are still poorly understood it is established that changes arising from maternal obesity and/or over-nutrition may affect the ability to maintain fetal β-cell mass resulting in an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood.

  15. Laparoscopic robot-assisted pancreas transplantation: first world experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggi, Ugo; Signori, Stefano; Vistoli, Fabio; D'Imporzano, Simone; Amorese, Gabriella; Consani, Giovanni; Guarracino, Fabio; Marchetti, Piero; Focosi, Daniele; Mosca, Franco

    2012-01-27

    Surgical complications are a major disincentive to pancreas transplantation, despite the undisputed benefits of restored insulin independence. The da Vinci surgical system, a computer-assisted electromechanical device, provides the unique opportunity to test whether laparoscopy can reduce the morbidity of pancreas transplantation. Pancreas transplantation was performed by robot-assisted laparoscopy in three patients. The first patient received a pancreas after kidney transplant, the second a simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation, and the third a pancreas transplant alone. Operations were carried out through an 11-mm optic port, two 8-mm operative ports, and a 7-cm midline incision. The latter was used to introduce the grafts, enable vascular cross-clamping, and create exocrine drainage into the jejunum. The two solitary pancreas transplants required an operating time of 3 and 5 hr, respectively; the simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation took 8 hr. Mean warm ischemia time of the pancreas graft was 34 min. All pancreatic transplants functioned immediately, and all recipients became insulin independent. The kidney graft, revascularized after 35 min of warm ischemia, also functioned immediately. No patient had complications during or after surgery. At the longer follow-up of 10, 8, and 6 months, respectively, all recipients are alive with normal graft function. We have shown the feasibility of laparoscopic robot-assisted solitary pancreas and simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation. If the safety and feasibility of this procedure can be confirmed by larger series, laparoscopic robot-assisted pancreas transplantation could become a new option for diabetic patients needing beta-cell replacement.

  16. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Pancreas: Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Heon Ju; Byun, Jae Ho; Kang, Jun; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Moon Gyu

    2008-01-01

    We report here a case of a pathologically proven solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas. A 54-year-old man was referred to our hospital for further evaluation of a pancreatic mass that was found incidentally. CT, MR imaging, and endoscopic ultrasonography showed a well-defined, enhancing mass with cystic portions of the pancreas body. MR cholangiopancreatography showed no pancreatic duct dilatation. A solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas is a very rare lesion

  17. The density of parasympathetic axons is reduced in the exocrine pancreas of individuals recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Marcus; Lindqvist, Andreas; Wierup, Nils; Krogvold, Lars; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Skog, Oskar

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate the etiology of type 1 diabetes, the affected pancreas needs to be thoroughly characterized. Pancreatic innervation has been suggested to be involved in the pathology of the disease and a reduction of sympathetic innervation of the islets was recently reported. In the present study, we hypothesized that parasympathetic innervation would be altered in the type 1 diabetes pancreas. Human pancreatic specimens were obtained from a unique cohort of individuals with recent onset or long standing type 1 diabetes. Density of parasympathetic axons was assessed by immunofluorescence and morphometry. Our main finding was a reduced density of parasympathetic axons in the exocrine, but not endocrine compartment of the pancreas in individuals with recent onset type 1 diabetes. The reduced density of parasympathetic axons in the exocrine compartment could have functional implications, e.g. be related to the exocrine insufficiency reported in type 1 diabetes patients. Further studies are needed to understand whether reduced parasympathetic innervation is a cause or consequence of type 1 diabetes.

  18. The density of parasympathetic axons is reduced in the exocrine pancreas of individuals recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Lundberg

    Full Text Available To elucidate the etiology of type 1 diabetes, the affected pancreas needs to be thoroughly characterized. Pancreatic innervation has been suggested to be involved in the pathology of the disease and a reduction of sympathetic innervation of the islets was recently reported. In the present study, we hypothesized that parasympathetic innervation would be altered in the type 1 diabetes pancreas. Human pancreatic specimens were obtained from a unique cohort of individuals with recent onset or long standing type 1 diabetes. Density of parasympathetic axons was assessed by immunofluorescence and morphometry. Our main finding was a reduced density of parasympathetic axons in the exocrine, but not endocrine compartment of the pancreas in individuals with recent onset type 1 diabetes. The reduced density of parasympathetic axons in the exocrine compartment could have functional implications, e.g. be related to the exocrine insufficiency reported in type 1 diabetes patients. Further studies are needed to understand whether reduced parasympathetic innervation is a cause or consequence of type 1 diabetes.

  19. Result of radiation therapy for inoperable pancreas cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okawa, Tomohiko; Ikeda, Michio; Tazaki, Eisei; Kaneda, Koichi; Tsuya, Akira.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty cases of the pancreas cancer were treated by means of 60 Co γ or Linac x-rays during the period between 1958 and 1977 at the Cancer Institute Hospital and Tokyo Women's Medical College. 11 were irradiated by external radiation and 9 by intraoperative radiation. Pancreas irradiation was indicated for relief of pain and alleviation of jaundice although the effect was symptomatic. 2500 rad of intraoperative radiation was reasonable dose in about 10 x 10 cm radiation field. Radical curative irradiation for pancreas cancer might be rarely indicated. Radiotherapy of pancreas cancer should be considered in conjunction with multimodal treatment in the future. (author)

  20. Human pancreas scintigraphy using iodine-123-labeled HIPDM and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Shibata, T.; Saji, H.; Kubo, S.; Aoki, E.; Fujita, T.; Yonekura, Y.; Konishi, J.; Yokoyama, A.

    1990-01-01

    The pancreatic affinity of iodine-123-labeled HIPDM (N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-iodobenzyl)-1,3-propane diamine) ([ 123 I]HIPDM) was studied in 18 cases (5 normal volunteers, 7 cases with pancreas cancer, and 6 with chronic pancreatitis). In the normal cases, the pancreas was visualized in the planar images as early as 3 hr, and again at 20 hr postinjection. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) performed following 3-hr planar scintigraphy, provided excellent pancreas images without an overlap of activity in the liver or spleen. The mean pancreas-to-liver (P/L) ratio was 1.26 +/- 0.22 in normal controls. With the exception of one case of massive calcification in the pancreas, the entire pancreas could be observed in the cases with chronic pancreatitis, but the P/L ratio was 0.74 +/- 0.15, significantly lower than that of normal cases. Defective areas of the distal portion of the pancreas were clearly seen in those with cancer of the pancreas. The results of our study indicate that [ 123 I] HIPDM may have clinical potential as a human pancreas imaging agent

  1. CLINICAL AND FUNCTIONAL FEATURES OF PANCREAS STATE IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Basieva

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: complex pancreas study in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Material and methods: 120 RA pts were examined clinically Pancreas US-and biochemical study (level of a-amylase and lipase of blood serum by kinetic-calorimetric method was performed in this grouh. Results: 50.8% of pts demonstrated increase of pancreas echo, in 23.3%- widened Wirsung s duct, in 45%- single small focal indurations, more often in the body and cauda pancreatis. Decrease of lipolitic and amylolytic pancreas activity is characteristic for RA, especially in systemic process and long-term disease. Clinical and functional disturbances are connected with morphological changes.

  2. A Study on Pancreas Scanning with Selenium75-Selenomethionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyun Chan; Toh, Sang Hee; Ra, Woo Youn; Suh, Chul Sung

    1968-01-01

    Radiographic visualization of the pancreas is a difficult problem, but the direct visualization of the pancreas is possible by the injection of the amino-acid methionine tagged with selenium 75 (Se 75 ). In order to know the diagnostic value of pancreas scanning, scans were performed on 23 cases using selenium 75 -Selenomethionine. These cases were also given egg white, probanthine and morphine. 1) Good visualization of the pancreas scanning was observed on 19 cases, presumably with normal pancreas. 2) A case which showed diffusely decreased uptake on pancreas scanning was proven to have lesions in the bile duct and the gall bladder. 3) Of those two cases which showed localized cold area, one had pancreas cyst and the other one was not explored. 4) A case which showed no visualization of the pancreas was proven to have pancreatic carcinoma. 5) Two cases which showed widened duodenal loop by upper gastro-intestinal series revealed normal pancreas scanning, and no pancreatic disease was found in both cases.

