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Schoemaker, N.J.; van Zeeland, Y.R.A.
SUMMARY Endocrine diseases are among the most commonly seen conditions in ferrets. Tumours of the islet cells in the pancreas, referred to as insulinomas, and tumours of the adrenal glands, referred to as hyperadrenocorticism, are more commonly described in this species than in any other species.
Matsunaga, Akiko; Yoneda, Makoto
Endocrine diseases affecting various organs, such as the pituitary gland, the thyroid, the parathyroid, the adrenal glands and the pancreas, occasionally cause dementia. While Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia in the elderly and is untreatable, dementia caused by endocrine diseases is treatable in most cases. However, patients with dementia associated with endocrine diseases show memory impairments similar to those found in AD, often leading to misdiagnoses. Patients with endocrine diseases often present with other characteristic systemic and neuropsychiatric symptoms caused by altered hormone levels. Such neuropsychiatric symptoms include involuntary movements, depression, seizures, and muscle weakness. In these cases, abnormalities in imaging and blood or urine tests are helpful in making a differential diagnosis. As delays in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients may cause irreversible brain damage, it is imperative for clinicians to carefully exclude the possibility of latent endocrine diseases when treating patients with dementia.
Schaefer, Andrew M; Walker, Mark; Turnbull, Douglass M; Taylor, Robert W
Endocrine dysfunction in mitochondrial disease is commonplace, but predominantly restricted to disease of the endocrine pancreas resulting in diabetes mellitus. Other endocrine manifestations occur, but are relatively rare by comparison. In mitochondrial disease, neuromuscular symptoms often dominate the clinical phenotype, but it is of paramount importance to appreciate the multi-system nature of the disease, of which endocrine dysfunction may be a part. The numerous phenotypes attributable to pathogenic mutations in both the mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA creates a complex and heterogeneous catalogue of disease which can be difficult to navigate for novices and experts alike. In this article we provide an overview of the endocrine disorders associated with mitochondrial disease, the way in which the underlying mitochondrial disorder influences the clinical presentation, and how these factors influence subsequent management. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Chow, Jasmine; Rahman, Joyeeta; Achermann, John C; Dattani, Mehul T; Rahman, Shamima
Mitochondria are critical organelles for endocrine health; steroid hormone biosynthesis occurs in these organelles and they provide energy in the form of ATP for hormone production and trafficking. Mitochondrial diseases are multisystem disorders that feature defective oxidative phosphorylation, and are characterized by enormous clinical, biochemical and genetic heterogeneity. To date, mitochondrial diseases have been found to result from >250 monogenic defects encoded across two genomes: the nuclear genome and the ancient circular mitochondrial genome located within mitochondria themselves. Endocrine dysfunction is often observed in genetic mitochondrial diseases and reflects decreased intracellular production or extracellular secretion of hormones. Diabetes mellitus is the most frequently described endocrine disturbance in patients with inherited mitochondrial diseases, but other endocrine manifestations in these patients can include growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadism, adrenal dysfunction, hypoparathyroidism and thyroid disease. Although mitochondrial endocrine dysfunction frequently occurs in the context of multisystem disease, some mitochondrial disorders are characterized by isolated endocrine involvement. Furthermore, additional monogenic mitochondrial endocrine diseases are anticipated to be revealed by the application of genome-wide next-generation sequencing approaches in the future. Understanding the mitochondrial basis of endocrine disturbance is key to developing innovative therapies for patients with mitochondrial diseases.
Endocrine diseases may result in changes in cutaneous function and morphology, which cause various skin manifestations, including nonspecific or pathognomonic signs. Some of these manifestations are already known dermatologic diseases with only increased frequency in this patient group. As a result the skin may the play role of a screen displaying endocrine disorders, either due to hormone excess or deficiency. Awareness of the skin manifestations may permit prompt and adequate approach to the patients, and therefore facilitate the early diagnosis of the endocrine disease and even be life saving. Some of these manifestations may be recognized clinically, but sometimes they need to be confirmed histopathologically. In this article, many endocrine diseases and their associated skin lesions will be reviewed briefly.
LENCU, CODRU?A; ALEXESCU, TEODORA; PETRULEA, MIRELA; LENCU, MONICA
The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary ? cortical, and involuntary ? metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthy...
Kahaly, George J; Schuppan, Detlef
Celiac disease (CD) is a small-intestinal inflammatory disease that is triggered by the ingestion of the storage proteins (gluten) of wheat, barley and rye. Endocrine autoimmunity is prevalent in patients with CD and their relatives. The genes that predispose to endocrine autoimmune diseases, e.g. type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroid diseases, and Addison's disease, i.e. DR3-DQ2 and DR4-DQ8, are also the major genetic determinants of CD, which is the best understood HLA-linked disease. Thus, up to 30% of first-degree relatives both of patients with CD and/or endocrine autoimmunity are affected by the other disease. In CD, certain gluten proteins bind with high affinity to HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8 in the small-intestinal mucosa, to activate gluten-specific T cells which are instrumental in the destruction of the resorptive villi. Here, the autoantigen tissue transglutaminase increases the T cell response by generating deamidated gluten peptides that bind more strongly to DQ2 or DQ8. Classical symptoms such as diarrhea and consequences of malabsorption like anemia and osteoporosis are often absent in patients with (screening-detected) CD, but this absence does not significantly affect these patients' incidence of endocrine autoimmunity. Moreover, once autoimmunity is established, a gluten-free diet is not able to induce remission. However, ongoing studies attempt to address how far a gluten-free diet may prevent or retard the development of CD and endocrine autoimmunity in children at risk. The close relationship between CD and endocrine autoimmunity warrants a broader immune genetic and endocrine screening of CD patients and their relatives. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
van Zaane, Bregje; Stuijver, Danka J. F.; Squizzato, Alessandro; Gerdes, Victor E. A.
Endocrine diseases have been associated with cardiovascular events. Both altered coagulation and fibrinolysis markers and thrombotic disorders have been described in several endocrine diseases. This review summarizes the evidence on the influence of thyroid diseases, cortisol excess and deficiency,
Sonino, Nicoletta; Tomba, Elena; Fava, Giovanni A
In recent years, there has been growing interest in the psychosocial aspects of endocrine disease, such as the role of life stress in the pathogenesis of some conditions, their association with affective disorders, and the presence of residual symptoms after adequate treatment. In clinical endocrinology, exploration of psychosocial antecedents may elucidate the temporal relationships between life events and symptom onset, as it has been shown to be relevant for pituitary (Cushing's disease, hyperprolactinemia) or thyroid (Graves' disease) conditions, as well as the role of allostatic load, linked to chronic stress, in uncovering a person's vulnerability. After endocrine abnormalities are established, they are frequently associated with a wide range of psychological symptoms: at times, such symptoms reach the level of psychiatric illness (mainly mood and anxiety disorders); at other times, however, they can only be identified by the subclinical forms of assessment provided by the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR). Indeed, in a population study, the majority of patients suffered from at least one of the three DCPR syndromes considered: irritable mood, demoralization, persistent somatization. In particular, irritable mood was found to occur in 46% of 146 patients successfully treated for endocrine conditions, a rate similar to that found in cardiology and higher than in oncology and gastroenterology. Long-standing endocrine disorders may imply a degree of irreversibility of the pathological process and induce highly individualized affective responses. In patients who showed persistence or even worsening of psychological distress upon proper endocrine treatment, the value of appropriate psychiatric interventions was underscored. As it happened in other fields of clinical medicine, a conceptual shift from a merely biomedical care to a psychosomatic consideration of the person and his/her quality of life appears to be necessary for improving
Full Text Available Background: Celiac disease can have extra gastrointestinal tract (GIT presentations, most of which are endocrine. The aim of this study was to present patients diagnosed to have celiac disease from an endocrine department and to study the prevalence of endocrinopathies in celiac disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 patients from the endocrinology department (LLRM Medical College, Meerut between January 2011 and July 2012 and who were diagnosed to have celiac disease were included in the study. Results: Short stature was the commonest presentation (25%, other presentations included short stature and delayed puberty (20%, delayed puberty (11%, screening for celiac disease in type-1 DM patients (17%, rickets (6%, anemia not responding to oral therapy (6%, type-1 DM with recurrent hypoglycaemia (6%, and osteomalacia (3%. The endocrine manifestations include (after complete evaluation short stature (58%, delayed puberty (31%, elevated alkaline phospahatase (67%, low calcium (22%, X-rays suggestive of osteomalacia or rickets (8%, capopedal spasm (6%, and night blindness (6%. Anti-TPO antibody positivity was found in 53%, hypothyroidism in 28%, subclinical hypothyroidism in 17%, and type-1 DM in 25% of the patients. A total of 14% patients had no GI symptoms. Conclusion: Celiac disease is an endocrine disrupter as well as the great masquerader having varied presentations including short stature, delayed puberty, and rickets. Some patients who have celiac disease may not have any GI symptoms, making the diagnosis all the more difficult. Also, there is significant incidence of celiac disease with hypothyroidism and type-1 DM, making screening for it important in these diseases.
Freeman, Hugh James
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune small intestinal mucosal disorder that often presents with diarrhea, malabsorption and weight loss. Often, one or more associated endocrine disorders may be associated with CD. For this review, methods involved an extensive review of published English-language materials. In children and adolescents, prospective studies have demonstrated a significant relationship to insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes, whereas in adults, autoimmune forms of thyroid disease, particularly hypothyroidism, may commonly co-exist. In some with CD, multiple glandular endocrinopathies may also occur and complicate the initial presentation of the intestinal disease. In others presenting with an apparent isolated endocrine disorder, serological screening for underlying subclinical CD may prove to be positive, particularly if type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroid or other autoimmune endocrine diseases, such as Addison's disease are first detected. A number of reports have also recorded hypoparathyroidism or hypopituitarism or ovarian failure in CD and these may be improved with a strict gluten-free diet.
Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne
controls within all diagnose categories including antibiotics. The causal relationship between PCOS and autoimmune disease represents an interesting new area of research. PCOS is a lifelong condition and long term morbidity could be worsened by obesity, sedentary way of life, western style diet and smoking...
Durham, Andy E
Aging horses may be at particular risk of endocrine disease. Two major equine endocrinopathies, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and equine metabolic syndrome, are commonly encountered in an aging population and may present with several recognizable signs, including laminitis. Investigation, treatment, and management of these diseases are discussed. Additionally, aging may be associated with development of rarer endocrinopathic problems, often associated with neoplasia, including diabetes mellitus and other confounders of glucose homeostasis, as well as thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal diseases. Brief details of the recognition and management of these conditions are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Imaging studies are playing an increasingly role in the evaluation of endocrine diseases; accordingly, familiarity with the specific indications for the various modalities, and with the characteristic findings, is essential. This multi-author work, which is intended for both radiologists and endocrinologists, considers the role of all the recent imaging techniques, including ultrasound (particular color Doppler), computed tomography, MRI, and scintigraphy. Following an extensive introduction on the pituitary, subsequent chapters discuss in detail the normal anatomy and pathology of the female and male reproductive systems. Remaining chapters provide state-of-the-art data on the thyroid, parathyroids, pancreatic endocrine tumors, adrenal glands, hormonal tumors (carcinoids and MEN), and imaging of the complications of hormone therapy. (orig.)
Schuch, Natielen Jacques; Garcia, Vivian Cristina; Martini, Ligia Araújo
Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency has been worldwide reported in all age groups in recent years. It has been considered a Public Health matter since decreased levels of vitamin D has been related to several chronic diseases, as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity and hypertension. Glucose intolerance and insulin secretion has been observed during vitamin D deficiency, both in animals and humans resulting in T2DM. The supposed mechanism underlying these findings is presence of vitamin D receptor in several tissues and cells, including pancreatic beta-cells, adipocyte and muscle cells. In obese individuals, the impaired vitamin D endocrine system, characterized by high levels of PTH and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) could induce a negative feedback for the hepatic synthesis of 25(OH)D and also contribute to a higher intracellular calcium, which in turn secrete less insulin and deteriorate insulin sensitivity. In hypertension, vitamin D could act on renin-angiotensin system and also in vascular function. Administration of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) could decreases renin gene expression and inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. However, prospective and intervention human studies that clearly demonstrates the benefits of vitamin D status adequacy in the prevention and treatment of endocrine metabolic diseases are lacking. Further research still necessary to assure the maximum benefit of vitamin D in such situations.
This book contains 22 papers under the headings of Diagnosis and Pathology of endocrine diseases. Topics covered include: Laboratory tests in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders, Pathology of thyroid diseases, Diagnosis of adrenourtical disease, Radiologic techniques in evaluating endocrine disorders; and the Pituitary and adrenal glands
This book contains 22 papers under the headings of Diagnosis and Pathology of endocrine diseases. Topics covered include: Laboratory tests in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders, Pathology of thyroid diseases, Diagnosis of adrenourtical disease, Radiologic techniques in evaluating endocrine disorders; and the Pituitary and adrenal glands.
Ye, Lei; Ning, Guang
Hereditary endocrine diseases are an important group of diseases with great heterogeneity. The current classification for hereditary endocrine disease is mostly based upon anatomy, which is helpful for pathophysiological interpretation, but does not address the pathogenic variability associated with different underlying genetic causes. Identification of an endocrinopathy-associated genetic alteration provides evidence for differential diagnosis, discovery of non-classical disease, and the potential for earlier diagnosis and targeted therapy. Molecular diagnosis should be routinely applied when managing patients with suspicion of hereditary disease. To enhance the accurate diagnosis and treatment of patients with hereditary endocrine diseases, we propose categorization of endocrine diseases into three groups based upon the function of the mutant gene: cell differentiation, hormone synthesis and action, and tumorigenesis. Each category was further grouped according to the specific gene function. We believe that this format would facilitate practice of precision medicine in the field of hereditary endocrine diseases.
Vezzosi, Delphine; Bertherat, Jérôme
The cAMP-protein kinase A pathway plays a central role in the development and physiology of endocrine tissues. cAMP mediates the intracellular effects of numerous peptide hormones. Various cellular and molecular alterations of the cAMP-signaling pathway have been observed in endocrine diseases. Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are key regulatory enzymes of intracellular cAMP levels. Indeed, PDEs are the only known mechanism for inactivation of cAMP by catalysis to 5'-AMP. It has been suggested that disruption of PDEs could also have a role in the pathogenesis of many endocrine diseases. This review summarizes the most recent advances concerning the role of the PDEs in the physiopathology of endocrine diseases. The potential significance of this knowledge can be easily envisaged by the development of drugs targeting specific PDEs.
Bone is living tissue, and old bone is constantly removed and replaced with new bone. Normally this exchange is in balance, and the mineral content remains relatively constant. This balance may be disturbed as a result of certain metabolic and endocrinologic disorders. The term dystrophy, referring to a disturbance of nutrition, is applied to metabolic and endocrine bone diseases and should be distinguished from the term dysplasia, referring to a disturbance of bone growth. The two terms are easily confused but are not interchangeable. Metabolic bone disease is caused by endocrine imbalance, vitamin deficiency or excess, and other disturbances in bone metabolism leading to osteoporosis and osteomalacia
Marino, Laura; Jornayvaz, François R
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the industrialized world. The prevalence of NAFLD is increasing, becoming a substantial public health burden. NAFLD includes a broad spectrum of disorders, from simple conditions such as steatosis to severe manifestations such as fibrosis and cirrhosis. The relationship of NAFLD with metabolic alterations such as type 2 diabetes is well described and related to insulin resistance, with NAFLD being recognized as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. However, NAFLD may also coincide with endocrine diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome, hypothyroidism, growth hormone deficiency or hypercortisolism. It is therefore essential to remember, when discovering altered liver enzymes or hepatic steatosis on radiological exams, that endocrine diseases can cause NAFLD. Indeed, the overall prognosis of NAFLD may be modified by treatment of the underlying endocrine pathology. In this review, we will discuss endocrine diseases that can cause NALFD. Underlying pathophysiological mechanisms will be presented and specific treatments will be reviewed.
Johnson, Matthew B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Flanagan, Sarah E
The most common endocrine diseases, type 1 diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism, are the result of autoimmunity. Clustering of autoimmune endocrinopathies can result from polygenic predisposition, or more rarely, may present as part of a wider syndrome due to a mutation within one of seven genes. These monogenic autoimmune diseases show highly variable phenotypes both within and between families with the same mutations. The average age of onset of the monogenic forms of autoimmune endocrine disease is younger than that of the common polygenic forms, and this feature combined with the manifestation of other autoimmune diseases, specific hallmark features, or both, can inform clinicians as to the relevance of genetic testing. A genetic diagnosis can guide medical management, give an insight into prognosis, inform families of recurrence risk, and facilitate prenatal diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schug, Thaddeus T.; Janesick, Amanda; Blumberg, Bruce; Heindel, Jerrold J.
Environmental chemicals have significant impacts on biological systems. Chemical exposures during early stages of development can disrupt normal patterns of development and thus dramatically alter disease susceptibility later in life. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with the body's endocrine system and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, cardiovascular, metabolic and immune effects in humans. A wide range of substances, both natural and man-made, are thought to cause endocrine disruption, including pharmaceuticals, dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT and other pesticides, and components of plastics such as bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates. EDCs are found in many everyday products– including plastic bottles, metal food cans, detergents, flame retardants, food additives, toys, cosmetics, and pesticides. EDCs interfere with the synthesis, secretion, transport, activity, or elimination of natural hormones. This interference can block or mimic hormone action, causing a wide range of effects. This review focuses on the mechanisms and modes of action by which EDCs alter hormone signaling. It also includes brief overviews of select disease endpoints associated with endocrine disruption. PMID:21899826
Sen, Aritro; Kushnir, Vitaly A; Barad, David H; Gleicher, Norbert
An increasing body of evidence suggests that immune-mediated processes affect female reproductive success at multiple levels. Crosstalk between endocrine and immune systems regulates a large number of biological processes that affect target tissues, and this crosstalk involves gene expression, cytokine and/or lymphokine release and hormone action. In addition, endocrine-immune interactions have a major role in the implantation process of the fetal (paternally derived) semi-allograft, which requires a reprogramming process of the maternal immune system from rejection to temporary tolerance for the length of gestation. Usually, the female immune system is supportive of all of these processes and, therefore, facilitates reproductive success. Abnormalities of the female immune system, including autoimmunity, potentially interfere at multiple levels. The relevance of the immune system to female infertility is increasingly recognized by investigators, but clinically is often not adequately considered and is, therefore, underestimated. This Review summarizes the effect of individual autoimmune endocrine diseases on female fertility, and points towards selected developments expected in the near future.
Wiebolt, Janneke; Koeleman, Bobby P C; van Haeften, Timon W
The endocrine system is a frequent target in pathogenic autoimmune responses. Type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroid disease are the prevailing examples. When several diseases cluster together in one individual, the phenomenon is called autoimmune polyglandular syndrome. Progress has been made in understanding the genetic factors involved in endocrine autoimmune diseases. Studies on monogenic autoimmune diseases such as autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1, immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked and primary immune deficiencies helped uncover the role of key regulators in the preservation of immune tolerance. Alleles of the major histocompatibility complex have been known to contribute to the susceptibility to most forms of autoimmunity for more than 3 decades. Furthermore, sequencing studies revealed three non-major histocompatibility complex loci and some disease specific loci, which control T lymphocyte activation or signalling. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled acceleration in the identification of novel (non-HLA) loci and hence other relevant immune response pathways. Interestingly, several loci are shared between autoimmune diseases, and surprisingly some work in opposite direction. This means that the same allele which predisposes to a certain autoimmune disease can be protective in another. Well powered GWAS in type 1 diabetes has led to the uncovering of a significant number of risk variants with modest effect. These studies showed that the innate immune system may also play a role in addition to the adaptive immune system. It is anticipated that next generation sequencing techniques will uncover other (rare) variants. For other autoimmune disease (such as autoimmune thyroid disease) GWAS are clearly needed. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2010 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.
Daniel Diola Bento
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The primary hyperaldosteronism, an endocrine disease increasingly identified in cats, is characterized by adrenal gland dysfunction that interferes with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, triggering the hypersecretion of aldosterone. Pathophysiological consequences of excessive aldosterone secretion are related to increased sodium and water retention, and increased excretion of potassium, which induce hypertension and severe hypokalemia, respectively. The most common clinical findings in cats include: polydipsia, nocturia, polyuria, generalized weakness, neck ventroflexion, syncope, anorexia, weight loss, pendulous abdomen and blindness. Diagnosis is based on the evidence of hormonal hypersecretion with suppression of renin release, imaging and histopathological evaluation of adrenal glands. Treatment may be curative with adrenalectomy, in cases of unilateral disease, or conservative, through administration of aldosterone antagonists, potassium supplementation and antihypertensives. Prognosis varies from fair to good with the appropriate therapy. This article reviews the main aspects of primary aldosteronism in cats, providing the clinician with important information for the diagnosis of this disease.
Sjölund, K; Alumets, J; Berg, N O; Håkanson, R; Sundler, F
Using immunohistochemical techniques we studied duodenal biopsies from 18 patients with coeliac disease and 24 patients with normal duodenal morphology. We had access to antisera against the following gastrointestinal peptides: cholecystokinin (CCK), gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), gastrin-17, glucagon-enteroglucagon, motilin, neurotensin, pancreatic peptide (PP), secretin, somatostatin, substance P and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The somatostatin, GIP, CCK, and glucagon cells were increased in number in coeliac disease. The number of motilin cells was slightly increased, while secretin cells were reduced. Cells storing gastrin-17, substance P, or neurotensin were rare in all patients regardless of diagnosis. No PP immunoreactive cells were found and VIP was localised to neurons only. In biopsies from patients having a mucosa with ridging of villi the number of the various endocrine cell types did not differ from that in the control group. Images Fig. 2 PMID:385455
Full Text Available We summarize the existing literature data concerning the involvement of skeletal muscle (SM in whole body glucose homeostasis and the contribution of SM insulin resistance (IR to the metabolic derangements observed in several endocrine disorders, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, adrenal disorders and thyroid function abnormalities. IR in PCOS is associated with a unique postbinding defect in insulin receptor signaling in general and in SM in particular, due to a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Adrenal hormone excess is also associated with disrupted insulin action in peripheral tissues, such as SM. Furthermore, both hyper- and hypothyroidism are thought to be insulin resistant states, due to insulin receptor and postreceptor defects. Further studies are definitely needed in order to unravel the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms. In summary, the principal mechanisms involved in muscle IR in the endocrine diseases reviewed herein include abnormal phosphorylation of insulin signaling proteins, altered muscle fiber composition, reduced transcapillary insulin delivery, decreased glycogen synthesis, and impaired mitochondrial oxidative metabolism.
Dilas, Ljiljana Todorović; Icin, Tijana; Paro, Jovanka Novaković; Bajkin, Ivana
Autoimmune diseases are chronic conditions initiated by the loss of immunological tolerance to self-antigens. They constitute heterogeneous group of disorders, in which multiple alterations in the immune system result in a spectrum of syndromes that either target specific organs or affect the body systematically. Recent epidemiological studies have shown a possible shift of one autoimmune disease to another or the fact that more than one autoimmune disease may coexist in a single patient or in the same family. Numerous autoimmune diseases have been shown to coexist frequently with thyroid autoimmune diseases. AUTOIMMNUNE THYROID DISEASE AND OTHER ORGAN SPECIFIC NON-ENDOCRINE AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES: This part of the study reviews the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease coexisting with: pernicious anaemia, vitiligo, celiac disease, autoimmune liver disease, miastenia gravis, alopecia areata and sclerosis multiplex, and several recommendations for screening have been given. AUTOIMMUNE THYROID DISEASE AND OTHER ORGAN NON-SPECIFIC NON-ENDOCRINE AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES: Special attention is given to the correlation between autoimmune thyroid disease and rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, syndrome Sjögren, systemic sclerosis and mixed connective tissue disease. Screening for autoimmune thyroid diseases should be recommended in everyday clinical practice, in patients with primary organ-specific or organ non-specific autoimmune disease. Otherwise, in patients with primary thyroid autoimmune disease, there is no good reason of seeking for all other autoimmune diseases, although these patients have a greater risk of developing other autoimmune disease. Economic aspects of medicine require further analyzing of these data, from cost/benefit point of view to justified either mandatory screening or medical practitioner judgment.
Fava, G A
This is a review of psychosomatic interactions between affective disorders (depressive and anxiety disturbances, irritable mood) and endocrine disease. Particular reference is made to stressful life events in the pathogenesis of endocrine disease, psychopathology of hormonal disturbances, and pathophysiology of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in depression and Cushing's disease. These psychosomatic interactions may lead to appraisal of common etiological mechanisms in endocrine and psychiatric disorders, of the value of retaining the category of organic affective syndromes in psychiatric classification, and of the need for research on quality-of-life measures in endocrine disease. The establishment of "psychoendocrine units," where both endocrinologists and psychiatrists should work, is advocated. Such psychoendocrine units may serve and benefit clinical populations who currently defy traditional medical subdivisions.
Spuzyak, M.I.; Kramnoj, I.E.; Belaya, L.M.; Tyazhelova, O.V.; Litvinenko, V.M.
The incidence and type of X-ray semeiotics of the skull involvement were studied in 703 patients with endocrine diseases. Craniorgam analysis involved study of the thickness and structure of the vault bones, shape and size of the skull, status of the sutures, internal plate relief, changes of the base of the skull, of the sella turcica first of all, and facial bone. The characteristic X-ray symprom complexes of the involvement of the skull in some endocrine diseases were distinguished
Kuczera, Piotr; Adamczak, Marcin; Wiecek, Andrzej
In patients with chronic kidney disease the alterations of the endocrine system may arise from several causes. The kidney is the site of degradation as well as synthesis of many different hormones. Moreover, a number of concomitant pathological conditions such as inflammation, metabolic acidosis and malnutrition may participate in the pathogenesis of endocrine abnormalities in this group of patients. The most pronounced endocrine abnormalities in patients with chronic kidney disease are the deficiencies of: calcitriol, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor and, erythropoietin (EPO). Additionally accumulation of several hormones, such as: prolactin, growth hormone and insulin frequently also occur. The clinical consequences of the abovementioned endocrine abnormalities are among others: anemia, infertility and bone diseases.
Radioimmunoassay for determining corticotropin (ACTH), somatotropin (STH), prolactin (LTH) and thyrotropin (TTH) concentration in blood for endocrine disease diagnosis are described. Reactions of earlier mentioned functional tests to specific stimulators and inhibitors for differential diagnosis of such diseases as Icenko-Cushing one, pituitary body and hypothalamus diseases, galactorrhea and amenorrhea syndrome are considered. The diagnosis reliability is underlined
Erdöl, Şahin; Sağlam, Halil
Inherited metabolic diseases (IMDs) can affect many organ systems, including the endocrine system. There are limited data regarding endocrine dysfunctions related to IMDs in adults, however, no data exist in pediatric patients with IMDs. The aim of this study was to investigate endocrine dysfunctions in patients with IMDs by assessing their demographic, clinical, and laboratory data. Data were obtained retrospectively from the medical reports of patients with IMDs who were followed by the division of pediatric metabolism and nutrition between June 2011 and November 2013. In total, 260 patients [139 males (53%) and 121 females (47%)] with an IMD diagnosis were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 5.94 (range; 0.08 to 49) years and 95.8% (249 of 260 patients) were in the pediatric age group. Growth status was evaluated in 258 patients and of them, 27 (10.5%) had growth failure, all cases of which were attributed to non-endocrine reasons. There was a significant correlation between growth failure and serum albumin levels below 3.5 g/dL (p=0.002). Only three of 260 (1.1%) patients had endocrine dysfunction. Of these, one with lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency and another with Kearns-Sayre syndrome had diabetes, and one with glycerol kinase deficiency had glucocorticoid deficiency. Endocrine dysfunction in patients with IMDs is relatively rare. For this reason, there is no need to conduct routine endocrine evaluations in most patients with IMDs unless a careful and detailed history and a physical examination point to an endocrine dysfunction.
Goodarzi, Mark O
In honor of the 75th issue of the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, the author was invited to present his perspectives on genetics in human endocrinology. This paper reviews what the field has achieved in the genetics of common endocrine disease, and offers predictions on where the field will move in the future and its impact on endocrine clinical practice. The October 2015 data release of the National Human Genome Research Institute-European Bioinformatics Institute (NHGRI-EBI) Catalog of Published Genome-wide Association Studies was queried regarding endocrinologic diseases and traits. PubMed searches were focused on genetic prediction of disease, genetic findings and drug targets, functional interrogation of genetic loci, use of genetics to subtype disease, missing heritability, systems genomics, and higher order chromatin structures as regulators of gene function. Nearly a quarter of genome wide association study findings concern endocrinologic diseases and traits. While these findings have not yet dramatically altered clinical care, genetics will have a major impact by providing the drug targets of tomorrow, facilitated by experimental and bioinformatic advances that will shorten the time from gene discovery to drug development. Use of genetic findings to subtype common endocrine disease will allow more precise prevention and treatment efforts. Future advances will allow us to move away from the common view of DNA as a string of letters, allowing exploration of higher order structure that likely explains much "missing heritability." The future will see a greater role of genetics at the bedside, with genetic epidemiologic discoveries leading not only to new treatments of endocrine disease, but also helping us prescribe the right drug to the right patients by allowing subclassification of common heterogeneous endocrine conditions. Future technological breakthroughs will reveal the heritable mysteries hidden in chromatin structure, leading to a
Özlem Tarçın; Dilek Gogas Yavuz
Paraoxonase is an esterase bound to high-density lipoproteins which by metabolizing lipid peroxides, prevents their accumulation on low-density lipoproteins. It also hydrolyzes various organophosphorus compounds. Considering the role of PON1 in hydrolyzing phospholipid and cholesteryl-ester hydroperoxides and thus protecting lipoproteins against oxidative modification, it can be concluded that PON1 may be an indicator of the risk of atherosclerosis/coronary artery disease development. Recent ...
Full Text Available Abstract Most inborn errors of metabolism (IEM are recessive, genetically transmitted diseases and are classified into 3 main groups according to their mechanisms: cellular intoxication, energy deficiency, and defects of complex molecules. They can be associated with endocrine manifestations, which may be complications from a previously diagnosed IEM of childhood onset. More rarely, endocrinopathies can signal an IEM in adulthood, which should be suspected when an endocrine disorder is associated with multisystemic involvement (neurological, muscular, hepatic features, etc.. IEM can affect all glands, but diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism are the most frequent disorders. A single IEM can present with multiple endocrine dysfunctions, especially those involving energy deficiency (respiratory chain defects, and metal (hemochromatosis and storage disorders (cystinosis. Non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction and/or goiter and sometimes hypoparathyroidism should steer the diagnosis towards a respiratory chain defect. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is frequent in haemochromatosis (often associated with diabetes, whereas primary hypogonadism is reported in Alström disease and cystinosis (both associated with diabetes, the latter also with thyroid dysfunction and galactosemia. Hypogonadism is also frequent in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (with adrenal failure, congenital disorders of glycosylation, and Fabry and glycogen storage diseases (along with thyroid dysfunction in the first 3 and diabetes in the last. This is a new and growing field and is not yet very well recognized in adulthood despite its consequences on growth, bone metabolism and fertility. For this reason, physicians managing adult patients should be aware of these diagnoses.
Anway, Matthew D.; Leathers, Charles; Skinner, Michael K.
The fetal basis of adult disease is poorly understood on a molecular level and cannot be solely attributed to genetic mutations or a single etiology. Embryonic exposure to environmental compounds has been shown to promote various disease states or lesions in the first generation (F1). The current study used the endocrine disruptor vinclozolin (antiandrogenic compound) in a transient embryonic exposure at the time of gonadal sex determination in rats. Adult animals from the F1 generation and all subsequent generations examined (F1–F4) developed a number of disease states or tissue abnormalities including prostate disease, kidney disease, immune system abnormalities, testis abnormalities, and tumor development (e.g. breast). In addition, a number of blood abnormalities developed including hypercholesterolemia. The incidence or prevalence of these transgenerational disease states was high and consistent across all generations (F1–F4) and, based on data from a previous study, appears to be due in part to epigenetic alterations in the male germ line. The observations demonstrate that an environmental compound, endocrine disruptor, can induce transgenerational disease states or abnormalities, and this suggests a potential epigenetic etiology and molecular basis of adult onset disease. PMID:16973726
Epicardial adipose tissue has recently emerged as new risk factor and active player in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Albeit its physiological and pathological roles are not completely understood, a body of evidence indicates that epicardial adipose tissue is a fat depot with peculiar and unique features. Epicardial fat is able to synthesize, produce, and secrete bioactive molecules which are then transported into the adjacent myocardium through vasocrine and/or paracrine pathways. Based on these evidences, epicardial adipose tissue can be considered an endocrine organ. Epicardial fat is also thought to provide direct heating to the myocardium and protect the heart during unfavorable hemodynamic conditions, such as ischemia or hypoxia. Epicardial fat has been suggested to play an independent role in the development and progression of obesity- and diabetes-related cardiac abnormalities. Clinically, the thickness of epicardial fat can be easily and accurately measured. Epicardial fat thickness can serve as marker of visceral adiposity and visceral fat changes during weight loss interventions and treatments with drugs targeting the fat. The potential of modulating the epicardial fat with targeted pharmacological agents can open new avenues in the pharmacotherapy of endocrine and metabolic diseases. This review article will provide Endocrine's reader with a focus on epicardial adipose tissue in endocrinology. Novel, established, but also speculative findings on epicardial fat will be discussed from the unexplored perspective of both clinical and basic Endocrinologist.
Full Text Available Our understanding of the pathogenesis of endocrine disorders increase rapidly by genetic studies at the molecular level. Common endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, osteoporosis, dyslipidemia and cancer follow the multifactorial model in the genetic aspect. This review tries to clarify the approach in molecular studies of such diseases for clinicians in different specialties. How to evaluate a possible association between a single nucleotide polymorphism and an endocrinopathy or its complication is the main concern of this review. Two approaches for gene mapping will be discussed as well as main challenges regarding each approach. All such genetic studies ideally include some test of the association between genome sequence variation and the phenotype of interest such as the trait itself, the presence of a given complication, or measures of some endocrinopathy-related intermediate trait. Despite different advances in this analysis, there are major concerns regarding the overall performance and robustness of genetic association studies. By using powerful new high-throughput methods, further insights to molecular basis of such endocrine disorders can be expected. Close correlation between geneticists and clinicians can effectively bridge between basic sciences and clinical investigations.
Full Text Available IntroductionPolyadenylation is the process in which the pre-mRNA is cleaved at the poly(A site and a poly(A tail is added - a process necessary for normal mRNA formation. Genes with multiple poly(A sites can undergo alternative polyadenylation, producing distinct mRNA isoforms with different 3’ untranslated regions (3’ UTRs and in some cases different coding regions. Two thirds of all human genes undergo alternative polyadenylation. The efficiency of the polyadenylation process regulates gene expression and alternative polyadenylation plays an important part in post-transcriptional regulation, as the 3’ UTR contains various cis-elements associated with post-transcriptional regulation, such as target sites for microRNAs and RNA-binding proteins.Implications of alterations in polyadenylation for endocrine diseaseAlterations in polyadenylation have been found to be causative of neonatal diabetes and IPEX (immune dysfunction, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked and to be associated with type I and II diabetes, pre-eclampsia, fragile X-associated premature ovarian insufficiency, ectopic Cushing syndrome and many cancer diseases, including several types of endocrine tumor diseases.PerspectivesRecent developments in high-throughput sequencing have made it possible to characterize polyadenylation genome-wide. Antisense elements inhibiting or enhancing specific poly(A site usage can induce desired alterations in polyadenylation, and thus hold the promise of new therapeutic approaches. SummaryThis review gives a detailed description of alterations in polyadenylation in endocrine disease, an overview of the current literature on polyadenylation and summarizes the clinical implications of the current state of research in this field.
Clark, Melissa; Hoenig, Margarethe
Obesity in pet dogs and cats is a significant problem in developed countries, and seems to be increasing in prevalence. Excess body fat has adverse metabolic consequences, including insulin resistance, altered adipokine secretion, changes in metabolic rate, abnormal lipid metabolism, and fat accumulation in visceral organs. Obese cats are predisposed to endocrine and metabolic disorders such as diabetes and hepatic lipidosis. A connection likely also exists between obesity and diabetes mellitus in dogs. No system has been developed to identify obese pets at greatest risk for development of obesity-associated metabolic diseases, and further study in this area is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Balázs, Csaba; Rácz, Károly
Oxygen derived free radicals, generated by a number of cellular reactions, include superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. They exert their cytotoxic effects mainly via peroxidation of the cell membrane resulting in the loss of membrane integrity. The essential trace element, selenium exerts complex effects on the endocrine systems, partly due to its antioxidant capacity. Well-characterized selenoproteins include iodothyronine deiodinases, glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases involved in thyroid hormone metabolism and protection from oxidative damage. The value of selenium supplementation in autoimmune thyroid disorders has been investigated and most studies confirmed the beneficial effect of selenium supplementation in Hashimoto's and Graves's diseases. Recently, selenium proved to be effective in mild inflammatory orbitopathy. There are a number of reports about the effect of selenium in diabetes mellitus, but the data are controversial as both insulin-like and diabetes-inducing effects of selenium have been described. Selenium was successfully used in both female and male infertility of autoimmune origin.
Full Text Available Patients suffering from endocrine disorders often present a wide profile of skin lesions. In hyperthyroidism we observe hair loss, lower leg myxedema and onycholysis or, in the case of hormone deficiency, generalized swelling of the skin, which becomes cold and pale. Primary hyperparathyroidism is revealed by pruritus, presence of chronic urticaria or deposition of amorphous calcium salts. In hypoparathyroidism, the skin is dry while the nails become very brittle. Skin lesions in diabetes include necrobiosis lipoidica, granuloma annulare, scleroderma-like diabetic edema and acanthosis nigricans. Overactive pituitary gland is often manifested as acromegaly with hypertrophy of soft tissue thickening and hypertrichosis. The skin in the early stages of hypopituitarism feels swollen, is pale yellow and oily, and finally becomes alabaster and dry. The characteristic features of Cushing syndrome are central obesity, lunar face, buffalo hump, and striae. In Addison’s disease we observe hyperpigmentation. Hyperandrogenism in women leads to acne, hirsutism and virilization.
cirrhosis. Here it reviews some endocrine-manifestations related to cirrhosis and the liver disease.
Blois, Shauna L; Dickie, Erica; Kruth, Stephen A; Allen, Dana G
To characterize a population of dogs from a tertiary care center with 2 or more endocrine disorders, including the specific disorders and time intervals between diagnosis of each disorder. Retrospective case series. 35 dogs with 2 or more endocrine disorders. Medical records were reviewed, and the following was recorded: clinical signs, physical examination findings, and the results of CBC, serum biochemical analysis, urinalysis, aerobic bacterial culture of urine samples, endocrine testing, diagnostic imaging, and necropsy. 35 dogs with more than 1 endocrine disorder were identified. Seventy-seven percent (27/35) of the dogs were male, and the mean age at the time of diagnosis of the first endocrinopathy was 7.9 years. Miniature Schnauzer was the most common breed. Twenty-eight of 35 (80%) dogs had 2 disorders; 7 (20%) had 3 disorders. The most common combinations of disorders included diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism in 57.1 % (20/35) of dogs; hypoadrenocorticism and hypothyroidism in 22.9% (8/35) of dogs; and diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism in 28.6% (10/35) of dogs. A mean of 14.5 months elapsed between diagnosis of the first and second endocrine disorders, whereas there was a mean of 31.1 months between diagnosis of the first and third endocrine disorders. Results suggested that the occurrence of multiple endocrine disorders was uncommon in dogs. The most common combinations of endocrine disorders in this population of dogs were diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism, followed by hypoadrenocorticism and hypothyroidism.
Cutolo, Maurizio; Pizzorni, Carmen; Sulli, Alberto
Vitamin D is synthesized from cholesterol in the skin (80-90%) under the sunlight and then metabolized into an active D hormone in liver, kidney and peripheral immune/inflammatory cells. These endocrine-immune effects include also the coordinated activities of the vitamin D-activating enzyme, 1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) on cells of the immune system in mediating intracrine and paracrine actions. Vitamin D is implicated in prevention and protection from chronic infections (i.e. tubercolosis), cancer (i.e. breast cancer) and autoimmune rheumatic diseases since regulates both innate and adaptive immunity potentiating the innate response (monocytes/macrophages with antimicrobial activity and antigen presentation), but suppressing the adaptive immunity (T and B lymphocyte functions). Vitamin D has modulatory effects on B lymphocytes and Ig production and recent reports have demonstrated that 1,25(OH)2D3 does indeed exert direct effects on B cell homeostasis. A circannual rhythm of trough vitamin D levels in winter and peaks in summer time showed negative correlation with clinical status at least in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Recently, the onset of symptoms of early arthritis during winter or spring have been associated with greater radiographic evidence of disease progression at 12 months possibly are also related to seasonal lower vitamin D serum levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine condition in premenopausal women. The syndrome is characterized by hyperandrogenism, irregular menses and polycystic ovaries when other etiologies are excluded. Obesity, insulin resistance and low vitamin D levels are present in more than 50% patients with PCOS, these factors along with hyperandrogenism could have adverse effects on long-term health. Hyperinflammation and impaired epithelial function were reported to a larger extent in women with PCOS and could particularly be associated with hyperandrogenism, obesity and insulin resistance. Available data from register-based and data linkage studies support that metabolic-vascular and thyroid diseases, asthma, migraine, depression and cancer are diagnosed more frequently in PCOS, whereas fracture risk is decreased. Drug prescriptions are significantly more common in PCOS than controls within all diagnose categories including antibiotics. The causal relationship between PCOS and autoimmune disease represents an interesting new area of research. PCOS is a lifelong condition and long-term morbidity could be worsened by obesity, sedentary way of life, Western-style diet and smoking, whereas lifestyle intervention including weight loss may partly or fully resolve the symptoms of PCOS and could improve the long-term prognosis. In this review, the possible implications of increased morbidity for the clinical and biochemical evaluation of patients with PCOS at diagnosis and follow-up is further discussed along with possible modifying effects of medical treatment. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.
Aslan, Ivy R; Cheung, Clement C
Endocrinopathies are frequently linked to central nervous system disease, both as early effects prior to the disease diagnosis and/or late effects after the disease has been treated. In particular, tumors and infiltrative diseases of the brain and pituitary, such as craniopharyngioma, optic pathway and hypothalamic gliomas, intracranial germ cell tumor, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis, can present with abnormal endocrine manifestations that precede the development of neurological symptoms. Early endocrine effects include diabetes insipidus, growth failure, obesity, and precocious or delayed puberty. With improving prognosis and treatment of childhood brain tumors, many survivors experience late endocrine effects related to medical and surgical interventions. Chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary axes governing growth, thyroid, gonadal, and adrenal function. In addition, obesity and metabolic alterations are frequent late manifestations. Diagnosing and treating both early and late endocrine manifestations can dramatically improve the growth, well-being, and quality of life of patients with childhood central nervous system diseases.
Blois, Shauna L; Dickie, Erica L; Kruth, Stephen A; Allen, Dana G
The objective of this retrospective study was to characterize a population of cats from a tertiary care center diagnosed with multiple endocrine disorders, including the specific disorders and time intervals between diagnosis of each disorder. Medical records of 15 cats diagnosed with more than one endocrine disorder were reviewed. The majority of cats were domestic shorthairs, and the mean age at the time of diagnosis of the first disorder was 10.3 years. The most common combination of disorders was diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism. Two cats had concurrent diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism, one cat had concurrent central diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus. A mean of 25.7 months elapsed between diagnoses of the first and second endocrine disorder, but this was variable. This study suggests the occurrence of multiple endocrine disorders is uncommon in cats. Copyright 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gan, Earn H; Pearce, Simon H
The treatment for autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) has remained virtually unchanged in the last 60 years. Most patients have symptoms that are relatively well controlled with exogenous steroid replacement, but there may be persistent symptoms, recurrent adrenal crisis and poor quality of life, despite good compliance with optimal current treatments. Treatment with conventional exogenous steroid therapy is also associated with premature mortality, increased cardiovascular risk and complications related to excessive steroid replacement. Hence, novel therapeutic approaches have emerged in the last decade attempting to improve the long-term outcome and quality of life of patients with AAD. This review discusses the recent developments in treatment innovations for AAD, including the novel exogenous steroid formulations with the intention of mimicking the physiological biorhythm of cortisol secretion. Our group has also carried out a few studies attempting to restore endogenous glucocorticoid production via immunomodulatory and regenerative medicine approaches. The recent advances in the understanding of adrenocortical stem cell biology, and adrenal plasticity will also be discussed to help comprehend the science behind the therapeutic approaches adopted. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.
Hillard, Cecilia J
Some of the earliest reports of the effects of cannabis consumption on humans were related to endocrine system changes. In this review, the effects of cannabinoids and the role of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in the regulation of the following endocrine systems are discussed: the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, prolactin and oxytocin, thyroid hormone and growth hormone, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Preclinical and human study results are presented.
Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Mitri, Joanna; Mathieu, Chantal; Badenhoop, Klaus; Tamer, Gonca; Orio, Francesco; Mezza, Teresa; Vieth, Reinhold; Colao, Annamaria; Pittas, Anastassios
It has been suggested that vitamin D may play a role in the pathogenesis of several endocrine diseases, such as hyperparathyroidism, type 1 diabetes (T1DM), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), autoimmune thyroid diseases, Addison's disease and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this review, we debate the role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of endocrine diseases. Narrative overview of the literature synthesizing the current evidence retrieved from searches of computerized databases, hand searches and authoritative texts. Evidence from basic science supports a role for vitamin D in many endocrine conditions. In humans, inverse relationships have been reported not only between blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations but also with risk of T1DM, T2DM, and PCOS. There is less evidence for an association with Addison's disease or autoimmune thyroid disease. Vitamin D supplementation may have a role for prevention of T2DM, but the available evidence is not consistent. Although observational studies support a potential role of vitamin D in endocrine disease, high quality evidence from clinical trials does not exist to establish a place for vitamin D supplementation in optimizing endocrine health. Ongoing randomized controlled trials are expected to provide insights into the efficacy and safety of vitamin D in the management of endocrine disease. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.
Full Text Available Background. Thyroid dysfunction and mental disorders are common among the general population. In population studies, that thyrotoxicosis has been established to be accompanied by depression and anxiety. The purpose was to study the features of the psycho-emotional state in adolescents with Graves’ disease (GD. Materials and methods. Clinical and hormonal indices and features of the psycho-emotional state were studied in 19 adolescence with Graves’ disease using the Spielberg questionnaire (State Trait Personal Inventory, STPI and the drawing test House-Tree-Man (HTM, proposed by J. Buk. The control group consisted of 12 healthy adolescents without thyroid pathology. Results. The average age of the examined adolescents with Graves’ disease was 13.0 ± 0.6 years; thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed 5.3 times more often in girls compared to boys. Endocrine orbitopathy was diagnosed in 68.4 % of adolescents with thyrotoxicosis. All the examined adolescents with GD had signs of the autonomic nervous system disorder. Also there were identified nonspecific symptoms such as: increased response to suddenness or fear (63.2 %, difficult concentrating or emptiness in the head due to worry or anxiety (47.4 %, persistent irritability (94.7 %, difficult falling asleep due to anxiety (63.2 %. The results of the anxiety study by the STPI questionnaire revealed that among children with thyrotoxicosis the phenomena of anxiety and negative emotional experiences predominated (p < 0.05, but cognitive activity was lower (p < 0.05 when compared with those of the control group. While in a group of teenagers with toxic goiter, 100 % of children showed a high level of anxiety (range of scores of 24–40, in this group children with a high degree of negative emotional feelings (68.4 % prevailed; and in the third of children (31.6 % the average degree of negative emotional experiences was diagnosed. At the same time, in the control group 91.7 % of children had high
Struja, Tristan; Kutz, Alexander; Fischli, Stefan; Meier, Christian; Mueller, Beat; Recher, Mike; Schuetz, Philipp
Background Uncertainty about factors influencing the susceptibility and triggers for Graves’ disease persists, along with a wide variation in the response to anti-thyroid drugs, currently at approximately 50% of non-responders. The aim of this narrative review is to summarize immunological concepts, with a combined endocrine and immunological perspective, to highlight potential new areas of research. Main text Relevant studies were identified through a systematic literature search using the P...
Costache, Irina Iuliana; Ungureanu, Maria Christina; Iliescu, D; Petriş, A; Botnariu, Gina
Car- diovascular abnormalities associated with endocrine diseases are often frequent and due to complex relationships between endocrine glands (with internal secretion) and cardiovascular system (heart and vessels). Certain hormones secreted by the endocrine glands (particularly the thyroid and pituitary gland) excesses or deficiencies, are involved in morphogenesis, growth processes and activity regulation of cardiovascular system, most often in connection with the autonomic nervous system. There are also a lot of electrocardiographic changes caused by hormonal disorders that requires differential diagnosis and represents the source of erroneous diagnosis. Endocrine pathology occurred later than a heart disease, may worse heart function. Ignoring the cardiovascular events that may occur in the evolution of endo- crine diseases, may induce increased mortality due to cardiovascular complications.
Quik, Elise; Verster, Joris; PandiPerumal, S.R.; Streiner, D.L.
Summary It is well established that a close relationship exists between sleep and hormones of the hypothalamic–pituitary axis. Sleep has an electrophysiological component and an endocrine component, i.e., the distinct patterns of hormone secretion. Both the electrophysiological and the hormonal
Anderson, Mark S.
Context: The endocrine system is a common target in pathogenic autoimmune responses, and there has been recent progress in our understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune endocrine diseases.
Dental caries and periodontal disease are the most common oral diseases. Their link to disorders of endocrine system is of high interest. Most of the available data relates to the adult population, though its importance among children and adolescents is paramount. To review the existing evidence examining the link between these clinical conditions among children and adolescents. Electronic bibliographic databases and hand searches of relevant publications, based on prepared list of relevant key-words was performed. Paucity of existing data leaves the question of association between most endocrine disorders of the youth with dental caries and periodontal disease, inconclusive, apart from obesity and diabetes mellitus, where it seems to be elucidated. A profound research should be done in order to amend our understanding to what extent, if at all, exists the link between these oral maladies and different pediatric endocrine disorders. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.
Trasande, Leonardo; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Hass, Ulla
Rapidly increasing evidence has documented that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute substantially to disease and disability. Objective: The objective was to quantify a range of health and economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposures in the European Union (EU......). Design: A Steering Committee of scientists adapted the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization for probability of causation based upon levels of available epidemiological and toxicological evidence for one or more chemicals contributing to disease by an endocrine...
Jensen, Rikke Bodin Beck; Chellakooty, Marla; Vielwerth, Signe
Low birth weight has been associated with an increased incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and type 2 diabetes. Endocrine regulation of fetal growth by growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is complex. Placental GH is detectable in maternal serum from the 8th to the 12...... postnatal growth, insulin resistance and consequently the risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus IGF-I may serve as a link between fetal growth and adult-onset disease.......Low birth weight has been associated with an increased incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and type 2 diabetes. Endocrine regulation of fetal growth by growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is complex. Placental GH is detectable in maternal serum from the 8th to the 12th...
Struja, Tristan; Kutz, Alexander; Fischli, Stefan; Meier, Christian; Mueller, Beat; Recher, Mike; Schuetz, Philipp
Uncertainty about factors influencing the susceptibility and triggers for Graves' disease persists, along with a wide variation in the response to anti-thyroid drugs, currently at approximately 50% of non-responders. The aim of this narrative review is to summarize immunological concepts, with a combined endocrine and immunological perspective, to highlight potential new areas of research. Relevant studies were identified through a systematic literature search using the PubMed and EMBASE databases in March 2016. No cut-offs regarding dates were imposed. We used the terms "Graves' Disease" or "Basedow" or "thyrotoxicosis" together with the terms "etiology", "pathophysiology", "immunodeficiency", "causality", and "autoimmunity". The terms "orbitopathy", "ophthalmopathy", and "amiodarone" were excluded. Articles in English, French, German, Croatian, Spanish, and Italian were eligible for inclusion. While concepts such as the impact of iodine, smoking, human leucocyte antigen, infections, and ethnicity are established, new ideas have emerged. Pertaining evidence suggests the involvement of autoimmunity and immunodeficiency in the pathophysiology of Graves' disease. Recent studies point to specific immunological mechanisms triggering the onset of disease, which may also serve as targets for more specific therapies.
Nilsson, Eric E; Anway, Matthew D; Stanfield, Jacob; Skinner, Michael K
Endocrine disruptor exposure during gonadal sex determination was previously found to induce male rat adult onset transgenerational disease (F1–F4 generation), and this was associated with an alteration in the epigenetic (i.e., DNA methylation) programming of the male germ line. The current study was designed to characterize the transgenerational disease phenotypes of the female adult offspring. Pregnant rats (F0 generation) were treated transiently with vinclozolin (i.e., fungicide with anti...
Kasturi, Kannan; Fernandes, Lucas; Quezado, Martha; Eid, Mary; Marcus, Leigh; Chittiboina, Prashant; Rappaport, Mark; Stratakis, Constantine A; Widemann, Brigitte; Lodish, Maya
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN2B) is a rare autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome characterized in part by metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and pheochromocytoma. Cushing disease is a rare cause of endogenous hypercortisolism in children. We describe a 21-year-old African-American male who was diagnosed at age 10 with an ACTH-secreting pituitary microadenoma. At age 16 he developed medullary thyroid cancer and was found to have multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B with the characteristic M918T mutation of the RET proto-oncogene. Following thyroidectomy, he was initiated on Vandetanib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and has since had stable disease over the last 5 years. Our patient is the first individual with MEN2B to be described with Cushing disease. The RET oncogene may play a role in pituitary tumorigenesis; alternatively, the coexistence of these two entities may represent an extremely rare coincidence.
