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Sample records for endemic taiwan hwamei

  1. Andraca yauichui sp. n., a new species endemic to mid elevation forests of Taiwan (Bombycidae sensu lato, Lepidoptera).

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    Wu, Shipher; Chang, Wei-Chun

    2016-12-01

    A new endemic, montane species of the genus Andraca, A. yauichui sp. nov., in Taiwan is described. It can be separated well from a lower montane, notable tea tree pest A. theae (Matsumura, 1909), based on morphological characters of adult, e.g. larger wingspan size, head vertex white rather than brown, valval apex truncate rather than bifurcate, and final instar larva, e.g. the presence of a pair of white spot on lateral part of each abdominal segment and a distinct short anal horn rather than the absence of two characters. The subgeneric placement of this new species in Andraca is also discussed.

  2. Factors affecting the use of anti-amoebiasis protective measures among Taiwan immigrants returning to amoebiasis-endemic regions.

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    Chen, S C; Tsai, Y T; Hu, S C; Lin, C L; Chen, K L; Chen, K H; Chen, K T

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the predictors of use of anti-amoebiasis protective measures (AAPMs) among Taiwan immigrants returning to their country of origin, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) to guide the investigation. Cross-sectional study. Between March and May 2011, all permanent immigrants originating from amoebiasis-endemic countries who received services at the immigrant service centres in Taipei or Tainan and who reported that they had returned to their country of origin within the past five years were enrolled in the study. A structured questionnaire containing questions on sociodemographic characteristics and items related to the constructs of the HBM was used as the data collection instrument. Complete information was collected from 384 immigrants, with a response rate of 80% (384/480). The mean age of the subjects was 38.4 years (standard deviation 10.6 years). The majority (70%) of participants did not receive travel information through a pretravel consultation, and more than 17% reported that they did not use measures to prevent amoebiasis. Multiple regression analyses revealed that Chinese proficiency, pretravel consultation and lower barriers to using protective measures were significantly associated with the use of AAPMs during return trips to country of origin (R(2) = 0.45; F = 77.5; P amoebiasis-endemic regions who return to their country of origin. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Taiwan.

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    1988-03-01

    Attention in this discussion of Taiwan is directed to the following: geography; the people -- education, languages, religions, and cultural background; history; administration; political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Taiwan. In 1987 the population was estimated to be 19.7 million with an annual growth rate of 1.07%. The infant mortality rate in 1986 was 0.7% with a life expectancy of 70.8 for men and 75.8 for women. Taipei, which continues its claim of sovereignty over all of China in the name of the "Republic of China," exercises control only over the island of Taiwan, the Penghu Islands, and about 20 offshore islands, most near the China mainland. Most native Taiwanese speak a variant of the Amoy (Hokkien) dialect of Southern Fujian. The predominant religion is a combination of Buddhism and Taoism. Chinese sources show migration to Taiwan began as early as A.D. 500. Dutch traders 1st claimed the island in 1624 as a base for Dutch commerce with Japan and the China coast. The 1st major influx of migrants from the Chinese mainland came during the Dutch period. In 1664, a Chinese fleet led by the Ming loyalist Zheng Chenggong retreated from the mainland and occupied Taiwan. Zheng expelled the Dutch and established Taiwan as a base in his attempt to restore the Ming Dynasty. After his death in 1683, his successors submitted to Manchu control. Manchu China ruled Taiwan as a frontier district until it was declared a separate Chinese province in 1886. The authorities in Taipei claim to be the government of all China, including Taiwan. When President Chiang Ching-kuo died in 1988, he was succeeded by Vice President Lee Teng-hui, who had been elected along with Chiang by the National Assembly to a 6-year term. Until 1986, Taiwan's political system was effectively 1 party. Before elections in 1986, many "nonpartisans" grouped together to form Taiwan's 1st new political party in over 4 decades -- the Democratic

  4. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity and increased cardiovascular mortality in the arsenic-endemic areas of southwestern Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Ya-Tang [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Li, Wan-Fen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Ling-I [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Li-Yu; Huang, Yeou-Lih [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan (China); Sun, Chien-Wen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wei J., E-mail: wjchen@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genetic Epidemiology Core Laboratory, National Taiwan University Center for Genomic Medicine, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shu-Li, E-mail: slwang@nhri.org.tw [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-01

    Arsenic ingestion has been linked to increasing global prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD); arsenic can be removed from drinking water to reduce related health effects. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the evaluation of acute arsenic toxicity in vivo and in vitro, but it is not validated for the evaluation of long-term, chronic arsenic exposure. The present study examined the long-term effect of chronic arsenic exposure on CVD and serum LDH levels, after consideration of arsenic metabolism capacity. A total of 380 subjects from an arseniasis-endemic area and 303 from a non-endemic area of southwestern Taiwan were recruited in 2002. Various urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generation systems. Fasting serum was used for quantitative determination of the total LDH activity. A significant dose–response relationship was observed between arsenic exposure and LDH elevation, independent of urinary arsenic profiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, abnormal LDH elevation was associated with CVD mortality after adjustment for Framingham risk scores for 10-year CVD and arsenic exposure (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–14.81). LDH was elevated in subjects with arsenic exposure in a dose-dependent manner. LDH is a marker of arsenic toxicity associated with CVD mortality. Results of this study have important implications for use in ascertaining long-term arsenic exposure risk of CVD. -- Highlights: ► We showed that arsenic exposure was correlated with LDH elevation. ► LDH elevation was related to arsenic methylation capacity. ► Abnormal LDH elevation can be a marker of susceptibility to CVD mortality.

  5. The concentrations of ambient Burkholderia pseudomallei during typhoon season in endemic area of melioidosis in Taiwan.

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    Ya-Lei Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Melioidosis is a severe bacterial infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei with a high case-fatality rate. Epidemiological and animal studies show the possibility of inhalation transmission. However, no B. pseudomallei concentrations in ambient air have been researched. Here, we developed a method to quantify ambient B. pseudomallei and then measured concentrations of ambient B. pseudomallei during the typhoon season and the non-typhoon season to determine the factors influencing ambient B. pseudomallei levels. METHODS: We quantified ambient B. pseudomallei by using a filter/real-time qPCR method in the Zoynan Region in Kaohsiung, southern Taiwan. Twenty-four hour samples were collected at a sampling rate of 20 L/min every day from June 11 to December 21, 2012 including during the typhoon season (June to September and reference season (October to December. RESULTS: We successfully developed a filtration/real-time qPCR method to quantify ambient B. pseudomallei. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing concentrations of ambient B. pseudomallei. Ambient B. pseudomallei were only detected during the typhoon season when compared to the reference season. For the typhoons affecting the Zoynan Region, the positive rates of ambient B. pseudomallei were very high at 80% to 100%. During June to December, rainfall was positively correlated with ambient B. pseudomallei with a statistical significance. Sediment at a nearby pond significantly influenced the concentration of ambient B. pseudomallei. During the typhoon month, the typhoon was positively correlated with ambient B. pseudomallei whereas wind speed was reversely correlated with ambient B. pseudomallei. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest the possibility of transmission of B. pseudomallei via inhalation during the typhoon season.

  6. The concentrations of ambient Burkholderia pseudomallei during typhoon season in endemic area of melioidosis in Taiwan.

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    Chen, Ya-Lei; Yen, Yu-Chuan; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Lee, Min Sheng; Ho, Chi-Kung; Mena, Kristina D; Wang, Peng-Yau; Chen, Pei-Shih

    2014-01-01

    Melioidosis is a severe bacterial infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei with a high case-fatality rate. Epidemiological and animal studies show the possibility of inhalation transmission. However, no B. pseudomallei concentrations in ambient air have been researched. Here, we developed a method to quantify ambient B. pseudomallei and then measured concentrations of ambient B. pseudomallei during the typhoon season and the non-typhoon season to determine the factors influencing ambient B. pseudomallei levels. We quantified ambient B. pseudomallei by using a filter/real-time qPCR method in the Zoynan Region in Kaohsiung, southern Taiwan. Twenty-four hour samples were collected at a sampling rate of 20 L/min every day from June 11 to December 21, 2012 including during the typhoon season (June to September) and reference season (October to December). We successfully developed a filtration/real-time qPCR method to quantify ambient B. pseudomallei. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing concentrations of ambient B. pseudomallei. Ambient B. pseudomallei were only detected during the typhoon season when compared to the reference season. For the typhoons affecting the Zoynan Region, the positive rates of ambient B. pseudomallei were very high at 80% to 100%. During June to December, rainfall was positively correlated with ambient B. pseudomallei with a statistical significance. Sediment at a nearby pond significantly influenced the concentration of ambient B. pseudomallei. During the typhoon month, the typhoon was positively correlated with ambient B. pseudomallei whereas wind speed was reversely correlated with ambient B. pseudomallei. Our data suggest the possibility of transmission of B. pseudomallei via inhalation during the typhoon season.

  7. Urinary arsenic profiles and the risks of cancer mortality: A population-based 20-year follow-up study in arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan

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    Chung, Chi-Jung [Department of Health Risk Management, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Ya-Li [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yung-Kai [School of Oral Hygiene, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Meei-Maan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shu-Yuan [Department of Public Health, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-04-15

    Few studies investigated the association between chronic arsenic exposure and the mortality of cancers by estimating individual urinary arsenic methylation profiles. Therefore, we compared with the general population in Taiwan to calculate the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in arseniasis-endemic area of Taiwan from 1996 to 2010 and evaluated the dose-response relationships between environmental arsenic exposure indices or urinary arsenic profiles and the mortality of cause-specific cancer. A cohort of 1563 residents was conducted and collected their urine sample and information regarding arsenic exposure from a questionnaire. All-cause death was identified using the National Death Registry of Taiwan. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high performance liquid chromatography–hydride generator–atomic absorption spectrometry. We used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the mortality risks. In results, 193 all-site cancer deaths, and 29, 71, 43 deaths respectively for liver, lung and bladder cancers were ascertained. The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. People with high urinary InAs% or low DMA% or low secondary methylation index (SMI) were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer after adjusting other risk factors. Even stopping exposure to arsenic from the artesian well water, the mortality rates of the residents were higher than general population. Finally, urinary InAs%, DMA% and SMI could be the potential biomarkers to predict the mortality risk of bladder cancer. -- Highlights: ► The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. ► People with high urinary InAs% were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer. ► People with low DMA% or low SMI were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer.

  8. Diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity are not significant risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in an HBV- and HCV-endemic area of Southern Taiwan

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    Chao-Tung Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A prominent factor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV. Diabetes mellitus (DM, metabolic syndrome (MetS, and obesity have also been implicated in HCC development, but these associations are not observed in all HBV- and HCV-endemic areas. We attempted to clarify the role of these factors in HCC development in an HBV- and HCV-endemic area in southern Taiwan. A community-based health examination was conducted in 2004 in Tainan County. After individuals with incomplete data and those with known HCC were excluded, there were 56,231 participants who were over 40 years of age. A further 262 HCC cases were identified from the National Cancer Registration Database records from 2005 to 2007. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg seropositivity, anti-HCV seropositivity, platelet count, serum biochemical data, blood pressure, sociodemographic information, and anthropometric measurements were analyzed. Survival analyses were used to identify the associations between these factors and HCC. For the 262 HCC cases, male gender and age greater than 65 years were risk factors. Furthermore, a high alanine aminotransferase level, chronic HBV and/or HCV infection, and liver cirrhosis were also risk factors for HCC. However, DM, MetS and obesity were not associated with HCC development in the non-HBV-/non-HCV-infected, HBV, HCV, or dual B/C groups. In this HBV- and HCV- endemic area, DM, MetS and obesity were not risk factors for developing HCC.

  9. Assessing carcinogenic risks associated with ingesting arsenic in farmed smeltfish (Ayu, Plecoglossus altirelis) in aseniasis-endemic area of Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.-J.; Jang, C.-S.; Liang, C.-P.; Liu, C.-W.

    2008-01-01

    This study spatially analyzed potential carcinogenic risks associated with ingesting arsenic (As) contents in aquacultural smeltfish (Plecoglossus altirelis) from the Lanyang Plain of northeastern Taiwan. Sequential indicator simulation (SIS) was adopted to reproduce As exposure distributions in groundwater based on their three-dimensional variability. A target cancer risk (TR) associated with ingesting As in aquacultural smeltfish was employed to evaluate the potential risk to human health. The probabilistic risk assessment determined by Monte Carlo simulation and SIS is used to propagate properly the uncertainty of parameters. Safe and hazardous aquacultural regions were mapped to elucidate the safety of groundwater use. The TRs determined from the risks at the 95th percentiles exceed one millionth, indicating that ingesting smeltfish that are farmed in the highly As-affected regions represents a potential cancer threat to human health. The 95th percentile of TRs is considered in formulating a strategy for the aquacultural use of groundwater in the preliminary stage

  10. Study of hepatitis B (HB) vaccine non-responsiveness among health care workers from an endemic area (Taiwan).

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    Yen, Yi-Hao; Chen, Chien-Hung; Wang, Jing-Houng; Lee, Chuan-Mo; Changchien, Chi-Sin; Lu, Sheng-Nan

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the etiology of non-responsiveness to hepatitis B (HB) vaccination in adults from an endemic area. A total of 250 subjects who were HBsAg negative and anti-HBsvaccine series. Anti-HBs 'negative' was defined as a levelvaccination testing. Anti-HBs response was defined as a level >10 mIU/ml at post-vaccination testing. Among non-responders who were anti-HBc positive, serum anti-HBe and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA were tested. Three variables were associated with non-responsiveness by univariate analysis: anti-HBc positive, male gender, and age >40 years. Multivariate analysis additionally showed that anti-HBs negative was associated with non-responsiveness. Among 23 non-responders in anti-HBc positive subjects, post-vaccination serum was available in 16 subjects. HBV-DNA in all subjects was under detectable level by PCR assay. Anti-HBe positive were found in 13 of 16 subjects and were assumed to be occult HBV infection. Male gender, age >40 years and anti-HBc positive are associated with non-responsiveness to HB vaccination. Most of non-responders among anti-HBc positive subjects were assumed to be occult HBV infection. Subjects with weakly positive anti-HBs were associated with responsiveness which may be the effect of immune memory.

  11. Cost-effectiveness Analysis of a Two-stage Screening Intervention for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Taiwan

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    Sophy Ting-Fang Shih

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: Screening the population of high-risk individuals for HCC with the two-stage screening intervention in Taiwan is considered potentially cost-effective compared with opportunistic screening in the target population of an HCC endemic area.

  12. Cynanchum mooreanum Hemsl. (Asclepiadaceae, a New Recorded Species in Taiwan

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    Chien-Ti Chao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cynanchum mooreanum Hemsl. is a perennial liana of Asclepiadaceae. Based on literature study this species is endemic to Mainland China. Recently, we found a new distribution record of this species in central Taiwan. It grows in open and dry grasslands. In this article we provide description, photos, distribution map, key and line drawing. This is a new recorded species to the flora of Taiwan.

  13. Diversity distribution patterns of Chinese endemic seed plant species and their implications for conservation planning

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    Huang, Jihong; Huang, Jianhua; Lu, Xinghui; Ma, Keping

    2016-01-01

    Endemism is an important concept in biogeography and biodiversity conservation. China is one of the richest countries in biodiversity, with very high levels of plant endemism. In this study, we analysed the distribution patterns of diversity, the degree of differentiation, and the endemicity of Chinese endemic seed plants using the floristic unit as a basic spatial analysis unit and 11 indices. The analysis was based on distribution data of 24,951 native seed plant species (excluding subspecies and varieties) and 12,980 Chinese endemic seed plant species, which were sourced from both specimen records and published references. The distribution patterns of Chinese endemic flora were generally consistent but disproportionate across China for diversity, degree of differentiation and endemicity. The South Hengduan Mountains Subregion had the highest values for all indices. At the regional level, both the Hengduan Mountains and the Central China regions were highest in diversity and degrees of differentiation. However, both the rate of local endemic to native species and the rate of local to Chinese endemic species were highest in the Taiwan Region and the South Taiwan Region. The Hengduan Mountains Region and the Central China Region are two key conservation priority areas for Chinese endemic seed plants. PMID:27658845

  14. Paleoclimate from Tree Rings of Picea morrisonicola in Ta-Ta-Chia Area of Central Taiwan

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    Chen, T.; Wright, W. E.; Wei, K.; Cook, E. R.

    2009-12-01

    Almost no dendrochronology has been reported internationally from Taiwan, despite the existence of many dendrochronologically appropriate tree species. In this study, we reconstruct the regional paleoclimate using a multi-century tree ring-width chronology developed from Picea morrisonicola ( the endemic Taiwan Spruce), a subtropical species growing in the Ta-Ta-Chia subalpine mountain areas of central Taiwan. Picea morrisonicola in Taiwan is the only member of the Picea genus whose distribution crosses the Tropic of Cancer. Statistical analysis of the climate signal demonstrates that both the temperature and precipitation have significant effects on tree growth.

  15. Neglected and endemic zoonoses.

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    Maudlin, Ian; Eisler, Mark Charles; Welburn, Susan Christina

    2009-09-27

    Endemic zoonoses are found throughout the developing world, wherever people live in close proximity to their animals, affecting not only the health of poor people but often also their livelihoods through the health of their livestock. Unlike newly emerging zoonoses that attract the attention of the developed world, these endemic zoonoses are by comparison neglected. This is, in part, a consequence of under-reporting, resulting in underestimation of their global burden, which in turn artificially downgrades their importance in the eyes of administrators and funding agencies. The development of cheap and effective vaccines is no guarantee that these endemic diseases will be eliminated in the near future. However, simply increasing awareness about their causes and how they may be prevented-often with very simple technologies-could reduce the incidence of many endemic zoonoses. Sustainable control of zoonoses is reliant on surveillance, but, as with other public-sector animal health services, this is rarely implemented in the developing world, not least because of the lack of sufficiently cheap diagnostics. Public-private partnerships have already provided advocacy for human disease control and could be equally effective in addressing endemic zoonoses.

  16. Dendrobium okinawense Hatusima & Ida (Orchidaceae: A Newly Recorded Species in Taiwan

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    Shih-Wen Chung

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A newly recorded species, Dendrobium okinawense Hatusima & Ida, in Taiwan is described and illustrated. This species is rare and endemic to Ryukyu Islands. We recently found it in the mountains along the coast of southeastern Taiwan. Although the flower of D. okinawense is somewhat structurally similar to that of D. moniliforme, they are evidently different from each other in floral dimension, petals, lip shape and floral color.

  17. Taiwan: country profile.

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    Spain, D

    1984-03-01

    This discussion of Taiwan focuses on population growth, regions and cities, ethnicity and religion, households and families, housing, education, labor force, income, communication, and sources of information. Taiwan, founded in 1949, took a census in 1980. Its household registration system is efficient and provides population data on a yearly basis. In 1981 the population totaled 18.1 million, an increase of about 20% from the 1971 total of 15 million. Taiwan's population grew 1.9% in 1981, a decline from the 2.2% growth rate of 1971. The birthrate is 23 births/1000 population and the death rate is 5/1000. Taiwan's birthrate is similar to that of China's and both are higher than those of Japan or Hong Kong. Almost 1/3 of Taiwan's population is under 15. Only 4% of the population is aged 65 or over. The entire country is divided into 48 commuting rings associated with specific central cities. The capital city of Taipei and Kaohsiung are special municipalities, and certain offshore islands of Fukien Province are included in population totals. The country is further divided into 5 administrative districts for the household registration system. The Han Chinese constitute 98% of Taiwan's population. Approximately 250,000 aborigines (less than 2% of the population) live in the mountainous central and eastern parts of the island. They are believed to be of Malayan stock. Taiwan's predominant religion is a mixture of Buddhism and Taoism, introduced centuries ago by the original settlers. The family household is composed mainly of family members, including lodgers and hired workers living in the same place under the same household head. Between 1971 and 1980, the number of households in Taiwan increased from 2.6 million to 3.7 million. In 1980, 99% of all households were family households. Average was 4.8 persons for family households and 26.5 persons for nonfamily households. There were 3.7 million housing units in Taiwan in 1980. Taiwan's literacy rate was 86% in 1980, up

  18. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

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    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  19. The Endemic Treponematoses

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    Giacani, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The agents of human treponematoses include four closely related members of the genus Treponema: three subspecies of Treponema pallidum plus Treponema carateum. T. pallidum subsp. pallidum causes venereal syphilis, while T. pallidum subsp. pertenue, T. pallidum subsp. endemicum, and T. carateum are the agents of the endemic treponematoses yaws, bejel (or endemic syphilis), and pinta, respectively. All human treponematoses share remarkable similarities in pathogenesis and clinical manifestations, consistent with the high genetic and antigenic relatedness of their etiological agents. Distinctive features have been identified in terms of age of acquisition, most common mode of transmission, and capacity for invasion of the central nervous system and fetus, although the accuracy of these purported differences is debated among investigators and no biological basis for these differences has been identified to date. In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially set a goal for yaws eradication by 2020. This challenging but potentially feasible endeavor is favored by the adoption of oral azithromycin for mass treatment and the currently focused distribution of yaws and endemic treponematoses and has revived global interest in these fascinating diseases and their causative agents. PMID:24396138

  20. Investigation of floristic similarities between Taiwan and terrestrial ecoregions in Asia using GBIF data.

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    Liao, Chi-Cheng; Chen, Chih-Hui

    2017-12-01

    Floristic compositions of non-endemic plants of continental islands were related to the neighboring continents because non-endemic plant species had historically migrated to continental islands from source areas. This study attempts to identify source areas of a continental island by means of floristic analysis and to assess possible migration routes on the basis of geographical distribution ranges of plants. Large quantities of angiosperm data records were downloaded from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). Similarity index and cluster analysis were used to identify the floristic similarities among 22 geographical localities of Taiwan (GLTs) and 34 terrestrial ecoregions in Asia. Geographical distribution ranges of non-endemic angiosperm species in Taiwan (NEASTs) were evaluated to mirror the possible migration routes from different source areas to Taiwan. There are 3275 angiosperm species in Taiwan derived from the dataset of GBIF. Among them, 847 are endemic and 2428 are NEASTs. Geographical distribution ranges of the 2428 NEASTs were categorized into 7 distribution groups. They were widely distribution from equator to Siberia (27 species), tropical ecoregions (345 species), tropical and subtropical ecoregions (663 species), tropical to temperate ecoregions (591 species), subtropical ecoregions (265 species), subtropical to temperate ecoregions (387 species), and temperate ecoregions (150 species). Results of similarity indices and cluster analysis demonstrated that high floristic similarities were observed among GLTs at lowland and southern Taiwan and tropical and subtropical ecoregions in Asia. GLTs at high mountains were assumed to have floristic similarity with temperate ecoregions in Asia, whereas the assumption was not supported by our analysis. It is partly because of that angiosperms with tropical and subtropical distributions extend their ranges from low to high elevations in Taiwan. Subtropical ecoregions at southern China and tropical

  1. Paleotsunamis in Eastern Taiwan

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    Yen, Jiun-Yee; Yu, Neng-Ti; Hirakawa, Kazuomi; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng; Huang, Shao-Yi

    2017-04-01

    Although Taiwan is located in the active collision zone between Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plate with very high seismicity in and surrounding the island, and supposedly highly susceptible to tsunami hazard. However, there is no record of tsunami hazard in the past one hundred years, and only very few historical records show some possible extreme event occurred. Therefore study of tsunami was scarce in Taiwan. Although historical records do show possible tsunami events, the records were too sparse and incomplete to confidently reconstruct the paleotsunami events. In the past few years, numerical simulations based on possible tsunami-genic zones near Taiwan show that the island could be affected by the correctly directed tsunami. Nevertheless, there is no detail, scientific research of paleotsunami records yet in Taiwan. Our field survey in eastern Taiwan (facing the western Pacific Ocean) along the coast uncovered several outcrops contain gravels embedded in well-developed soil layers. The rounded meta-sandstone gravels are clearly beach-origin and were brought to their current location upon extreme wave events, which is composed of either volcanic-clastic deposits from nearby hills or organic soil layers formed locally. Our investigation indicates that there are at least 3 events in the northern half of eastern Taiwan and at least 2 events in southern part of eastern Taiwan. Although these outcrops are next to the shoreline and Taiwan is susceptible from typhoons, these gravels could be farther away from the beach at the time of their deposition due to current high retreat rate of the sea cliff. Further investigations are needed to delineate possible sources of tsunamis that caused the deposits.