  3. Benign Tumors of the Pancreas-Radical Surgery Versus Parenchyma-Sparing Local Resection-the Challenge Facing Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beger, Hans G

    2018-03-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy and left-sided pancreatectomy are the surgical treatment standards for tumors of the pancreas. Surgeons, who are requested to treat patients with benign tumors, using standard oncological resections, face the challenge of sacrificing pancreatic and extra-pancreatic tissue. Tumor enucleation, pancreatic middle segment resection and local, duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resections are surgical procedures increasingly used as alternative treatment modalities compared to classical pancreatic resections. Use of local resection procedures for cystic neoplasms and neuro-endocrine tumors of the pancreas (panNETs) is associated with an improvement of procedure-related morbidity, when compared to classical Whipple OP (PD) and left-sided pancreatectomy (LP). The procedure-related advantages are a 90-day mortality below 1% and a low level of POPF B+C rates. Most importantly, the long-term benefits of the use of local surgical procedures are the preservation of the endocrine and exocrine pancreatic functions. PD performed for benign tumors on preoperative normo-glycemic patients is followed by the postoperative development of new onset of diabetes mellitus (NODM) in 4 to 24% of patients, measured by fasting blood glucose and/or oral/intravenous glucose tolerance test, according to the criteria of the international consensus guidelines. Persistence of new diabetes mellitus during the long-term follow-up after PD for benign tumors is observed in 14.5% of cases and after surgery for malignant tumors in 15.5%. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency after PD is found in the long-term follow-up for benign tumors in 25% and for malignant tumors in 49%. Following LP, 14-31% of patients experience postoperatively NODM; many of the patients subsequently change to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The decision-making for cystic neoplasms and panNETs of the pancreas should be guided by the low surgical risk and the preservation of pancreatic metabolic

  4. Computed tomography of pancreas in diabetic patients in relation to diabetic retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumata, K.; Katsumata, Y.; Sakuma, S.; Kaii, O.; Shimamoto, K.; Hirabayashi, N.; Nakagawa, T.

    1987-01-01

    Lipomatous pancreas is hardly diagnosed in living humans and usually recognized at autopsy. In the present work, it is proposed that lipomatous pancreas can be diagnosed in living humans by computed tomography (CT) of the pancreas. 2 refs.; 1 figure

  5. File list: Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Embryonic pancreas ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas.bed ...

  6. File list: Unc.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas mm9 Unclassified Embryo Embryonic pancreas http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas.bed ...

  7. File list: Unc.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas mm9 Unclassified Embryo Embryonic pancreas http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas.bed ...

  8. File list: Pol.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Embryonic pancreas ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas.bed ...

  9. File list: Unc.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas mm9 Unclassified Embryo Embryonic pancreas http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas.bed ...

  10. File list: Pol.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Embryonic pancreas ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas.bed ...

  11. File list: Unc.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas mm9 Unclassified Embryo Embryonic pancreas http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas.bed ...

  12. Single-Cell Analysis of Human Pancreas Reveals Transcriptional Signatures of Aging and Somatic Mutation Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enge, Martin; Arda, H Efsun; Mignardi, Marco; Beausang, John; Bottino, Rita; Kim, Seung K; Quake, Stephen R

    2017-10-05

    As organisms age, cells accumulate genetic and epigenetic errors that eventually lead to impaired organ function or catastrophic transformation such as cancer. Because aging reflects a stochastic process of increasing disorder, cells in an organ will be individually affected in different ways, thus rendering bulk analyses of postmitotic adult cells difficult to interpret. Here, we directly measure the effects of aging in human tissue by performing single-cell transcriptome analysis of 2,544 human pancreas cells from eight donors spanning six decades of life. We find that islet endocrine cells from older donors display increased levels of transcriptional noise and potential fate drift. By determining the mutational history of individual cells, we uncover a novel mutational signature in healthy aging endocrine cells. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data from primary cells to derive insights into genetic and transcriptional processes that operate on aging human tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiological imaging of endocrine diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneton, J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Imaging studies are playing an increasingly role in the evaluation of endocrine diseases; accordingly, familiarity with the specific indications for the various modalities, and with the characteristic findings, is essential. This multi-author work, which is intended for both radiologists and endocrinologists, considers the role of all the recent imaging techniques, including ultrasound (particular color Doppler), computed tomography, MRI, and scintigraphy. Following an extensive introduction on the pituitary, subsequent chapters discuss in detail the normal anatomy and pathology of the female and male reproductive systems. Remaining chapters provide state-of-the-art data on the thyroid, parathyroids, pancreatic endocrine tumors, adrenal glands, hormonal tumors (carcinoids and MEN), and imaging of the complications of hormone therapy. (orig.)

  14. Afferent Endocrine Control of Eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhans, Wolfgang; Holst, Jens Juul

    2016-01-01

    The afferent endocrine factors that control eating can be separated into different categories. One obvious categorization is by the time course of their effects, with long-term factors that signal adiposity and short-term factors that operate within the time frame of single meals. The second...... obvious categorization is by the origin of the endocrine signalling molecules. The level of knowledge concerning the physiological mechanisms and relevance of the hormones that are implicated in the control of eating is clearly different. With the accumulating knowledge about the hormones' actions......, various criteria have been developed for when the effect of a hormone can be considered 'physiologic'. This chapter treats the hormones separately and categorizes them by origin. It discusses ALL hormones that are implicated in eating control such as Gastrointestinal (GI) hormone and glucagon-like peptide...

  15. Computer tomography (CT) finding of normal pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chi Ja; Kim, Byung Tae; Lee, Jeung Suk

    1983-01-01

    Conventional radiology of the pancreas are too often unsatisfactory. It is well known that the whole body CT is very useful in identifying retroperitoneal pathology. The authors intended to present normal pancreatic morphology and data for preparation of basis for interpretation of abnormalities. We results were as follows; 1. There were 36 male and 24 female patients, and their ages ranged from 7 to 78 years. 2. 1) The organs adjacent pancreas were stomach, inferior vena cava, duodenum, caudate lobe of the liver left kidney, left adrenal gland, superior mesenteric vessels, spleen. 2) In 19 patients, pancreatic tail at the level of left kidney in the transverse plane, it was either ventral in 13 (68%), ventromedial in 2 (19%), ventrolateral in 4 (21%) to left kidney, in the other 41 patients, it was cranial to the upper pole of left kidney, ventral in 25 (61%), ventromedial in 1 (2%), ventrolateral in 15 (37%). 3) Pancreatic tail was cranial to the pancreatic body, 3 cm cranial in 2 (4%), 2-3 cm in 5 (8%), 1-2 cm in 6 (10%), less than 1 cm in 11 (18%). In the other, caudal in 3 (5%). 4) Pancreatic tail was cranial to the level of the splenic hilum in 36 (60%), 0-2 cm caudal in 24 (40%). 3. Pancreatic shape was uniform tapering form in 37 (62%), lobulated form in 23 (38%). 4. Pancreatic orientation was horizontal in 13 (22%), vertical 56 (76%), S-shaped in 1 (2%). 5. Pancreatic margin was smooth in 22 (37%), lobulated in 38 (63%). 6. In most patients, pancreas was uniform in density. 7. Pancreatic size was 0.5 ± 0.1 in measurement ratio of the head in 48 (80%), 0.4 ± 0.1 of the body in 49 (88%), 0.5 ± 0.1 of the tail in 47 (78%)

  16. Endocrine manifestations of celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Philip

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Celiac disease can have extra gastrointestinal tract (GIT presentations, most of which are endocrine. The aim of this study was to present patients diagnosed to have celiac disease from an endocrine department and to study the prevalence of endocrinopathies in celiac disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 patients from the endocrinology department (LLRM Medical College, Meerut between January 2011 and July 2012 and who were diagnosed to have celiac disease were included in the study. Results: Short stature was the commonest presentation (25%, other presentations included short stature and delayed puberty (20%, delayed puberty (11%, screening for celiac disease in type-1 DM patients (17%, rickets (6%, anemia not responding to oral therapy (6%, type-1 DM with recurrent hypoglycaemia (6%, and osteomalacia (3%. The endocrine manifestations include (after complete evaluation short stature (58%, delayed puberty (31%, elevated alkaline phospahatase (67%, low calcium (22%, X-rays suggestive of osteomalacia or rickets (8%, capopedal spasm (6%, and night blindness (6%. Anti-TPO antibody positivity was found in 53%, hypothyroidism in 28%, subclinical hypothyroidism in 17%, and type-1 DM in 25% of the patients. A total of 14% patients had no GI symptoms. Conclusion: Celiac disease is an endocrine disrupter as well as the great masquerader having varied presentations including short stature, delayed puberty, and rickets. Some patients who have celiac disease may not have any GI symptoms, making the diagnosis all the more difficult. Also, there is significant incidence of celiac disease with hypothyroidism and type-1 DM, making screening for it important in these diseases.