The mechanism by which dietary fibre exerts its various effects have been the subject several studies. Its ability to slow food digestion and nutrient absorption is well known. This review summarises the broader literature on what constitutes dietary fibre, mechanisms of action of dietary fibre, and its impact on some disease ...
Carolina Di Somma
Full Text Available Vitamin D system comprises hormone precursors, active metabolites, carriers, enzymes, and receptors involved in genomic and non-genomic effects. In addition to classical bone-related effects, this system has also been shown to activate multiple molecular mediators and elicit many physiological functions. In vitro and in vivo studies have, in fact, increasingly focused on the “non-calcemic” actions of vitamin D, which are associated with the maintenance of glucose homeostasis, cardiovascular morbidity, autoimmunity, inflammation, and cancer. In parallel, growing evidence has recognized that a multimodal association links vitamin D system to brain development, functions and diseases. With vitamin D deficiency reaching epidemic proportions worldwide, there is now concern that optimal levels of vitamin D in the bloodstream are also necessary to preserve the neurological development and protect the adult brain. The aim of this review is to highlight the relationship between vitamin D and neurological diseases.
Hagymási, Krisztina; Reismann, Péter; Rácz, Károly; Tulassay, Zsolt
The most frequent liver disorder in metabolic syndrome is the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Its pathogenesis is a complex, multifactorial process, characterized by insulin resistance and involvement of the endocrine system. Hypothyroidism may lead to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis via hyperlipidemia and obesity. Adult patients with growth hormone deficiency have a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype with obesity and many characteristic metabolic alterations. The chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis results in metabolic syndrome as well. Cushing's syndrome has also features of metabolic syndrome. Mild elevation of transaminase activities is commonly seen in patients with adrenal failure. Non-alcoholic steatosis is twice as common in postmenopusal as in premenopausal women and hormonal replacement therapy decreases the risk of steatosis. Insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type 2, sleeping apnoe syndrome, cardiovascular disorders and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are more frequent in polycystic ovary syndrome. Hypoandrogenism in males and hyperandrogenism in females may lead to fatty liver via obesity and insulin resistance. Adipokines (leptin, acylation stimulating protein, adiponectin) have a potential role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver. The alterations of endocrine system must be considered in the background of cryptogenic liver diseases. The endocrine perspective may help the therapeutic approaches in the future.
Guaraldi, Federica; Salvatori, Roberto
Cushing syndrome (CS) is the result of extended exposure to excessive glucocorticoids from endogenous or exogenous sources. Traditionally, the most common cause of endogenous CS is a pituitary adenoma (Cushing disease). Less common causes are adrenocortical tumors and extrapituitary adrenocorticotropin-producing neoplasias. This review provides updated information regarding the potential for increased prevalence of CS in specific patient populations. Here the authors provide to family physicians clinical guidance for recognition of CS by presenting a case, discussing the advantages/disadvantages of the diagnostic tests, and discussing information about the treatment options. CS is expected to have an incidence of 10 to 15 people per million; however, studies of patients with diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and osteoporosis found a high prevalence of CS among these populations. The clinical manifestations of CS range from the distinctive clinical features (purple striae, facial plethora, proximal myopathy) to common conditions such as hypertension, obesity, and diabetes. Clinical practice guidelines recommend biochemical tests to screen patients for CS; however, the sensitivity and specificity of these tests vary, so a careful analysis must be performed to avoid misdiagnosis. CS is challenging to diagnose. Nevertheless, with a systematic approach to testing patients and an increased awareness of the high-risk patient populations, the disease can be identified in a timely manner.
Pekic, Sandra; Popovic, Vera
Hypopituitarism is defined as one or more pituitary hormone deficits due to a lesion in the hypothalamic-pituitary region. By far, the most common cause of hypopituitarism associated with a sellar mass is a pituitary adenoma. A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosing hypopituitarism in several other conditions such as other massess in the sellar and parasellar region, brain damage caused by radiation and by traumatic brain injury, vascular lesions, infiltrative/immunological/inflammatory diseases (lymphocytic hypophysitis, sarcoidosis and hemochromatosis), infectious diseases and genetic disorders. Hypopituitarism may be permanent and progressive with sequential pattern of hormone deficiencies (radiation-induced hypopituitarism) or transient after traumatic brain injury with possible recovery occurring years from the initial event. In recent years, there is increased reporting of less common and less reported causes of hypopituitarism with its delayed diagnosis. The aim of this review is to summarize the published data and to allow earlier identification of populations at risk of hypopituitarism as optimal hormonal replacement may significantly improve their quality of life and life expectancy. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.
Abucham, Julio; Bronstein, Marcello D; Dias, Monike L
Although fertility is frequently impaired in women with acromegaly, pregnancy is apparently becoming more common due to improvement in acromegaly treatment as well as in fertility therapy. As a result, several studies on pregnancy in patients with acromegaly have been published in recent years adding new and relevant information to the preexisting literature. Also, new GH assays with selective specificities and the knowledge of the expression of the various GH genes have allowed a better understanding of somatotrophic axis function during pregnancy. In this review, we show that pregnancy in women with acromegaly is generally safe, usually with tumoral and hormonal stability. Although the paucity of data limits evidence-based recommendations for preconception counseling and pregnancy surveillance, controlling tumor size and hormonal activity before pregnancy is highly recommended to ensure better outcomes, and surgical control should be attempted when feasible. Treatment interruption at pregnancy confirmation has also proven to be safe, as drugs are not formally allowed to be used during pregnancy. Drug exposure (somatostatin analogs) during early or whole pregnancy might increase the chance of a lower birth weight. Aggressive disease is uncommon and may urge individual decisions such as surgery or drug treatment during pregnancy or lactation. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.
Full Text Available The endothelium plays a vital role in maintaining circulatory homeostasis by the release of relaxing and contracting factors. Any change in this balance may result in a process known as endothelial dysfunction that leads to impaired control of vascular tone and contributes to the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular and endocrine/metabolic diseases. Reduced endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO bioavailability and increased production of thromboxane A2, prostaglandin H2 and superoxide anion in conductance and resistance arteries are commonly associated with endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive, diabetic and obese animals, resulting in reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and in increased vasoconstrictor responses. In addition, recent studies have demonstrated the role of enhanced overactivation ofβ-adrenergic receptors inducing vascular cytokine production and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS uncoupling that seem to be the mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction in hypertension, heart failure and in endocrine-metabolic disorders. However, some adaptive mechanisms can occur in the initial stages of hypertension, such as increased NO production by eNOS. The present review focuses on the role of NO bioavailability, eNOS uncoupling, cyclooxygenase-derived products and pro-inflammatory factors on the endothelial dysfunction that occurs in hypertension, sympathetic hyperactivity, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. These are cardiovascular and endocrine-metabolic diseases of high incidence and mortality around the world, especially in developing countries and endothelial dysfunction contributes to triggering, maintenance and worsening of these pathological situations.
Anway, Matthew D; Skinner, Michael K
The ability of an endocrine disruptor exposure during gonadal sex determination to promote a transgenerational prostate disease phenotype was investigated in the current study. Exposure of an F0 gestating female rat to the endocrine disruptor vinclozolin during F1 embryo gonadal sex determination promoted a transgenerational adult onset prostate disease phenotype. The prostate disease phenotype and physiological parameters were determined for males from F1 to F4 generations and the prostate transcriptome was assessed in the F3 generation. Although the prostate in prepubertal animals develops normally, abnormalities involving epithelial cell atrophy, glandular dysgenesis, prostatitis, and hyperplasia of the ventral prostate develop in older animals. The ventral prostate phenotype was transmitted for four generations (F1-F4). Analysis of the ventral prostate transcriptome demonstrated 954 genes had significantly altered expression between control and vinclozolin F3 generation animals. Analysis of isolated ventral prostate epithelial cells identified 259 genes with significantly altered expression between control and vinclozolin F3 generation animals. Characterization of regulated genes demonstrated several cellular pathways were influenced, including calcium and WNT. A number of genes identified have been shown to be associated with prostate disease and cancer, including beta-microseminoprotein (Msp) and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 6 (Fadd). The ability of an endocrine disruptor to promote transgenerational prostate abnormalities appears to involve an epigenetic transgenerational alteration in the prostate transcriptome and male germ-line. Potential epigenetic transgenerational alteration of prostate gene expression by environmental compounds may be important to consider in the etiology of adult onset prostate disease.
Trasande, Leonardo; Zoeller, R Thomas; Hass, Ulla; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Grandjean, Philippe; Myers, John Peterson; DiGangi, Joseph; Bellanger, Martine; Hauser, Russ; Legler, Juliette; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Heindel, Jerrold J
Rapidly increasing evidence has documented that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute substantially to disease and disability. The objective was to quantify a range of health and economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposures in the European Union (EU). A Steering Committee of scientists adapted the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization for probability of causation based upon levels of available epidemiological and toxicological evidence for one or more chemicals contributing to disease by an endocrine disruptor mechanism. To evaluate the epidemiological evidence, the Steering Committee adapted the World Health Organization Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria, whereas the Steering Committee adapted definitions recently promulgated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency for evaluating laboratory and animal evidence of endocrine disruption. Expert panels used the Delphi method to make decisions on the strength of the data. Expert panels achieved consensus at least for probable (>20%) EDC causation for IQ loss and associated intellectual disability, autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, childhood obesity, adult obesity, adult diabetes, cryptorchidism, male infertility, and mortality associated with reduced testosterone. Accounting for probability of causation and using the midpoint of each range for probability of causation, Monte Carlo simulations produced a median cost of €157 billion (or $209 billion, corresponding to 1.23% of EU gross domestic product) annually across 1000 simulations. Notably, using the lowest end of the probability range for each relationship in the Monte Carlo simulations produced a median range of €109 billion that differed modestly from base case probability inputs. EDC exposures in the EU are likely to contribute substantially to disease and dysfunction across the life course with costs in
M. Yu. Yukina
Full Text Available Hypertension is a very common disease with high morbidity and reduction in quality of life. Endocrine disorders are the most common cause of secondary hypertension affecting ~3% of the population. Primary aldosteronism can be the cause of endocrine hypertension more often than other endocrine disorders. Other less common causes of endocrine hypertension include Cushing syndrome, pheochromocytoma, thyroid disorders, and hyperparathyroidism. Endocrine hypertension is potentially curable if the underlying cause is identified and treated accordingly. Younger age at manifestation of resistance to multiple antihypertensive drugs, together with other clinical signs of an endocrine disorder, should raise the suspicion and prompt the appropriate evaluation.
Berstein, Lev M
Cancer is one of the leading causes of human death and belongs to the group of main chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCD). Certain specific features ofNCD have raised the concept of 'normal' and 'successful' aging. The apparent paradox of simultaneous increase with aging of the diseases connected with estrogen deficiency as well as with estrogenic excess can be explained by the existence of the phenomenon of the switching of estrogen effects. An isolated or combined with the weakening of hormonal effect increase in genotoxic action of estrogens can modify the course ofage-associated pathology. In particular, such changes in estrogen effect may alter the biology of tumors to make them less favorable/more aggressive. Two other endocrine-genotoxic switchings (EGS) involving phenomena ofJanus (dual) function of glucose and adipogenotoxicosis may produce similar influences on tumor and other NCD biology. These three phenomena form a'basic triad' and can act independently of each other or in concert. EGS and their inductors may serve as targets for prevention and, probably, treatment of main noncommunicable diseases. The measures to correct components of the 'triad' can be divided into several groups aimed to optimally orchestrate the balance between endocrine and DNA-damagingeffects of estrogens, glucose and adipose tissue-related factors.
Picker-Minh, Sylvie; Mignot, Cyril; Doummar, Diane; Hashem, Mais; Faqeih, Eissa; Josset, Patrice; Dubern, Béatrice; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Kraemer, Nadine; Kaindl, Angela M
Infantile-onset multisystem neurologic, endocrine, and pancreatic disease (IMNEPD) has been recently linked to biallelic mutation of the peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase 2 gene PTRH2. Two index patients with IMNEPD in the original report had multiple neurological symptoms such as postnatal microcephaly, intellectual disability, developmental delay, sensorineural deafness, cerebellar atrophy, ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy. In addition, distal muscle weakness and abnormalities of thyroid, pancreas, and liver were found. Here, we report five further IMNEPD patients with a different homozygous PTRH2 mutation, broaden the phenotypic spectrum of the disease and differentiate common symptoms and interindividual variability in IMNEPD associated with a unique mutation. We thereby hope to better define IMNEPD and promote recognition and diagnosis of this novel disease entity.
DIKKESCHEI, LD; WILLEMSE, PHB; WOLTHERS, BG; DERUYTERBUITENHUIS, AW; NAGEL, GT
OBJECTIVES We evaluated the role of delta-5-androstenediol (adiol) and its sulphates in health and endocrine diseases. DESIGN Serum and urine samples from healthy adult men and pre and post-menopausal women were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to establish reference values. In
Rhee, Soo S; Pearce, Elizabeth N
Normal endocrine function is essential for cardiovascular health. Disorders of the endocrine system, consisting of hormone hyperfunction and hypofunction, have multiple effects on the cardiovascular system. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of disorders of the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands, with respect to the impact of endocrine dysfunction on the cardiovascular system. We also review the cardiovascular benefits of restoring normal endocrine function. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Lau, Jeshen H. G.; Drake, William; Matson, Matthew
Endocrine venous sampling plays a specific role in the diagnosis of endocrine disorders. In this article, we cover inferior petrosal sinus sampling, selective parathyroid venous sampling, hepatic venous sampling with arterial stimulation, adrenal venous sampling, and ovarian venous sampling. We review their indications and the scientific evidence justifying these indications in the diagnosis and management of Cushing's syndrome, hyperparathyroidism, pancreatic endocrine tumors, Conn's syndrome, primary hyperaldosteronism, pheochromocytomas, and androgen-secreting ovarian tumors. For each sampling technique, we compare its diagnostic accuracy with that of other imaging techniques and, where possible, look at how it impacts patient management. Finally, we incorporate venous sampling into diagnostic algorithms used at our institution
Nilsson, Eric E; Anway, Matthew D; Stanfield, Jacob; Skinner, Michael K
Endocrine disruptor exposure during gonadal sex determination was previously found to induce male rat adult onset transgenerational disease (F1-F4 generation), and this was associated with an alteration in the epigenetic (i.e., DNA methylation) programming of the male germ line. The current study was designed to characterize the transgenerational disease phenotypes of the female adult offspring. Pregnant rats (F0 generation) were treated transiently with vinclozolin (i.e., fungicide with anti-androgenic activity) on embryonic (E) days E8-E14 of gestation. F1 control and vinclozolin generation offspring from different litters were mated to produce F2 offspring, and similarly F2 generation animals produced F3 generation offspring. Observations demonstrated that 9 out of 105 pregnant rats (8.6%) from the vinclozolin F1-F3 generations exhibited uterine hemorrhage and/or anemia late in pregnancy. None (0 out of 82) of the control F1-F3 generation females had similar pregnancy problems. Complete blood cell counts and serum chemistry profiles demonstrated that selected vinclozolin generation animals, but not controls, exhibited marked regenerative anemia in late pregnancy. Examination of kidney histology revealed moderate or severe glomerular abnormalities in 67% of the vinclozolin F2 and F3 generation adult females compared with 18% of the controls. Adult female vinclozolin generation animals also developed various types of tumors in 6.5% of the animals (11 out of 170), while 2% of control-line animals (3 out of 151) developed mammary tumors. Observations demonstrate that vinclozolin exposure during gonadal sex determination promotes a transgenerational increase in pregnancy abnormalities and female adult onset disease states.
Jensen, Rikke Bodin Beck; Chellakooty, Marla; Vielwerth, Signe
to 40 weeks of gestation, but IGF-I levels are four to five times lower than those in the maternal circulation. Thus IGF-I levels in fetal as well as in maternal circulation are thought to regulate fetal growth. Circulating levels of IGF-I are thought to be genetically controlled and several IGF-I gene......Low birth weight has been associated with an increased incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and type 2 diabetes. Endocrine regulation of fetal growth by growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is complex. Placental GH is detectable in maternal serum from the 8th to the 12th...... gestational week, and rises gradually during pregnancy where it replaces pituitary GH in the maternal circulation. The rise in placental GH may explain the pregnancy-induced rise in maternal serum IGF-I levels. In the fetal compartment, IGF-I levels increase significantly in normally growing fetuses from 18...
Hunt, Patricia A; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Fowler, Paul A; Trasande, Leonardo
A growing body of evidence suggests that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to female reproductive disorders. To calculate the associated combined health care and economic costs attributable to specific EDC exposures within the European Union (EU). An expert panel evaluated evidence for probability of causation using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated, and biomarker data were organized from carefully identified studies from the peer-reviewed literature to represent European exposure and approximate burden of disease as it occurred in 2010. Cost-of-illness estimation used multiple peer-reviewed sources. Cost estimation was carried out from a societal perspective, ie, including direct costs (eg, treatment costs) and indirect costs such as productivity loss. The most robust EDC-related data for female reproductive disorders exist for 1) diphenyldichloroethene-attributable fibroids and 2) phthalate-attributable endometriosis in Europe. In both cases, the strength of epidemiological evidence was rated as low and the toxicological evidence as moderate, with an assigned probability of causation of 20%–39%. Across the EU, attributable cases were estimated to be 56 700 and 145 000 women, respectively, with total combined economic and health care costs potentially reaching €163 million and €1.25 billion. EDCs (diphenyldichloroethene and phthalates) may contribute substantially to the most common reproductive disorders in women, endometriosis and fibroids, costing nearly €1.5 billion annually. These estimates represent only EDCs for which there were sufficient epidemiologic studies and those with the highest probability of causation. These public health costs should be considered as the EU contemplates regulatory action on EDCs.
Attina, Teresa M; Hauser, Russ; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Hunt, Patricia A; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Myers, John Peterson; DiGangi, Joseph; Zoeller, R Thomas; Trasande, Leonardo
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to disease and dysfunction and incur high associated costs (>1% of the gross domestic product [GDP] in the European Union). Exposure to EDCs varies widely between the USA and Europe because of differences in regulations and, therefore, we aimed to quantify disease burdens and related economic costs to allow comparison. We used existing models for assessing epidemiological and toxicological studies to reach consensus on probabilities of causation for 15 exposure-response relations between substances and disorders. We used Monte Carlo methods to produce realistic probability ranges for costs across the exposure-response relation, taking into account uncertainties. Estimates were made based on population and costs in the USA in 2010. Costs for the European Union were converted to US$ (€1=$1·33). The disease costs of EDCs were much higher in the USA than in Europe ($340 billion [2·33% of GDP] vs $217 billion [1·28%]). The difference was driven mainly by intelligence quotient (IQ) points loss and intellectual disability due to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (11 million IQ points lost and 43 000 cases costing $266 billion in the USA vs 873 000 IQ points lost and 3290 cases costing $12·6 billion in the European Union). Accounting for probability of causation, in the European Union, organophosphate pesticides were the largest contributor to costs associated with EDC exposure ($121 billion), whereas in the USA costs due to pesticides were much lower ($42 billion). EDC exposure in the USA contributes to disease and dysfunction, with annual costs taking up more than 2% of the GDP. Differences from the European Union suggest the need for improved screening for chemical disruption to endocrine systems and proactive prevention. Endocrine Society, Ralph S French Charitable Foundation, and Broad Reach Foundation. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cai Yuezeng; Tian Xiali; Li Jingxue
Objective: To probe vertebral density of metabolic and endocrine bone disease imaging features, characterize the regional distribution of bone trabecular in sandwich spine. Methods: Thirty-six patients who had the bone density abnormality appearance in radiograms were collected in this study. Twelve patients with sandwich spine were performed lumbar CT scan. Thirty-two healthy volunteers as control group were performed lumbar CT scan too. CT values of two groups were measured from different portions of vertebral body, and then were analysed. Twenty two patients were performed dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). One patient was performed bone histomorphometry. Results: Abnormal density included decreased and increased density. Decreased density was found in different portions of all patients, which divided into general and regional type. Increased density was obviously in vertebrae, including diffusely increased density and sandwich spine. The mean CT values of superior, middle and inferior portions of sandwich vertebral body were (259.94±18.08), (182.96±34.85), (270.34±19.40) HU. The mean CT values of both superior and inferior portions of sandwich vertebral body were higher than that of control group. The mean CT values of superior and inferior portions of sandwich spine were higher than that of middle portion. The difference of mean CT values between superior and inferior portions had no statistical significance. The difference of CT values among the regions of superior and inferior portions had no statistical significance (F=0.457, 0.462, P>0.05). The difference of CT values among the regions of middle portion had statistical significance(F=4.539, P<0.05). The DXA measurement of sandwich spine showed high, normal and low BMD. Conclusion: The sandwich spine is useful to measure superior and inferior portions of sandwich vertebral body if QCT would be performed. Sandwich spine sign can be used as an imaging index of state evaluation. Increased density in
Anderson, Mark S
The endocrine system is a common target in pathogenic autoimmune responses, and there has been recent progress in our understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune endocrine diseases. Rapid progress has recently been made in our understanding of the genetic factors involved in endocrine autoimmune diseases. Studies on monogenic autoimmune diseases that include endocrine phenotypes like autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 and immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked have helped reveal the role of key regulators in the maintenance of immune tolerance. Highly powered genetic studies have found and confirmed many new genes outside of the established role of the human leukocyte antigen locus with these diseases, and indicate an essential role of immune response pathways in these diseases. Progress has also been made in identifying new autoantigens and the development of new animal models for the study of endocrine autoimmunity. Finally, although hormone replacement therapy is still likely to be a mainstay of treatment in these disorders, there are new agents being tested for potentially treating and reversing the underlying autoimmune process. Although autoimmune endocrine disorders are complex in etiology, these recent advances should help contribute to improved outcomes for patients with, or at risk for, these disorders.
Full Text Available It is vital to develop systems of preventing risk-associated pathology due to constantly high levels of endocrine diseases in children exposed to chemicals with trophic effects on endocrine system (lead, cadmium, manganese, chromium, nickel, benzene, phenol, formaldehyde, benzpyrene, chlorine-organic compounds, and nitrates. Applying risk management techniques is one of the most promising trends in prevention of diseases related to environmental impacts. We offer methodical approaches based on system combination of activities at various management levels aimed at improving risk-oriented model of surveillance and control. These approaches enable allowing for detected thropic risk factors in regional social-hygienic monitoring programs, implementing algorithms of case monitoring over exposed children population, and applying contemporary prevention technologies. Social-hygienic monitoring improvement at territorial level implies stricter control and more comprehensive lists of monitored components. This can be achieved by studying compounds which form risks for endocrine system, by working out scientific-methodological grounds for accounting chemical compounds which are trophic for endocrine system, as well as by refining volumes and contents of scheduled inspections performed at high risks objects together with laboratory examination of chemical compounds including those thropic for endocrine system. Local level includes algorithms and schemes of prevention activities aimed at early detection of endocrine disorders related to chemicals impacts. When we give grounds for personified technologies of endocrine diseases prevention (alimentary disorders, physical retardation and obesity related to impacts exerted by chemicals which are trophic for endocrine system we should remember that individual programs choice is based not only on their capacity to eliminate priority compounds determining total chemical load on a person faster but also on
Melis, Daniela; Della Casa, Roberto; Balivo, Francesca; Minopoli, Giorgia; Rossi, Alessandro; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Andria, Generoso; Parenti, Giancarlo
Glycogen storage disease type 1b (GSD1b) is an inherited metabolic defect of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis due to mutations of the SLC37A4 gene and to defective transport of glucose-6-phosphate. The clinical presentation of GSD1b is characterized by hepatomegaly, failure to thrive, fasting hypoglycemia, and dyslipidemia. Patients affected by GSD1b also show neutropenia and/or neutrophil dysfunction that cause increased susceptibility to recurrent bacterial infections. GSD1b patients are also at risk for inflammatory bowel disease. Occasional reports suggesting an increased risk of autoimmune disorders in GSD1b patients, have been published. These complications affect the clinical outcome of the patients. Here we describe the occurrence of autoimmune endocrine disorders including thyroiditis and growth hormone deficiency, in a patient affected by GSD1b. This case further supports the association between GSD1b and autoimmune diseases.
Fosse-Edorh, S; Rigou, A; Morin, S; Fezeu, L; Mandereau-Bruno, L; Fagot-Campagna, A
Medico-administrative databases represent a very interesting source of information in the field of endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases. The objective of this article is to describe the early works of the Redsiam working group in this field. Algorithms developed in France in the field of diabetes, the treatment of dyslipidemia, precocious puberty, and bariatric surgery based on the National Inter-schema Information System on Health Insurance (SNIIRAM) data were identified and described. Three algorithms for identifying people with diabetes are available in France. These algorithms are based either on full insurance coverage for diabetes or on claims of diabetes treatments, or on the combination of these two methods associated with hospitalizations related to diabetes. Each of these algorithms has a different purpose, and the choice should depend on the goal of the study. Algorithms for identifying people treated for dyslipidemia or precocious puberty or who underwent bariatric surgery are also available. Early work from the Redsiam working group in the field of endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases produced an inventory of existing algorithms in France, linked with their goals, together with a presentation of their limitations and advantages, providing useful information for the scientific community. This work will continue with discussions about algorithms on the incidence of diabetes in children, thyroidectomy for thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, and amyloidosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Qualitative and quantitative immunocytochemistry, electronmicroscopy and radio-immuno-assays led to the discovery of 5 pancreatic polypeptide hormones under physiological conditions. The active endocrine cells and the produced hormones are termed A, B, D, D1, and PP cell and glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) respectively. Beside the physiology of secretion and action a survey of pathological conditions in the paediatric age group is given. Insulin is the most important of pancreatic hormones in childhood. Therefore diagnosis and treatment of hyperinsulinism are described in extension.
Garrahy, Aoife; Sherlock, Mark; Thompson, Christopher J
Advances in the management of traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid haemorrhage and intracranial tumours have led to improved survival rates and an increased focus on quality of life of survivors. Endocrine sequelae of the acute brain insult and subsequent neurosurgery, peri-operative fluid administration and/or cranial irradiation are now well described. Unrecognised acute hypopituitarism, particularly ACTH/cortisol deficiency and diabetes insipidus, can be life threatening. Although hypopituitarism may be transient, up to 30% of survivors of TBI have chronic hypopituitarism, which can diminish quality of life and hamper rehabilitation. Patients who survive SAH may also develop hypopituitarism, though it is less common than after TBI. The growth hormone axis is most frequently affected. There is also accumulating evidence that survivors of intracranial malignancy, who have required cranial irradiation, may develop hypopituitarism. The time course of the development of hormone deficits is varied, and predictors of pituitary dysfunction are unreliable. Furthermore, diagnosis of GH and ACTH deficiency require dynamic testing that can be resource intensive. Thus the surveillance and management of neuroendocrine dysfunction in neurosurgical patients poses significant logistic challenges to endocrine services. However, diagnosis and management of pituitary dysfunction can be rewarding. Appropriate hormone replacement can improve quality of life, prevent complications such as muscle atrophy, infection and osteoporosis and improve engagement with physiotherapy and rehabilitation. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.
Xing, Jian-Sheng; Bai, Zhi-Ming
Progressive increases in the incidence of male reproductive disorders inclusive of hypospadias, cryptorchidism, poor semen quality, and testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) have been observed in recent times. The central hypothesis of this study asserted that these disorders may all collectively signify testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). This review aimed to provide evidence verifying the reality of TDS based on four key aspects: environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), genetic factors, intrauterine growth disorders and lifestyle factors. Although TDS might result from genetic polymorphisms or aberration, recent evidence has highlighted links indicating the conditions associations to both environmental and lifestyle factors due to the rapid temporal changes in the clinical symptoms observed over recent decades. Based on our review of genetic and environmental factors, a key observation of our study suggested that there is an urgent need to prioritize research in reproductive physiology and pathophysiology, particularly in highly industrialized countries facing decreasing populations. At present, current research has yet to elucidate the mechanisms of TDS, in addition to the lack of genuine consideration of a variety of potentially key factors and TDS mechanisms. In conclusion, our study revealed that environmental exposures owing to modern lifestyles are primary factors involved in the associated trends of the syndrome, which are capable of affecting the adult endocrine system via direct means or through epigenetic mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Chandan J Das
Full Text Available While different generations of assays have played important role in elucidating causes of different endocrine disorders, radiological techniques are instrumental in localizing the pathology. This statement cannot be truer in any disease entity other than endocrine hypertension. This review makes an effort to highlight the role of different radiological modalities, especially ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, in the evaluation of different causes of endocrine hypertension.
Full Text Available Environmental compounds are known to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in subsequent generations (F1-F3 following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study was designed to determine if a mixture of plastic derived endocrine disruptor compounds bisphenol-A (BPA, bis(2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP and dibutyl phthalate (DBP at two different doses promoted epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and associated DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to either the "plastics" or "lower dose plastics" mixture during embryonic days 8 to 14 of gonadal sex determination and the incidence of adult onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. There were significant increases in the incidence of total disease/abnormalities in F1 and F3 generation male and female animals from plastics lineages. Pubertal abnormalities, testis disease, obesity, and ovarian disease (primary ovarian insufficiency and polycystic ovaries were increased in the F3 generation animals. Kidney and prostate disease were only observed in the direct fetally exposed F1 generation plastic lineage animals. Analysis of the plastics lineage F3 generation sperm epigenome previously identified 197 differential DNA methylation regions (DMR in gene promoters, termed epimutations. A number of these transgenerational DMR form a unique direct connection gene network and have previously been shown to correlate with the pathologies identified. Observations demonstrate that a mixture of plastic derived compounds, BPA and phthalates, can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. The sperm DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and/or ancestral environmental exposures.
Success in treatment of endocrine emergencies is contingent on early recognition and treatment. Many endocrine diseases presenting emergently have nonspecific signs and symptoms. In addition, these endocrine crises are often precipitated by concurrent disease, further making early identification difficult. This article concentrates on recognition and emergency management of the most common endocrine crises in dogs and cats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lorenz, Kerstin; Bartsch, Detlef K; Sancho, Juan J; Guigard, Sebastien; Triponez, Frederic
Despite advances in the medical management of secondary hyperparathyroidism due to chronic renal failure and dialysis (renal hyperparathyroidism), parathyroid surgery remains an important treatment option in the spectrum of the disease. Patients with severe and complicated renal hyperparathyroidism (HPT), refractory or intolerant to medical therapy and patients with specific requirements in prospect of or excluded from renal transplantation may require parathyroidectomy for renal hyperparathyroidism. Present standard and actual controversial issues regarding surgical treatment of patients with hyperparathyroidism due to chronic renal failure were identified, and pertinent literature was searched and reviewed. Whenever applicable, evaluation of the level of evidence concerning diagnosis and management of renal hyperparathyroidism according to standard criteria and recommendation grading were employed. Results were discussed at the 6th Workshop of the European Society of Endocrine Surgeons entitled Hyperparathyroidism due to multiple gland disease: An evidence-based perspective. Presently, literature reveals scant data, especially, no prospective randomized studies to provide sufficient levels of evidence to substantiate recommendations for surgery in renal hyperparathyroidism. Appropriate surgical management of renal hyperparathyroidism involves standard bilateral exploration with bilateral cervical thymectomy and a spectrum of four standardized types of parathyroid resection that reveal comparable outcome results with regard to levels of evidence and recommendation. Specific patient requirements may favour one over the other procedure according to individualized demands. Surgery for patients with renal hyperparathyroidism in the era of calcimimetics continues to play an important role in selected patients and achieves efficient control of hyperparathyroidism. The overall success rate and long-term control of renal hyperparathyroidism and optimal handling of
Endocrine orbitopathy is the most common extrathyroidal manifestation of Basedow's disease and is characterized by a lymphocyte infiltration of the peribulbar space. Infiltrating and activated T cells react with orbital target cells and secrete cytokines, leading to accumulation of glycosaminoglycans, interstitial edema, and enlargement of the extra ocular muscels. Interdisciplinary management is recommended for rapid diagnosis and effective therapy of patients with endocrine orbitopathy. Immunosuppressive treatment is often used initially, and by suppressing inflammatory changes, it can result in subjective and objective improvement of thyroid eye disease. (orig.) [de
Morrot, Alexandre; Villar, Silvina R; González, Florencia B; Pérez, Ana R
Chagas disease is a serious illness caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Nearly 30% of chronically infected people develop cardiac, digestive, or mixed alterations, suggesting a broad range of host-parasite interactions that finally impact upon chronic disease outcome. The ability of T. cruzi to persist and cause pathology seems to depend on diverse factors like T. cruzi strains, the infective load and the route of infection, presence of virulence factors, the parasite capacity to avoid protective immune response, the strength and type of host defense mechanisms and the genetic background of the host. The host-parasite interaction is subject to a constant neuro-endocrine regulation that is thought to influence the adaptive immune system, and as the infection proceeds it can lead to a broad range of outcomes, ranging from pathogen elimination to its continued persistence in the host. In this context, T. cruzi evasion strategies and host defense mechanisms can be envisioned as two sides of the same coin, influencing parasite persistence and different outcomes observed in Chagas disease. Understanding how T. cruzi evade host's innate and adaptive immune response will provide important clues to better dissect mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of Chagas disease.
Macon, Madisa B; Fenton, Suzanne E
Breast cancer risk has both heritable and environment/lifestyle components. The heritable component is a small contribution (5-27 %), leaving the majority of risk to environment (e.g., applied chemicals, food residues, occupational hazards, pharmaceuticals, stress) and lifestyle (e.g., physical activity, cosmetics, water source, alcohol, smoking). However, these factors are not well-defined, primarily due to the enormous number of factors to be considered. In both humans and rodent models, environmental factors that act as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have been shown to disrupt normal mammary development and lead to adverse lifelong consequences, especially when exposures occur during early life. EDCs can act directly or indirectly on mammary tissue to increase sensitivity to chemical carcinogens or enhance development of hyperplasia, beaded ducts, or tumors. Protective effects have also been reported. The mechanisms for these changes are not well understood. Environmental agents may also act as carcinogens in adult rodent models, directly causing or promoting tumor development, typically in more than one organ. Many of the environmental agents that act as EDCs and are known to affect the breast are discussed. Understanding the mechanism(s) of action for these compounds will be critical to prevent their effects on the breast in the future.
Ivan I. Dedov
Full Text Available Department of pediatric surgery at the Endocrinology Research Centre has been around for nearly two years. During operation, surgical treatment has received more than 500 patients with various endocrine disorders. The article discusses modern diagnostic approaches and surgical options for diseases included in the new direction of pediatric surgery – endocrine surgery in children. There are discussions about options for radical treatment of Graves disease in children, positive and negative aspects of surgical and radioactive iodine treatment. Is own stats of postoperative hyperparathyroidism. Is proposed to optimize the algorithm of actions in identifying thyroid nodules in children. In primary hyperparathyroidism, the emphasis is on the complexity of the postoperative management of patients related to the feature of children’s age in determining the severity of the reactions on the water-electrolyte disorders. Separately reviewed the literature of the adrenal glands diseases in children, demonstrating their own clinical cases which required surgical intervention. The authors describe the possibilities of modern neurosurgical equipment in the Endocrinology Research Centre in operations on the pituitary gland in children. Patients of different age groups performed transnasal transsphenoidal removal of tumors of the chiasm-sellar region using endoscopic assistance. The article also cited research data of pancreas diseases and their surgical treatment. Much attention is paid to the gender section of endocrine surgery in children. Discusses the tactics in disorders of sex development, gonadal tumors in children, diseases of the breast. In conclusion outlines the prospects for the development of endocrine surgery in children.
Trasande, L.; Zoeller, R. T.; Hass, Ulla
Group, and evaluated laboratory and animal evidence of endocrine disruption using definitions recently promulgated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The Delphi method was used to make decisions on the strength of the data. Expert panels consensus was achieved for probable (>20%) endocrine...
Das, B.K.; Noreen Norfaraheen Lee Abdullah
In recent years, the role of nuclear medicine in the study of morphology and pathophysiology of various endocrine organs has greatly expanded. Newly developed radiopharmaceuticals, new instrumentation, innovative study designs and dual isotope techniques have contributed significantly to the evaluation of parathyroid and adrenal diseases. In selected cases, patients with metabolic bone disorders and infertility have greatly been benefited. (author)
The latter half of the twentieth century has witnessed a humongous spurt in the use of synthetic chemicals in a wide variety of industrial and agricultural applications are leading to niche specific perturbations affecting every trophic level of the ecosystems due to unmitigated environmental contamination. Despite the incremental usefulness of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as pesticides and plasticizers, their statutory impact on environmental health is assuming worrisome proportions. The EDCs can disrupt physiological homeostasis resulting in developmental and reproductive abnormalities. Both preclinical animal experiments, as well as epidemiological studies, have correlated EDC exposure with metabolic disorders such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes as well as cardiovascular health. Here we briefly review the statutory impact of EDCs on metabolic disruption as well as their impact on environmental health. Finally, difﬁculties pertaining to the categorization of EDC induced metabolic diseases as risk factors for global disease burden have been addressed taking into account the complexity of such interactions. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.; McCormick, S.D.; Van Veld, P.A.; Ottinger, C.A.
The brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus is a species of the family Ictaluridae commonly used as a sentinel of environmental contamination. While these fish have been utilized for this purpose in areas contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), few controlled, laboratory-based studies have been designed to document the effects of PCB mixtures in this species. Here, brown bullhead were exposed to the PCB mixture, Aroclor 1248, via intraperitoneal injection and the effects on immune function, plasma hormones and disease resistance were evaluated. Exposure to this mixture led to a decrease in bactericidal activity and circulating antibodies to Edwardsiella ictaluri present from a previous exposure to this pathogen. A subsequent E. ictaluri disease challenge led to significantly higher mortality in A1248 treated fish compared to vehicle-control fish. The mitogenic response to the T-cell mitogen, phytohemaglutinin-P, was increased compared to vehicle-control fish. The steroid hormone, cortisol, and the thyroid hormone, T3, were also significantly lower in A1248 exposed fish. In summary, we have validated a number of functional immune assays for application in brown bullhead immunotoxicity studies. Additionally, we have demonstrated that the PCB mixture (A1248) modulates both immune function and endocrine physiology in brown bullhead. Such data may compliment the interpretation of data yielded from applied field studies conducted in PCB contaminated aquatic ecosystems.
Iwanowicz, Luke R; Blazer, Vicki S; McCormick, Stephen D; Vanveld, Peter A; Ottinger, Christopher A
The brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus is a species of the family Ictaluridae commonly used as a sentinel of environmental contamination. While these fish have been utilized for this purpose in areas contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), few controlled, laboratory-based studies have been designed to document the effects of PCB mixtures in this species. Here, brown bullhead were exposed to the PCB mixture, Aroclor 1248, via intraperitoneal injection and the effects on immune function, plasma hormones and disease resistance were evaluated. Exposure to this mixture led to a decrease in bactericidal activity and circulating antibodies to Edwardsiella ictaluri present from a previous exposure to this pathogen. A subsequent E. ictaluri disease challenge led to significantly higher mortality in A1248 treated fish compared to vehicle-control fish. The mitogenic response to the T-cell mitogen, phytohemaglutinin-P, was increased compared to vehicle-control fish. The steroid hormone, cortisol, and the thyroid hormone, T3, were also significantly lower in A1248 exposed fish. In summary, we have validated a number of functional immune assays for application in brown bullhead immunotoxicity studies. Additionally, we have demonstrated that the PCB mixture (A1248) modulates both immune function and endocrine physiology in brown bullhead. Such data may compliment the interpretation of data yielded from applied field studies conducted in PCB contaminated aquatic ecosystems.
The purpose of this work was to determine radioimmunologically the level of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the serum in the case of various gonadal disturbances and other endocrine diseases with the aid of the double antibody method, and to compare the results within different diagnosis groups to each other and to compare these results with those found in the published literature. It was tested whether and with which accuracy the radioimmunological determination of LH in the serum can contribute to the diagnosis of pituitary gonad diseases and whether in the case of endocrine diseases the accompanying disturbances of the gonadotropin secretion which primarily do not affect the hypothalamo - hypophyso - gonadal circuit are demonstrable. The study results for the diagnosis groups primary and secondary hypogonadism of various genesis, gynacomastia, impotentia coeundi, primary and secondary ovarial insufficiency, hirsutism and adiposity were presented and discussed. (orig.) [de
Preciados, Mark; Yoo, Changwon; Roy, Deodutta
During the development of an individual from a single cell to prenatal stages to adolescence to adulthood and through the complete life span, humans are exposed to countless environmental and stochastic factors, including estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals. Brain cells and neural circuits are likely to be influenced by estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EEDs) because they strongly dependent on estrogens. In this review, we discuss both environmental, epidemiological, and experimental evidence on brain health with exposure to oral contraceptives, hormonal therapy, and EEDs such as bisphenol-A (BPA), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalates, and metalloestrogens, such as, arsenic, cadmium, and manganese. Also we discuss the brain health effects associated from exposure to EEDs including the promotion of neurodegeneration, protection against neurodegeneration, and involvement in various neurological deficits; changes in rearing behavior, locomotion, anxiety, learning difficulties, memory issues, and neuronal abnormalities. The effects of EEDs on the brain are varied during the entire life span and far-reaching with many different mechanisms. To understand endocrine disrupting chemicals mechanisms, we use bioinformatics, molecular, and epidemiologic approaches. Through those approaches, we learn how the effects of EEDs on the brain go beyond known mechanism to disrupt the circulatory and neural estrogen function and estrogen-mediated signaling. Effects on EEDs-modified estrogen and nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) signaling genes with exposure to natural estrogen, pharmacological estrogen-ethinyl estradiol, PCBs, phthalates, BPA, and metalloestrogens are presented here. Bioinformatics analysis of gene-EEDs interactions and brain disease associations identified hundreds of genes that were altered by exposure to estrogen, phthalate, PCBs, BPA or metalloestrogens. Many genes modified by EEDs are common targets of both 17 β-estradiol (E2) and NRF1. Some of
Full Text Available During the development of an individual from a single cell to prenatal stages to adolescence to adulthood and through the complete life span, humans are exposed to countless environmental and stochastic factors, including estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals. Brain cells and neural circuits are likely to be influenced by estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EEDs because they strongly dependent on estrogens. In this review, we discuss both environmental, epidemiological, and experimental evidence on brain health with exposure to oral contraceptives, hormonal therapy, and EEDs such as bisphenol-A (BPA, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, phthalates, and metalloestrogens, such as, arsenic, cadmium, and manganese. Also we discuss the brain health effects associated from exposure to EEDs including the promotion of neurodegeneration, protection against neurodegeneration, and involvement in various neurological deficits; changes in rearing behavior, locomotion, anxiety, learning difficulties, memory issues, and neuronal abnormalities. The effects of EEDs on the brain are varied during the entire life span and far-reaching with many different mechanisms. To understand endocrine disrupting chemicals mechanisms, we use bioinformatics, molecular, and epidemiologic approaches. Through those approaches, we learn how the effects of EEDs on the brain go beyond known mechanism to disrupt the circulatory and neural estrogen function and estrogen-mediated signaling. Effects on EEDs-modified estrogen and nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1 signaling genes with exposure to natural estrogen, pharmacological estrogen-ethinyl estradiol, PCBs, phthalates, BPA, and metalloestrogens are presented here. Bioinformatics analysis of gene-EEDs interactions and brain disease associations identified hundreds of genes that were altered by exposure to estrogen, phthalate, PCBs, BPA or metalloestrogens. Many genes modified by EEDs are common targets of both 17 β-estradiol (E2 and
Andren-Sandberg, Ake; Hardt, Philip D
The 'Giessen International Workshop on Interactions of Exocrine and Endocrine Pancreatic Diseases' was held on March 18-19, 2005 at the Castle of Rauischolzhausen, Giessen University, Germany. About 50 international clinicians and researchers attended the workshop. It was structured into three sessions: A: Pancreatic Autoimmunity - Interaction Between Exocrine and Endocrine Tissue; B: Diabetes Mellitus - Possible Implications of Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency; C: Chronic Pancreatitis - Update on Prevalence, Understanding and Pathophysiological Concepts. Several new aspects of pancreatic diseases were discussed, including new classifications of pancreatitis, new insights into prevalence, pathophysiology and new therapeutical considerations. The meeting resulted in more cooperation and a number of new concepts for clinical study which will provide data for future developments.
Zenkova, T.S.; Fedina, I.D.; Mel'nichenko, G.A.; Stenina, I.I.; Zubarev, A.V.
The hypophysis was studied by MR tomography (MRT) in 148 patients with the most prevalent diseases of the hypothalamohypophyseal system and in 13 ones with primary hypothyrosis. The findings evidence a great variety of changes in the MRT picture in the examines. Qualitative and quantitative criteria for MRT diagnosis were suggested. The method was effectively used for a dynamic follow-up of the hypophyseal status in the course of pathogenetic therapy
Cutolo, Maurizio; Plebani, M; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Adorini, Luciano; Tincani, Angela
Epidemiological evidence indicates a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and an increased incidence of autoimmune diseases. The presence of vitamin D receptors (VDRs) in the cells of the immune system and the fact that several of these cells produce the vitamin D hormone suggested that vitamin D could have immunoregulatory properties, and now potent immunomodulatory activities on dendritic cells, Th1 and Th17 cells, as well as B cells have been confirmed. Serum levels of vitamin D have been found to be significantly lower in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, undifferentiated connective tissue disease, and type-1 diabetes mellitus than in the healthy population. In addition, it was also found that lower levels of vitamin D were associated with higher disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. Promising clinical results together with evidence for the regulation of multiple immunomodulatory mechanisms by VDR agonists represent a sound basis for further exploration of their potential in the treatment of rheumatic autoimmune disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Anand, Gurpreet; Beuschlein, Felix
With the introduction of hormonal substitution therapy in the 1950s, adrenal insufficiency (AI) has been turned into a manageable disease in pregnant women. In fact, in the light of glucocorticoid replacement therapy and improved obstetric care, it is realistic to expect good maternal and fetal outcomes in patients with AI. However, there are still a number of challenges such as establishing the diagnosis of AI in pregnant women and optimizing the treatment of AI and related comorbidities prior to as well as during pregnancy. Clinical and biochemical diagnoses of a new-onset AI may be challenging because of overlapping symptoms of normal pregnancy as well as pregnancy-induced changes in cortisol values. Physiological changes occurring during pregnancy should be taken into account while adjusting the substitution therapy. The high proportion of reported adrenal crisis in pregnant women with AI highlights persistent problems in this particular clinical situation. Due to the rarity of the disease, there is no prospective data-guiding management of pregnancy in patients with known AI. The aim of this review is to summarize the maternal and fetal outcomes based on recently published case reports in patients with AI and to suggest a practical approach to diagnose and manage AI in pregnancy. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.
Castinetti, F; Taieb, D; Henry, J F; Walz, M; Guerin, C; Brue, T; Conte-Devolx, B; Neumann, H P H; Sebag, F
The management of hereditary pheochromocytoma has drastically evolved in the last 20 years. Bilateral pheochromocytoma does not increase mortality in MEN2 or von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) mutation carriers who are followed regularly, but these mutations induce major morbidities if total bilateral adrenalectomy is performed. Cortical sparing adrenal surgery may be proposed to avoid definitive adrenal insufficiency. The surgical goal is to leave sufficient cortical tissue to avoid glucocorticoid replacement therapy. This approach was achieved by the progressive experience of minimally invasive surgery via the transperitoneal or retroperitoneal route. Cortical sparing adrenal surgery exhibits management of all patients with MEN2 or VHL hereditary pheochromocytoma. Hereditary pheochromocytoma is a rare disease, and a randomized trial comparing cortical sparing vs classical adrenalectomy is probably not possible. This lack of data most likely explains why cortical sparing surgery has not been adopted in most expert centers that perform at least 20 procedures per year for the treatment of this disease. This review examined recent data to provide insight into the technique, its indications, and the results and subsequent follow-up in the management of patients with hereditary pheochromocytoma with a special emphasis on MEN2. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.
Brue, Thierry; Amodru, Vincent; Castinetti, Frederic
With fewer than 200 reported cases, Cushing's syndrome (CS) in pregnancy remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In normal pregnancies, misleading signs may be observed such as striae or hypokalemia, while plasma cortisol and urinary free cortisol may rise up to 2- to 3-fold. While the dexamethasone suppression test is difficult to use, reference values for salivary cortisol appear valid. Apart from gestational hypertension, differential diagnosis includes pheochromocytoma and primary aldosteronism. The predominant cause is adrenal adenoma (sometimes without decreased ACTH), rather than Cushing's disease. There are considerable imaging pitfalls in Cushing's disease. Aberrant receptors may, in rare cases, lead to increased cortisol production during pregnancy in response to HCG, LHRH, glucagon, vasopressin or after a meal. Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is rare and has poor prognosis. Active CS during pregnancy is associated with a high rate of maternal complications: hypertension or preeclampsia, diabetes, fractures; more rarely, cardiac failure, psychiatric disorders, infection and maternal death. Increased fetal morbidity includes prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation and less prevalently stillbirth, spontaneous abortion, intrauterine death and hypoadrenalism. Therapy is also challenging. Milder cases can be managed conservatively by controlling comorbidities. Pituitary or adrenal surgery should ideally be performed during the second trimester and patients should then be treated for adrenal insufficiency. Experience with anticortisolic drugs is limited. Metyrapone was found to allow control of hypercortisolism, with a risk of worsening hypertension. Cabergoline may be an alternative option. The use of other drugs is not advised because of potential teratogenicity and/or lack of information. Non-hormonal (mechanical) contraception is recommended until sustained biological remission is obtained. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.
Hauser, Russ; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Hass, Ulla; Toppari, Jorma; Juul, Anders; Andersson, Anna Maria; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Heindel, Jerrold J; Trasande, Leonardo
Increasing evidence suggests that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to male reproductive diseases and disorders. To estimate the incidence/prevalence of selected male reproductive disorders/diseases and associated economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to specific EDC exposures in the European Union (EU). An expert panel evaluated evidence for probability of causation using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated, and biomarker data were organized from carefully identified studies from the peer-reviewed literature to represent European exposure and approximate burden of disease as it occurred in 2010. The cost-of-illness estimation utilized multiple peer-reviewed sources. The expert panel identified low epidemiological and strong toxicological evidence for male infertility attributable to phthalate exposure, with a 40-69% probability of causing 618,000 additional assisted reproductive technology procedures, costing €4.71 billion annually. Low epidemiological and strong toxicological evidence was also identified for cryptorchidism due to prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure, resulting in a 40-69% probability that 4615 cases result, at a cost of €130 million (sensitivity analysis, €117-130 million). A much more modest (0-19%) probability of causation in testicular cancer by polybrominated diphenyl ethers was identified due to very low epidemiological and weak toxicological evidence, with 6830 potential cases annually and costs of €848 million annually (sensitivity analysis, €313-848 million). The panel assigned 40-69% probability of lower T concentrations in 55- to 64-year-old men due to phthalate exposure, with 24 800 associated deaths annually and lost economic productivity of €7.96 billion. EDCs may contribute substantially to male reproductive disorders and diseases, with nearly €15 billion annual
Regardless of their origin, neuroactive steroids are capable of modifying neural activities by modulating different types of membrane receptors. Neurosteroids are synthesized de novo in neurones and glia. Steroidogenic enzymes are found in the central nervous system. Classical steroid receptors are localized in the cytoplasm, they exert regulatory actions on the genome, and their activation causes medium- and long-term effects. Non-classical receptors are located within the membrane and act as mediators of short-term effects. Other important players are co-repressors and co-activators that can interfere with or enhance the activity of steroid receptors. Beyond their function in stress, corticosteroids play a very important role in fear, anxiety, and memory functions. Patients with Cushing's syndrome frequently develop mood disorder, reversible brain atrophy with transient memory loss, rarely delirium or psychosis. Well-known peripheral symptom is steroidal myopathy. In patients with Addison's disease the main signs are weakness of muscles, lack of energy, decreased mental functions and reduced quality of life. Estrogen and progesterone have their own respective hormone receptors, whereas allopregnanolone acts via the GABA receptors. These hormones have significant role in the development of brain, the architecture of neural circuits and dendrites, density of axonal connections, and the number of neurons. They influence maturation, neuroprotection, seizures, cognitive functions, mood, anxiety, pain, and restitution of peripheral nerves. Androgens also affect cognitive functions, pain, anxiety, mood, and additionally aggression.