  2. Progress of liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma in Taiwan.

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    Wu, Cheng-Chung

    2017-05-01

    Taiwan is a well-known endemic area of hepatitis B. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has consistently been the first or second highest cause of cancer death over the past 20 years. This review article describes the progress of liver resection for HCC in Taiwan in the past half century. The mortality rate for HCC resection was 15-30% in Taiwan in the 1970s. The rate decreased to 8-12% in the early 1990s, and it declined to Taiwan. Advances in non-operative modalities for HCC treatment have also helped to improve long-term outcomes of HCC resection. Technical innovations have allowed the application of complex procedures such as mesohepatectomy, unroofing hepatectomy, major portal vein thrombectomy, hepatic vein reconstruction in resection of the cranial part with preservation of the caudal part of the liver, and inferior vena cava and right atrium tumor thrombectomy under cardiopulmonary bypass. In selected patients, including patients with end-stage renal failure, renal graft recipients, patients with portal hypertension, hypersplenic thrombocytopenia and/or associated gastroesophageal varices, octogenarian, ruptured HCC, recurrent HCC and metastatic HCC can also be resected with satisfactory survival benefits. We conclude that the results of liver resection for HCC in Taiwan are improving. The indications for HCC resection continue extending with lower the surgical risks and increasing the long-term survival rate. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The endemic flora of Greece

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    Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something...... or quite a lot about the plants, no intelligent steps can be taken towards protecting them. 520 of the c. 750 endemics are listed on the Red Data "endangered list" by the Council of Europe in 1986 but few know the nature or extent of the threat. Work is currently in preparation on an Endemic Flora...

  4. Renewable energy in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Falin; Lu, Shyi-Min; Wang, Eric; Tseng, Kuo-Tung

    2010-01-01

    With limited indigenous conventional energy resources, Taiwan imports over 99% of its energy supply from foreign countries, mostly from the Middle East. Developing independent renewable energy resources is thus of priority concern for the Taiwanese government. A medium subtropical island surrounded by the Pacific Ocean, Taiwan has enormous potential to develop various renewable energies, such as solar energy, biomass energy, wind power, geothermal energy, hydropower, etc. However, owing to the importance of conventional fossil energy in generating exceptionally cheap electricity, renewable energy has not yet fully developed in Taiwan, resulting from a lack of market competition. Consequently, numerous promotional and subsidy programs have recently been proclaimed by the Taiwanese government, focused on the development of various renewables. This study reviews the achievements, polices and future plans in this area. (author)

  5. Green technology in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runderkamp, D.

    2010-01-01

    Taiwan is striving for leadership in the field of green Technologies. Solar cells and Light Emitting Diodes (LED) are the best examples of successful Taiwanese green technologies. Electronic vehicles and smart grids are giving new impetus to the Taiwanese export of high-quality technology. [nl

  6. Nasal Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among college student athletes in northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Kai Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Of 259 college students in northern Taiwan surveyed, nasal carriage rate of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA was 22.4% and 1.54%, respectively and no significant difference was found between athlete students and non-athlete students. Three of four MRSA isolates belonged to sequence type 59, the endemic community clone.

  7. Taiwan Space Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jann-Yenq

    Taiwan space programs consist of FORMOSAT-1, -2, and -3, sounding rockets, and international cooperation. FORMOSAT-1, a low-earth-orbit (LEO) scientific experimental satellite, was launched on January 26, 1999. It circulates with an altitude of 600 km and 35 degree inclination around the Earth every 97 minutes, transmitting collected data to Taiwan's receiving stations approximately six times a day. The major mission of FORMOSAT-1 includes three scientific experiments for measuring the effects of ionospheric plasma and electrodynamics, taking the ocean color image and conducting Ka-band communication experiment. The FORMOSAT- 1 mission was ended by June 15, 2004. FORMOSAT-2, launched on May 21, 2004 onto the Sun-synchronous orbit located at 891 km above ground. The main mission of FORMOSAT-2 is to conduct remote sensing imaging over Taiwan and on terrestrial and oceanic regions of the entire earth. The images captured by FORMOSAT-2 during daytime can be used for land distribution, natural resources research, environmental protection, disaster prevention and rescue work etc. When the satellite travels to the eclipsed zone, it observes natural phenomena of lighting in the upper atmosphere. FORMOSAT-3 is an international collaboration project between Taiwan and the US to develop advanced technology for the real-time monitoring of the global climate. This project is also named Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate, or FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC for short. Six micro-satellites were launched on 15 April 2007 and eventually placed into six different orbits at 700 800 kilometer above the earth ground. These satellites orbit around the earth to form a LEO constellation that receives signals transmitted by the 24 US GPS satellites. The satellite observation covers the entire global atmosphere and ionosphere, providing over 2,500 global sounding data per day. These data distribute uniformly over the earth's atmosphere. The global climate information

  8. Space programs in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Lou-Chuang [Academia Sinica, Institute of Earth Sciences, 128, Sec. 2, Academia Road, Nangang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Institute of Space Science, National Central University, 300, Jhongda Rd., Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32001, Taiwan (China); Chang, Guey-Shin, E-mail: gschang@nspo.narl.org.tw [National Space Organization, 8F, 9 Prosperity 1st Rd., Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30078, Taiwan (China); Ting, Nan-Hong [National Applied Research Laboratories, 3F, 106, Sec. 2, Hepin East Rd., Taipei 10622, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-15

    Taiwan's current and future space programs are briefly introduced in this paper. The National Space Organization (NSPO) in Taiwan has successfully carried out three satellite programs (FORMOSAT-1, 2, and 3) since its establishment in 1991. FORMOSAT-1 is a scientific satellite performing three scientific experiments for measuring the density, velocity and temperature of ionospheric plasmas, taking the ocean color image, and conducting Ka-band communication experiments. Equipped with a 2m ground resolution remote sensing instrument, FORMOSAT-2 operates in a sun-synchronous orbit with revisit time equal to one day. This unique feature of the daily revisit capability is significantly useful for post disaster assessment and environmental monitoring. FORMOSAT-2 also carries a scientific payload “Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL)”. ISUAL provides the world's first long-term satellite observations on the lighting phenomenon in the earth's upper atmosphere. FORMOSAT-3 is a constellation of six micro-satellites to collect atmospheric and ionospheric data for weather prediction and for climate, ionosphere, and geodesy research. FORMOSAT-3 has demonstrated the ability to significantly increase the accuracy of weather forecasting by utilizing the GPS Radio Occultation (GPS-RO) technique. Currently, NSPO is pursuing the follow-on space missions of FORMOSAT-5 and FORMOSAT-7. FORMOSAT-5 will be the first to utilize a CMOS detector on a high-resolution earth-observation camera. FORMOSAT-7 is a joint mission of Taiwan/US to deploy a 12-satellite constellation operational system to provide dense and timely GNSS RO data to the global communities for real-time weather forecast as well as space science research.

  9. [Study on distribution of endemic arsenism in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yinlong; Liang, Chaoke; He, Gongli; Cao, Jingxiang

    2003-11-01

    arsenic were performed in some areas of Neimeng and Shanxi. On other hand, 1 county of Jilin and 1 county of Ningxia as drinking water arsenism areas were affirmed. 11 counties of Shanyi, 1 Banner of Nemeng, 1 city of Jilin, 1 county of Qinhai and 1 counties of Anhui province were discovered for new drinking water arsenism areas in this survey. Shunyi district of Beijing has high arsenic in drinking water. Otherwise, high arsenic content in drinking water in some areas decreased to lower than 0.05 mg/L, which including some villages of Liaoning province, Tongxing city of Zhejiang province, and Tianzhu village of Shunyi district in Beijing. Blackfoot disease related to high arsenic in drinking water in Taiwan province does not include in this study. Burning coal endemic arsenism: Guizhou province has a typical burning coal arsenism areas in China and world. Although to reform stove and decreasing arsenic pollution, but the chronic arsenic poisoning from domestic coal combustion exists, because it located high seal level and poor areas. Some new burning coal arsenism areas in Shanxi province were found, which produced air pollution and food pollution of arsenic from domestic coal combustion for cooking and heating. The paper summarizes the arsenic distribution levels in drinking water and in environment of burning coal. At the same time, preventive and control measures of endemic arsenism were provided.

  10. Ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Hsin Hsu; I-Chan Lin; Yun-Dun Shen; Wen-Ming Hsu

    2014-01-01

    We describe in this paper the current status of ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan. Data were collected from the Bureau of National Health Insurance of Taiwan, the Bulletin of the Taiwan Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Society, and the Statistics Yearbook of Practicing Physicians and Health Care Organizations in Taiwan by the Taiwan Medical Association. We ascertained that 94 ophthalmologists were oculoplastic surgeons and accounted for 5.8% of 1621 ophthalmologists in Tai...

  11. Endemic Nephropathy Around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona J. Gifford

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been several global epidemics of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu. Some, such as Itai-Itai disease in Japan and Balkan endemic nephropathy, have been explained, whereas the etiology of others remains unclear. In countries such as Sri Lanka, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and India, CKDu is a major public health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Despite their geographical separation, however, there are striking similarities between these endemic nephropathies. Young male agricultural workers who perform strenuous labor in extreme conditions are the worst affected. Patients remain asymptomatic until end-stage renal failure. Biomarkers of tubular injury are raised, and kidney biopsy shows chronic interstitial nephritis with associated tubular atrophy. In many of these places access to dialysis and transplantation is limited, leaving few treatment options. In this review we briefly describe the major historic endemic nephropathies. We then summarize the epidemiology, clinical features, histology and clinical course of CKDu in Mesoamerica, Sri Lanka, India, Egypt, and Tunisia. We draw comparisons between the proposed etiologies and supporting research. Recognition of the similarities may reinforce the international drive to establish causality and to effect prevention.

  12. Searching urinary tumor-associated proteins for bladder transitional cell carcinoma in southwestern Taiwan using gel-based proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Cheng Su

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: In this paper, 11 de-regulated proteins were observed in the urinary specimens of BTTC patients from the southwestern coast of Taiwan where Blackfoot disease is endemic and the unusually high incidence of BTTC in this area might attribute to high arsenic content in the drinking water. It is possible that long-term arsenic-induced alteration of these de-regulated proteins, most of which were extracellularmatrix – (ECM related proteins which may play roles in regulating the immune response, signal transduction and tumor invasions, might be involved in BTTC development in southwestern Taiwan.

  13. Use of Parsimony Analysis to Identify Areas of Endemism of Chinese Birds: Implications for Conservation and Biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lei Huang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE was used to identify areas of endemism (AOEs for Chinese birds at the subregional level. Four AOEs were identified based on a distribution database of 105 endemic species and using 18 avifaunal subregions as the operating geographical units (OGUs. The four AOEs are the Qinghai-Zangnan Subregion, the Southwest Mountainous Subregion, the Hainan Subregion and the Taiwan Subregion. Cladistic analysis of subregions generally supports the division of China’s avifauna into Palaearctic and Oriental realms. Two PAE area trees were produced from two different distribution datasets (year 1976 and 2007. The 1976 topology has four distinct subregional branches; however, the 2007 topology has three distinct branches. Moreover, three Palaearctic subregions in the 1976 tree clustered together with the Oriental subregions in the 2007 tree. Such topological differences may reflect changes in the distribution of bird species through circa three decades.

  14. Taiwan strait dispute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastrati Bilbil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold War resulted in a diffusion of the level of threat worldwide and concluded the system of bipolarity in the world. Beside the European continent, where the rivalries were at the highest level, the consequences of the end of the Cold War were especially visible in North-East Asia. A decrease of military activities of Russia and China, and the retreat of the USA from the region, give way for improvement of political and economical relations between the countries of the region. The end of hostilities produced by the Cold War no doubt have relaxed relations between countries in the region and opened ways for a new more peaceful co-existence. However, this does not mean that the region is not vulnerable to some of the hot spots such as North Korea, Spratly Parcels and especially Taiwan Strait. The latter is considered to be the most dangerous potential Asian zone of crisis in the twenty-first century.

  15. Enterovirus 71 in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan-Yin Chang

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The enterovirus 71 (EV71 outbreak in Taiwan in 1998 proved fatal in many children. A seroepidemiological study performed prior to the 1998 outbreak showed pre-epidemic (1997 EV71 seroprevalence rates to be about 60–70% in adults and children older than 6 years of age. A retrospective case review carried out from 1980–81 identified 16 cases of hand, foot and mouth disease associated with central nervous system involvement, two of whom died soon after hospitalization. There were 405 severe cases and 78 deaths reported in the 1998 epidemic, and dozens of fatal EV71 cases were still reported from 2000 to 2002. A stage-based management strategy was developed to reduce fatality, but most survivors of brainstem encephalitis with cardio pulmonary failure have neurologic sequelae and impaired cognition. Continuous clinical and laboratory surveillance of EV71 disease is required to enable earlier implementation of control and prevention measures. Development of EV71-specific antiviral therapy, a novel class of imidazolidinones, and development of a vaccine are ongoing.

  16. Three Newly Naturalized Plants in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jung

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Three newly naturalized plants are reported in this paper. Hypochaeris microcephala (Sch. Bip. Cabrera var. albiflora (Kuntze Cabrera (Asteraceae is naturalized in urban areas of northern Taiwan. Indigofera pseudo-tinctoria Matsum. (Leguminosae is naturalized in low elevations of northern and southern Taiwan and in middle elevations of central Taiwan. Lamium purpureum L. (Laminaceae has become naturalized locally in middle elevations of central Taiwan. Descriptions, illustrations and color photos of these plants are provided.

  17. Scrub typhus islands in the Taiwan area and the association between scrub typhus disease and forest land use and farmer population density: geographically weighted regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pui-Jen; Yeh, Hsi-Chyi

    2013-04-29

    The Taiwan area comprises the main island of Taiwan and several small islands located off the coast of the Southern China. The eastern two-thirds of Taiwan are characterized by rugged mountains covered with tropical and subtropical vegetation. The western region of Taiwan is characterized by flat or gently rolling plains. Geographically, the Taiwan area is diverse in ecology and environment, although scrub typhus threatens local human populations. In this study, we investigate the effects of seasonal and meteorological factors on the incidence of scrub typhus infection among 10 local climate regions. The correlation between the spatial distribution of scrub typhus and cultivated forests in Taiwan, as well as the relationship between scrub typhus incidence and the population density of farm workers is examined. We applied Pearson's product moment correlation to calculate the correlation between the incidence of scrub typhus and meteorological factors among 10 local climate regions. We used the geographically weighted regression (GWR) method, a type of spatial regression that generates parameters disaggregated by the spatial units of analysis, to detail and map each regression point for the response variables of the standardized incidence ratio (SIR)-district scrub typhus. We also applied the GWR to examine the explanatory variables of types of forest-land use and farm worker density in Taiwan in 2005. In the Taiwan Area, scrub typhus endemic areas are located in the southeastern regions and mountainous townships of Taiwan, as well as the Pescadore, Kinmen, and Matou Islands. Among these islands and low-incidence areas in the central western and southwestern regions of Taiwan, we observed a significant correlation between scrub typhus incidence and surface temperature. No similar significant correlation was found in the endemic areas (e.g., the southeastern region and the mountainous area of Taiwan). Precipitation correlates positively with scrub typhus incidence in

  18. Taiwan Universities: Where to Go?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ying Kuo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic expansion of Taiwan universities/colleges from about 100 to 160 from the late 1980s has encountered problems due to social and global changes. What should Taiwan universities move toward and how? This research relies on secondary data to explore the issues Taiwan universities currently face—a low birth rate and global competition. The decreasing number of incoming students will result in a lower registration rate and less tuition revenue, which will make some universities struggle to survive. Hence, government policies, proposed by the Ministry of Education, have been implemented to assist Taiwan universities to adjust to external changes. The Innovative Transformation Policy, adopted in 2015, consists of strategies for university–industry cooperation, university mergers, university closures, and a re-shaping of the university paradigm. This policy has begun to be implemented and its initial outcome will be continually evaluated. In accordance with the Innovative Transformation Policy, this study encourages Taiwan universities to improve governance, set prominent unique characteristics of development, and enhance global competitiveness.

  19. Nuclear safeguards implementations in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, R-H.; Chang, C-K.; Lin, C-R.; Gone, J-K.; Chen, W-L.; Yao, D.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Now with six Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) units in operation, two Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) units under construction, and other peaceful applications of nuclear and radiation technology expanding in great pace, the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) has been focused on reactor safety regulation, radiation protection, radioactive waste administration, environmental monitoring and R and D for technology development and other civilian nuclear applications. Despite Taiwan's departure from the United Nations and therefore its family member International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1971, Taiwan remains its commitment to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). To date, Taiwan is still part of the international nuclear safeguards system and accepts IAEA's inspections in accordance with its regulations on nuclear safeguards. In 1998, Taiwan further agreed, through exchange of letters between the AEC and IAEA, to implementation of the measures provided for in the model Protocol Additional to its safeguards agreement. In this paper, we will introduce Taiwan's nuclear safeguards history and describe some highlights of safeguards implementation in recent years, such as complementary accesses, transparency visits, remote monitoring inspections, unannounced inspections, facility attachment termination for the decommissioned facilities, and annual safeguards implementation meeting with IAEA

  20. Taiwan's second remote sensing satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Jeng-Shing; Ling, Jer; Weng, Shui-Lin

    2008-12-01

    FORMOSAT-2 is Taiwan's first remote sensing satellite (RSS). It was launched on 20 May 2004 with five-year mission life and a very unique mission orbit at 891 km altitude. This orbit gives FORMOSAT-2 the daily revisit feature and the capability of imaging the Arctic and Antarctic regions due to the high enough altitude. For more than three years, FORMOSAT-2 has performed outstanding jobs and its global effectiveness is evidenced in many fields such as public education in Taiwan, Earth science and ecological niche research, preservation of the world heritages, contribution to the International Charter: space and major disasters, observation of suspected North Korea and Iranian nuclear facilities, and scientific observation of the atmospheric transient luminous events (TLEs). In order to continue the provision of earth observation images from space, the National Space Organization (NSPO) of Taiwan started to work on the second RSS from 2005. This second RSS will also be Taiwan's first indigenous satellite. Both the bus platform and remote sensing instrument (RSI) shall be designed and manufactured by NSPO and the Instrument Technology Research Center (ITRC) under the supervision of the National Applied Research Laboratories (NARL). Its onboard computer (OBC) shall use Taiwan's indigenous LEON-3 central processing unit (CPU). In order to achieve cost effective design, the commercial off the shelf (COTS) components shall be widely used. NSPO shall impose the up-screening/qualification and validation/verification processes to ensure their normal functions for proper operations in the severe space environments.

  1. Professional Counseling in Taiwan: Past to Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuh-Jen; Wang, Shu-Ching; Combs, Don C.; Lin, Yi-Chun; Johnson, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Because of the recent introduction of a licensure law, professional counseling has grown rapidly in Taiwan after decades of slow development. The authors provide a historical review of the development of professional counseling in Taiwan and discuss the current status and future trajectory of professional counseling in Taiwan.

  2. 76 FR 13660 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... COMMISSION Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Taiwan of polyvinyl alcohol, provided for... of a preliminary determination by Commerce that imports of polyvinyl alcohol from Taiwan were being...

  3. 75 FR 61175 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... COMMISSION Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... industry in the United States is materially retarded, by reason of less-than-fair-value imports from Taiwan... of polyvinyl alcohol from Taiwan are being sold in the United States at less than fair value within...

  4. Comparative phylogeography of endemic Azorean arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmakelis, Aristeidis; Rigal, François; Mourikis, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    Background: For a remote oceanic archipelago of up to 8 Myr age, the Azores have a comparatively low level of endemism. We present an analysis of phylogeographic patterns of endemic Azorean island arthropods aimed at testing patterns of diversification in relation to the ontogeny of the archipelago...

  5. Ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsin Hsu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe in this paper the current status of ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan. Data were collected from the Bureau of National Health Insurance of Taiwan, the Bulletin of the Taiwan Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Society, and the Statistics Yearbook of Practicing Physicians and Health Care Organizations in Taiwan by the Taiwan Medical Association. We ascertained that 94 ophthalmologists were oculoplastic surgeons and accounted for 5.8% of 1621 ophthalmologists in Taiwan. They had their fellowship training abroad (most ophthalmologists trained in the United States of America or in Taiwan. All ophthalmologists were well trained and capable of performing major oculoplastic surgeries. The payment rates by our National Health Insurance for oculoplastic and orbital surgeries are relatively low, compared to Medicare payments in the United States. Ophthalmologists should promote the concept that oculoplastic surgeons specialize in periorbital plastic and aesthetic surgeries. However, general ophthalmologists should receive more educational courses on oculoplastic and cosmetic surgery.