  17. Pituitary autoantibodies in endocrine disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Bensing, Sophie

    2005-01-01

    Autoimmune endocrine disorders are characterised by the development of autoantibodies to specific autoantigens in the target organs. Lymphocytic hypophysitis (LyH) is a disease characterised by inflammation of the pituitary gland, often resulting in hypopituitarism. The aetiology of LyH is considered to be autoimmune. However, only a few pituitary autoantigens have so far been identified. Reliable autoantibody markers are requested in the diagnostic procedure of LyH to avoid...

  18. Intraoperative radiotherapy for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasue, Mitsunori; Yasui, Kenzo; Morimoto, Takeshi; Miyaishi, Seiichi; Morita, Kozo

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-six patients were given intraoperative radiotherapy for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas between April 1980 and March 1986. Twenty-six of those with well-advanced cancer underwent palliative intraoperative radiotherapy of their main primary lesions (1,500 to 3,000 rads). Fourteen of the 19 patients in this group who had intractable back pain before surgery achieved relief within one week after treatment. Of the remaining 10 patients who underwent pancreatectomy and received adjuvant intraoperative radiotherapy (2,000 to 3,000 rads), two remain clinically free of disease five years and six months and four years and six months after palliative distal pancreatectomy. (author)

  19. Next-generation sequencing for endocrine cancers: Recent advances and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Padmanaban S; Venkatesh, Thejaswini; Tsutsumi, Rie; Shetty, Abhishek

    2017-05-01

    Contemporary molecular biology research tools have enriched numerous areas of biomedical research that address challenging diseases, including endocrine cancers (pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, testicular, ovarian, and neuroendocrine cancers). These tools have placed several intriguing clues before the scientific community. Endocrine cancers pose a major challenge in health care and research despite considerable attempts by researchers to understand their etiology. Microarray analyses have provided gene signatures from many cells, tissues, and organs that can differentiate healthy states from diseased ones, and even show patterns that correlate with stages of a disease. Microarray data can also elucidate the responses of endocrine tumors to therapeutic treatments. The rapid progress in next-generation sequencing methods has overcome many of the initial challenges of these technologies, and their advantages over microarray techniques have enabled them to emerge as valuable aids for clinical research applications (prognosis, identification of drug targets, etc.). A comprehensive review describing the recent advances in next-generation sequencing methods and their application in the evaluation of endocrine and endocrine-related cancers is lacking. The main purpose of this review is to illustrate the concepts that collectively constitute our current view of the possibilities offered by next-generation sequencing technological platforms, challenges to relevant applications, and perspectives on the future of clinical genetic testing of patients with endocrine tumors. We focus on recent discoveries in the use of next-generation sequencing methods for clinical diagnosis of endocrine tumors in patients and conclude with a discussion on persisting challenges and future objectives.

  20. SLEEP APNEA IN ENDOCRINE DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Misnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, an association between sleep apnea and a  number of endocrine diseases has been established. The secretion of many hormones after falling asleep is considerably changed, compared to the period of wakefulness. In patients with endocrine disorders, abnormal hormonal secretion and its pathological consequences may contribute to sleep apnea. Sleep fragmentation and intermittent hypoxia arising in sleep apnea result in a decrease in insulin sensitivity, which contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of sleep apnea increases in acromegaly, which may affect the risk of cardio-pulmonary complications. There is an association between sleep apnea and testosterone treatment in men, as well as in postmenopausal women. Sleep apnea in hypothyroidism is most frequently related to the development of hypothyroidism per se and can therefore be reversed with thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Timely detection and treatment of sleep apnea in patients with endocrine disorders can improve their survival prognosis and quality of life.

  1. Endocrine manifestations in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2016-10-14

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune small intestinal mucosal disorder that often presents with diarrhea, malabsorption and weight loss. Often, one or more associated endocrine disorders may be associated with CD. For this review, methods involved an extensive review of published English-language materials. In children and adolescents, prospective studies have demonstrated a significant relationship to insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes, whereas in adults, autoimmune forms of thyroid disease, particularly hypothyroidism, may commonly co-exist. In some with CD, multiple glandular endocrinopathies may also occur and complicate the initial presentation of the intestinal disease. In others presenting with an apparent isolated endocrine disorder, serological screening for underlying subclinical CD may prove to be positive, particularly if type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroid or other autoimmune endocrine diseases, such as Addison's disease are first detected. A number of reports have also recorded hypoparathyroidism or hypopituitarism or ovarian failure in CD and these may be improved with a strict gluten-free diet.

  2. Robotic Enucleation for Benign or Borderline Tumours of the Pancreas: A Retrospective Analysis and Comparison from a High-Volume Centre in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jia-Bin; Qin, Kai; Li, Hua; Wu, Zhi-Chong; Zhan, Qian; Deng, Xia-Xing; Chen, Hao; Shen, Bai-Yong; Peng, Cheng-Hong; Li, Hong-Wei

    2016-12-01

    Enucleation is increasingly performed for benign or borderline tumours of the pancreas because it is a parenchyma-sparing and less invasive procedure compared to conventional pancreatectomy, which reduces the risk of exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. This study retrospectively evaluated and compared the pre-, intra-, and post-operative clinical characteristics after open and robotic approaches for pancreatic enucleation. Fifty-six cases of enucleation for benign or borderline tumours of the pancreas treated from March 2010 to July 2015 were identified by a retrospective search. These included 25 patients who underwent an open approach and 31 patients who underwent a robotic approach. The clinical characteristics were extracted and compared. The two groups had a similar location and pathology of the tumour. The robotic group had a significantly shorter operation time and significantly less blood loss than the open group. The rates of clinical pancreatic fistula (PF) formation and major complications were similar. The robotic approach could be applied for a tumour on the right side of the pancreas without increasing the incidence of clinical PF or other major complications. The patients with clinical PF had a significantly shorter distance between the lesion and the main pancreatic duct (MPD). Robotic enucleation appears to be a feasible and safe approach for benign or borderline tumours of the pancreas and was associated with similarly favourable surgical outcomes as the open approach. Identifying and avoiding the MPD is an important step during enucleation.

  3. A Case of Successful Simultaneous Pancreas-Kidney Transplantation Using the Injured Pancreas Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, S; Shimizu, K; Miyazawa, K; Nakanishi, W; Hara, Y; Tokodai, K; Nakanishi, C; Satomi, S; Goto, M; Unno, M; Kamei, T