Rossmanith, W G; Wirth, U; Benz, R; Wolf, A S
The LH secretory patterns and ovarian endocrine responses have been determined during pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) administration for induction of ovulation in patients with hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA). However, until now these endocrine dynamics during GnRH therapy have not been thoroughly investigated in patients with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD). Seven patients with HA and 4 patients with PCOD have therefore been studied to determine changes in LH pulsatile activity and in serum sex steroid levels in response to chronic intermittent GnRH stimulation. GnRH was administered intravenously (5-10 micrograms/90 minutes) by means of a portable infusion pump. Blood samples were obtained at 15-minute intervals for 4 hours on the day before the start of GnRH stimulation (control day) and on treatment days 5, 10 and 15. LH was determined in all samples and FSH, serum androgens and estrogens were measured in baseline samples by RIA. While 8 (62%) ovulations and 5 conceptions were observed in 13 treatment cycles in patients with HA, no ovulations were achieved during 9 treatment cycles in patients with PCOD. On the control day significantly (p less than 0.05) higher basal LH and testosterone (T) levels and significantly (p less than 0.05) lower FSH levels were found in the PCOD patients. The LH pulsatile profiles of the PCOD patients showed significantly (p less than 0.05) higher pulse amplitudes and areas under the curve (integrated responses). Pulsatile GnRH administration induced a significant (p less than 0.05) increase in LH pulse amplitudes in both HA and PCOD patients, and also increased (p less than 0.05) the integrated responses in patients with HA. During the GnRH stimulation, the LH interpulse intervals of both HA and PCOD patients were found to be similar to the frequency in which exogenous GnRH was administered. FSH levels rose continuously (p less than 0.001) during stimulation in patients with HA, but remained unchanged in patients
Bellanger, Martine; Demeneix, Barbara; Grandjean, Philippe; Zoeller, R Thomas; Trasande, Leonardo
Epidemiological studies and animal models demonstrate that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to cognitive deficits and neurodevelopmental disabilities. The objective was to estimate neurodevelopmental disability and associated costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposure in the European Union. An expert panel applied a weight-of-evidence characterization adapted from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated for relevant EDCs, and biomarker data were organized from peer-reviewed studies to represent European exposure and approximate burden of disease. Cost estimation as of 2010 utilized lifetime economic productivity estimates, lifetime cost estimates for autism spectrum disorder, and annual costs for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Setting, Patients and Participants, and Intervention: Cost estimation was carried out from a societal perspective, ie, including direct costs (eg, treatment costs) and indirect costs such as productivity loss. The panel identified a 70-100% probability that polybrominated diphenyl ether and organophosphate exposures contribute to IQ loss in the European population. Polybrominated diphenyl ether exposures were associated with 873,000 (sensitivity analysis, 148,000 to 2.02 million) lost IQ points and 3290 (sensitivity analysis, 3290 to 8080) cases of intellectual disability, at costs of €9.59 billion (sensitivity analysis, €1.58 billion to €22.4 billion). Organophosphate exposures were associated with 13.0 million (sensitivity analysis, 4.24 million to 17.1 million) lost IQ points and 59 300 (sensitivity analysis, 16,500 to 84,400) cases of intellectual disability, at costs of €146 billion (sensitivity analysis, €46.8 billion to €194 billion). Autism spectrum disorder causation by multiple EDCs was assigned a 20-39% probability, with 316 (sensitivity analysis, 126-631) attributable cases at a cost of €199 million
Full Text Available [b]Objective[/b]. To analyze the coexistence of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs and common neoplasms among endocrine adult inpatients. [b]Materials and method. [/b]The retrospective analysis was performed using clinical data of 2,462 adult patients (2,003 women and 459 men, hospitalized in the reference endocrine department. Diagnoses of 18 types of benign tumours and 16 types of malignant tumours, together with the most common 25 NCDs and demographic parameters, were all collected from the medical records. The most frequently found 6 types of benign tumours (of thyroid, pituitary, uterus, breast, adrenal and prostate and 4 types of malignant tumours (of thyroid, breast, prostate and uterus were taken for further statistical analyses. [b]Results[/b]. Age predicted the existence of accumulated as well as individual types of benign and malignant tumours, whereas BMI predicted the occurrence of accumulated and some individual types of benign tumours. Accumulated as well as individual types of benign and malignant tumours coexisted more frequently with several NCDs, such as diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, Graves’ disease, coronary artery disease, state after cholecystectomy, thus being disorders usually resulting from excessive exposure to harmful environmental factors. The most distinct coexistence was found between breast cancer and metabolic syndrome, between breast cancer and Graves’ disease, between cancer of the uterus and type 2 diabetes, between cancer of the uterus and metabolic syndrome, and between cancer of the uterus and dyslipidemia. [b]Conclusion.[/b] The results obtained indicate a significant relationship between the most common NCDs and several cancers in endocrine adult patients, which suggests that the prevention of the former may reduce the frequency of the latter.
Aksglaede, L; Juul, A
Klinefelter syndrome, 47,XXY (KS), is the most frequent sex chromosome aberration in males, affecting 1 in 660 newborn boys. The syndrome is characterized by testicular destruction with extensive fibrosis and hyalinization of the seminiferous tubules resulting in small testes, hypergonadotropic...
Papini, Enrico; Pacella, Claudio M; Hegedus, Laszlo
predictive value. When US features cannot reliably rule out thyroid cancer, US guidance allows a correct and safe sampling also of small or deeply located thyroid lesions. Obtained in this way, cytological or microhistological specimens may reliably define the nature of most thyroid nodules...... be performed on an outpatient basis. The risk of major complications, after adequate training, is very low. Importantly, thyroid function is preserved. Currently, percutaneous ethanol injection for cystic lesions and thermal ablation, with laser or radiofrequency, for solid nodules are increasingly used...
Léger, Juliane; Carel, Jean-Claude
Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder. It is the leading cause of hyperthyroidism, but is rare in children. Patients are initially managed with antithyroid drugs (ATDs), such as methimazole/carbimazole. A major disadvantage of treatment with ATD is the high risk of relapse, exceeding 70% of children treated for duration of 2 years, and the potential major side effects of the drug reported in exceptional cases. The major advantage of ATD treatment is that normal homeostasis of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis may be restored, with periods of drug treatment followed by freedom from medical intervention achieved in approximately 40-50% of cases after prolonged treatment with ATD, for several years, in recent studies. Alternative ablative treatments such as radioactive iodine and, less frequently and mostly in cases of very high volume goiters or in children under the age of 5 years, thyroidectomy, performed by pediatric surgeons with extensive experience should be proposed in cases of non-compliance, intolerance to medical treatment or relapse after prolonged medical treatment. Ablative treatments are effective against hyperthyroidism, but they require the subsequent administration of levothyroxine throughout the patient's life. This review considers data relating to the prognosis for Graves' disease remission in children and explores the limitations of study designs and results; and the emerging proposal for management through the prolonged use of ATD drugs. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.
Karlsson, F. Anders
Endocrine ophthalmopathy is to some degree present in most patients with Graves' disease. In few cases, a severe form of the condition develops and in the majority of these cases, the course of the eye problems has been influenced by the treatment for thyrotoxicosis. In this regard, radioiodine therapy has been increasingly recognized as carrying a special risk. Here, the current understanding of endocrine ophthalmopathy and the risks associated with the development of severe eye disease are discussed. The results of a retrospective investigation of patients with severe eye disease in our hospital, and the experience with corticosteroid administration following radioiodine in order to reduce the risk of ophthalmopathy, are also presented
Kamyins'kij, O.V.; Kopilova, O.V.; Afanas'jev, D.Je.; Pronyin, O.V.
The verified clinical and epidemiological data on the natural history of noncancer endocrine disease in remote period after the ChNPP accident in survivors of adult and children age was summarized. Retrospective estimation was carried out of data on 24,588 adult persons and 20,087 children survived after the ChNNP accident and being healthy or having any diseases. Data were retrieved from database of the Clinical Epidemiological Registry (CER), NRCRM for the 23 years (1992-2014) of survey. Average total external radiation dose in adults was 0.187 Gy, range of thyroid dose in children was 0.1-1.55 Gy. These data were verifies in a separate clinical study. Anthropomorphic, laboratory biochemical and hormonal assay values, thyroid ultrasound imaging patterns and radiation dose values were retrieved for the study. Noncancer endocrine disease in children and adults exposed to ionizing radiation is frequent and registered in 3-53% of persons. It occurs in most of survivors 10-15 years upon the impact of radiation factor as a result of manmade accident and continues to grow slowly in 30 years
Veseley, D.L.; Fass, F.H.
Multiple endocrine adenomatosis (MEA) or neoplasia is a hereditary disorder consisting of tumors of hyperplasia of several endocrine glands. In MEA-1 the pituitary, parathyroids, and pancreatic islets are most frequently involved, while in MEA-2 the thyroid (medullary carcinoma of the thyroid), parathyroids,and adrenals (pheochromocytomas) are the endocrine glands most likely to be involved. Cushings's syndrome may occur in MEA-1 and has also been found in patients with MEA-2, where the cause of Cushing's syndrome is usually ectopic ACTH production from medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Recently, there have been reports of amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome in patients with MEA-1, and confirmation that hyperprolactinemia is associated with this syndrom has been found in patients with MEA-1. The present report details a patient who has been followed up for 20 years since she first presented with amenorrhea and galactorrhea. Ten years after first being seen she was noted to have Cushing's syndrom and hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid hyperplasia. Both the amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome and Cushing's sydrome disappeared with proton beam irradiation to the pituitary.
Veseley, D.L.; Fass, F.H.
Multiple endocrine adenomatosis (MEA) or neoplasia is a hereditary disorder consisting of tumors of hyperplasia of several endocrine glands. In MEA-1 the pituitary, parathyroids, and pancreatic islets are most frequently involved, while in MEA-2 the thyroid (medullary carcinoma of the thyroid), parathyroids,and adrenals (pheochromocytomas) are the endocrine glands most likely to be involved. Cushings's syndrome may occur in MEA-1 and has also been found in patients with MEA-2, where the cause of Cushing's syndrome is usually ectopic ACTH production from medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Recently, there have been reports of amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome in patients with MEA-1, and confirmation that hyperprolactinemia is associated with this syndrom has been found in patients with MEA-1. The present report details a patient who has been followed up for 20 years since she first presented with amenorrhea and galactorrhea. Ten years after first being seen she was noted to have Cushing's syndrom and hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid hyperplasia. Both the amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome and Cushing's sydrome disappeared with proton beam irradiation to the pituitary
Michels, Aaron W.; Eisenbarth, George S.
Autoimmunity affects multiple glands in the endocrine system. Animal models and human studies highlight the importance of alleles in HLA (human leukocyte antigen)-like molecules determining tissue specific targeting that with the loss of tolerance leads to organ specific autoimmunity. Disorders such as type 1A diabetes, Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Addison's disease, and many others result from autoimmune mediated tissue destruction. Each of these disorders can be divided into stages beginning with genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers, active autoimmunity, and finally metabolic derangements with overt symptoms of disease. With an increased understanding of the immunogenetics and immunopathogenesis of endocrine autoimmune disorders, immunotherapies are becoming prevalent, especially in type 1A diabetes. Immunotherapies are being used more in multiple subspecialty fields to halt disease progression. While therapies for autoimmune disorders stop the progress of an immune response, immunomodulatory therapies for cancer and chronic infections can also provoke an unwanted immune response. As a result, there are now iatrogenic autoimmune disorders arising from the treatment of chronic viral infections and malignancies. PMID:20176260
Nikonova L. V.
Full Text Available The relevance of the study of endocrine ophthalmopathy is due to the high prevalence of this disease and a high risk of developing impaired vision that leads to disability of patients. This lecture presents the main genetic, immunological, clinical manifestations of endocrine ophthalmopathy in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of this pathology. The clinical picture of endocrine ophthalmopathy is various, unique for every patient and depends on the activity and severity of the process, which requires combined etiopathogenetic therapy. The importance of timely diagnosis for endocrine ophthalmopathy with an assessment of the activity of the process for choosing the right tactics for managing patients is very high.
... Diabetes Gigantism Diabetes insipidus Cushing Disease Watch this video about: Pituitary gland Testes and ovaries: Lack of sex development (unclear genitalia) Thyroid: Congenital hypothyroidism Myxedema Goiter ...
Asa, Sylvia L; Mete, Ozgur
Endocrine pathology is the subspecialty of diagnostic pathology which deals with the diagnosis and characterisation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the endocrine system. This relatively young subspecialty was initially focused mainly on thyroid and parathyroid pathology, with some participants also involved in studies of the pituitary, the endocrine pancreas, and the adrenal glands. However, the endocrine system involves much more than these traditional endocrine organs and the discipline has grown to encompass lesions of the dispersed neuroendocrine cells, including neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, thymus, breast and prostate, as well as paraganglia throughout the body, not just in the adrenals. Indeed, the production of hormones is the hallmark of the endocrine system, and some aspects of gynecological/testicular, bone and liver pathology also fall into the realm of this specialty. Many of the lesions that are the focus of this discipline are increasing in incidence and their pathology is becoming more complex with increased understanding of molecular pathology and a high incidence of familial disease. The future of endocrine pathology will demand a depth of understanding of structure, function, prognosis and prediction as pathologists play a key role in the multidisciplinary care team of patients with endocrine diseases. It is anticipated that new technologies will allow increased subspecialisation in pathology and growth of this important area of expertise. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Norman, Anthony W.
Discusses the physiology and biochemistry of the vitamin D endocrine system, including role of biological calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D metabolism, and related diseases. A 10-item, multiple-choice test which can be used to obtain continuing medical education credit is included. (JN)
Blackman, Scott M; Tangpricha, Vin
Cystic fibrosis is frequently complicated by endocrine disorders. Diabetes can be expected to affect most with CF and pancreatic insufficiency and varies widely in age of onset, but early identification and treatment improve morbidity and mortality. Short stature can be exacerbated by relative delay of puberty and by use of inhaled corticosteroids. Bone disease in CF causes fragility fractures and should be assessed by monitoring bone mineral density and optimizing vitamin D status. Detecting and managing endocrine complications in CF can reduce morbidity and mortality in CF. These complications can be expected to become more common as the CF population ages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Changes in serum adhesion molecules, chemokines, cytokines, and tissue remodeling factors in euthyroid women without thyroid antibodies who are at risk for autoimmune thyroid disease: a hypothesis on the early phases of the endocrine autoimmune reaction
Beumer, Wouter; Effraimidis, Grigoris; Drexhage, Roosmarijn C.; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.; Drexhage, Hemmo A.
The target glands in spontaneous animal models of endocrine autoimmune disease show, prior to the autoimmune reaction, growth and connective tissue abnormalities, whereas the autoimmune reaction is initiated by an early accumulation of macrophages and dendritic cells in the target glands. The aim of
Taskin, O; Yalcinoglu, A I; Kafkasli, A; Burak, F; Ozekici, U
To study the effects of laparoscopic ovarian cauterization and combination of long-acting GnRH agonist (GnRH-a) and oral contraceptive (OC) therapy on endocrine changes in women with clomiphene citrate (CC)- resistant polycystic ovary disease (PCOD). Prospective, randomized. University-based infertility clinic. Seventeen women with CC-resistant PCOD were included randomly in the study to either laparoscopic ovarian cautery or GnRH-a and OC therapy for 3 months. Serum concentrations of LH, FSH, androstenedione (A), T, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were determined before each therapeutic approach and during the follicular phase of first menstrual cycle after the cessation of each treatment. The mean serum concentrations and the clinical profiles were similar in both groups. Both groups showed significant changes in LH, FSH, A, T, and SHBG compared with pretreatment levels. There were no significant differences in the final concentrations of LH, FSH, and A between the two study groups after each treatment, whereas T and SHBG levels were significantly different in the goserelin and OC group. The decrease in LH and increase in SHBG serum concentrations were greater in the goserelin and OC-treated women [-59% and + 5.9% versus - 70% and + 13.5%, respectively]. Although the SHBG concentration increased in both groups, the serum SHBG concentration of the goserelin and OC group was significantly higher than the other group. Both therapeutic modalities revealed similar effects on the endocrine profiles in women with CC-resistant PCOD. Considering the invasiveness, cost, and potential complications of laparoscopic ovarian cauterization, noninvasive medical treatment with GnRH-a and OC combination may be more effective in restoring the optimal follicular environment in women with PCOD.
Context: Anorexia nervosa is a primary psychiatric disorder with serious endocrine consequences, including dysregulation of the gonadal, adrenal, and GH axes, and severe bone loss. This Update reviews recent advances in the understanding of the endocrine dysregulation observed in this state of chronic starvation, as well as the mechanisms underlying the disease itself. Evidence Acquisition: Findings of this update are based on a PubMed search and the author's knowledge of this field. Evidence Synthesis: Recent studies have provided insights into the mechanisms underlying endocrine dysregulation in states of chronic starvation as well as the etiology of anorexia nervosa itself. This includes a more complex understanding of the pathophysiologic bases of hypogonadism, hypercortisolemia, GH resistance, appetite regulation, and bone loss. Nevertheless, the etiology of the disease remains largely unknown, and effective therapies for the endocrine complications and for the disease itself are lacking. Conclusions: Despite significant progress in the field, further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of anorexia nervosa and its endocrine complications. Such investigations promise to yield important advances in the therapeutic approach to this disease as well as to the understanding of the regulation of endocrine function, skeletal biology, and appetite regulation. PMID:21976742
Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella
This article, which forms part of the life sciences series and is the first of two articles on the endocrine system, examines the structure and function of the organs of the endocrine system. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health. The role of the endocrine system and the types, actions and control of hormones are explored. The gross structure of the pituitary and thyroid glands are described along with relevant physiology. Several disorders of the thyroid gland are outlined. The second article examines growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands.
Autoimmune endocrine disorders are characterised by the development of autoantibodies to specific autoantigens in the target organs. Lymphocytic hypophysitis (LyH) is a disease characterised by inflammation of the pituitary gland, often resulting in hypopituitarism. The aetiology of LyH is considered to be autoimmune. However, only a few pituitary autoantigens have so far been identified. Reliable autoantibody markers are requested in the diagnostic procedure of LyH to avoid...
Some hormonal interactions were identified in study subjects indicating the thyroid disease onset under radiation impact through insulin resistance at the background of adipose tissue excess followed by body mass index increase, elevation of serum C-peptide and leptin levels, and onset of lipid metabolic disorders. Significant increase of the incidence of thyroid disease (1.5-3-fold), diabetes mellitus (3-7-fold), pre-obesity and obesity (in 25.67 %), and metabolic syndrome (5-fold) vs. entire population of Ukraine was found in remote terms upon the accident. Intricate pathogenetic inter systemic hormonal interactions were identified pre- disposing to thyroid disease due to insulin resistance, accompanying hyperinsulinemia, increased body mass index and some other hormonal and biochemical factors
Ashburn, Doyle D; Reed, Mary Jane
Obesity is associated with significant alterations in endocrine function. An association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia has been well documented. This article highlights the complexities of treating endocrine system disorders in obese patients. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Manti, Sara; Romano, Claudio; Chirico, Valeria; Filippelli, Martina; Cuppari, Caterina; Loddo, Italia; Salpietro, Carmelo; Arrigo, Teresa
Context: Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is the major chronic liver disease in the pediatric population. NAFLD includes a broad spectrum of abnormalities (inflammation, fibrosis and cirrhosis), ranging from accumulation of fat (also known as steatosis) towards non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The development of NAFLD in children is significantly increased. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search of electronic databases was undertaken for the major studies published from 1998 to today. The databases searched were: PubMed, EMBASE, Orphanet, Midline and Cochrane Library. We used the key words: "non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, children, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and fatty liver". Results: NAFLD/NASH is probably promoted by “multiple parallel hits”: environmental and genetic factors, systemic immunological disorders (oxidative stress, persistent-low grade of inflammation) as well as obesity and metabolic alterations (insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome). However its exact cause still underdiagnosed and unknown. Conclusions: Pediatric NAFLD/NASH is emerging problem. Longitudinal follow-up studies, unfortunately still insufficient, are needed to better understand the natural history and outcome of NAFLD in children. This review focuses on the current knowledge regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, environmental, genetic and metabolic factors of disease. The review also highlights the importance of studying the underlying mechanisms of pediatric NAFLD and the need for complete and personalized approach in the management of NAFLD/NASH. PMID:24829591
McGown, Christine; Birerdinc, Aybike; Younossi, Zobair M
Obesity is one of the most important health challenges faced by developed countries and is increasingly affecting adolescents and children. Obesity is also a considerable risk factor for the development of numerous other chronic diseases, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, heart disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The epidemic proportions of obesity and its numerous comorbidities are bringing into focus the highly complex and metabolically active adipose tissue. Adipose tissue is increasingly being considered as a functional endocrine organ. This article discusses the endocrine effects of adipose tissue during obesity and the systemic impact of this signaling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Romagnoli, Elisabetta; Pepe, Jessica; Piemonte, Sara; Cipriani, Cristiana; Minisola, Salvatore
The growing attention to the role of vitamin D in skeletal and extra-skeletal diseases over the last decade induced an increased demand for vitamin D determination as well as a dramatic rise of sales of vitamin D supplement. However, several critical points in this field remain to be clarified. We lack a clear consensus about the definition of vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency. The identification of different thresholds defining vitamin D status has relevant implications in clinical practice. In fact, the worldwide prevalence of low vitamin D status is highly varying according to the level of 25(OH)D utilized to define sufficiency. Therefore, the assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels may have a critical role, but a number of different technical problems associated with its determination may interfere in interpreting the results. The hydrophobic nature of vitamin D and the tight binding to its carrier (vitamin D binding protein), the different forms circulating in blood, and the issue of standardization are among the most important factors influencing the measurement of this metabolite. Another controversial point relies on the conflicting guidance on prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency endorsed by different medical and scientific communities. In particular, uncertainty exists about how to replete vitamin D stores, how to maintain normal 25(OH)D levels after repletion, which form of vitamin D is preferable for supplementation, and which route of administration and dosing regimens are advisable. Finally, concerns have been raised regarding vitamin D toxicity and its adverse effects.
I. V. Misnikova
Full Text Available In the recent years, an association between sleep apnea and a number of endocrine diseases has been established. The secretion of many hormones after falling asleep is considerably changed, compared to the period of wakefulness. In patients with endocrine disorders, abnormal hormonal secretion and its pathological consequences may contribute to sleep apnea. Sleep fragmentation and intermittent hypoxia arising in sleep apnea result in a decrease in insulin sensitivity, which contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of sleep apnea increases in acromegaly, which may affect the risk of cardio-pulmonary complications. There is an association between sleep apnea and testosterone treatment in men, as well as in postmenopausal women. Sleep apnea in hypothyroidism is most frequently related to the development of hypothyroidism per se and can therefore be reversed with thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Timely detection and treatment of sleep apnea in patients with endocrine disorders can improve their survival prognosis and quality of life.
Endocrine surgery has become more custom-made throughout the years. Endocrine tumors can be sporadic or develop as part of familial syndromes. Several familial syndromes are known to cause endocrine tumors. The most common are multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes type 1, 2A and 2B. This
BACKGROUND: This PhD project is part of the research area concerning effects of endocrine disrupters at the National Food Institute at DTU in Denmark. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have proved to be important for improper development of the male reproductive organs and subsequent for the ...... metabolising system using liver S9 mixtures or hepatic rat microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.......BACKGROUND: This PhD project is part of the research area concerning effects of endocrine disrupters at the National Food Institute at DTU in Denmark. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have proved to be important for improper development of the male reproductive organs and subsequent......, to be able to detect effects and predict mixture effects. In addition, a new hypothesis have emerge concerning a potential role of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, and the development of obesity and obesity related diseases. AIM: This PhD project aimed to gain more information regarding...
Martino, C.R.; Schultz, C.L.; Butler, H.E.; Haaga, J.R.
This paper discusses evaluation of normal and diseased endocrine organs that has been facilitated by the development of new radiologic-imaging techniques including nuclear medicine, ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. With improvement in resolution and tissue contrast, abnormalities as small as 5 mm can now be imaged with these modalities. Endocrinologists and clinicians involved in the evaluation and diagnosis of patients with endocrine diseases can be substantially aided by a proper radiologic workup. The authors describe and illustrate various radiologic techniques that are useful for evaluating thyroid and parathyroid derangements
Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella; Johnstone, Carolyn
This article, the last in the life sciences series, is the second of two articles on the endocrine system. It discusses human growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands. The relationships between hormones and their unique functions are also explored. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health to provide effective care to patients. Several disorders caused by human growth hormone or that affect the pancreas and adrenal glands are examined.
Background: Until recently, most published research focus more on infectious diseases and malnutrition giving the impression that endocrine disorders are uncommon. Reports on endocrine disorders in children in developing countries are few compared to developed countries reflecting the different level of prevalence in ...
Squizzato, A.; Gerdes, V. E. A.; Ageno, W.; Büller, H. R.
Endocrine disorders can influence the haemostatic balance. Abnormal coagulation test results have been observed in patients with abnormal hormone levels. Also unprovoked bleeding or thrombotic events have been associated with endocrine disease. The aim of the present review is to summarise the
Vitale, Giovanni; Salvioli, Stefano; Franceschi, Claudio
Ageing is a process characterized by a progressive decline in cellular function, organismal fitness and increased risk of age-related diseases and death. Several hundred theories have attempted to explain this phenomenon. One of the most popular is the 'oxidative stress theory', originally termed the 'free radical theory'. The endocrine system seems to have a role in the modulation of oxidative stress; however, much less is known about the role that oxidative stress might have in the ageing of the endocrine system and the induction of age-related endocrine diseases. This Review outlines the interactions between hormones and oxidative metabolism and the potential effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine organs. Many different mechanisms that link oxidative stress and ageing are discussed, all of which converge on the induction or regulation of inflammation. All these mechanisms, including cell senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction and microRNA dysregulation, as well as inflammation itself, could be targets of future studies aimed at clarifying the effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine glands.
Li, Yulong; Simonds, William F
Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism, including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT), comprise 2-5% of primary hyperparathyroidism cases. Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism are also associated with a range of endocrine and nonendocrine tumors, including potential malignancies. Complications of the associated neoplasms are the major causes of morbidities and mortalities in these familial syndromes, e.g., parathyroid carcinoma in HPT-JT syndrome; thymic, bronchial, and enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1; and medullary thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma in MEN2A. Because of the different underlying mechanisms of neoplasia, these familial tumors may have different characteristics compared with their sporadic counterparts. Large-scale clinical trials are frequently lacking due to the rarity of these diseases. With technological advances and the development of new medications, the natural history, diagnosis, and management of these syndromes are also evolving. In this article, we summarize the recent knowledge on endocrine neoplasms in three familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes, with an emphasis on disease characteristics, molecular pathogenesis, recent developments in biochemical and radiological evaluation, and expert opinions on surgical and medical therapies. Because these familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes are associated with a wide variety of tumors in different organs, this review is focused on those endocrine neoplasms with malignant potential. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.
Kamyins'kij, O.V.; Pronyin, O.V.; Afanas'jev, D.Je.
Effects of ionizing radiation and other hazardous factors on endocrine system in the ChNPP AEW appeared upon 15-25 years. There was a significant (2-10-fold) and reliable (p < 0.01) increase of the incidence of the nodular goiter, autoimmune thyroiditis, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus. And there is a trend to further increase
Reichrath, Jörg; Zouboulis, Christos C; Vogt, Thomas; Holick, Michael F
Vitamin D represents one of the major driving factors for the development of life on earth and for human evolution. While up to 10-20 % of the human organism's requirements in vitamin D can be obtained by the diet (under most living conditions in the USA and Europe), approximately 90 % of all needed vitamin D has to be photosynthesized in the skin through the action of the sun (ultraviolet-B (UV-B)). The skin represents a key organ of the human body's vitamin D endocrine system (VDES), being both the site of vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for biologically active vitamin D metabolites. It was shown that human keratinocytes possess the enzymatic machinery (CYP27B1) for the synthesis of the biologically most active natural vitamin D metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ), representing an autonomous vitamin D 3 pathway. Cutaneous production of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 may exert intracrine, autocrine, and paracrine effects on keratinocytes and on neighboring cells. Many skin cells (including keratinocytes, sebocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, and skin immune cells) express the vitamin D receptor (VDR), an absolute pre-requisite for the mediation of genomic effects of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 and analogs. VDR belongs to the superfamily of trans-acting transcriptional regulatory factors, which includes the steroid and thyroid hormone receptors as well as the retinoid X receptors (RXR) and retinoic acid receptors (RAR). Numerous studies, including cDNA microarray analyses of messenger RNAs (mRNAs), indicate that as many as 500-1000 genes may be regulated by VDR ligands that control various cellular functions including growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. The observation that 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 is extremely effective in inducing the terminal differentiation and in inhibiting the proliferation of cultured human keratinocytes has resulted in the use of vitamin D analogs for the treatment of psoriasis. This review gives an historical view and summarizes our present
Reichrath, Jörg; Saternus, Roman; Vogt, Thomas
During evolution, the ability of many organisms to synthesize vitamin D photochemically represented, and still represents, a major driving factor for the development of life on earth. In humans because not more than 10-20% of the requirement of vitamin D can be satisfied by the diet (under most living conditions in the US and Europe), the remaining 80-90% need to be photochemically synthesized in the skin through the action of solar or artificial ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. The skin is a key organ of the human body's vitamin D endocrine system (VDES), representing both the site of vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for biologically active vitamin D metabolites. Human keratinocytes contain the enzymatic machinery (CYP27B1) for the synthesis of the biologically most active natural vitamin D metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ), representing an autonomous vitamin D 3 pathway. Cutaneous production of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 may mediate intracrine, autocrine and paracrine effects on keratinocytes and on neighboring cells. Many skin cells (including keratinocytes, sebocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, macrophages and other skin immune cells) express the vitamin D receptor (VDR), an absolute pre-requisite for exerting genomic effects of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 and analogs. The VDR is a member of the superfamily of trans-acting transcriptional regulatory factors, which also contains the steroid and thyroid hormone receptors as well as the retinoid-X receptors (RXR) and retinoic acid receptors (RAR). A large body of evidence, including cDNA microarray analyses of mRNAs, indicates that as many as 500-1000 genes may be controlled by VDR ligands that regulate a broad variety of cellular functions including growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Clinical and laboratory investigations, including the observation that 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 is very effective in inducing the terminal differentiation and in inhibiting the proliferation of cultured human keratinocytes have resulted
Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K
Chronic consumption of a large amount of alcohol disrupts the communication between nervous, endocrine, and immune system and causes hormonal disturbances that lead to profound and serious consequences at physiologic and behavioral levels. These alcohol-induced hormonal dysregulations affect the entire body and can result in various disorders such as stress abnormalities, reproductive deficits, body growth defect, thyroid problems, immune dysfunction, cancers, bone disease, and psychological and behavioral disorders. This review summarizes the findings from human and animal studies that provide consistent evidence on the various effects of alcohol abuse on the endocrine system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rigo, P.; Belhocine, T.; Hustinx, R.; Foidart-Willems, J.
The authors review the main indications of PET examination, and specifically of 18 FDG, in the assessment of endocrine tumors: of the thyroid, of the parathyroid, of the adrenal and of the pituitary glands. Neuroendocrine tumors, gastro-entero-pancreatic or carcinoid tumors are also under the scope. Usually, the most differentiated tumors show only poor uptake of the FDG as they have a weak metabolic and proliferative activity. In the assessment of endocrine tumors, FDG-PET should be used only after most specific nuclear examinations been performed. (author)
Full Text Available The purpose of the review was analysis of literature data relating to the molecular genetic basis and diagnosis of endocrine pathology. We searched for published and unpublished researches using Pubmed as the search engine by the keywords: ‘genes’, ‘endocrine diseases’, ‘molecular diagnostics’, ‘prohormones’, ‘nuclear receptors and transcription factors’, taking into consideration studies conducted over the last 10 years, citation review of relevant primary and review articles, conference abstracts, personal files, and contact with expert informants. The criterion for the selection of articles for the study was based on their close relevance to the topic, thus out of 144 analyzed articles, the findings of the researchers covered in 32 articles were crucial. The described nosologies presented various hereditary forms of hypopituitarism, disturbances of steroid hormone biosynthesis, abnormal gender formation, monogenic forms of diabetes mellitus, endocrine tumors, etc. Pathology is identified that is associated with a mutation of genes encoding protein prohormones, receptors, steroid biosynthesis enzymes, intracellular signaling molecules, transport proteins, ion channels, and transcription factors. Among the endocrine diseases associated with defects in genes encoding protein prohormones, the defects of the GH1 gene are most common, the defects in the gene CYP21A2 (21-hydroxylase are among diseases associated with defects in genes encoding enzymes. More often mutations of genes encoding proteins belong to the class of G-protein coupled receptors. Most of the mutations associated with MEN-2A are concentrated in the rich cysteine region of the Ret receptor. More than 70 monogenic syndromes are known, in which there is a marked tolerance to glucose and some form of diabetes mellitus is diagnosed, diabetes mellitus caused by mutation of the mitochondrial gene (mutation tRNALeu, UUR is also detected. Of all the monogenic forms of
... Search form Search What is Men's Endocrine Health? Men's endocrine health incorporates physical activity and sound nutrition to maintain a strong body; however, a major emphasis includes male sexuality ...
Full Text Available Introduction: Major categories of endocrine myopathy include those associated with: Adrenal dysfunction (as in Cushing′s disease or steroid myopathy; thyroid dysfunction (as in myxedema coma or thyrotoxic myopathy; vitamin D deficiency; parathyroid dysfunction; and pituitary dysfunction. Steroid myopathy is the most common endocrine myopathy. Objective: To study the etiology, varied presentations, and outcome after therapy of patients with endocrine myopathies. Materials and Methods: Myopathy was evaluated by the standard clinical procedures: Detailed clinical history, manual muscle strength testing, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK. Endocrine disorders were diagnosed as per clinical features and biochemical parameters. The treatment was given to patients as per underlying endocrine disease. Myopathy was assessed before and after treatment. Results: Out of the 37 patients who were diagnosed with endocrine myopathies, thyroid dysfunction was the most common cause (17 cases, followed by vitamin D deficiency in nine, adrenal dysfunction in six, parathyroid dysfunction in three, and pituitary dysfunction in two. Some patients had atypical presentation (repeated falls in one, tongue fasciculations in one, neck weakness in five, one with ptosis and facial weakness, asymmetrical onset in one, and calf hypertrophy in one. The serum creatine kinase (CK concentration did not correlate with muscle weakness. Following the treatment regimen which was specific for a given myopathy, 26 patients recovered fully. Conclusion: We found varied clinical presentations of endocrine myopathies. All the patients with neuromuscular complaints should be investigated for endocrine causes because significant number of them recovers fully with specific treatment.
Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C
In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Problems With the Endocrine System Print en español Sistema endócrino Although we rarely think about them, the ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...
Promotes a reductionist approach to teaching about the endocrine system in high school biology and anatomy courses. Encourages the study of how hormones travel to the cells and affect them. Provides suggestions for activities and discussion questions, along with sample diagrams and flow charts. (TW)
Original Articles should be restricted to clinical or basic studies, particularly translational research, which add new information to the etiology, treatment, and outcomes of endocrine disorders that have not been published previously. These manuscripts should be restricted to 3,500 words, no more than 40 references, and no ...
The journal accepts original contributions related to the practice and science of clinical endocrinology, articles updating the clinical endocrinologist on current areas of interest in the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine disorders, articles discussing dilemma facing endocrinologists in the clinical, social, and ethical arena of ...
Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R
The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...
Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the “unfolded protein response” (UPR, which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI, Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2 are discussed in this article.
Ariyasu, Daisuke; Yoshida, Hiderou; Hasegawa, Yukihiro
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the “unfolded protein response” (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI), Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2) are discussed in this article. PMID:28208663
Yang, Oneyeol; Kim, Hye Lim; Weon, Jong-Il; Seo, Young Rok
Endocrine disruptors are known to cause harmful effects to human through various exposure routes. These chemicals mainly appear to interfere with the endocrine or hormone systems. As importantly, numerous studies have demonstrated that the accumulation of endocrine disruptors can induce fatal disorders including obesity and cancer. Using diverse biological tools, the potential molecular mechanisms related with these diseases by exposure of endocrine disruptors. Recently, pathway analysis, a bioinformatics tool, is being widely used to predict the potential mechanism or biological network of certain chemicals. In this review, we initially summarize the major molecular mechanisms involved in the induction of the above mentioned diseases by endocrine disruptors. Additionally, we provide the potential markers and signaling mechanisms discovered via pathway analysis under exposure to representative endocrine disruptors, bisphenol, diethylhexylphthalate, and nonylphenol. The review emphasizes the importance of pathway analysis using bioinformatics to finding the specific mechanisms of toxic chemicals, including endocrine disruptors. PMID:25853100
Kearney, T; Dang, C
Endocrine emergencies constitute only a small percentage of the emergency workload of general doctors, comprising about 1.5% of all hospital admission in England in 2004–5. Most of these are diabetes related with the remaining conditions totalling a few hundred cases at most. Hence any individual doctor might not have sufficient exposure to be confident in their management. This review discusses the management of diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state, hypoglycaemia, hyperca...
Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R
The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...... during gestation. The neuroendocrine events and their timing in the placental, foetal and maternal compartments are critical for initiation and maintenance of pregnancy, for foetal growth and development, and for parturition. As pregnancy advances, the relative number of trophoblasts increase...
Weischedel, U.; Wieland, C.
After a review of the history and a discussion of recent theories about pathogenesis of endocrine ophthalmopathy the authros give a report on their radiotherapeutical treatment results with cobalt-60-γ-rays in 50 patients. Amelioration was achieved in 50% of the cases, in the other 50% no progression was seen. Radiotherapy is of antiphlogistic and functional effectivity and should be integrated in the treatment regime in early stages. (orig.) [de
Álvarez-Castro, Paula; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Brandón-Sandá, Iria; Cordido, Fernando
Obesity is associated to significant disturbances in endocrine function. Hyper insulinemia and insulin resistance are the best known changes in obesity, but their mechanisms and clinical significance are not clearly established. Adipose tissue is considered to be a hormone-secreting endocrine organ; and increased leptin secretion from the adipocyte, a satiety signal, is a well-established endocrine change in obesity. In obesity there is a decreased GH secretion. Impairment of somatotropic function in obesity is functional and may be reversed in certain circumstances. The pathophysiological mechanism responsible for low GH secretion in obesity is probably multifactorial. There are many data suggesting that a chronic state of somatostatin hypersecretion results in inhibition of GH release. Increased FFA levels, as well as a deficient ghrelin secretion, probably contribute to the impaired GH secretion. In women, abdominal obesity is associated to hyperandrogenism and low sex hormone-binding globulin levels. Obese men, particularly those with morbid obesity, have decreased testosterone and gonadotropin levels. Obesity is associated to an increased cortisol production rate, which is compensated for by a higher cortisol clearance, resulting in plasma free cortisol levels that do not change when body weight increases. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic factor, and has been found to be decreased in obese people. In obesity there is also a trend to increased TSH and free T3 levels. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is characterized by repeated spells of apnea.Collapsibility of hypopharynx due to multiple factors involving pharyngeal dilatormuscles and deposition of fat or fluid in the surrounding soft tissues are importantcontributing factors in its pathogenesis. OSA commonly affects obese individuals.Males are more commonly affected than the females probably due to the disturbingeffect of testosterone on sleep.The impact of OSA on human health include disturbances in endocrine and metabolicsystem affecting hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, adrenocorticotrophic-cortisolaxis, growth hormone, antidiuretic hormones and insulin resistance. There is atendency for predisposition of the metabolic syndrome or its components includingglycemic dysregulation, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and physical parameters relatedto adiposity. On the other hand, several endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism,growth hormone excess, polycystic ovarian disease and testosterone replacement areassociated with increased prevalence of OSA.There is limited information on the effect of treatment of OSA by continuous positiveairway pressure (CPAP on the endocrine and metabolic disturbances. There is a needto conduct randomized controlled trials using CPAP therapy in patients with OSA andto study its cause and effect relationship with endocrine and metabolic disturbances.
Gore, A C; Chappell, V A; Fenton, S E; Flaws, J A; Nadal, A; Prins, G S; Toppari, J; Zoeller, R T
This Executive Summary to the Endocrine Society's second Scientific Statement on environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) provides a synthesis of the key points of the complete statement. The full Scientific Statement represents a comprehensive review of the literature on seven topics for which there is strong mechanistic, experimental, animal, and epidemiological evidence for endocrine disruption, namely: obesity and diabetes, female reproduction, male reproduction, hormone-sensitive cancers in females, prostate cancer, thyroid, and neurodevelopment and neuroendocrine systems. EDCs such as bisphenol A, phthalates, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diethyl ethers, and dioxins were emphasized because these chemicals had the greatest depth and breadth of available information. The Statement also included thorough coverage of studies of developmental exposures to EDCs, especially in the fetus and infant, because these are critical life stages during which perturbations of hormones can increase the probability of a disease or dysfunction later in life. A conclusion of the Statement is that publications over the past 5 years have led to a much fuller understanding of the endocrine principles by which EDCs act, including nonmonotonic dose-responses, low-dose effects, and developmental vulnerability. These findings will prove useful to researchers, physicians, and other healthcare providers in translating the science of endocrine disruption to improved public health.
Jin Taek Kim
Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity around the world has increased sharply. Strong evidence has emerged over the last decades that human exposure to numerous endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs is the cause of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. Many EDCs are manmade chemicals that are released into the environment. EDCs are exogenous compounds that interfere with hormonal regulation and normal endocrine systems, thereby affecting the health of animals and humans. The number of chemicals belonging to EDCs is increasing and some of them are very stable; they persist in the environment (persistent organic pollutants. Although they are banned, their concentrations have been continuously increasing over time. This review gives a brief introduction to common EDCs, and evidence of harmful effects of EDCs on obesity-related diseases; we focus in particular on EDCs’ role in causing mitochondrial dysfunction.
Shalet, S.M.; Beardwell, C.
A brief review is presented of endocrine dysfunction as a long-term effect of radiotherapy and cancer chemotherapy, with particular reference to children, and to Hodgkin's disease. The hypothalamus and pituitary, growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroid and parathyroid, and gonads are discussed. Suggestions are made for long-term measures to be taken, such as measuring growth rates, L-thyroxine replacement, sperm storage, etc. (U.K.)
Full Text Available The emergence of endocrine disease has created significant challenges for healthcare policy-makers and payers across the world. Policy-makers have to ensure availability of drugs used for various endocrinopathies. One way in which this is facilitated is through the World Health Organization (WHO List of Essential Medicines (LEM. The LEM aims to cover the basic pharmaceutical needs of the majority of people seeking healthcare (1.
Rohit Kumar Singh
Full Text Available Background: Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease and affects many internal organs in addition to the skin and peripheral nerves. Endocrine dysfunction is often silent and is often missed in patients of leprosy leading to significant morbidity. We studied the presence of occult endocrine disorders in leprosy patients and compared the same with disease parameters. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 40 patients of leprosy (aged 18-70 years, any duration in this cross-sectional, observational study. All subjects were assessed for pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, gonadal function, and dynamic testing was done when deemed necessary. The participants were divided into two groups: Group 1 (Leprosy, n = 40 and Group 2 (Controls, n = 20 and the data were analyzed with appropriate statistical tests. Results: The study participants (35 males, 5 females had a mean age of 36.4 ± 11.3 years, and duration of the disease was 2.5 ± 5.5 years. Eleven out of 40 patients showed results consistent with an endocrine disorder, including subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 4, sick euthyroid syndrome (n = 3, growth hormone (GH deficiency (n = 2, primary hypogonadism (n = 2 and secondary hypogonadism in one patient. One patient had partial hypopituitarism (GH deficiency and secondary hypogonadism and none of the controls showed any hormonal dysfunction. Testosterone levels showed inverse correlation with the number of skin patches (P = 0.0006. Conclusion: Occult endocrine dysfunction is seen in a quarter of patients with leprosy. Thyroid and gonadal axes abnormalities are common, and the severity is more in lepromatous forms of the disease. Further large studies are required to confirm the findings observed in our study.
Growing concerns over endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and their effects on human fetal development and adult health have promoted research into the underlying molecular mechanisms of endocrine disruption. Gene targeting technology has allowed insight into the genetic pathways governing reproductive tract development and how exposure to EDCs during a critical developmental window can alter reproductive tract development, potentially forming the basis for adult diseases. This review prima...
... Kids / Your Endocrine System Print en español Tu sistema endocrino You might say endocrine (say: EN-doh- ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...
Solomon, Thomas P J; Knudsen, Sine H; Karstoft, Kristian
Investigating the impact of hyperglycemia on pancreatic endocrine function promotes our understanding of the pathophysiology of hyperglycemia-related disease.......Investigating the impact of hyperglycemia on pancreatic endocrine function promotes our understanding of the pathophysiology of hyperglycemia-related disease....
Loraine Ledón Llanes
Full Text Available Las enfermedades endocrinas son vividas con mucha frecuencia como experiencias profundamente demandantes y complejas debido a su impacto sobre el cuerpo y la psiquis de la persona, a sus significados sociales, y a las interacciones que demandan en los diversos espacios de la vida. El presente trabajo recoge la experiencia de varios años en los espacios de asistencia e investigación en salud con personas que viven con enfermedades endocrinas, a partir de la integración de los momentos, áreas y dimensiones que parecen tener mayor significación desde sus vivencias. Se tratan como temas fundamentales: el impacto de la enfermedad y los contenidos con los que usualmente se relaciona el momento del diagnóstico, la búsqueda y comprensión del origen de la enfermedad, entre otros; las acciones que mujeres y varones desarrollan para afrontar el proceso de salud-enfermedad e integrarlo a la vida cotidiana; y las evaluaciones y valoraciones generales de sus experiencias, con énfasis en sus dimensiones positivas y de aprendizaje. El trabajo culmina con recomendaciones que se consideran fundamentales en el trabajo en este campo para incidir favorablemente en el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida y bienestar de estas personas.Endocrine diseases are very frequently lived as deeply demanding and complex experiences due to their impact on the body and the psyche of the person, to their social meanings and to the interactions they demand in the diverse spaces of life. The present paper is based on the experience accumulated during several years in the fields of health care and research with persons suffering from endocrine diseases, starting from the integration of the moments, areas and dimensions that seem to have a greater significance from their personal experiences. Some of the fundamental topics approached are the impact of the disease and the contents with which the moment of diagnosis, and the search and understanding of the origin of the disease
Poddar, M; Chetty, Y; Chetty, V T
Obesity is a chronic, relapsing medical condition that results from an imbalance of energy expenditure and consumption. It is a leading cause of preventable illness, disability and premature death. The causes of obesity are multifactorial and include behavioural, socioeconomic, genetic, environmental and psychosocial factors. Rarely are endocrine diseases, e.g., hypothyroidism or Cushing's syndrome, the cause of obesity. What is less understood is how obesity affects the endocrine system. In this review, we will discuss the impact of obesity on multiple endocrine systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, changes in vitamin D homeostasis, gender steroids and thyroid hormones. We will also examine the renin angiotensin aldosterone system and insulin pathophysiology associated with obesity. We will provide a general overview of the biochemical changes that can be seen in patients with obesity, review possible aetiologies of these changes and briefly consider current guidelines on their management. This review will not discuss endocrine causes of obesity. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.
Bøgh, I B; Christensen, P; Dantzer, V
of alkylphenols, these are disseminated in the environment with sewage sludge, and domestic animals and humans are likely to be exposed via the food chain. Using the pig as an in vivo model, we studied the effect of intrauterine exposure to tertiary octylphenol (OP) on essential reproductive parameters over 3......With the growing concern that environmental chemicals might impair human and animal fertility, it is important to investigate the possible influence of these substances on sexual differentiation and genital development of mammals. Many of these substances are suspected to interfere with endocrine...... processes, and exposure during critical periods of prenatal development might affect reproductive performance over several generations. Alkylphenols and their metabolites are lipophilic substances exerting apparent estrogenic action in in vitro and in vivo testing systems. With the widespread industrial use...
Full Text Available Osteocalcin is the most abundant noncollagenous protein of bone matrix. Once transcribed, this protein undergoes posttranslational modifications within osteoblastic cells before its secretion, including the carboxylation of three glutamic residues in glutamic acid, which is essential for hydroxyapatite binding and deposition in the extracellular matrix of bone. Recent provocative data from experimental observations in mice showed that the circulating undercarboxylated fraction of osteocalcin increases insulin secretion and sensitivity, lowers blood glucose, and decreases visceral fat in both genders, while it enhances testosterone production by the testes in males. Moreover, both total and undercarboxylated osteocalcins increase following physical activity with potential positive effects on glucose tolerance. Despite that these evidences have been only in part confirmed in humans, further prospective investigations are needed to definitively establish the endocrine role of osteocalcin both in the general population and cohorts of patients with diabetes or other metabolic disorders.
Whooten, Rachel; Schmitt, Jessica; Schwartz, Alison
To summarize the recent developments in endocrine disorders associated with Down syndrome. Current research regarding bone health and Down syndrome continues to show an increased prevalence of low bone mass and highlights the importance of considering short stature when interpreting dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The underlying cause of low bone density is an area of active research and will shape treatment and preventive measures. Risk of thyroid disease is present throughout the life course in individuals with Down syndrome. New approaches and understanding of the pathophysiology and management of subclinical hypothyroidism continue to be explored. Individuals with Down syndrome are also at risk for other autoimmune conditions, with recent research revealing the role of the increased expression of the Autoimmune Regulatory gene on 21st chromosome. Lastly, Down-syndrome-specific growth charts were recently published and provide a better assessment of growth. Recent research confirms and expands on the previously known endocrinopathies in Down syndrome and provides more insight into potential underlying mechanisms.
Chao, Anne; Wang, Chih-Hsien; You, Hao-Chun; Chou, Nai-Kwoun; Yu, Hsi-Yu; Chi, Nai-Hsin; Huang, Shu-Chien; Wu, I-Hui; Tseng, Li-Jung; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Chen, Yih-Sharng
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been repeatedly used to rescue patients with cardiopulmonary arrest. However, its clinical utility in endocrine emergencies remains unclear. Herein, we describe a case series of 12 patients presenting with refractory shock secondary to endocrine emergencies who were rescued by ECMO support. Patients were identified between 2005 and 2012 from our ECMO registry. The diagnostic distribution was as follows: pheochromocytoma crisis (n = 4), thyroid storm (n = 5), and diabetic ketoacidosis (n = 3). The initial presentation of pheochromocytoma crisis was indistinguishable from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and frequently accompanied by paroxysmal hypertension and limb ischemia. Thyroid storm was characterized by hyperbilirubinemia and severe gastrointestinal bleeding, whereas neurological symptoms were common in diabetic ketoacidosis. The clinical outcomes of patients with endocrine emergencies were compared with those of 80 cases with AMI who received ECMO because of cardiogenic shock. The cardiac function and the general conditions showed a significantly faster recovery in patients with endocrine emergencies than in those with AMI. We conclude that ECMO support can be clinically useful in endocrine emergencies. The screening of endocrine diseases should be considered during the resuscitation of patients with refractory circulatory shock.
... harness the power to prevent endocrine disorders, the Power of Prevention. Childhood Childhood is a time of rapid growth and development to learn healthy living habits and priorities. It can, however, be a great ...
...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., ̃40...
...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., ̃40...
Clarke, Robert S
...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., -40...
Mesquita, Joana; Varela, Ana; Medina, José Luís
The endocrine system may be the target of different types of trauma with varied consequences. The present article discusses trauma of the hypothalamic-pituitary axes, adrenal glands, gonads, and pancreas. In addition to changes in circulating hormone levels due to direct injury to these structures, there may be an endocrine response in the context of the stress caused by the trauma. Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Babul Reddy Hanmayyagari
Full Text Available Endocrine myopathy means muscle weakness in the presence of an abnormal endocrine state. Most of the endocrine disorders are associated with myopathy and it is usually reversible with correction of the underlying disturbance, though, there is an increasing knowledge of the metabolic effects of hormones, endocrine myopathy is a less recognized and often overlooked entity in clinical practice. Here, we describe this association in three of our patients, then, we discuss systematically about endocrine myopathy.
Siwamogsatham, Oranan; Alvarez, Jessica
Purpose of review The aim of this review is to provide an update on various relevant endocrine aspects of care in adolescents and adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). Recent findings As life expectancy in CF has continuously improved, endocrine complications have become more apparent. The common endocrine complications include cystic fibrosis related diabetes (CFRD), cystic fibrosis related bone disease, vitamin D deficiency and poor growth and pubertal development. Thyroid and adrenal disorders have also been reported, although the prevalence appears to be less common. Summary Endocrine diseases are an increasingly recognized complication that has a significant impact on the overall health of individuals with CF. This review summarizes the updated screening and management of endocrine diseases in the CF population. PMID:25105995
Butz, H; Kinga, N; Racz, K; Patocs, A
Specific, sensitive and non-invasive biomarkers are always needed in endocrine disorders. miRNAs are short, non-coding RNA molecules with well-known role in gene expression regulation. They are frequently dysregulated in metabolic and endocrine diseases. Recently it has been shown that they are secreted into biofluids by nearly all kind of cell types. As they can be taken up by other cells they may have a role in a new kind of paracrine, cell-to-cell communication. Circulating miRNAs are protected by RNA-binding proteins or microvesicles hence they can be attractive candidates as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of extracellular miRNA's and our knowledge about their origin and potential roles in endocrine and metabolic diseases. Discussions about the technical challenges occurring during identification and measurement of extracellular miRNAs and future perspectives about their roles are also highlighted.
Taghvafard, Hadi; Proskurnikov, A.V.; Cao, Ming
To understand the sophisticated control mechanisms of the human's endocrine system is a challenging task that is a crucial step towards precise medical treatment of many dysfunctions and diseases. Although mathematical models describing the endocrine system as a whole are still elusive, recently
Acromegaly and gigantism represent multisystem diseases resulting from either a primary pituitary tumor or an ill-defined hypothalamo-hypophyseal dysfunction causing somatotropic cell hyperplasia and tumor formation. Clinical manifestations of the disease result from three major processes: (1) excessive growth hormone (HGH) secretion, (2) deficiencies of other pituitary tropic hormones, and (3) local invasion of parasellar neural and vascular structures. The treatment of this disease, and side effects, are discussed
S. S. C. Gunatilake
Full Text Available Background. Primary hyperaldosteronism is a known cause for secondary hypertension. In addition to its effect on blood pressure, aldosterone exhibits proinflammatory actions and plays a role in immunomodulation/development of autoimmunity. Recent researches also suggest significant thyroid dysfunction among patients with hyperaldosteronism, but exact causal relationship is not established. Autoimmune hyperthyroidism (Graves’ disease and primary hyperaldosteronism rarely coexist but underlying mechanisms associating the two are still unclear. Case Presentation. A 32-year-old Sri Lankan female was evaluated for new onset hypertension in association with hypokalemia. She also had features of hyperthyroidism together with high TSH receptor antibodies suggestive of Graves’ disease. On evaluation of persistent hypokalemia and hypertension, primary hyperaldosteronism due to right-sided adrenal adenoma was diagnosed. She was rendered euthyroid with antithyroid drugs followed by right-sided adrenalectomy. Antithyroid drugs were continued up to 12 months, after which the patient entered remission of Graves’ disease. Conclusion. Autoimmune hyperthyroidism and primary hyperaldosteronism rarely coexist and this case report adds to the limited number of cases documented in the literature. Underlying mechanism associating the two is still unclear but possibilities of autoimmune mechanisms and autoantibodies warrant further evaluation and research.