  6. Pyogenic Liver Abscess Caused by Burkhoderia pseudomallei in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lin Lee

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyogenic liver abscess in Taiwan is a well-known disease entity, commonly associated with a single pathogen, Klebsiella pneumoniae. Melioidosis is an endemic disease in Taiwan that can manifest as multiple abscesses in sites including the liver. We report three cases of liver abscesses caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. The first patient was a 54-year-old diabetic woman, who presented with liver abscess and a left subphrenic abscess resulting from a ruptured splenic abscess, co-infected with K. pneumoniae and B. pseudomallei. The second patient, a 58-year-old diabetic man, developed bacteremic pneumonia over the left lower lung due to B. pseudomallei with acute respiratory distress syndrome, and relapsed 5 months later with bacteremic abscesses of the liver, spleen, prostate and osteomyelitis, due to lack of compliance with prescribed antibiotic therapy. The third patient was a 61-year-old diabetic man with a history of travel to Thailand, who presented with jaundice and fever of unknown origin. Liver and splenic abscesses due to B. pseudomallei were diagnosed. A high clinical alertness to patients' travel history, underlying diseases, and the presence of concomitant splenic abscess is essential to early detection of the great mimicker, melioidosis. The treatment of choice is intravenous ceftazidime for at least 14 days or more. An adequate duration of maintenance oral therapy, with amoxicillin-clavulanate or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 12-20 weeks, is necessary to prevent relapse. Liver abscess in Taiwan is most commonly due to K. pneumoniae, but clinicians should keep in mind that this may be a presenting feature of melioidosis.

  7. Reconstructing Transition Knowledge in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen-chen

    2012-01-01

    Taking a post-colonial stand and using school to work transition as an example, the author re-examines the special education discourses in Taiwan and attempts to construct alternate understandings of transition from sociological and cultural perspectives. A review of past transition literature and a survey of the educational background of the…

  8. Technology Education Reform in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng Steven

    Technology education in Taiwan, presently called living technology (LT), is a new area that has evolved from handicraft, industrial arts, and other areas. LT is offered mainly at the secondary school level, although it is required for all students in grades 1-11. In response to calls for curriculum reform, the present elementary and junior high…

  9. Principal Leadership in Taiwan Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouse, Roger C.; Lin, Kuan-Pei

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades, Taiwan's Ministry of Education has responded to globalization by restructuring school curricular, instructional, and decision making practices along western lines in an attempt to attain legitimacy on the world stage. As a result, Taiwanese principals, once kings within their schools, now must share power with other…

  10. Delimiting areas of endemism through kernel interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ubirajara; Brescovit, Antonio D; Santos, Adalberto J

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach for identification of areas of endemism, the Geographical Interpolation of Endemism (GIE), based on kernel spatial interpolation. This method differs from others in being independent of grid cells. This new approach is based on estimating the overlap between the distribution of species through a kernel interpolation of centroids of species distribution and areas of influence defined from the distance between the centroid and the farthest point of occurrence of each species. We used this method to delimit areas of endemism of spiders from Brazil. To assess the effectiveness of GIE, we analyzed the same data using Parsimony Analysis of Endemism and NDM and compared the areas identified through each method. The analyses using GIE identified 101 areas of endemism of spiders in Brazil GIE demonstrated to be effective in identifying areas of endemism in multiple scales, with fuzzy edges and supported by more synendemic species than in the other methods. The areas of endemism identified with GIE were generally congruent with those identified for other taxonomic groups, suggesting that common processes can be responsible for the origin and maintenance of these biogeographic units.

  11. Delimiting areas of endemism through kernel interpolation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara Oliveira

    Full Text Available We propose a new approach for identification of areas of endemism, the Geographical Interpolation of Endemism (GIE, based on kernel spatial interpolation. This method differs from others in being independent of grid cells. This new approach is based on estimating the overlap between the distribution of species through a kernel interpolation of centroids of species distribution and areas of influence defined from the distance between the centroid and the farthest point of occurrence of each species. We used this method to delimit areas of endemism of spiders from Brazil. To assess the effectiveness of GIE, we analyzed the same data using Parsimony Analysis of Endemism and NDM and compared the areas identified through each method. The analyses using GIE identified 101 areas of endemism of spiders in Brazil GIE demonstrated to be effective in identifying areas of endemism in multiple scales, with fuzzy edges and supported by more synendemic species than in the other methods. The areas of endemism identified with GIE were generally congruent with those identified for other taxonomic groups, suggesting that common processes can be responsible for the origin and maintenance of these biogeographic units.

  12. Environmental Monitoring of Endemic Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElNemr, W.; Jutla, A. S.; Constantin de Magny, G.; Hasan, N. A.; Islam, M.; Sack, R.; Huq, A.; Hashem, F.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat. Since Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease, is autochthonous to riverine, estuarine, and coastal waters, it is unlikely the bacteria can be eradicated from its natural habitat. Prediction of disease, in conjunction with preventive vaccination can reduce the prevalence rate of a disease. Understanding the influence of environmental parameters on growth and proliferation of bacteria is an essential first step in developing prediction methods for outbreaks. Large scale geophysical variables, such as SST and coastal chlorophyll, are often associated with conditions favoring growth of V. cholerae. However, local environmental factors, meaning biological activity in ponds from where the bulk of populations in endemic regions derive water for daily usage, are either neglected or oversimplified. Using data collected from several sites in two geographically distinct locations in South Asia, we have identified critical local environmental factors associated with cholera outbreak. Of 18 environmental variables monitored for water sources in Mathbaria (a coastal site near the Bay of Bengal) and Bakergonj (an inland site) of Bangladesh, water depth and chlorophyll were found to be important factors associated with initiation of cholera outbreaks. Cholera in coastal regions appears to be related to intrusion. However, monsoonal flooding creates conditions for cholera epidemics in inland regions. This may be one of the first attempts to relate in-situ environmental observations with cholera. We anticipate that it will be useful for further development of prediction models in the resource constrained regions.

  13. TIPdb-3D: the three-dimensional structure database of phytochemicals from Taiwan indigenous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Chun-Wei; Lin, Ying-Chi; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Wang, Chia-Chi; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Jheng, Jhao-Liang; Li, Jih-Heng

    2014-01-01

    The rich indigenous and endemic plants in Taiwan serve as a resourceful bank for biologically active phytochemicals. Based on our TIPdb database curating bioactive phytochemicals from Taiwan indigenous plants, this study presents a three-dimensional (3D) chemical structure database named TIPdb-3D to support the discovery of novel pharmacologically active compounds. The Merck Molecular Force Field (MMFF94) was used to generate 3D structures of phytochemicals in TIPdb. The 3D structures could facilitate the analysis of 3D quantitative structure-activity relationship, the exploration of chemical space and the identification of potential pharmacologically active compounds using protein-ligand docking. Database URL: http://cwtung.kmu.edu.tw/tipdb. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Shifts in species interactions due to the evolution of functional differences between endemics and non-endemics: an endemic syndrome hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney E Gorman

    Full Text Available Species ranges have been shifting since the Pleistocene, whereby fragmentation, isolation, and the subsequent reduction in gene flow have resulted in local adaptation of novel genotypes and the repeated evolution of endemic species. While there is a wide body of literature focused on understanding endemic species, very few studies empirically test whether or not the evolution of endemics results in unique function or ecological differences relative to their widespread congeners; in particular while controlling for environmental variation. Using a common garden composed of 15 Eucalyptus species within the subgenus Symphyomyrtus (9 endemic to Tasmania, 6 non-endemic, here we hypothesize and show that endemic species are functionally and ecologically different from non-endemics. Compared to non-endemics, endemic Eucalyptus species have a unique suite of functional plant traits that have extended effects on herbivores. We found that while endemics occupy many diverse habitats, they share similar functional traits potentially resulting in an endemic syndrome of traits. This study provides one of the first empirical datasets analyzing the functional differences between endemics and non-endemics in a common garden setting, and establishes a foundation for additional studies of endemic/non-endemic dynamics that will be essential for understanding global biodiversity in the midst of rapid species extinctions and range shifts as a consequence of global change.

  15. Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan, Shirley

    2008-01-01

    .... Congress has oversight of the Taiwan Relations Act (TRA), P.L. 96-8, which has governed arms sales to Taiwan since 1979, when the United States recognized the People's Republic of China (PRC) instead of Taiwan...

  16. Severe Dengue Fever Outbreak in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Fan; Wang, Wen-Hung; Chang, Ko; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Yen, Chia-Hung; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is a vector-borne disease caused by dengue viruses (DENVs). Epidemic dengue occurs intermittently in Taiwan. In 2014, Taiwan experienced its largest DF outbreak. There were 15,732 DF cases reported. There were a total of 136 dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases, of which 20 resulted in death. Most DF cases were reported in southern Taiwan. A total of 15,043 (96%) cases were from Kaohsiung, a modern city in southern Taiwan. This report reviews DF epidemics in Taiwan during 2005–2014. The correlation between DF and DHF along with temperature and precipitation were conjointly examined. We conclude that most dengue epidemics in Taiwan resulted from imported DF cases. Results indicate three main factors that may have been associated with this DF outbreak in Kaohsiung: an underground pipeline explosion combined with subsequent rainfall and higher temperature. These factors may have enhanced mosquito breeding activity, facilitating DENV transmission. PMID:26572871

  17. Severe Dengue Fever Outbreak in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Fan; Wang, Wen-Hung; Chang, Ko; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Yen, Chia-Hung; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is a vector-borne disease caused by dengue viruses (DENVs). Epidemic dengue occurs intermittently in Taiwan. In 2014, Taiwan experienced its largest DF outbreak. There were 15,732 DF cases reported. There were a total of 136 dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases, of which 20 resulted in death. Most DF cases were reported in southern Taiwan. A total of 15,043 (96%) cases were from Kaohsiung, a modern city in southern Taiwan. This report reviews DF epidemics in Taiwan during 2005-2014. The correlation between DF and DHF along with temperature and precipitation were conjointly examined. We conclude that most dengue epidemics in Taiwan resulted from imported DF cases. Results indicate three main factors that may have been associated with this DF outbreak in Kaohsiung: an underground pipeline explosion combined with subsequent rainfall and higher temperature. These factors may have enhanced mosquito breeding activity, facilitating DENV transmission. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Taxonomic reassessment of two subspecies of Chinese skink in Taiwan based on morphological and molecular investigations (Squamata, Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Kazuki; Nakamura, Yukiko; Okamoto, Taku; Lin, Si-Min; Hikida, Tsutomu

    2017-01-01

    The Chinese skink, Plestiodon chinensis (Gray, 1838), is widely distributed across continental China, Taiwan, the Korean Peninsula, and offshore islets, and consists of several subspecies. Here morphological and molecular methods have been used to reassess the taxonomic status and distributions of P. c. formosensis (Van Denburgh, 1912) and P. c. leucostictus (Hikida, 1988), which are endemic to Taiwan and Green Island (an islet off the east coast of Taiwan), respectively. It can be confirmed that the eastern Taiwanese populations of P. c. formosensis exhibit similar juvenile color patterning and genetic composition to the islet subspecies P. c. leucostictus , and are distinct from consubspecific populations in western Taiwan. Therefore, the eastern Taiwanese populations are assigned to P. c. leucostictus , and this subspecies is recognized as a distinct species, Plestiodon leucostictus (Hikida, 1988), based on their unique juvenile coloration and highly divergent DNA sequences. Our results also revealed that P. c. formosensis in western Taiwan is close to nominotypical subspecies from the continent, suggesting the necessity of a comprehensive taxonomic analysis in the future.

  19. [Endemic plants for medicine use in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gang-Qiang; Li, Hai-Tao; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Li-Xia; Li, Ya-Jing; Huang, Lu-Qi; Ma, Xiao-Jun

    2017-11-01

    Based on plant species databases, species lists and literature records, general situation of the Chinese medicinal endemic plant (vascular plant) has been systematically summarized, and its quantity and distribution characteristics of Chinese medicinal endemic plants are presented in this paper. The results showed that 3 150 endemic species are Chinese medicinal plants belonging to 785 genera in 153 families, which includes 38 species of 22 genera in 12 families of pteridophyta, 42 species of 14 genera in7 families of gymnosperms, and 3 070 species of 749 genara in 134 families of angiosperms. The top four families involving medicinal endemic species are Asteraceae (218 species), Ranunculaceae (182 species), Labiatae (151 species), and Liliaceae (133 species). The top four provincial administration distributed medicinal endemic species are Sichuan (1 568 species), Yunnan (1 533 species), Guizhou (955 species) and Hubei (930 species).On the regional scale, the most abundant one is the southwest region (2 465 species), followed by the central region (1 226 species) and the northwest region (949 species). Localization characteristics for domestication and artificial cultivation of medicinal endemic species are more prominent due to their narrower and limited distribution areas, indicating it is possible for these species acting as local potential resource for reasonable economic development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Nuclear science education in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chien

    1990-01-01

    The nuclear science education has been established in Taiwan at the National Tsing Hua University (NTHU) since 1956. Support from the well-developed local nuclear power industry and government agencies is converged with rapid growth rate toward the College of Nuclear Science at NTHU, the only one among 123 universities and colleges in Taiwan where nuclear-related education is offered. The College, with 53 faculty members, offers bachelor's degree in Nuclear Engineering and master's and doctorate degrees in Nuclear Science, Nuclear Engineering, and Radiation Biology. Lectures and lab classes of radiochemistry, health physics, nuclear instruments, reactor experiment, nuclear medicine, and environmental monitoring are given to the 240 undergraduate students and 200 postgraduate students. The 1988 annual budget and research contracts for the College amounted USD600,000 and USD2,220,000, respectively

  1. Genotoxic Klebsiella pneumoniae in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chyi Lai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colibactin is a nonribosomal peptide-polyketide synthesized by multi-enzyme complexes encoded by the pks gene cluster. Colibactin-producing Escherichia coli have been demonstrated to induce host DNA damage and promote colorectal cancer (CRC development. In Taiwan, the occurrence of pyogenic liver abscess (PLA has been suggested to correlate with an increasing risk of CRC, and Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant PLA pathogen in Taiwan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At the asn tRNA loci of the newly sequenced K. pneumoniae 1084 genome, we identified a 208-kb genomic island, KPHPI208, of which a module identical to the E. coli pks colibactin gene cluster was recognized. KPHPI208 consists of eight modules, including the colibactin module and the modules predicted to be involved in integration, conjugation, yersiniabactin production, microcin production, and unknown functions. Transient infection of BALB/c normal liver cells with K. pneumoniae 1084 increased the phosphorylation of histone H2AX, indicating the induction of host DNA damage. Colibactin was required for the genotoxicity of K. pneumoniae 1084, as it was diminished by deletion of clbA gene and restored to the wild type level by trans-complementation with a clbA coding plasmid. Besides, BALB/c mice infected with K. pneumoniae 1084 exhibited enhanced DNA damage in the liver parenchymal cells when compared to the isogenic clbA deletion mutant. By PCR detection, the prevalence of pks-positive K. pneumoniae in Taiwan is 25.6%, which is higher than that reported in Europe (3.5%, and is significantly correlated with K1 type, which predominantly accounted for PLA in Taiwan. CONCLUSIONS: Our knowledge regarding how bacteria contribute to carcinogenesis has just begun. The identification of genotoxic K. pneumoniae and its genetic components will facilitate future studies to elucidate the molecular basis underlying the link between K. pneumoniae, PLA, and CRC.

  2. Crisis in the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    large measure by continued access to foreign sources of weapons and technology. Barring major upheavals in Chinese foreign policy, it is likely that...is little prospect for breakthroughs in any of the related equipment areas, barring massive infusions of expensive foreign assistance; and it does...Beijing’s term, near and then very near Taiwan reveal more than Beijing brava - do; have the stodgy Central Military Commission and die-hard PLA

  3. Current situation and industrialization of Taiwan nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, H.-N.; Lee, P.-C.; Tsai, M.-H.; Chien, K.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Nanotechnology is projected to be a very promising field, and the impact of nanotechnology on society is increasingly significant as the research funding and manufactured goods increase exponentially. A clearer picture of Taiwan's current and future nanotechnology industry is an essential component for future planning. Therefore, this investigation studies the progress of industrializing nanotechnology in Taiwan by surveying 150 companies. Along with understanding Taiwan's current nanotechnology industrialization, this paper also suggests ways to promote Taiwan's nanotechnology. The survey results are summarized and serve as the basis for planning a nanotechnology industrialization strategy

  4. Occupational Neurotoxic Diseases in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hung Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Occupational neurotoxic diseases have become increasingly common in Taiwan due to industrialization. Over the past 40 years, Taiwan has transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial society. The most common neurotoxic diseases also changed from organophosphate poisoning to heavy metal intoxication, and then to organic solvent and semiconductor agent poisoning. The nervous system is particularly vulnerable to toxic agents because of its high metabolic rate. Neurological manifestations may be transient or permanent, and may range from cognitive dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction to neuromuscular junction disorders. This study attempts to provide a review of the major outbreaks of occupational neurotoxins from 1968 to 2012. A total of 16 occupational neurotoxins, including organophosphates, toxic gases, heavy metals, organic solvents, and other toxic chemicals, were reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles related to the electrophysiology, neuroimaging, treatment and long-term follow up of these neurotoxic diseases were also obtained. The heavy metals involved consisted of lead, manganese, organic tin, mercury, arsenic, and thallium. The organic solvents included n-hexane, toluene, mixed solvents and carbon disulfide. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide were also included, along with toxic chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, organophosphates, and dimethylamine borane. In addition we attempted to correlate these events to the timeline of industrial development in Taiwan. By researching this topic, the hope is that it may help other developing countries to improve industrial hygiene and promote occupational safety and health care during the process of industrialization.

  5. GHG legislation: Lessons from Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.M.; Lee, Grace W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan has drafted a Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reduction Bill in 2006, which is currently undergoing the legislative process in the Congress. The purpose of this study is to reexamine the legal framework and contents of this Bill, evaluate potential problems and propose recommendations. This study advocates that setting the GHG reduction targets should be settled in this Bill. In addition, based on the analysis of international experiences, it is recommenced that emissions trading scheme in the Bill should be focused on large emission sources and the share of allowance auction should be increased to reduce gratis allocation. Furthermore, from the calculation results based on the long-range energy alternative planning (LEAP) model, a conflict is observed for the existing energy policy and GHG reduction efforts in Taiwan. That is, coal-burning power plants will be the most important source of energy for Taiwan in the future. In order to reduce this conflict, the authors have recommended that the Bill should also be integrated with other relevant existing legislation to achieve a complementary effect.

  6. Recovering the Subject in the Shadows of Empires: Colonial Violence and Resistance in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Mizutani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Komagome Takeshi 駒込武. Sekaishi no naka no Taiwan shokuminchi shihai—Tainan chōrō chugakkō kara no shiza 世界史のなかの台湾植民地支配 : 台南長老教中学校からの視座 [Colonial rule in Taiwan in world history—From the perspective of the Tainan Presbyterian Middle School]. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 2015. ISBN: 9784000610735. Colonial Rule in Taiwan is a must-read for anyone interested in the history of education and religion in East Asia under Japanese imperialism. With its exposition of the violent nature of colonial education, it offers a much-needed corrective to the prevailing myth―politically exploited by Japanese conservatives―that the colonization of Taiwan was smoothly accomplished because its people were supposedly more “pro-Japanese” than other colonized peoples, like the Koreans. Moreover, with its focus on the intimate relationship between religious and educational policy, the book helps us come to terms with a series of issues that have plagued Japan in recent years. While writing this review, I could not help but be struck by how absolutely relevant Komagome’s work is to contemporary Japanese politics. Almost all cabinet members of Abe Shinzo’s government (as of April 2017 are members of the Shinto Political Alliance Diet Members’ Association, the political wing of the Shinto Association of Spiritual Leadership. Given the endemic spread of rampant racism targeting ex-colonial minorities and their schools, particularly since these “patriotic” politicians came to power, the book is an unsettling reminder that East Asia is still haunted by the ghost of colonial violence, the kind of violence experienced in Taiwan more than eight decades ago...

  7. Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among pediatricians in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yhu-Chering Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health care workers (HCWs are at the interface between hospitals and communities. The survey for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA carriage among HCWs has mostly been conducted to investigate outbreaks or endemics. Community-associated MRSA are prevalent among children in Taiwan. We conducted this study to better understand the carriage rate of MRSA among pediatricians in non-outbreak situations in Taiwan,. METHODS: A total of 220 pediatricians from Taiwan who attended the annual meeting of Taiwan Pediatric Association in April, 2010 were recruited to participate in this study and were sampled from the nares for the detection of MRSA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and further by culture. The following molecular analyses were performed, including pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, multilocus sequence typing (MLST, typing of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec and the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL genes. RESULTS: MRSA was detected from 15 attendees (6.8% by PCR. MRSA-colonized attendees had a significantly lower rate (0.041 of working in the medical center, while borderline significantly higher rate of working in the Regional Hospital (p=0.056, than those without MRSA colonization. From those 15 samples, 12 MRSA isolates were identified by culture and molecularly characterized. Three PFGE patterns, two sequence types (ST 59, ST 508, and two SCCmec types (IV and VT were identified, respectively. Five isolates, including three carrying SCCmec types VT, were PVL-positive. All 12 isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid, fusidic acid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and doxycyclin, and resistant to penicillin. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Around seven percent of pediatricians in Taiwan harbored CA-MRSA in their nares.

  8. History and development of ophthalmology in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chih Hou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Western medicine was first introduced to Taiwan by medical missionaries in the mid-19th century. Modernization of medicine was systematically transplanted to Taiwan in the Japanese colonial period, and ophthalmology was established third among hospital departments, following internal medicine and surgery. Dr Hidetaka Yamaguchi, an ophthalmologist, was the first head of the Taihoku Hospital, later known as National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH; Taipei, Taiwan. Ophthalmologists during the colonial period conducted studies on tropical and infectious eye diseases. After World War II, ophthalmologists at NTUH played an important role in medical education, residency training, studies, and teaching. Dr Yan-Fei Yang established the Taiwan Ophthalmological Society in 1960 and instituted its official journal in 1962. Dr Ho-Ming Lin established the Department of Ophthalmology at the Tri-Service General Hospital in the 1950s and the Veterans General Hospital in the 1960s. Taiwan ophthalmologists eradicated trachoma by 1971. Cataract surgery and penetrating keratoplasty were initially performed in the 1960s. Currently, there are about 1600 ophthalmologists in Taiwan conducting an estimated 120,000 cataract surgeries and 600 corneal transplantations annually. Many subspecialty societies have been established recently that serve to educate Taiwanese ophthalmologists and to connect with international ophthalmic societies. Taiwan ophthalmologists continue to contribute to the advancement of ophthalmic knowledge globally.

  9. Educating Students with Learning Disabilities in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju

    2011-01-01

    In East Asia, Taiwan is one of only a few countries that has a clear definition of learning disabilities (LD) as well as operational criteria for the identification of LD. In Taiwan, special education services for students with LD are mandated in the Special Education Act of 1984. According to the official statistics from the Taiwanese Special…

  10. Climate protection laws in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Yen-Lin Agnes

    2014-01-01

    The contribution on climate protection laws in Taiwan is first describing the international position and cooperation with UNFCCC, The national climate protection policy covers energy and industry, trading and economy, forestry and agriculture, traffic and local affairs, society and education. The description of the actual legislation includes the constitutional framework, environmental legislation, air pollution legislation, environmental compatibility regulations, renewable energy development legislation, energy management laws, legal drafts concerning reduction of greenhouse gas emission and energy taxes. Finally the competences and responsibilities of authorities are summarized.