    2017-12-01

    Graft injuries sometimes occur and may cause complications such as the leakage of pancreatic secretions, which is often lethal. We report our experience of a case of successful simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation using injured pancreas graft. The recipient was a 57-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus, and the donor was a 30-year-old man with a brain injury. In the donation, the pancreas parenchyma, splenic artery, and gastroduodenal artery were injured iatrogenically. We therefore reconstructed these arteries using vessel grafts and then performed simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation. Five days after transplantation, we noted a high titer of amylase in the ascites; therefore, we performed an urgent laparotomy. The origin of the amylase was the injured pancreatic parenchyma, and continued washing and drainage were carried out. We reconstructed the duodenojejunostomy using the Roux-en-Y technique to separate the passage of food from the pancreas graft to prevent injury to other organs due to exposure to pancreatic secretions. Thereafter, we inserted a decompression tube into the anastomosis thorough the blind end of the jejunum. Finally, we inserted 3 drainage tubes for lavage. Following this procedure, the patient recovered gradually and no longer required hemodialysis and insulin therapy. She was discharged from our hospital 56 days after transplantation. The restoration of the injured graft was possible by management of pancreatic secretions and use of the donor's vessel grafts. Shortage of donors is a problem throughout the world; thus, it is important to use injured grafts for transplantation if possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Spectrum of Endocrine Disorders in Central Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osei Sarfo-Kantanka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although an increasing burden of endocrine disorders is recorded worldwide, the greatest increase is occurring in developing countries. However, the spectrum of these disorders is not well described in most developing countries. Objective. The objective of this study was to profile the frequency of endocrine disorders and their basic demographic characteristics in an endocrine outpatient clinic in Kumasi, central Ghana. Methods. A retrospective review was conducted on endocrine disorders seen over a five-year period between January 2011 and December 2015 at the outpatient endocrine clinic of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. All medical records of patients seen at the endocrine clinic were reviewed by endocrinologists and all endocrinological diagnoses were classified according to ICD-10. Results. 3070 adults enrolled for care in the endocrine outpatient service between 2011 and 2015. This comprised 2056 females and 1014 males (female : male ratio of 2.0 : 1.0 with an overall median age of 54 (IQR, 41–64 years. The commonest primary endocrine disorders seen were diabetes, thyroid, and adrenal disorders at frequencies of 79.1%, 13.1%, and 2.2%, respectively. Conclusions. Type 2 diabetes and thyroid disorders represent by far the two commonest disorders seen at the endocrine clinic. The increased frequency and wide spectrum of endocrine disorders suggest the need for well-trained endocrinologists to improve the health of the population.

  5. Ectopic pancreas causing partial gastric outlet obstruction: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectopic pancreas causing partial gastric outlet obstruction: a case report and review of literature. ... Nigerian Journal of Surgery ... Gastric outlet obstruction resulting from ectopic pancreas in an adult is the first of its kind in our center; we, therefore, present this case to describe the challenges faced with diagnosis, treatment, ...

  6. Lymphoepithelial cyst of the pancreas: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Seung Ho; Kim, Myeong Jin; Kim, Ki Whang; Park, Young Nyun; Shim, Hyp Sup; Lim, Joon Seok

    2005-01-01

    We present a case of lymphoepithelial cyst of the pancreas. The cyst showed moderate echogenicity, mimicking a solid lesion on ultrasonography (US), and had a cystic appearance on computed tomography (CT). This ambivalent finding may be a distinctive feature of lymphoepithelial cysts of the pancreas

  7. Beta-Cell Replacement: Pancreas and Islet Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niclauss, Nadja; Meier, Raphael; Bédat, Benoît; Berishvili, Ekaterine; Berney, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Pancreas and islet transplantation are 2 types of beta-cell replacement therapies for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Since 1966, when pancreas transplantation was first performed, it has evolved to become a highly efficient procedure with high success rates, thanks to advances in surgical technique and immunosuppression. Pancreas transplantation is mostly performed as simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation in patients with end-stage nephropathy secondary to diabetes. In spite of its efficiency, pancreas transplantation is still a major surgical procedure burdened by high morbidity, which called for the development of less invasive and hazardous ways of replacing beta-cell function in the past. Islet transplantation was developed in the 1970s as a minimally invasive procedure with initially poor outcomes. However, since the report of the 'Edmonton protocol' in 2000, the functional results of islet transplantation have substantially and constantly improved and are about to match those of whole pancreas transplantation. Islet transplantation is primarily performed alone in nonuremic patients with severe hypoglycemia. Both pancreas transplantation and islet transplantation are able to abolish hypoglycemia and to prevent or slow down the development of secondary complications of diabetes. Pancreas transplantation and islet transplantation should be seen as two complementary, rather than competing, therapeutic approaches for beta-cell replacement that are able to optimize organ donor use and patient care. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Pancreas preserving total duodenectomy for complex duodenal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, Jai Dev; Kudari, Ashwinikumar; Yadav, Thakur Deen; Doley, Rudra Prasad; Bharathy, Kishore Gurumoorthy Subramanya; Kalra, Naveen

    2009-07-06

    To assess the feasibility and safety of a pancreas-preserving total duodenectomy in the management of severe duodenal injury caused by abdominal trauma. Two patients with both extensive injury of the duodenum and diffuse peritonitis underwent pancreas preserving total duodenectomy at our tertiary care centre. These two young male patients (age 20 and 22 years) presented 2 days and 6 hours respectively following blunt abdominal trauma. The duodenum was almost completely separated from the pancreas. Ampulla was seen as a button on the pancreas. Following total duodenectomy, reconstruction was performed by suturing the jejunum to the head of the pancreas anteriorly and posteriorly away from the ampulla (invagination of the pancreas into the jejunum). There were no complications attributable to the procedure. Both patients are well on follow up. A Pancreas-preserving total duodenectomy offers a safe alternative to the Whipple procedure in managing complex duodenal injury. This procedure avoids unnecessary resection of the adjacent pancreas and anastomosis to undilated hepatic and pancreatic ducts.

  9. Huge mucinous cystadenoma of the pancreas mistaken for a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cystic tumors of the pancreas are rare and can be confused with pseudocysts.We present a 50 year old woman with a huge mucinous cystadenoma of the pancreas initially diagnosed and managed with a cystojejunostomy and cyst wall biopsy. She required another laparotomy and tumor excision after histological ...

  10. Ectopic Pancreas Causing Partial Gastric Outlet Obstruction: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectopic pancreas is a rare cause of gastric outlet obstruction, perhaps rarer still among Africans. Although the entity is known, the diagnostic challenges are enormous, especially in the poor‑resource environment. Gastric outlet obstruction resulting from ectopic pancreas in an adult is the first of its kind in our center;.

  11. Exocrine cell-derived microparticles in response to lipopolysaccharide promote endocrine dysfunction in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Andrei Alexandru; Gleizes, Céline; Alhosin, Mahmoud; Yala, Elhassan; Zobairi, Fatiha; Leclercq, Alexandre; Stoian, Gheorghe; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Prévost, Gilles; Toti, Florence; Kessler, Laurence

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes in cystic fibrosis (CF) is a result of exocrine pancreas alteration followed by endocrine dysfunction at a later stage. Microparticles (MPs) are plasma membrane fragments shed from stimulated or damaged cells that act as cellular effectors. Our aim was to identify a new form of interaction between exocrine and endocrine pancreatic cells mediated by exocrine MPs, in the context of recurrent infection in CF. MPs from either human exocrine CFTRΔF508-mutated (CFPAC-1) cells or exocrine normal pancreatic (PANC-1) cells were collected after treatment by LPS from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and applied to rat endocrine normal insulin-secreting RIN-m5F cells. MP membrane integration in target cells was established by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry using PKH26 lipid probe. Apoptosis, lysosomal activity, insulin secretion were measured after 18 h. MP-mediated NF-κB activation was measured in HEK-Blue reporter cells by SEAP reporter gene system and in RIN-m5F cells by Western blot. In endocrine normal cells, CFTR inhibition was achieved using Inhibitor-172. Compared to PANC-1, MPs from CFPAC-1 significantly reduced insulin secretion and lysosomal activity in RIN-m5F. MPs induced NF-κB activation by increasing the level of IκB phosphorylation. Moreover, the inhibition of NF-κB activation using specific inhibitors was associated with a restored insulin secretion. Interestingly, CFTR inhibition in normal RIN-m5F cells promoted apoptosis and decreased insulin secretion. During recurrent infections associated with CF, exocrine MPs may contribute to endocrine cell dysfunction via NF-κB pathways. Membrane CFTR dysfunction is associated with decreased insulin secretion. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Cystic Fibrosis Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrocardiographic changes in the most frequent endocrine disorders associated with cardiovascular diseases. Review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costache, Irina Iuliana; Ungureanu, Maria Christina; Iliescu, D; Petriş, A; Botnariu, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Car- diovascular abnormalities associated with endocrine diseases are often frequent and due to complex relationships between endocrine glands (with internal secretion) and cardiovascular system (heart and vessels). Certain hormones secreted by the endocrine glands (particularly the thyroid and pituitary gland) excesses or deficiencies, are involved in morphogenesis, growth processes and activity regulation of cardiovascular system, most often in connection with the autonomic nervous system. There are also a lot of electrocardiographic changes caused by hormonal disorders that requires differential diagnosis and represents the source of erroneous diagnosis. Endocrine pathology occurred later than a heart disease, may worse heart function. Ignoring the cardiovascular events that may occur in the evolution of endo- crine diseases, may induce increased mortality due to cardiovascular complications.