Romijn, J. A.; Pereira Arias, A. M.
The analysis of plasma hormone concentrations is of fundamental importance for the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine diseases. Although hormone analyses are performed in huge numbers in all hospitals on a daily basis, the interpretation of the resulting plasma hormone concentrations can be
Gross, M.D.; Shapiro, B.; Thrall, J.H.; Freitas, J.E.; Beierwaltes, W.H.
The nuclear medicine approach to the portrayal of endocrine organs is unique; the scintigraphic images provide not only anatomic and localization information, but in many instances allow a quantitative assessment of organ function. The ability to image endocrine glands is based upon the design of radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals with characteristics to take advantage of many unique and specific biochemical and advantage of many unique and specific biochemical and metabolic functions of these tissues. The recent introduction of new radiopharmaceutical and tracers has provided the consulting endocrinologist with imaging procedures that allow localization and functional characterization not available by other single, noninvasive diagnostic modalities. This review will serve as an update of the available techniques to image and quantitate the function of the endocrine glands using the nuclear medicine approach
Amar, Laurence; Lussey-Lepoutre, Charlotte; Lenders, Jacques W M; Djadi-Prat, Juliette; Plouin, Pierre-Francois; Steichen, Olivier
To systematically review the incidence and factors associated with recurrences or new tumors after apparent complete resection of pheochromocytoma or thoraco-abdomino-pelvic paraganglioma. A systematic review and meta-analysis of published literature was performed. Pubmed and Embase from 1980 to 2012 were searched for studies published in English on patients with non-metastatic pheochromocytoma or thoraco-abdomino-pelvic paraganglioma, complete tumor resection, postoperative follow-up exceeding 1 month, and recurrence or new tumor documented by pathology, hormonal dosages, or imaging tests. Incidence rates of new events after curative surgery were calculated for each study that had sufficient information and pooled using random-effect meta-analysis. In total, 38 studies were selected from 3518 references, of which 36 reported retrospective cohorts from the USA, Europe, and Asia. Patient follow-up was neither standardized nor exhaustive in the included studies. A clear description of patient retrieval methods was available for nine studies and the follow-up protocol and patient flow for four studies. Only two studies used multivariable methods to assess potential predictors of postoperative events.The overall rate of recurrent disease from 34 studies was 0.98 events/100 person-years (95% confidence interval 0.71, 1.25). Syndromic diseases and paragangliomas were consistently associated with a higher risk of a new event in individual studies and in meta-regression analysis. The risk of recurrent disease after complete resection of pheochromocytoma may be lower than that previously estimated, corresponding to five events for 100 patients followed up for 5 years after complete resection. Risk stratification is required to tailor the follow-up protocol after complete resection of a pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma. Large multicenter studies are needed to this end. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.
Baker, Peter R.; Baschal, Erin E.; Fain, Pam R.; Triolo, Taylor M.; Nanduri, Priyaanka; Siebert, Janet C.; Armstrong, Taylor K.; Babu, Sunanda R.; Rewers, Marian J.; Gottlieb, Peter A.; Barker, Jennifer M.; Eisenbarth, George S.
Context: Multiple autoimmune disorders (e.g. Addison’s disease, type 1 diabetes, celiac disease) are associated with HLA-DR3, but it is likely that alleles of additional genes in linkage disequilibrium with HLA-DRB1 contribute to disease. Objective: The objective of the study was to characterize major histocompatability complex (MHC) haplotypes conferring extreme risk for autoimmune Addison’s disease (AD). Design, Setting, and Participants: Eighty-six 21-hydroxylase autoantibody-positive, nonautoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1, Caucasian individuals collected from 1992 to 2009 with clinical AD from 68 families (12 multiplex and 56 simplex) were genotyped for HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1, MICA, HLA-B, and HLA-A as well as high density MHC single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis for 34. Main Outcome Measures: AD and genotype were measured. Result: Ninety-seven percent of the multiplex individuals had both HLA-DR3 and HLA-B8 vs. 60% of simplex AD patients (P = 9.72 × 10−4) and 13% of general population controls (P = 3.00 × 10−19). The genotype DR3/DR4 with B8 was present in 85% of AD multiplex patients, 24% of simplex patients, and 1.5% of control individuals (P = 4.92 × 10−191). The DR3-B8 haplotype of AD patients had HLA-A1 less often (47%) than controls (81%, P = 7.00 × 10−5) and type 1 diabetes patients (73%, P = 1.93 × 10−3). Analysis of 1228 SNPs across the MHC for individuals with AD revealed a shorter conserved haplotype (3.8) with the loss of the extended conserved 3.8.1 haplotype approximately halfway between HLA-B and HLA-A. Conclusion: Extreme risk for AD, especially in multiplex families, is associated with haplotypic DR3 variants, in particular a portion (3.8) but not all of the conserved 3.8.1 haplotype. PMID:20631027
Daniels, J; Turner-Cobb, J M
Consideration of psychological distress in long-term endocrine conditions is of vital importance given the prevalence of anxiety and depression in such disorders. Poor mental health can lead to compromised self-care, higher utilization of health services, lower rates of adherence, reduced quality of life and ultimately poorer outcomes. Adjuvant psychological therapy offers an effective resource to reduce distress in endocrine conditions. While the vast majority of work in this area has focused on psychological screening and intervention in diabetes, identification and recognition of psychological distress are equally important in other endocrinological conditions, with supportive evidence in polycystic ovary syndrome and Addison's disease. Referral pathways and recommendations set out by UK guidelines and the Department of Health mandate requires greater attention across a wider range of long-term endocrine conditions to facilitate improved quality of life and health outcome. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chopra, Rupali; Chander, Ashish; Jacob, Jubbin J.
The human eye, as an organ, can offer critical clues to the diagnosis of various systemic illnesses. Ocular changes are common in various endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus and Graves’ disease. However there exist a large number of lesser known endocrine disorders where ocular involvement is significant. Awareness of these associations is the first step in the diagnosis and management of these complex patients. The rare syndromes involving the pituitary hypothalamic axis with significant ocular involvement include Septo-optic dysplasia, Kallman's syndrome, and Empty Sella syndrome all affecting the optic nerve at the optic chiasa. The syndromes involving the thyroid and parathyroid glands that have ocular manifestations and are rare include Mc Cune Albright syndrome wherein optic nerve decompression may occur due to fibrous dysplasia, primary hyperparathyroidism that may present as red eye due to scleritis and Ascher syndrome wherein ptosis occurs. Allgrove's syndrome, Cushing's disease, and Addison's disease are the rare endocrine syndromes discussed involving the adrenals and eye. Ocular involvement is also seen in gonadal syndromes such as Bardet Biedl, Turner's, Rothmund's, and Klinefelter's syndrome. This review also highlights the ocular manifestation of miscellaneous syndromes such as Werner's, Cockayne's, Wolfram's, Kearns Sayre's, and Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome. The knowledge of these relatively uncommon endocrine disorders and their ocular manifestations will help an endocrinologist reach a diagnosis and will alert an ophthalmologist to seek specialty consultation of an endocrinologist when encountered with such cases. PMID:22629495
Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J. L.; Taat, C. W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W. H.; Becker, A. E.
In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were
Fischer, H.J.; Lois, J.F.; Gomes, A.S.
A case of multiple endocrine neoplasia (Men) consisting of an unusual combination of an insulin-producing islet cell tumour and an adrenal adenoma is reported. CT clearly demonstrated the adrenal mass whereas the pancreatic lesion remained questionable. Conversely angiography located the pancreatic tumour but the adrenal findings were subtle. (orig.)
Marcel Cerqueira Cesar Machado
Full Text Available Surgical approaches to pancreatic endocrine tumors associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may differ greatly from those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Presurgical diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is therefore crucial to plan a proper intervention. Of note, hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 should be surgically treated before pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 resection, apart from insulinoma. Non-functioning pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 >1 cm have a high risk of malignancy and should be treated by a pancreatic resection associated with lymphadenectomy. The vast majority of patients with gastrinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 present with tumor lesions at the duodenum, so the surgery of choice is subtotal or total pancreatoduodenectomy followed by regional lymphadenectomy. The usual surgical treatment for insulinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is distal pancreatectomy up to the mesenteric vein with or without spleen preservation, associated with enucleation of tumor lesions in the pancreatic head. Surgical procedures for glucagonomas, somatostatinomas, and vipomas/ multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are similar to those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Some of these surgical strategies for pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 still remain controversial as to their proper extension and timing. Furthermore, surgical resection of single hepatic metastasis secondary to pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may be curative and even in multiple liver metastases surgical resection is possible. Hepatic trans-arterial chemo-embolization is usually associated with surgical resection. Liver transplantation may be needed for select cases. Finally, pre-surgical clinical and genetic diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome and
Roentgenological symptoms of skeleton and bone joints pathological changes in diseases of pituitary gland, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, genitals and adrenal glands are described. Modern data on hormone effect on growth, development and differentiation of bone tissue of various age periods are given. Information on anatomy, physiology and age-dependent roentgenoanatomy of locomotor system is presented. The book is of interest to endocrinologists, pediatrists, orthopedists
Ali, N.; Mohammed, F. S.; Bushra, M. M.; Babiker, A. H.; Hisham, M.
Malnutrition showed a high incidence among Sudanese children under five years of age. It affects directly the endocrine system of such children. In this the thyroid gland selected as a very important endocrine organ to be studied in 49 malnourished children under five years. Other 20 well- nourished children were selected to act as a control subjects . Both study and control groups were match for age and sex. The patients were seen and assessed for the disease in different hospital in Khartoum by consultant pediatrician. Thyroid function (thyroxineT4 and Triiodothyronine) was tested with a sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique. Some other biochemical parameters (hemoglobin Hb % total protein) were also investigated for the two groups (Patients and control) to confirm malnutrition. The means of the investigated parameters of the patients were compared with those of control group. The results showed 20 % of the malnourished children was complained of sever hypothyroidism (T4<25μmol/I) and (T3<0.3μmol/I) considering the normal range (55-142μmol/I) and (0.8-3μmol/I) respectively. The difference was highly significant together. The patients group showed low level in the two parameters, which indicate malnutrition. The the thyroid function in the malnourished children was severely affected by malnutrition, and such a test is strongly recommended to be a routine investigation for malnourished children. ( Author)
Suresh, Padmanaban S; Venkatesh, Thejaswini; Tsutsumi, Rie; Shetty, Abhishek
Contemporary molecular biology research tools have enriched numerous areas of biomedical research that address challenging diseases, including endocrine cancers (pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, testicular, ovarian, and neuroendocrine cancers). These tools have placed several intriguing clues before the scientific community. Endocrine cancers pose a major challenge in health care and research despite considerable attempts by researchers to understand their etiology. Microarray analyses have provided gene signatures from many cells, tissues, and organs that can differentiate healthy states from diseased ones, and even show patterns that correlate with stages of a disease. Microarray data can also elucidate the responses of endocrine tumors to therapeutic treatments. The rapid progress in next-generation sequencing methods has overcome many of the initial challenges of these technologies, and their advantages over microarray techniques have enabled them to emerge as valuable aids for clinical research applications (prognosis, identification of drug targets, etc.). A comprehensive review describing the recent advances in next-generation sequencing methods and their application in the evaluation of endocrine and endocrine-related cancers is lacking. The main purpose of this review is to illustrate the concepts that collectively constitute our current view of the possibilities offered by next-generation sequencing technological platforms, challenges to relevant applications, and perspectives on the future of clinical genetic testing of patients with endocrine tumors. We focus on recent discoveries in the use of next-generation sequencing methods for clinical diagnosis of endocrine tumors in patients and conclude with a discussion on persisting challenges and future objectives.
Chappell, V. A.; Fenton, S. E.; Flaws, J. A.; Nadal, A.; Prins, G. S.; Toppari, J.; Zoeller, R. T.
The Endocrine Society's first Scientific Statement in 2009 provided a wake-up call to the scientific community about how environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) affect health and disease. Five years later, a substantially larger body of literature has solidified our understanding of plausible mechanisms underlying EDC actions and how exposures in animals and humans—especially during development—may lay the foundations for disease later in life. At this point in history, we have much stronger knowledge about how EDCs alter gene-environment interactions via physiological, cellular, molecular, and epigenetic changes, thereby producing effects in exposed individuals as well as their descendants. Causal links between exposure and manifestation of disease are substantiated by experimental animal models and are consistent with correlative epidemiological data in humans. There are several caveats because differences in how experimental animal work is conducted can lead to difficulties in drawing broad conclusions, and we must continue to be cautious about inferring causality in humans. In this second Scientific Statement, we reviewed the literature on a subset of topics for which the translational evidence is strongest: 1) obesity and diabetes; 2) female reproduction; 3) male reproduction; 4) hormone-sensitive cancers in females; 5) prostate; 6) thyroid; and 7) neurodevelopment and neuroendocrine systems. Our inclusion criteria for studies were those conducted predominantly in the past 5 years deemed to be of high quality based on appropriate negative and positive control groups or populations, adequate sample size and experimental design, and mammalian animal studies with exposure levels in a range that was relevant to humans. We also focused on studies using the developmental origins of health and disease model. No report was excluded based on a positive or negative effect of the EDC exposure. The bulk of the results across the board strengthen the
Collombat, Patrick; Hecksher-Sørensen, Jacob; Serup, Palle; Mansouri, Ahmed
Cell replacement therapy could represent an attractive alternative to insulin injections for the treatment of diabetes. However, this approach requires a thorough understanding of the molecular switches controlling the specification of the different pancreatic cell-types in vivo. These are derived from an apparently identical pool of cells originating from the early gut endoderm, which are successively specified towards the pancreatic, endocrine, and hormone-expressing cell lineages. Numerous studies have outlined the crucial roles exerted by transcription factors in promoting the cell destiny, defining the cell identity and maintaining a particular cell fate. This review focuses on the mechanisms regulating the morphogenesis of the pancreas with particular emphasis on recent findings concerning the transcription factor hierarchy orchestrating endocrine cell fate allocation.
Langhans, Wolfgang; Holst, Jens Juul
The afferent endocrine factors that control eating can be separated into different categories. One obvious categorization is by the time course of their effects, with long-term factors that signal adiposity and short-term factors that operate within the time frame of single meals. The second...... obvious categorization is by the origin of the endocrine signalling molecules. The level of knowledge concerning the physiological mechanisms and relevance of the hormones that are implicated in the control of eating is clearly different. With the accumulating knowledge about the hormones' actions......, various criteria have been developed for when the effect of a hormone can be considered 'physiologic'. This chapter treats the hormones separately and categorizes them by origin. It discusses ALL hormones that are implicated in eating control such as Gastrointestinal (GI) hormone and glucagon-like peptide...
Milla, Carlos E; Zirbes, Jacquelyn
There are many important respiratory manifestations of endocrine and metabolic diseases in children. Acute and chronic pulmonary infections are the most common respiratory abnormalities in patients with diabetes mellitus, although cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema are also possible. Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 may be indistinguishable from cystic fibrosis (CF) unless serum aldosterone, plasma renin activity, and urinary electrolytes are measured and mutation analysis rules out CF. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism may alter lung function and affect the central respiratory drive. The thyroid hormone plays an essential role in lung development, surfactant synthesis, and lung defence. Complications of hypoparathyroidism are largely due to hypocalcaemia. Laryngospasm can lead to stridor and airway obstruction. Ovarian tumours, benign or malignant, may present with unilateral or bilateral pleural effusions. Metabolic storage disorders, primarily as a consequence of lysosomal dysfunction from enzymatic deficiencies, constitute a diverse group of rare conditions that can have profound effects on the respiratory system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background. Although an increasing burden of endocrine disorders is recorded worldwide, the greatest increase is occurring in developing countries. However, the spectrum of these disorders is not well described in most developing countries. Objective. The objective of this study was to profile the frequency of endocrine disorders and their basic demographic characteristics in an endocrine outpatient clinic in Kumasi, central Ghana. Methods. A retrospective review was conducted on endocrine disorders seen over a five-year period between January 2011 and December 2015 at the outpatient endocrine clinic of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. All medical records of patients seen at the endocrine clinic were reviewed by endocrinologists and all endocrinological diagnoses were classified according to ICD-10. Results. 3070 adults enrolled for care in the endocrine outpatient service between 2011 and 2015. This comprised 2056 females and 1014 males (female : male ratio of 2.0 : 1.0 with an overall median age of 54 (IQR, 41–64 years. The commonest primary endocrine disorders seen were diabetes, thyroid, and adrenal disorders at frequencies of 79.1%, 13.1%, and 2.2%, respectively. Conclusions. Type 2 diabetes and thyroid disorders represent by far the two commonest disorders seen at the endocrine clinic. The increased frequency and wide spectrum of endocrine disorders suggest the need for well-trained endocrinologists to improve the health of the population.
Feyer, P.; Titlbach, O.; Hoffmann, F.A.; Kubel, M.; Helbig, W.; Leipzig Univ.
Data regarding changes of endocrine parameters after total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are described. Endocrine glands are usually resistant to irradiation under morphological aspects. But new methods of determination and sensitive tests were developed in the last few years. Now it is possible to detect already small functional changes. Endocrine studies in the course of the disease were followed serially in 16 patients with TBI and BMT. Pretransplant conditioning consisted of single-dose irradiation combined with a high-dose, short-term chemotherapy. Reactions of the endocrine system showed a defined temporary order. Changes of ACTH and cortisol were in the beginning. The pituitary-adrenal cortex system responds in a different way. The pituitary-thyroid system develops a short-term 'low-T 3 -syndrome' reflecting the extreme stress of the organism. At the same time we obtained an increase of thyroxine. Testosterone and luteotropic hormone, the sexual steroids showed levels representing a primary gonadal insufficiency. The studies in the posttransplant period yielded a return to the normal range at most of the hormonal levels with the exception of the sexual steroids. Sterility is one of the late effects of TBI. A tendency towards hypothyroidism could be noticed in some cases being only subclinical forms. Reasons and possible therapy are discussed. (author)
Jeselsohn, Rinath; Cornwell, MacIntosh; Pun, Matthew; Buchwalter, Gilles; Nguyen, Mai; Bango, Clyde; Huang, Ying; Kuang, Yanan; Paweletz, Cloud; Fu, Xiaoyong; Nardone, Agostina; De Angelis, Carmine; Detre, Simone; Dodson, Andrew; Mohammed, Hisham; Carroll, Jason S; Bowden, Michaela; Rao, Prakash; Long, Henry W; Li, Fugen; Dowsett, Mitchell; Schiff, Rachel; Brown, Myles
The estrogen receptor (ER) drives the growth of most luminal breast cancers and is the primary target of endocrine therapy. Although ER blockade with drugs such as tamoxifen is very effective, a major clinical limitation is the development of endocrine resistance especially in the setting of metastatic disease. Preclinical and clinical observations suggest that even following the development of endocrine resistance, ER signaling continues to exert a pivotal role in tumor progression in the majority of cases. Through the analysis of the ER cistrome in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells, we have uncovered a role for an RUNX2-ER complex that stimulates the transcription of a set of genes, including most notably the stem cell factor SOX9, that promote proliferation and a metastatic phenotype. We show that up-regulation of SOX9 is sufficient to cause relative endocrine resistance. The gain of SOX9 as an ER-regulated gene associated with tamoxifen resistance was validated in a unique set of clinical samples supporting the need for the development of improved ER antagonists.
Elizaveta S. Taskina
Full Text Available Endocrine ophthalmopathy (EOP is a progressive autoimmune disease that affects soft retrobulbar tissues in thyroid gland diseases. The statistical data on this disease are presented. The review presents both generally accepted and alternative approaches to the diagnosis of EOP different stages. Detailed clinical symptoms, main severity and activity score classifications of EOP, the required list of physical and instrumental examinations are given. We described the diagnostic value of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, optical coherence tomography, Heidelberg Retina Tomography, radioisotope studies, triplex scanning of the major vessels of the eye, the Doppler mapping method, indocyanine-green angiography, as well as the histological examination of soft retrobulbar tissues biopsy in EOP. Generally accepted diagnostic methods of EOP have their disadvantages. Therefore, nowadays the promising direction is immunological, biochemical and genetic studies of EOP activity markers. The peculiarity of these methods in EOP diagnosis is an accuracy, possibility of multiple measurements, few side effects and a relatively low cost. Further studies of key mechanisms of the development of edema, leukocyte infiltration with subsequent formation of fibrosis of extraocular muscles and retrobulbar fiber in EOP is of significance, which may improve diagnostics of clinical complicated cases and initial stages of the disease.
Castanet, M; Wieliczko, M-C
Since the 20 last years, the median age of survival has dramatically improved in children suffering from cystic fibrosis and complications such as growth retardation, pubertal delay and low bone mineral density are now more often than not observed in affected adolescents. The severity of the disease and the poor nutritional status due to pancreatic insufficiency and malabsorption are commonly implicated but recent data suggest that the disease could also play a role though the alteration of the chlore chanel (CFTR). Furthermore an increase prevalence of glucose intolerance and diabetes due to the progressive β cells destruction is observed in these children that make the life sometimes difficult for these adolescents already affected by an heavy chronic disease. The monitoring of the children should thus now become pluridisciplinary and include regular clinical evaluation of height and pubertal status, mineral bone density by DEXA and OGTT every two years since 10 years of age. Therefore, in addition to the standard treatment of cystic fibrosis is now added the vitamin D supplementation, the subcutaneous insulin therapy and may be the growth hormone that could be a new therapeutic demonstrating beneficial effects in these chronic disease. However further studies need to be performed to improve the management of these new endocrine complications more and more frequent in children and adolescents suffering from cystic fibrosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Minder, Anna; Zulewski, Henryk
Endocrine hypertension offers a potentially curative therapy if the underlying cause is identified and treated accordingly. In contrast to the high prevalence of arterial hypertension especially in the elderly, the classical endocrine causes remain a rare entity. Among patients with arterial hypertension the prevalence of Cushing's syndrome or pheochromocytoma is less than 1%. Primary hyperaldosteronism is more frequent with a reported prevalence of up to 9%. In order to avoid unnecessary, costly and potentially harmful evaluations and therapies due to the limited sensitivity and specificity of the critical endocrine tests it is mandatory to limit the exploration for endocrine causes to preselected patients with high pretest probability for an endocrine disorder. Younger age at manifestation of arterial hypertension or drug resistant hypertension together with other clinical signs of an endocrine disorder should raise the suspicion and prompt the appropriate evaluation.
França, Katlein; Lotti, Torello M
Psycho-Neuro-Endocrine-Immunology (P.N.E.I.) is a scientific field of study that investigates the link between bidirectional communications among the nervous system, the endocrine system, and the immune system and the correlations of this cross-talk with physical health. The P.N.E.I. innovative medical approach represents a paradigm shift from a strictly biomedical view of health and disease taken as hermetically sealed compartments to a more interdisciplinary one. The key element of P.N.E.I. approach is represented by the concept of bidirectional cross-talk between the psychoneuroendocrine and immune systems. The Low Dose Medicine is one of the most promising approaches able to allow the researchers to design innovative therapeutic strategies for the treatment of skin diseases based on the rebalance of the immune response.
Støving, R K; Hangaard, J; Hagen, C
The marked endocrine changes that occur in anorexia nervosa have aroused a great deal of interest, and over the last decade much research has been conducted in this field. The endocrine disturbances are not specific to this disorder, as they also occur in starvation states secondary to other causes...... of the large body of literature concerning endocrine aspects of anorexia nervosa with the main focus on the latest results, which provide leads for potential etiological theories....
Tennvall, J.; Ljungberg, O.; Ahren, B.; Gustavsson, A.; Nillson, L.O.
Surgery, when possible, is the treatment of choice for the uncommon endocrine tumours of pancreas. Unresectable cases are usually treated with cytostatic drugs or α-interferon. We describe a patient with unresectable, locally advanced endocrine pancreatic carcinoma (measuring 5 x 5 x 6 cm) that was totally cured by external radiation therapy only (40 Gy). This case together with four cases in the literature indicate that external radiation therapy should be considered in locally unresectable endocrine pancreatic carcinomas. (author)
Mil'to, I V; Sukhodolo, I V; Gereng, E A; Shamardina, L A
This review describes the problems of disperse endocrine system and APUD-system morphology, summarizes some debatable issues of single endocrine cell biology. The data presented refer to the history of both systems discovery, morphological methods of their study, developmental sources, their structural organization and physiological roles of their cells. The significance of single endocrine cells in the regulation of the organism functions is discussed.
Barzon, Luisa; Boscaro, Marco; Palù, Giorgio
The field of cancer gene therapy is in continuous expansion, and technology is quickly moving ahead as far as gene targeting and regulation of gene expression are concerned. This review focuses on the endocrine aspects of gene therapy, including the possibility to exploit hormone and hormone receptor functions for regulating therapeutic gene expression, the use of endocrine-specific genes as new therapeutic tools, the effects of viral vector delivery and transgene expression on the endocrine system, and the endocrine response to viral vector delivery. Present ethical concerns of gene therapy and the risk of germ cell transduction are also discussed, along with potential lines of innovation to improve cell and gene targeting.
Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air. For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.
Elroy Patrick Weledji
Full Text Available Peptic ulcer disease may be a manifestation of symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism. A case of an intractable complicated peptic ulcer disease secondary to hypercalcaemia from multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A is presented. Hypercalcaemia should always be excluded as a cause of recurrent, or complicated peptic ulcer disease.
Engelking, L R
The endocrine pancreas is composed of nests of cells called the islets of Langerhans, which comprise only about 20% of pancreatic cell mass and secrete insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide. Insulin is anabolic, increasing storage of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids, while glucagon namely stimulates hepatic glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and ketogenesis. Somatostatin acts as a paracrine agent to inhibit both insulin and glucagon release, and, therefore, to modulate their output. This article explores factors controlling release of these hormones, as well as the way in which they affect fuel metabolism in the whole animal.
Nguyen, Dao Thi Thuy; van Noort, Danny; Jeong, In-Kyung; Park, Sungsu
The endocrine system is a collection of glands producing hormones which, among others, regulates metabolism, growth and development. One important group of endocrine diseases is diabetes, which is caused by a deficiency or diminished effectiveness of endogenous insulin. By using a microfluidic perfused 3D cell-culture chip, we developed an 'endocrine system on chip' to potentially be able to screen drugs for the treatment of diabetes by measuring insulin release over time. Insulin-secreting β-cells are located in the pancreas, while L-cells, located in the small intestines, stimulate insulin secretion. Thus, we constructed a co-culture of intestinal-pancreatic cells to measure the effect of glucose on the production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from the L-cell line (GLUTag) and insulin from the pancreatic β-cell line (INS-1). After three days of culture, both cell lines formed aggregates, exhibited 3D cell morphology, and showed good viability (>95%). We separately measured the dynamic profile of GLP-1 and insulin release at glucose concentrations of 0.5 and 20 mM, as well as the combined effect of GLP-1 on insulin production at these glucose concentrations. In response to glucose stimuli, GLUTag and INS-1 cells produced higher amounts of GLP-1 and insulin, respectively, compared to a static 2D cell culture. INS-1 combined with GLUTag cells exhibited an even higher insulin production in response to glucose stimulation. At higher glucose concentrations, the diabetes model on chip showed faster saturation of the insulin level. Our results suggest that the endocrine system developed in this study is a useful tool for observing dynamical changes in endocrine hormones (GLP-1 and insulin) in a glucose-dependent environment. Moreover, it can potentially be used to screen GLP-1 analogues and natural insulin and GLP-1 stimulants for diabetes treatment.
Clarke, Robert; Tyson, John J.; Dixon, J. Michael
Tumors that express detectable levels of the product of the ESR1 gene (estrogen receptor-α; ERα) represent the single largest molecular subtype of breast cancer. More women eventually die from ERα+ breast cancer than from either HER2+ disease (almost half of which also express ERα) and/or from triple negative breast cancer (ERα-negative, progesterone receptor-negative, and HER2-negative). Antiestrogens and aromatase inhibitors are largely indistinguishable from each other in their abilities to improve overall survival and almost 50% of ERα+ breast cancers will eventually fail one or more of these endocrine interventions. The precise reasons why these therapies fail in ERα+ breast cancer remain largely unknown. Pharmacogenetic explanations for Tamoxifen resistance are controversial. The role of ERα mutations in endocrine resistance remains unclear. Targeting the growth factors and oncogenes most strongly correlated with endocrine resistance has proven mostly disappointing in their abilities to improve overall survival substantially, particularly in the metastatic setting. Nonetheless, there are new concepts in endocrine resistance that integrate molecular signaling, cellular metabolism, and stress responses including endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) that provide novel insights and suggest innovative therapeutic targets. Encouraging evidence that drug combinations with CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors can extend recurrence free survival may yet translate to improvements in overall survival. Whether the improvements seen with immunotherapy in other cancers can be achieved in breast cancer remains to be determined, particularly for ERα+ breast cancers. This review explores the basic mechanisms of resistance to endocrine therapies, concluding with some new insights from systems biology approaches further implicating autophagy and the UPR in detail, and a brief discussion of exciting new avenues and future prospects. PMID:26455641
Bright, Emma E; Petrie, Keith J; Partridge, Ann H; Stanton, Annette L
The treatment of chronic illness, and the prevention of disease progression and recurrence, often involve long-term adherence to prescription medications in breast cancer. Despite the survival benefit of endocrine therapies, nonadherence remains high. In this study, we examined barriers to and facilitators of endocrine therapy adherence among women with breast cancer (n = 1371). Participants currently taking tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors were recruited from Dr. Susan Love Research Foundation's Army of Women(®) Registry. Participants responded online to open-ended and close-ended questions about thoughts, feelings, and behaviors relevant to endocrine therapy. Two weeks later, women were invited to complete a second online questionnaire regarding current endocrine therapy adherence. Approximately one-third (36 %) of participants reported the presence of factors that make endocrine therapy difficult; reporting any barrier to medication adherence was significantly associated with nonadherence (P adhere and the use of cognitive self-talk (e.g., thoughts regarding endocrine therapy efficacy) was related to higher adherence. Hierarchical linear regressions revealed a significant behavioral barrier × behavioral facilitator interaction (P behavioral barrier in the absence of a behavioral facilitator reported the lowest adherence. Findings suggest that a sizeable minority of women face barriers to taking endocrine therapy, which are associated with nonadherence.
Full Text Available The human eye, as an organ, can offer critical clues to the diagnosis of various systemic illnesses. Ocular changes are common in various endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus and Graves′ disease. However there exist a large number of lesser known endocrine disorders where ocular involvement is significant. Awareness of these associations is the first step in the diagnosis and management of these complex patients. The rare syndromes involving the pituitary hypothalamic axis with significant ocular involvement include Septo-optic dysplasia, Kallman′s syndrome, and Empty Sella syndrome all affecting the optic nerve at the optic chiasa. The syndromes involving the thyroid and parathyroid glands that have ocular manifestations and are rare include Mc Cune Albright syndrome wherein optic nerve decompression may occur due to fibrous dysplasia, primary hyperparathyroidism that may present as red eye due to scleritis and Ascher syndrome wherein ptosis occurs. Allgrove′s syndrome, Cushing′s disease, and Addison′s disease are the rare endocrine syndromes discussed involving the adrenals and eye. Ocular involvement is also seen in gonadal syndromes such as Bardet Biedl, Turner′s, Rothmund′s, and Klinefelter′s syndrome. This review also highlights the ocular manifestation of miscellaneous syndromes such as Werner′s, Cockayne′s, Wolfram′s, Kearns Sayre′s, and Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome. The knowledge of these relatively uncommon endocrine disorders and their ocular manifestations will help an endocrinologist reach a diagnosis and will alert an ophthalmologist to seek specialty consultation of an endocrinologist when encountered with such cases.
Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J.L.; Taat, C.W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W.H.; Becker, A.E.
In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were quantified by counting their number per unit length of muscularis mucosa. Results in radiation enteritis were compared with matched control specimens by using Student's t test. Chromogranin immunostaining showed a statistically significant increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis specimens compared with controls both in small and large intestine (ileum, 67.5 +/- 23.5 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 17.0 +/- 6.1 in controls; colon, 40.9 +/- 13.7 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 9.5 +/- 4.1 in controls--p less than 0.005 in both instances). Increase of endocrine cells was demonstrated also by Grimelius' staining; however, without reaching statistical significance. It is not clear whether or not the increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis reported in this study is caused by a hyperplastic response or by a sparing phenomenon. We should consider that increased endocrine cells, when abnormally secreting their products, may be involved in some of the clinical features of radiation enteropathy. In addition, as intestinal endocrine cells produce trophic substances to the intestine, their increase could be responsible for the raised risk of developing carcinoma of the intestine in long standing radiation enteritis
There are wide application of PET in endocrine tumors, including thyroid cancer, parathyroid adenoma, pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma. Many papers concluded that in diagnosing endocrine tumors, PET does not show apparent advantages comparing with traditional radionuclide imaging methods. But as a useful complementary method, its clinical value has been recognized
Romijn, J. A.; Smit, J. W. A.; Lamberts, S. W. J.
Hormonal substitution therapy has been extremely successful, with respect to morbidity and mortality, in the treatment of the major syndromes of endocrine insufficiency. However, many patients treated for endocrine insufficiencies still suffer from more or less vague complaints and a decreased
Fontein, Duveken Berthe Yvonne
This thesis describes several important aspects of adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-sensitive, early-stage breast cancer. In our ongoing efforts to tailor treatment so as to provide the best possible care to each of our patients, we studied the influence of various
... 2011 survey of clinical practice patterns in the management of Graves' disease. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2012 Dec;97( ... 30 a.m. to 5 p.m. eastern time, M-F Follow Us NIH… Turning Discovery Into ... Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...
Jonas, K C; Hanyaloglu, A C
The fine-tuning of endocrine homeostasis is regulated by dynamic receptor mediated processes. The superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have diverse roles in the modulation of all endocrine axes, thus understanding the mechanisms underpinning their functionality is paramount for treatment of endocrinopathies. Evidence over the last 20 years has highlighted homo and heteromerization as a key mode of mediating GPCR functional diversity. This review will discuss the concept of GPCR heteromerization and its relevance to endocrine function, detailing in vitro and in vivo evidence, and exploring current and potential pharmacological strategies for specific targeting of GPCR heteromers in endocrine heath and disease. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
El-Salhy, Magdy; Hausken, Trygve; Gilja, Odd Helge; Hatlebakk, Jan Gunnar
The etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is unknown, but several factors appear to play a role in its pathophysiology, including abnormalities of the gastrointestinal endocrine cells. The present review illuminates the possible role of gastrointestinal hormones in the pathophysiology of IBS and the possibility of utilizing the current knowledge in treating the disease. Areas covered: Research into the intestinal endocrine cells and their possible role in the pathophysiology of IBS is discussed. Furthermore, the mechanisms underlying the abnormalities in the gastrointestinal endocrine cells in IBS patients are revealed. Expert commentary: The abnormalities observed in the gastrointestinal endocrine cells in IBS patients explains their visceral hypersensitivity, gastrointestinal dysmotility, and abnormal intestinal secretion, as well as the interchangeability of symptoms over time. Clarifying the role of the intestinal stem cells in the pathophysiology of IBS may lead to new treatment methods for IBS.
Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism may occur as a part of an inherited syndrome in a combination with pancreatic endocrine tumours and/or pituitary adenoma, which is classified as Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1. This syndrome is caused by a germline mutation in MEN-1 gene encoding a tumour-suppressor protein, menin. Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most frequent clinical presentation of MEN-1, which usually appears in the second decade of life as an asymptomatic hypercalcemia and progresses through the next decades. The most frequent clinical presentation of MEN-1-associated primary hyperparathyroidism is bone demineralisation and recurrent kidney stones rarely followed by chronic kidney disease. The aim of this paper is to present the pathomechanism, screening procedures, diagnosis, and management of primary hyperparathyroidism in the MEN-1 syndrome. It also summarises the recent advances in the pharmacological therapy with a new group of drugs—calcimimetics.
Diabetes is a chronic and incurable disease, which results from absolute or relative insulin insufficiency. Therefore, pancreatic beta cells, which are the only type of cell that expresses insulin, is considered to be a potential target for the cure of diabetes. Although the findings regarding beta-cell neogenesis during pancreas development have been exploited to induce insulin-producing cells from non-beta cells, there are still many hurdles towards generating fully functional beta cells that can produce high levels of insulin and respond to physiological signals. To overcome these problems, a solid understanding of pancreas development and beta-cell formation is required, and several mouse models have been developed to reveal the unique features of each endocrine cell type at distinct developmental time points. Here I review our understanding of pancreas development and endocrine differentiation focusing on recent progresses in improving temporal cell labeling in vivo.
Furuya, Yuzo; Akakura, Koichiro; Ichikawa, Tomohiko; Igarashi, Tatsuo; Ito, Haruo; Tanaka, Masashi; Murakami, Shino
Long-term results were analyzed to evaluate the role of endocrine therapy in the management of local and distant recurrence of prostate cancer following external radiation therapy. Between 1976 and 1994, 92 patients with untreated prostate cancer underwent external beam radiation therapy alone. Endocrine therapy had been started when relapse was evident. Failure was seen in 35 of 92 patients: 10 local, 19 distant and six biochemical failures. Endocrine treatment was performed in 28 patients with nine local and 19 distant failures. The cancer-specific survival rate from the endocrine treatment was 54.5% at 5 years. Prostate-specific antigen level in 20 of 20 patients (100%) decreased to below the normal limit 3 months after the start of endocrine therapy. In univariate analysis, T classification was the most significant variable for cancer-specific survival from the initial treatment. A favorable outcome was achieved by endocrine therapy in patients who had relapsed after external beam radiation monotherapy. Even the recurrent tumor had a sensitivity to androgen. Patients with locally advanced disease (T2b and T3) had poorer prognosis than those with minimally extended disease (T1b and T2a). (author)
Full Text Available Incremental advances in medical technology, such as the development of sensitive hormonal assays for routine clinical care, are the drivers of medical progress. This principle is exemplified by the creation of the concept of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, encompassing medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma, and primary hyperparathyroidism, which did not emerge before the early 1960s. This review sets out to highlight key achievements, such as joint biochemical and DNA-based screening of individuals at risk of developing multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, before casting a spotlight on current challenges which include: (i ill-defined upper limits of calcitonin assays for infants and young children, rendering it difficult to implement the biochemical part of the integrated DNA-based/biochemical concept; (ii our increasingly mobile society in which different service providers are caring for one individual at various stages in the disease process. With familial relationships disintegrating as a result of geographic dispersion, information about the history of the origin family may become sketchy or just unavailable. This is when DNA-based gene tests come into play, confirming or excluding an individual's genetic predisposition to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 even before there is any biochemical or clinical evidence of the disease. However, the unrivaled molecular genetic progress in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 does not come without a price. Screening may uncover unknown gene sequence variants representing either harmless polymorphisms or pathogenic mutations. In this setting, functional characterization of mutant cells in vitro may generate helpful ancillary evidence with regard to the pathogenicity of gene variants in comparison with established mutations.
Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne
Summary Anorexia nervosa (AN) is prevalent in adolescents and young adults, and endocrine changes include hypothalamic amenorrhea, a nutritionally acquired growth hormone resistance with low insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), relative hypercortisolemia, decreases in leptin, insulin, amylin and incretins, and increases in ghrelin, PYY and adiponectin. These changes in turn have deleterious effects on bone, and may affect neurocognition, anxiety, depression and eating disorder psychopathology. Low bone density is particularly concerning; clinical fractures occur and changes in both bone microarchitecture and strength estimates have been reported. Recovery causes improvement of many, but not all, hormonal changes, and deficits in bone accrual may persist despite recovery. Physiologic, primarily transdermal, estrogen replacement increases bone density in adolescents, although catch-up is incomplete. In adults, oral estrogen co-administered with rhIGF-1 in one study, and bisphosphonates in another increased bone density, though not to normal. More studies are necessary to determine the optimal therapeutic approach in AN. PMID:24731664
Boutzios, Georgios; Livadas, Sarantis; Marinakis, Evangelos; Opie, Nicole; Economou, Frangiskos; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia
Wolfram syndrome (WS), also known as DIDMOAD (Diabetes Insipidus, Diabetes Mellitus, Optic Atrophy and Deafness), is a neurodegenerative disease with autosomal recessive inheritance with incomplete penetrance. DIDMOAD is a very rare disease with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 770,000 and it is believed to occur in 1 of 150 patients with juvenile-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Additionally, WS may also present with different endocrine and metabolic abnormalities such as anterior and posterior pituitary gland dysfunction. This mini-review summarizes the variable presentation of WS and the need of screening for other metabolic and hormonal abnormalities, coexisting in this rare syndrome.
Bonett, Ronald M
Analyzing variation in rates of evolution can provide important insights into the factors that constrain trait evolution, as well as those that promote diversification. Metazoan endocrine systems exhibit apparent variation in evolutionary rates of their constituent components at multiple levels, yet relatively few studies have quantified these patterns and analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. This may be in part due to historical and current data limitations for many endocrine components and taxonomic groups. However, recent technological advancements such as high-throughput sequencing provide the opportunity to collect large-scale comparative data sets for even non-model species. Such ventures will produce a fertile data landscape for evolutionary analyses of nucleic acid and amino acid based endocrine components. Here I summarize evolutionary rate analyses that can be applied to categorical and continuous endocrine traits, and also those for nucleic acid and protein-based components. I emphasize analyses that could be used to test whether other variables (e.g., ecology, ontogenetic timing of expression, etc.) are related to patterns of rate variation and endocrine component diversification. The application of phylogenetic-based rate analyses to comparative endocrine data will greatly enhance our understanding of the factors that have shaped endocrine system evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I or Wermer syndrome is characterized by primary hyperparathyroidism, enteropancreatic endocrine tumor, and a pituitary pathology. A 35-year-old male presented with visual field defects, hyperprolactinemia, and hypogonadism. He also had multiple infraumbilical skin-colored nodules. A syndromal association of Wermer syndrome was derived using the dermal, pituitary, parathyroid, and gastrointestinal hormonal manifestations of the tumor. The radiological and histological findings of lesion which underwent biopsy are discussed. The presence of collagenomas, lipomas, and hypopigmented macules in a patient with neuroendocrine symptoms should raise the suspicion of an underlying multiple endocrine neoplasia.
Homeostasis of immune-endocrine-neural axis is paramount for human health. If this axis gets agitated due to age, genetic variations, environmental exposures or lifestyle assaults, a cascade of adverse reactions occurs in human body. Cytokines, hormones and neurotransmitters, the effector molecules of this axis behave erratically, leading to a gamut of neural, endocrine, autoimmune, and metabolic diseases. Current panel of drugs can tackle some of them but not in a sustainable, benign way as a myriad of side effects, causal of them have been documented. In this context, phytochemicals, the secondary metabolites of plants seem beneficial. These bioactive constituents encompassing polyphenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, lignans, stilbenoids (resveratrol), saponins, polysaccharides, glycosides, and lectins etc. have been proven to exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, hypotensive, antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulatory, anti-allergic, analgesic, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, dermatoprotective, and antimicrobial properties, among a litany of other biological effects. This review presents a holistic perspective of common afflictions resultant of immune-endocrine-neural axis disruption, and the phytochemicals capable of restoring their normalcy and mitigating the ailments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Lim, Pei-Wen; Dinh, Kate H; Sullivan, Mary; Wassef, Wahid Y; Zivny, Jaroslav; Whalen, Giles F; LaFemina, Jennifer
Long-term incidence of endocrine and exocrine insufficiency after pancreatectomy is poorly described. We analyze the long-term risks of pancreatic insufficiency after pancreatectomy. Subjects who underwent pancreatectomy from 2002 to 2012 were identified from a prospective database (n = 227). Subjects who underwent total pancreatectomy or pancreatitis surgery were excluded. New post-operative endocrine and exocrine insufficiency was defined as the need for new pharmacologic intervention within 1000 days from resection. 28 (16%) of 178 subjects without pre-existing endocrine insufficiency developed post-operative endocrine insufficiency: 7 (25%) did so within 30 days, 8 (29%) between 30 and 90 days, and 13 (46%) after 90 days. 94 (43%) of 214 subjects without pre-operative exocrine insufficiency developed exocrine insufficiency: 20 (21%) did so within 30 days, 29 (31%) between 30 and 90 days, and 45 (48%) after 90 days. Adjuvant radiation was associated with new endocrine insufficiency. On multivariate regression, pancreaticoduodenectomy and chemotherapy were associated with a greater risk of exocrine insufficiency. Reporting 30-day functional outcomes for pancreatic resection is insufficient, as nearly 45% of subjects who develop disease do so after 90 days. Reporting of at least 90-day outcomes may more reliably assess risk for post-operative endocrine and exocrine insufficiency. Copyright © 2016 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Juul, Anders; Franssen, Delphine
Debate makes science progress. In the field of endocrine disruption, endocrinology has brought up findings that substantiate a specific perspective on the definition of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the role of the endocrine system and the endpoints of hormone and EDC actions among other...... issues. This paper aims at discussing the relevance of the endocrine perspective with regard to EDC effects on pubertal timing. Puberty involves particular sensitivity to environmental conditions. Reports about the advancing onset of puberty in several countries have led to the hypothesis...
Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa
Full Text Available Endocrine emergencies pose unique challenges for the attending intensivist while managing critically ill patients. Besides taking care of primary disease state, one has to divert an equal attention to the possible associated endocrinopathies also. One of the common reasons for inability to timely diagnose an endocrinal failure in critically ill patients being the dominance of other severe systemic diseases and their clinical presentation. The timely diagnosis and administration of therapeutic interventions for these endocrine disorders can improve the outcome in critically ill patients. The timely diagnosis and administration of timely therapeutics in common endocrine disorders like severe thyroid disease, acute adrenal insufficiency and diabetic ketoacidosis significantly influence the outcome and prognosis. Careful evaluation of clinical history and a high degree of suspicion are the corner stone to diagnose such problems. Aggressive management of the patient is equally important as the complications are devastating and can prove highly fatal. The present article is an attempt to review some of the common endocrine emergencies in intensive care unit and the challenges associated with their diagnosis and management.
This review analyzes what could be regarded as the "clandestine organs" of the endocrine system: the gut microbiome, the immune system, and the stress system. The immune system is very closely related to the endocrine system, with many intertwined processes and signals. Many researchers now consider the microbiome as an 'organ' that affects the organism at many different levels. While stress is certainly not an organ, it affects so many processes, including endocrine-related processes, that the stress response system deserved a special section in this review. Understanding the connections, effects, and feedback mechanisms between the different "clandestine organs" and the endocrine system will provide us with a better understanding of how an organism functions, as well as reinforce the idea that there are no independent organs or systems, but a complex, interacting network of molecules, cells, tissues, signaling pathways, and mechanisms that constitute an individual. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Taboureau, Olivier; Oprea, Tudor I.
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) alter hormonal balance and other physiological systems through inappropriate developmental or adult exposure, perturbing the reproductive function of further generations. While disruption of key receptors (e.g., estrogen, androgen, and thyroid) at the ligand...
V. G. Likhvantseva
Full Text Available The authors analyzed the hormonal profile of patients with Graves’ disease and endocrine orbitopathy with or without autoimmune dacryoadenitis. Presented compelling evidence about the role of hormonal imbalance between thyreoglobulines and thyroidstimulating hormones in the development of autoimmune dacryoadenitis. The availability of this kind of imbalance increases the risk of involvement of lacrimal gland in the pathological process with 12.3 % up to 64.3 % in the population with Graves’ disease and endocrine orbitopathy.
Kristensen, David M.; Skalkam, Maria L.; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure
Background: Prostaglandins (PGs) play key roles in development and maintenance of homeostasis of the adult body. Despite these important roles, it remains unclear whether the PG pathway is a target for endocrine disruption. However, several known endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) share a high...... suggest a hitherto unknown mode of action by EDCs through inhibition of the PG pathway and suggest new avenues to investigate effects of EDCs on reproductive and immunological disorders that have become increasingly common in recent decades....
Dysbaric osteonecrosis (caisson disease of bone): are active oxygen species and the endocrine system responsible, and can control of the production of free radicals and their reaction products confer protection?
Jones, G R
The development of osteonecrosis after exposure to altered air pressures is consistent with cellular injury brought about by active oxygen species. The syndrome is considered to arise as a result of an unusual combination of circumstances in which hyperoxia itself, together with the additive responses of the endocrine system to hyperoxia, hypothermia and exertion, each appear to play a part; the net result is thought to increase the mitochondrial generation of superoxide. It is suggested that effective prophylaxis may be possible primarily by establishing a nutritional status that is adequate to ensure that the functional activities of radical-scavenging systems are not hampered by deficiencies either of essential trace elements or of vitamin E. Pharmacological pretreatments designed both to decrease excessive levels of superoxide through increased catalysis of anionic dismutation and to attenuate enzyme-dependent peroxidation may provide an additional line of defence.
Plisetskaya, E M
From the very beginning of physiological studies on the endocine pancreas, fish have been used as experimental subjects. Fish insulin was one of the first vertebrate insulins isolated and one of the first insulins whose primary and then tertiary structures were reported. Before a second pancreatic hormone, glucagon, was characterized, a physiologically active 'impurity', similar to that in mammalian insulin preparations, was found in fish insulins.Fish have become the most widely used model for studies of biosynthesis and processing of the pancreatic hormones. It seems inconceivable, therefore, that until the recent past cod and tuna insulins have been the only purified piscine islet hormones available for physiological experiments. The situation has changed remarkably during the last decade.In this review the contemporary status of physiological studies on the fish pancreas is outlined with an emphasis on the following topics: 1) contents of pancreatic peptides in plasma and in islet tissue; 2) actions of piscine pancreatic hormones in fish; 3) specific metabolic consequences of an acute insufficiency of pancreatic peptides; 4) functional interrelations among pancreatic peptides which differ from those of mammals. The pitfalls, lacunae and the perspectives of contemporary physiological studies on fish endocrine pancreas are outlined.
Increasing numbers of environmental chemicals,including pesticides, have the ability to produce endocrine disruption by various mechanisms. such substances may affect hormone secretion from an endocrine gland and may alter the rate of hormone elimination from the body. environmental chemicals may also disrupt regulatory feedback mechanisms that exist between two endocrine organs; or may interact with a hormone receptor either by mimicking or antagonizing the actions of the natural hormone. these chemicals are referred to endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDC's). EDC's act to alter the blood hormone levels or the subsequent action of hormones . the use of radioimmunoassay(RIA) constitutes a superior and unrivalled tool for the determination and quantification of hormones.the endocrine system participates in virtually all important functions of an organism, such as sexual differentiation before birth, sexual maturation during puberty, reproduction in adulthood, growth, metabolism, digestion, cardiovascular function and excretion. hormones are also implicated in the etiology of certain cancers of hormone- dependent tissues, such as those of the breast, uterus, and prostate gland. therefore, endocrine disruption can potentially produce widespread effects. scientists should not stick to the past belief which presumes that pesticides have limited effect on some hormones. A paradigm shift in which a wider vision of understanding of the wholesome complex effects of pesticides on the whole body rather than a narrow limited understanding should take place
Guillette, Louis J.
Descriptions of endocrine disruption have largely been associated with wildlife and driven by observations documenting estrogenic, androgenic, antiandrogenic, and antithyroid actions. These actions, in response to exposure to ecologically relevant concentrations of various environmental contaminants, have now been established in numerous vertebrate species. However, many potential mechanisms and endocrine actions have not been studied. For example, the DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] metabolite, p,p′-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] is known to disrupt prostaglandin synthesis in the uterus of birds, providing part of the explanation for DDT-induced egg shell thinning. Few studies have examined prostaglandin synthesis as a target for endocrine disruption, yet these hormones are active in reproduction, immune responses, and cardiovascular physiology. Future studies must broaden the basic science approach to endocrine disruption, thereby expanding the mechanisms and endocrine end points examined. This goal should be accomplished even if the primary influence and funding continue to emphasize a narrower approach based on regulatory needs. Without this broader approach, research into endocrine disruption will become dominated by a narrow dogma, focusing on a few end points and mechanisms. PMID:16818240
... Peer Support Resources Diseases and Conditions Adrenal Disorders Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Men's Health Rare Diseases Pituitary Disorders Thyroid Disorders Transgender Health Obesity and Weight Management Women's Health You and Your ...