  11. 76 FR 13982 - Antidumping Duty Order: Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... International Trade Administration Antidumping Duty Order: Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan AGENCY: Import... Department is issuing an antidumping duty order on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) from Taiwan. DATES: Effective Date... value in the antidumping duty investigation of PVA from Taiwan. See Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Final...

  12. Effects of extreme precipitation to the distribution of infectious diseases in Taiwan, 1994-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Jean Chen

    Full Text Available The incidence of extreme precipitation has increased with the exacerbation of worldwide climate disruption. We hypothesize an association between precipitation and the distribution patterns that would affect the endemic burden of 8 infectious diseases in Taiwan, including water- and vector-borne infectious diseases. A database integrating daily precipitation and temperature, along with the infectious disease case registry for all 352 townships in the main island of Taiwan was analysed for the period from 1994 to 2008. Four precipitation levels, 350 mm, were categorized to represent quantitative differences, and their associations with each specific disease was investigated using the Generalized Additive Mixed Model and afterwards mapped on to the Geographical Information System. Daily precipitation levels were significantly correlated with all 8 mandatory-notified infectious diseases in Taiwan. For water-borne infections, extreme torrential precipitation (>350 mm/day was found to result in the highest relative risk for bacillary dysentery and enterovirus infections when compared to ordinary rain (<130 mm/day. Yet, for vector-borne diseases, the relative risk of dengue fever and Japanese encephalitis increased with greater precipitation only up to 350 mm. Differential lag effects following precipitation were statistically associated with increased risk for contracting individual infectious diseases. This study's findings can help health resource sector management better allocate medical resources and be better prepared to deal with infectious disease outbreaks following future extreme precipitation events.

  13. Effects of extreme precipitation to the distribution of infectious diseases in Taiwan, 1994-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Jean; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Wu, Yi-Ting; Wu, Pei-Chih; Lung, Shih-Chun; Su, Huey-Jen

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of extreme precipitation has increased with the exacerbation of worldwide climate disruption. We hypothesize an association between precipitation and the distribution patterns that would affect the endemic burden of 8 infectious diseases in Taiwan, including water- and vector-borne infectious diseases. A database integrating daily precipitation and temperature, along with the infectious disease case registry for all 352 townships in the main island of Taiwan was analysed for the period from 1994 to 2008. Four precipitation levels, 350 mm, were categorized to represent quantitative differences, and their associations with each specific disease was investigated using the Generalized Additive Mixed Model and afterwards mapped on to the Geographical Information System. Daily precipitation levels were significantly correlated with all 8 mandatory-notified infectious diseases in Taiwan. For water-borne infections, extreme torrential precipitation (>350 mm/day) was found to result in the highest relative risk for bacillary dysentery and enterovirus infections when compared to ordinary rain (precipitation only up to 350 mm. Differential lag effects following precipitation were statistically associated with increased risk for contracting individual infectious diseases. This study's findings can help health resource sector management better allocate medical resources and be better prepared to deal with infectious disease outbreaks following future extreme precipitation events.

  14. Solar thermal market in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Keh-Chin; Lin, Wei-Min; Chung, Kung-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The long-duration of national programs has been the driving force behind the expansion of the local market of solar water heaters (SWHs) in Taiwan in the last two decades. This study examines the potential market for SWHs using the statistical data from end users and the 2010 Population and Housing Census. The current effective utilization rate of residential SWHs in terms of potential number of systems installed is estimated to be 11.8%. The analyses also show that the current national subsidy program has recently lost its momentum in expanding the market. Therefore, regional subsidy programs should become the main force in influencing the growth in sales. In addition, SWHs of larger scale would be particularly effective in industries. To promote such applications, a combination of performance-based and direct subsidy schemes or tax deductions can be offered to end users to promote the applications of SWHs in the commercial sector. Solar-assisted cooling systems are considered to be another potential application of solar energy, which is associated with energy saving and power consumption in commercial and residential buildings. A short review of the R and D activities is also given in this paper. - Highlights: ► Regional subsidy programs will be the main force in influencing the growth in sales. ► A revised program is needed to promote solar water heaters for industry applications. ► Solar-assisted cooling systems are potential applications of solar energy in Taiwan

  15. Karyotype analysis of Ethiopian endemic Kniphofia species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image analysis was used to study the karyotype of six Ethiopian Kniphofia species: K. foliosa, K. hildebrandtii, K. insignis, K. isoetifolia, K. schimperi and K. pumila. The first five are endemic to Ethiopia. All have somatic chromosome number of 2n = 12, and follow the same karyotype formula: 1m + 3sm + 2st. There was ...

  16. Ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Lin, I-Chan; Shen, Yun-Dun; Hsu, Wen-Ming

    2014-06-01

    We describe in this paper the current status of ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan. Data were collected from the Bureau of National Health Insurance of Taiwan, the Bulletin of the Taiwan Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Society, and the Statistics Yearbook of Practicing Physicians and Health Care Organizations in Taiwan by the Taiwan Medical Association. We ascertained that 94 ophthalmologists were oculoplastic surgeons and accounted for 5.8% of 1621 ophthalmologists in Taiwan. They had their fellowship training abroad (most ophthalmologists trained in the United States of America) or in Taiwan. All ophthalmologists were well trained and capable of performing major oculoplastic surgeries. The payment rates by our National Health Insurance for oculoplastic and orbital surgeries are relatively low, compared to Medicare payments in the United States. Ophthalmologists should promote the concept that oculoplastic surgeons specialize in periorbital plastic and aesthetic surgeries. However, general ophthalmologists should receive more educational courses on oculoplastic and cosmetic surgery. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Endemism in the moss flora of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Benjamin E; Shaw, Blanka; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Identifying regions of high endemism is a critical step toward understanding the mechanisms underlying diversification and establishing conservation priorities. Here, we identified regions of high moss endemism across North America. We also identified lineages that contribute disproportionately to endemism and document the progress of efforts to inventory the endemic flora. To understand the documentation of endemic moss diversity in North America, we tabulated species publication dates to document the progress of species discovery across the continent. We analyzed herbarium specimen data and distribution data from the Flora of North America project to delineate major regions of moss endemism. Finally, we surveyed the literature to assess the importance of intercontinental vs. within-continent diversification for generating endemic species. Three primary regions of endemism were identified and two of these were further divided into a total of nine subregions. Overall endemic richness has two peaks, one in northern California and the Pacific Northwest, and the other in the southern Appalachians. Description of new endemic species has risen steeply over the last few decades, especially in western North America. Among the few studies documenting sister species relationships of endemics, recent diversification appears to have played a larger role in western North America, than in the east. Our understanding of bryophyte endemism continues to grow rapidly. Large continent-wide data sets confirm early views on hotspots of endemic bryophyte richness and indicate a high rate of ongoing species discovery in North America. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  18. Genetic relationships among one non-endemic and two endemic Mediterranean Triplefin Blennies (Pisces, Blennioidei)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertjes, G.J; Kamping, A; van Delden, W.; Videler, J.J

    Three triplefin blennies occur sympatrically in the Mediterranean Sea; Tripterygion tripteronotus and T melanurus are endemic, whereas T delaisi is also found in the Eastern Atlantic. Although very similar in morphology, ecology and behaviour, some striking differences exist among reproductive

  19. Lattice Study for the Taiwan Photon Source

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Chin-Cheng; Chen Chien Te; Luo, Gwo-Huei; Tsai, Hung-Jen; Wang, Min-Huey

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility study for the new 3.0~3.3 GeV Taiwan synchrotron light source, dubbed Taiwan Photon Source, was initiated in July, 2004. The goal is to construct a high performance light source with extremely bright X-ray in complementary to the existing 1.5 GeV light source in Taiwan. The ring circumference is 518.4 m and a 24-cell DBA lattice structure is chosen. The natural emittance with distributed dispersion is less than 2 nm-rad. A large booster ring of 499.2 m sharing the storage ring tunnel will be adopted.

  20. [Nursing manpower and solutions in Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Su-Wen

    2014-04-01

    The shortage of nursing manpower is a long-term problem worldwide that affects Taiwan despite this country's internationally admired achievements in terms of its healthcare and national health insurance systems. This article reviews discussions related to the nursing shortage issue published by the World Health Organization, International Council of Nurses, and Taiwan Ministry of Health and Welfare. Next, an overview is given of the nursing workforce profile, causal factors behind the nursing shortage, and demand for and supply of nursing manpower. Finally, problems, resolutions, and expected outcomes for the nursing shortage in Taiwan are analyzed.

  1. Distribution of Mycobacterium ulcerans in buruli ulcer endemic and non-endemic aquatic sites in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather R Williamson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, is an emerging environmental bacterium in Australia and West Africa. The primary risk factor associated with Buruli ulcer is proximity to slow moving water. Environmental constraints for disease are shown by the absence of infection in arid regions of infected countries. A particularly mysterious aspect of Buruli ulcer is the fact that endemic and non-endemic villages may be only a few kilometers apart within the same watershed. Recent studies suggest that aquatic invertebrate species may serve as reservoirs for M. ulcerans, although transmission pathways remain unknown. Systematic studies of the distribution of M. ulcerans in the environment using standard ecological methods have not been reported. Here we present results from the first study based on random sampling of endemic and non-endemic sites. In this study PCR-based methods, along with biofilm collections, have been used to map the presence of M. ulcerans within 26 aquatic sites in Ghana. Results suggest that M. ulcerans is present in both endemic and non-endemic sites and that variable number tandem repeat (VNTR profiling can be used to follow chains of transmission from the environment to humans. Our results suggesting that the distribution of M. ulcerans is far broader than the distribution of human disease is characteristic of environmental pathogens. These findings imply that focal demography, along with patterns of human water contact, may play a major role in transmission of Buruli ulcer.

  2. Rapid assessment of endemic bird areas in Michoacan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberto Chavez-Leon; Deborah M. Finch

    1999-01-01

    Non-sustainable land use practices in the state of Michoacan, Mexico, have perturbed endemic bird h~bitats for several decades. Endemic birds have a restricted geographic and ecological distribution. This feature makes them suitable to be used as indicators of biological diversity and environmental perturbation. Forty-one Mexican endemic species have been recorded in...

  3. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Craven

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Species richness, endemism and areas that are rich in both species and endemic species were assessed and mapped for Namibia. High species diversity corresponds with zones where species overlap. These are particularly obvious where there are altitudinal variations and in high-lying areas. The endemic flora of Namibia is rich and diverse. An estimated 16% of the total plant species in Namibia are endemic to the country. Endemics are in a wide variety of families and sixteen genera are endemic. Factors that increase the likelihood of endemism are mountains, hot deserts, diversity of substrates and microclimates. The distribution of plants endemic to Namibia was arranged in three different ways. Firstly, based on a grid count with the phytogeographic value o f the species being equal, overall endemism was mapped. Secondly, range restricted plant species were mapped individually and those with congruent distribution patterns were combined. Thirdly, localities that are important for very range-restricted species were identified. The resulting maps o f endemism and diversity were compared and found to correspond in many localities. When overall endemism is compared with overall diversity, rich localities may consist of endemic species with wide ranges. The other methods identify important localities with their own distinctive complement of species.

  4. Endemicity of cholera in Nigeria: A mathematical model to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focal point is to investigate the persistent endemic nature of cholera in Nigeria using mathematical model. We found that, there can be no backward bifurcation because there existed only one positive endemic equilibrium. In other words, it is not possible for multiple endemic equilibria to exist if the reproduction number ...

  5. Status of radioactive waste management in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.C.

    1993-01-01

    Taiwan started to generate nuclear power in 1977. The peaceful uses of nuclear energy generated radwaste. The major radwaste generators are nuclear power plants of Taiwan Power Company (Taipower). The other generators are the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), industry, medicine, agriculture, and education. Radwaste Administration (RWA), a subsidiary of Atomic Energy Council (AEC), is the regulatory body of radwaste in Taiwan. Radwaste management projects in Taiwan include: (1) construction of a Volume Reduction Center (VRC); (2) construction of a low-level radwaste transport ship; (3) construction of low-level waste final disposal facility; (4) construction of a spent fuel interim storage facility; (5) construction of spent fuel disposal facility. In the near future, final disposal of low-level waste is the most important work of both Taipower and RWA. Both organizations will put much more effort into this work

  6. Collaboration with Environmental Protection Administration Taiwan (EPAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through this partnership, U.S. and Taiwan environmental authorities have developed a strong capacity to reduce pollution and manage the environment through joint projects, innovate research, and knowledge exchange.

  7. Biogeochemical cycling in the Taiwan Strait

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, H.; Chen, C-T.A.

    -limiting macronutrient. The Taiwan Strait receives copious supplies of nutrients through river runoff and upwelling in its western and northeastern parts, respectively, but the phytoplankton biomass, as inferred from the Chl a concentration, does not appear...

  8. Needs Assessment for Exchange Students in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentei Takaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the growing mobility of international students in Asia and the Pacific, Taiwan has become actively involved in promoting international academic exchange. This research investigates the experience of exchange students from the Philippines and mainland China and examines their needs while studying in Taiwan. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with exchange students from the Philippines and mainland China. The findings suggest that while exchange students from the Philippines and mainland China both encountered difficulties during their study in Taiwan, exchange students from the Philippines were inclined to encounter more difficulties compared to those from mainland China due to language difficulties. Based on the findings of this study, suggested support services for future exchange students in Taiwan are outlined to match the needs of students from both Chinese and non-Chinese-speaking backgrounds.

  9. China-Taiwan: What Kind of Unification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wynnyczok, Martha-Jean H

    1994-01-01

    .... This paper will review the nature of recent economic development in China, the potential impact of that development on the political unity of China, Taiwan's contribution to the mainland's economy...

  10. Newly discovered native orchids of Taiwan (X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsan-Piao LIN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This report presents three new orchids of Taiwan, i.e., Habenaria alishanensis T.P. Lin & D.M. Huang, Neottia cinsbuensis T.P. Lin & D.M. Huang, and Nephelaphyllum tenuiflorum Blume.

  11. Clinical Presentation of Pediatric Myocarditis in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Ju Hsiao

    2011-06-01

    Conclusions: Pediatric myocarditis presents primarily with gastrointestinal symptoms in Taiwan. Careful check of heart rhythm may provide a useful objective marker of myocarditis. The predictors of a poor prognosis were gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatomegaly, and hypotension.

  12. Endemics and Pseudo-Endemics in Relation to the Distribution Patterns of Indian Pteridophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Fraser-Jenkins

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Of c. 530 Pteridophytes reported as endemic to the India in recent decades (about half the total number of c. 950-1000 known Indian species, the great bulk are mistaken, particularly those from the Indo-Himalaya. Only 47 endemic Indian ferns, less than 10% of those reported previously, are accepted here. But this figure includes several that are rather doubtfully endemic, mainly due to unresolved taxonomic doubt, or because they may be expected to occur in adjacent Countries. Thus 8 are taxonomically dubious, requiring further study, and a further 7, all from N.E. India, may possibly be expected elsewhere outside India. The c. 483 mistaken pseudo-endemics arose mainly due to naming of erroneous 'new species' thought to be endemic, or due to not knowing the range of species outside political India, combined with insufficient investigative taxonomic research. In the present paper previous reports of endemics are listed and their status is reappraised along with a new list of accepted endemics. Quite opposite to previous conclusions, the great majority of endemic Indian Pteridophytes are peninsular-Indian to south-Indian ferns (27, plus 5 more taxonomically dubious, with far fewer being N.E. Indian (7, all of which may possibly be expected elsewhere outside India and W. Himalayan (2, plus 1 taxonomically dubious; the floristically Malesian Nicobar Islands have (3, plus 2 more taxonomically dubious. These numbers are only to be expected as N.E. India is an intimate part of the Sino-Himalayan and S.E. Asian flora, connected without barriers to Tibet and China or to Myanmar by two mountain chains, while S. India is more isolated geographically since more ancient times and has a partly Malesian fern-flora. Some details of Indian endemics in relation to phytogeographical elements are given. Endemic species: Huperzia - 1, Selaginella - 9, Isoetes - 1, Osmunda - 1, Arthromeris - 1, Phymatosorus - 1, Oreogrammitis - 2, Trichomanes - 1, Pteris - 1, Cyathea

  13. GÉOPOLITIQUE ET POPULATIONS À TAIWAN

    OpenAIRE

    Dumont, Gérard-François

    2004-01-01

    International audience; Since the sixteenth century, Taiwan served as a refuge island for Chinese minorities persecuted on the mainland. Its settlement was effected by two migratory waves: one from 1661 and extending to 1945, the other after the proclamation of the People's Republic of China by Mao Zedong in 1949. The strong increase of the population, sometimes giving rise to the distinction between "native Taiwanese" and "mainlanders" made Taiwan one of the world's most densely populated co...

  14. Perspectives and control of hepatitis B virus infection in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lin Lin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is endemic in Taiwan. After the implementation of universal hepatitis B vaccination, there was a significant reduction of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg seropositivity and HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC incidence in children, teenagers, and young adults. However, the incidence of HBV-related HCC in adults remains high. Through several community- and hospital-based cohort studies, the viral factors affecting the prognosis of HBV carriers have been illustrated. Serum HBV DNA level > 2000 IU/mL at study entry starts to increase the risks of cirrhosis and HCC in adult patients with chronic HBV infection. In addition, serum HBsAg level > 1000 IU/mL is associated with a higher risk of HCC in HBeAg-negative patients with low viral load. Virologically, HBV genotype C/D and core promote/pre-S mutations correlate with an increased HCC risk. Recently, a risk calculator has been developed to predict HCC in noncirrhotic patients with external validation. Therapeutically, hospital-based cohort and population-based nationwide studies indicated that interferon and nucleos(tide analogue treatments could reduce the incidence of HCC over time. Towards the ultimate goal of HBV eradication, several novel agents aiming at viral and host targets are under development. In addition, the immune therapy may play a key role in HBV cure in the foreseeable future.

  15. Revision of Rubus (Rosaceae in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juinn-Yih Huang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rubus L. in Taiwan is taxonomically revised based on morphological and phytogeographical patterns. Forty taxa (34 species, 3 varieties, and 3 hybrids of the genus are recognized, including two new hybrid species R. croceacanthus × corchorifolius and R. rosifolius × fraxinifolius. Among the Rubus taxa in Taiwan, R. croceacanthus H. Lév. exhibits tremendous variation and we do believe that more investigations are needed in the future. Several taxa described in the Flora of Taiwan, 2nd ed. are treated as synonyms of other species, and several taxa in Taiwan are revised. The existence of R. howii Merr. & Chun, R. linearifoliolus Hayata, and R. parvifraxinifolius Hayata in Taiwan are reconfirmed, we described R. howii fruit information which was absent in original literature; and the third taxon is treated as a natural hydrid R. × parvifraxinifolius Hayata which putatively derived from R. rosifolius Sm. and R. linearifoliolus based on intermediate morphology and the scarcity of fruit set. Rubus pseudoacer Makino ssp. flexuosus (Y.-C. Liu & F.-Y. Lu H. Ohashi & C.-F. Hsieh is treated as synonym of R. pseudoacer Makino and is excluded in Taiwan. A key to the taxa, synonyms and taxonomic descriptions of each taxon are presented. Moreover, information about phenology, chromosome number, distribution and specimens examined for each taxon are also provided.

  16. Phylogenetic Classification of Seed Plants of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Tao; Chung, Kuo-Fang

    2017-11-21

    Biological classification, the hierarchical arrangement of scientific names of organisms, constitutes the core infrastructure of biological databases. For an efficient management of biological databases, adopting a stable and universal biological classification system is crucial. Currently in Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility (TaiBIF; http://taibif.tw/ ), the national portal website that integrates Taiwan's biodiversity information databases, angiosperms are arranged according to Cronquist's System of Classification, which is not compatible with current trend of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) classification. To consolidate the function and management of the database, TaiBIF is moving to adopt the APG IV classification and Christenhusz et al. (Phytotaxa 19:55-70, 2011)'s classification of gymnosperms, which we summarize as the Phylogenetic Classification of Seed Plants of Taiwan. The Phylogenetic Classification of Seed Plants of Taiwan places gymnosperms in five families [vs. eight families in the Flora of Taiwan (FOT)] and angiosperms in 210 families (vs. 193 families in FOT). Three FOT gymnosperm families are synonymized in current treatment. Of the 210 APG IV families, familial circumscriptions of 114 families are identical with FOT and 50 families are recircumscription of FOT, with 46 families newly added. Of the 29 FOT families not included in current classification, two families are excluded and 27 families are synonymized. The adoption of the Phylogenetic Classification of Seed Plants of Taiwan in TaiBIF will provide better service and efficient management of the nation's biodiversity information databases.

  17. HIV/HCV Coinfection in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching-Sheng; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2016-01-01

    Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are important global public health problems with shared transmission routes. Although HIV/HCV coinfection is not uncommon, the prevalence rates vary significantly across different studies and regions. In Taiwan, injection drug users have become the major contributors to the HIV/AIDS epidemic since 2005. Because the prevalence of HCV infection is high in injection drug users, this HIV epidemic is also associated with a significant increase of HIV/HCV coinfection in Taiwan. To control Taiwan's HIV epidemic, Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (CDC) launched a harm-reduction program in 2006. The HIV epidemic, the percentage attributed to injection drug users, and the prevalence of HIV/HCV coinfection gradually declined thereafter. In this article, we aimed to thoroughly examine the current literatures of HIV/HCV coinfection in Taiwan and hope to provide a better understanding of the needs for the management of this coinfection. We conducted a narrative review and searched for literature from PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library database untill August 2015. Studies relevant to the epidemiology and associated risk factors of HIV/HCV coinfection in Taiwan were examined and discussed.

  18. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Taiwan

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    Yu-Ju Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Taiwan Earthquake Model (TEM was established to assess the seismic hazard and risk for Taiwan by considering the social and economic impacts of various components from geology, seismology, and engineering. This paper gives the first version of TEM probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Taiwan in these aspects. We named it TEM PSHA2015. The model adopts the source parameters of 38 seismogenic structures identified by TEM geologists. In addition to specific fault source-based categorization, seismic activities are categorized as shallow, subduction intraplate, and subduction interplate events. To evaluate the potential ground-shaking resulting from each seismic source, the corresponding ground-motion prediction equations for crustal and subduction earthquakes are adopted. The highest hazard probability is evaluated to be in Southwestern Taiwan and the Longitudinal Valley of Eastern Taiwan. Among the special municipalities in the highly populated Western Taiwan region, Taichung, Tainan, and New Taipei City are evaluated to have the highest hazard. Tainan has the highest seismic hazard for peak ground acceleration in the model based on TEM fault parameters. In terms of pseudo-spectral acceleration, Tainan has higher hazard over short spectral periods, whereas Taichung has higher hazard over long spectral periods. The analysis indicates the importance of earthquake-resistant designs for low-rise buildings in Tainan and high-rise buildings in Taichung.