  13. Vitamin A, endocrine tissues and hormones: interplay and interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Brossaud

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A (retinol is a micronutrient critical for cell proliferation and differentiation. In adults, vitamin A and metabolites such as retinoic acid (RA play major roles in vision, immune and brain functions and tissue remodelling and metabolism. This review presents the physiological interactions of retinoids and endocrine tissues and hormonal systems. Two endocrine systems have been particularly studied. In the pituitary, retinoids target the corticotrophs with a possible therapeutic use in corticotropinomas. In the thyroid, retinoids interfere with iodine metabolism and vitamin A deficiency aggravates thyroid dysfunction caused by iodine-deficient diets. Retinoids use in thyroid cancer appears less promising than expected. Recent and still controversial studies investigated the relations between retinoids and metabolic syndrome. Indeed, retinoids contribute to pancreatic development and modify fat and glucose metabolism. However, more detailed studies are needed before planning any therapeutic use. Finally, retinoids probably play more minor roles in adrenal and gonads development and function apart from their major effects on spermatogenesis.

  14. Proglucagon processing in porcine and human pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Bersani, M; Johnsen, A H

    1994-01-01

    In the pancreas proglucagon (PG), a peptide precursor of 160 amino acids is cleaved to produce glucagon and a 30-amino acid N-terminal flanking peptide, but the fate of the C-terminal flanking peptide (99 amino acids) is incompletely known. We subjected acid ethanol extracts of human and porcine...... pancreases to gel filtration and analyzed the fractions with specific radioimmunoassays for the following regions of proglucagon: PG 62-69, PG 72-81, PG 78-87, PG 98-107 amide, PG 126-134, and PG 149-158. Based on these assays and successive purifications by high performance liquid chromatography we isolated...... PG 72-158 = 9971) was isolated from human pancreas together with small amounts of a peptide corresponding to PG 72-107 amide. Thus, the pancreatic processing of the C-terminal flanking peptide in proglucagon includes the formation of equimolar (to glucagon) amounts of PG 64-69 and PG 72-158 (major...

  15. A New Technique for Scanning the Pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ephraiem, K. H. [Rotterdamsch Radio-Therapeutisch Instituut, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1969-05-15

    The difficulties in visualizing the pancreas are partly caused by the high uptake of seleno-methionine in the liver. A simple technique has been developed to prevent data registration during the time the detector is moving above the liver. The technique is based on the fact that both {sup 75}Se and {sup 99m}Tc emit gamma rays of 140-keV energy. The pulses, normally going from the single-channel analyser to the registrating units, are deviated through a ratemeter to an API contactless optical meter relay (model API-compack I) and then passed on to the registrating units. The patient is given the normal dose of Se-methionine and everything is prepared for normal pancreas scanning with only one exception: The window of the single-channel analyser is tuned in on the 140-keV photopeak. The patient is given 2 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc colloid intravenously and the controls on the meter relay are adjusted in such a way that no pulse from the single-channel analyser passes to the registrating units unless the activity is beneath the activity level in the liver. Then the scanning machine is started. The author developed this inexpensive technique to help smaller clinical isotope laboratories which cannot afford the combination of a gamma camera with a special-purpose computer. (author)

  16. Is a dynamic MRI examination of the pancreas still necessary?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morakkabati-Spitz, N.; Willinek, W.A.; Falkenhausen, M. von; Flacke, S.; Schild, H.; Kreft, B.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of the diagnostic potential of a dynamic MR examination of the pancreas. Material and Methods: Retrospective study on 49 patients who underwent MRI of the pancreas (2 insulinomas, 2 cystadenomas, 19 pancreatic carcinomas, 26 patients with chronic pancreatitis). Interpretation was done in two steps: Initial evaluation of T 2 -weighted TSE-sequences, T 1 -weighted gradient echo sequences before and after injection of Gadolinium-DTPA i.v. Afterwards, additional evaluation of a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI series of the pancreas with four dynamic scans. Result: Dynamic MR examination of the pancreas is useful in case of insulinomas. However, in case of pancreatic cancer an additional dynamic MR examination of the pancreas does not provide further clinically relevant information. Conclusion: In patients with a suspicion of pancreatic cancer, the injection of contrast material should preferably be used for the performance of a contrast-enhanced MR angiography at the expense of a dynamic MR examination. (orig.) [de

  17. The ectopic expression of Pax4 in the mouse pancreas converts progenitor cells into alpha and subsequently beta cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collombat, Patrick; Xu, Xiaobo; Ravassard, Philippe; Sosa-Pineda, Beatriz; Dussaud, Sébastien; Billestrup, Nils; Madsen, Ole D; Serup, Palle; Heimberg, Harry; Mansouri, Ahmed

    2009-08-07

    We have previously reported that the loss of Arx and/or Pax4 gene activity leads to a shift in the fate of the different endocrine cell subtypes in the mouse pancreas, without affecting the total endocrine cell numbers. Here, we conditionally and ectopically express Pax4 using different cell-specific promoters and demonstrate that Pax4 forces endocrine precursor cells, as well as mature alpha cells, to adopt a beta cell destiny. This results in a glucagon deficiency that provokes a compensatory and continuous glucagon+ cell neogenesis requiring the re-expression of the proendocrine gene Ngn3. However, the newly formed alpha cells fail to correct the hypoglucagonemia since they subsequently acquire a beta cell phenotype upon Pax4 ectopic expression. Notably, this cycle of neogenesis and redifferentiation caused by ectopic expression of Pax4 in alpha cells is capable of restoring a functional beta cell mass and curing diabetes in animals that have been chemically depleted of beta cells.

  18. [Arterial hypertension secondary to endocrine disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minder, Anna; Zulewski, Henryk

    2015-06-01

    Endocrine hypertension offers a potentially curative therapy if the underlying cause is identified and treated accordingly. In contrast to the high prevalence of arterial hypertension especially in the elderly, the classical endocrine causes remain a rare entity. Among patients with arterial hypertension the prevalence of Cushing's syndrome or pheochromocytoma is less than 1%. Primary hyperaldosteronism is more frequent with a reported prevalence of up to 9%. In order to avoid unnecessary, costly and potentially harmful evaluations and therapies due to the limited sensitivity and specificity of the critical endocrine tests it is mandatory to limit the exploration for endocrine causes to preselected patients with high pretest probability for an endocrine disorder. Younger age at manifestation of arterial hypertension or drug resistant hypertension together with other clinical signs of an endocrine disorder should raise the suspicion and prompt the appropriate evaluation.

  19. Spatiotemporal proteomic analyses during pancreas cancer progression identifies serine/threonine stress kinase 4 (STK4) as a novel candidate biomarker for early stage disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Justin E; Zhang, Yuzheng; Hollingsworth, Michael A; Solan, Joell L; Lampe, Paul D; Hingorani, Sunil R

    2014-12-01

    Pancreas cancer, or pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, is the deadliest of solid tumors, with a five-year survival rate of pancreas cancer. Mouse models that accurately recapitulate the human condition allow disease tracking from inception to invasion and can therefore be useful for studying early disease stages in which surgical resection is possible. Using a highly faithful mouse model of pancreas cancer in conjunction with a high-density antibody microarray containing ∼2500 antibodies, we interrogated the pancreatic tissue proteome at preinvasive and invasive stages of disease. The goal was to discover early stage tissue markers of pancreas cancer and follow them through histologically defined stages of disease using cohorts of mice lacking overt clinical signs and symptoms and those with end-stage metastatic disease, respectively. A panel of seven up-regulated proteins distinguishing pancreas cancer from normal pancreas was validated, and their levels were assessed in tissues collected at preinvasive, early invasive, and moribund stages of disease. Six of the seven markers also differentiated pancreas cancer from an experimental model of chronic pancreatitis. The levels of serine/threonine stress kinase 4 (STK4) increased between preinvasive and invasive stages, suggesting its potential as a tissue biomarker, and perhaps its involvement in progression from precursor pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry of STK4 at different stages of disease revealed a dynamic expression pattern further implicating it in early tumorigenic events. Immunohistochemistry of a panel of human pancreas cancers confirmed that STK4 levels were increased in tumor epithelia relative to normal tissue. Overall, this integrated approach yielded several tissue markers that could serve as signatures of disease stage, including early (resectable), and therefore clinically meaningful, stages. © 2014 by The American Society for

  20. Update on endocrine disturbances in anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Hangaard, J; Hagen, C

    2001-01-01

    The marked endocrine changes that occur in anorexia nervosa have aroused a great deal of interest, and over the last decade much research has been conducted in this field. The endocrine disturbances are not specific to this disorder, as they also occur in starvation states secondary to other causes...... of the large body of literature concerning endocrine aspects of anorexia nervosa with the main focus on the latest results, which provide leads for potential etiological theories....