Quagliariello, Vincenzo; Rossetti, Sabrina; Cavaliere, Carla; Di Palo, Rossella; Lamantia, Elvira; Castaldo, Luigi; Nocerino, Flavia; Ametrano, Gianluca; Cappuccio, Francesca; Malzone, Gabriella; Montanari, Micaela; Vanacore, Daniela; Romano, Francesco Jacopo; Piscitelli, Raffaele; Iovane, Gelsomina; Pepe, Maria Filomena; Berretta, Massimiliano; D'Aniello, Carmine; Perdonà, Sisto; Muto, Paolo; Botti, Gerardo; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Veneziani, Bianca Maria; De Falco, Francesco; Maiolino, Piera; Caraglia, Michele; Montella, Maurizio; Iaffaioli, Rosario Vincenzo; Facchini, Gaetano
This review summarizes the main pathophysiological basis of the relationship between metabolic syndrome, endocrine disruptor exposure and prostate cancer that is the most common cancer among men in industrialized countries. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic and hormonal factors having a central role in the initiation and recurrence of many western chronic diseases including hormonal-related cancers and it is considered as the worlds leading health problem in the coming years. Many biological factors correlate metabolic syndrome to prostate cancer and this review is aimed to focus, principally, on growth factors, cytokines, adipokines, central obesity, endocrine abnormalities and exposure to specific endocrine disruptors, a cluster of chemicals, to which we are daily exposed, with a hormone-like structure influencing oncogenes, tumor suppressors and proteins with a key role in metabolism, cell survival and chemo-resistance of prostate cancer cells. Finally, this review will analyze, from a molecular point of view, how specific foods could reduce the relative risk of incidence and recurrence of prostate cancer or inhibit the biological effects of endocrine disruptors on prostate cancer cells. On the basis of these considerations, prostate cancer remains a great health problem in terms of incidence and prevalence and interventional studies based on the treatment of metabolic syndrome in cancer patients, minimizing exposure to endocrine disruptors, could be a key point in the overall management of this disease. PMID:28389628
Trifanescu, Raluca; Carsote, Mara; Caragheorgheopol, Andra; Hortopan, Dan; Dumitrascu, Anda; Dobrescu, Mariana; Poiana, Catalina
Secondary endocrine hypertension accounts for 5-12% of hypertension's causes. In selected patients (type 2 diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea syndrome with resistant hypertension, sudden deterioration in hypertension control), prevalence could be higher. To present etiology of endocrine secondary hypertension in a series of patients younger than 40 years at hypertension's onset. Medical records of 80 patients (39M/41F), aged 30.1 ± 8.2 years (range: 12-40 years), with maximum systolic blood pressure=190.4 ± 29.2 mm Hg, range: 145-300 mm Hg, maximum diastolic blood pressure=107.7 ± 16.9 mm Hg, range: 80-170 mm Hg) referred by cardiologists for endocrine hypertension screening were retrospectively reviewed. Cardiac and renal causes of secondary hypertension were previously excluded. In all patients, plasma catecholamines were measured by ELISA and plasma cortisol by immunochemiluminescence. Orthostatic aldosterone (ELISA) and direct renin (chemiluminescence) were measured in 48 patients. Secondary endocrine hypertension was confirmed in 16 out of 80 patients (20%). Primary hyperaldosteronism was diagnosed in 7 (4M/3F) out of 48 screened patients (14.6%). i.e. 8.75% from whole group: 5 patients with adrenal tumors (3 left/2 right), 2 patients with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia; all patients were hypokalemic at diagnostic (average nadir K+ levels = 2.5 ± 0.5 mmol/L); four patients were hypokalaemic on diuretic therapy (indapamidum); other 3 patients were hypokalaemic in the absence of diuretic therapy. Cushing's syndrome was diagnosed in 6 patients (7.5%): subclinical Cushing due to 4 cm right adrenal tumour - n = 1, overt ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to: macronodular adrenal hyperplasia associated with primary hyperparathyroidism - n = 1; due to adrenal carcinoma - n = 1; due to adrenal adenomas - n = 2; Cushing's disease - n = 1). Pheochromocytomas were diagnosed in 3 patients (3.75%). Primary hyperaldosteronism was the most frequent cause of secondary
Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M; Stojilkovic, Stanko S
Adenosine-5'-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5'-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5'-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5'-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5'-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M.; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.
Adenosine-5′-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5′-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5′-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5′-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5′-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling. PMID:25960051
Wu, Deqing; Xu, Yaping; Zeng, Yue; Wang, Xingpeng
This study aimed to investigate the impairment of pancreatic endocrine function and the associated risk factors after acute pancreatitis (AP). Fifty-nine patients were subjected to tests of pancreatic function after an attack of pancreatitis. The mean time after the event was 3.5 years. Pancreatic endocrine function was evaluated by fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting blood insulin, and C-peptide. Homeostasis model assessment was used to evaluate insulin resistance and islet β-cell function. Pancreatic exocrine function was evaluated by fecal elastase 1. Factors that could influence endocrine function were also investigated. Nineteen patients (32%) were found to have elevated FBG, whereas 5 (8%) had abnormal glycosylated hemoglobin levels. The levels of FBG, fasting blood insulin, and C-peptide were higher in patients than in controls (P endocrine insufficiency. Pancreatic exocrine functional impairment was found at the same time. Endocrine functional impairment with insulin resistance was found in patients after AP. Obesity, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes-related symptoms increased the likelihood of developing functional impairment after AP.
Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is a condition of reduced production, distribution, or absence of action of thyroid hormones. Clinical diagnosis of hypothyroidism is not easily established due to the nonspecific clinical manifestations. Determination of serum TSH is the first-line test for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism. The aim of the study was to determine the presence of other endocrine disorders in patients with subclinical (TSH levels between 5 and 10 mIU/l, or clinical (TSH above 10 mIU/l hypothyrodism. We analyzed 50 patients (35 with clinical hypothyroidism and 15 with subclinical form. In all patients anthropometric data (age, sex, weight, height, body mass index, blood pressure and heart rate, and clinical signs of hypothyroidism (skin changes, menstrual disorders were determined. Blood was drawn in fasting state for measurement of FT4, sTSH, glucose, lipids, ionized calcium, PTH, cortisol, ACTH, prolactin, gonadotropins, estradiol in women of reproductive age, and testosterone in men. Skin lesions were rarely present. Oligomenorrhea was more frequent in subclinical hypothyroidism, and menopause in clinical hypothyroidism. Blood pressure was normal in all subjects. Patients with clinical hypothyroidism compared to those with subclinical form had higher TSH values (19.5 ± 5.7 vs. 5.9 ± 0.3 mIU/l, and higher doses of L-thyroxine (81.2 ± 4.6 vs. 21.4 ± 3.5 μg/day. Disturbance of glycemic control was present in 18% of patients. Total cholesterol and LDL were insignificantly higher in patients with hypothyroidism than in subclinical form of the disease. FT4, calcium, PTH, cortisol, ACTH, gonadotropins, estradiol and testosterone did not differ between groups. The proatherogenic relation of estradiol with triglycerides was established in women with clinical form of hypothyroidism.
Febbraio, M.A.; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund
Skeletal muscle has recently been identified as an endocrine organ. It has, therefore, been suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and exert paracrine, autocrine, or endocrine effects should be classified as "myokines." Recent...... period when insulin action is enhanced but, on the other hand, IL-6 has been associated with obesity and reduced insulin action. This review focuses on the myokine IL-6, its regulation by exercise, its signaling pathways in skeletal muscle, and its role in metabolism in both health and disease...
Pedersen, Bente K
Skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ that produces and releases myokines in response to contraction. Some myokines are likely to work in a hormone-like fashion, exerting specific endocrine effects on other organs such as the liver, the brain, and the fat. Other myokines will work locally via......, technological, and scholarly horizons. This finding represents a breakthrough within integrative physiology and contributes to our understanding of why regular exercise protects against a wide range of chronic diseases. Thus the myokine field provides a conceptual basis for the molecular mechanisms underlying...
Boberg, Julie; Mandrup, Karen; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold
Dietary phytoestrogens may prevent certain human diseases, but endocrine activity has been reported in animal studies. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed perinatally to a 1-, 10- or 100-fold “high human dietary intake” mixture of 12 phytoestrogens consisting of mainly the lignan secoisolarici resinol...... genes in testis and prostate were unaffected. Decreased serum estradiol was seen in genistein-exposed dams. This study indicated adverse effects at high intake levels in rats, but does not provide evidence for risk of phytoestrogen-mediated endocrine disruption at normal human dietary consumption levels...
Yuzhakov, V.V.; Yakovleva, N.D.; Kvetnoj, I.M.; Ulitina, E.D.
The paper presents the results of histochemical, electronmicroscopic and radioautographic analysis of the effects of a total single gamma irradiation on the functional morphology of cells of the diffuse endocrine system of the gastrointestinal tract of rats and mice. Irradiation in dosses from 5 to 20 Gy results in reduction of the detectability of argyrophilic and argentaffine cells. Changes in these cells counts are related to the irradiation dose. The reaction observed early after the irradiation is related to changes in the endocrine and endoplasmatic reticulum
Bergman, Åke; Becher, Georg; Blumberg, Bruce
We present a detailed response to the critique of "State of the Science of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 2012" (UNEP/WHO, 2013) by financial stakeholders, authored by Lamb et al. (2014). Lamb et al.'s claim that UNEP/WHO (2013) does not provide a balanced perspective on endocrine disruption......) report is not particularly erudite and that their critique is not intended to be convincing to the scientific community, but to confuse the scientific data. Consequently, it promotes misinterpretation of the UNEP/WHO (2013) report by non-specialists, bureaucrats, politicians and other decision makers...
Bergman, Åke; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Becher, Georg
The "common sense" intervention by toxicology journal editors regarding proposed European Union endocrine disrupter regulations ignores scientific evidence and well-established principles of chemical risk assessment. In this commentary, endocrine disrupter experts express their concerns about a r...
E. V. Sibirskaya
Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the endocrine profile condition in adolescent girls with abnormal uterine bleeding. Patients and methods: The participants of the study were 110 adolescent girls in the age between 11 and 15 years taken to hospital by emergency indication in the period between 2010–2013 years with dysfunctional uterine bleeding for the term from 3 to 48 days. In the first day of hospitalization before starting the hormonal therapy all patients underwent the physical examination, ultrasonic examination of pelvic organs and endocrine profile assessment. Concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH and the levels of mammotropic hormone, thyrotropic hormone, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone in their blood were determined. Besides that physicians assessed the complete blood count indices: hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte number and hematocrits. Results: It was determined that the predisposing causes of abnormal uterine bleeding development in adolescents: high somatic pathology frequency, abnormalities of neuroendocrinal system and menstrual cycle. Gynecological pathology in adolescents is represented by significant disorders of menstrual function establishment expressed in the later beginning of menstruation, its intensity and duration. The authors also note the higher frequency of inflammatory diseases such as adnexitis, edeitis, vulvovaginitis and coleitis in comparison with the control group (37.3 and 30%, respectively. Another tendency was observed while studying the endocrine profile: in patients with hyperestrogenism the normal or increased content of FSH at the normal or lowered LH concentration is observed. At the same time, in patients with hypestrogenism FSH concentration at the lower limits of the age group is lowered, while LH concentration is lowered or normal. Conclusion: Abnormal uterine bleeding in adolescents in the most cases is developing in the setting
Full Text Available Objective: To define frequency and risk factors of abnormalities in growth, puberty, thyroid function, and bone and carbohydrate metabolisms in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD. Materials and Methods: Endocrine problems including short stature, puberty and thyroid disorders, and carbohydrate and bone metabolisms in 50 Turkish children and adolescents with SCD were evaluated. Relationships among sex, disease type, blood transfusions, exchange and exacerbation frequency, ferritin levels, and endocrine pathologies were investigated. Results: The mean age of the study group was 13.1±2.9 years. Weights and heights of 12 participants (24% were below -2 standard deviations and 4 participants (8% had malnutrition. Mean difference (±standard deviation between bone and chronological age of patients was -1.73±1.86 years. Fifty percent of patients had at least one endocrine abnormality other than vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism in 3 patients (6%, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in 1 female patient (2%, and small testicular volume in respect to age in 3 male patients (8.5% were seen. Growth hormone deficiency was detected in 1 (2% female patient, and hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 3 patients (6%; 1 central case, 2 cases of primary hypothyroidism. At vertebral level, 5 patients (11.1% had osteopenia and 1 patient (2.2% had osteoporosis, while 5 patients (11.1% had osteopenia at femur neck level. The most common endocrine abnormality was vitamin D deficiency. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D was deficient in 63.2% and insufficient in 18.4% of patients. Sex, disease type, blood transfusion frequency, exacerbation frequency, and ferritin levels were not related to endocrine pathologies. As the age was increased, standard deviation scores of femur neck bone mineral density was decreased (r =-0.56; p<0.05. Vitamin D was lower in patients whose weights and/or heights were below -2 standard deviations from the mean
This document amends the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Schedule for Rating Disabilities (VASRD) by revising the portion of the Schedule that addresses endocrine conditions and disorders of the endocrine system. The effect of this action is to ensure that the VASRD uses current medical terminology and to provide detailed and updated criteria for evaluation of endocrine disorders.
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that alter endocrine system function(s) and consequently cause adverse health effects in intact organisms or its progeny. The endocrine system is important for a wide range of biological processes, from normal cell si...
Recent interest has focused on the use of hormone therapy in prostate cancer for both the management of patients with non-metastatic disease and as a neoadjuvant or adjuvant to curative therapies. This has resulted in patients with fewer symptoms being treated for longer periods of time. Endocrine...... treatments for prostate cancer, such as castration, combined androgen blockade and non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy, have shown similar results in terms of time to progression and survival. The main difference between these treatments is their impact on patients' quality of life. Instruments...... for measuring health-related quality of life should assess both overall and disease-specific quality of life. Data from two large studies of bicalutamide monotherapy show that this non-steroidal antiandrogen is associated with significant health-related quality of life advantages in the treatment of patients...
Tonelli, Francesco; Giudici, Francesco; Giusti, Francesca; Brandi, Maria Luisa
We reviewed the literature about entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 syndrome (MEN1) to clarify their demographic features, localization imaging, practice, and appropriate therapeutical strategies, analyzing the current approach to entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1. Despite the fact that hyperparathyroidism is usually the first manifestation of MEN1, the penetrance of these tumors is similar. They are characterized by multiplicity of lesions, variable expression of the tumors, and propensity for malignant degeneration. Both the histological type and the size of MEN1 neuroendocrine tumors correlate with malignancy. Monitoring of pancreatic peptides and use of imaging exams allow early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment, resulting in prevention of metastatic disease and improvement of long-term survival. Surgery is often the treatment of choice for MEN1-neuroendocrine tumors. The rationale for surgical approach is to curtail malignant progression of the disease, and to cure the associated biochemical syndrome, should it be present
Conclusion: This study confirms that EDs singularly or in mixtures, introduced during early stages of life, could affect the differentiation and the endocrine activity of adipocytes, and can act as potential factors for obesity.
Marchesini, G.R.; Koopal, K.; Meulenberg, E.; Haasnoot, W.; Irth, H.
The construction and performance of an automated low-cost Spreeta¿-based prototype biosensor system for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is described. The system consists primarily of a Spreeta miniature liquid sensor incorporated into an aluminum flow cell holder, dedicated to
The data presented suggest that contaminants can alter the endocrine and reproductive system of reptiles by mimicking hormones and by various mechanisms other than direct hormonal mimicry. However, these data indicate, as do many other studies using various vertebrates, that a fo...
Singh, Yashpal; Kotwal, Narendra; Menon, A. S.
Hypertension is a major and frequent comorbid finding of Cushing's syndrome. This review discusses the etiology and pathophysiology of hypertension in Cushing's syndrome, while suggesting methods of management of this condition. It also provides an overview of diagnosis and management strategies in this disease. PMID:22145133
Koval', G.Yu.; Perepust, L.A.; Novikova, Eh.Z.
Changes of the skull in the following body disease are considered. Diseases: endocrine diseases, fibrous osteodystrophy, reticulohistocytoses and noninfectious granulomas, the blood system diseases, disturbance of vitamin balance. Skull roentgenograms in some above-mentioned diseases are presented and analysed
Rønnestad, Ivar; Gomes, Ana S.; Murashita, Koji; Angotzi, Rita; Jönsson, Elisabeth; Volkoff, Hélène
Mammalian studies have shaped our understanding of the endocrine control of appetite and body weight in vertebrates and provided the basic vertebrate model that involves central (brain) and peripheral signaling pathways as well as environmental cues. The hypothalamus has a crucial function in the control of food intake, but other parts of the brain are also involved. The description of a range of key neuropeptides and hormones as well as more details of their specific roles in appetite control continues to be in progress. Endocrine signals are based on hormones that can be divided into two groups: those that induce (orexigenic), and those that inhibit (anorexigenic) appetite and food consumption. Peripheral signals originate in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, adipose tissue, and other tissues and reach the hypothalamus through both endocrine and neuroendocrine actions. While many mammalian-like endocrine appetite-controlling networks and mechanisms have been described for some key model teleosts, mainly zebrafish and goldfish, very little knowledge exists on these systems in fishes as a group. Fishes represent over 30,000 species, and there is a large variability in their ecological niches and habitats as well as life history adaptations, transitions between life stages and feeding behaviors. In the context of food intake and appetite control, common adaptations to extended periods of starvation or periods of abundant food availability are of particular interest. This review summarizes the recent findings on endocrine appetite-controlling systems in fish, highlights their impact on growth and survival, and discusses the perspectives in this research field to shed light on the intriguing adaptations that exist in fish and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:28458653
Maker, Ajay V; Sheikh, Raashid; Bhagia, Vinita
Indications for total pancreatectomy (TP) have increased, including for diffuse main duct intrapapillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas and malignancy; therefore, the need persists for surgeons to develop appropriate endocrine post-operative management strategies. The brittle diabetes after TP differs from type 1/2 diabetes in that patients have absolute deficiency of insulin and functional glucagon. This makes glucose management challenging, complicates recovery, and predisposes to hospital readmissions. This article aims to define the disease, describe the cause for its occurrence, review the anatomy of the endocrine pancreas, and explain how this condition differs from diabetes mellitus in the setting of post-operative management. The morbidity and mortality of post-TP endocrine insufficiency and practical treatment strategies are systematically reviewed from the literature. Finally, an evidence-based treatment algorithm is created for the practicing pancreatic surgeon and their care team of endocrinologists to aid in managing these complex patients. A PubMed, Science Citation Index/Social sciences Citation Index, and Cochrane Evidence-Based Medicine database search was undertaken along with extensive backward search of the references of published articles to identify studies evaluating endocrine morbidity and treatment after TP and to establish an evidence-based treatment strategy. Indications for TP and the etiology of pancreatogenic diabetes are reviewed. After TP, ~80% patients develop hypoglycemic episodes and 40% experience severe hypoglycemia, resulting in 0-8% mortality and 25-45% morbidity. Referral to a nutritionist and endocrinologist for patient education before surgery followed by surgical reevaluation to determine if the patient has the appropriate understanding, support, and resources preoperatively has significantly reduced morbidity and mortality. The use of modern recombinant long-acting insulin analogues, continuous subcutaneous insulin
Bauman, W A; Biering-Sørensen, F; Krassioukov, A
To develop the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Endocrine and Metabolic Function Basic Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets that would facilitate consistent collection and reporting of basic endocrine and metabolic findings in the SCI population. International. The International SCI Endocrine and Metabolic Function Data Set was developed by a working group. The initial data set document was revised on the basis of suggestions from members of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) Executive and Scientific Committees, American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Board, other interested organizations and societies, and individual reviewers. In addition, the data set was posted for 2 months on ISCoS and ASIA websites for comments. The final International SCI Endocrine and Metabolic Function Data Set contains questions on the endocrine and metabolic conditions diagnosed before and after spinal cord lesion. If available, information collected before injury is to be obtained only once, whereas information after injury may be collected at any time. These data include information on diabetes mellitus, lipid disorders, osteoporosis, thyroid disease, adrenal disease, gonadal disease and pituitary disease. The question of gonadal status includes stage of sexual development and that for females also includes menopausal status. Data will be collected for body mass index and for the fasting serum lipid profile. The complete instructions for data collection and the data sheet itself are freely available on the websites of ISCoS (http://www.iscos.org.uk) and ASIA (http://www.asia-spinalinjury.org).
Since the eighties of the last century hormone content was justified in immune cells (lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages and mast cells), which produce, store and secrete these hormones. Although the amount of these materials in immune cells is relatively small, the mass of the producers (immune cells) is so large, that the phenomenon must be considered from endocrinological point of view, underlying the important differences between the "classical" and immuno-endocrine systems. Cells of the classic (built-in) endocrine system are mono-producers, while immune cells can synthesize many types of hormones (polyproducers). In addition, these cells can transport the whole hormone-producing machinery to the site of need, producing a local effect. This can be observed, for example, in the case of endorphin producing immune cells during inflammation and during early pregnancy around the chorionic villi. Hormone producing immune cells also have receptors for many hormones, so that they are poly-receivers. Via hormone producing and receiving capacity there is a bidirectional connection between the neuro-endocrine and immuno-endocrine systems. In addition, there is a network inside the immuno-endocrine system. The packed transport theory attempts to explain the mechanism and importance of the immuno-endocrine system.
Aplicação de programa educativo multidisciplinar em gestações de alto risco devido a doenças endócrinas Application of multidisciplinary educational program in high-risk pregnancies due to endocrine diseases
Alina Coutinho Rodrigues Feitosa
, embora diferença estatisticamente significativa tenha sido encontrada apenas no grupo com IMCPG normal (40,6 versus 21,9%, p=0,03. Média do peso fetal ao nascer foi similar entre as categoriais de IMC (p=0,277; entretanto, macrossomia foi mais frequente nas mulheres com sobrepeso e obesidade pré-gestacional. Cesariana foi a via mais frequente de parto, independentemente do IMCPG. CONCLUSÕES: em gestações de alto risco devido a doenças endócrinas, abordagem multidisciplinar educativa limita o excessivo ganho de peso semanal apesar da idade gestacional avançada.PURPOSE: to investigate the application of a multidisciplinary educational program to high-risk pregnancies due to endocrine diseases. METHODS: we retrospectively evaluated the application of a multidisciplinary educational program to 185 pregnant women with endocrine diseases referred to a maternity specialized in high-risk pregnancy. All pregnant women received multidisciplinary prenatal care from a team consisting of endocrinologists, obstetricians, sonographers, nurses and dietitians. Oral and written information about healthy habits, diabetes care, use of artificial sweeteners and exercise during pregnancy was given to all patients at the first endocrine consultation. An individualized nutrition plan was prepared on the occasion of the first visit to the nutritionist. In bi-weekly and monthly endocrine and nutritional visits, respectively, information about healthy changes in lifestyle was emphasized and the weight was recorded. Adherence to physical activity and nutritional counseling was self-reported. We compared the weekly weight before and after the intervention, fetal weight at birth, rate of macrosomia and low birth weight, and frequency of cesarean delivery among the four categories of body mass index (BMI before pregnancy (30 kg/m². RESULTS: the main disease of referral was diabetes (84.9%. One third of the pregnant women (31.2% were overweight and 42.5% were obese before pregnancy. Most
Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa
Full Text Available The successful management of endocrine diseases is greatly helped by the complete understanding of the underlying pathology. The knowledge about the molecular genetics contributes immensely in the appropriate identification of the causative factors of the diseases and their subsequent management. The fields of nephrology and endocrinology are also interrelated to a large extent. Besides performing the secretory functions, the renal tissue also acts as target organ for many hormones such as antidiuretic hormone (ADH, atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP, and aldosterone. Understanding the molecular genetics of these hormones is important because the therapeutic interventions in many of these conditions is related to shared renal and endocrine functions, including the anemia of renal disease, chronic kidney disease, mineral bone disorders, and hypertension related to chronic kidney disease. Their understanding and in-depth knowledge is very essential in designing and formulating the therapeutic plans and innovating new management strategies. However, we still have to go a long way in order to completely understand the various confounding causative relationships between the pathology and disease of these reno-endocrinal manifestations.
P. V. Novokhatny
Full Text Available Introduction Among the organs of internal secretion pancreas has a special place thanks to active exocrine function and a wide range of physiological actions of produced hormones. Violations of endocrine pancreas arises in 6.5-38 % of patients with acute pancreatitis. However, there is still no clear understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of hormonal dysfunction of the pancreas in acute pancreatitis, there is no uniform algorithms for its correction. Aim of the research was to study the endocrine function of pancreas in acute pancreatitis. To define the role of endocrine pancreatic function in the etiology and pathogenesis of the acute pancreatitis. To assess the prospects of the use of pancreatic hormones in the treatment and predicting the outcomes of acute pancreatitis. Materials and methods of the research Survey of publications in specialized periodical medical journals, PubMed sources developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Search in PubMed was carried out in the following databases: MEDLINE, Pre MEDLINE. Results of the research. In a significant proportion of patients who recovered from acute pancreatitis, exocrine and endocrine functional impairments were found. This finding was not detected only in patients after severe acute pancreatitis. Routine evaluation of pancreatic function after acute pancreatitis should be considered. The comparative analysis of the synthetic analogues (somatostatin, calcitonin, leu-enkefalin-dalargin influence on the glucose metabolism of rats in acute pancreatitis of was made. Physiological reaction of beta-cells is preserved in infusion of somatostatin. However, infusion of calcitonin results in the distortion of counterregulatory action of insulin and glucagon. It was detected that pancreatic renin-angiotensin system is markedly activated in the experimental rat models of chronic hypoxia and acute pancreatitis. The activation of the pancreatic renin-angiotensin system by
Santos, Gilda C; Zucoloto, Sérgio; Garcia, Sérgio B
This study deals with the effects of myenteric denervation of the proximal jejunum on endocrine cell population of the crypt-villus unit, 5 months after treatment with benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Male Wistar albino rats weighing on average 100 g were allocated to two groups: the BAC group − the proximal jejunal serosa was treated with 2 mm BAC for 30 min, and the control group − treated with saline solution (0,9% NaCl). There was a significant reduction in neurone number in the jejunal myenteric plexus of the BAC group and the endocrine cell population (serotoninergic and argyrophilic cells) was significantly increased in this intestine segment. In conclusion, the present findings provide further evidence that the myenteric denervation induced by BAC may lead to the development of a local imbalance of the neurotransmitters, with a consequent induction of enteroendocrine cell (argyrophilic and serotoninergic cells) hyperplasia in the crypt and villus. PMID:10971748
Metabolic, Immune, Epigenetic, Endocrine and Phenotypic Abnormalities Found in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders, Down Syndrome and Alzheimer Disease May Be Caused by Congenital and/or Acquired Chronic Cerebral Toxoplasmosis
"Toxoplasma gondii" is a protozoan parasite that infects about a third of human population. It is generally believed that in immunocompetent hosts, the parasite infection takes usually asymptomatic course and induces self-limiting disease, but in immunocompromised individuals may cause significant morbidity and mortality. "T. gondii" uses sulfated…
Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, J; Holstein-Rathlou, N H
A previous investigation indicated that the chief cells of the endolymphatic sac produce an endogenous inhibitor of sodium re-absorption in the kidneys, which has tentatively been named "saccin". In this study, the ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac and in particular the chief cells...... is described, demonstrating that this organ fulfils the morphological criteria of a potential endocrine gland. Accordingly, the chief cells are shown to exhibit all the organelles and characteristics of cells that simultaneously synthesize, secrete, absorb and digest proteins....
Varoquaux, Arthur; Kebebew, Electron; Sebag, Fréderic; Wolf, Katherine; Henry, Jean-François; Pacak, Karel; Taïeb, David
The vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) is the main nerve of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Vagal paragangliomas (VPGLs) are a prime example of an endocrine tumor associated with the vagus nerve. This rare, neural-crest tumor constitutes the second most common site of hereditary head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs), most often in relation to mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD) gene. The treatment paradigm for VPGL has progressively shifted from ...
P. V. Novokhatny
Introduction Among the organs of internal secretion pancreas has a special place thanks to active exocrine function and a wide range of physiological actions of produced hormones. Violations of endocrine pancreas arises in 6.5-38 % of patients with acute pancreatitis. However, there is still no clear understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of hormonal dysfunction of the pancreas in acute pancreatitis, there is no uniform algorithms for its correction. Aim of the research was to study...
Cohen, M Michael
The role of hedgehog signaling is analyzed in relation to the developing endocrine glands: pituitary, ovary, testis, adrenal cortex, pancreas, prostate, and epiphyseal growth. Experimental and pathological correlates of these organs are also discussed. The second section addresses a number of topics. First, the pituitary gland, no matter how hypoplastic, is present in most cases of human holoprosencephaly, unlike animals in which it is always said to be absent. The difference appears to be that animal mutations and teratogenic models involve both copies of the gene in question, whereas in humans the condition is most commonly heterozygous. Second, tests of endocrine function are not reported with great frequency, and an early demise in severe cases of holoprosencephaly accounts for this trend. Reported tests of endocrine function are reviewed. Third, diabetes insipidus has been recorded in a number of cases of holoprosencephaly. Its frequency is unknown because it could be masked by adrenal insufficiency in some cases and may not be recognized in others. Because of the abnormal hypothalamic-infundibular region in holoprosencephaly, diabetes insipidus could be caused by a defect in the supra-optic or paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei or in release of ADH via the infundibulum and posterior pituitary.
A brief review is given of the hypothesis that density-dependent behavioral-endocrine negative feedbacks can regulate and often limit the growth of populations of many species of small mammals. Recent laboratory studies are summarized that show how stress, particularly psychogenic, which results in increased adrenocortical secretion also alters gonadotropin secretion and inhibits reproduction. Chronic stress due to crowding, immobilization, et al. inhibits the release of LH and FSH, particularly by abolishing the pulsatile release of LH, and also causes a rise in prolactin (at least acutely). Stimulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical system is accompanied by an inversely proportional inhibition of growth hormone secretion. Decreasing photoperiod enhances the sensitivity of the hypothalamus to inhibition of gonadotropin secretion by androgens and estrogens. Other endocrine responses to increased density or subordinate social rank also are summarized. How these facts fit into the negative feedback scheme is discussed, including the greatly prolonged effects of diminished lactation. The changed quality of the animals associated with changes in density discussed by Lidicker also can be explained by the above responses to density. Data on changes in growth and reproductive function which are consistent with the behavioral-endocrine feedback hypothesis are presented for several populations of small mammals, including some previously unpublished data for Microtus pennsylvanicus
Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Bente K.
Purpose of review Skeletal muscle is gaining increased attention as an endocrine organ. Recently, novel myokines and new effects of already established myokines have been identified. The objective of this review is to give an update on the recent advances in the field. Recent findings Several...... hundred putative myokines have been described, some of which are induced by contraction and differentially regulated between healthy and metabolically diseased individuals. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is the prototype myokine, which was identified as a muscle-derived cytokine 15 years ago. Recently, IL-6 has...... on training status. IL-15 has been established as a cytokine mediating cross-talk between skeletal muscle and skin tissue, and decorin has been characterized as a contraction-induced myokine which apparently is differentially regulated between healthy and dysglycemic individuals. Summary Skeletal muscle...
V. G. Likhvantseva
Full Text Available Purpose: to study the possibility of early clinical diagnosis of endocrine ophthalmopathy based on ocular symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Patients and methods: we analyzed the prevalence of ocular symptoms of hyperthyroidism in 139 patients (278 orbits with newly diagnosed endocrine ophthalmopathy (group 1, developed on the background of diffuse toxic goiter. The comparison group consisted of 80 patients (160 orbits with newly diagnosed diffuse toxic goiter with no radiographic evidence of endocrine ophthalmopathy (group 2. All patients were examined by an ophthalmologist and endocrinologist. We analyzed the prevalence of ocular symptoms of hyperthyroidism (symptom Dalrymple’, Mobius’, Zenger’, and combinations thereof, often encountered in diffuse toxic goiter, flowing with endocrine ophthalmopathy, and/or lack thereof - in the group of “thyrotoxic exophthalmos”. We took into account the frequency distribution of these clinical signs, and their combinations. We analyzed the clinical sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis based on the three most common symptoms, and their combinations, associated both with thyrotoxicosis and with endocrine ophthalmopathy. Results: Dalrymple’ symptom, is more common in thyrotoxic exophthalmos than with endocrine ophthalmopathy (compared to 100.0% versus 61.9 %, p<0,001. This suggests that Dalrymple’ symptom leads to over diagnosis aspect endocrine ophthalmopathy. It is obvious that it can be used to recognize and thyrotoxic exophthalmos hyperthyroidism, but you cann’t credibly claim based on orbit about the presence of the disease. In this aspect, the greatest practical interest to provide a comparative assessment of the frequency of detection of symptoms of Mobius’ and Zenger’ and their combinations in a population of endocrine ophthalmopathy and in the group of thyrotoxic exophthalmos. Significantly more symptoms Zenger’ and Mobius’ developed with endocrine ophthalmopathy (66,2% and 81
Altieri, Barbara; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Barrea, Luigi; Mathieu, Chantal; Vallone, Carla V; Mascitelli, Luca; Bizzaro, Giorgia; Altieri, Vincenzo M; Tirabassi, Giacomo; Balercia, Giancarlo; Savastano, Silvia; Bizzaro, Nicola; Ronchi, Cristina L; Colao, Annamaria; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Della Casa, Silvia
In the last few years, more attention has been given to the "non-calcemic" effect of vitamin D. Several observational studies and meta-analyses demonstrated an association between circulating levels of vitamin D and outcome of many common diseases, including endocrine diseases, chronic diseases, cancer progression, and autoimmune diseases. In particular, cells of the immune system (B cells, T cells, and antigen presenting cells), due to the expression of 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), are able to synthesize the active metabolite of vitamin D, which shows immunomodulatory properties. Moreover, the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in these cells suggests a local action of vitamin D in the immune response. These findings are supported by the correlation between the polymorphisms of the VDR or the CYP27B1 gene and the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. Currently, the optimal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration that is necessary to prevent or treat autoimmune diseases is still under debate. However, experimental studies in humans have suggested beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation in reducing the severity of disease activity. In this review, we summarize the evidence regarding the role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of autoimmune endocrine diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus, Addison's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Graves' disease and autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes. Furthermore, we discuss the supplementation with vitamin D to prevent or treat autoimmune diseases.
Vincenzo De Sanctis
Full Text Available The current management of thalassemia includes regular transfusion programs and chelation therapy. It is important that physicians be aware that endocrine abnormalities frequently develop mainly in those patients with significant iron overload due to poor compliance to treatment, particularly after the age of 10 years. Since the quality of life of thalassemia patients is a fundamental aim, it is vital to monitor carefully their growth and pubertal development in order to detect abnormalities and to initiate appropriate and early treatment. Abnormalities should be identified and treatment initiated in consultation with a pediatric or an adult endocrinologist and managed accordingly. Appropriate management shall put in consideration many factors such as age, severity of iron overload, presence of chronic liver disease, thrombophilia status, and the presence of psychological problems. All these issues must be discussed by the physician in charge of the patient′s care, the endocrinologist and the patient himself. Because any progress in research in the field of early diagnosis and management of growth disorders and endocrine complications in thalassemia should be passed on to and applied adequately to all those suffering from the disease, on the 8 May 2009 in Ferrara, the International Network on Endocrine Complications in Thalassemia (I-CET was founded in order to transmit the latest information on these disorders to the treating physicians. The I-CET position statement outlined in this document applies to patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia major to help physicians to anticipate, diagnose, and manage these complications properly.
Regnier, Shane M; Kirkley, Andrew G; Ye, Honggang; El-Hashani, Essam; Zhang, Xiaojie; Neel, Brian A; Kamau, Wakanene; Thomas, Celeste C; Williams, Ayanna K; Hayes, Emily T; Massad, Nicole L; Johnson, Daniel N; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Chunling; Sargis, Robert M
Environmental endocrine disruptors are implicated as putative contributors to the burgeoning metabolic disease epidemic. Tolylfluanid (TF) is a commonly detected fungicide in Europe, and previous in vitro and ex vivo work has identified it as a potent endocrine disruptor with the capacity to promote adipocyte differentiation and induce adipocytic insulin resistance, effects likely resulting from activation of glucocorticoid receptor signaling. The present study extends these findings to an in vivo mouse model of dietary TF exposure. After 12 weeks of consumption of a normal chow diet supplemented with 100 parts per million TF, mice exhibited increased body weight gain and an increase in total fat mass, with a specific augmentation in visceral adipose depots. This increased adipose accumulation is proposed to occur through a reduction in lipolytic and fatty acid oxidation gene expression. Dietary TF exposure induced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and metabolic inflexibility, while also disrupting diurnal rhythms of energy expenditure and food consumption. Adipose tissue endocrine function was also impaired with a reduction in serum adiponectin levels. Moreover, adipocytes from TF-exposed mice exhibited reduced insulin sensitivity, an effect likely mediated through a specific down-regulation of insulin receptor substrate-1 expression, mirroring effects of ex vivo TF exposure. Finally, gene set enrichment analysis revealed an increase in adipose glucocorticoid receptor signaling with TF treatment. Taken together, these findings identify TF as a novel in vivo endocrine disruptor and obesogen in mice, with dietary exposure leading to alterations in energy homeostasis that recapitulate many features of the metabolic syndrome.
Jäger, Anne Charlotte; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Hansen, Thomas v.O.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is caused by autosomal dominantly inherited mutations in the MEN1 gene. Here, we report 25 MEN1 mutations - of which 12 are novel - found in 36 Danish families with MEN1 or variant MEN1 disease. Furthermore, one FIHP family was found to have an earlier...... reported mutation. The mutations were predominantly found in exons 9 and 10 encoding the C-terminal part of menin. Seven of the mutations were missense mutations, changing conserved residues. Furthermore screening of 93 out of 153 consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) identified five...... mutation carriers. Two of these belonged to known MEN1 families, whereas the only MEN1-related disease in the other three was pHPT. Screening of 96 consecutive patients with fore-/midgut endocrine tumours revealed five mutation carries out of 28 patients with sporadic gastrinomas, whereas no mutations were...
Özlük, Yasemin; Kılıçaslan, Işın
The endocrine system and genitourinary tract unite in various syndromes. Genitourinary malignancies may cause paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes by secreting hormonal substances. These entities include Cushing`s syndrome, hypercalcemia, hyperglycemia, polycythemia, hypertension, and inappropriate ADH or HCG production. The most important syndromic scenarios that links these two systems are hereditary renal cancer syndromes with specific genotype/phenotype correlation. There are also some very rare entities in which endocrine and genitourinary systems are involved such as Carney complex, congenital adrenal hyperplasia and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. We will review all the syndromes regarding manifestations present in endocrine and genitourinary organs.
Full Text Available There are established guidelines for the endocrine and overall treatment of transsexual persons. These guidelines provide information about the optimal endocrine management of male-to-female and female-to-male transsexual persons. India has a large community of eunuchs, also known as hijras, who are men with gender identity disorders. While this community has been studied from a social and medical point of new, no endocrine work has been done in them. This exploratory article tries to discuss the endocrine status, health, and management of the eunuchs.
Martin, David; Kim, Yung-Hae; Sever, Dror
in neurons and in endocrine cells, which is necessary for their normal function. During development, REST represses a subset of genes in the neuronal differentiation program and Rest is down-regulated as neurons differentiate. Here, we investigate the role of REST in the differentiation of pancreatic...... endocrine cells, which are molecularly close to neurons. We show that Rest is widely expressed in pancreas progenitors and that it is down-regulated in differentiated endocrine cells. Sustained expression of REST in Pdx1(+) progenitors impairs the differentiation of endocrine-committed Neurog3...
Lee, Kathy E.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeff H.; Blazer, Vicki; Keisling, Richard L.; Ferrey, Mark L.
The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with St. Cloud State University, Minnesota Department of Health, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Metropolitan Council Environmental Services, and the University of Minnesota, has conducted field monitoring studies and laboratory research to determine the presence of endocrine active chemicals and the incidence of endocrine disruption in Minnesota streams and lakes during 1994–2008. Endocrine active chemicals are chemicals that interfere with the natural regulation of endocrine systems, and may mimic or block the function of natural hormones in fish or other organisms. This interference commonly is referred to as endocrine disruption. Indicators of endocrine disruption in fish include vitellogenin (female egg yolk protein normally expressed in female fish) in male fish, oocytes present in male fish testes, reduced reproductive success, and changes in reproductive behavior.
The state of endocrine thymus function in patients with breast cancer of the 1st-4th stage and in 31 patients with precancerous diseases is studied. It is established that considerable decrease of thymus serous factor (TSF) content in all patients is observed. Radiation- and polychemotherapy carried out decreases the endocrine thymus function. Inclusions of non-specific active immunotherapy in patients' treatment promote the increase of TSF content, that increases treatment efficiency
Agrawal, Amit; Robertson, John F R; Cheung, K L
High dose estrogens (HDEs) were frequently used as endocrine agents prior to the introduction of tamoxifen which carries fewer side effects. Due to the development of resistance to available endocrine agents in almost all women with metastatic breast cancer, interest has renewed in the use of HDEs as yet another endocrine option that may have activity. We report our experience with one of the HDEs ("ethinylestradiol" 1 mg daily) in advanced breast cancer (locally advanced and metastatic) in post-menopausal women who had progressed on multiple endocrine agents. According to a database of advanced breast cancer patients seen in our Unit since 1998, those who had complete set of information and fulfilled the following criteria were studied: (1) patients in whom further endocrine therapy was deemed appropriate i.e., patients who have had clinical benefit with previous endocrine agents or were not fit or unwilling to receive chemotherapy in the presence of potentially life-threatening visceral metastases; (2) disease was assessable by UICC criteria; (3) were treated with "ethinylestradiol" until they were withdrawn from treatment due to adverse events or disease progression. Twelve patients with a median age of 75.1 years (49.1-85 years) were identified. Majority (N = 8) had bony disease. They had ethinylestradiol as 3rd to 7th line endocrine therapy. One patient (8%) came off treatment early due to hepato-renal syndrome. Clinical benefit (objective response or durable stable disease for > or = 6 months) was seen in 4 patients (33.3%) with a median duration of response of 10+ (7-36) months. The time to treatment failure was 4 (0.5-36) months. Yet unreported, high dose "ethinylestradiol" is another viable therapeutic strategy in heavily pre-treated patients when further endocrine therapy is deemed appropriate. Although it tends to carry more side effects, they may not be comparable to those of other HDEs (such as diethylstilbestrol) or chemotherapy.
Full Text Available Introduction. For the difference from poorly differentiated, well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas are the tumours in whom with aggressive surgery and chemotherapy fair results can be achieved. Objective. The aim of the study was to point out the importance of such treatment. Methods. Over a 6-year period eight patients (seven female and one male of average age 51 years (ranging from 23 to 71 years were operated on for well differentiated endocrine carcinoma: six of the head and two of the tail of the pancreas. There were two functional and six nonfunctional tumours. Pain in the upper part of the abdomen in seven, mild loss in weight in two, strong heartburn in two, obstructive jaundice in three, diarrhoea in one, sudden massive bleeding from gastric varicosities due to prehepatic portal hypertension caused by pancreatic head tumour in one, and bruise in one patient were registered preoperatively. US and CT in all, angiography in one, octreoscan in two and PET scan in one patient were performed. Whipple’s procedure was performed in six and distal pancreatectomy in two patients, as well as systemic lymphadenectomy in all and excision of liver secondary tumours in two patients. In the patient with massive gastric bleeding a total gastrectomy was performed first, followed by Whipple’s procedure a month later. Results. R0 resection was achieved in all patients. Lymph nodes metastases were found in six patients. Six patients were given chemotherapy. One patient died 3 years after surgery, seven are still alive, on average 2.5 years. A local recurrence after distal pancreatectomy that occurred 5 years after surgery was successfully reresected and the patient is on peptide-receptor radiotherapy. In other six patients there were no local recurence or distant metastases. Conclusion. With aggressive surgery and chemotherapy fair results can be achieved in well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas.
Sujit Kumar Tripathy
Full Text Available Aims and objectives: To study the frequency of thyroid, adrenal and gonadal dysfunction in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients and to correlate them at different levels of CD4 cell counts. Materials and Methods: Forty-three HIV-positive cases were included in the study group. Cases were divided into three groups on the basis of CD4 cell count. Serum free T3, free T4, TSH, Cortisol, FSH, LH, testosterone and estradiol were estimated by the radioimmunoassay method. Hormone levels between cases were compared and their correlation with CD4 count was analyzed. Results: Prevalence of gonadal dysfunction (88.3% was the most common endocrine dysfunction followed by thyroid (60.4% and adrenal dysfunction (27.9%. Secondary hypogonadism (68.4% was more common than primary (31.6%. Low T3 syndrome, that is, isolated low free T3, was the most common (25.6% thyroid dysfunction followed by secondary hypothyroidism (16.2% and subclinical hypothyroidism (11.6%. Adrenal excess (16.3% was more common than adrenal insufficiency (11.6%. The difference in hormonal dysfunction between male and female was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05. 27.9% of patients had multiple hormone deficiency. There was negligible or no correlation between CD4 count and serum hormone level. Conclusion: In our study, endocrine dysfunction was quite common among HIV-infected patients but there was no correlation between hormone levels and CD4 count. Endocrine dysfunctions and role of hormone replacement therapy in HIV-infected patient needs to be substantiated by large longitudinal study, so that it will help to reduce morbidity, improve quality of life.
Wen-han MEI; Rong CAI
The integrated curriculum is an important direction of the medical medical education reform under new situation and challenges of medical development.Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine has implemented the integrated curriculum reform in recent years.The endocrine system course is one of important intergrated courses and integrates relevant contents of multiple disciplines of basic medicine,diagnostics and medical imaging.Various teaching methods are adopted,such as classroom lecture,discussion,problembased learning,experimental lesson and clinical clerkship,etc.The teaching practice is carried on in several aspects:course arrangement,teaching methods,course website construction,teaching team construction and so on.
The pancreas is a complex gland performing both endocrine and exocrine functions. In recent years there has been increasing evidence that both endocrine and exocrine cells possess purinergic receptors, which influence processes such as insulin secretion and epithelial ion transport. Most commonly, these processes have been viewed separately. In beta cells, stimulation of P2Y(1) receptors amplifies secretion of insulin in the presence of glucose. Nucleotides released from secretory granules could also contribute to autocrine/paracrine regulation in pancreatic islets. In addition to P2Y(1) receptors, there is also evidence for other P2 and adenosine receptors in beta cells (P2Y(2), P2Y(4), P2Y(6), P2X subtypes and A(1) receptors) and in glucagon-secreting alpha cells (P2X(7), A(2) receptors). In the exocrine pancreas, acini release ATP and ATP-hydrolysing and ATP-generating enzymes. P2 receptors are prominent in pancreatic ducts, and several studies indicate that P2Y(2), P2Y(4), P2Y(11), P2X(4) and P2X(7) receptors could regulate secretion, primarily by affecting Cl(-) and K(+) channels and intracellular Ca(2+) signalling. In order to understand the physiology of the whole organ, it is necessary to consider the full complement of purinergic receptors on different cells as well as the structural and functional relation between various cells within the whole organ. In addition to the possible physiological function of purinergic receptors, this review analyses whether the receptors could be potential therapeutic targets for drug design aimed at treatment of pancreatic diseases.
Matsuoka, L Y; Wortsman, J; Gavin, J R; Goldman, J
Acanthosis nigricans is a marker for disorders of insulin action, endocrine abnormalities, and cancer of internal organs. To evaluate the clinical significance of this marker the systemic alterations and clinical features of 26 patients with acanthosis nigricans seen at two institutions were reviewed. Most subjects affected by acanthosis nigricans were female (20 patients), Caucasian (22 patients), in the third decade of life (13 patients), and overweight (24 patients greater than 120 percent ideal body weight). Gonadal disease, present in 17 patients, was expressed as polycystic ovary syndrome (11 cases), disorders of prolactin secretion (two cases, one with polycystic ovary syndrome), streak gonads (one case), and hypogonadism of the male (four cases). Thyroid disease and tinea versicolor were present in four patients each. Three patients were receiving insulin therapy for diabetes mellitus, and in two additional patients diabetes mellitus was detected during the diagnostic workup. All patients had elevated fasting insulin levels; most of them also had an exaggerated insulin response to a glucose load. Two of 18 patients tested had antibodies against the insulin receptor in the circulation. Skin biopsy of acanthosis nigricans lesions from all 26 patients showed a typical pattern of hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and epidermal papillomatosis. Colloidal iron staining showed glycosaminoglycan infiltration of the papillary dermis (21 of 21 cases), consisting mainly of hyaluronic acid. It is concluded that: (1) hyperinsulinenemia and local dermal glycosaminoglycan deposition are regular features in acanthosis nigricans and (2) patients with acanthosis nigricans should be screened for diabetes mellitus, gonadal disease, and hypothyroidism.
Vincenzo De Sanctis
Full Text Available The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that young people between the ages of 11 and 21 years should be seen annually by their pediatricians, since annual checkups can be an important opportunity for health evaluation and anticipatory guidance. Parents of infants and young children are accustomed to regularly visiting a pediatrician for their child′s checkups. Unfortunately, when children reach the teen years, these annual checkups may decrease in frequency. In routine check-ups and medical office visits, particular attention should be paid to the possibility of a developmental or endocrine disorder. Early diagnosis and treatment may prevent medical complications in adulthood and foster age-appropriate development. Our purpose is to acquaint readers with the concept, based on current scientific understanding, that some endocrine disorders may be associated with a wide range of deleterious health consequences including an increased risk of hypertension and hyperlipidemia, increased risk of coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, significant anxiety and lack of self-esteem. Understanding the milestones and developmental stages of adolescence is essential for pediatricians and all other health providers who care for adolescents. Treating adolescents involves knowledge of a variety of medical, social and legal information; in addition, close working relationships must be established within the adolescent′s network to create an effective care system. In summary, we underline the importance of a periodic endocrine checkup in adolescents in order to identify endocrine problems early and develop an approach to treatment for those patients who need help during this time. Indications for endocrine referral for professional and other healthcare providers are also included. These lists are clearly not intended to be comprehensive, but will hopefully serve as a guide for specific clinical circumstances.
Full Text Available Introduction: Endocrine complications are common after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT. Although HSCT is performed at various centers in India, no study is available for endocrine dysfunctions among them. This study was carried out with the objective to evaluate endocrine dysfunction among patients undergone HSCT in the past. Materials and Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study in a 50 post-HSCT recipients (39 allogenic, 11 autologous. All relevant data were collected from patient′s records. Samples for hormonal estimation were collected and stimulation tests for cortisol and growth hormone were interpreted based on peak values achieved during insulin tolerance test. Results: The mean age of patients was 26.3 ± 16.9 years (range 4-74. Adrenal insufficiency (AI was present in 60%, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (HH in 60%, growth hormone deficiency (GHD in 54%, hypothyroidism in 4%, hyperprolactinemia in 4%, new onset diabetes after transplant in 4%, and impaired fasting glucose in 6%. Multiple endocrine complications were common. GHD was present in 77% of children (n = 22 although height standard deviation score was not statistically different compared to those who didn′t have GHD. HH was present in 36% of children. In adults (n = 28, 36% had GHD, all females had HH, and 89% of males had HH. Germ cell dysfunction with compensated Leydig cell dysfunction was the most common pattern of HH in males. Fifteen patients had graft versus host disease (GVHD. GVHD had no bearing on development of endocrine deficiencies. AI was related to duration after and type of transplant, but was unrelated to steroid intake. Conclusions: Endocrine manifestations are common after HSCT; they can occur as early or late complications. All HSCT recipients should have endocrine evaluation as per prevailing guidelines.
W.W. de Herder (Wouter); E.P. Krenning (Eric); C.H.J. van Eijck (Casper); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven)
textabstractEndocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas may present at different disease stages with either hormonal or hormone-related symptoms/syndromes, or without hormonal symptoms. They may occur either sporadically or as part of hereditary syndromes. In the
van Eeden, Susanne; de Leng, Wendy W. J.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Morsink, Folkert H.; Weterman, Marian A. J.; de Krijger, Ronald R.; Klöppel, Günter; Klimstra, David S.
Rare pancreatic neoplasms have been reported that show both endocrine and exocrine differentiation in the neoplastic components. In addition, pancreatic endocrine tumors may contain small, cytologically bland ductules intimately admixed with the endocrine component. It was recently suggested that
Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a multifactorial disease orphan of a cure. Regenerative medicine has been proposed as novel strategy for DM therapy. Human fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2b controls β-cell clusters via autocrine action, and human placental lactogen (hPL-A increases functional β-cells. We hypothesized whether FGF-2b/hPL-A treatment induces β-cell differentiation from ductal/non-endocrine precursor(s by modulating specific genes expression. Methods: Human pancreatic ductal-cells (PANC-1 and non-endocrine pancreatic cells were treated with FGF-2b plus hPL-A at 500 ng/mL. Cytofluorimetry and Immunofluorescence have been performed to detect expression of endocrine, ductal and acinar markers. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and annexin-V quantified cells proliferation and apoptosis. Insulin secretion was assessed by RIA kit, and electron microscopy analyzed islet-like clusters. Results: Increase in PANC-1 duct cells de-differentiation into islet-like aggregates was observed after FGF-2b/hPL-A treatment showing ultrastructure typical of islets-aggregates. These clusters, after stimulation with FGF-2b/hPL-A, had significant (p < 0.05 increase in insulin, C-peptide, pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX-1, Nkx2.2, Nkx6.1, somatostatin, glucagon, and glucose transporter 2 (Glut-2, compared with control cells. Markers of PANC-1 (Cytokeratin-19, MUC-1, CA19-9 were decreased (p < 0.05. These aggregates after treatment with FGF-2b/hPL-A significantly reduced levels of apoptosis. Conclusions: FGF-2b and hPL-A are promising candidates for regenerative therapy in DM by inducing de-differentiation of stem cells modulating pivotal endocrine genes.
Okada, Kayoko; Oshitani, Takashi; Mieda, Chieko
Ten patients with severe endocrine ophthalmopathy were treated by radiotherapy at Hyogo Medical Center for Adults from May 1984 to February 1988. All but one of the patients had poorly responded to previous systemic or topical corticosteroid therapy. The target of the radiotherapy was both retrobulbar tissues. The radiation field used was about 4 x 4 cm, excluding the pituitary gland and the brain, and was angled 5deg posteriorly to avoid the contralateral lens. A total of 2000 cGy was given to each patient over a 2 week-period. Eight of the ten patients showed some response, with 5 of them (50%) having a good to excellent response. Treatment was more effective for soft tissue changes, proptosis and keratopathy, while myopathy was less responsive. As for the duration of the eye signs and symptoms, those of a shorter duration (less than 12 months) responded better. It was also noted that the degree of the eye muscle enlargement on the pre-treatment orbital CT scan was directly correlated to the results of the treatment. Although three of the patients experienced transient headache, there were no serious acute reactions or long term complications. In conclusion, retrobulbar radiotherapy is a well-tolerated, safe and effective treatment for sever endocrine ophthalmopathy. (author)
Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.; Smit, B.