  19. Controlling Endemic Cholera with Oral Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longini, Ira M; Nizam, Azhar; Ali, Mohammad; Yunus, Mohammad; Shenvi, Neeta; Clemens, John D

    2007-01-01

    Background Although advances in rehydration therapy have made cholera a treatable disease with low case-fatality in settings with appropriate medical care, cholera continues to impose considerable mortality in the world's most impoverished populations. Internationally licensed, killed whole-cell based oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) have been available for over a decade, but have not been used for the control of cholera. Recently, these vaccines were shown to confer significant levels of herd protection, suggesting that the protective potential of these vaccines has been underestimated and that these vaccines may be highly effective in cholera control when deployed in mass immunization programs. We used a large-scale stochastic simulation model to investigate the possibility of controlling endemic cholera with OCVs. Methods and Findings We construct a large-scale, stochastic cholera transmission model of Matlab, Bangladesh. We find that cholera transmission could be controlled in endemic areas with 50% coverage with OCVs. At this level of coverage, the model predicts that there would be an 89% (95% confidence interval [CI] 72%–98%) reduction in cholera cases among the unvaccinated, and a 93% (95% CI 82%–99%) reduction overall in the entire population. Even a more modest coverage of 30% would result in a 76% (95% CI 44%–95%) reduction in cholera incidence for the population area covered. For populations that have less natural immunity than the population of Matlab, 70% coverage would probably be necessary for cholera control, i.e., an annual incidence rate of ≤ 1 case per 1,000 people in the population. Conclusions Endemic cholera could be reduced to an annual incidence rate of ≤ 1 case per 1,000 people in endemic areas with biennial vaccination with OCVs if coverage could reach 50%–70% depending on the level of prior immunity in the population. These vaccination efforts could be targeted with careful use of ecological data. PMID:18044983

  20. Controlling endemic cholera with oral vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira M Longini

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Although advances in rehydration therapy have made cholera a treatable disease with low case-fatality in settings with appropriate medical care, cholera continues to impose considerable mortality in the world's most impoverished populations. Internationally licensed, killed whole-cell based oral cholera vaccines (OCVs have been available for over a decade, but have not been used for the control of cholera. Recently, these vaccines were shown to confer significant levels of herd protection, suggesting that the protective potential of these vaccines has been underestimated and that these vaccines may be highly effective in cholera control when deployed in mass immunization programs. We used a large-scale stochastic simulation model to investigate the possibility of controlling endemic cholera with OCVs.We construct a large-scale, stochastic cholera transmission model of Matlab, Bangladesh. We find that cholera transmission could be controlled in endemic areas with 50% coverage with OCVs. At this level of coverage, the model predicts that there would be an 89% (95% confidence interval [CI] 72%-98% reduction in cholera cases among the unvaccinated, and a 93% (95% CI 82%-99% reduction overall in the entire population. Even a more modest coverage of 30% would result in a 76% (95% CI 44%-95% reduction in cholera incidence for the population area covered. For populations that have less natural immunity than the population of Matlab, 70% coverage would probably be necessary for cholera control, i.e., an annual incidence rate of < or = 1 case per 1,000 people in the population.Endemic cholera could be reduced to an annual incidence rate of < or = 1 case per 1,000 people in endemic areas with biennial vaccination with OCVs if coverage could reach 50%-70% depending on the level of prior immunity in the population. These vaccination efforts could be targeted with careful use of ecological data.

  1. Factors associated with Taiwan anesthesiologists' intention to leave anesthesia practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-O Wang

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Unfavorable working conditions were considered to lower the satisfaction of anesthesiologists in Taiwan. In particular, an inability to take care of the family and a low salary were major factors in deterring anesthesiologists in Taiwan from continuing in anesthesia.

  2. Underreporting of maternal mortality in Taiwan: A data linkage study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Pi Wu

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Approximately two-thirds of the maternal deaths in Taiwan were unreported in the officially published mortality data. Hence, routine nationwide data linkage is essential to monitor maternal mortality in Taiwan accurately.

  3. Taiwan: Recent Developments and U.S. Policy Choices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2006-01-01

    .... Among other things, President Bush publicly stated in 2001 that the United States would do "whatever it takes" to help Taiwan's defense and approved, in April 2001, a substantial sale of U.S. weapons to Taiwan...

  4. Land, carbon and water footprints in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yung-Jaan, E-mail: yungjaanlee@gmail.com

    2015-09-15

    The consumer responsibility approach uses footprints as indicators of the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. This study used a time-series analysis of three environmental pressures to quantify the total environmental pressures caused by consumption in Taiwan: land footprint, carbon footprint, and water footprint. Land footprint is the pressure from appropriation of biologically productive land and water area. Carbon footprint is the pressure from greenhouse gas emissions. Water footprint is the pressure from freshwater consumption. Conventional carbon footprint is the total CO{sub 2} emitted by a certain activity or the CO{sub 2} accumulation during a product life cycle. This definition cannot be used to convert CO{sub 2} emissions into land units. This study responds to the needs of “CO{sub 2} land” in the footprint family by applying the carbon footprint concept used by GFN. The analytical results showed that consumption by the average Taiwan citizen in 2000 required appropriation of 5.39 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity) and 3.63 gha in 2011 in terms of land footprint. The average Taiwan citizen had a carbon footprint of 3.95 gha in 2000 and 5.94 gha in 2011. These results indicate that separately analyzing the land and carbon footprints enables their trends to be compared and appropriate policies and strategies for different sectors to be proposed accordingly. The average Taiwan citizen had a blue water footprint of 801 m{sup 3} in 2000 and 784 m{sup 3} in 2011. By comparison, their respective global averages were 1.23 gha, 2.36 gha and 163 m{sup 3} blue water in 2011, respectively. Overall, Taiwan revealed higher environmental pressures compared to the rest of the world, demonstrating that Taiwan has become a high footprint state and has appropriated environmental resources from other countries. That is, through its imports of products with embodied pressures and its exports, Taiwan has

  5. Land, carbon and water footprints in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yung-Jaan

    2015-01-01

    The consumer responsibility approach uses footprints as indicators of the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. This study used a time-series analysis of three environmental pressures to quantify the total environmental pressures caused by consumption in Taiwan: land footprint, carbon footprint, and water footprint. Land footprint is the pressure from appropriation of biologically productive land and water area. Carbon footprint is the pressure from greenhouse gas emissions. Water footprint is the pressure from freshwater consumption. Conventional carbon footprint is the total CO 2 emitted by a certain activity or the CO 2 accumulation during a product life cycle. This definition cannot be used to convert CO 2 emissions into land units. This study responds to the needs of “CO 2 land” in the footprint family by applying the carbon footprint concept used by GFN. The analytical results showed that consumption by the average Taiwan citizen in 2000 required appropriation of 5.39 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity) and 3.63 gha in 2011 in terms of land footprint. The average Taiwan citizen had a carbon footprint of 3.95 gha in 2000 and 5.94 gha in 2011. These results indicate that separately analyzing the land and carbon footprints enables their trends to be compared and appropriate policies and strategies for different sectors to be proposed accordingly. The average Taiwan citizen had a blue water footprint of 801 m 3 in 2000 and 784 m 3 in 2011. By comparison, their respective global averages were 1.23 gha, 2.36 gha and 163 m 3 blue water in 2011, respectively. Overall, Taiwan revealed higher environmental pressures compared to the rest of the world, demonstrating that Taiwan has become a high footprint state and has appropriated environmental resources from other countries. That is, through its imports of products with embodied pressures and its exports, Taiwan has transferred the environmental

  6. Malaria prevalence in endemic districts of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubydul Haque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following the 1971 ban of DDT in Bangladesh, malaria cases have increased steadily. Malaria persists as a major health problem in the thirteen south-eastern and north-eastern districts of Bangladesh. At present the national malaria control program, largely supported by the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM, provides interventions including advocacy at community level, Insecticide Treated Net (ITN distribution, introduction of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT and combination therapy with Coartem. It is imperative, therefore, that baseline data on malaria prevalence and other malaria indicators are collected to assess the effectiveness of the interventions and rationalize the prevention and control efforts. The objective of this study was to obtain this baseline on the prevalence of malaria and bed net use in the thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2007, BRAC and ICDDR,B carried out a malaria prevalence survey in thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used and 9750 blood samples were collected. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT were used for the diagnosis of malaria. The weighted average malaria prevalence in the thirteen endemic districts was 3.97%. In five south-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was 6.00% and in the eight north-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was (0.40%. The highest malaria prevalence was observed in Khagrachari district. The majority of the cases (90.18% were P. falciparum infections. Malaria morbidity rates in five south-eastern districts was 2.94%. In eight north-eastern districts, morbidity was 0.07%. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Bangladesh has hypoendemic malaria with P. falciparum the dominant parasite species. The malaria situation in the five north-eastern districts of Bangladesh in particular warrants urgent attention. Detailed maps of the

  7. New Additions of the Bladderworts (Lentibulariaceae in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Chuan HSU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild populations of three bladderworts (Utricularia, Lentibulariaceae were newly recognized in Taiwan. Utricularia heterosepala is newly recorded in Hualien, and two naturalized species, U. smithiana and U. tricolor, are found in northern Taiwan. Morphology, ecology and conservation status of these species are described. A renewed key for all Utricularia species ever recorded in Taiwan and Kinmen is also presented.

  8. An Event Study of Chinese Tourists to Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); S.-H. Hsu (Shu-Han); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractThe number of Chinese tourists visiting Taiwan has been closely related to the political relationship across the Taiwan Strait. The occurrence of political events and disasters or accidents have had, and will continue to have, a huge impact on the Taiwan tourism market. To date,

  9. Memory contested, locality transformed : representing Japanese colonial 'heritage' in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiang, Min-Chin

    2012-01-01

    In the search for a Taiwanese identity rooted in the land of Taiwan the Japanese colonial past plays an ambiguous role. The Japanese colonial sites became a constituent part of the new identity and cultural narrative of Taiwan in the 1990s and 2000s, when a memory boom was experienced in Taiwan

  10. GEOPHYSICS. Layered deformation in the Taiwan orogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T-Y; Gung, Y; Kuo, B-Y; Chiao, L-Y; Chen, Y-N

    2015-08-14

    The underthrusting of continental crust during mountain building is an issue of debate for orogens at convergent continental margins. We report three-dimensional seismic anisotropic tomography of Taiwan that shows a nearly 90° rotation of anisotropic fabrics across a 10- to 20-kilometer depth, consistent with the presence of two layers of deformation. The upper crust is dominated by collision-related compressional deformation, whereas the lower crust of Taiwan, mostly the crust of the subducted Eurasian plate, is dominated by convergence-parallel shear deformation. We interpret this lower crustal shearing as driven by the continuous sinking of the Eurasian mantle lithosphere when the surface of the subducted plate is coupled with the orogen. The two-layer deformation clearly defines the role of subduction in the formation of the Taiwan mountain belt. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Diatoms of the Mystery Lake, Taiwan (III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Tzong Wu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the last part of study about the diatom flora found in the Mystery Lake, a slightly acidic lake situated within a hardwood nature preserve in northeastern Taiwan. In this article, we reported 17 species, belonging to 4 genera, 4 families, and 2 orders, based on scanning electron microscopic observations. The species described here, 9 are newly recorded in Taiwan. They are: Navicula cryptotenella, Navicula ingrata, Navicula subfasciata, Pinnularia borealis var. rectangularis, Pinnularia interrupta, Pinnularia maior, Sellaphora laevissima, S. vitabunda, and Nitzschia perminuta. In total, we found 76 diatom species in the surface sediments of this lake. Among them, 33 (43% are newly recorded to Taiwan. The present study indicates that this lake is characterized by high species diversity and high species richness, which are related to the oligotrophic and non-polluted environmental conditions.

  12. Epidemiology of organophosphate pesticide poisoning in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzeng Jih; Walter, Frank Gardner; Hung, Dong Zong; Tsai, Jin Lian; Hu, Sheng Chuan; Chang, Jung San; Deng, Jou-Fang; Chase, Jung San; Denninghoff, Kurt; Chan, Hon Man

    2008-11-01

    The nationwide epidemiology of organophosphate pesticide (OP) poisoning has never been reported in detail for Taiwan. This study retrospectively reviewed all human OP exposures reported to Taiwan's Poison Control Centers (PCCs) from July 1985 through December 2006. There were 4799 OP exposures. Most OP exposures were acute (98.37%) ingestions (74.50%) of a single OP (80.37%) to attempt suicide (64.72%) in adults (93.25%). Males were the most common gender (64.95%). Most patients (61.97%) received atropine and/or pralidoxime. The mortality rate for all 4799 OP exposures was 12.71%. Exposures to single OPs without co-intoxicants caused 524 deaths; of these, 63.36% were due to dimethyl OPs. Dimethyl OPs cause the majority of deaths in Taiwan.

  13. Diversity and endemism of Peruvian mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pacheco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an annotated list for all land, aquatic and marine mammals known to occur in Peru and their distribution by ecoregions. We also present species conservation status according to international organizations and the legal conservation status in Peru. At present, we record 508 species, in 13 orders, 50 families, and 218 genera, making Peru the third most diverse country with regards to mammals in the New World, after Brazil and Mexico, and the fifth most diverse country for mammals in the World. This diversity includes 40 didelphimorphs, 2 paucituberculates, 1 manatee, 6 cingulates, 7 pilosa, 39 primates, 162 rodents, 1 rabbit, 2 soricomorphs, 165 bats, 34 carnivores, 2 perissodactyls, and 47 cetartiodactyls. Bats and rodents (327 species represent almost two thirds of total diversity (64% for Peru. Five genera and 65 species (12.8% are endemics to Peru, with the majority of these being rodents (45 species, 69,2%. Most of the endemic species are restricted to the Yungas of the eastern slope of the Andes (39 species, 60% followed by Selva Baja (14 species, 21.5%. The taxonomic status of some species is commented on, when those depart from accepted taxonomy. The marsupial Marmosa phaea; the rodents Melanomys caliginosus, M. robustulus, and Echinoprocta rufescens; the shrew Cryptotis equatoris; the bats Anoura fistulata, Phyllostomus latifolius, Artibeus ravus, Cynomops greenhalli, Eumops maurus, and Rhogeessa velilla; and the carnivore Nasuella olivacea are first records of species occurrence in Peru. Finally, we also include a list of 15 non-native species.

  14. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA IN ENDEMIC AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Autino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaria infection is still to be considered a major public health problem in those 106 countries where the risk of contracting the infection with one or more of the Plasmodium species exists. According to estimates from the World Health Organization, over 200 million cases and about 655.000 deaths have occurred in 2010. Estimating the real health and social burden of the disease is a difficult task, because many of the malaria endemic countries have limited diagnostic resources, especially in rural settings where conditions with similar clinical picture may coexist in the same geographical areas. Moreover, asymptomatic parasitaemia may occur in high transmission areas after childhood, when anti-malaria semi-immunity occurs. Malaria endemicity and control activities are very complex issues, that are influenced by factors related to the host, to the parasite, to the vector, to the environment and to the health system capacity to fully implement available anti-malaria weapons such as rapid diagnostic tests, artemisinin-based combination treatment, impregnated bed-nets and insecticide residual spraying while waiting for an effective vaccine to be made available.

  15. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA IN ENDEMIC AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Autino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Malaria infection is still to be considered a major public health problem in those 106 countries where the risk of contracting the infection with one or more of the Plasmodium species exists. According to estimates from the World Health Organization, over 200 million cases and about 655.000 deaths have occurred in 2010. Estimating the real health and social burden of the disease is a difficult task, because many of the malaria endemic countries have limited diagnostic resources, especially in rural settings where conditions with similar clinical picture may coexist in the same geographical areas. Moreover, asymptomatic parasitaemia may occur in high transmission areas after childhood, when anti-malaria semi-immunity occurs. Malaria endemicity and control activities are very complex issues, that are influenced by factors related to the host, to the parasite, to the vector, to the environment and to the health system capacity to fully implement available anti-malaria weapons such as rapid diagnostic tests, artemisinin-based combination treatment, impregnated bed-nets and insecticide residual spraying while waiting for an effective vaccine to be made available.

  16. Hydroclimatological Controls of Endemic and Non-endemic Cholera of the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, A. S.; Whitcombe, E.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat for the developing countries. Since the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae, is autochthonous to aquatic environment, it is not possible to eradicate the agent of the disease. Hydroclimatology based prediction and prevention strategies can be implemented in disease susceptible regions for reducing incidence rates. However, the precise role of hydrological and climatological processes, which will further aid in development of suitable prediction models, in creating spatial and temporal environmental conditions favorable for disease outbreak has not been adequately quantified. Here, we show distinction between seasonality and occurrence of cholera in epidemic and non-endemic regions. Using historical cholera mortality data, from the late 1800s for 27 locations in the Indian subcontinent, we show that non-endemic regions are generally located close to regional river systems but away from the coasts and are characterized by single sporadic outbreak in a given year. Increase in air temperature during the low river flow season increases evaporation, leading to an optimal salinity and pH required for bacterial growth. Thereafter, monsoonal rainfall, leads to interactions of contaminated river waters via human activity resulting in cholera epidemics. Endemic regions are located close to coasts where cholera outbreak occurs twice (spring and fall) in a year. Spring outbreak is generally associated with intrusion of bacterial seawater to inland whereas the fall peak is correlated with widespread flooding and cross-contamination of water resources via increased precipitation. This may be one of the first studies to hydroclimatologically quantitatively the seasonality of cholera in both endemic and non-endemic regions. Our results prompt the need of region and cause-specific prediction models for cholera, employing appropriate environmental determinants.

  17. Russia-Taiwan Relations: History and Perspectives

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    Sergey Vradiy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available From the point of view of potential possibilities for the development of business, scientific and technical cooperation, Taiwan could be considered as a prospective partner for Russian businessmen in East Asia. It is defined by the island’s high degree of import dependence upon main categories of raw material resources and by its leading role in producing a number of articles in the manufacturing industry. The article will briefly review the contemporary history of Russia’s relations with Taiwan. It will also analyze the current status and presume the possibility for future prospects of bilateral economic and trade relations.

  18. Regulatory governance of telecommunications liberalisation in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Kuo-Tai; Hebenton, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the changing role of government and market in regulating the telecommunications sector from since 1996 in Taiwan. It contextualises the theoretical aspects of regulatory governance for institutional design and practices, and reviews the concepts and mechanisms for appraising privatisation and regulatory systems. Using a conceptual framework for researching privatisation and regulation, it describes the process and issues pertinent to telecommunications liberalisation and privatisation in Taiwan, supported by a brief presentation of theoretical points of view as well as practitioners' views. The paper presents results concerning criteria for appraising privatisation and regulatory governance and considers policy lessons that can be learned from the experiences of the Taiwanese telecommunications sector's liberalisation. (author)

  19. Supplements to the Grasses (Poaceae in Taiwan (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jung

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst has recently become naturalized in low elevations of Taiwan, and Tripsacum dactyloides (L. L. established its population in low elevations, central Taiwan. The occurrence of Eragrostis cumingii Steud. in lowlands and low elevations in Taiwan was confirmed. We describe these three grasses new to the flora of Taiwan. Besides, we provide a key to species of Cynodon in Taiwan, and the treatment of C. arcuatus J. Presl ex C. Presl, as the synonym of C. radiatus Roth ex Roemer & Schultes.

  20. Airport sentinel surveillance and entry quarantine for dengue infections following a fever screening program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Mei-Mei; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2012-08-06

    Dengue has not reached an endemic status in Taiwan; nevertheless, we have implemented a fever screening program at airports for the early detection of febrile passengers with a dengue infection. This study is intended to assess the performance of the airport screening procedures for dengue infection. We analyzed data from the national surveillance system of the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control. We included the imported dengue cases reported by sentinel airports and clinics as well as the domestic cases from 2007-2010. Approximately 44.9% (95%CI: 35.73-54.13%) of the confirmed imported dengue cases with an apparent symptom (febrile) in the viremic stage were detected via the airport fever screening program, with an estimated positive predictive value of 2.36% (95% CI: 0.96- 3.75%) and a negative predictive value > 99.99%. Fluctuations in the number of the symptomatic imported dengue cases identified in the airports (X) were associated with the total number of imported dengue cases (Y) based on a regression analysis of a biweekly surveillance (i.e., n = 104, R(2)(X:Y) = 0.61, P airports examined in this study indicated some limitations of the fever screening program for the prevention of importation. The screening program could assist in the rapid triage for self-quarantine of some symptomatic dengue cases that were in the viremic stage at the borders and contribute to active sentinel surveillance; however, the blocking of viral transmission to susceptible populations (neighbors or family) from all of the viremic travelers, including those with or without symptoms, is critical to prevent dengue epidemics. Therefore, the reinforcement of mosquito bite prevention and household vector control in dengue-endemic or dengue-competent hotspots during an epidemic season is essential and highly recommended.

  1. Comparison of immune responses to a killed bivalent whole cell oral cholera vaccine between endemic and less endemic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sachin N; Akalu, Zenebe; Teferi, Mekonnen; Manna, Byomkesh; Teshome, Samuel; Park, Ju Yeon; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Deok Ryun; Kanungo, Suman; Digilio, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Studies on safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the killed, bivalent whole cell oral cholera vaccine (Shanchol) have been conducted in historically endemic settings of Asia. Recent cholera vaccination campaigns in Haiti and Guinea have also demonstrated favourable immunogenicity and effectiveness in nonendemic outbreak settings. We performed a secondary analysis, comparing immune responses of Shanchol from two randomised controlled trials performed in an endemic and a less endemic area (Addis Ababa) during a nonoutbreak setting. While Shanchol may offer some degree of immediate protection in primed populations living in cholera endemic areas, as well as being highly immunogenic in less endemic settings, understanding the characteristics of immune responses in each of these areas is vital in determining ideal dosing strategies that offer the greatest public health impact to populations from areas with varying degrees of cholera endemicity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Assessment of pathogenicity and antigenicity of American lineage influenza H5N2 viruses in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yang; Chia, Min-Yuan; Chen, Po-Ling; Yeh, Chia-Tsui; Cheng, Ming-Chu; Su, Ih-Jen; Lee, Min-Shi

    2017-08-01

    During December 2003 and March 2004, large scale epidemics of low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H5N2 occurred in poultry farms in central and southern Taiwan. Based on genomic analysis, these H5N2 viruses contain HA and NA genes of American-lineage H5N2 viruses and six internal genes from avian influenza A/H6N1 viruses endemic in poultry in Taiwan. After disappearing for several years, these novel influenza H5N2 viruses caused outbreaks in poultry farms again in 2008, 2010 and 2012, and have evolved into high pathogenic AI (HPAI) since 2010. Moreover, asymptomatic infections of influenza H5N2 were detected serologically in poultry workers in 2012. Therefore, we evaluated antigenicity and pathogenicity of the novel H5N2 viruses in ferrets. We found that no significant antigenic difference was detected among the novel H5N2 viruses isolated from 2003 to 2014 and the novel H5N2 viruses could cause mild infections in ferrets. Monitoring zoonotic transmission of the novel H5N2 viruses is necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Imported Malaria in Southern Taiwan from 1991 to 2002: A Single Hospital's Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Shia Tang

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaria, a major public health problem worldwide, is a predominant infectious disease in most tropical and subtropical countries. Before 1965, Taiwan was a hyperendemic area, but most cases are now imported. We present our experience of dealing with various malaria infections. Charts of malaria patients visiting university hospitals in southern Taiwan between January 1991 and June 2002 were available for review. All diagnoses were made by positive blood smear and detailed history that included countries visited, paroxysm of symptoms, and medical treatment. Seventeen patients, 6 women and 11 men (mean age, 32.3 ± 11.8 years, were enrolled. Six were infected with Plasmodium falciparum, eight with Plasmodium vivax, two with a combination of P. falciparum and P. vivax, and one with an unidentified infection. All Taiwanese patients infected with P. falciparum (n = 5 contracted the disease in Africa or Indonesia. All Taiwanese patients infected with P. vivax (n = 4 contracted the disease in Southeast Asia or Oceania. Fever and chills were the leading symptoms of malaria. P. falciparum infection was treated with quinine and doxycycline/tetracycline, with the addition of artesunate for cerebral malaria. P. vivax infection was treated with chloroquine and primaquine. Maintaining a high degree of suspicion in patients with a history of travel to malaria-endemic areas is the major cornerstone of malaria diagnosis. Erroneous diagnosis and improper treatment leads to greater morbidity and even mortality.