  1. [Disperse endocrine system and APUD concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mil'to, I V; Sukhodolo, I V; Gereng, E A; Shamardina, L A

    2011-01-01

    This review describes the problems of disperse endocrine system and APUD-system morphology, summarizes some debatable issues of single endocrine cell biology. The data presented refer to the history of both systems discovery, morphological methods of their study, developmental sources, their structural organization and physiological roles of their cells. The significance of single endocrine cells in the regulation of the organism functions is discussed.

  2. Keeping Up with the Diabetes Technology: 2016 Endocrine Society Guidelines of Insulin Pump Therapy and Continuous Glucose Monitor Management of Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galderisi, Alfonso; Schlissel, Elise; Cengiz, Eda

    2017-09-23

    Decades after the invention of insulin pump, diabetes management has encountered a technology revolution with the introduction of continuous glucose monitoring, sensor-augmented insulin pump therapy and closed-loop/artificial pancreas systems. In this review, we discuss the significance of the 2016 Endocrine Society Guidelines for insulin pump therapy and continuous glucose monitoring and summarize findings from relevant diabetes technology studies that were conducted after the publication of the 2016 Endocrine Society Guidelines. The 2016 Endocrine Society Guidelines have been a great resource for clinicians managing diabetes in this new era of diabetes technology. There is good body of evidence indicating that using diabetes technology systems safely tightens glycemic control while managing both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The first-generation diabetes technology systems will evolve as we gain more experience and collaboratively work to improve them with an ultimate goal of keeping people with diabetes complication and burden-free until the cure for diabetes becomes a reality.

  3. Endocrine aspects of cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzon, Luisa; Boscaro, Marco; Palù, Giorgio

    2004-02-01

    The field of cancer gene therapy is in continuous expansion, and technology is quickly moving ahead as far as gene targeting and regulation of gene expression are concerned. This review focuses on the endocrine aspects of gene therapy, including the possibility to exploit hormone and hormone receptor functions for regulating therapeutic gene expression, the use of endocrine-specific genes as new therapeutic tools, the effects of viral vector delivery and transgene expression on the endocrine system, and the endocrine response to viral vector delivery. Present ethical concerns of gene therapy and the risk of germ cell transduction are also discussed, along with potential lines of innovation to improve cell and gene targeting.

  4. ENDOCRINE OPHTHALMOPATHY: ETIOLOGY, PATHOGENESIS, CLINICAL PICTURE, DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikonova L. V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study of endocrine ophthalmopathy is due to the high prevalence of this disease and a high risk of developing impaired vision that leads to disability of patients. This lecture presents the main genetic, immunological, clinical manifestations of endocrine ophthalmopathy in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of this pathology. The clinical picture of endocrine ophthalmopathy is various, unique for every patient and depends on the activity and severity of the process, which requires combined etiopathogenetic therapy. The importance of timely diagnosis for endocrine ophthalmopathy with an assessment of the activity of the process for choosing the right tactics for managing patients is very high.

  5. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

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    Benoit Roig

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air. For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  6. Decreased α-cell mass and early structural alterations of the exocrine pancreas in patients with type 1 diabetes: An analysis based on the nPOD repository.

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    Fidéline Bonnet-Serrano

    Full Text Available Abnormal glucagon secretion and functional alterations of the exocrine pancreas have been described in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D, but their respective anatomical substrata have seldom been investigated. Our aim was to develop an automated morphometric analysis process to characterize the anatomy of α-cell and exocrine pancreas in patients with T1D, using the publicly available slides of the Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors (nPOD.The ratio of β- and α-cell area to total tissue area were quantified in 75 patients with T1D (thereafter patients and 66 control subjects (thereafter controls, on 2 insulin-stained and 4 glucagon-stained slides from both the head and the tail of the pancreas. The β- and α-cell masses were calculated in the 66 patients and the 50 controls for which the pancreas weight was available. Non-exocrine-non-endocrine tissue area (i.e. non-acinar, non-insular tissue to total tissue area ratio was evaluated on both insulin- and glucagon-stained slides. Results were expressed as mean ±SD.An automated quantification method was set up using the R software and was validated by quantification of β-cell mass, a well characterized parameter. β-cell mass was 29.6±112 mg in patients and 628 ±717 mg in controls (p<0.0001. α-cell mass was 181±176 mg in patients and 349 ±241mg in controls (p<0.0001. Non-exocrine-non-endocrine area to total tissue area ratio was 39±9% in patients and 29± 10% in controls (p<0.0001 and increased with age in both groups, with no correlation with diabetes duration in patients.The absolute α-cell mass was lower in patients compared to controls, in proportion to the decrease in pancreas weight observed in patients. Non-exocrine-non-endocrine area to total tissue area ratio increased with age in both groups but was higher in patients at all ages.

  7. Zinc status in chronic pancreatitis and its relationship with exocrine and endocrine insufficiency.

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    Girish, Banavara Narasimhamurthy; Rajesh, Gopalakrishna; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Balakrishnan, Vallath

    2009-11-05

    A major role of the pancreas in zinc homeostasis has been suggested. To assess erythrocyte zinc status in chronic pancreatitis and to correlate it with pancreatic exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. One hundred and one patients with chronic pancreatitis (34 alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, 67 tropical chronic pancreatitis) were prospectively studied. Disease characteristics and imaging features were recorded. Erythrocyte zinc was estimated by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Exocrine insufficiency was assessed using polyclonal antibody ELISA for pancreatic stool elastase1. Endocrine insufficiency was assessed by serum glucose levels and insulin requirement. Erythrocyte zinc was significantly lower in chronic pancreatitis patients than in the controls (26.5+/-9.5 microg/g Hb vs. 38.0+/-6.6 microg/g Hb; Ppancreatitis than in alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (25.0+/-10.4 microg/g Hb vs. 29.6+/-6.5 microg/g Hb, P=0.001). In chronic pancreatitis patients who had exocrine insufficiency, erythrocyte zinc positively correlated with stool elastase1 (r=0.587, Ppancreatitis patients, and that zinc deficiency correlates with exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Further studies may clarify the possible benefits of zinc supplementation in chronic pancreatitis.

  8. Detection of expressional changes induced by intrauterine growth restriction in the developing rat pancreas.

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    Zhang, Lin; Chen, Wei; Dai, Yuee; Zhu, Ziyang; Liu, Qianqi

    2016-07-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is a disorder that can result in permanent changes in the physiology and metabolism of the newborn, which increased the risk of disease in adulthood. Evidence supports IUGR as a risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus, which could reflect changes in pancreas developmental pathways. We sought to characterize the IUGR-induced alterations of the complex pathways of pancreas development in a rat model of IUGR. We analyzed the pancreases of Sprague Dawley rats after inducing IUGR by feeding a maternal low calorie diet from gestational day 1 until term. IUGR altered the pancreatic structure, islet areas, and islet quantities and resulted in abnormal morphological changes during pancreatic development, as determined by HE staining and light microscopy. We identified multiple differentially expressed genes in the pancreas by RT-PCR. The genes of the insulin/FoxO1/Pdx1/MafA signaling pathway were first expressed at embryonic day 14 (E14). The expressions of insulin and MafA increased as the fetus grew while the expressions of FoxO1 and Pdx1 decreased. Compared with the control rats, the expressions of FoxO1, Pdx1, and MafA were lower in the IUGR rats, whereas insulin levels showed no change. Microarray profiling, in combination with quantitative real-time PCR, uncovered a subset of microRNAs that changed in their degree of expression throughout pancreatic development. In conclusion, our data support the hypothesis that IUGR influences the development of the rat pancreas. We also identified new pathways that appear to be programmed by IUGR. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  9. Genetic basis of endocrine pathology