Besides the use of ionizing irradiation in the treatment of malignant tumours of the abdominal cavity, irradiation has also been documented to suppress the classical organ allograft rejection response in man and experimental models. Recently, fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and subtotal bone-marrow irradiation has been proved successfull in suppressing rejection of liver and kidney allografts in primates resulting in permanent tolerance. This study evaluates the detrimental side-effects of fractionated irradiation on peripheral blood, bone-marrow, pancreatic morphology and function in our primate model. Twenty primates received fractionated irradiation in doses of 800 (8 Gy) and 1000 (10 Gy) rads respectively administered at 100 rad (1 Gy) biweekly over a 4 to 5 week period. During the last weeks of irradiation 300 millilitres (ml) of donor specific blood was transfused in 50 ml aliquotes to combat the myelosuppressive effects of irradiation. Within 1 week of irradiation marked bonemarrow suppression was characterized by pancytopaenia and hypoplasia Pancreatic endocrine disturbances include hypoin-sulinaemia associated with mild glucose intolerance and reduced K-values. Significant pathological changes of the pancreas included nuclear and cytocavitary network changes affecting both endocrine and exocrine pancreatic elements. Although irradiation has proved to be a powerful immunosuppressive modality, significant haematological and organ damage occurred despite fractionation over a 4 to 5 week period
Full Text Available Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle, is characterized by a deterioration of muscle quantity and quality leading to a gradual slowing of movement, a decline in strength and power, and an increased risk of fall-related injuries. Since sarcopenia is largely attributed to various molecular mediators affecting fiber size, mitochondrial homeostasis, and apoptosis, numerous targets exist for drug discovery. In this paper, we summarize the current understanding of the endocrine contribution to sarcopenia and provide an update on hormonal intervention to try to improve endocrine defects. Myostatin inhibition seems to be the most interesting strategy for attenuating sarcopenia other than resistance training with amino acid supplementation. Testosterone supplementation in large amounts and at low frequency improves muscle defects with aging but has several side effects. Although IGF-I is a potent regulator of muscle mass, its therapeutic use has not had a positive effect probably due to local IGF-I resistance. Treatment with ghrelin may ameliorate the muscle atrophy elicited by age-dependent decreases in growth hormone. Ghrelin is an interesting candidate because it is orally active, avoiding the need for injections. A more comprehensive knowledge of vitamin-D-related mechanisms is needed to utilize this nutrient to prevent sarcopenia.
Okada, Kayoko; Oshitani, Takashi; Mieda, Chieko (Hyogo Medical Center for Adults, Hyogo (Japan)) (and others)
Ten patients with severe endocrine ophthalmopathy were treated by radiotherapy at Hyogo Medical Center for Adults from May 1984 to February 1988. All but one of the patients had poorly responded to previous systemic or topical corticosteroid therapy. The target of the radiotherapy was both retrobulbar tissues. The radiation field used was about 4 x 4 cm, excluding the pituitary gland and the brain, and was angled 5deg posteriorly to avoid the contralateral lens. A total of 2000 cGy was given to each patient over a 2 week-period. Eight of the ten patients showed some response, with 5 of them (50%) having a good to excellent response. Treatment was more effective for soft tissue changes, proptosis and keratopathy, while myopathy was less responsive. As for the duration of the eye signs and symptoms, those of a shorter duration (less than 12 months) responded better. It was also noted that the degree of the eye muscle enlargement on the pre-treatment orbital CT scan was directly correlated to the results of the treatment. Although three of the patients experienced transient headache, there were no serious acute reactions or long term complications. In conclusion, retrobulbar radiotherapy is a well-tolerated, safe and effective treatment for sever endocrine ophthalmopathy. (author).
Full Text Available A broad spectrum of endocrine conditions has been reported among adult patients with tuberculosis in Africa. This review aims to describe the magnitude and pathogenesis of the following endocrinopathies among patients with tuberculosis in Africa: adrenal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, disorders of calcium and vitamin D metabolism, thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism. PubMed database and Google scholar were used to search for the relevant published English language studies and case reports relating to endocrine abnormalities and tuberculosis in Africa up to July 2013. The search terms used were endocrine dysfunction, endocrine abnormalities, adrenal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction, hypogonadism, disorders of calcium and vitamin D metabolism, tuberculosis, Africa. Reference lists of the identified articles were further used to identify other studies. Adrenal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus and calcium-vitamin D abnormalities were the most prevalent and frequently reported endocrine disorders among adult patients with tuberculosis in Africa. A meticulous endocrine evaluation among tuberculosis patients with suspected endocrine abnormalities should be encouraged in Africa and other high TB endemic regions. Treatment of these endocrine disorders has generally been shown to improve quality of life and reduce mortality.
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited syndrome that is characterized by the occurrence of tumours of the parathyroid glands, gastroenteropancreatic tumours, pitui-tary gland adenomas, as well as adrenal adenomas and neuro-endocrine tumours, often at a young age. MEN1 tumours can
Molecular diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. RJ Pegoraro, DJ Hacking, RH Buck, L Rom, PA Lanning, GMB Berger. Abstract. Objective. To identify by means of genetic analyses individuals who are at risk of developing medullary thyroid cancer that is a component of multiple endocrine neoplasia. Subjects.
Lee, Duk-Hee; Jacobs, David R
Possible harm from endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in humans is speculated based on two types of evidence; 1) increasing trends of suspected diseases in ecological studies of populations and 2) findings from traditional epidemiological studies of individuals. However, ecological findings are not regarded as direct human evidence of the relation between EDCs and disease, while the evidence among epidemiological studies of individuals is often inconsistent. Thus, a criticism is that linking EDCs and health in human is naively presumed without solid evidence. However, human studies of EDCs are methodologically complex and understanding methodological issues will help to interpret findings from existing human studies and to properly design optimal human studies. The key issues are low reliability of exposure assessment of EDCs with short half-lives, EDC mixtures, possibility of non-monotonic dose-response relationships, non-existence of an unexposed group, difficulties in measuring exposure during critical periods, and interactions with established risk factors. Furthermore, EDC mixtures may affect human health through other mechanisms than traditional endocrine disruption, for example glutathione depletion or mitochondrial dysfunction. Given this complexity, the most plausible scenario in humans is that exposure to EDC mixtures leads to increasing risk of related diseases at the ecological level, but inconsistent associations would be expected in traditional epidemiological studies. Although epidemiologists have long relied on Bradford Hill's criteria to objectively evaluate whether associations observed in epidemiology can be interpreted as causal, there are challenges to use these criteria for EDCs, particularly concerning consistency across studies and the findings of linear dose-response relationships. At the individual level, compared to EDCs with short half-lives, epidemiological studies of EDCs with long half-lives among populations with a relatively low
Full Text Available lethora. Endocrine disease GNAS [HSA:2778] [KO:K04632] AIP [HSA:9049] [KO:K17767] ... Trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery... Pituitary irradiation (gamma Knife surgery) Medical treatments towards the pituitary: Cabergoli
Marina Yu. Yukina
Full Text Available Immunoglobulin G4-associated diseases (IgG4-AD arethe group of chronic progressive autoimmune fibro-inflammatory pathology of various organs and tissues, characterized by their enlargement and abundant infiltration of immunoglobulin G4-positive plasma cells, as well as an increase in the level of serum immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4.In most patients, the disease is characterized by a mild course.However, there is evidence of a high incidence of malignancies in patients with IgG4-AD.Among endocrine IgG4-associated pathologies, pancreatitis with outcome in diabetes mellitus, hypophysitis and thyroiditis are described. Laboratory examination usually reveals an increased level of IgG4. However, the concentration of IgG4 could not be used as the only diagnostic criterion.The possibility of plasmablastsdetermining as a marker of the disease is discussed.Among the imaging techniques CT, MRI and 18F-FDG-PET/CT are used.However, the most informative method of diagnosis is biopsy. Randomized clinical trials to determine clear recommendations for the treatment of IgG4-AD were not conducted.In most cases, glucocorticoids are prescribed, and immunosuppressive therapy is sometimes used.According to the results of recent studies, the genetically engineered drug rituximab is relatively effective in inducing remission of the disease.Given the high recurrence rate and the risk of malignancy, patients with IgG4-AD require careful long-term follow-up. Thus, the review describes the clinical manifestations of IgG4-AD, examines the possibilities of their diagnosis and presents the existing methods of treatment.However, given the fact that IgG4-AD became a separate group of autoimmune pathology less than 20 years ago, there are insufficient data on these diseases. Researches related to epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and effective treatment of IgG4-AD are actual.
Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the opinions of different groups from: scientists, international regulatory bodies, non-governmental organizations and industry; with an interest in the problem of identifying chemical substances with endocrine disrupting activity. There is also discussion of the consequences that exposure to endocrine disruptors may have for human health, considering concrete issues related to: the estimation of risk; the tests that must be used to detect endocrine disruption; the difficulties to establish an association between dose, time of exposure, individual susceptibility, and effect; and the attempts to create a census of endocrine disruptors. Finally, it is proposed that not all hormonal mimics should be included under the single generic denomination of endocrine disruptors.
Lagadic, Laurent; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Biever, Ronald C.; Guiney, Patrick; Karouna-Renier, Natalie; Schwarz, Tamar; Meador, James P.
Tributyltin (TBT) has been recognized as an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) for several decades. However, only in the last decade, was its primary endocrine mechanism of action (MeOA) elucidated—interactions with the nuclear retinoid-X receptor (RXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and their heterodimers. This molecular initiating event (MIE) alters a range of reproductive, developmental, and metabolic pathways at the organism level. It is noteworthy that a variety of MeOAs have been proposed over the years for the observed endocrine-type effects of TBT; however, convincing data for the MIE was provided only recently and now several researchers have confirmed and refined the information on this MeOA. One of the most important lessons learned from years of research on TBT concerns apparent species sensitivity. Several aspects such as the rates of uptake and elimination, chemical potency, and metabolic capacity are all important for identifying the most sensitive species for a given chemical, including EDCs. For TBT, much of this was discovered by trial and error, hence important relationships and important sensitive taxa were not identified until several decades after its introduction to the environment. As recognized for many years, TBT-induced responses are known to occur at very low concentrations for molluscs, a fact that has more recently also been observed in fish species. This review explores the MeOA and effects of TBT in different species (aquatic molluscs and other invertebrates, fish, amphibians, birds, and mammals) according to the OECD Conceptual Framework for Endocrine Disruptor Testing and Assessment (CFEDTA). The information gathered on biological effects that are relevant for populations of aquatic animals was used to construct Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSDs) based on No Observed Effect Concentrations (NOECs) and Lowest Observed Effect Concentrations (LOECs). Fish appear at the lower end of these distributions
Lagadic, Laurent; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Biever, Ron; Guiney, Patrick D; Karouna-Renier, Natalie; Schwarz, Tamar; Meador, James P
Tributyltin (TBT) has been recognized as an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) for several decades. However, only in the last decade, was its primary endocrine mechanism of action (MeOA) elucidated-interactions with the nuclear retinoid-X receptor (RXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and their heterodimers. This molecular initiating event (MIE) alters a range of reproductive, developmental, and metabolic pathways at the organism level. It is noteworthy that a variety of MeOAs have been proposed over the years for the observed endocrine-type effects of TBT; however, convincing data for the MIE was provided only recently and now several researchers have confirmed and refined the information on this MeOA. One of the most important lessons learned from years of research on TBT concerns apparent species sensitivity. Several aspects such as the rates of uptake and elimination, chemical potency, and metabolic capacity are all important for identifying the most sensitive species for a given chemical, including EDCs. For TBT, much of this was discovered by trial and error, hence important relationships and important sensitive taxa were not identified until several decades after its introduction to the environment. As recognized for many years, TBT-induced responses are known to occur at very low concentrations for molluscs, a fact that has more recently also been observed in fish species. This review explores the MeOA and effects of TBT in different species (aquatic molluscs and other invertebrates, fish, amphibians, birds, and mammals) according to the OECD Conceptual Framework for Endocrine Disruptor Testing and Assessment (CFEDTA). The information gathered on biological effects that are relevant for populations of aquatic animals was used to construct Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSDs) based on No Observed Effect Concentrations (NOECs) and Lowest Observed Effect Concentrations (LOECs). Fish appear at the lower end of these distributions
Groom, Amy G; Younis, Tallal
The global burden of breast cancer highlights the need for primary prevention strategies that demonstrate both favorable clinical benefit/risk profile and good value for money. Endocrine therapy with selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs) or aromatase inhibitors (AIs) has been associated with a favorable clinical benefit/risk profile in the prevention of breast cancer in women at high risk of developing the disease. The available endocrine therapy strategies differ in terms of their relative reductions of breast cancer risk, potential side effects, and upfront drug acquisition costs, among others. This review highlights the clinical trials of SERMs and AIs for the primary prevention of breast cancer, and the cost-effectiveness /cost-utility studies that have examined their "value for money" in various health care jurisdictions.
Full Text Available A rare case of primary gastric endocrine cell carcinoma in a 79-year-old man is reported. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a large Bormann’s type 2 tumour located in the middle of the stomach. On computed tomography, the gastric wall was thickened by the large tumour, and there were no distant metastases. Distal gastrectomy, lymph node dissection, and partial resection of the transverse colon were performed because the tumour involved the transverse mesocolon. The final pathological diagnosis was endocrine cell carcinoma, with tumour infiltration up to the subserous layer. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given, but metachronous remnant gastric cancer developed 2 years after surgery. Endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed for the early 0-IIc type gastric cancer, and the surgical margin was preserved. The patient has survived for 5 years after the primary surgery, remaining disease-free so far.
Botton, Jérémie; Kadawathagedara, Manik; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine
According to the "environmental obesogen hypothesis", early-life (including in utero) exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may disturb the mechanisms involved in adipogenesis or energy storage, and thus may increase the susceptibility to overweight and obesity. Animal models have shown that exposure to several of these chemicals could induce adipogenesis and mechanisms have been described. Epidemiological studies are crucial to know whether this effect could also be observed in humans. We aimed at summarizing the literature in epidemiology on the relationship between EDCs exposure and child's growth. Overall, epidemiological studies suggest that pre- and/or early postnatal exposure to some EDCs may increase the risk of overweight or obesity during childhood. In that review, we present some limitations of these studies, mainly in exposure assessment, that currently prevent to conclude about causality. Recent advances in epidemiology should bring further knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Künzel, Frank; Mayer, Jörg
Functional endocrine tumours have long been thought to be rare in guinea pigs, although conditions such as hyperthyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been documented with increasing frequency so the prevalence of hormonal disorders may have been underestimated. Both the clinical signs and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in guinea pigs appear to be very similar to those described in feline hyperthyroidism, and methimazole has been proven to be a practical therapy option. Hyperadrenocorticism has been confirmed in several guinea pigs with an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test using saliva as a non-invasive sample matrix; trilostane has been successfully used to treat a guinea pig with hyperadrenocorticism. Insulinomas have only rarely been documented in guinea pigs and one animal was effectively treated with diazoxide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available During the past decades, a large body of information concerning the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs on animals and humans has been accumulated. EDCs are of synthetic or natural origin and certain groups are known to disrupt the action of androgens and to impair the development of the male reproductive tract and external genitalia. The present overview describes the effects of the different classes of EDCs, such as pesticides, phthalates, dioxins, and phytoestrogens, including newly synthesized resveratrol analogs on steroidogenesis in Leydig cells. The potential impact of these compounds on androgen production by Leydig cells during fetal development and in the adult age is discussed. In addition, the possible role of EDCs in connection with the increasing frequency of abnormalities in reproductive development in animals and humans is discussed.
Gupta, L; Khandelwal, D; Kalra, S; Gupta, P; Dutta, D; Aggarwal, S
Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for “diabesity.” PMID:29022562
Full Text Available Ketogenic diet (KD is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for “diabesity.”
Holbech, Henrik; Bech Sanderhoff, Lene; Waller, Stine P.
The Mollusca phylum is the second largest animal phylum with around 85,000 registered mollusc species and increasing attention to effects of chemicals on the molluscan endocrine system have been given during the last years. This includes initiation of the development of OECD test guidelines (TG...... efficient and fast in vivo system using embryos of the freshwater pulmonate gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (the great pond snail). It is known that serotonin and dopamine are involved in many reproductive processes in molluscs Incl. egg maturation and spawning and that pedal ciliary activity causing L....... stagnalis embryos to rotate in the eggs is serotonin/dopamine regulated. We have developed a system to quantify embryo rotation and present results of exposure to serotonin, dopamine and different anti-depressive pharmaceuticals (e.g. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRI´s) using the L. stagnalis...
Full Text Available Endocrine diseases may have manifestations locally or in a generalized manner. When an imbalance in normal bone homeostasis occurs, regulated by various hormones such as parathyroid hormone, growth hormone it results in conditions like hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia etc. which may affect bone density in a generalized manner. The condition cause: excessive resorption of bone or excessive deposition of bone. Intraoral or extraoral radiographs are thus useful in detecting diseases like hyperparathyroidism, hyperpituitarism, hypoparathyroidism, and hypopituitarism which are subclinical and are detected accidently on routine radiographic examination.
Eugene T. Won
Full Text Available Compensatory growth (CG is a period of accelerated growth that occurs following the alleviation of growth-stunting conditions during which an organism can make up for lost growth opportunity and potentially catch-up in size with non-stunted cohorts. Fish show a particularly robust capacity for the response and have been the focus of numerous studies that demonstrate their ability to compensate for periods of fasting once food is made available again. Compensatory growth is characterized by an elevated growth rate resulting from enhanced feed intake, mitogen production and feed conversion efficiency. Because little is known about the underlying mechanisms that drive the response, this review describes the sequential endocrine adaptations that lead to CG; namely during the precedent catabolic phase (fasting that taps endogenous energy reserves, and the following hyperanabolic phase (refeeding when accelerated growth occurs. In order to elicit a CG response, endogenous energy reserves must first be moderately depleted, which alters endocrine profiles that enhance appetite and growth potential. During this catabolic phase, elevated ghrelin and growth hormone (GH production increase appetite and protein-sparing lipolysis, while insulin-like growth factors (IGFs are suppressed, primarily due to hepatic GH resistance. During refeeding, temporal hyperphagia provides an influx of energy and metabolic substrates that are then allocated to somatic growth by resumed IGF signaling. Under the right conditions, refeeding results in hyperanabolism and a steepened growth trajectory relative to constantly fed controls. The response wanes as energy reserves are re-accumulated and homeostasis is restored. We ascribe possible roles for select appetite and growth-regulatory hormones in the context of these catabolic and hyperanabolic phases of the CG response in teleosts, with emphasis on GH, IGFs, cortisol, somatostatin, neuropeptide Y, ghrelin and leptin.
Takeichi, Norio; Dohi, Kiyohiko
This paper discusses the tendency for the occurrence of tumors in the endocrine glands, other than the thyroid gland, in A-bomb survivors using both autopsy and clinical data. ABCC-RERF sample data using 4136 autopsy cases (1961-1977) revealed parathyroid tumors in 13 A-bomb survivors, including 3 with the associated hyperparathyroidism, with the suggestion of dose-dependent increase in the occurrence of tumors. Based on clinical data from Hiroshima University, 7 (46.7%) of 15 parathyroid tumors cases were A-bomb survivors. Data (1974-1987) from the Tumor Registry Committee (TRC) in Hiroshima Prefecture revealed that a relative risk of parathyroid tumors was 5.6 times higher in the entire group of A-bomb survivors and 16.2 times higher in the group of heavily exposed A-bomb survivors, suggesting the dose-dependent increase in their occurrence. Adrenal tumors were detected in 47 of 123 cases from the TRC data, and 15 (31.5%) of these 47 were A-bomb survivors. Particularly, 11 cases of adrenal tumors associated with Cushing syndrome included 6 A-bomb survivors (54.5%). The incidence of multiple endocrine gonadial tumors (MEGT) tended to be higher with increasing exposure doses; and the 1-9 rad group, the 10-99 rad group, and the 100 or more rad group had a risk of developing MEGT of 4.1, 5.7, and 7.1, respectively, relative to both the not-in the city group and the 0 rad group. These findings suggested that there is a correlation between A-bomb radiation and the occurrence of parathyroid tumors (including hyperparathyroidism), adrenal tumors associated with Cushing syndrome and MEGT (especially, the combined thyroid and ovarian tumors and the combined thyroid and parathyroid tumors). (N.K.)
R.C. Padmos (Roos)
textabstractBipolar disorder (also called manic-depressive illness) is one of the major mood disorders. The term manic-depressive illness was introduced by Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926) in the late nineteenth century.1 It is in most patients a chronic illness with recurrent manic and depressive
Albrecht, Urs-Vito; von Jan, Ute
Quantitative review and categorization of available endocrinology related mobile apps for the iOS platform (Apple®) and outline of search strategies to identify appropriate mobile apps for this field. A total of 80 endocrinology related search terms were collected and grouped into 8 main categories covering different areas of endocrinology. These terms were then used to perform comprehensive searches in three categories of Apple's app store, namely 'Medicine', 'Health and Fitness', and 'Reference'. Altogether, matches were found for only 33 of the 80 collected endocrinology related search terms; the majority of matches were found in the medical category, followed by matches for the health and fitness (27/33), and reference (16/33) categories. Restricting the search to these categories significantly helped in discriminating between health related apps and those having another purpose. The distribution of apps per category roughly matches what one can expect considering available data for incidence and prevalence of corresponding endocrinological conditions. Apps matching terms belonging to the spectrum of glucose homeostasis disorders are the most common. For conditions where patients do not have to constantly monitor their condition, apps tend to have a reference or educational character, while for conditions that require a high level of involvement from patients, there are proportionally more apps for self-management. With a single exception, the identified apps had not undergone regulation, and information about the data sources, professional backgrounds, and reliability of the content and integrated information sources was rare. While applying a good search strategy is important for finding apps for endocrinology related problems, users also need to consider whether the app they have found respects all necessary criteria regarding reliability, privacy and data protection before they place their trust in it.
von Jan, Ute
Objectives: Quantitative review and categorization of available endocrinology related mobile apps for the iOS platform (Apple®) and outline of search strategies to identify appropriate mobile apps for this field. Methods: A total of 80 endocrinology related search terms were collected and grouped into 8 main categories covering different areas of endocrinology. These terms were then used to perform comprehensive searches in three categories of Apple’s app store, namely ‘Medicine’, ‘Health and Fitness’, and ‘Reference’. Results: Altogether, matches were found for only 33 of the 80 collected endocrinology related search terms; the majority of matches were found in the medical category, followed by matches for the health and fitness (27/33), and reference (16/33) categories. Restricting the search to these categories significantly helped in discriminating between health related apps and those having another purpose. The distribution of apps per category roughly matches what one can expect considering available data for incidence and prevalence of corresponding endocrinological conditions. Apps matching terms belonging to the spectrum of glucose homeostasis disorders are the most common. For conditions where patients do not have to constantly monitor their condition, apps tend to have a reference or educational character, while for conditions that require a high level of involvement from patients, there are proportionally more apps for self-management. With a single exception, the identified apps had not undergone regulation, and information about the data sources, professional backgrounds, and reliability of the content and integrated information sources was rare. Conclusions: While applying a good search strategy is important for finding apps for endocrinology related problems, users also need to consider whether the app they have found respects all necessary criteria regarding reliability, privacy and data protection before they place their trust in it. PMID:25152809
Rehfeld, Anders Aagaard; Plass, Mireya; Krogh, Anders
Introduction: Polyadenylation is the process in which the pre-mRNA is cleaved at the poly(A) site and a poly(A) tail is added - a process necessary for normal mRNA formation. Genes with multiple poly(A) sites can undergo alternative polyadenylation (APA), producing distinct mRNA isoforms with dif......Introduction: Polyadenylation is the process in which the pre-mRNA is cleaved at the poly(A) site and a poly(A) tail is added - a process necessary for normal mRNA formation. Genes with multiple poly(A) sites can undergo alternative polyadenylation (APA), producing distinct mRNA isoforms...... with different 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) and in some cases different coding regions. Two thirds of all human genes undergo APA. The efficiency of the polyadenylation process regulates gene expression and APA plays an important part in post-transcriptional regulation, as the 3' UTR contains various cis...
Highly sensitive radioimmunoassays of hTSH sub-units were developed. The hormone preparations were labelled with 125-iodine according to a modified chloramine -T method, and purified by chromatography using biogel P6 and P60. Rabbit antisera were used as antibodies. Separation of the antibody-bound and of the free antigens was carried out via the double antibody method. The antiserum required for this purpose was obtained from a goat. The sensitivity of the assay was influenced by changing the protein content of the buffer, the incubation volume, the tracer amounts, the incubation time and the incubation temperature. For hTSH-α, the lowest detectable limit was found to be 50 pg/ml, for hTSH-#betta# 20 pg/ml. Thus, the sub-units could be determined for 98% of the patients under review. The #betta#-TSH radioimmunoassay is largely specific, TSH cross-reacts to a degree of 5%. The computerized evoluation was carried out by means of Spline approximation using the Siemens 4004 computer. Precision and accurateness are in compliance with generally accpted criteria. The serum levels of α and #betta# sub-units showed no discordancy with regard to TSH. In all groups of patients examined, the levels of the hormone-specific #betta#-chain were found to be exclusively dependent upon the actual thyroid activity. (orig.) [de
Acromegaly is predominantly caused by a pituitary adenoma, which secretes an excess of GH resulting in increased IGF-I levels. Most of the GH assays used currently measure only the 22 kDa form of GH. In theory, the diagnostic sensitivity may be lower compared to the previous assays, which used...... polyclonal antibodies. Many GH-secreting adenomas are plurihormonal and may co-secrete prolactin, TSH and α-subunit. Hyperprolactinemia is found in 30-40% of patients with acromegaly and hyperprolactinemia may occasionally be diagnosed before acromegaly is apparent.Although trans-sphenoidal surgery of a GH......-secreting adenoma remains the first treatment at most centres, the role of somatostatin analogues, octreotide LAR and lanreotide Autogel, as primary therapy is still the subject of some debate. While normalization of GH and IGF-I levels is the main objective in all patients with acromegaly, GH and IGF-I levels may...
Hirsutism affects 5-25% women, and the condition is most often caused by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The initial evaluation of hirsute patients should include a thorough medical history, clinical evaluation, and standardized blood samples to diagnose the 5% hirsute patients with rare endocrine disorders. The majority of these examinations can be performed by the patient's general practitioner. PCOS is a diagnosis of exclusion and is a multiorgan disease affecting most endocrine organs including ovaries, adrenals, pituitary, fat cells, and endocrine pancreas. The manifestations of PCOS are diverse, and up to 50% patients are normal weight. In most cases, however, the severity of symptoms can be related to abdominal obesity. Increased inflammation in PCOS can be measured as decreased adiponectin levels and increased levels of adipokines, chemokines, and interleukins. In the present thesis the use of these inflammatory markers is reviewed, but more data including hard end points are needed to determine which of these markers that should be introduced to the daily clinic. Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance stimulates ovarian and adrenal androgen production, whereas SHBG levels are decreased. Increased testosterone levels may further increase abdominal obesity and inflammation, therefore describing PCOS as a vicious cycle. Abdominal obesity and increased activation of the inflammatory system is seen in both normal weight and obese PCOS patients leading to an increased risk of dyslipidemia, diabetes, and possibly cardiovascular disease. Patients diagnosed with PCOS therefore should be screened for elements in the metabolic syndrome including weight, waist, blood pressure, HbA1c, and lipid status. Our data supported that prolactin and HbA1c levels could be markers of cardiovascular risk and should be confirmed by prospective studies. PCOS is a life-long condition and treatment modalities involve lifestyle modification, insulin sensitizers such as metformin, or
CUI Wei; QIANG Sheng; GAO X Z
Inspired by the biological endocrine system, the Artificial Endocrine System (AES) has been proposed and investigated during the past decade. As a novel branch of computational intelligence methods, it has its unique and distinguishing features. This paper intends to give an overview of the current research work in the AES. The preliminary theory of the AES, which is based on the simplified mathematic models of natural endocrine system, is first introduced here. Some typical AES algorithms and their applications are also briefly discussed. Finally, a few remarks and conclusions are made.
Anurag, Meenakshi; Punturi, Nindo; Hoog, Jeremy; Bainbridge, Matthew N; Ellis, Matthew J; Haricharan, Svasti
This study was undertaken to conduct a comprehensive investigation of the role of DNA damage repair (DDR) defects in poor outcome ER+ disease. Expression and mutational status of DDR genes in ER+ breast tumors were correlated with proliferative response in neoadjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy trials (discovery data set), with outcomes in METABRIC, TCGA and Loi data sets (validation data sets), and in patient derived xenografts. A causal relationship between candidate DDR genes and endocrine treatment response, and the underlying mechanism, was then tested in ER+ breast cancer cell lines. Correlations between loss of expression of three genes: CETN2 (p<0.001) and ERCC1 (p=0.01) from the nucleotide excision repair (NER) and NEIL2 (p=0.04) from the base excision repair (BER) pathways were associated with endocrine treatment resistance in discovery data sets, and subsequently validated in independent patient cohorts. Complementary mutation analysis supported associations between mutations in NER and BER pathways and reduced endocrine treatment response. A causal role for CETN2, NEIL2 and ERCC1 loss in intrinsic endocrine resistance was experimentally validated in ER+ breast cancer cell lines, and in ER+ patient-derived xenograft models. Loss of CETN2, NEIL2 or ERCC1 induced endocrine treatment response by dysregulating G1/S transition, and therefore, increased sensitivity to CDK4/6 inhibitors. A combined DDR signature score was developed that predicted poor outcome in multiple patient cohorts. This report identifies DDR defects as a new class of endocrine treatment resistance drivers and indicates new avenues for predicting efficacy of CDK4/6 inhibition in the adjuvant treatment setting. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.
Tota, Bruno; Cerra, Maria Carmela; Gattuso, Alfonsina
In the past 50 years, extensive evidence has shown the ability of vertebrate cardiac non-neuronal cells to synthesize and release catecholamines (CA). This formed the mindset behind the search for the intrinsic endocrine heart properties, culminating in 1981 with the discovery of the natriuretic peptides (NP). CA and NP, co-existing in the endocrine secretion granules and acting as major cardiovascular regulators in health and disease, have become of great biomedical relevance for their potent diagnostic and therapeutic use. The concept of the endocrine heart was later enriched by the identification of a growing number of cardiac hormonal substances involved in organ modulation under normal and stress-induced conditions. Recently, chromogranin A (CgA), a major constituent of the secretory granules, and its derived cardio-suppressive and antiadrenergic peptides, vasostatin-1 and catestatin, were shown as new players in this framework, functioning as cardiac counter-regulators in 'zero steady-state error' homeostasis, particularly under intense excitatory stimuli, e.g. CA-induced myocardial stress. Here, we present evidence for the hypothesis that is gaining support, particularly among human cardiologists. The actions of CA, NP and CgA, we argue, may be viewed as a hallmark of the cardiac capacity to organize 'whip-brake' connection-integration processes in spatio-temporal networks. The involvement of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)/nitric oxide (NO) system in this configuration is discussed. The use of fish and amphibian paradigms will illustrate the ways that incipient endocrine-humoral agents have evolved as components of cardiac molecular loops and important intermediates during evolutionary transitions, or in a distinct phylogenetic lineage, or under stress challenges. This may help to grasp the old evolutionary roots of these intracardiac endocrine/paracrine networks and how they have evolved from relatively less complicated designs. The latter can also be used
Montes-Grajales, Diana; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are a group of compounds that affect the endocrine system, frequently found in everyday products and epidemiologically associated with several diseases. The purpose of this work was to develop EDCs DataBank, the only database of EDCs with three-dimensional structures. This database was built on MySQL using the EU list of potential endocrine disruptors and TEDX list. It contains the three-dimensional structures available on PubChem, as well as a wide variety of information from different databases and text mining tools, useful for almost any kind of research regarding EDCs. The web platform was developed employing HTML, CSS and PHP languages, with dynamic contents in a graphic environment, facilitating information analysis. Currently EDCs DataBank has 615 molecules, including pesticides, natural and industrial products, cosmetics, drugs and food additives, among other low molecular weight xenobiotics. Therefore, this database can be used to study the toxicological effects of these molecules, or to develop pharmaceuticals targeting hormone receptors, through docking studies, high-throughput virtual screening and ligand-protein interaction analysis. EDCs DataBank is totally user-friendly and the 3D-structures of the molecules can be downloaded in several formats. This database is freely available at http://edcs.unicartagena.edu.co. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Girish, Banavara Narasimhamurthy; Rajesh, Gopalakrishna; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Balakrishnan, Vallath
A major role of the pancreas in zinc homeostasis has been suggested. To assess erythrocyte zinc status in chronic pancreatitis and to correlate it with pancreatic exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. One hundred and one patients with chronic pancreatitis (34 alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, 67 tropical chronic pancreatitis) were prospectively studied. Disease characteristics and imaging features were recorded. Erythrocyte zinc was estimated by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Exocrine insufficiency was assessed using polyclonal antibody ELISA for pancreatic stool elastase1. Endocrine insufficiency was assessed by serum glucose levels and insulin requirement. Erythrocyte zinc was significantly lower in chronic pancreatitis patients than in the controls (26.5+/-9.5 microg/g Hb vs. 38.0+/-6.6 microg/g Hb; Ppancreatitis than in alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (25.0+/-10.4 microg/g Hb vs. 29.6+/-6.5 microg/g Hb, P=0.001). In chronic pancreatitis patients who had exocrine insufficiency, erythrocyte zinc positively correlated with stool elastase1 (r=0.587, Ppancreatitis patients, and that zinc deficiency correlates with exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Further studies may clarify the possible benefits of zinc supplementation in chronic pancreatitis.
... the endocrine system. This draft guidance also discusses factors to consider in determining the need... interfere with some aspect of the endocrine system of an organism or its progeny. Any component of the endocrine system can be a target of endocrine disruptors, although the systems most commonly affected...
Roncati, Luca; Piscioli, Francesco; Pusiol, Teresa
Persistent organic pollutants have been lately taken into consideration for their adverse effects, as possible stillbirth contributors; stillbirth can be in fact considered the most dramatic pregnancy complication. Congenital abnormalities account for few stillbirths and many related disorders are potentially modifiable or often coexist, such as maternal infections, non-communicable diseases, lifestyle factors and maternal age. Causal pathways for stillbirth frequently involve impaired placental function, either with fetal growth restriction or preterm labour. For this reason, many current efforts are focusing on the study of endocrine disruptor (ED) placental transfer, to better understand the in utero exposure dynamics. In this regard, our research group has investigated, by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, the EDs presence in brain samples of 24 stillbirths, collected over a 3-year period (2012–2014), coming from the Northeast Italy, a notorious area devoted to apple cultivation. Surprisingly, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), well-known EDs, have been detected in 11 samples. Apart from the noteworthy evidence of pesticides' bio-persistence, this finding implies a redefinition of the placental barrier concept: not a real safety system, but a time-deferral mechanism of absorption. The term ‘placental barrier’ in fact refers to a 4-membrane structure, made up by two epithelial layers, which exactly lining the chorionic villi, and by two endothelial layers, belonging to the feeding vessels for the fetus. It is an effective barrier only for a low administration of water-soluble substances, which encounter obstacle to cross four instead of two membranes. High doses of water-soluble compounds can reach appreciable concentration in the fetal blood, and the lipid-soluble chemicals, such as EDs, are able to pass the placental barrier, through a simple mechanism of passive diffusion, even in minimal concentrations. After crossing the placental barrier, it is
Roncati, Luca, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Provincial Health Care Services, Institute of Pathology, Santa Maria del Carmine Hospital, Rovereto, TN (Italy); Department of Diagnostic and Clinical Medicine and of Public Health, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, MO (Italy); Piscioli, Francesco; Pusiol, Teresa [Provincial Health Care Services, Institute of Pathology, Santa Maria del Carmine Hospital, Rovereto, TN (Italy)
Persistent organic pollutants have been lately taken into consideration for their adverse effects, as possible stillbirth contributors; stillbirth can be in fact considered the most dramatic pregnancy complication. Congenital abnormalities account for few stillbirths and many related disorders are potentially modifiable or often coexist, such as maternal infections, non-communicable diseases, lifestyle factors and maternal age. Causal pathways for stillbirth frequently involve impaired placental function, either with fetal growth restriction or preterm labour. For this reason, many current efforts are focusing on the study of endocrine disruptor (ED) placental transfer, to better understand the in utero exposure dynamics. In this regard, our research group has investigated, by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, the EDs presence in brain samples of 24 stillbirths, collected over a 3-year period (2012–2014), coming from the Northeast Italy, a notorious area devoted to apple cultivation. Surprisingly, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), well-known EDs, have been detected in 11 samples. Apart from the noteworthy evidence of pesticides' bio-persistence, this finding implies a redefinition of the placental barrier concept: not a real safety system, but a time-deferral mechanism of absorption. The term ‘placental barrier’ in fact refers to a 4-membrane structure, made up by two epithelial layers, which exactly lining the chorionic villi, and by two endothelial layers, belonging to the feeding vessels for the fetus. It is an effective barrier only for a low administration of water-soluble substances, which encounter obstacle to cross four instead of two membranes. High doses of water-soluble compounds can reach appreciable concentration in the fetal blood, and the lipid-soluble chemicals, such as EDs, are able to pass the placental barrier, through a simple mechanism of passive diffusion, even in minimal concentrations. After crossing the placental barrier
Zhang, Jingwen; Huang, Yanhong; Wang, Changyi; He, Yuanfang; Zheng, Shukai; Wu, Kusheng
Endocrine therapy was recommended as the preferred first-line treatment for hormone receptor-positive (HR+, i.e., ER+ and/or PgR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative (HER2-) postmenopausal advanced breast cancer (ABC), but which endocrine monotherapy is optimal lacks consensus. We aimed to identify the optimal endocrine monotherapy with a network meta-analysis. We performed a network meta-analysis for a comprehensive analysis of 6 first-line endocrine monotherapies (letrozole, anastrozole, exemestane, tamoxifen, fulvestrant 250 mg and 500 mg) for HR+ HER2- metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal patients. The main outcomes were objective response rate (ORR), time to progression (TTP), and progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary outcomes were adverse events. We identified 27 articles of 8 randomized controlled trials including 3492 patients in the network meta-analysis. For ORR, the treatments ranked in descending order of effectiveness were letrozole > exemestane > anastrozole > fulvestrant 500 mg > tamoxifen > fulvestrant 250 mg. For TTP/PFS, the order was fulvestrant 500 mg > letrozole > anastrozole > exemestane > tamoxifen > fulvestrant 250 mg. We directly compared adverse events and found that tamoxifen produced more hot flash events than fulvestrant 250 mg. Fulvestrant 500 mg and letrozole might be optimal first-line endocrine monotherapy choices for HR+ HER2- ABC because of efficacious ORR and TTP/PFS, with a favorable tolerability profile. However, direct comparisons among endocrine monotherapies in the first-line therapy setting are still required to robustly demonstrate any differences among these endocrine agents. Clinical choices should also depend on the specific disease situation and duration of endocrine therapy.
Aim: In order to clarify the pathogenesis of endocrine exophthalmos, and lay foundations for finding the new functions of its relative genes, the cloning of its relative genes was carried out. Methods: The thyroid tissues of 10 hyperthyroidism patients, 5 of them with endocrine exophthalmos and 5 without that, were obtained. Their mRNA were collected respectively by using Quick Prep Micro mRNA purification kit. Then the same amount of the mRNA from 5 patients with endocrine exophthalmos was added into an eppendorf tube to form a mRNA pool. And that of the 5 patients without endocrine exophthalmos was also prepared as the other pool. As a model, the pool was used to synthesize the single and double chains of cDNA through SMART Tm PCR cDNA Synthesis Kit. The double chains cDNA from the endocrine exophthalmos patients, being used as tester, and that from the patients without endocrine exophthalmos, being used as driver, were digested by restriction endonucleases Hae III to get the fragments which was less than 500 bases. The tester cDNA was ligated with adapt or 1 or 2 respectively. Then the subtractive suppressive hybridization was performed between tester and driver cDNA. And the efficacies of subtraction were measured. The differential genes between the thyroid tissues of endocrine exophthalmos and the thyroid tissues without endocrine exophthalmos were obtained through two cycles of subtractive hybridization and two cycles PCR. The differential genes were cloned into the vector of pT-Adv, and then transformed into E.coliDH5a. 48 white clonies were selected to build the subtractive suppressive library of the relative genes of endocrine exophthalmos. The primer 2 was applied for the colony PCR of the relative genes. The amplified genes were obtained and purified by using Quaqwich Spine PCR Purification Kit. According to the principle of random primer, the double chains cDNA from the thyroid tissues with or without endocrine exophthalmos were digested by Hae III
Nowak, Karolina; Ratajczak-Wrona, Wioletta; Górska, Maria; Jabłońska, Ewa
Preservatives (ingredients which inhibit growth of microorganisms) are used to prolong shelf life of various foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. Parabens are one of the most popular preservatives used in the aforementioned products and is currently being used worldwide. Parabens are easily absorbed by the human body. Thus, it is important to discuss about their safety with respect to human physiology. In view of the current literature, which classifies parabens as a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), it seems that the precise assessment of their influence on the human endocrine system is particularly important. Disruption of the endocrine homoeostasis might lead to multidirectional implications causing disruption of fitness and functions of the body. Therefore, in this review article, we aimed to summarize the current literature on properties, occurrence, and metabolism of parabens as well as to present recent progress in knowledge about their influence on the human endocrine system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Clinical guidelines recommend that women with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer receive endocrine therapy (selective estrogen receptor modulators or aromatase...
H. Aguilar (Helena); A. Urruticoechea (Ander); P. Halonen (Pasi); K. Kiyotani (Kazuma); T. Mushiroda (Taisei); X. Barril (Xavier); J. Serra-Musach (Jordi); A.B.M.M.K. Islam (Abul); L. Caizzi (Livia); L. Di Croce (Luciano); E. Nevedomskaya (Ekaterina); W. Zwart (Wilbert); J. Bostner (Josefine); E. Karlsson (Elin); G. Pérez Tenorio (Gizeh); T. Fornander (Tommy); D.C. Sgroi (Dennis); R. Garcia-Mata (Rafael); M.P.H.M. Jansen (Maurice); N. García (Nadia); N. Bonifaci (Núria); F. Climent (Fina); E. Soler (Eric); A. Rodríguez-Vida (Alejo); M. Gil (Miguel); J. Brunet (Joan); G. Martrat (Griselda); L. Gómez-Baldó (Laia); A.I. Extremera (Ana); J. Figueras; J. Balart (Josep); R. Clarke (Robert); K.L. Burnstein (Kerry); K.E. Carlson (Kathryn); J.A. Katzenellenbogen (John); M. Vizoso (Miguel); M. Esteller (Manel); A. Villanueva (Alberto); A.B. Rodríguez-Peña (Ana); X.R. Bustelo (Xosé); Y. Nakamura (Yusuke); H. Zembutsu (Hitoshi); O. Stål (Olle); R.L. Beijersbergen (Roderick); M.A. Pujana (Miguel)
textabstractIntroduction: Endocrine therapies targeting cell proliferation and survival mediated by estrogen receptor α (ERα) are among the most effective systemic treatments for ERα-positive breast cancer. However, most tumors initially responsive to these therapies acquire resistance through
A group of chemicals, known as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) have been identified as having the potential to cause adverse health effects in humans and wildlife. Among this group DDT, PCBs, endosulfan, methoxychlor, diethylphthalate, diethylhexylphthalate, and bisphenol A ...
Balci, N. Cem; Semelka, Richard C.
This article presents imaging features of cystic, endocrine and other pancreatic neoplasms. Microcystic adenoma which is composed of small cysts ( 2 cm) are accounted for mucinous cystic neoplasms, its variant along pancreatic duct is ductectatic mucinous cystic neoplasm. Endocrine tumors of pancreas are hypervascular and can be depicted on early dynamic enhanced crosssectional imaging modalities or on angiography when they are <1 cm. Pancreatic metastases and lymphomas are rare neoplasms which should also be included in differential diagnosis for pancreatic masses
S. F. Sosnina
Full Text Available The study of deviations in health status of children whose parents were exposed to radiation on production enterprise is important for radiation safety of people of reproductive age and their subsequent generations.The purpose of the study: the analysis of endocrine-metabolic pathology in the offspring of female workers of nuclear production, which had accumulated preconceptual doses of external gamma-irradiation.Material and methods: Retrospective data analysis of medical records of 650 children under 15 years old was carried out, 130 of whom were the offspring of mothers exposed to radiation in the workplace. Methods of nonparametric statistics were applied. To identify latent factors, factor analysis by the main component method was used.Results: The range of preconceptive doses of external gamma irradiation to mothers’ gonads was 0.09–3523.7 mGy, the average absorbed dose for gonads was 423.2±52.2 mGy. The structure of the class «Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases» among the descendants of irradiated and intact mothers did not significantly differ. There was predominance of rickets, malnutrition among infants in both groups. Iodine-deficiency-related thyroid disorders were most frequently recorded in the structure of thyroid gland diseases without statistically significant differences in the groups. The gender dependence was noted: endocrine-metabolic pathology occurred in girls by 1.8 times more often than among boys. Frequent occurrence of polypathies and secondary endocrine pathology were indicated in the group of children of irradiated mothers. Factor analysis in study group identified four factors characterizing the antenatal period in children (19.4% of the variance, obstetric-gynecologic anamnesis (14.1% of the variance, mothers’ bad health habits (10.6% of the variance and preconceptional external gamma-radiation exposure of female workers (9.6% of the variance.Conclusion: The features identified in the analysis
Maranghi, Francesca; Tassinari, Roberta; Mantovani, Alberto
Toxicologists must ensure that clinical risk-to-benefit analysis should be made both for genders and age groups, with any treatment. Puberty concerns physiological changes leading to organism's maturation. Pubertal growth disorders are increasing in last decades: besides causing physical and psychological distress, they may signal underlying endocrine-metabolic abnormalities with serious health consequences later on. Therapeutic approaches for some health conditions in childhood and adolescence are considered. The authors discuss how some diseases and treatments can impact pubertal growth. The authors look at particular immunological disorders such as asthma and how both the disease and treatment affects pubertal growth. They also discuss how the provision of available data can help to assess the dose-response of the drug, in these cases, and minimize the chance of side effects. The authors also discuss pediatric inflammatory bowel disease and how both the disease and treatment can mitigate the growth delay. Last, but not least, the authors discuss how the effects of the drugs used in the treatment of psychiatric disorders may accentuate endocrine issues in juvenile patients. Hyperprolactinemia induction by some antipsychotics is highlighted as an example. Appropriate risk-benefit analysis of drugs prescribed during childhood and adolescence and intended to be used in the long term is required. Furthermore, future treatment strategies and safer compounds development should be supported by the knowledge of mechanisms underlying adverse side effects in pubertal growth and development.
Holbech, Henrik; Bjerregaard, Poul; Hass, Ulla
health and the environment. A number of issues relevant for the development of criteria for EDs were considered such as definition, potency, lead effects, specificity and relevance for humans and the environment. The proposed criteria divide substances into three categories dependent on the available...... and the main purpose of the Centre is to build and gather new knowledge on endocrine disrupters (EDs) with focus on information needed for the preventive work of the regulatory authorities. The aim of the report was to propose scientific criteria for the identification of ED substances of concern for human...
Kratochwil, C.; Giesel, F.L.
This article gives an overview of the established radionuclide therapies for endocrine-related cancer that already have market authorization or are currently under evaluation in clinical trials. Radioiodine therapy is still the gold standard for differentiated iodine-avid thyroid cancer. In patients with bone and lung metastases (near) total remission is seen in approximately 50 % and the 15-year survival rate for these patients is approximately 90 %. In contrast to the USA, meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) therapy has market approval in Europe. According to the current literature, in the setting of advanced stage neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma, radiological remission can be achieved in > 30 % and symptom control in almost 80 % of the treated patients. Somatostatin receptor targeted radionuclide therapies (e.g. with DOTATATE or DOTATOC) demonstrated promising results in phase 2 trials, reporting progression-free survival in the range of 24-36 months. A first phase 3 pivotal trial for intestinal carcinoids is currently recruiting and another trial for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is planned. Radiopharmaceuticals based on glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) or minigastrins are in the early evaluation stage for application in the treatment of insulinomas and medullary thyroid cancer. In general, radiopharmaceutical therapy belongs to the group of so-called theranostics which means that therapy is tailored for individual patients based on molecular imaging diagnostics to stratify target positive or target negative tumor phenotypes. (orig.) [de
Kumar, Ajay; Rai, Gopal K; Akhtar, Javed; Phillip, Rajeev; Gutch, Manish; Arya, T V S
Madelung deformity is a rare inherited disorder associated with endocrine disorders like Turner's syndrome, pseudohypoparathyroidism, but can be seen with short stature homeobox deficiency conditions such as Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) and Langers mesomelic dysplasia. It has also been reported following trauma to the distal radius epiphysis neoplasia mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) and achondroplasia. Madelung deformity is an abnormality of distal radial epiphysis where in progressive ulnar and volar tilt of the articular surface occurring in association with distal subluxation of ulna. A 13-year-old girl was referred to us for evaluation of bilateral deformity of wrist and short stature. There was ulnar deviation and dorsal tilt of bilateral hands without history of pain to the joint trauma and family history of similar illness. On X-ray, wrist showed malformed distal radial epiphysis with dorsal and ulnar shift and with increased length of phalanges suggestive of Madelung deformity. X-ray spine was normal. Ultrasound abdomen showed normal uterus and ovary and her follicle stimulating hormone. Luteinizing hormone was normal and so was urine MPS screening. Based on the above points the diagnosis of LWD was made.
Full Text Available Madelung deformity is a rare inherited disorder associated with endocrine disorders like Turner′s syndrome, pseudohypoparathyroidism, but can be seen with short stature homeobox deficiency conditions such as Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD and Langers mesomelic dysplasia. It has also been reported following trauma to the distal radius epiphysis neoplasia mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS and achondroplasia. Madelung deformity is an abnormality of distal radial epiphysis where in progressive ulnar and volar tilt of the articular surface occurring in association with distal subluxation of ulna. A 13-year-old girl was referred to us for evaluation of bilateral deformity of wrist and short stature. There was ulnar deviation and dorsal tilt of bilateral hands without history of pain to the joint trauma and family history of similar illness. On X-ray, wrist showed malformed distal radial epiphysis with dorsal and ulnar shift and with increased length of phalanges suggestive of Madelung deformity. X-ray spine was normal. Ultrasound abdomen showed normal uterus and ovary and her follicle stimulating hormone. Luteinizing hormone was normal and so was urine MPS screening. Based on the above points the diagnosis of LWD was made.
Full Text Available In normal aging, changes in the body composition occur that result in a shift toward decreased muscle mass and increased fat mass. The loss of muscle mass that occurs with aging is termed sarcopenia and is an important cause of frailty, disability, and loss of independence in older adults. Age-related changes in the body composition as well as the increased prevalence of obesity determine a combination of excess weight and reduced muscle mass or strength, recently defined as sarcopenic obesity. Weight gain increases total/abdominal fat, which, in turn, elicits inflammation and fatty infiltration in muscle. Sarcopenic obesity appears to be linked with the upregulation of TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6, leptin, and myostatin and the downregulation of adiponectin and IL-15. Multiple combined exercise and mild caloric restriction markedly attenuate the symptoms of sarcopenic obesity. Intriguingly, the inhibition of myostatin induced by gene manipulation or neutralizing antibody ameliorates sarcopenic obesity via increased skeletal muscle mass and improved glucose homeostasis. In this review, we describe the possible influence of endocrinal changes with age on sarcopenic obesity.
Henriet, Patrick; Gaide Chevronnay, Héloïse P; Marbaix, Etienne
During the reproductive life, the human endometrium undergoes cycles of substantial remodeling including, at menstruation, a massive but delimited tissue breakdown immediately followed by scarless repair. The present review aims at summarizing the current knowledge on the endocrine and paracrine control of menstruation in the light of recent observations that undermine obsolete dogmas. Menstruation can be globally considered as a response to falling progesterone concentration. However, tissue breakdown is heterogeneous and tightly controlled in space and time by a complex network of regulators and effectors, including cytokines, chemokines, proteases and various components of an inflammatory response. Moreover, menstruation must be regarded as part of a complex and integrated mechanism of tissue remodeling including features that precede and follow tissue lysis, i.e. decidualization and immediate post-menstrual regeneration. The understanding of the regulation of menstruation is of major basic and clinical interest. Indeed, these mechanisms largely overlap with those controlling other histopathological occurrences of tissue remodeling, such as development and cancer, and inappropriate control of menstrual features is a major potential cause of two frequent endometrial pathologies (i.e. abnormal uterine bleeding and endometriosis). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The identification of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs is one of the important goals of environmental chemical hazard screening. We report on in silico methods addressing toxicological studies about EDCs with a special focus on the application of QSAR models for screening purpose. Since Estrogen-like (ER activity has been extensively studied, the majority of the available models are based on ER-related endpoints. Some of these models are here reviewed and described. As example for their application, we screen an assembled dataset of candidate substitutes for some known EDCs belonging to the chemical classes of phthalates, bisphenols and parabens, selected considering their toxicological relevance and broad application, with the general aim of preliminary assessing their ED potential. The goal of the substitution processes is to advance inherently safer chemicals and products, consistent with the principles of green chemistry. Results suggest that the integration of a family of different models accounting for different endpoints can be a convenient way to describe ED as properly as possible and allow also both to increase the confidence of the predictions and to maximize the probability that most active compounds are correctly found.
Full Text Available Over the past decades, water pollution by trace organic compounds (ng/L has become one of the key environmental issues in developed countries. This is the case of the emerging contaminants called endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs. EDCs are a new class of environmental pollutants able to mimic or antagonize the effects of endogenous hormones, and are recently drawing scientific and public attention. Their widespread presence in the environment solicits the need of their removal from the contaminated sites. One promising approach to face this challenge consists in the use of enzymatic systems able to react with these molecules. Among the possible enzymes, oxidative enzymes are attracting increasing attention because of their versatility, the possibility to produce them on large scale, and to modify their properties. In this study five different EDCs were treated with four different fungal laccases, also in the presence of both synthetic and natural mediators. Mediators significantly increased the efficiency of the enzymatic treatment, promoting the degradation of substrates recalcitrant to laccase oxidation. The laccase showing the best performances was chosen to further investigate its oxidative capabilities against micropollutant mixtures. Improvement of enzyme performances in nonylphenol degradation rate was achieved through immobilization on glass beads.