  4. Endemic human fasciolosis in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, M; O'Neill, S M; Dalton, J P

    2007-05-01

    Fasciolosis, caused by trematodes of the genus Fasciola, is an emerging disease of humans. One of the highest levels of human fasciolosis hepatica is found amongst the indigenous Aymaran people of the Northern Bolivian Altiplano. A meta-analysis of epidemiological surveys from 38 communities in the region demonstrates that fasciolosis has been endemic in the region since at least 1984 and is a zoonosis of rural communities. Human and bovine fasciolosis is associated with the communities lying in the plain from Lake Titicaca to La Paz, predominantly in the Los Andes province. In Los Andes incidences of up to 67% of population cohorts were found, and prevalence is age-related with the highest infection rate in children aged 8-11 years.

  5. Comparative phylogeography of endemic Azorean arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmakelis, Aristeidis; Rigal, François; Mourikis, Thanos; Balanika, Katerina; Terzopoulou, Sofia; Rego, Carla; Amorim, Isabel R; Crespo, Luís; Pereira, Fernando; Triantis, Kostas A; Whittaker, Robert J; Borges, Paulo A V

    2015-11-11

    For a remote oceanic archipelago of up to 8 Myr age, the Azores have a comparatively low level of endemism. We present an analysis of phylogeographic patterns of endemic Azorean island arthropods aimed at testing patterns of diversification in relation to the ontogeny of the archipelago, in order to distinguish between alternative models of evolutionary dynamics on islands. We collected individuals of six species (representing Araneae, Hemiptera and Coleoptera) from 16 forest fragments from 7 islands. Using three mtDNA markers, we analysed the distribution of genetic diversity within and between islands, inferred the differentiation time-frames and investigated the inter-island migration routes and colonization patterns. Each species exhibited very low levels of mtDNA divergence, both within and between islands. The two oldest islands were not strongly involved in the diffusion of genetic diversity within the archipelago. The most haplotype-rich islands varied according to species but the younger, central islands contributed the most to haplotype diversity. Colonization events both in concordance with and in contradiction to an inter-island progression rule were inferred, while a non-intuitive pattern of colonization from western to eastern islands was also inferred. The geological development of the Azores has followed a less tidy progression compared to classic hotspot archipelagos, and this is reflected in our findings. The study species appear to have been differentiating within the Azores for <2 Myr, a fraction of the apparent life span of the archipelago, which may indicate that extinction events linked to active volcanism have played an important role. Assuming that after each extinction event, colonization was initiated from a nearby island hosting derived haplotypes, the apparent age of species diversification in the archipelago would be moved closer to the present after each extinction-recolonization cycle. Exploiting these ideas, we propose a general

  6. The Quality of Life in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Grace; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Cheng, Chiao-Pi

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,006 respondents shows that in Taiwan, people have access to modern utilities and digital media, signs of materialistic achievement, and yet are more concerned with physical security and financial safety than with personal growth. Regardless of their demographic backgrounds and value priorities, the Taiwanese, like…

  7. Statistical Modelling of Extreme Rainfall in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Chu (Lan-Fen); M.J. McAleer (Michael); C-C. Chang (Ching-Chung)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, the annual maximum daily rainfall data from 1961 to 2010 are modelled for 18 stations in Taiwan. We fit the rainfall data with stationary and non-stationary generalized extreme value distributions (GEV), and estimate their future behaviour based on the best fitting model.

  8. Statistical Modelling of Extreme Rainfall in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Chu (LanFen); M.J. McAleer (Michael); C-H. Chang (Chu-Hsiang)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, the annual maximum daily rainfall data from 1961 to 2010 are modelled for 18 stations in Taiwan. We fit the rainfall data with stationary and non-stationary generalized extreme value distributions (GEV), and estimate their future behaviour based on the best fitting model.

  9. ENHANCING EU-TAIWAN ECONOMIC COOPERATION AGREEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-hung Cho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU’s 2015 new trade strategy: Trade for all: toward a more responsible trade and investment policy, highlights its key role in keeping markets open worldwide and lists the Asia-Pacific region as the priority party for signing Regional Trade Arrangements (RTAs with the EU. The new strategy allows the EU and its member states to initiate talks on economic cooperation agreement (ECA with Taiwan. This article takes the EU-Asia interregional cooperation as a case study while exploring the role of Taiwan in the region. The first section describes the shift in EU’s trade policies and the special features of the types of interregionalism between the EU and Asia. The second section explores the bilateral trade relations. The third section evaluates the opportunities and the internal and external challenges and limitations of an EU-Taiwan ECA, emphasizing the factor of mainland China. The final section provides conclusions on the influence of an EU-Taiwan ECA on the relations of EUTaiwan considering economic and non-economic factor

  10. Gestalt Group Dreamwork Demonstrations in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coven, Arnold B.

    2004-01-01

    The application of Gestalt dreamwork was explored with counselor education students and professors at two Taiwan universities. The literature indicates Asians are reluctant to disclose personal matters or to display emotions. Contrary to expectations, the Taiwanese participants readily enacted roles, were personally open, and expressed intense…

  11. Chinese Parenting Reconsideration: Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-mei; Luster, Tom

    This study examined authoritative and authoritarian parenting and specific parenting practices among Chinese mothers with preschoolers. The final sample consisted of 463 mothers with their 3 to 7 year-olds from 11 preschools, in Taiwan. Mothers completed a Chinese translation of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire that assessed their parenting…

  12. Factors Related to Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Mei; Luster Tom

    2002-01-01

    This study examined factors related to authoritarian and authoritative parenting practices among 463 Chinese mothers with preschoolers in Taiwan. Questionnaire findings suggested that maternal depression, child temperament, and degree of parenting daily hassles might have cross-culturally universal influence on parenting practices. Chinese…

  13. Notes on Alien Bromus Grasses in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jung

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn., Bromus hordeaceus L., Bromus pubescens Muhl. ex Willd. and Bromus secalinus L. were recently found at middle elevations of southern and central Taiwan, respectively. We present taxonomic treatments, distribution map, and line-drawings of these introduced alien brome grasses.

  14. Language Policy and Group Identification in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruey-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Taiwan is a multicultural and multilingual society. Generally speaking, Taiwanese residents fall into one of four ethnic groups. Each ethnic group has a different cultural context and a preferred language. Therefore, one's use of language may reveal his/her identification with an ethnic group, and language policy implementation may imply the power…

  15. Empirical research on constructing Taiwan's ecoenvironmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the material flow indicators and ecological footprint approach structured are adopted to construct eco-environmental stress indicators. We use relevant data to proceed with the empirical analyses on environmental stress and ecological impacts in Taiwan between the years of 1998 and 2007. Analysis of ...

  16. The Workforce Education and Development in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Workforce education and development (WED) can be broadly defined as those formal, informal and nonformal activities that prepare people for work. In Taiwan, it includes technological and vocational education (TVE), human resource development (HRD), public vocational training and adult education. In order to promote information exchanges and…

  17. Mitochondrial genome of Taiwan pig (Sus Scrofa)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... The purpose of this study is to investigate the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the Taiwan Lanyu pig (Sus scrofa) and its phylogenetic relationships with other pig breeds. Thirty-four forward and reverse primers were designed. Sequencing was performed in both directions.

  18. Servicing NPPs in Japan, Korea and Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohmann, W.; Poetz, F.

    1991-01-01

    More than 45 comparable orders (for equipment or services ) have been carried out in Japan, Korea and Taiwan by ABB Reaktor since 1982. Recently contracts to deliver inspection and repair equipment for the core baffle former bolts of Japanese NPPs, and in 1990, a contract to clean two steam generators in Korea, together with Pacific Nuclear Services, USA, were won. 2 figs

  19. Risk of carotid atherosclerosis is associated with low serum paraoxonase (PON1) activity among arsenic exposed residents in Southwestern Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.-F.; Sun, C.-W.; Cheng, T.-J.; Chang, K.-H.; Chen, C.-J.; Wang, S.-L.

    2009-01-01

    To understand whether human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) would modulate the risk for arsenic-related atherosclerosis, we studied 196 residents from an arseniasis-endemic area in Southwestern Taiwan and 291 age- and sex-matched residents from a nearby control area where arsenic exposure was found low. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined by a carotid artery intima-media wall thickness (IMT) of > 1.0 mm. Prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis was increased in the arseniasis-endemic area as compared to the control area after adjustment for conventional risk factors (OR = 2.20, p < 0.01). The prevalence was positively associated with cumulative arsenic exposure (mg/L-year) in a dose-dependent manner. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that in the endemic group, low serum PON1 activity was an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis (OR = 4.18 low vs. high, p < 0.05). For those of low PON1 activity and high cumulative arsenic exposure, the odds ratio for the prevalence of atherosclerosis was further increased up to 5.68 (p < 0.05). No significant association was found between atherosclerosis and four polymorphisms of the PON gene cluster (PON1 - 108C/T, PON1 Q192R, PON2 A148G, PON2 C311S). However, genetic frequencies of certain alleles including PON1 Q192, PON2 G148 and PON2 C311 were found increased in the endemic group as compared to the controls and a general Chinese population, indicating a possible survival selection in the endemic group after a long arsenic exposure history. Our results showed a significant joint effect between arsenic exposure and serum PON1 activity on carotid atherosclerosis, suggesting that subjects of low PON1 activity may be more susceptible to arsenic-related cardiovascular disease.

  20. Patterns of distribution and protection status of the endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-06-02

    Jun 2, 1995 ... South Africa contains the majority of southern Africa's endemic mammals and hence is an important area for mammal conservation. Moreover, there is an increase in endemism, as determined by range maps, from the northern borders of the country towards the Western Cape Province. Within this area, the ...

  1. Isoenzyme analysis of five endemic and one widespread Kniphofia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are seven species of genus Kniphofia in Ethiopian flora. K. foliosa, K. hildebrandtii, K. insignis, K. isoetifolia, and K. schimperiare endemic. Kniphofia pumila and K. thomsonii are widespread from West Africa to Eastern and Central Africa. In this study the genetic diversity and the relationships between five endemic ...

  2. TYPHOID FEVER IN AN ENDEMIC AREA: A 'GREAT IMITATOR'*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease, typhoid fever was included in the differential diagnosis of only about half of the cases. Typhoid fever should always be borne in mind when a patient from an endemic area presents with a pyrexial illness. Typhoid fever is endemic in the area served by Edendale. Hospital. It is common experience that this disease is ...

  3. Distribution and protection of endemic or threatened rodents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An analysis of biome specificity of all species revealed that Myomyscus verreauxii is endemic to the fynbos, Bathyergus janetta to the Succulent Karoo, Zelotomys woosnami to the arid savanna, and Steatomys parvus to the savanna woodlands. No species are endemic to the Nama-Karoo or grasslands, although several ...

  4. Features of Acquired Immunity in Malaria Endemic Areas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of Acquired Immunity in Malaria Endemic Areas. Adults (>15 years) do not suffer from the disease. Concomitant presence of low levels of P. falciparum in immune persons. This immunity is lost within 6-12 months if a person moves out of endemic area. Antibodies mediate protection for the asexual stages of P. falciparum.

  5. Endemic earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) of the Balkan Peninsula: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakić, Tanja; Valchovski, Hristo; Stojanović, Mirjana

    2016-11-10

    A list of the endemic earthworms of the Balkan Peninsula is presented. Comprehensive information on the ecology, distribution on the Balkan Peninsula and zoogeographical type of all endemics is given. The list comprises 90 species and subspecies, belonging to 11 genera of the family Lumbricidae. The largest number of the Balkan endemic earthworms belongs to a narrow range group (63.3%). Broad range endemic species take part with 36.7%. Our study shows that the degree of endemism on the Balkan Peninsula is extremely high (about 40%) suggesting an important process of autochthonous speciation on the Balkan Peninsula. This appearance is attributable to relative isolation of the mountains compared to the lowlands within the context of paleoenvironmental changes.

  6. Deformation of Taiwan from Continuous GPS Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F. T.; Kuo, L.; Kuo-Chen, H.

    2007-12-01

    As of 2006 there are more than 290 continuously recording GPS stations(1,2) now in and around Taiwan and its surrounding islands. We have determined horizontal and vertical velocity vectors, the areal strain rate, the shear strain rate and the volume strain rate. Because of the rapid convergence of Eurasian plate with the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) near Taiwan the trend in the GPS displacement time series is large enough to derive the above- mentioned quantities on a yearly basis and thus track their changes as a function of time. In the following discussions we shall use the Penghu island station (S01R) as reference when relevant. The overall patterns of the velocity vectors in Taiwan reflect the geometry of the plate convergence that created Taiwan. In the mature collision zone of central Taiwan, situated on the Eurasian plate, the velocities are largest on the eastern side and decreases toward the west to very small values in the Coastal Plain. In the south the western side of the Hengchun Peninsula is still moving westward or southwestward at about 50 mm/yr, apparently as a part of the PSP. In general, in central and northern Taiwan, the velocity vectors are oriented WNW but north of about 24ON the velocities become very slow because the PSP has subducted toward the north near that latitude so the collision takes place at depth and the deformation on the surface becomes small. The areal strain rate patterns derived from the horizontal velocities show that although much of Taiwan is under compression, two areas consistently show dilatation: one along the high Central Range and the other one in the northeast coastal area south of Ilan. In the Central Range the dilatation is probably related to the building of the mountain range and in the northeast the subduction of the PSP leaves the top portion a "free boundary". Although the noise level of the vertical time series is about 3 times higher than the corresponding horizontal measurements the continuous data show

  7. Phylogenetic analyses suggest a hybrid origin of the figs (Moraceae: Ficus) that are endemic to the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumi, Junko; Azuma, Hiroshi; Tzeng, Hsy-Yu; Chou, Lien-Siang; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Nakamura, Keiko; Su, Zhi-Hui

    2012-04-01

    The Ogasawara Islands are oceanic islands and harbor a unique endemic flora. There are three fig species (Ficus boninsimae, F. nishimurae and F. iidaiana) endemic to the Ogasawara Islands, and these species have been considered to be closely related to Ficus erecta, and to have diverged within the islands. However, this hypothesis remains uncertain. To investigate this issue, we assessed the phylogenetic relationships of the Ogasawara figs and their close relatives occurring in Japan, Taiwan and South China based on six plastid genome regions, nuclear ITS region and two nuclear genes. The plastid genome-based tree indicated a close relationship between the Ogasawara figs and F. erecta, whereas some of the nuclear gene-based trees suggested this relationship was not so close. In addition, the phylogenetic analyses of the pollinating wasps associated with these fig species based on the nuclear 28S rRNA and mitochondrial cytB genes suggested that the fig-pollinating wasps of F. erecta are not sister to those of the Ogasawara figs These results suggest the occurrence of an early hybridization event(s) in the lineage leading to the Ogasawara figs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Climate change impacts in Zhuoshui watershed, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yi-Chiung; Liu, Pei-Ling; Cheng, Chao-Tzuen; Li, Hsin-Chi; Wu, Tingyeh; Chen, Wei-Bo; Shih, Hung-Ju

    2017-04-01

    There are 5.3 typhoons hit Taiwan per year on average in last decade. Typhoon Morakot in 2009, the most severe typhoon, causes huge damage in Taiwan, including 677 casualty and roughly NT 110 billion (3.3 billion USD) in economic loss. Some researches documented that typhoon frequency will decrease but increase in intensity in western North Pacific region. It is usually preferred to use high resolution dynamical model to get better projection of extreme events; because coarse resolution models cannot simulate intense extreme events. Under that consideration, dynamical downscaling climate data was chosen to describe typhoon satisfactorily. One of the aims for Taiwan Climate Change Projection and Information Platform (TCCIP) is to demonstrate the linkage between climate change data and watershed impact models. The purpose is to understand relative disasters induced by extreme rainfall (typhoons) under climate change in watersheds including landslides, debris flows, channel erosion and deposition, floods, and economic loss. The study applied dynamic downscaling approach to release climate change projected typhoon events under RCP 8.5, the worst-case scenario. The Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-Based Regional Slope-Stability (TRIGRS) and FLO-2D models, then, were used to simulate hillslope disaster impacts in the upstream of Zhuoshui River. CCHE1D model was used to elevate the sediment erosion or deposition in channel. FVCOM model was used to asses a flood impact in urban area in the downstream. Finally, whole potential loss associate with these typhoon events was evaluated by the Taiwan Typhoon Loss Assessment System (TLAS) under climate change scenario. Results showed that the total loss will increase roughly by NT 49.7 billion (1.6 billion USD) in future in Zhuoshui watershed in Taiwan. The results of this research could help to understand future impact; however model bias still exists. Because typhoon track is a critical factor to consider regional

  9. Numerical Simulation of Barotropic Tides around Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Kai Hu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 1/12°, 2-D barotropic tide model was used to examine the characteristics of barotropic tides and to improve the accuracy of predicting tidal sea levels and currents in the seas around Taiwan. The form ratio suggests that tides are predominantly semidiurnal in the northern reaches of the Taiwan Strait and mixed of diurnal and semidiurnal elsewhere around Taiwan. When the dominant M2 wave enters the Strait from the north, its amplitude is magnified to ~2 m in the middle, and then decreases rapidly toward the south end of the Strait. The predominance of diurnal tides along the southwest to the south coast of Taiwan is attributed to the quasi-resonance of diurnal waves in the South China Sea. The tidal range is small and tidal currents are weak off the east coast of Taiwan. Barotropic tidal energy is mostly dissipated on the shallow banks of the southwestern Strait. Results summarized from sensitivity tests on the bottom drag coefficient (CD and horizontal eddy viscosity (AM indicate that CD = 0.0015 - 0.00175 and AM = 150 m2 s-1 lead to the best model-data fit when compared to the observed tidal sea levels at ten reference tide-gauge stations around Taiwan. The averaged root-mean-squared (RMS differences of the simulated tidal sea level for the six principal constituents of O1, P1, K1, N2, M2, and S2 are significantly reduced to 1.3, 0.7, 2.0, 1.6, 5.1, and 3.1 cm, respectively, compared to that calculated from a 0.5° resolution global tide harmonic constant database, NAO.99b (Matsumoto et al. 2000. The averaged RMS differences of barotropic tidal currents (U, V for O1, K1, M2, and S2 are (0.92, 1.64, (1.17, 0.61, (3.88, 2.37, and (1.52, 1.20 cm s-1. A database of tidal sea levels and current harmonic constants, TWTIDE08, for Q1, O1, P1, K1, J1, OO1, 2N2, μ2, N2, ν2, M2, L2, T2, S2, and K2 is established with this study.

  10. Syphilis and the endemic treponematoses : clinical, (histo-) pathological and laboratory studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.H. Engelkens (Herman)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractTreponemal diseases important to mankind are sexually transmitted syphilis and the endemic nonvenereally transmitted treponematoses (yaws, pinta, and endemic syphilis). Historically, the most important disease caused by treponemes is syphilis. During the last few decades, yaws, endemic

  11. 78 FR 52213 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... (Preliminary)] Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan... reason of imports from India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine..., Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam. Accordingly...

  12. Origins of Semisulcospira libertina (gastropoda: semisulcospiridae) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Bor, Hor; Kuo, Po-Hsun; Hsu, Kui-Ching; Tan, Mian-Shin; Wang, Wei-Kuang; Lin, Hung-Du

    2017-07-01

    The most accepted hypothesis has suggested that the fauna in Taiwan Island originated from South China, but some studies supported the Japan, Ryukyu Archipelago, and Taiwan Islands as a unique biogeographical district. This study examines whether the populations of freshwater snail Semisulcospira libertina in Taiwan are closer to those in Japan based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. Our study shows the populations in North Taiwan originated from Japan and the cyclic glacial caused the migrations among islands and continent repeatedly; the populations in South Taiwan might originate from South China or South Asia. Our results will not only affect the conclusions in phylogeography of freshwater species in Taiwan but also change the sampling plans in the future studies about evolutionary of freshwater species in East Asia.

  13. REVIEW: Endemic plants of serpentine soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDARMONO

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant adaptation to serpentine soils is a system ideal for studies in evolutionary ecology. Serpentine soils are characterized by low calcium to magnesium ratios with Ca at significantly lower concentrations relative to surrounding areas. Although some variation occurs between sites which identified three collective traits: poor plant productivity, high rates of endemism and vegetation type distinct from those of neighboring areas. The several morphological feature characteristic of serpentine-tolerant species is possess xeromorphic foliage, including reduced leaf size and sclerophylls, the stature is significantly reduced relative to counterparts on non serpentine soil and root systems of species growing on and off serpentine sites are often more developed on serpentine soils than on neighboring soils. Serpentine soils are ubiquitous, but patchily distributed and thus promote geographic isolation. Adaptation to edaphic conditions may also beget reproductive isolation. Adaptive mutation might be influenced frequently from related species inhabiting surrounding areas. For the future studies involving serpentine systems merge the fields of ecology, evolution, physiology, and genetics required for serpentine adaptation.