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    T.V. Sorokman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the review was analysis of literature data relating to the molecular genetic basis and diagnosis of endocrine pathology. We searched for published and unpublished researches using Pubmed as the search engine by the keywords: ‘genes’, ‘endocrine diseases’, ‘molecular diagnostics’, ‘prohormones’, ‘nuclear receptors and transcription factors’, taking into consideration studies conducted over the last 10 years, citation review of relevant primary and review articles, conference abstracts, personal files, and contact with expert informants. The criterion for the selection of articles for the study was based on their close relevance to the topic, thus out of 144 analyzed articles, the findings of the researchers covered in 32 articles were crucial. The described nosologies presented various heredi­tary forms of hypopituitarism, disturbances of steroid hormone biosynthesis, abnormal gender formation, monogenic forms of diabetes mellitus, endocrine tumors, etc. Pathology is identified that is associated with a mutation of genes encoding protein prohormones, receptors, steroid biosynthesis enzymes, intracellular signaling molecules, transport proteins, ion channels, and transcription factors. Among the endocrine diseases associated with defects in genes encoding protein prohormones, the defects of the GH1 gene are most common, the defects in the gene CYP21A2 (21-hydroxylase are among diseases associated with defects in genes encoding enzymes. More often mutations of genes encoding proteins belong to the class of G-protein coupled receptors. Most of the mutations associated with MEN-2A are concentrated in the rich cysteine region of the Ret receptor. More than 70 monogenic syndromes are known, in which there is a marked tolerance to glucose and some form of diabetes mellitus is diagnosed, diabetes mellitus caused by mutation of the mitochondrial gene (mutation tRNALeu, UUR is also detected. Of all the monogenic forms of

  10. Endocrine Disease in Aged Horses.

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    Durham, Andy E

    2016-08-01

    Aging horses may be at particular risk of endocrine disease. Two major equine endocrinopathies, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and equine metabolic syndrome, are commonly encountered in an aging population and may present with several recognizable signs, including laminitis. Investigation, treatment, and management of these diseases are discussed. Additionally, aging may be associated with development of rarer endocrinopathic problems, often associated with neoplasia, including diabetes mellitus and other confounders of glucose homeostasis, as well as thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal diseases. Brief details of the recognition and management of these conditions are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Granulomatous Pancreas: A Case Report of Pancreatic Sarcoid

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    Tatiana Bihun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a chronic, systemic, noncaseating granulomatous disease process of unknown etiology. Sarcoidosis most commonly manifests in the lungs; however, gastrointestinal manifestations can occur. If in the GI tract, it is almost always found in the liver. Solitary pancreatic lesions are extremely rare, with less than 50 documented cases found in the literature. We present a case of a 61-year-old female, with a past medical history of sarcoidosis, who presented to the ER with unexpected weight loss, scleral icterus, right upper quadrant pain, and epigastric and back pain. US and MRI found a dilated common bile duct and mild dilation of the pancreatic duct, as well as a focal prominence in the head of the pancreas surrounded by areas of atrophy. A pancreaticoduodenectomy procedure was performed and fresh frozen sections were taken. The pathologist made a diagnosis of nonnecrotizing granulomatous pancreatitis. Pancreatic sarcoid is often asymptomatic and a benign finding on autopsy; however, clinicians should be mindful of pancreatic involvement when working up differential diagnosis for pancreatic masses.

  12. Surgical treatment of pancreas divisum causing chronic pancreatitis: the outcome benefits of duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection.

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    Schlosser, W; Rau, B M; Poch, B; Beger, H G

    2005-01-01

    Pancreas divisum (PD) represents a duct anomaly in the pancreatic head ducts, leading frequently leading to recurrent acute pancreatitis (rAP) or chronic pancreatitis (CP). Based on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, pancreas divisum can be found in 1% to 6% of patients with pancreatitis. The correlation of this abnormality with pancreatic disease is an issue of continuing controversy. Because of the underlying duct anomalies and major pathomorphological changes in the pancreatic head, duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) offers an option for causal treatment. Thirty-six patients with pancreatitis caused by PD were treated surgically. Thirty patients suffered from CP, 6 from rAP. The mean duration of the disease was 47.5 and 49.8 months, respectively. The age at the time of surgery was 39.2 years in the CP group, and 27.6 years in the rAP group. Median hospitalization since diagnosis was 18.8 weeks for CP patients and 24.6 weeks for rAP patients. Previous procedures performed in these patients included endoscopic papillotomy (30%), duct stenting (14%), and surgical treatment (17%). The median preoperative pain score was 8 on a visual analog scale. According to the classification of pancreas divisum, 10 patients demonstrated a complete PD, 25 had a functionally incomplete PD, and 1 had a dorsal duct type. The pain status as well as the endocrine (oral glucose tolerance test) and exocrine (pancreolauryl test) function were evaluated preoperatively and early and late postoperatively with a median follow-up time of 39.3 months. There was no operative-related mortality. The follow-up was 100%; 4 patients died (1 from suicide, 1 from cardiac arrest, and 2 from cancer of the esophagus). Fifty percent of the patients were completely pain-free, 31% had a significant reduction of pain with a median pain score of 2 (P pancreatitis with a need for hospitalization. DPPHR reduced pain and preserved the endocrine function in the majority of patients

  13. Measure of pancreas transection and postoperative pancreatic fistula.

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    Takahashi, Shinichiro; Gotohda, Naoto; Kato, Yuichiro; Konishi, Masaru

    2016-05-15

    In pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), a standard protocol for pancreas transection has not been established although the method of pancreas transection might be involved in the occurrence of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). This study aimed to compare whether pancreas transection by ultrasonically activated shears (UAS) or that by scalpel contributed more to POPF development. A prospective database of 171 patients who underwent PD for periampullary tumor at National Cancer Center Hospital East between January 2010 and June 2013 was reviewed. Among the 171 patients, 93 patients with soft pancreas were specifically included in this study. Surgical results and background were compared between patients with pancreas transection by UAS and scalpel to evaluate the effectiveness of UAS on reducing POPF. Body mass index, main pancreatic duct diameter, or other clinicopathologic factors that have been reported as predictive factors for POPF were not significantly different between the two groups. The incidence of all grades of POPF and that of grade B were significantly lower in the scalpel group (52%, 4%) than in the UAS group (74%, 42%). Postoperative complications ≥ grade III were also significantly fewer in the scalpel group. Scalpel transection was less associated with POPF than UAS transection in patients who underwent PD for soft pancreas. The method of pancreas transection plays an important role in the prevention of clinical POPF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exenatide Induces Impairment of Autophagy Flux to Damage Rat Pancreas.

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    Li, Zhiqiang; Huang, Lihua; Yu, Xiao; Yu, Can; Zhu, Hongwei; Li, Xia; Han, Duo; Huang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the alteration of autophagy in rat pancreas treated with exenatide. Normal Sprague-Dawley rats and diabetes-model rats induced by 2-month high-sugar and high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection were subcutaneously injected with exenatide, respectively, for 10 weeks, with homologous rats treated with saline as control. Meanwhile, AR42J cells, pancreatic acinar cell line, were cultured with exenatide at doses of 5 pM for 3 days. The pancreas was disposed, and several sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Immunohistochemistry was used to measure the expressions of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) and cysteine-aspartic acid protease-3 in rat pancreas, and Western blot was used to test the expressions of GLP-1R, light chain 3B-I and -II, and p62 in rat pancreas and AR42J cells. The data were expressed as mean (standard deviation) and analyzed by unpaired Student's t-test. Exenatide can induce pathological changes in rat pancreas. The GLP-1R, p62, light chain 3B-II, and cysteine-aspartic acid protease-3 in rat pancreas and AR42J cells treated with exenatide were significantly overexpressed. Exenatide can activate and upregulate its receptor, GLP-1R, then impair autophagy flux and activate apoptosis in the pancreatic acinar cell, thus damaging rat pancreas.