De Coster, Sam; van Larebeke, Nicolas
The incidence and/or prevalence of health problems associated with endocrine-disruption have increased. Many chemicals have endocrine-disrupting properties, including bisphenol A, some organochlorines, polybrominated flame retardants, perfluorinated substances, alkylphenols, phthalates, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, solvents, and some household products including some cleaning products, air fresheners, hair dyes, cosmetics, and sunscreens. Even some metals were shown to have endocrine-disrupting properties. Many observations suggesting that endocrine disruptors do contribute to cancer, diabetes, obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and infertility are listed in this paper. An overview is presented of mechanisms contributing to endocrine disruption. Endocrine disruptors can act through classical nuclear receptors, but also through estrogen-related receptors, membrane-bound estrogen-receptors, and interaction with targets in the cytosol resulting in activation of the Src/Ras/Erk pathway or modulation of nitric oxide. In addition, changes in metabolism of endogenous hormones, cross-talk between genomic and nongenomic pathways, cross talk with estrogen receptors after binding on other receptors, interference with feedback regulation and neuroendocrine cells, changes in DNA methylation or histone modifications, and genomic instability by interference with the spindle figure can play a role. Also it was found that effects of receptor activation can differ in function of the ligand.
Sam De Coster
Full Text Available The incidence and/or prevalence of health problems associated with endocrine-disruption have increased. Many chemicals have endocrine-disrupting properties, including bisphenol A, some organochlorines, polybrominated flame retardants, perfluorinated substances, alkylphenols, phthalates, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, solvents, and some household products including some cleaning products, air fresheners, hair dyes, cosmetics, and sunscreens. Even some metals were shown to have endocrine-disrupting properties. Many observations suggesting that endocrine disruptors do contribute to cancer, diabetes, obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and infertility are listed in this paper. An overview is presented of mechanisms contributing to endocrine disruption. Endocrine disruptors can act through classical nuclear receptors, but also through estrogen-related receptors, membrane-bound estrogen-receptors, and interaction with targets in the cytosol resulting in activation of the Src/Ras/Erk pathway or modulation of nitric oxide. In addition, changes in metabolism of endogenous hormones, cross-talk between genomic and nongenomic pathways, cross talk with estrogen receptors after binding on other receptors, interference with feedback regulation and neuroendocrine cells, changes in DNA methylation or histone modifications, and genomic instability by interference with the spindle figure can play a role. Also it was found that effects of receptor activation can differ in function of the ligand.
Kusk, Kresten Ole; Krüger, Tanja; Long, Manhai
chemical analysis and a battery of bioassays. Influent samples, collected at the first STP grate, and effluent samples, collected after the sewage treatment, were extracted using solid phase extraction. Extracts were analyzed for the content of a range of industrial chemicals with endocrine disrupting...... properties: phthalate metabolites, parabens, industrial phenols, ultraviolet screens, and natural and synthetic steroid estrogens. The endocrine disrupting bioactivity and toxicity of the extracts were analyzed in cell culture assay for the potency to affect the function of the estrogen, androgen, aryl......Industrial and municipal effluents are important sources of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) discharged into the aquatic environment. This study investigated the endocrine potency of wastewater and the cleaning efficiency of two typical urban Danish sewage treatment plants (STPs), using...
Soumya Brata Sarkar; Subrata Sarkar; Supratim Ghosh; Subhankar Bandyopadhyay
Addison's disease is a rare endocrinal disorder, with several oral and systemic manifestations. A variety of pathological processes may cause Addison's disease. Classically, hyperpigmentation is associated with the disease, and intraoral pigmentation is perceived as the initial sign and develops earlier than the dermatological pigmentation. The symptoms of the disease usually progress slowly and an event of illness or accident can make the condition worse and may lead to a life-threatening cr...
García-Becerra, Rocío; Santos, Nancy; Díaz, Lorenza; Camacho, Javier
Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy diagnosed in women. Approximately 70% of breast tumors express the estrogen receptor (ER). Tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are the most common and effective therapies for patients with ERα-positive breast cancer. Alone or combined with chemotherapy, tamoxifen significantly reduces disease progression and is associated with more favorable impact on survival in patients. Unfortunately, endocrine resistance occurs, either de novo or acquired during the course of the treatment. The mechanisms that contribute to hormonal resistance include loss or modification in the ERα expression, regulation of signal transduction pathways, altered expression of specific microRNAs, balance of co-regulatory proteins, and genetic polymorphisms involved in tamoxifen metabolic activity. Because of the clinical consequences of endocrine resistance, new treatment strategies are arising to make the cells sensitive to tamoxifen. Here, we will review the current knowledge on mechanisms of endocrine resistance in breast cancer cells. In addition, we will discuss novel therapeutic strategies to overcome such resistance. Undoubtedly, circumventing endocrine resistance should help to improve therapy for the benefit of breast cancer patients. PMID:23344024
Petersen, Peter Meidahl; Daugaard, Gedske; Rørth, Mikael
CIS is found in the contralateral testis in 5% of the patients with testicular germ cell cancer. The management of CIS in the contralateral testis is important because the majority - if not all - cases of CIS will progress to invasive disease without treatment. It is well documented that testicular...... are sparse. One study has indicated that more radiotherapy with lower doses per fraction could be useful, but more data are needed to confirm this. Endocrine testicular function has been shown to be impaired already before treatment in patients with CIS and is further impaired after testicular irradiation...
Juster, Robert-Paul; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Mendrek, Adrianna; Pfaus, James G.; Smith, Nathan Grant; Johnson, Philip Jai; Lefebvre-Louis, Jean-Philippe; Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Sindi, Shireen; Lupien, Sonia J.; Pruessner, Jens C.
BACKGROUND Biological sex differences and sociocultural gender diversity influence endocrine stress reactivity. Although numerous studies have shown that men typically activate stronger stress responses than women when exposed to laboratory-based psychosocial stressors, it is unclear whether sexual orientation further modulates stress reactivity. Given that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals frequently report heightened distress secondary to stigma-related stressors, we investigated whether cortisol stress reactivity differs between LGB individuals and heterosexual individuals in response to a well-validated psychosocial stressor. METHODS The study population comprised 87 healthy adults (mean age, 25 years) who were grouped according to their biological sex and their gendered sexual orientation: lesbian/bisexual women (n = 20), heterosexual women (n = 21), gay/bisexual men (n = 26), and heterosexual men (n = 20). Investigators collected 10 salivary cortisol samples throughout a 2-hour afternoon visit involving exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test modified to maximize between-sex differences. RESULTS Relative to heterosexual women, lesbian/bisexual women showed higher cortisol stress reactivity 40 min after exposure to the stressor. In contrast, gay/bisexual men displayed lower overall cortisol concentrations throughout testing compared with heterosexual men. Main findings were significant while adjusting for sex hormones (estradiol-to-progesterone ratio in women and testosterone in men), age, self-esteem, and disclosure status (whether LGB participants had completed their “coming out”). CONCLUSIONS Our results provide novel evidence for gender-based modulation of cortisol stress reactivity based on sexual orientation that goes beyond well-established between-sex differences. This study raises several important avenues for future research related to the physiologic functioning of LGB populations and gender diversity more broadly. PMID:25444167
Juster, Robert-Paul; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Mendrek, Adrianna; Pfaus, James G; Smith, Nathan Grant; Johnson, Philip Jai; Lefebvre-Louis, Jean-Philippe; Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Sindi, Shireen; Lupien, Sonia J; Pruessner, Jens C
Biological sex differences and sociocultural gender diversity influence endocrine stress reactivity. Although numerous studies have shown that men typically activate stronger stress responses than women when exposed to laboratory-based psychosocial stressors, it is unclear whether sexual orientation further modulates stress reactivity. Given that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals frequently report heightened distress secondary to stigma-related stressors, we investigated whether cortisol stress reactivity differs between LGB individuals and heterosexual individuals in response to a well-validated psychosocial stressor. The study population comprised 87 healthy adults (mean age, 25 years) who were grouped according to their biological sex and their gendered sexual orientation: lesbian/bisexual women (n = 20), heterosexual women (n = 21), gay/bisexual men (n = 26), and heterosexual men (n = 20). Investigators collected 10 salivary cortisol samples throughout a 2-hour afternoon visit involving exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test modified to maximize between-sex differences. Relative to heterosexual women, lesbian/bisexual women showed higher cortisol stress reactivity 40 min after exposure to the stressor. In contrast, gay/bisexual men displayed lower overall cortisol concentrations throughout testing compared with heterosexual men. Main findings were significant while adjusting for sex hormones (estradiol-to-progesterone ratio in women and testosterone in men), age, self-esteem, and disclosure status (whether LGB participants had completed their "coming out"). Our results provide novel evidence for gender-based modulation of cortisol stress reactivity based on sexual orientation that goes beyond well-established between-sex differences. This study raises several important avenues for future research related to the physiologic functioning of LGB populations and gender diversity more broadly. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published
Schwartz, Michael W; Seeley, Randy J; Zeltser, Lori M; Drewnowski, Adam; Ravussin, Eric; Redman, Leanne M; Leibel, Rudolph L
Obesity is among the most common and costly chronic disorders worldwide. Estimates suggest that in the United States obesity affects one-third of adults, accounts for up to one-third of total mortality, is concentrated among lower income groups, and increasingly affects children as well as adults. A lack of effective options for long-term weight reduction magnifies the enormity of this problem; individuals who successfully complete behavioral and dietary weight-loss programs eventually regain most of the lost weight. We included evidence from basic science, clinical, and epidemiological literature to assess current knowledge regarding mechanisms underlying excess body-fat accumulation, the biological defense of excess fat mass, and the tendency for lost weight to be regained. A major area of emphasis is the science of energy homeostasis, the biological process that maintains weight stability by actively matching energy intake to energy expenditure over time. Growing evidence suggests that obesity is a disorder of the energy homeostasis system, rather than simply arising from the passive accumulation of excess weight. We need to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this "upward setting" or "resetting" of the defended level of body-fat mass, whether inherited or acquired. The ongoing study of how genetic, developmental, and environmental forces affect the energy homeostasis system will help us better understand these mechanisms and are therefore a major focus of this statement. The scientific goal is to elucidate obesity pathogenesis so as to better inform treatment, public policy, advocacy, and awareness of obesity in ways that ultimately diminish its public health and economic consequences. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.
John, Vanchit; Alqallaf, Hawra; De Bedout, Tatiana
A link between periodontal disease and various systemic diseases has been investigated for several years. Interest in unearthing such a link has grown as the health care profession is looking for a better understanding of disease processes and their relationships to periodontal and other oral diseases. The article aims to provide recent information on the relationship between periodontal disease and systemic diseases such as; cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine, musculoskeletal, and reproductive system related abnormalities.
... Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) Congenital Muscular Dystrophy (CMD) Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy Endocrine Myopathies Metabolic Diseases of Muscle Mitochondrial Myopathies (MM) Myotonic Dystrophy (DM) Spinal-Bulbar ...
Vincenzo De Sanctis
Full Text Available Aim: Chronic iron overload resulting from frequent transfusions, poor compliance to efficient chelation therapy and chronic liver disease is basically responsible for the most severe complications of thalassemia major (TM. Before conventional treatment, TM was entirely childhood disease with a very short survival. Today, survival improved to 40–50 years and becomes a prevalent disease of adulthood and in the near future it will be one of senility. Furthermore, clinical phenotype of TM is changing with age and appearance of severe complications from the heart and endocrine glands that require special health care from well-informed specialists. Objectives: The aims of our study were to: (1 Imprint the clinical profile of long-lived TM patients; (2 evaluate retrospectively the cumulative incidence of endocrine diseases; (3 identify potential risk factors; and (4 orient the physicians in the modified clinical phenotype and the relative patients' health needs. Design: A retrospective cross-sectional study followed from childhood to adulthood by the same physician in a tertiary thalassemia clinic. Participants: Forty-three long-lived TM patients (mean age: 50.3 ± 10.8 years; range: 45.8–59.5 years; 23 females were studied. Patients and Methods: An extensive medical history, with detailed clinical and laboratory data, endocrine complications, and current treatments, was obtained. Results: The data indicate that 88.4% of adult TM patients suffered from at least one endocrine complication. The majority of patients developed endocrine complications in the second decade of life when serum ferritin level was very high (12/23 TM female and 8/20 TM male patients, the serum ferritin levels at the diagnosis were above 5.000 ng/ml. Conclusions: These data underline that endocrine and bone complications in adult TM patients are highly prevalent and necessitate close monitoring, treatment, and follow-up. Physicians' strategies to optimize chelation therapy
Oct 26, 2017 ... KEYWORDS: Chronic pancreatitis, metabolic bone disease, osteomalacia, osteopenia ... with malabsorption, and endocrine dysfunction results in diabetes .... of insufficiency and deficiency were not assessed separately due ...
sickle cell disease, thalassaemia and Glucose-6-. Phosphate .... abnormalities of the membrane cause premature destruction ... endocrine complications which includes failure of puberty ... Pulmonary hypertension is also a common cause of.
Schug, T T; Abagyan, R; Blumberg, B; Collins, T J; Crews, D; DeFur, P L; Dickerson, S M; Edwards, T M; Gore, A C; Guillette, L J; Hayes, T; Heindel, J J; Moores, A; Patisaul, H B; Tal, T L; Thayer, K A; Vandenberg, L N; Warner, J; Watson, C S; Saal, F S Vom; Zoeller, R T; O'Brien, K P; Myers, J P
A central goal of green chemistry is to avoid hazard in the design of new chemicals. This objective is best achieved when information about a chemical's potential hazardous effects is obtained as early in the design process as feasible. Endocrine disruption is a type of hazard that to date has been inadequately addressed by both industrial and regulatory science. To aid chemists in avoiding this hazard, we propose an endocrine disruption testing protocol for use by chemists in the design of new chemicals. The Tiered Protocol for Endocrine Disruption (TiPED) has been created under the oversight of a scientific advisory committee composed of leading representatives from both green chemistry and the environmental health sciences. TiPED is conceived as a tool for new chemical design, thus it starts with a chemist theoretically at "the drawing board." It consists of five testing tiers ranging from broad in silico evaluation up through specific cell- and whole organism-based assays. To be effective at detecting endocrine disruption, a testing protocol must be able to measure potential hormone-like or hormone-inhibiting effects of chemicals, as well as the many possible interactions and signaling sequellae such chemicals may have with cell-based receptors. Accordingly, we have designed this protocol to broadly interrogate the endocrine system. The proposed protocol will not detect all possible mechanisms of endocrine disruption, because scientific understanding of these phenomena is advancing rapidly. To ensure that the protocol remains current, we have established a plan for incorporating new assays into the protocol as the science advances. In this paper we present the principles that should guide the science of testing new chemicals for endocrine disruption, as well as principles by which to evaluate individual assays for applicability, and laboratories for reliability. In a 'proof-of-principle' test, we ran 6 endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that act via
Huang, Xu-Gen; Wu, Xiao-Bing
AIM: To clarify the types, regional distributions and distribution densities as well as morphological features of gastrointestinal (GI) endocrine cells in various parts of the gastrointestinal track (GIT) of four reptiles, Gekko japonicus, Eumeces chinensis, Sphenomorphus indicus and Eumeces elegans. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded sections (5 μm) of seven parts (cardia, fundus, pylorus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, rectum) of GIT dissected from the four reptiles were prepared. GI endocrine cells were revealed by using immunohistochemical techniques of streptavidin-peroxidase (S-P) method. Seven types of antisera against 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT), somatostatin (SS), gastrin (GAS), glucagon (GLU), substance P (SP), insulin and pancreatic polypeptide were identified and then GI endocrine cells were photomicrographed and counted. RESULTS: The GI endocrine system of four reptiles was a complex structure containing many endocrine cell types similar in morphology to those found in higher vertebrates. Five types of GI endocrine cells, namely 5-HT, SS, GAS, SP and GLU immunoreactive (IR) cells were identified in the GIT of G. japonicus, E. chinensis and S. indicus; while in the GIT of E. elegans only the former three types of endocrine cells were observed. No PP- and INS- IR cells were found in all four reptiles. 5-HT-IR cells, which were most commonly found in the pylorus or duodenum, distributed throughout the whole GIT of four reptiles. However, their distribution patterns varied from each other. SS-IR cells, which were mainly found in the stomach especially in the pylorus and/or fundus, were demonstrated in the whole GIT of E. chinensis, only showed restricted distribution in the other three species. GAS-IR cells, with a much restricted distribution, were mainly demonstrated in the pylorus and/or the proximal small intestine of four reptiles. GLU-IR cells exhibited a limited and species-dependent variant distribution in the GIT of four reptiles. SP-IR cells were found
Full Text Available Objective: Seamless transition of endocrine patients from the paediatric to adult setting is still suboptimal, especially in patients with complex disorders, i.e., small for gestational age, Turner or Prader–Willi syndromes; Childhood Cancer Survivors, and those with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency. Methods: An expert panel meeting comprised of European paediatric and adult endocrinologists was convened to explore the current gaps in managing the healthcare of patients with endocrine diseases during transition from paediatric to adult care settings. Results: While a consensus was reached that a team approach is best, discussions revealed that a ‘one size fits all’ model for transition is largely unsuccessful in these patients. They need more tailored care during adolescence to prevent complications like failure to achieve target adult height, reduced bone mineral density, morbid obesity, metabolic perturbations (obesity and body composition, inappropriate/inadequate puberty, compromised fertility, diminished quality of life and failure to adapt to the demands of adult life. Sometimes it is difficult for young people to detach emotionally from their paediatric endocrinologist and/or the abrupt change from an environment of parental responsibility to one of autonomy. Discussions about impending transition and healthcare autonomy should begin in early adolescence and continue throughout young adulthood to ensure seamless continuum of care and optimal treatment outcomes. Conclusions: Even amongst a group of healthcare professionals with a great interest in improving transition services for patients with endocrine diseases, there is still much work to be done to improve the quality of healthcare for transition patients.
Berstein, L M; Vasilyev, D A; Poroshina, T E; Kovalenko, I G
The steady increase in chronic "glycemic load" is characteristic for modern times. Among myriad of glucose functions, two principals can be emphasized: first, endocrine (in particular, ability to induce insulin secretion) and second, DNA-damaging related to formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It was suggested by us earlier that a shift in the ratio of mentioned functions reflects a possible "joker" role of glucose as an important modifier of human pathology. Therefore, we embarked on a study to investigate an individual effect of peroral glucose challenge on serum insulin level and ROS generation by mononuclears (luminol-dependent/latex-induced chemiluminescence) in 20 healthy people aged between 28-75. Concentrations of glucose, blood lipids, carbonylated proteins, malondialdehyde, leptin and TNF-alpha were determined as well. On the basis of received data two separate groups could be distinguished: one (n=8), in which glucose stimulation of ROS generation by mononuclears was increased and relatively prevailed over induction of insulin secretion (state of the so called glucose-induced genotoxicity, GIGT), and another (n=12), in which signs of GIGT were not revealed. People who belonged to the first group were characterized with a tendency to lower body mass index, blood leptin and cholesterol and to higher TNF-alpha concentration. Thus, if joker function of glucose is realized in "genotoxic mode", the phenotype (and probably genotype) of subjects may be rather distinctive to the one discovered in glucose-induced "endocrine prevalence". Whether such changes may serve as a pro-mutagenic or pro-endocrine basis for the rise of different chronic diseases or, rather, different features/aggressiveness of the same disease warrants further study.
Wolf, Jeffrey C; Wheeler, James R
Although frequently examined as a target organ for non-endocrine toxicity, histopathological evaluation of the liver is becoming a routine component of endocrine disruption studies that utilize various fish species as test subjects. However, the interpretation of microscopic liver findings can be challenging, especially when attempting to distinguish adverse changes associated with endocrine disrupting substances from those caused by systemic or direct hepatic toxicity. The purpose of this project was to conduct a critical assessment of the available peer-reviewed and grey literature concerning the histopathologic effects of reproductive endocrine active substances (EAS) and non-endocrine acting substances in the livers of fish models, and to determine if liver histopathology can be used to reliably distinguish endocrine from non-endocrine etiologies. The results of this review suggest that few compound-specific histopathologic liver effects have been identified, among which are estrogen agonist-induced increases in hepatocyte basophilia and proteinaceous intravascular fluid in adult male teleosts, and potentially, decreased hepatocyte basophilia in female fish exposed to substances that possess androgenic, anti-estrogenic, or aromatase inhibitory activity. This review also used published standardized methodology to assess the credibility of the histopathology data in each of the 117 articles that reported liver effects of treatment, and consequently it was determined that in only 37% of those papers were the data considered either highly credible or credible. The outcome of this work highlights the value of histopathologic liver evaluation as an investigative tool for EAS studies, and provides information that may have implications for EAS hazard assessment. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Balanced functioning of the endocrine system is essential for preservation of human species by providing normal growth and development, reproduction, and normal functioning of all other organ systems. In the last decades, emerging area of interest is the impact of environmental exposures to human health. Important environmental pollutants are endocrine-disrupting che- micals (EDCs, which can have adverse e ects on the living organism due to their interference with the endocrine system. The group of known EDCs embraces ubiquitous synthetic substan- ces used as industrial lubricants and solvents, with their by-products, incomplete combustion remains, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, pesticides and plasticizers. Natural com- pounds such as genistein, a phytoestrogen, and heavy metals can also have endocrine e ects. Endocrine disruption is a serious public health problem. EDCs among other health problems ge- nerate reproductive disorders in males, such as decreases in sperm count and quality, increases in testicular germ cell numbers, prostate and breast cancers, cryptorchidism and hypospadias, impaired fertility, and infertility. This paper critically reviews the current knowledge of the impa- ct of EDCs on reproductive disorders in human males.
Lu, Xuefei; Liu, Ying; Kong, Xiangjun; Lobie, Peter E; Chen, Chunying; Zhu, Tao
Nanomaterials (NMs) are engineered for commercial purposes such as semiconductors, building materials, cosmetics, and drug carriers, while natural nanoparticles (NPs) already exist in the environment. Due to their unique physicochemical properties, they may interact actively with biological systems. Some of these interactions might be detrimental to human health, and therefore studies on the potential 'nanotoxicity' of these materials in different organ systems are warranted. The purpose of developing the concept of nanotoxicity is to recognize and evaluate the hazards and risks of NMs and evaluate safety. This review will summarize and discuss recent reports derived from cell lines or animal models concerning the effects of NMs on, and their application in, the endocrine system of mammalian and other species. It will present an update on current studies of the effects of some typical NMs-such as metal-based NMs, carbon-based NMs, and dendrimers-on endocrine functions, in which some effects are adverse or unwanted and others are favorable or intended. Disruption of endocrine function is associated with adverse health outcomes including reproductive failure, metabolic syndrome, and some types of cancer. Further investigations are therefore required to obtain a thorough understanding of any potential risk of pathological endocrine disruption from products containing NMs. This review aims to provide impetus for further studies on the interactions of NMs with endocrine functions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Erlandson, R A; Nesland, J M
For the sake of discussion, the markedly diversified tumors of the endocrine/neuroendocrine system are classified as those originating in classic epithelial endocrine organs (eg, adrenal cortical adenomas), from the diffuse endocrine cells (eg, jejunal carcinoid tumors), or from clusters of these cells (eg, islet cell tumors); and those arising from neurosecretory neurons (eg, neuroblastoma) or paraganglia (eg, carotid body tumor). Although traditional transmission electron microscopy is useful for identifying neurosecretory or endosecretory granules as such, with few exceptions (eg, insulin-containing granules with a complex paracrystalline core) it is not possible to ascribe a granule type (size, shape, or ultrastructure) to a distinct nosologic entity or secretory product because of their overlapping fine structures in different cell types. Immunoelectron microscopy methods utilizing colloidal gold-labeled secondary antibodies can be used to localize virtually any antigen (peptide or neuroamine) to a specific neurosecretory or endosecretory granule or other cell structure. General endocrine/neuroendocrine cell markers such as neuron-specific enolase, the chromogranins, and synaptophysin are useful in identifying neuroendocrine differentiation in a neoplasm using routine immunohistochemical procedures. The current relevance of the APUD concept of Pearse as well as the biologic importance of endocrine/neuroendocrine secretory products such as bombesin and insulinlike growth factors also are discussed.
Gordon, Catherine M; Ackerman, Kathryn E; Berga, Sarah L; Kaplan, Jay R; Mastorakos, George; Misra, Madhusmita; Murad, M Hassan; Santoro, Nanette F; Warren, Michelle P
The American Society for Reproductive Medicine, the European Society of Endocrinology, and the Pediatric Endocrine Society. This guideline was funded by the Endocrine Society. To formulate clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA). The participants include an Endocrine Society-appointed task force of eight experts, a methodologist, and a medical writer. This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to describe the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. The task force commissioned two systematic reviews and used the best available evidence from other published systematic reviews and individual studies. One group meeting, several conference calls, and e-mail communications enabled consensus. Endocrine Society committees and members and cosponsoring organizations reviewed and commented on preliminary drafts of this guideline. FHA is a form of chronic anovulation, not due to identifiable organic causes, but often associated with stress, weight loss, excessive exercise, or a combination thereof. Investigations should include assessment of systemic and endocrinologic etiologies, as FHA is a diagnosis of exclusion. A multidisciplinary treatment approach is necessary, including medical, dietary, and mental health support. Medical complications include, among others, bone loss and infertility, and appropriate therapies are under debate and investigation. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society
Reinhardt, C.A.; McEwan, L.M.; Wong, J.C.H.
Full text: An 123 I meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan was performed on a 54-year-old lady with familial phaeochromocytoma, to evaluate for bilateral or extra-adrenal disease. She has hypertension with raised catecholamines and CT evidence of a right adrenal phaeochromocytoma, and a female sibling with bilateral phaeochromocytoma. Thyroid blockade using Lugol's Iodine was given orally prior to intravenous administration of 370 MBq 123 I MIBG. Planar and SPECT imaging were acquired at 24 hours. There was intense uptake in the known right phaeochromocytoma. An unexpected finding was focal intense uptake in the region of the right thyroid lobe, which may be either a functioning paraganglioma arising from the cervical sympathetic ganglia or a medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). At 48 hours, a further image of the neck showed no changes. This was followed by a standard injection of 150 MBq 99 Tc m pertechnetate for thyroid scanning. Imaging obtained on 99 Tc m energy window setting showed a large hypofunctioning region in the right thyroid lobe, corresponding in location to the focal 123 I MIBG uptake. This is in keeping with a MTC, a neuroendocrine tumour, as other thyroid carcinomas are non-MIBG avid. A subsequent serum calcitonin assay showed elevated levels. The patient underwent surgical removal of the right phaeochromocytoma followed several weeks later by a right hemithyroidectomy. Histological reports confirmed the tumour diagnoses. The patient's familial phaeochromocytoma is therefore part of the multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome Type 2A (MEN 2A). To date, biochemistry has not shown any evidence of hyperparathyroidism which occurs in 15-20 per cent of patients with MEN 2A. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc
Chew, F S
The manifestations of endocrine derangements in the musculoskeletal system in infancy and childhood are disturbances in growth and maturation and in adulthood are disturbances in maintenance and metabolism. Hypercortisolism during skeletal immaturity suppresses growth. In the adult, hypercortisolism leads to osteoporosis, osteonecrosis, and muscle wasting. Deficiency of growth hormone during skeletal development results in short stature. An excess of growth hormone in a skeletally immature individual results in gigantism, an excess in a skeletally mature individual results in acromegaly. Patients with gigantism have extreme height with normal body proportions. Musculoskeletal manifestations of acromegaly include soft-tissue thickening, vertebral body enlargement, characteristic hand and foot changes, and enthesal bony proliferation. Hyperthyroidism causes catabolism of protein and loss of connective tissue, which manifest as muscle wasting. Deficient levels of thyroid hormone cause defects in growth and development. Severe growth retardation from congenital hypothyroidism is rare because neonatal screening recognizes the disorder and leads to early treatment. The skeletal manifestation of hypergonadism in children is precocious growth and early skeletal maturation. Although the initial precocious growth spurt results in a tall child, early closure of the growth plates results in a short adult. Hypogonadism in the prepubertal child results in delayed adolescence and delayed skeletal maturation. Diabetes mellitus in childhood results in decreased growth, a phenomenon presumed to be secondary to nutritional abnormalities. Generalized osteoporosis and short stature are common. In the adult, generalized osteoporosis may accompany insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus if obesity is absent. Calcification of interdigital arteries of the foot is common in diabetics and uncommon in other conditions. Additional skeletal manifestations relate to complications of diabetes such as
Full Text Available Epigenetics represents the way by which the environment is able to program the genome; there are three main levels of epigenetic control on genome: DNA methylation, post-translational histone modification and microRNA expression. The term Epigenetics has been widened by NIH to include both heritable changes in gene activity and expression but also stable, long-term alterations in the transcriptional potential of a cell that are not necessarily heritable. These changes might be produced mostly by the early life environment and might affect health influencing the susceptibility to develop diseases, from cancer to mental disorder, during the entire life span. The most studied environmental influences acting on epigenome are diet, infections, wasting, child care, smoking and environmental pollutants, in particular endocrine disrupters (EDs. These are environmental xenobiotics able to interfere with the normal development of the male and female reproductive systems of wildlife, of experimental animals and possibly of humans, disrupting the normal reproductive functions. Data from literature indicate that EDs can act at different levels of epigenetic control, in some cases transgenerationally, in particular when the exposure to these compounds occurs during the prenatal and earliest period of life. Some of the best characterized EDs will be considered in this review. Among the EDs, vinclozolin (VZ and methoxychlor (MXC promote epigenetic transgenerational effects. Polychlorinated biphenils (PCBs, the most widespread environmental EDs, affect histone post-translational modifications in a dimorphic way, possibly as the result of an alteration of gene expression of the enzymes involved in histone modification, as the demethylase Jarid1b, an enzyme also involved in regulating the interaction of androgens with their receptor.
A molecular characterization of adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare cancer of the adrenal cortex, analyzed 91 cases for alterations in the tumor genomes and identified several novel genetic mutations as likely mechanisms driving the disease as well as whole genome doubling as a probable driver of the disease.
Loibl, Sibylle; Turner, Nicholas C; Ro, Jungsil; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Iwata, Hiroji; Im, Seock-Ah; Masuda, Norikazu; Loi, Sherene; André, Fabrice; Harbeck, Nadia; Verma, Sunil; Folkerd, Elizabeth; Puyana Theall, Kathy; Hoffman, Justin; Zhang, Ke; Bartlett, Cynthia Huang; Dowsett, Mitchell
study to include premenopausal women in a trial investigating a CDK4/6 inhibitor combined with endocrine therapy, has the largest premenopausal cohort reported in an endocrine-resistant setting. In pretreated premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer, palbociclib plus fulvestrant and goserelin (luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone [LHRH] agonist) treatment almost doubled median progression-free survival (PFS) and significantly increased the objective response rate versus endocrine monotherapy, achieving results comparable to those reported for chemotherapy without apparently interfering with LHRH agonist-induced ovarian suppression. The significant PFS gain and tolerable safety profile strongly support use of this regimen in premenopausal women with endocrine-resistant disease who could possibly delay chemotherapy. © AlphaMed Press 2017.
Tao, Wenjing; Mallard, Bonnie; Karrow, Niel; Bridle, Byram
A variety of commercial DNA arrays specific for humans and rodents are widely available; however, microarrays containing well-characterized genes to study pathway-specific gene expression are not as accessible for domestic animals, such as cattle, sheep and pigs. Therefore, a small-scale application-targeted bovine immune-endocrine cDNA array was developed to evaluate genetic pathways involved in the immune-endocrine axis of cattle during periods of altered homeostasis provoked by physiological or environmental stressors, such as infection, vaccination or disease. For this purpose, 167 cDNA sequences corresponding to immune, endocrine and inflammatory response genes were collected and categorized. Positive controls included 5 housekeeping genes (glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase, ribosomal protein L19, beta-actin, beta2-microglobulin) and bovine genomic DNA. Negative controls were a bacterial gene (Rhodococcus equi 17-kDa virulence-associated protein) and a partial sequence of the plasmid pACYC177. In addition, RNA extracted from un-stimulated, as well as superantigen (Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin-A, S. aureus Cowan Pansorbin Cells) and mitogen-stimulated (LPS, ConA) bovine blood leukocytes was mixed, reverse transcribed and PCR amplified using gene-specific primers. The endocrine-associated genes were amplified from cDNA derived from un-stimulated bovine hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal and thyroid gland tissues. The array was constructed in 4 repeating grids of 180 duplicated spots by coupling the PCR amplified 213-630 bp gene fragments onto poly-l-lysine coated glass slides. The bovine immune-endocrine arrays were standardized and preliminary gene expression profiles generated using Cy3 and Cy5 labelled cDNA from un-stimulated and ConA (5 microg/ml) stimulated PBMC of 4 healthy Holstein cows (2-4 replicate arrays/cow) in a time course study. Mononuclear cell-derived cytokine and chemokine (IL-2, IL-1alpha
Urbanization dramatically changes the landscape, presenting organisms with novel challenges and often leading to reduced species diversity. Urban ecologists have documented numerous biotic and abiotic consequences of urbanization, such as altered climate, species interactions, and community composition, but we lack an understanding of the mechanisms underlying organisms' responses to urbanization. Here, I review findings from the nascent field of study of the endocrine ecology of urban birds. Thus far, no clear or consistent patterns have been revealed, but we do have evidence that urban habitat can shape endocrine traits, and that those traits might contribute to adaptation to the urban environment. I suggest strong approaches for future work addressing exciting questions about the role of endocrine traits in mediating responses to urbanization within species across the globe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Takeichi, Nobuo; Dohi, Kiyohiko; Fujikura, Toshio
A review of 4,136 consecutive autopsies between 1961 and 1977 and surgical cases from A-bomb survivors seen in Hiroshima University School of Medicine was made in terms of pituitary tumors, parathyroid tumors, thyroid cancer, carcinoid, tumors of the adrenal cortex, ovarian tumors, testicular tumors, and multiple endocrine gonadial tumors (MEGT). The occurrence of thyroid cancer, parathyroid tumors, and MEGT may be correlated with atomic radiation. Mortality from endocrine and gonadial tumors tended to be higher with increasing T65 doses. As for MEGT, the combination of thyroid cancer and ovarian tumors occurred frequently among A-bomb survivors. The combination of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland and pheochromacytoma of the adrenal gland was unlikely to be related to atomic radiation. Further study may be needed in elucidating possible effects of atomic radiation on endocrine hormones. (Namekawa, K.)
Ørngreen, Mette Cathrine; Arlien-Søborg, P.; Duno, M
. Correlation with CTG(n) expansion size was investigated with the Pearson correlation test. Eighteen percent of the DM1 patients had hyperparathyroidism with increased PTH compared with 0.5% in the background population. Of these, 16% had normocalcemia and 2% had hypercalcemia. An additional 3% had...... LH, but normal testosterone levels, indicating relative insufficiency. Numbers of CTG repeats correlated directly with plasma PTH, phosphate, LH, and tended to correlate with plasma testosterone for males. This is the largest study of endocrine dysfunction in a cohort of Caucasian patients with DM1....... We found that patients with DM1 have an increased risk of abnormal endocrine function, particularly calcium metabolism disorders. However, the endocrine dysfunction appears not to be of clinical significance in all of the cases. Finally, we found correlations between CTG(n) expansion size and plasma...
Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV filters are used widely in cosmetics, plastics, adhesives and other industrial products to protect human skin or products against direct exposure to deleterious UV radiation. With growing usage and mis-disposition of UV filters, they currently represent a new class of contaminants of emerging concern with increasingly reported adverse effects to humans and other organisms. Exposure to UV filters induce various endocrine disrupting effects, as revealed by increasing number of toxicological studies performed in recent years. It is necessary to compile a systematic review on the current research status on endocrine disrupting effects of UV filters toward different organisms. We therefore summarized the recent advances on the evaluation of the potential endocrine disruptors and the mechanism of toxicity for many kinds of UV filters such as benzophenones, camphor derivatives and cinnamate derivatives.
Robertson John FR
Full Text Available Abstract Background High dose estrogens (HDEs were frequently used as endocrine agents prior to the introduction of tamoxifen which carries fewer side effects. Due to the development of resistance to available endocrine agents in almost all women with metastatic breast cancer, interest has renewed in the use of HDEs as yet another endocrine option that may have activity. We report our experience with one of the HDEs ("ethinylestradiol" 1 mg daily in advanced breast cancer (locally advanced and metastatic in post-menopausal women who had progressed on multiple endocrine agents. Patients and methods According to a database of advanced breast cancer patients seen in our Unit since 1998, those who had complete set of information and fulfilled the following criteria were studied: (1 patients in whom further endocrine therapy was deemed appropriate i.e., patients who have had clinical benefit with previous endocrine agents or were not fit or unwilling to receive chemotherapy in the presence of potentially life-threatening visceral metastases; (2 disease was assessable by UICC criteria; (3 were treated with "ethinylestradiol" until they were withdrawn from treatment due to adverse events or disease progression. Results Twelve patients with a median age of 75.1 years (49.1 – 85 years were identified. Majority (N = 8 had bony disease. They had ethinylestradiol as 3rd to 7th line endocrine therapy. One patient (8% came off treatment early due to hepato-renal syndrome. Clinical benefit (objective response or durable stable disease for ≥ 6 months was seen in 4 patients (33.3% with a median duration of response of 10+ (7–36 months. The time to treatment failure was 4 (0.5–36 months. Conclusion Yet unreported, high dose "ethinylestradiol" is another viable therapeutic strategy in heavily pre-treated patients when further endocrine therapy is deemed appropriate. Although it tends to carry more side effects, they may not be comparable to those of other
Buckley, Maria M; O'Mahony, Siobhain M; O'Malley, Dervla
Disordered signalling between the brain and the gut are generally accepted to underlie the functional bowel disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, partly due to the lack of disease-defining biomarkers, understanding the aetiology of this complex and multifactorial disease remains elusive. This common gastrointestinal disorder is characterised by alterations in bowel habit such as diarrhoea and/or constipation, bloating and abdominal pain, and symptom exacerbation has been linked with periods of stress, both psychosocial and infection-related. Indeed, a high level of comorbidity exists between IBS and stress-related mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. Moreover, studies have observed alterations in autonomic output and neuro-endocrine signalling in IBS patients. Accumulating evidence indicates that a maladaptive stress response, probably mediated by the stress hormone, corticotropin-releasing factor contributes to the initiation, persistence and severity of symptom flares. Other risk factors for developing IBS include a positive family history, childhood trauma, dietary factors and prior gastrointestinal infection. An emerging role has been attributed to the importance of immune factors in the pathophysiology of IBS with evidence of altered cytokine profiles and increased levels of mucosal immune cells. These factors have also been shown to have direct effects on neural signalling. This review discusses how pathological changes in neural, immune and endocrine pathways, and communication between these systems, contribute to symptom flares in IBS.
Heo, Mi Hwa; Kim, Hee Kyung; Lee, Hansang; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Ahn, Jin-Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck; Park, Yeon Hee
We conducted a retrospective analysis of the clinical activity of fulvestrant in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC) previously treated with endocrine therapy and/or chemotherapy. We reviewed the medical records of all patients with MBC treated at Samsung Medical Center between January 2009 and August 2016. Patients received fulvestrant 250 mg intramuscularly every 28 days (from January 2009 to November 2010) or 500 mg intramuscularly every 28 days (from December 2010 to August 2016). Tumor responses were assessed every 8 weeks and at the end of treatment, as well as when disease progression was suspected. A total of 84 patients were included in this study. A median of two previous endocrine treatments had been performed; 79% of the patients had received two or more endocrine treatments. Forty-five patients (54%) had been treated with chemotherapy for MBC before the fulvestrant treatment course. Visceral metastasis was found in 49 patients (58%). The estimated median progression-free survival and overall survival were 4.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.4 to 5.5) and 32.5 months (95% CI, 17.6 to 47.4), respectively. The disease control rate was 40.5% (95% CI, 30.5 to 51.5); partial response was observed in 16% of the patients and stable disease was observed in 25% of the patients. The most frequently reported adverse reactions were mild-to-moderate grade myalgia (10.5% of the patients), injection site pain (7%), and fatigue (7%). Fulvestrant was generally well tolerated. Fulvestrant showed encouraging clinical activity and favorable feasibility in postmenopausal women with MBC who had been treated with multiple endocrine therapies and/or cytotoxic chemotherapies.
.... In order to test the concept that Vinclozolin alters human prostate development and induces disease, we used our model system to study human prostate development and maturation over 8-12 weeks...
McIntire, Kevin L; Hoffman, Andrew R
Age related muscle loss, known as sarcopenia, is a major factor in disability, loss of mobility and quality of life in the elderly. There are many proposed mechanisms of age-related muscle loss that include the endocrine system. A variety of hormones regulate growth, development and metabolism throughout the lifespan. Hormone activity may change with age as a result of reduced hormone secretion or decreased tissue responsiveness. This review will focus on the complex interplay between the endocrine system, aging and skeletal muscle and will present possible benefits of therapeutic interventions for sarcopenia.
Bares, R.; Besenfelder, H.; Eschmann, S.M.; Pfannenberg, C.
The typical clinical features of endocrine pancreatic tumours are either symptoms caused by excessive hormone production or progressive tumour growth. In several prospective studies it has been shown that somatostatin receptor scintigraphy is the most accurate imaging technique currently available to detect endocrine pancreatic tumours. Therefore it should be used whenever curative surgical treatment appears to be feasible. Furthermore it should be applied if a radionuclide treatment of inoperable tumours is considered. In this situation scintigraphy with 123 I-mIBG might be useful, too. Future developments include the use of PET with labelled somatostatin analogues or DOPA derivatives as well as image fusion techniques to optimize preoperative tumour localization. (orig.) [de
The pancreas is a complex gland performing both endocrine and exocrine functions. In recent years there has been increasing evidence that both endocrine and exocrine cells possess purinergic receptors, which influence processes such as insulin secretion and epithelial ion transport. Most commonly......, there is also evidence for other P2 and adenosine receptors in beta cells (P2Y(2), P2Y(4), P2Y(6), P2X subtypes and A(1) receptors) and in glucagon-secreting alpha cells (P2X(7), A(2) receptors). In the exocrine pancreas, acini release ATP and ATP-hydrolysing and ATP-generating enzymes. P2 receptors...
The growing interest in oral/systemic links demand new paradigms to understand disease processes. New opportunities for dental research, particularly in the fields of neuroscience and endocrinology will emerge. The role of the hypothalamus portion of the brain cannot be underestimated. Under the influence of nutrition, it plays a significant role in the systemic model of dental caries. Currently, the traditional theory of dental caries considers only the oral environment and does not recognize any significant role for the brain. The healthy tooth, however, has a centrifugal fluid flow to nourish and cleanse it. This is moderated by the hypothalamus/parotid axis which signals the endocrine portion of the parotid glands. High sugar intake creates an increase in reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in the hypothalamus. When this signaling mechanism halts or reverses the dentinal fluid flow, it renders the tooth vulnerable to oral bacteria, which can now attach to the tooth's surface. Acid produced by oral bacteria such as Strep Mutans and lactobacillus can now de-mineralize the enamel and irritate the dentin. The acid attack stimulates an inflammatory response which results in dentin breakdown from the body's own matrix metalloproteinases. Vitamin K2 (K2) has been shown to have an antioxidant potential in the brain and may prove to be a potent way to preserve the endocrine controlled centrifugal dentinal fluid flow. Stress, including oxidative stress, magnifies the body's inflammatory response. Sugar can not only increase oral bacterial acid production but it can concurrently reduce the tooth's defenses through endocrine signaling. Saliva production is the exocrine function of the salivary glands. The buffering capacity of saliva is critical to neutralizing the oral environment. This minimizes the de-mineralization of enamel and enhances its re-mineralization. K2, such as that found in fermented cheese, improves salivary buffering through its influence on
Teilmann, Grete; Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E
developing countries to industrialized countries often develop precocious puberty. Not only precocious puberty, but also delayed puberty can, theoretically, be associated with exposure to endocrine disrupters. While it is very plausible that endocrine disrupters may disturb pubertal development...
Full Text Available The use of glycated hemoglobin for diabetes mellitus (DM diagnosis is recommended by World Health Organization as of 2011. The level of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ≥ 6.5 % is a diagnostic criterion for DM but HbA1c level of 6.0–6.4 % does not exclude diabetes mellitus diagnosis with hyperglycemia. Moreover, when diagnosing, evaluation of this criterion is a must, since decision about the nature and the scope of sugar-reducing therapy is based on the level of HbA1c. Counterregulatory hormones are glucagon, adrenalin, somatotropin, glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones. Pathogenic mechanism of carbohydrate metabolism disorders with hypersecretion of counterregulatory hormones is caused by peripheral insulin resistance, decrease in insulin secretion, increase in gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in liver and increase in the absorption of intestinal glucose with insulin being the only hormone decreasing the blood glucose. So, the endocrine diseases (hypercorticism, acromegalia, pheochromocytoma, hyperparathyroidism and hyperthyroidism with excessive secretion of counterregulatory hormones suggest the necessity of secondary diabetes diagnosis. Screening tests with quite high sensitivity and specificity have been developed for early diagnosis of endocrynopathies. Screening tests for hypercorticism diagnosis are dexamethasone (1 mg suppression test, daily urinary cortisol excretion and nighttime salivary cortisol. Optimal test for screening acromegalia is considered to be insulin-like growth factor 1 which shows the secretion of somatotropic hormone during previous day and is not subject to significant fluctuations. One-time detection of increased insulin-like growth factor 1 level compared to referential values for specific sex and age is enough for confirmation of hypersomatotropinemia. Thyroid-stimulating hormone is recommended as a screening test for thyrotoxicosis diagnosis. When choosing this test, doctor should consider the parameter of
Berglund, Lars; Brunzell, John D.; Goldberg, Anne C.; Goldberg, Ira J.; Sacks, Frank; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Stalenhoef, Anton F. H.
Objective: The aim was to develop clinical practice guidelines on hypertriglyceridemia. Participants: The Task Force included a chair selected by The Endocrine Society Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee (CGS), five additional experts in the field, and a methodologist. The authors received no corporate funding or remuneration. Consensus Process: Consensus was guided by systematic reviews of evidence, e-mail discussion, conference calls, and one in-person meeting. The guidelines were reviewed and approved sequentially by The Endocrine Society's CGS and Clinical Affairs Core Committee, members responding to a web posting, and The Endocrine Society Council. At each stage, the Task Force incorporated changes in response to written comments. Conclusions: The Task Force recommends that the diagnosis of hypertriglyceridemia be based on fasting levels, that mild and moderate hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides of 150–999 mg/dl) be diagnosed to aid in the evaluation of cardiovascular risk, and that severe and very severe hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides of > 1000 mg/dl) be considered a risk for pancreatitis. The Task Force also recommends that patients with hypertriglyceridemia be evaluated for secondary causes of hyperlipidemia and that subjects with primary hypertriglyceridemia be evaluated for family history of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. The Task Force recommends that the treatment goal in patients with moderate hypertriglyceridemia be a non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in agreement with National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel guidelines. The initial treatment should be lifestyle therapy; a combination of diet modification and drug therapy may also be considered. In patients with severe or very severe hypertriglyceridemia, a fibrate should be used as a first-line agent. PMID:22962670
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener 153, and chlordecone. METHODS: We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. RESULTS: DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether
David, Anu; Day, James Ronald; Cichon, Alexa Leigh; Lefferts, Adam; Cascalho, Marilia; Shikanov, Ariella
Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a major complication of cytotoxic treatments due to extreme ovarian sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiation. In pediatric cancer patients modern therapy has improved the long-term survival to over 80% in the United States. However, these cancer survivors face long-term health problems related to treatment toxicity. In female cancer survivors POI leads to sterility, along with the consequences of estrogen deficiency such as premature osteopenia, muscle wasting, accelerated cardiovascular diseases and a vast array of other health and developmental problems. These long-lasting effects are particularly significant for young girls reaching puberty. As such, restoring ovarian endocrine function is paramount in this population. In the present study, we evaluated the feasibility of restoring ovarian endocrine function in ovariectomized mice by transplanting syngeneic and allogeneic ovarian tissue encapsulated in alginate capsules or TheraCyte ® . Histological analysis of the implants retrieved after 7 and 30 days' post implantation showed follicular development up to the secondary and antral stages in both syngeneic and allogeneic implants. Implantation of syngeneic and allogeneic ovarian grafts encapsulated in TheraCyte devices restored ovarian endocrine function, which was confirmed by decreased serum FSH levels from 60 to 70 ng/mL in ovariectomized mice to 30-40 ng/mL 30 days after implantation. Absence of allo-MHC-specific IgG and IgM antibodies in the sera of implanted mice with allogeneic ovarian tissue encapsulated in TheraCyte indicate that the implants did not evoke an allo-immune response, while the allogeneic controls were rejected 21 days after implantation. Our results show that TheraCyte effectively isolates the graft from immune recognition but also supports follicular growth.
Caldwell, A S L; Middleton, L J; Jimenez, M; Desai, R; McMahon, A C; Allan, C M; Handelsman, D J; Walters, K A
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age, causing a range of reproductive, metabolic and endocrine defects including anovulation, infertility, hyperandrogenism, obesity, hyperinsulinism, and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Hyperandrogenism is the most consistent feature of PCOS, but its etiology remains unknown, and ethical and logistic constraints limit definitive experimentation in humans to determine mechanisms involved. In this study, we provide the first comprehensive characterization of reproductive, endocrine, and metabolic PCOS traits in 4 distinct murine models of hyperandrogenism, comprising prenatal dihydrotestosterone (DHT, potent nonaromatizable androgen) treatment during days 16-18 of gestation, or long-term treatment (90 days from 21 days of age) with DHT, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), or letrozole (aromatase inhibitor). Prenatal DHT-treated mature mice exhibited irregular estrous cycles, oligo-ovulation, reduced preantral follicle health, hepatic steatosis, and adipocyte hypertrophy, but lacked overall changes in body-fat composition. Long-term DHT treatment induced polycystic ovaries displaying unhealthy antral follicles (degenerate oocyte and/or > 10% pyknotic granulosa cells), as well as anovulation and acyclicity in mature (16-week-old) females. Long-term DHT also increased body and fat pad weights and induced adipocyte hypertrophy and hypercholesterolemia. Long-term letrozole-treated mice exhibited absent or irregular cycles, oligo-ovulation, polycystic ovaries containing hemorrhagic cysts atypical of PCOS, and displayed no metabolic features of PCOS. Long-term dehydroepiandrosterone treatment produced no PCOS features in mature mice. Our findings reveal that long-term DHT treatment replicated a breadth of ovarian, endocrine, and metabolic features of human PCOS and provides the best mouse model for experimental studies of PCOS pathogenesis.
Zhernakova, Alexandra; Withoff, Sebo; Wijmenga, Cisca
Many endocrine diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus, Graves disease, Addison disease and Hashimoto disease, originate as an autoimmune reaction that affects disease-specific target organs. These autoimmune diseases are characterized by the development of specific autoantibodies and by the
Iaglov, V V; Iaglova, N V
Diffuse endocrine system is a largest part of endocrine system of vertebrates. Recend findings showed that DES-cells are not neuroectodermal but have ectodermal, mesodermal, and entodermal ontogeny. The article reviews novel concept of diffuse endocrine system anatomy and physiology, functional role of DES hormones and poorly investigated aspects like DES-cell morphology, hormones secretion in normal and pathologic conditions. Further research of diffuse endocrine system has a great significance for biochemistry, morphology, and clinical medicine.
Rha, Sung Eun; Jung, Seung Eun; Lee, Kang Hoon; Ku, Young Mi; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Jae Mun
The pancreatic endocrine tumors are rare neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas originating from totipotential stem cells or differentiated mature endocrine cells within the exocrine gland. Endocrine tumors are usually classified into functioning and non-functioning tumors and presents with a range of benignity or malignancy. In this article, we present the various CT and MR imaging findings of endocrine tumors of pancreas according to recent WHO classification
Teilmann, Grete; Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E
-called endocrine disrupters. Precocious puberty has been described in several case reports of accidental exposure to oestrogenic compounds in cosmetic products, food and pharmaceuticals. Local epidemics of premature thelarche have also been suggested to be linked to endocrine disrupters. Children adopted from...... developing countries to industrialized countries often develop precocious puberty. Not only precocious puberty, but also delayed puberty can, theoretically, be associated with exposure to endocrine disrupters. While it is very plausible that endocrine disrupters may disturb pubertal development...
Larsen, Mathilde Skaarup; Bjerre, Karsten; Lykkesfeldt, Anne Elisabeth
) in endocrine treated breast cancer in terms of co-expression and association with disease-free survival (DFS) in 1062 patients with ER-positive tumors. Furthermore, HER2 amplification was evaluated. We found positive associations between the phosphorylated receptors. pHER1 and pHER3 were co-expressed with one......The four human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER1-4) are involved in growth stimulation and may play a role in endocrine resistance. The receptors form dimers, leading to activation by mutual phosphorylation. Our purpose was to explore the role of the activated receptors (pHER1, pHER2, pHER3...
Heikens, J.; Michiels, E. M.; Behrendt, H.; Endert, E.; Bakker, P. J.; Fliers, E.
The occurrence of neuro-endocrine deficiencies following craniospinal irradiation for medulloblastoma is well known, but data concerning the spectrum and prevalence of endocrine abnormalities in adulthood are scarce. We studied endocrine function in 20 (median age 25 years) adult subjects, 8-25
Piersma AH; Verhoef A; Elvers LH; Wester PW; LEO; LPI
The issue of endocrine disruption has, in view of human risk assessment, raised the question on whether more sensitive test methods are needed to detect the reproductive toxic properties of xenobiotic compounds with endocrine properties. We studied six known and alleged endocrine disruptors in an
Khalid, M. M. M.