  14. Costs of Illness Due to Endemic Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, C.; Riewpaiboon, A.; Stewart, J.F.; Clemens, J.; Guh, S.; Agtini, M.; Sur, D.; Islam, Z.; Lucas, M.; Whittington, D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Economic analyses of cholera immunization programmes require estimates of the costs of cholera. The Diseases of the Most Impoverished programme measured the public, provider, and patient costs of culture-confirmed cholera in four study sites with endemic cholera using a combination of hospital- and community-based studies. Families with culture-proven cases were surveyed at home 7 and 14 days after confirmation of illness. Public costs were measured at local health facilities using a micro-costing methodology. Hospital-based studies found that the costs of severe cholera were USD 32 and 47 in Matlab and Beira. Community-based studies in North Jakarta and Kolkata found that cholera cases cost between USD 28 and USD 206, depending on hospitalization. Patient costs of illness as a percentage of average monthly income were 21% and 65% for hospitalized cases in Kolkata and North Jakarta, respectively. This burden on families is not captured by studies that adopt a provider perspective. PMID:21554781

  15. Updated Global Burden of Cholera in Endemic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Nelson, Allyson R.; Lopez, Anna Lena; Sack, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The global burden of cholera is largely unknown because the majority of cases are not reported. The low reporting can be attributed to limited capacity of epidemiological surveillance and laboratories, as well as social, political, and economic disincentives for reporting. We previously estimated 2.8 million cases and 91,000 deaths annually due to cholera in 51 endemic countries. A major limitation in our previous estimate was that the endemic and non-endemic countries were defined based on the countries’ reported cholera cases. We overcame the limitation with the use of a spatial modelling technique in defining endemic countries, and accordingly updated the estimates of the global burden of cholera. Methods/Principal Findings Countries were classified as cholera endemic, cholera non-endemic, or cholera-free based on whether a spatial regression model predicted an incidence rate over a certain threshold in at least three of five years (2008-2012). The at-risk populations were calculated for each country based on the percent of the country without sustainable access to improved sanitation facilities. Incidence rates from population-based published studies were used to calculate the estimated annual number of cases in endemic countries. The number of annual cholera deaths was calculated using inverse variance-weighted average case-fatality rate (CFRs) from literature-based CFR estimates. We found that approximately 1.3 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.86 million cholera cases (uncertainty range: 1.3m-4.0m) occur annually in endemic countries. Among these cases, there are an estimated 95,000 deaths (uncertainty range: 21,000-143,000). Conclusion/Significance The global burden of cholera remains high. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for the majority of this burden. Our findings can inform programmatic decision-making for cholera control. PMID:26043000

  16. [Response of Taiwan nursing education to today's nursing shortage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shieu-Ming

    2012-10-01

    The shortage of nursing manpower has recently attracted significant attention from Taiwan society. Government efforts to improve the nursing practice environment have challenged the quality of current domestic nursing education. This article provides an overview of Taiwan nursing education in terms of its development under current nursing shortage conditions and in light of Taiwan's low birthrate, ageing society. A few suggestions for nursing education are listed at the end of the article.

  17. Physics teaching in the medical schools of Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Jiann-wien; Hsu, Roy

    2012-01-01

    We describe and analyze the statistics of general physics and laboratory courses in the medical schools of Taiwan. We explore the development of the general physics curriculum for medical students of Taiwan. Also, an approach to designing a general physics course in combination with its application to medical sciences is proposed. We hope this preliminary study can provide a useful reference for physics colleagues in the medical schools of Taiwan to revolutionize the dynamics of teaching phys...

  18. Successful control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in endemic neonatal intensive care units--a 7-year campaign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yhu-Chering Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is among the most important nosocomial pathogens in the intensive care unit (ICU worldwide, including Taiwan. Since 1997, our neonatal ICUs (NICUs had become endemic for MRSA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To control MRSA spread in our NICUs, we implemented a series of infection control measures stepwise, including reinforcement of hand hygiene since January 2000, augmentation of aseptic care over the insertion site of central venous catheter since July 2001, introduction of alcohol-based handrubs since April 2003, surveillance culture for MRSA and cohort care for the colonized patients between March 2003 and February 2004, and surveillance culture with subsequent decolonization of MRSA between August 2005 and July 2006. After implementation of these measures, MRSA healthcare-associated infection (HAI density reduced by 92%, from 5.47 episodes per 1000 patient-days in 1999 to 0.45 episodes per 1000 patient-days in 2006; MRSA bloodstream infection reduced from 40 cases in 1999 to only one case in 2006. Compared to those obtained during the period of surveillance culture without decolonization, both rates of MRSA colonization (8.6% vs. 41%, p<0.001 and infection (1.1% vs. 12%, p<0.001 decreased significantly during the period of surveillance and decolonization. Molecular analysis of the clinical isolates during the study period showed that the endemic clone, which dominated between 1998 and 2005, almost disappeared in 2006, while the community clones increased significantly in 2006-2007. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Through infection control measures, MRSA HAIs can be successfully controlled, even in areas with high levels of endemic MRSA infections such as our NICUs.

  19. Regulatory governance of telecommunications liberalisation in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kuo-Tai [Department of Regional Studies in Humanity and Social Sciences, National Hsin-Chu University of Education, No. 521 Nan-Da Road, Hsin-Chu 300 (China); Hebenton, Bill [School of Law, University of Manchester, M13 9PP (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    This paper examines the changing role of government and market in regulating the telecommunications sector from since 1996 in Taiwan. It contextualises the theoretical aspects of regulatory governance for institutional design and practices, and reviews the concepts and mechanisms for appraising privatisation and regulatory systems. Using a conceptual framework for researching privatisation and regulation, it describes the process and issues pertinent to telecommunications liberalisation and privatisation in Taiwan, supported by a brief presentation of theoretical points of view as well as practitioners' views. The paper presents results concerning criteria for appraising privatisation and regulatory governance and considers policy lessons that can be learned from the experiences of the Taiwanese telecommunications sector's liberalisation. (author)

  20. Molluscan fauna of Gueishan Island, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Wei; Hsiung, Ta-Wei; Lin, Si-Min; Wu, Wen-Lung

    2013-01-01

    This dataset records the occurrence and inventory of molluscan fauna on Gueishan Island, the only active volcanic island in Taiwan, based on the literature survey and field investigation conducted between 2011 and 2012. The literature review involved seven studies published from 1934 to 2003, which collectively reported 112 species from 61 genera and 37 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. Through our field investigation, we identified 34 species from 28 genera and 23 families. Fourteen of these species were new records on Gueishan Island: Liolophura japonica, Lottia luchuana, Nerita costata, Nerita rumphii, Diplommatina suganikeiensis, Littoraria undulata, Solenomphala taiwanensis, Assiminea sp., Siphonaria laciniosa, Laevapex nipponica, Carychium hachijoensis, Succinea erythrophana, Zaptyx crassilamellata, and Allopeas pyrgula. In Total, there are 126 species from 71 genera and 45 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. These data have been published through GBIF [http://taibif.org.tw/ipt/resource.do?r=gueishan_island] and integrated into the Taiwan Malacofauna Database (http://shell.sinica.edu.tw/).

  1. Malaria endemicity in an Orang Asli community in Pahang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurpreet, K

    2009-04-01

    An epidemiological cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the endemicity of malaria among the Orang Asli population of Raub, Pahang. Malaria endemicity was measured in terms of the prevalence of parasitaemia and splenomegaly. A total of 520 Orang Asli were examined. The point prevalence of malaria was 24.2% (95% CI 20.7-25.1), with Plasmodium falciparum (67.5%) being the predominant species. Children Orang Asli should focus on protecting vulnerable subgroups like young children. Measuring the level of malaria endemicity at regular intervals is fundamental in evaluating the effectiveness of malaria control programs.

  2. Transmission Modes of Melioidosis in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Tan Hsueh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In Taiwan, melioidosis is an emerging disease that suddenly increased in the Er-Ren River Basin, beginning in 2005 and in the Zoynan region during 2008–2012, following a typhoon. Additionally, the disease sporadically increased in a geography-dependent manner in 2016. Subcutaneous inoculation, ingestion, and the inhalation of soil or water contaminated with Burkholderia pseudomallei are recognized as the transmission modes of melioidosis. The appearance of environmental B. pseudomallei positivity in northern, central and southern Taiwan is associated with disease prevalence (cases/population: 0.03/100,000 in the northern region, 0.29/100,000 in the central region and 1.98/100,000 in the southern region. However, melioidosis-clustered areas are confined to 5 to 7.5 km2 hot spots containing high-density populations, but B. pseudomallei-contaminated environments are located >5 km northwestern of the periphery of these hot spots. The observation that the concentration of B. pseudomallei-specific DNA in aerosols was positively correlated with the incidence of melioidosis and the appearance of a northwesterly wind in a hot spot indicated that airborne transmission had occurred in Taiwan. Moreover, the isolation rate in the superficial layers of a contaminated crop field in the northwest was correlated with PCR positivity in aerosols collected from the southeast over a two-year period. The genotype ST58 was identified by multilocus sequence typing in human and aerosol isolates. The genotype ST1001 has increased in prevalence but has been sporadically distributed elsewhere since 2016. These data indicate the transmission modes and environmental foci that support the dissemination of melioidosis are changing in Taiwan.

  3. Low-level radwaste transportation in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, L.F.; Huang, C.C.

    1993-01-01

    In the past ten years, 273 voyages have been made to ship radwaste produced by nuclear power plants and Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER). It more or less lowers the problem of insufficient storage space in Taiwan. Although all organizations followed various regulations to operate the transportation, ten events occurred in marine transport. However, they were ordinary incidents and neither released any radiation to contaminate the environment nor caused any casualty. (J.P.N.)

  4. Transformation of Taiwan’s Reserve Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    sim - ulations, and games have important value, but they miss other quali- tative factors that history shows are important and often decisive for...deployed on Taiwan’s frontline islands at locations that Wins Most Gold Medals at Asia Pacific ICT Competition,” Focus Taiwan, November 26, 2015; and John...are sim - ilar in one key respect: They confront an overtly hostile neighbor (in Taiwan’s case) or neighbors (in Israel’s) who pose an existential

  5. Japan’s National Interests in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    University of Hawaii Press, 1974, 8 territories. The commander of the Imperial Japanese Navy’s combined fleet, Admiral Takahashi Sankichi, put it...that another takeover by another off-island regime will be an improvement over what has been done before. The Japanese colonial period in Taiwan...1895-1945). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974. Kissinger, Henry. On China. New York: Penguin, 2011. Ko, Shu-ling. “China not the only

  6. Two Newly Discovered Plants in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Chuan Hsu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Two herbs are newly discovered in Taiwan. Limnophila fragrans (G. Forst. Seem. (Scrophulariaceae, native in SE Asia, is recognized from southern lowlands. Anagallis minima (L. E. H. L. Krause (Primulaceae, native in N America and Europe, was found from northern mountainous region at low altitudes. In this study, descriptions, line drawings, color photos and a distribution map of the two species are provided.

  7. Energy statistics and the role of nuclear energy in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, T.T.; Chen, Y.B.

    1995-01-01

    Due to the very limited indigenous energy resources, Taiwan has to import over 95% of the energy from overseas to meet her need. In this paper, the supply and demand of various kind of major energies will be discussed. Also, in order to lessen the environmental burden and increase the energy independence for Taiwan, the so-called quasi-indigenous energy - nuclear energy, will play an important role in Taiwan's future energy mix. The optimal ratios of the mix in the year of 2005 in Taiwan area using multiobjective method by independent research Institute will also be discussed. (author)

  8. Physics teaching in the medical schools of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jiann-wien; Hsu, Roy

    2012-02-01

    We describe and analyze the statistics of general physics and laboratory courses in the medical schools of Taiwan. We explore the development of the general physics curriculum for medical students of Taiwan. Also, an approach to designing a general physics course in combination with its application to medical sciences is proposed. We hope this preliminary study can provide a useful reference for physics colleagues in the medical schools of Taiwan to revolutionize the dynamics of teaching physics to the medical students of Taiwan. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Taiwan in 2004: Elections, Referenda, and Other Democratic Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2005-01-01

    .... In both the presidential and legislative election campaigns, Chen emphasized gaining a separate international identity for Taiwan -- an emphasis to which Beijing strenuously objected as dangerously...

  10. Transmission capability of asymmetric digital subscriber lines in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shyue-Win; Leu, Shyue-Tzong; Wei, Che-Ho

    1995-04-01

    The transmission capacity of discrete multitone (DMT) modulation system for Taiwan's subscriber loops is evaluated in this study. Based on the characteristics of Taiwan's local loops, the transmission capacity is estimated to be 1.544 Mb/s and 6 Mb/s in Taiwan. Simulation results also show how many percents of users in Taiwan may have 1.544 Mb/s or 6 Mb/s of asymmetric digital subscriber lines (ADSL) services. Self far-end crosstalk (FEXT) and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) are considered to be the dominant noise sources in the work.

  11. Spatial segregation of the endemic versus non-endemic hummingbird on Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Sonne, Jesper; Hodum, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Competitive pressure from invasive species tends to have a particularly strong impact on remote islands, and knowledge of such phenomena can be crucial to the conservation of endemic biodiversity. Of the two hummingbird species inhabiting Robinson Crusoe Island, Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile...... additionally considered the influence of habitat type and flower abundance, which could also cause spatial segregation between the species. We found a negative association between the point count abundance of the two hummingbirds species, which remained consistent when accounting for the role of habitat type...

  12. Additional Remarks on Ranunculaceae in Taiwan (8 -Revision of Ranunculaceae in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Y. Aleck Yang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a taxonomic study of the genera of Ranunculaceae in Taiwan, including Aconitum L., Anemone L., Calathodes L., Cimicifuga Hook.f. & Thomson, Coptis L., Dichocarpum L., Ranunculus L., Semiaquilegea Makino, Thalictrum L. and Trollius L. Anemone vitifolia Buch.-Ham. ex DC. var. matsudae Yamam. is recognized in Taiwan; the concept of the genus Cimicifuga is still accepted, excluding genus Actaea. A key to the genera, keys to the taxa under each genus and synonyms of each taxon are provided. The taxonomic descriptions of taxa are only for those published after 1996. For easy understanding and checking of Taiwanese Ranunculaceae, phenology, distribution and specimens examined in each taxon are also presented. Totally, there are 11 genera and 51 taxa (including 41 species, 2 subspecies and 8 varieties of family Ranunculaceae in Taiwan.

  13. Towards Marine Spatial Planning in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Tsung Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to population growth, rapid economic development and inadequate marine control, the use of ocean and coastal regions in Taiwan has become more frequent and intense in recent years. However, the lack of comprehensive marine and coastal planning in this island nation has led to many conflicts over space and resources and limited its ability to prepare for and respond to environmental hazards, thus threatening national security as well as the safety and property of its citizens. This study proposes a marine zoning scheme for southern Taiwan. The results show that many important habitats in the southern sea areas have not been properly protected due to the extremely small size of the marine protected area. Furthermore, the majority of the conflicts derive from the exclusive fishing right vs. other uses such as marine conservation. Therefore, it is crucial to establish the marine spatial planning (MSP for the Southern Taiwan to deal with the conflicts of use seas and uncertainties associated with complex, heterogeneous, and dynamic marine system.

  14. Predictors of Burnout Among Nurses in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Huan-Fang; Yen, Miaofen; Fetzer, Susan; Chien, Tsair Wei

    2015-08-01

    Nurse burnout is a crucial issue for health care professionals and impacts nurse turnover and nursing shortages. Individual and situational factors are related to nurse burnout with predictors of burnout differing among cultures and health care systems. The predictors of nurse burnout in Asia, particularly Taiwan, are unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictors of burnout among a national sample of nurses in Taiwan. A secondary data analysis of a nationwide database investigated the predictors of burnout among 1,846 nurses in Taiwan. Hierarchical regression analysis determined the relationship between predictors and burnout. Predictors of Taiwanese nurse burnout were age, physical/psychological symptoms, job satisfaction, work engagement, and work environment. The most significant predictors were physical/psychological symptoms and work engagement. The variables explained 35, 39, and 18 % of the emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment, and depersonalization variance for 54 % of the total variance of burnout. Individual characteristics and nurse self-awareness, especially work, engagement can impact Taiwanese nurses' burnout. Nurse burnout predictors provide administrators with information to develop strategies including education programs and support services to reduce nurse burnout.

  15. Historical overview of Taenia asiatica in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Hong Kean; Ho, Chau-Mei; Chung, Wen-Cheng

    2013-02-01

    An overview of the epidemiological, biological, and clinical studies of Taenia and taeniasis in Taiwan for the past century is presented. The phenomenal observations that led to the discovery of Taenia asiatica as a new species, which differ from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, are described. Parasitological surveys of the aborigines in Taiwan revealed a high prevalence of taeniasis, which might be due to the culture of eating raw liver of hunted wild boars. Chemotherapeutic deworming trials involving many patients with taeniasis were discussed. Praziquantel was found to be very effective, but sometimes complete worms could not be recovered from the feces after treatment, probably due to the dissolution of the proglottids. Atabrine, despite some side effects, can still be used, in properly controlled dosages, as the drug of choice for human T. asiatica infection if we need to recover the expelled worms for morphological examinations. Research results on the infection of T. asiatica eggs from Taiwan aborigines in experimental animals were also noted. Since the pig serve as the natural intermediate host of T. asiatica and the predilection site is the liver, a differential comparison of other parasitic pathogens that might cause apparently similar lesions is also presented.

  16. Transformation of Taiwan's Upper Secondary Education System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueih-Lirng Laih

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the policy issues circling around the structural "transition" in upper secondary education implicit in the twenty-year increase in secondary and third-level school enrollment rates in Taiwan. This expansion has taken place within a secondary school system which is rigidly divided into both general, i.e., academic, and vocational tracks and into public and private sectors: the majority of students are enrolled in the private vocational sector which is only loosely articulated with the university sector. These features of the school system are analysed against the background of social and economic developments in Taiwan as well as public opinion. The analysis suggests that the present structures of school must be "reformed" in ways that will result in a more unified secondary system with both greater public funding and better articulation of all school types with the third level. The policy options that circle around the possibility of such reforms in the areas of curriculum, examination structures and second level-third level articulation are discussed and a policy framework for the reform of the Taiwan secondary education sector is outlined.

  17. Education of biomedical engineering in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kang-Ping; Kao, Tsair; Wang, Jia-Jung; Chen, Mei-Jung; Su, Fong-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical Engineers (BME) play an important role in medical and healthcare society. Well educational programs are important to support the healthcare systems including hospitals, long term care organizations, manufacture industries of medical devices/instrumentations/systems, and sales/services companies of medical devices/instrumentations/system. In past 30 more years, biomedical engineering society has accumulated thousands people hold a biomedical engineering degree, and work as a biomedical engineer in Taiwan. Most of BME students can be trained in biomedical engineering departments with at least one of specialties in bioelectronics, bio-information, biomaterials or biomechanics. Students are required to have internship trainings in related institutions out of campus for 320 hours before graduating. Almost all the biomedical engineering departments are certified by IEET (Institute of Engineering Education Taiwan), and met the IEET requirement in which required mathematics and fundamental engineering courses. For BMEs after graduation, Taiwanese Society of Biomedical Engineering (TSBME) provides many continue-learning programs and certificates for all members who expect to hold the certification as a professional credit in his working place. In current status, many engineering departments in university are continuously asked to provide joint programs with BME department to train much better quality students. BME is one of growing fields in Taiwan.

  18. Perspectives for solar thermal applications in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Keh-Chin; Lin, Wei-Min; Leu, Tzong-Shyng; Chung, Kung-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Taiwan has long depended on imported fossil energy. The government is thus actively promoting the use of renewable energy. Since 2000, domestic installations of solar water heaters have increased substantially because of the long-term subsidies provided for such systems. However, data on the annual installation area of solar collectors in recent years indicated that the solar thermal industry in Taiwan has reached a bottleneck. The long-term policy providing subsidies must thus be revised. It is proposed that future thermal applications in Taiwan should focus on building-integrated solar thermal, photovoltaic/thermal, and industrial heating processes. Regarding building-integrated solar thermal systems, the current subsidy model can be continued (according to area of solar collectors); nevertheless, the application of photovoltaic/thermal and industrial heating systems must be determined according to the thermal output of such systems. - Highlights: •The long-term subsidization for solar water heaters has lost effectiveness. •Solar thermal applications include BIST, PV/T and industrial heating process. •A performance-based subsidy policy should be implemented.

  19. Perceptions from epidemiologic research in an endemic war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenian, H K

    1989-01-01

    Several endemic wars have developed since the second world war. In these wars, like endemic diseases, war becomes an accepted and expected activity incorporated into the lives of a large proportion of the population. This paper illustrates some of the special problems of epidemiologic research in an endemic war based on a number of studies conducted in Lebanon over the past decade. The special problems faced by epidemiologists in an endemic war include; a situation of dynamic change where long term planning is next to impossible, the military sensitivities involved in data collection, and the compromises one has to make with scientific rigor. The paper concludes with a perspective for action by health professionals in wartime. It recommends preventive action in wartime in addition to relief and an involvement in the search for alternative approaches to conflict resolution.

  20. Rapid assessment of loiasis endemicity in northern Edo State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -Edo and Etsako East LGAs located in the northern part of Edo State, Nigeria was conducted to determine the endemicity of the disease and to classify the communities according to the level of risk to loiasis related adverse reactions.

  1. The dynamics of endemic malaria in populations of varying size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngwa, G.A.

    2001-10-01

    A mathematical model for endemic malaria involving variable human and mosquito populations is analysed. A threshold parameter R 0 exists and the disease can persist if and only if R 0 exceeds 1. R 0 is seen to be a generalisation of the basic reproduction ratio associated with the Ross-Macdonald model for malaria transmission. The disease free equilibrium always exist and is globally stable when R 0 is below 1. A perturbation analysis is used to approximate the endemic equilibrium in the important case where the disease related death rate is nonzero. A diffusion approximation is used to approximate the quasi-stationary distribution of the associated stochastic model. Numerical simulations show that when R 0 is distinctly greater than 1, the endemic deterministic equilibrium is globally stable. Furthermore, in quasi-stationarity, the stochastic process undergoes oscillations about a mean population whose size can be approximated by the stable endemic deterministic equilibrium. (author)

  2. Endemic infrared divergences in QED3 at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Pok Man; Swanson, Eric S.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that massless QED in three dimensions contains endemic infrared divergences. It is argued that these divergences do not affect observables; furthermore, it is possible to choose a gauge that renders the theory finite.