  15. Pig Pancreas Anatomy: Implications for Pancreas Procurement, Preservation, and Islet Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Joana; Scott, William E; Weegman, Bradley P; Suszynski, Thomas M; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2009-01-01

    Background Islet transplantation is emerging as a treatment option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes. The limited human islet supply from cadavers and poor islet yield and quality remain substantial impediments to progress in the field. Use of porcine islets holds great promise for large-scale application of islet transplantation. Consistent isolation of porcine islets is dependent on advances in pancreas procurement and preservation, and islet isolation requiring detailed knowledge of the porcine pancreatic anatomy. The primary aim of this study was to describe the vascular and ductal anatomy of the porcine pancreas in order to guide and improve organ preservation and enzyme perfusion. Methods Pancreata were removed by en bloc viscerectomy from 65 female Landrace pigs. Results 15% of organs exhibited inconsistent vascular branching from the celiac trunk. All organs had uniform patterns of branching at the superior mesenteric artery. The superior and inferior mesenteric veins (IMV) merged to become the portal vein in all but one case in which the IMV drained into the splenic vein. 97% of pancreata had three lobes: duodenal (DL), connecting (CL), and splenic (SL); 39% demonstrated ductal communication between the CL and the other two lobes; 50% had ductal communication only between the CL and DL; and 11% presented other types of ductal delineation. Conclusions Accounting for the variations in vascular and ductal anatomy, as detailed in this study, will facilitate development of protocols for preservation, optimal enzyme administration, and pancreas distention and digestion, and ultimately lead to substantial improvements in isolation outcomes. PMID:19077881

  16. ECETOC Florence workshop on risk assessment of endocrine substances, including the potency concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegert, Ivana

    2013-12-16

    The European regulation on plant protection products (1107/2009) and the Biocidal Products Regulation (EC Regulation 528/2012) only support the marketing and use of chemicals if they do not cause endocrine disruption in humans or wildlife species. Also, substances with endocrine properties are subject to authorization under the European regulation on the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH; 1907/2006). Therefore, the regulatory consequences of identifying a substance as an endocrine disrupting chemical are severe. In contrast to that, basic scientific criteria, necessary to define endocrine disrupting properties, are not described in any of these legislative documents. Thus, the European Center for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) established a task force to provide scientific criteria for the identification and assessment of chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties that may be used within the context of these three legislative texts (ECETOC, 2009a). In 2009, ECETOC introduced a scientific framework as a possible concept for identifying endocrine disrupting properties within a regulatory context (ECETOC, 2009b; Bars et al., 2011a,b). The proposed scientific criteria integrated, in a weight of evidence approach, information from regulatory (eco)toxicity studies and mechanistic/screening studies by combining evidence for adverse effects detected in apical whole-organism studies with an understanding of the mode of action (MoA) of endocrine toxicity. However, since not all chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties are of equal hazard, an adequate concept should also be able to differentiate between chemicals with endocrine properties of low concern from those of higher concern (for regulatory purposes). For this purpose, the task force refined this part of their concept. Following an investigation of the key factors at a second workshop of invited regulatory, academic and industry scientists, the

  17. Computed tomography of the pancreas and gallbladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onizuka, Hideo; Matsuura, Keiichi

    1982-01-01

    The authors viewed the present status of CT diagnosis in pancreatic and biliary diseases, referring to its future. CT imaged neither normal intrahepatic biliary ducts nor normal pancreatic ducts because of a relatively low resolution. The accuracy of CT in diagnosing obstructive jaundice has been 85 - 100%. CT showed a higher reproducibility than that of ultrasound in follow-up of intrahepatic gallstones. On the other hand, ultrasound was superior to CT in detecting gallstones. Diagnosis of cholecystitis by CT was usually impossible. Detecting early stage of gallbladder cancer by CT is very rarely, but it was of value for investigating the extent of advanced cancers. This tendency was also observed in biliary duct carcinoma, acute and chronic pancreatitis, and carcinoma of the pancreas. Consequently, it was concluded that CT is not appropriate for the purpose of early detection of pancreatic and other cancers. The use of CT with NMR is expected in future. (Ueda, J.)

  18. Radiology of the pancreas. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baert, A.L.; Van Hoe, L.; Delorme, G.

    1999-01-01

    Radiology of the Pancreas discusses the diagnostic role of the various imaging modalities currently available for the assessment of pancreatic anatomy and disease. In comparison with the first edition, new technical developments (helical CT, ultrafast magnetic resonance imaging, color Doppler ultrasound, laparoscopic ultrasound), have been included, and several chapters have been significantly expanded. With the aid of numerous illustrations, the normal radiological anatomy, anatomical variants, the typical and atypical radiological features of both common and uncommon diseases, and potential pitfalls are considered in depth. All of the chapters have been written by recognized experts in the field, and the book should be of value to all radiologists and other specialists who treat patients with pancreatic disease or who have an interest in the subject. (orig.)

  19. MicroRNA signature of the human developing pancreas

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    Correa-Medina Mayrin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression including differentiation and development by either inhibiting translation or inducing target degradation. The aim of this study is to determine the microRNA expression signature during human pancreatic development and to identify potential microRNA gene targets calculating correlations between the signature microRNAs and their corresponding mRNA targets, predicted by bioinformatics, in genome-wide RNA microarray study. Results The microRNA signature of human fetal pancreatic samples 10-22 weeks of gestational age (wga, was obtained by PCR-based high throughput screening with Taqman Low Density Arrays. This method led to identification of 212 microRNAs. The microRNAs were classified in 3 groups: Group number I contains 4 microRNAs with the increasing profile; II, 35 microRNAs with decreasing profile and III with 173 microRNAs, which remain unchanged. We calculated Pearson correlations between the expression profile of microRNAs and target mRNAs, predicted by TargetScan 5.1 and miRBase altgorithms, using genome-wide mRNA expression data. Group I correlated with the decreasing expression of 142 target mRNAs and Group II with the increasing expression of 876 target mRNAs. Most microRNAs correlate with multiple targets, just as mRNAs are targeted by multiple microRNAs. Among the identified targets are the genes and transcription factors known to play an essential role in pancreatic development. Conclusions We have determined specific groups of microRNAs in human fetal pancreas that change the degree of their expression throughout the development. A negative correlative analysis suggests an intertwined network of microRNAs and mRNAs collaborating with each other. This study provides information leading to potential two-way level of combinatorial control regulating gene expression through microRNAs targeting multiple mRNAs and, conversely, target mRNAs regulated in

  20. Sonographic evaluation of retroperitoneal pancreas transplants and their complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B.K.; Rosnberg, R.; McDermott, J.C.; Sollinger, H.W.; Belzer, F.O.

    1986-01-01

    Pancreas transplantation is an experimental procedure performed to restore insulin secretion in patients with diabetes mellitus. The authors reviewed 65 real-time sonograms in 42 kidney transplant recipients who also had a homologous pancreas transplanted into the retroperitoneum. Sonograms were analyzed for size of the pancreas transplant, its echo texture, size of the pancreatic duct, fluid collections around the pancreas transplant, vascular pulsations, and anastomotic site between the pancreatic duct and the urinary bladder. A normal pancreas transplant is moderately echogenic and may have small hypoechoic areas (possibly representing fibrosis or infarcts) in the early postsurgical period (based on findings in 14 of 42 patients). Dilation of the pancreatic duct (3-9 mm) and air in the pancreatic duct were common postoperatively. Pancreatitis was also common (36 patients) and was recognized by an increase in the size of the pancreas transplant and by a focally or diffusely hypoechoic texture. Rejection of the pancreas transplant was uncommon (six patients) and was detected on the basis of reduced vascular flow, an increase in size of the pancreas transplant, and a nonhomogeneous echotexture. Infraction of the transplant was rare and had an irregular, nonhomogeneously hypoechoic appearance (two patients). Seromas (eight patients), abscesses (three), and hematomas (two) were detected on the basis of septa, floating debris, mural nodules, and irregular thick walls. Enzymatic fat necrosis was recognized from floating echogenic fat debris (two patients). Air-containing abscesses were identified and confirmed on CT or US-guided aspiration (three patients). US was extremely useful for detecting, localizing, and characterizing fluid collections and provided guidance for aspiration. It is the imaging modality of choice for screening pancreas transplant recipients for postoperative changes