This study was conducted in order to identify the menopausal statues of Sudanese women which is critically important in determining the treatment strategy for infertile patients. In this study samples were collected from two hundred Sudanese women, aged between 35 and 62. They were from different social classes and are not suffering any systemic or endocrine disease. They were not exposed to any surgical intervention by complete hysterectomy or partial removal of ovaries or thyroidectomy. Reproductive hormones were determined for these women. Immunoradiometric Assay (IRMA) was adopted for the measurement of serum prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the determination of estradiol and esterone, whereas, enzyme immunoassay (tube format) was used for the determination of serum testosterone. Average menopausal age for Sudanese women was determined in this study and found to be 43.0±4.2 which is lower than that of the neighboring countries. A new classification system was developed during this study which uses a combination of symptoms together with hormonal profile in order to identify the menopausal status of women. The three key tools of this system are FSH and LH level together with the absence of menstrual cycle during the last three months. The new classification scheme had successfully differentiated the early peri-menopausal women from pre-menopausal ones. The early peri-menopausal women according to the new classification scheme are suffering cycle irregularities and amenorrhea but with normal hormonal levels. The new classification scheme is now, clearly indicating that amenorrhea with normal hormonal levels may be an indication to the beginning of the peri-menopausal life. The big challenge faced during this study had been the sub-classification of the peri-menopausal stage as it is not a single homogeneous stage but a wide heterogenous and transitional stage extending from
Full Text Available The FGF family comprises twenty-two structurally related proteins with functions in development and metabolism. The Fgf21 gene was generated early in vertebrate evolution. FGF21 acts as an endocrine regulator in lipid metabolism. Hepatic Fgf21 expression is markedly induced in mice by fasting or a ketogenic diet. Experiments with Fgf21 transgenic mice and cultured cells indicate that FGF21 exerts pharmacological effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in hepatocytes and adipocytes via cell surface FGF receptors. However, experiments with Fgf21 knockout mice indicate that FGF21 inhibits lipolysis in adipocytes during fasting and attenuates torpor induced by a ketogenic diet but maybe not a physiological regulator for these hepatic functions. These findings suggest the pharmacological effects to be distinct from the physiological roles. Serum FGF21 levels are increased in patients with metabolic diseases having insulin resistance, indicating that FGF21 is a metabolic regulator and a biomarker for these diseases.
DiVall, Sara A
This review describes the most recent data about the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) on infant and early childhood growth and reproductive tract development as well as controversies in the field. EDCs are present in pregnant women, young children and adolescents. Whether the level of exposure contributes to disease is an ongoing debate. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between prenatal EDC exposure and disease outcome, but animal studies using controlled EDC exposure have varying results with underlying mechanisms largely unknown. Human exposure to EDCs is widespread; bisphenol A, phthalates and persistent organic pollutants are detectable in all age groups and geographical locations in the USA. Epidemiological and animal studies suggest that phthalates and bisphenol A have adverse effects on birth weight, promote development of childhood obesity and adversely affect male reproductive tract development. Differences in the interpretation of available studies underlie the disparate conclusions of scientific and regulatory body's panels on potential toxicological effects of EDCs at current levels of human exposure.
Schiffer, Christian; Müller, Astrid; Egeberg, Dorte L
Synthetic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), omnipresent in food, household, and personal care products, have been implicated in adverse trends in human reproduction, including infertility and increasing demand for assisted reproduction. Here, we study the action of 96 ubiquitous EDCs on huma...
Cowan, Mairi; Azpeleta, Clara; López-Olmeda, Jose Fernando
The environment which living organisms inhabit is not constant and many factors, such as light, temperature, and food availability, display cyclic and predictable variations. To adapt to these cyclic changes, animals present biological rhythms in many of their physiological variables, timing their functions to occur when the possibility of success is greatest. Among these variables, many endocrine factors have been described as displaying rhythms in vertebrates. The aim of the present review is to provide a thorough review of the existing knowledge on the rhythms of the endocrine system of fish by examining the hormones that show rhythmicity, how environmental factors control these rhythms and the variation in the responses of the endocrine system depending on the time of the day. We mainly focused on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which can be considered as the master axis of the endocrine system of vertebrates and regulates a great variety of functions, including reproduction, growth, metabolism, energy homeostasis, stress response, and osmoregulation. In addition, the rhythms of other hormones, such as melatonin and the factors, produced in the gastrointestinal system of fish are reviewed.
Gladkevich, A; Korf, J; Hakobyan, VP; Melkonyan, KV
In addition to its well-recognized function as a cerebral inhibitory transmitter, less well established is the role of GABA in peripheral nervous and endocrine systems. We Summarize current evidence that GABA serves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the autonomic nervous system and as a
Stojilkovic, S. S.; Zemková, Hana
Roč. 2, č. 4 (2013), s. 173-180 ISSN 2190-460X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : ATP * purinergic P2X receptor channels * pituitary * endocrine glands Subject RIV: ED - Physiology
Katz, Nathaniel; Mazer, Norman A
Opioids have been used for medicinal and analgesic purposes for centuries. However, their negative effects on the endocrine system, which have been known for some times, are barely discussed in modern medicine. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the impact of opioids on the endocrine system. A review of the English language literature on preclinical and clinical studies of any type on the influence of opioids on the endocrine system was conducted. Preliminary recommendations for monitoring and managing these problems were provided. Long-term opioid therapy for either addiction or chronic pain often induces hypogonadism owing to central suppression of hypothalamic secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Symptoms of opioid-induced hypogonadism include loss of libido, infertility, fatigue, depression, anxiety, loss of muscle strength and mass, osteoporosis, and compression fractures in both men and women; impotence in men; and menstrual irregularities and galactorrhea in women. In view of the increased use of opioids for chronic pain, it has become increasingly important to monitor patients taking opioids and manage endocrine complications. Therefore, patients on opioid therapy should be routinely screened for such symptoms and for laboratory abnormalities in sex hormones. Opioid-induced hypogonadism seems to be a common complication of therapeutic or illicit opioid use. Patients on long-term opioid therapy should be prospectively monitored, and in cases of opioid-induced hypogonadism, we recommend nonopioid pain management, opioid rotation, or sex hormone supplementation after careful consideration of the risks and benefits.
Krüger, Tanja; Ghisari, Mandana; Long, Manhai
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are compounds that either mimic or block endogenous hormones and can disrupt the normal function of the body. Bio-monitoring is the assessment of internal doses of EDCs and has been used for decades to provide information about exposures to chemicals giving...
Spáčilová, Lucie; Morozová, Magdalena; Mašín, P.; Maléterová, Ywetta; Kaštánek, František; Dytrych, Pavel; Ezechiáš, Martin; Křesinová, Zdena; Šolcová, Olga
Roč. 3, č. 4 (2016), s. 4613-4620 ISSN 2458-9403 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA04020700 Grant - others:NATO(US) SPS984398 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : endocrine disruptor * titanium dioxide * photocatalysis Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M)
Oriana del Rocío Cruz Guzmán
Full Text Available Common metabolic and endocrine alterations exist across a wide range of muscular dystrophies. Skeletal muscle plays an important role in glucose metabolism and is a major participant in different signaling pathways. Therefore, its damage may lead to different metabolic disruptions. Two of the most important metabolic alterations in muscular dystrophies may be insulin resistance and obesity. However, only insulin resistance has been demonstrated in myotonic dystrophy. In addition, endocrine disturbances such as hypogonadism, low levels of testosterone, and growth hormone have been reported. This eventually will result in consequences such as growth failure and delayed puberty in the case of childhood dystrophies. Other consequences may be reduced male fertility, reduced spermatogenesis, and oligospermia, both in childhood as well as in adult muscular dystrophies. These facts all suggest that there is a need for better comprehension of metabolic and endocrine implications for muscular dystrophies with the purpose of developing improved clinical treatments and/or improvements in the quality of life of patients with dystrophy. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to describe the current knowledge about of metabolic and endocrine alterations in diverse types of dystrophinopathies, which will be divided into two groups: childhood and adult dystrophies which have different age of onset.
Association of hypogonadism and visceral obesity (VO) was recently demonstrated in male auto-mechanics occupationally exposed to endocrine disruptors (ED)-lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic, known to alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. The effects of exposure to these EDs on pituitary and gonadal ...
The study was aimed to provide baseline data regarding haemato-biochemical and endocrine profiling of Gaddi sheep found in north western Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh, India. Each random sample was collected from 45 Gaddi sheep reared in government sheep breeding farm Tal, Hamirpur, India, during ...
In response to emerging concerns that environmental chemicals may have adverse effects on human health by altering the function of the endocrine system,' the Food Quality Protection Act and subsequent amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act and Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic A...
The presence of hormone mimics, or endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC’s), in the environment are increasing. Sources range from agricultural run–off, pharmaceuticals in waste water, to industrial operations. Current levels of contamination are sufficient to alter sexual develo...
K. V. S. Hari Kumar
Full Text Available Background: The comprehensive epidemiology of endocrine disorders is lacking from our country. Most of the available data pertain to the prevalence of diabetes and thyroid disorders only. We studied the incidence of endocrine disorders in a cohort of service personnel followed for a long duration. Materials and Methods: The data for this descriptive epidemiologic study were derived from the electronic medical records of the male service personnel enrolled between 1990 and 2015. They were recruited between the ages of 17 and 20 years in good health, and their morbidity data were derived from the medical records. We calculated the incidence rates as per person-years (py using appropriate statistical methods. Results: Our analysis includes 51,217 participants (median: age 33 years, range: 17–54 with a mean follow-up of 12.5 years. Yearly evaluation of the data gave a cumulative follow-up duration of 613,925 py. The incidence of diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia was 0.41, 0.23, and 0.12 per 1000 py, respectively. The incidence of thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and metabolic bone disorders was 3.9, 8.6, 1.6, 0.81, and 0.97 per 100,000 py, respectively. Conclusion: Our cohort had lower incidence rates of endocrine disorders when compared with the Western population. Long-term epidemiological studies are essential to identify the demographic trends of the endocrine disorders in India.
acromegaly, thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, and hyperparathyroidism. Endocrine hypertension is noted in both adults and children but it is more relevant for children where it comes second to renal hypertension, the common cause of hypertension in that age group. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences Vol. 3 (3) 2008: pp.
Zoeller, R Thomas; Brown, T R; Doan, L L
An endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) is an exogenous chemical, or mixture of chemicals, that can interfere with any aspect of hormone action. The potential for deleterious effects of EDC must be considered relative to the regulation of hormone synthesis, secretion, and actions and the variabili...
Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. This discussion will focus on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal, and parathyroid glands, and pancreas in companion animals and will concentrate on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis.
Starting our search for in vitro alternative methods to screen for steroidogenesis toxicity, we focused on the effects of (suggested) endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) on cytochrome P450 17 (CYP17) enzyme activity. CYP17 is responsible for conversion of progestagens to dehydroepiandrosterone
The present thesis describes the study in the hormonal (endocrine) regulation of the fertility in the female pig. Fertility is optimal when during the reproductive cycle the concentrations of hormones change in a particular sequence. In the present thesis it has been shown that, amongst
Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni; Hens, Luc; Sasco, Annie J
Exposure to chemicals from different sources in everyday life is widespread; one such source is the wide range of products listed under the title "cosmetics", including the different types of popular and widely-advertised sunscreens. Women are encouraged through advertising to buy into the myth of everlasting youth, and one of the most alarming consequences is in utero exposure to chemicals. The main route of exposure is the skin, but the main endpoint of exposure is endocrine disruption. This is due to many substances in cosmetics and sunscreens that have endocrine active properties which affect reproductive health but which also have other endpoints, such as cancer. Reducing the exposure to endocrine disruptors is framed not only in the context of the reduction of health risks, but is also significant against the background and rise of ethical consumerism, and the responsibility of the cosmetics industry in this respect. Although some plants show endocrine-disrupting activity, the use of well-selected natural products might reduce the use of synthetic chemicals. Instruments dealing with this problem include life-cycle analysis, eco-design, and green labels; in combination with the committed use of environmental management systems, they contribute to "corporate social responsibility".
Sweeney, M F; Hasan, N; Soto, A M; Sonnenschein, C
Incidences of altered development and neoplasia of male reproductive organs have increased during the last 50 years, as shown by epidemiological data. These data are associated with the increased presence of environmental chemicals, specifically "endocrine disruptors," that interfere with normal hormonal action. Much research has gone into testing the effects of specific endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on the development of male reproductive organs and endocrine-related cancers in both in vitro and in vivo models. Efforts have been made to bridge the accruing laboratory findings with the epidemiological data to draw conclusions regarding the relationship between EDCs, altered development and carcinogenesis. The ability of EDCs to predispose target fetal and adult tissues to neoplastic transformation is best explained under the framework of the tissue organization field theory of carcinogenesis (TOFT), which posits that carcinogenesis is development gone awry. Here, we focus on the available evidence, from both empirical and epidemiological studies, regarding the effects of EDCs on male reproductive development and carcinogenesis of endocrine target tissues. We also critique current research methodology utilized in the investigation of EDCs effects and outline what could possibly be done to address these obstacles moving forward.
Ankolkar, Mandar; Balasinor, N H
Endocrine control of reproduction is very well known and has been echoed by many research groups. However, recent developments point to the ability of toxic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) to alter epigenetic information of the gametes which gets transferred to the developing embryo and affects the immediate reproductive outcome or even persists transgenerationally. These epigenetic aberrations contribute to the ensuing pathophysiology of reproductive disorders. Investigations of the female in cases of poor reproductive outcome have been the main strategy towards diagnosis. However, despite the male partner contributing half of his genome to the progeny, thorough investigations in the male have been ignored. Environmental pollutants are all pervading and are encountered in our day-to-day life. Many of these pollutants have potential to disrupt the endocrine system. Here, we discuss how the male gametes (spermatozoa) are susceptible to a myriad of epigenetic insults inflicted by exposure to endocrine disruptors and how important is the contribution of the epigenetic marks of the spermatozoa in healthy reproduction. We advocate that sperm epigenetics should be considered as a significant contributor to reproductive health and should be researched further and be subsequently included in routine diagnostic workup in cases of poor reproductive outcome.
Fritsch, R.; Hassenstein, E.; Dausch, D.
83 patients with a benign endocrinous opthalmopathy were submitted to radio-iodine and thyreostatic therapy and to high voltage therapy of the retrobulbar region. The opthalmologic controls showed that 30% of the treated patients had improved data and 70% had unchanged data. These results were independent from the individual radiation qualities used and the field sizes. (orig.) [de
Yum, Tae Jun; Cho, Hee Woo
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant inherited syndrome with characteristic clinical and radiological manifestations. Many reports on MEN1 have been published; however, no cases of radiologically diagnosed MEN1 have been reported. Therefore, we report on a radiologically diagnosed case of MEN1 with clinical symptoms of gastroduodenal ulcer.
K.F.M. Joosten (Koen)
textabstractPart 1 provides the aims of the studies (chapter 1) and a general overview and discussion of the current literature of metabolic, endocrine and nutritional aspects in critically ill children (chapter 2). In Part 2 the clinical use of an indirect calorimeter is tested and validated for
Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) or islet cell tumors are rare lesions, the incidence of which is estimated to be less than 1 per 100,000 person-years in the general population . PETs can be divided into functional (exhibit a distinct clinical syndrome due to hormone hypersecretion) and non-functional tumors. The majority ...
Full Text Available Hypertension is a major and frequent comorbid finding of Cushing′s syndrome. This review discusses the etiology and pathophysiology of hypertension in Cushing′s syndrome, while suggesting methods of management of this condition. It also provides an overview of diagnosis and management strategies in this disease.
Full Text Available . 11beta-HSD1 is a dimeric enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of cortisone to cortisol within the endoplasm...ed metabolic disease; Endocrine disease H6PD [HSA:9563] [KO:K13937] HSD11B1 [HSA:3290] [KO:K15680] ... Extremely low ratio of cortisol
Jianjie, Chen; Wenjuan, Xue; Jinling, Cao; Jie, Song; Ruhui, Jia; Meiyan, Li
Excessive fluoride in natural water ecosystem has the potential to detrimentally affect thyroid endocrine system, but little is known of such effects or underlying mechanisms in fish. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of fluoride on growth performance, thyroid histopathology, thyroid hormone levels, and gene expressions in the HPT axis in male zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to different determined concentrations of 0.1, 0.9, 2.0 and 4.1 M of fluoride to investigate the effects of fluoride on thyroid endocrine system and the potential toxic mechanisms caused by fluoride. The results indicated that the growth of the male zebrafish used in the experiments was significantly inhibited, the thyroid microtrastructure was changed, and the levels of T3 and T4 were disturbed in fluoride-exposed male fish. In addition, the expressional profiles of genes in HPT axis displayed alteration. The expressions of all studied genes were significantly increased in all fluoride-exposed male fish after exposure for 45 days. The transcriptional levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (TG), sodium iodide symporter (NIS), iodothyronine I (DIO1), and thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRα) were also elevated in all fluoride-exposed male fish after 90 days of exposure, while the inconsistent expressions were found in the mRNA of iodothyronineⅡ (DIO2), UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family a, b (UGT1ab), transthyretin (TTR), and thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ). These results demonstrated that fluoride could notably inhibit the growth of zebrafish, and significantly affect thyroid endocrine system by changing the microtrastructure of thyroid, altering thyroid hormone levels and endocrine-related gene expressions in male zebrafish. All above indicated that fluoride could pose a great threat to thyroid endocrine system, thus detrimentally affected the normal function of thyroid of male zebrafish. Copyright © 2015
Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi
Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition...... of human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should...... not stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases...
Bähr, I; Bazwinsky-Wutschke, I; Wolgast, S; Hofmann, K; Streck, S; Mühlbauer, E; Wedekind, D; Peschke, E
The glucose transporter GLUT4 is well known to facilitate the transport of blood glucose into insulin-sensitive muscle and adipose tissue. In this study, molecular, immunohistochemical, and Western blot investigations revealed evidence that GLUT4 is also located in the mouse, rat, and human endocrine pancreas. In addition, high glucose decreased and insulin elevated the GLUT4 expression in pancreatic α-cells. In contrast, high glucose increased GLUT4 expression, whereas insulin led to a reduced expression level of the glucose transporter in pancreatic β-cells. In vivo experiments showed that in pancreatic tissue of type 2 diabetic rats as well as type 2 diabetic patients, the GLUT4 expression is significantly increased compared to the nondiabetic control group. Furthermore, type 1 diabetic rats exhibited reduced GLUT4 transcript levels in pancreatic tissue, whereas insulin treatment of type 1 diabetic animals enhanced the GLUT4 expression back to control levels. These data provide evidence for the existence of GLUT4 in the endocrine pancreas and indicate a physiological relevance of this glucose transporter as well as characteristic changes in diabetic disease. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Lima, Aline Dt; Alves, Vanessa R; Rocha, Andressa R; Martinhago, Ana C; Martinhago, Ciro; Donadio, Nilka; Dzik, Artur; Cavagna, Mario; Gebrim, Luiz H
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis was carried out for embryonic analysis in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). This is a rare autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome and the patients with MEN1 are characterized by the occurrence of tumors in multiple endocrine tissues, associated with germline and somatic inactivating mutations in the MEN1 gene. This case report documents a successful preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) involving a couple at-risk for MEN1 syndrome, with a birth of a healthy infant. The couple underwent a cycle of controlled ovarian stimulation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Embryos were biopsied at the blastocyst stage and cryopreserved; we used PCR-based DNA analysis for PGD testing. Only one of the five embryos analyzed for MEN1 syndrome was unaffected. This embryo was thawed and transferred following endometrial preparation. After positive βHCG test; clinical pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasound, and a healthy infant was born. PGD for single gene disorders has been an emerging therapeutic tool for couples who are at risk of passing a genetic disease on to their offspring.
Legler, Juliette; Hamers, Timo; van Eck van der Sluijs-van de Bor, Margot; Schoeters, Greet; van der Ven, Leo; Eggesbo, Merete; Koppe, Janna; Feinberg, Max; Trnovec, Tomas
The hypothesis of whether early life exposure (both pre- and early postnatal) to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be a risk factor for obesity and related metabolic diseases later in life will be tested in the European research project OBELIX (OBesogenic Endocrine disrupting chemicals: LInking prenatal eXposure to the development of obesity later in life). OBELIX is a 4-y project that started in May 2009 and which has the following 5 main objectives: 1) to assess early life exposure in humans to major classes of EDCs identified as potential inducers of obesity (ie, dioxin-like compounds, non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, and perfluorinated compounds) by using mother-child cohorts from 4 European regions with different food-contaminant exposure patterns; 2) to relate early life exposure to EDCs with clinical markers, novel biomarkers, and health-effect data related to obesity; 3) to perform hazard characterization of early life exposure to EDCs for the development of obesity later in life by using a mouse model; 4) to determine mechanisms of action of obesogenic EDCs on developmental programming with in vivo and in vitro genomics and epigenetic analyses; and 5) to perform risk assessments of prenatal exposure to obesogenic EDCs in food by integrating maternal exposure through food-contaminant exposure and health-effect data in children and hazard data in animal studies.
Berstein, L M; Tchernobrovkina, A E; Gamajunova, V B; Kovalevskij, A J; Vasilyev, D A; Chepik, O F; Turkevitch, E A; Tsyrlina, E V; Maximov, S J; Ashrafian, L A; Thijssen, J H H
To compare estrogen concentrations in endometrial cancer tissue with those in macroscopically normal endometrium and with certain morphological characteristics of the tumor and endocrine parameters in patients. The estradiol content was evaluated by radioimmunoassay after homogenization and extraction in 78 adenocarcinomas (61 from postmenopausal patients). Higher concentrations of estradiol in tumor tissue samples than in macroscopically normal endometrium were found in patients of both reproductive and postmenopausal age. This difference was the same in patients with either endometrial carcinoma type I or type II. No association between tumor steroid receptor levels, estradiol concentrations in blood serum, and timing of menopause with intratumoral estradiol contents was discovered. Estradiol concentrations in tumor tissues correlated positively with the clinical stage of disease and rate of tumor invasion (in patients with peripheric/lower type of fat topography), and negatively with tumor differentiation stage (in patients with central/upper type of fat topography) and the percentage of intact double-stranded DNA in normal endometrium. Tumor estrogen content in endometrial cancer has clinical significance that is modified in the presence of certain endocrine characteristics related to insulin resistance. The role of local estrogen production (aromatase activity) in this setting deserves special study.
Lemaire, Laurence A; Goulley, Joan; Kim, Yung Hae
that line the ducts during development, and in the ducts after birth, but not in differentiated endocrine or acinar cells. Genetic inactivation of Bicc1 leads to ductal cell over-proliferation and cyst formation. Transcriptome comparison between WT and Bicc1 KO pancreata, before the phenotype onset, reveals......(+) endocrine progenitor production. Its deletion leads to a late but sustained endocrine progenitor decrease, resulting in a 50% reduction of endocrine cells. We show that BICC1 functions downstream of ONECUT1 in the pathway controlling both NEUROG3(+) endocrine cell production and ductal morphogenesis...
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The combination of a pituitary prolactinoma and an aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, double endocrine tumors in association with heart-hand syndrome have not previously been reported. Case presentation A 21-year-old Japanese woman presented with galactorrhea and decreased visual acuity. A large pituitary adenoma with an increased level of serum prolactin was apparent by computed tomography. She additionally showed mild hypertension (136/90 mmHg accompanied by hypokalemia. The plasma aldosterone concentration was increased. Computed tomography showed a mass in the right adrenal gland. No other tumors were found despite extensive imaging studies. Physical and radiographic examinations showed skeletal malformations of the hands and feet, including hypoplasia of the first digit in all four limbs. An atrial septal defect was demonstrated by echocardiography. Similar digital and cardiac abnormalities were detected in our patient's father, and a clinical diagnosis of hereditary heart-hand syndrome was made. Conclusion No established heart-hand syndrome was wholly compatible with the family's phenotype. Her father had no obvious endocrine tumors, implying that the parent of transmission determined variable phenotypic expression of the disease: heart-hand syndrome with multiple endocrine tumors from the paternal transmission or no endocrine tumor from the maternal transmission. This suggests that the gene or genes responsible for the disease may be under tissue-specific imprinting control.
Ruth Therese Casey
Full Text Available Context: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is a hereditary condition characterised by the predisposition to hyperplasia/tumours of endocrine glands. MEN1-related disease, moreover, malignancy related to MEN1, is increasingly responsible for death in up to two-thirds of patients. Although patients undergo radiological and biochemical surveillance, current recommendations for radiological monitoring are based on non-prospective data with little consensus or evidence demonstrating improved outcome from this approach. Here, we sought to determine whether cumulative radiation exposure as part of the recommended radiological screening programme posed a distinct risk in a cohort of patients with MEN1.Patients and study design: A retrospective review of 43 patients with MEN1 attending our institution between 2007 and 2015 was performed. Demographic and clinical information including phenotype was obtained for all patients. We also obtained details regarding all radiological procedures performed as part of MEN1 surveillance or disease localisation. An estimated effective radiation dose (ED for each individual patient was calculated.Results: The mean ED for the total patient cohort was 121 mSv, and the estimated mean lifetime risk of cancer secondary to radiation exposure was 0.49%. Patients with malignant neuroendocrine tumours (NETS had significantly higher ED levels compared to patients without metastatic disease (P < 0.0022.Conclusions: In MEN1, radiological surveillance is associated with clinically significant exposure to ionising radiation. In patients with MEN1, multi-modality imaging strategies designed to minimise this exposure should be considered.
Giulivo, Monica; Lopez de Alda, Miren; Capri, Ettore; Barceló, Damià
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are released into the environment from different sources. They are mainly used in packaging industries, pesticides and food constituents. Clinical evidence, experimental models, and epidemiological studies suggest that EDCs have major risks for humans by targeting different organs and systems in the body (e.g. reproductive system, breast tissue, adipose tissue, pancreas, etc.). Due to the ubiquity of human exposure to these compounds the aim of this review is to describe the most recent data on the effects induced by phthalates, bisphenol A and parabens in a critical window of exposure: in utero, during pregnancy, infants, and children. The interactions and mechanisms of toxicity of EDCs in relation to human general health problems, especially those broadening the term of endocrine disruption to 'metabolic disruption', should be deeply investigated. These include endocrine disturbances, with particular reference to reproductive problems and breast, testicular and ovarian cancers, and metabolic diseases such as obesity or diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Still today radiotherapy is of decisive relevance for several benign diseases. The following ones are briefly described in this introductory article: 1. Certain inflammatory and degenerative diseases as furuncles in the face, acute thrombophlebitis, recurrent sudoriparous abscesses, degenerative skeletal diseases, cervical syndrome and others; 2. rheumatic joint diseases; 3. Bechterew's disease; 4. primary presenile osteoporosis; 5. synringomyelia; 6. endocrine ophthalmopathy; 7. hypertrophic processes of the connective tissue; 8. hemangiomas. A detailed discussion and a profit-risk analysis is provided in the individual chapters of the magazine. (MG) [de
... Petronic-Rosic V. Dermatitis herpetiformis: part II. Diagnosis, management, and prognosis. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2011;64( ... 30 a.m. to 5 p.m. eastern time, M-F Follow Us NIH… Turning Discovery Into ... Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...
Full Text Available Human enteroviruses (HEV, especially coxsackievirus serotype B (CVB and echovirus (E, have been associated with diseases of both the exocrine and endocrine pancreas, but so far evidence on HEV infection in human pancreas has been reported only in islets and ductal cells. This study aimed to investigate the capability of echovirus strains to infect human exocrine and endocrine pancreatic cells. Infection of explanted human islets and exocrine cells with seven field strains of E6 caused cytopathic effect, virus titer increase and production of HEV protein VP1 in both cell types. Virus particles were found in islets and acinar cells infected with E6. No cytopathic effect or infectious progeny production was observed in exocrine cells exposed to the beta cell-tropic strains of E16 and E30. Endocrine cells responded to E6, E16 and E30 by upregulating the transcription of interferon-induced with helicase C domain 1 (IF1H1, 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1, interferon-β (IFN-β, chemokine (C–X–C motif ligand 10 (CXCL10 and chemokine (C–C motif ligand 5 (CCL5. Echovirus 6, but not E16 or E30, led to increased transcription of these genes in exocrine cells. These data demonstrate for the first time that human exocrine cells represent a target for E6 infection and suggest that certain HEV serotypes can replicate in human pancreatic exocrine cells, while the pancreatic endocrine cells are permissive to a wider range of HEV.
Alison M Anderson
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endocrine disruptor chemicals elicit adverse health effects by perturbing nuclear receptor signalling systems. It has been speculated that these compounds may also perturb epigenetic mechanisms and thus contribute to the early origin of adult onset disease. We hypothesised that histone methylation may be a component of the epigenome that is susceptible to perturbation. We used coexpression analysis of publicly available data to investigate the combinatorial actions of nuclear receptors and genes involved in histone methylation in normal testis and when faced with endocrine disruptor compounds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The expression patterns of a set of genes were profiled across testis tissue in human, rat and mouse, plus control and exposed samples from four toxicity experiments in the rat. Our results indicate that histone methylation events are a more general component of nuclear receptor mediated transcriptional regulation in the testis than previously appreciated. Coexpression patterns support the role of a gatekeeper mechanism involving the histone methylation modifiers Kdm1, Prdm2, and Ehmt1 and indicate that this mechanism is a common determinant of transcriptional integrity for genes critical to diverse physiological endpoints relevant to endocrine disruption. Coexpression patterns following exposure to vinclozolin and dibutyl phthalate suggest that coactivity of the demethylase Kdm1 in particular warrants further investigation in relation to endocrine disruptor mode of action. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides proof of concept that a bioinformatics approach that profiles genes related to a specific hypothesis across multiple biological settings can provide powerful insight into coregulatory activity that would be difficult to discern at an individual experiment level or by traditional differential expression analysis methods.
Ahmed, Muna M.M.
For ruminants grazing in semi-arid areas, the maintenance of balanced water and energy metabolism is challenging to productivity.The metabolic effects of water restriction usually stimulate endocrine which control metabolic activity depending on the thermal environment.Radioimmunoasay technique was used to determine the level of endocrine hormones, namely thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH),thyroxine(T4) and cortisol in desert sheep.Intermittent watering every 24h, 48h and 72h increased TSH level during the morning but decreased it during the afternoon.T4 level decreased during both morning and afternoon.The cortisol level was depressed by water restriction during the morning and afternoon but showed an overlapping pattern with that of the control during the afternoon. (Author)
Leroy, C; Cortet-Rudelli, C; Desailloud, R
Endocrine complications (particularly gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary and metabolic) of childhood cancer treatments are common in young adults. Gonadal damage may be the result of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Fertility preservation must be systematically proposed before initiation of gonadotoxic treatment if only the child is eligible. Hypothalamic-pituitary deficiency is common after brain or total-body irradiation, the somatotropic axis is the most sensitive to irradiation. Pituitary deficiency screening must be repeated since this endocrine consequence can occur many years after treatment. Hormone replacement must be prudent particularly in case of treatment with growth hormone or steroids. Metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular damage resulting from cancer treatments contribute to the increase of morbidity and mortality in this population and should be screened routinely even if the patient is asymptomatic. The multidisciplinary management of these adults must be organized and the role of the endocrinologist is now well established. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Mello, C V; Lovell, P V
The genomics era has brought along the completed sequencing of a large number of bird genomes that cover a broad range of the avian phylogenetic tree (>30 orders), leading to major novel insights into avian biology and evolution. Among recent findings, the discovery that birds lack a large number of protein coding genes that are organized in highly conserved syntenic clusters in other vertebrates is very intriguing, given the physiological importance of many of these genes. A considerable number of them play prominent endocrine roles, suggesting that birds evolved compensatory genetic or physiological mechanisms that allowed them to survive and thrive in spite of these losses. While further studies are needed to establish the exact extent of avian gene losses, these findings point to birds as potentially highly relevant model organisms for exploring the genetic basis and possible therapeutic approaches for a wide range of endocrine functions and disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vezozzo, D.C.P.; Cerri, G.G.; Siqueira, S.S.C.; Cauledori, I.; Alves, V.A.F.; Magalhaes, A.
The authors present a review of 12 cases of endocrine pancreatic tumors. All patients were submitted to preoperative sonography and five of these to intra-operative sonography as well. Correlation with pathological findings was obtained in all patients. Correct localization of the lesions was obtained in seven of 12 patients by pre- and intra-operative sonography studies. False-positive results were observed in two patients and a technically inadequate sonographic examination with false-negative results were seen in the remaining three cases. Intra-operative sonography contributed in 100% of cases in order to localize at least one of the lesions detected pathologically, thus been very usefull to surgical management. Intra-operative sonography should be used as a routine procedure in the evaluation of endocrine pancreatic tumors. (author)
Bauman, W A; Wecht, J M; Biering-Sørensen, F
findings in the SCI population. SETTING: This study was conducted in an international setting. METHODS: The ISCIEMEDS was developed by a working group. The initial ISCIEMEDS was revised based on suggestions from members of the International SCI Data Sets Committee, the International Spinal Cord Society......OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Endocrine and Metabolic Extended Data Set (ISCIEMEDS) within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets that would facilitate consistent collection and reporting of endocrine and metabolic...... (ISCoS) Executive and Scientific Committees, American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Board, other interested organizations, societies and individual reviewers. The data set was posted for two months on ISCoS and ASIA websites for comments. Variable names were standardized, and a suggested database...
Full Text Available Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs is a widespread phenomenon in nature. Although the mechanisms of action of EDCs are actively studied, the consequences of endocrine disruption (ED at the population level and the adaptations evolved to cope with chronic EDC exposure have been overlooked. Birds probably represent the animal taxon most successfully adapted to synanthropic life. Hence, birds share with humans a similar pattern of exposure to xenobiotics. In this article, we review case studies on patterns of behaviour that deviate from the expectation in bird species exposed to EDCs. We provide behavioural and ecological parameters to be used as endpoints of ED; methodological requirements and caveats based on species-specific life-history traits, behavioural repertoires, developmental styles, and possibility of captive breeding; a list of species that could be used as sentinels to assess the quality of man-made environment.
Carere, Claudio; Costantini, David; Sorace, Alberto; Santucci, Daniela; Alleva, Enrico
Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a widespread phenomenon in nature. Although the mechanisms of action of EDCs are actively studied, the consequences of endocrine disruption (ED) at the population level and the adaptations evolved to cope with chronic EDC exposure have been overlooked. Birds probably represent the animal taxon most successfully adapted to synanthropic life. Hence, birds share with humans a similar pattern of exposure to xenobiotics. In this article, we review case studies on patterns of behaviour that deviate from the expectation in bird species exposed to EDCs. We provide behavioural and ecological parameters to be used as endpoints of ED; methodological requirements and caveats based on species-specific life-history traits, behavioural repertoires, developmental styles, and possibility of captive breeding; a list of species that could be used as sentinels to assess the quality of man-made environment.
Full Text Available Vitamin A (retinol is a micronutrient critical for cell proliferation and differentiation. In adults, vitamin A and metabolites such as retinoic acid (RA play major roles in vision, immune and brain functions and tissue remodelling and metabolism. This review presents the physiological interactions of retinoids and endocrine tissues and hormonal systems. Two endocrine systems have been particularly studied. In the pituitary, retinoids target the corticotrophs with a possible therapeutic use in corticotropinomas. In the thyroid, retinoids interfere with iodine metabolism and vitamin A deficiency aggravates thyroid dysfunction caused by iodine-deficient diets. Retinoids use in thyroid cancer appears less promising than expected. Recent and still controversial studies investigated the relations between retinoids and metabolic syndrome. Indeed, retinoids contribute to pancreatic development and modify fat and glucose metabolism. However, more detailed studies are needed before planning any therapeutic use. Finally, retinoids probably play more minor roles in adrenal and gonads development and function apart from their major effects on spermatogenesis.
Boberg, Julie; Taxvig, Camilla; Christiansen, Sofie
Parabens are preservatives used in a wide range of cosmetic products, including products for children, and some are permitted in foods. However, there is concern for endocrine disrupting effects. This paper critically discusses the conclusions of recent reviews and original research papers...... and provides an overview of studies on toxicokinetics. After dermal uptake, parabens are hydrolyzed and conjugated and excreted in urine. Despite high total dermal uptake of paraben and metabolites,little intact paraben can be recovered in blood and urine. Paraben metabolites may play a role in the endocrine...... disruption seen in experimental animals and studies are needed to determine human levels of parabens and metabolites. Overall, the estrogenic burden of parabens and their metabolites in blood may exceed the action of endogenous estradiol in childhood and the safety margin for propylparaben is very low when...
Brouillet, Sophie; Hoffmann, Pascale; Feige, Jean-Jacques; Alfaidy, Nadia
Endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF), also named prokineticin 1, is the canonical member of the prokineticin family. Numerous reports suggest a direct involvement of this peptide in normal and pathological reproductive processes. Recent advances propose EG-VEGF as a key endocrine factor that controls many aspects of placental development and suggest its involvement in the development of preeclampsia (PE), the most threatening pathology of human pregnancy. This review describes the finely tuned action and regulation of EG-VEGF throughout human pregnancy, argues for its clinical relevance as a potential diagnostic marker of the onset of PE, and discusses future research directions for therapeutic targeting of EG-VEGF. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dodson, Robin E; Nishioka, Marcia; Standley, Laurel J; Perovich, Laura J; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A
Laboratory and human studies raise concerns about endocrine disruption and asthma resulting from exposure to chemicals in consumer products. Limited labeling or testing information is available to evaluate products as exposure sources. We analytically quantified endocrine disruptors and asthma-related chemicals in a range of cosmetics, personal care products, cleaners, sunscreens, and vinyl products. We also evaluated whether product labels provide information that can be used to select products without these chemicals. We selected 213 commercial products representing 50 product types. We tested 42 composited samples of high-market-share products, and we tested 43 alternative products identified using criteria expected to minimize target compounds. Analytes included parabens, phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, ethanolamines, alkylphenols, fragrances, glycol ethers, cyclosiloxanes, and ultraviolet (UV) filters. We detected 55 compounds, indicating a wide range of exposures from common products. Vinyl products contained > 10% bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and could be an important source of DEHP in homes. In other products, the highest concentrations and numbers of detects were in the fragranced products (e.g., perfume, air fresheners, and dryer sheets) and in sunscreens. Some products that did not contain the well-known endocrine-disrupting phthalates contained other less-studied phthalates (dicyclohexyl phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, and di-n-propyl phthalate; also endocrine-disrupting compounds), suggesting a substitution. Many detected chemicals were not listed on product labels. Common products contain complex mixtures of EDCs and asthma-related compounds. Toxicological studies of these mixtures are needed to understand their biological activity. Regarding epidemiology, our findings raise concern about potential confounding from co-occurring chemicals and misclassification due to variability in product composition. Consumers should be able to avoid
Lamberts, S.W.; Bakker, W.H.; Reubi, J.C.; Krenning, E.P.
A number of different tumors have receptors for somatostatin. We evaluated the efficacy of scanning with 123 I-labeled Tyr3-octreotide, a somatostatin analogue, for tumor localization in 42 patients with carcinoid tumors, pancreatic endocrine tumors, or paragangliomas. We then evaluated the response to octreotide therapy in some of these patients. Primary tumors or metastases, often previously unrecognized, were visualized in 12 of 13 patients with carcinoid tumors and in 7 of 9 patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors. The endocrine symptoms of these patients responded well to therapy with octreotide. Among 20 patients with paragangliomas, 8 of whom had more than one tumor, 10 temporal (tympanic or jugular), 9 carotid, and 10 vagal tumors could be visualized. One small tympanic tumor and one small carotid tumor were not seen on the scan. The 123 I-labeled Tyr3-octreotide scanning technique is a rapid and safe procedure for the visualization of some tumors with somatostatin receptors. A positive scan may predict the ability of octreotide therapy to control symptoms of hormonal hypersecretion
Szwedziak, K.; Olejniczak, W.; Brichkovkiy, V.
Introduction: Endocrine tumors of the digestive tract (ETDT) are neoplasms which stem from the APUD (amine precursors uptake and decarboxylation) cells. There are neuroendocrine pancreatic and gastroenteral carcinoid tumors which stand for 2% of digestive tract tumors, 0,5% of all human malignant neoplasms. All of them have secretion granulations in the cytoplasm. That is why a number of immune histochemic techniques is used in search for biogenic amines and hormones such as gastrin, CCK, GIP, VIP, motilin, glucagon, GRP, PP, GHRH and the others. In the majority of cases neuroendocrine tumors of the rectum are described as dysfunctional, which means that specific clinical symptoms are not connected with their hormonal overproduction. Material and methods: We describe a case of fifty seven years old male patient admitted to the Department of General and Transplant Surgery for the diagnosis and treatment of the rectal tumor. Per rectum examination revealed hard tumor. The pathologic examination of the biopsy taken from the lesion and CT scanning confirmed the presence of endocrine tumor of the digestive tract. Results: Anterior resection of the rectum was performed, the postoperative course was uneventful. At present patient is subjected to complementary treatment with the use of somatostatin analogue of the prolonged action. Conclusion: The endocrine tumors of the rectum are extremely rare, they occur in this localization in 0,26-0,52 out of 100.000 all rectal tumors. Diagnosis is usually made upon the microscopic examination and the immune histochemic reactions. (author)
Lu, Chung-Kuang; Lai, Yi-Chyi; Lin, Yung-Fu; Chen, Hau-Ren; Chiang, Ming-Ko
Highlights: ► We identify CCAR1 to directly interact with Ngn3. ► CCAR1 is co-localized with Ngn3 in the nucleus. ► CCAR1 cooperates with Ngn3 in activating NeuroD expression. ► CCAR1 is required for Ngn3-mediated PANC-1 transdifferentiation. -- Abstract: Neurogenin3 (Ngn3) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that specifies pancreatic endocrine cell fates during pancreas development. It can also initiate a transdifferentiation program when expressed in pancreatic exocrine and ductal cells. However, how Ngn3 initiates a transcriptional cascade to achieve endocrine differentiation is still poorly understood. Here, we show that cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 1 (CCAR1), which is a transcriptional coactivator for nuclear receptors, also interacts with Ngn3. The association between Ngn3 and CCAR1 was verified by pull-down assays and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. Using gene reporter assays, we found that CCAR1 is essential for Ngn3 to activate the expression of the reporter genes containing the NeuroD promoter. Moreover, down-regulation of endogenous CCAR1 in the PANC-1 pancreatic ductal cell line inhibits the transdifferentiation program initiated by Ngn3. CCAR1 is, therefore, a novel partner of Ngn3 in mediating endocrine differentiation.
Hampl, R; Kubatova, J; Heracek, J; Sobotka, V; Starka, L
Seminal plasma represents a unique environment for maturation, nutrition, and protection of male germ cells from damaging agents. It contains an array of organic as well as inorganic chemicals, encompassing a number of biologically and immunologically active compounds, including hormones. Seminal plasma contains also various pollutants transferred from outer environment known as endocrine disruptors. They interfere with hormones at the receptor level, act as inhibitors of their biosynthesis, and affect hormone regulation.In this minireview, the main groups of hormones detected in seminal plasma are summarized. Seminal gonadal steroids were investigated mostly with aim to use them as biomarkers of impaired spermatogenesis (sperm count, motility, morphology). Concentrations of hormones in the seminal plasma often differ considerably from the blood plasma levels in dependence on their origin. In some instances (dihydrotestosterone, estradiol), their informative value is higher than determination in blood.Out of peptide hormones detected in seminal plasma, peptides of transforming growth factor beta family, especially antimullerian hormone, and oligopeptides related to thyrotropin releasing hormone have the high informative value, while assessment of seminal gonadotropins and prolactin does not bring advantage over determination in blood.Though there is a large body of information about the endocrine disruptors' impact on male reproduction, especially with their potential role in decline of male reproductive functions within the last decades, there are only scarce reports on their presence in seminal plasma. Herein, the main groups of endocrine disruptors found in seminal plasma are reviewed, and the use of their determination for investigation of fertility disorders is discussed.
Full Text Available Nonfunctional endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas is uncommon. Without excess hormone secretion, it is clinically silent until the enlarging or metastatic tumor causes compressive symptoms. Epigastric pain, dyspepsia, jaundice, and abdominal mass are the usual symptoms, whereas upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding is rare. Here, we describe the case of a 24-year-old man with the chief complaint of hematemesis. Upper GI panendoscopy revealed isolated gastric varices at the fundus and upper body. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a tumor mass at the pancreatic tail causing a splenic vein obstruction, engorged vessels near the fundus of the stomach, and splenomegaly. After distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy, the bleeding did not recur. The final pathologic diagnosis was endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. Gastric variceal bleeding is a possible manifestation of nonfunctional endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas if the splenic vein is affected by a tumor. In non-cirrhotic patients with isolated gastric variceal bleeding, the differential diagnosis should include pancreatic disorders.
Humans are potentially exposed to tens of thousands of man-made chemicals in the environment. It is well known that some environmental chemicals mimic natural hormones and thus have the potential to be endocrine disruptors. Most of these environmental chemicals have never been tested for their ability to disrupt the endocrine system, in particular, their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor. EPA needs tools to prioritize thousands of chemicals, for instance in the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP). Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project (CERAPP) was intended to be a demonstration of the use of predictive computational models on HTS data including ToxCast and Tox21 assays to prioritize a large chemical universe of 32464 unique structures for one specific molecular target – the estrogen receptor. CERAPP combined multiple computational models for prediction of estrogen receptor activity, and used the predicted results to build a unique consensus model. Models were developed in collaboration between 17 groups in the U.S. and Europe and applied to predict the common set of chemicals. Structure-based techniques such as docking and several QSAR modeling approaches were employed, mostly using a common training set of 1677 compounds provided by U.S. EPA, to build a total of 42 classification models and 8 regression models for binding, agonist and antagonist activity. All predictions were evaluated on ToxCast data and on an exte
Couto-Silva, Ana Claudia; Adan, Luis Fernando; Brauner, Raja
Radiotherapy may result in endocrine abnormalities, osteoporosis, obesity and neurological sequelae in patients treated for cancer. In the hypothalamo-pituitary area, GH deficiency is the most frequent complication. The frequency, delay of appearance and severity of GH deficiency depend most on the dose delivered during cranial irradiation but variables as age at treatment and fractionation schedule may play an important role as well. Other hypothalamo-pituitary dysfunctions are also dose-dependent. Low dose cranial irradiation may induce precocious or early puberty, while high doses are related to gonadotropin deficiency. Endocrine complications due to extracranial irradiation such as gonadal or thyroid abnormalities are described. In spite of normal GH secretion, linear growth may be impaired by bone lesions secondary to craniospinal or total body irradiation. Results on final height have been optimized by better indicators of GH therapy associated with adequate treatment of early or precocious puberty. The purpose of this review is to explore the late endocrine sequelae of radiotherapy. (author)
Bechard, Matthew E.; Bankaitis, Eric D.; Hipkens, Susan B.; Ustione, Alessandro; Piston, David W.; Yang, Yu-Ping; Magnuson, Mark A.; Wright, Christopher V.E.
The current model for endocrine cell specification in the pancreas invokes high-level production of the transcription factor Neurogenin 3 (Neurog3) in Sox9+ bipotent epithelial cells as the trigger for endocrine commitment, cell cycle exit, and rapid delamination toward proto-islet clusters. This model posits a transient Neurog3 expression state and short epithelial residence period. We show, however, that a Neurog3TA.LO cell population, defined as Neurog3 transcriptionally active and Sox9+ and often containing nonimmunodetectable Neurog3 protein, has a relatively high mitotic index and prolonged epithelial residency. We propose that this endocrine-biased mitotic progenitor state is functionally separated from a pro-ductal pool and endows them with long-term capacity to make endocrine fate-directed progeny. A novel BAC transgenic Neurog3 reporter detected two types of mitotic behavior in Sox9+ Neurog3TA.LO progenitors, associated with progenitor pool maintenance or derivation of endocrine-committed Neurog3HI cells, respectively. Moreover, limiting Neurog3 expression dramatically increased the proportional representation of Sox9+ Neurog3TA.LO progenitors, with a doubling of its mitotic index relative to normal Neurog3 expression, suggesting that low Neurog3 expression is a defining feature of this cycling endocrine-biased state. We propose that Sox9+ Neurog3TA.LO endocrine-biased progenitors feed production of Neurog3HI endocrine-committed cells during pancreas organogenesis. PMID:27585590
Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo; Whang, Kee Suk; Kim, Bo Wan; Lee, In Kyu
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN type 2, Sipple's syndrome) is a rare disorder characterized by the association of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, parathyroid hyperplasia and can be diagnosed in early stage of the disease by meticulous screening tests of the family. This case report describes the location and categorization of tumors using 99m Tc-pertechnetate, I -NaI, 99m Tc-pentavalent(V) DMSA, 131 I -MIBG scans in two cases of MEN type 2 occurred in a 32 year old women and her 29-year old brother. In MEN type 2, we think, combined use of 99m Tc-(V)-DMSA, 99m Tc-pertechnetate and 1 '3 1 I -MIBG may be useful for the categorization of tumor mass lesions and planning appropriate therapy.
Piven', N.V.; Mrochek, A.G.
Usability of radioimmunoassay (RIA) for assessing the functioning and potentialities of different hormonal systems was studied as well as pathogenetic role of revealed violations and interconnection of them and clinical symptomatology and the type of therapy performed in case of pathology (illustrated by the case of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)). RIA method was used to assess the features of function of gonads, adrenal cortex and pituitary body - thyroid system in RA patients (45-60 y.o.) by means of study of the concentration of corresponding hormones and regulatory proteins in combination with pharmacological load of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) before and after the therapy. Grave violations in endocrine homeostasis were found in the form of androgen-extragen disbalance, adrenal insufficiency and hypothyrosis in combination with hormone level dissociation resulted from pharmacological sample with ACTH. Revealed violations are connected with clinical symptomatology, criticality and lingering of disease [ru
Panhypopituitarism, infertility, gynaecomastia, impaired growth leading to short stature, failure to undergo normal pubertal development, hyperparathyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid tumours may complicate the treatment of malignant disease. The complexity of modern anti-cancer treatment has made it more difficult to delineate the exact aetiological role of radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy as many patients receive both modalities of therapy. In addition, combination chemotherapy has largely replaced treatment with a single cytotoxic drug, which means that it is often impossible to estimate the contribution of any one single drug to the adverse side effects of chemotherapy. The biological effect of a given radiation treatment regime depends not only on the total radiation dose received but also the method of irradiation, number of fractions, fraction size and duration of irradiation. Only a limited amount of information is available on dose-time relationships for radiation-induced damage to endocrine glands. (author)
Shalet, S M [Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Inst., Manchester (UK)
Panhypopituitarism, infertility, gynaecomastia, impaired growth leading to short stature, failure to undergo normal pubertal development, hyperparathyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid tumours may complicate the treatment of malignant disease. The complexity of modern anti-cancer treatment has made it more difficult to delineate the exact aetiological role of radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy as many patients receive both modalities of therapy. In addition, combination chemotherapy has largely replaced treatment with a single cytotoxic drug, which means that it is often impossible to estimate the contribution of any one single drug to the adverse side effects of chemotherapy. The biological effect of a given radiation treatment regime depends not only on the total radiation dose received but also the method of irradiation, number of fractions, fraction size and duration of irradiation. Only a limited amount of information is available on dose-time relationships for radiation-induced damage to endocrine glands.
Curtis, Sarah W; Conneely, Karen N; Marder, Mary E; Terrell, Metrecia L; Marcus, Michele; Smith, Alicia K
Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a broad class of chemicals present in many residential products that can disrupt hormone signaling and cause health problems in humans. Multigenerational cohorts, like the Michigan polybrominated biphenyl registry, are ideal for studying the effects of intergenerational exposure. Registry participants report hormone-related health problems, particularly in those exposed before puberty or those in the second generation exposed through placental transfer or breastfeeding. However, more research is needed to determine how EDCs cause health problems and the mechanisms underlying intergenerational exposure. Utilizing existing data in this registry, along with genetic and epigenetic approaches, could provide insight to how EDCs cause human disease and help to determine the risk to exposed populations and future generations.
Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Kaizu, Toshihide; Kurosaki, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Yoshiaki
To improve the quality of life (QOL) of the patients with prostate cancer, we limit the radiotherapy target volume to the prostate and seminal vesicles while using endocrine therapy towards the disease outside the target volume. Radiotherapy technique was rotation conformation technique with computer-controlled multileaf collimators to the total doses of up to 66-70 Gy. Among 145 evaluable cases with the median age of 74, overall and cause-specific 5-year survival rates were 59.3% and 84.1%, respectively, and the relative survival rate of the Stage A-C cases was 100%. The two thirds (33/50) of the deaths were not of prostate cancer. The rate of severe complication was 1.4%. As for QOL, the rate of impotence was 90%, however, the patients' overall satisfaction towards the treatment was 90%. From this analysis, this combined treatment seems beneficial in the treatment of prostate cancer. (author)
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT can occur either as a sporadic case or in association with syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is a rare autosomal-dominant disease resulting from mutations in MEN1 gene encoding a 621 amino acid long tumor suppressor protein “menin.” We report here the results of MEN1 screening in 31 patients diagnosed with sporadic PHPT. Materials and Methods: Diagnosis of sporadic PHPT was made when blood urea and serum creatinine were normal, serum parathyroid hormone was high, and parathyroid enlargement could be localized on ultrasound and/or parathyroid scan. A total of 31 patients and 50 healthy volunteers were recruited for molecular analysis after taking informed consent. Results: Major symptoms at presentation were bone pain, fatigue, muscle weakness, and renal stones. Molecular genetic analysis revealed the presence of two novel intronic variations, c. 913-79T>A and c. 784-129T>A which by human splicing finder are predicted to cause potential alteration of splicing by either activating an intronic cryptic acceptor site or converting a conserved exonic splicing silencer sequence to an exonic splicing enhancer site. Apart from these, two reported polymorphisms rs144677807 and rs669976 were seen only in patients and none of the controls. Other reported polymorphisms rs2071313 and rs654440 were identified both in controls and patients. Conclusions: This is the first study of MEN1 gene screening in sporadic PHPT in India reporting on the clinical and genetic findings, wherein two novel intronic variations c. 913-79T>A and c. 784-129T>A were identified showing their possible role in disease causation.