  3. Assessment of renewable energy reserves in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Falin; Lu, Shyi-Min; Tseng, Kuo-Tung; Wang, Eric; Lee, Si-Chen

    2010-01-01

    Since Taiwan imports more than 99% of energy supply from foreign countries, energy security has always been the first priority for government to formulate energy policy. The development of renewable energy not only contributes to the independence of energy supply, but also achieves benefits of economic development and environmental protection. Based upon information available to public, the present paper reassesses reserves of various renewable energies in Taiwan. The assessment includes seven kinds of renewable energies, namely, solar energy, wind power, biomass energy, wave energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy and hydropower, which are all commercialized and matured in terms of current technologies. Other renewable energies, which have not proven as matured as the aforementioned ones, are only assessed preliminarily in this paper, such as second generation of biomass, deep geothermal energy, the Kuroshio power generation and ocean thermal energy conversion. According to the estimation of this paper, the reserve of wind energy, up to 29.9 kWh/d/p (i.e., kWh per day per person), is the largest one among seven kinds of renewable energies in Taiwan, followed by 24.27 kWh/d/p of solar energy, 4.55 kWh/d/p of biomass, 4.58 kWh/d/p of ocean energy, 0.67 kWh/d/p of geothermal energy and 16.79 kWh/d/p of hydropower. If regarding biomass as a primary energy, and assuming 40% being the average efficiency to convert primary energy into electricity, the total power of the seven kinds of renewable energy reserves is about 78.03 kWh/d/p, which is equal to 2.75 times of 28.35 kWh/d/p of national power generation in 2008. If the reserves of 54.93 kWh/d/p estimated from other four kinds of renewable energies that have not technically matured yet are also taken into account, it will result that the reserves of renewable energy in Taiwan can be quite abundant. Although the results of the assessment point out that Taiwan has abundant renewable energy resources, the four inherent

  4. Current outlook of infectious diseases in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, M

    1998-06-01

    The "emerging" infectious diseases have received global attention. Taiwan is a country which is going through the process of becoming "developed" from being "developing". If we compare five leading causes of death in 1952 and in 1993, three were infectious diseases in 1952 and there was none in 1993. And yet today, infectious diseases remain a major problem in this country as well in every country in the world, whether developing or developed. Some of the problems Taiwan faces are old problems with old faces. They have never been adequately solved because the societal and environmental sanitary infrastructure does not ensure proper sewage disposal, safe potable water and freedom from dangerous vectors. Examples are the diarrheal diseases, parasitic diseases, scrub typhus and Japanese encephalitis. Some of the Taiwan's problems are caused by old agents which present a new face. Mortality from tuberculosis took a dramatic and gratifying plunge in the last fifty years. Yet tuberculosis is ever present and a constant public health threat. Dengue has become a problem again because of a world breakdown in the control of the mosquito, Aedes egypti, and it is partly contributed to by increased urbanization and world travel. The problem of antibiotic resistant bacteria causing hospital acquired and community acquired infections is probably the most serious "new" problem. The most important cause is excessive and indiscriminate use of antibiotics in the community and in hospitals. We propose the establishment of "Bacterial Infections Reference Laboratory" at the National Health Research Institutes to be a national facility to study the epidemiology and control of antibiotic resistance. All infectious diseases require a rigorous system of surveillance, and precise etiological diagnosis before they can be treated or prevented. This should be kept clearly in mind when one considers the changing role of the infectious disease physician in Taiwan in the face of unsolved disease

  5. A world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon I Hay

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient allocation of resources to intervene against malaria requires a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of malaria risk. It is exactly 40 y since the last global map of malaria endemicity was published. This paper describes the generation of a new world map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity for the year 2007.A total of 8,938 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR surveys were identified using a variety of exhaustive search strategies. Of these, 7,953 passed strict data fidelity tests for inclusion into a global database of PfPR data, age-standardized to 2-10 y for endemicity mapping. A model-based geostatistical procedure was used to create a continuous surface of malaria endemicity within previously defined stable spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission. These procedures were implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework so that the uncertainty of these predictions could be evaluated robustly. The uncertainty was expressed as the probability of predicting correctly one of three endemicity classes; previously stratified to be an informative guide for malaria control. Population at risk estimates, adjusted for the transmission modifying effects of urbanization in Africa, were then derived with reference to human population surfaces in 2007. Of the 1.38 billion people at risk of stable P. falciparum malaria, 0.69 billion were found in Central and South East Asia (CSE Asia, 0.66 billion in Africa, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia (Africa+, and 0.04 billion in the Americas. All those exposed to stable risk in the Americas were in the lowest endemicity class (PfPR2-10 5 to or = 40% areas. High endemicity was widespread in the Africa+ region, where 0.35 billion people are at this level of risk. Most of the rest live at intermediate risk (0.20 billion, with a smaller number (0.11 billion at low stable risk.High levels of P. falciparum malaria endemicity are common in Africa. Uniformly low endemic levels are

  6. A world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Simon I; Guerra, Carlos A; Gething, Peter W; Patil, Anand P; Tatem, Andrew J; Noor, Abdisalan M; Kabaria, Caroline W; Manh, Bui H; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Brooker, Simon; Smith, David L; Moyeed, Rana A; Snow, Robert W

    2009-03-24

    Efficient allocation of resources to intervene against malaria requires a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of malaria risk. It is exactly 40 y since the last global map of malaria endemicity was published. This paper describes the generation of a new world map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity for the year 2007. A total of 8,938 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys were identified using a variety of exhaustive search strategies. Of these, 7,953 passed strict data fidelity tests for inclusion into a global database of PfPR data, age-standardized to 2-10 y for endemicity mapping. A model-based geostatistical procedure was used to create a continuous surface of malaria endemicity within previously defined stable spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission. These procedures were implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework so that the uncertainty of these predictions could be evaluated robustly. The uncertainty was expressed as the probability of predicting correctly one of three endemicity classes; previously stratified to be an informative guide for malaria control. Population at risk estimates, adjusted for the transmission modifying effects of urbanization in Africa, were then derived with reference to human population surfaces in 2007. Of the 1.38 billion people at risk of stable P. falciparum malaria, 0.69 billion were found in Central and South East Asia (CSE Asia), 0.66 billion in Africa, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia (Africa+), and 0.04 billion in the Americas. All those exposed to stable risk in the Americas were in the lowest endemicity class (PfPR2-10 5 to or = 40%) areas. High endemicity was widespread in the Africa+ region, where 0.35 billion people are at this level of risk. Most of the rest live at intermediate risk (0.20 billion), with a smaller number (0.11 billion) at low stable risk. High levels of P. falciparum malaria endemicity are common in Africa. Uniformly low endemic levels are found in the

  7. Endemic harvestmen and spiders of Austria (Arachnida: Opiliones, Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komposch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive overview of plant, fungus and animal species of Austria revealed a total of 748 endemic and subendemic species, including, 11 harvestman and 46 spider species. Altogether two endemic harvestmen (Nemastoma bidentatum relictum, Nemastoma schuelleri and 8 endemic spiders (Abacoproeces molestus, Collinsia (caliginosa nemenziana, Mughiphantes severus, Mughiphantes styriacus, Pelecopsis alpica, Scotophaeus nanus, Troglohyphantes novicordis, Troglohyphantes tauriscus, beside 9 subendemic harvestman and 38 subendemic spider species have been recorded from Austria. Hot-spots of endemism in the Eastern Alps are the north-eastern (Ennstaler Alps and southern Calcareous Alps (Karawanken, Karnische Alps and the Central Alps (Hohe Tauern, Gurktaler Alps, Ötztaler and Stubaier Alps. Most of the endemic arachnid species occur from the nival down to the montane zone. Important habitats are rocky areas, caves and woodlands. High absolute numbers and percentages of endemics can be found within the harvestman families Cladonychiidae, Ischyropsalididae and Nemastomatidae and in the spider genera Lepthyphantes s. l. and Troglohyphantes. The conservation status of these highly endangered taxa – 85 % of the spider species and 100 % of the harvestman taxa are endangered in Austria – is poor.

  8. Therapy of endemic goitre; Therapie der Jodmangelstruma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leisner, B. [Allg. Krankenhaus St. Georg, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1995-12-01

    1. In childhood the first line treatment of endemic goitre is Kl (100-150 {mu}g/day). Once the goitre volume has shrinked during L-thyroxine treatment in older patients, this effect is to be maintained by Kl ({proportional_to}200 {mu}g/day). The same holds true after surgery in cases with normal TSH responsiveness to TRH. 2. TSH suppressive L-thyroxine therapy is indicated in goitre patients older than 40 years. However, the effectiveness will be limited by the nodularity of the thyroid. So prevention of further growth prevails over true tissue reduction. 3. Obviously thyroid surgery yields the best cosmetic results with an acceptably low complication rate. When euthyroidism is established, a lifelong iodine prophylaxy (200 {mu}g/day) of recurrent goitre is mandatory. In cases with latent or overt hypothyroidism an appropriate therapy with thyroid hormone should be given. 4. By radiodine it is possible to realize a short term volume loss of 30-40% which may increase further on up to 60%. Relief of symptoms is usually even more impressive than actual volume loss. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] 1. Kaliumjodid ist heute das Mittel der Wahl zur Behandlung der Jodmangelstruma von Kindern (100 {mu}g) und Jugendlichen (150 {mu}g). Lebenslange Einnahme von Jodid (200 {mu}g) dient der Erhaltung einer Organverkleinerung, die durch L-Thyroxin bei aelteren Patienten erreicht wurde, und postoperativ bei gesicherter Euthyreose (TSH). In der Schwangerschaft ist eine Jodid-Medikation fuer Mutter und Kind erforderlich. 2. L-Thyroxin in TSH-suppressiver Dosierung sollte eingesetzt werden, wenn mit Jodid kein Verkleinerungseffekt erreichbar ist. Primaer ist es indiziert bei Patienten ueber 40 Jahren. Postoperativ muss L-Thyroxin dann verordnet werden, wenn eine latente oder manifeste Hypothyreose gesichert ist. Damit behandelt es sich aber nicht um eine Rezidiv-Prophylaxe im engeren Sinn. 3. Eine wirkliche Substanzverminderung des Kropfes gelingt durch die operative Resektion. Eine konsequente

  9. Watershed management for disaster mitigation and sustainable development in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Cheng; H. K. Hsu; Way Jane Ho; T. C. Chen

    2000-01-01

    Heavy torrential rains during the typhoon season, steep topography, young and weak geologic formations, erodible soils and improper land uses are factors contributing to disasters associated with erosion, landslides, debris flows, and floods in Taiwan. With steady public and government support over the past 5 decades, Taiwan's watershed management program in which...

  10. The Buddha and the Computer: Career Guidance in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Martin R.

    Career decision making in Taiwan was examined in the context of a society undergoing dynamic change as modern entrepreneurial values are accommodated in a cherished traditional culture. Especially during the past 20 years, the economy of Taiwan has changed from agriculture to technology. At the same time, the educational needs of students have…

  11. Social Context, Parental Exogamy and Hakka Language Retention in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Jie-Sheng; Kuan, Ping-Yin; Lomeli, Arlett

    2016-01-01

    The Hakka people, the largest ethno-linguistic minority group in Taiwan, have found their ethnic language retention diminishing. Using the data collected by the Taiwan Education Panel Survey and Beyond in 2010, we are the first to study its reason for decrease. Results indicate that out-marriage amongst Hakka people and losing ethnic concentration…

  12. Transformation and Framework of Teacher Professional Development in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo-Ruey

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the situation of teacher professional development in Taiwan, including the history and the framework of teacher professional development. With diversification of teacher education systems and institutions, teacher professional development in Taiwan is undergoing a gradual governance shift from the model of centralised state…

  13. The United States, China and Taiwan: Reunification, Reconciliation or War?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fogarty, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    ....), the Peoples Republic of China (PRO) and Taiwan from 1949 until 2020. The primary question this project will attempt to answer is whether the three countries will be able to achieve a peaceful resolution to ongoing tensions over the Taiwan Straits...

  14. A Case Study of Undergraduate Course Syllabi in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Yao-Tsu

    2010-01-01

    Higher education in Taiwan has been influenced by U.S. and Western practices, and syllabi represent one means to verify this. However, limited research exists in Taiwan on course syllabi and on similarities of syllabi with practices in other countries. In the U.S. as the paradigm shifted from teaching to learning and to the learning-centered…

  15. Teacher Preparation for Early Childhood: Special Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hua-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is intended to present the current model of teacher preparation for early childhood special education in Taiwan. Documentary analysis was conducted in the study to collect and analyze the obtained data. The main features of teacher preparation policies for early childhood special education in Taiwan could be summarized…

  16. Taiwan Teacher Preparation Program Evaluation: Some Critical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tze-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the influences and changes of recent Taiwan teacher preparation program evaluation (TTPPE) as one of the national evaluation projects conducted by the Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan. The main concerns are what kind of ideology is transformed through the policy by means of evaluation, and what…

  17. Teaching Benchmark Strategy for Fifth-Graders in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Der-Ching; Lai, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    The key purpose of this study was how we taught the use of benchmark strategy when comparing fraction for fifth-graders in Taiwan. 26 fifth graders from a public elementary in south Taiwan were selected to join this study. Results of this case study showed that students had a much progress on the use of benchmark strategy when comparing fraction…

  18. Research on English Teaching and Learning: Taiwan (2004-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Suchiao; Tsai, Yachin

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes research in second/foreign language teaching and learning conducted in Taiwan over the period 2004-2009. Representative articles published in local refereed journals and conference proceedings--not readily accessible outside Taiwan--are reviewed to reflect current trends in English teaching and learning. The main themes…

  19. Kindergarten Teachers' Experience with Reporting Child Abuse in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Huang, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Chi-Jen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objectives were to examine factors associated with reporting child abuse among kindergarten teachers in Taiwan based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Method: A stratified quota sampling technique was used to randomly select kindergarten teachers in Taiwan. The Child Abuse Intention Report Scale, which includes demographics,…

  20. Counseling Psychology Licensure in Taiwan: Development, Challenges, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-fei; Kwan, Kwong-Liem K.; Huang, Su-Fei

    2011-01-01

    The development and consequences of licensure for counseling psychologists in Taiwan are presented to promote cross-cultural awareness surrounding issues in the counseling psychology profession. The national licensure statute for counseling psychologists in Taiwan was established by the Taiwanese Legislature in 2001. While the licensing system…

  1. GIS Adoption among Senior High School Geography Teachers in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Jinn-Guey; Chen, Yu-Wen; Chi, Yu-Lin

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the adoption of geographic information system (GIS) knowledge and skills through in-service training for high school geography teachers in Taiwan. Through statistical analysis of primary data collected from a census of Taiwan's high school geography teachers, it explores what motivates these teachers to undertake GIS…

  2. Rebuilding Public Trust in the Taiwan Military: A Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Social Media and the Media Usage Spectrum...Picture. Source: Google Image Search (2016). .....61  xiii LIST OF TABLES   Taiwan Social Media Usage Rate. Source: Ixresearch (2015...and profits. (2012) 3. Social Media and the Media Usage Spectrum in Taiwan In modern times, social media has proven to be an efficient marketing

  3. A Taiwan Study Abroad Program on Aging, Culture, and Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Su-I

    2018-01-01

    This article introduces a Taiwan Study Abroad program on aging, culture, and healthcare. The program is a short-term academic summer program (6 credits) to bring U.S. students to Taiwan. During 2011 ~ 2015, a total of four groups including over 54 students and faculty members participated. This program partnered with multiple universities,…

  4. COPD in Taiwan: a National Epidemiology Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng SL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shih-Lung Cheng,1,2 Ming-Cheng Chan,3 Chin-Chou Wang,4 Ching-Hsiung Lin,5 Hao-Chien Wang,6 Jeng-Yuan Hsu,3 Liang-Wen Hang,7,8 Chee-Jen Chang,9 Diahn-Warng Perng,10,* Chong-Jen Yu6,* On behalf of the Taiwan COPD Consortium 1Department of Internal Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei City, 2Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li City, Taoyuan County, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, 5Division of Chest Medicine, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua City, Changhua County, 6Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, 7Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Sleep Medicine Center, China Medical University Hospital, 8Department of Respiratory Therapy, College of Health Care, China Medical University, Taichung, 9Biostatistical Center for Clinical Research, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou Branch, Guishan Township, Taoyuan County, 10Department of Chest Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objectives: To determine the prevalence of COPD in Taiwan and to document the disease characteristics and associated risk factors.Methods: We conducted a random cross-sectional national survey of adults older than 40 years in Taiwan. Respiratory health screening questions identified subjects with diagnosed COPD or whose reported symptoms also fulfilled an epidemiological case definition; these were eligible to complete the survey, which also included indices of symptom severity and disability and questions on comorbidities, medical treatments, smoking habits, and occupations potentially harmful to respiratory health. Subjects with diagnosed COPD were subdivided by smoking status. Subjects who fulfilled the case definition

  5. Epidemiology of Enterovirus 71 Infections in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yuan Chia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 was first described in USA in 1969 but retrospective studies in The Netherlands further detected EV71 in the clinical specimens collected in 1963. EV71 has one single serotype measured by using hyperimmune animal antisera but can be phylogenetically classified into three genogroups (A, B, and C including 11 genotypes (A, B1–B5, C1–C5. In Taiwan, EV71 caused a large-scale nationwide epidemic in 1998. Retrospective studies further detected EV71 in clinical specimens collected from hand–foot–mouth disease patients in 1980 and 1986. Therefore, EV71 may have circulated in Taiwan prior to 1980. Since 1998, EV71 has cyclically caused nationwide epidemics with different predominant genotypes in 1998 (genotype C2, 2000–2001 (B4, 2005 (C4, 2008 (B5, and 2012 (B5. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that C4 viruses isolated in 2005 were probably from China, B5 viruses isolated in 2008 were probably from South Eastern Asia, and B5 viruses isolated in 2012 were probably from Xiamen, China. Several studies have collected postinfection sera from children to measure cross-reactive neutralizing antibody titers against different EV71 genotypes and found that antigenic differences between genogroup B and C viruses did not have a clear pattern but that genotype A virus was antigenically different from genogroup B and C viruses. In conclusion, EV71 cyclically caused nationwide epidemics through international importations. EV71 surveillance in Taiwan should combine genetic and serological methods.

  6. Governance and Economic Transformation in Taiwan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Laurids Sandager

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the strengths and weaknesses of the developmental-state approach as compared with a broader and more flexible developmental-governance approach – in relation to economic transformation in a single case country, Taiwan. It argues that both approaches have strong and weak points......, and comes down in favour of the view that it is only through a ‘thick’ study of political forces, processes and circumstances that the reasoning behind developmental policies and institutions can be understood and the processes of economic transformation explained....

  7. Regulatory System of Radiation Protection in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F. T.; Huang, C. C.

    2004-01-01

    After the radioactive contaminated buildings incident occurred in Taiwan in 1993, the competent authority for radiation protection the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) started to review the structured problem of radiation protection regulatory system. Through several years' investigation and study, the AEC has improved two important tools in radiation protection regulatory system, i.e., control regulations and actual practice, and made them more rigorous and efficient. This paper will make a brief introduction of the efforts that Taiwan has made in this respect. Taiwan's radiation protection control was based on the Atomic Energy Law promulgated in 1968, but the control idea and authorization scope were not sufficient to appropriately respond to the highly developed economy and democracy in Taiwan. After several years' legislative process, the Ionizing Radiation Protection Law (IRP Law) was promulgated and entered into force on February 1, 2003. This IRP Law specifically emphasizes categorized risk management of radiation sources, establishment of personnel licenses and training system, enhancement of public safety control, and implementation of quality assurance program for medical exposure. The Legislative Yuan (Congress) fully authorized the competent authority to establish various technological control regulations according to control necessity without prior review by the Legislative Yuan in advance. As to the penalties of the violations of the IRP Law, the AEC adopts high-rated administrative fines and applies the Criminal Law to those who seriously contaminate the environment. In actual practice, the AEC has constructed a Radiation Protection Control Information System compatible with the IRP Law that fully combines the functions of computers and Internet. The information of facility operators who own radiation sources, radiation protection specialists, and operating personnel are entered into this system, starting from the submission of application of the

  8. High Incidence of Mammalian Orthoreovirus Identified by Environmental Surveillance in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Y Lim

    Full Text Available Wild poliovirus (WPV persists in diverse locales worldwide, spreading outward from endemic areas. In response to the international threat of WPV transmission and changes in the national vaccination policy, we established an environmental surveillance system to monitor the circulation of wild and vaccine-related poliovirus in Taiwan. From July 2012 to December 2013, we collected sewage specimens every month from 10 sewage treatment plants located throughout Taiwan. The specimens were concentrated by the two-phase separation method and then inoculated into L20B, RD, and A549 cells for virus isolation. Viral isolates were identified and serotyped by immunofluorescence assay or molecular analysis. A total of 300 sewage samples were collected, and the results showed 163 samples (54.3% were positive for virus, and 268 isolates were identified. Among these, 75 samples (25% were positive for enterovirus (EV, but no poliovirus was found. In addition, 92 isolates were identified as enteroviruses and the most common serotypes were coxsackievirus B4, coxsackievirus B3, and coxsackievirus B2. Interestingly, 102 (34% and 82 (27.3% specimens were positive for mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV and adenovirus, respectively. This study confirmed that sewage surveillance can be a useful additional modality for monitoring the possible presence of wild-type or vaccine-derived poliovirus in wastewater, and can indicate the current types of viruses circulating in the population. Furthermore, since MRV was found in children with acute necrotizing encephalopathy and meningitis, the high incidence of MRV detected by environmental surveillance warrants further investigation.

  9. Delineation of an endemic tick paralysis zone in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Zoe; Kelman, Mark; Ward, Michael P

    2017-11-30

    Tick paralysis has a major impact on pet dog and cat populations in southeastern Australia. It results from envenomation by Ixodes holocyclus and Ixodes cornuatus ticks, the role of Ixodes cornuatus in the epidemiology of this disease in Australia being unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the geographical distribution of tick paralysis cases in southeastern Australia using data from a national disease surveillance system and to compare characteristics of "endemic" cases with those reported outside this endemic zone ("sporadic" cases). Data were collated and a proportional symbol map of all cases by postcode was created. A 15-case isopleth was developed based on descriptive spatial statistics (directional ellipses) and then kernel smoothing to distinguish endemic from sporadic cases. During the study period (January 2010-December 2015) 12,421 cases were reported, and 10,839 of these reported by clinics located in 434 postcodes were included in the study. Endemic cases were predominantly reported from postcodes in coastal southeastern Australia, from southern Queensland to eastern Victoria. Of those cases meeting selection criteria, within the endemic zone 10,767 cases were reported from 351 (88%) postcodes and outside this zone 72 cases were reported from 48 (12%) postcodes. Of these latter 48 postcodes, 18 were in Victoria (26 cases), 16 in New South Wales (28 cases), 7 in Tasmania (9 cases), 5 in South Australia (7 cases) and 2 in Queensland (2 cases). Seasonal distribution in reporting was found: 62% of endemic and 52% of sporadic cases were reported in spring. The number of both endemic and sporadic cases reported peaked in October and November, but importantly a secondary peak in reporting of sporadic cases in April was found. In non-endemic areas, summer was the lowest risk season whilst in endemic areas, autumn was the lowest risk season. Two clusters of sporadic cases were identified, one in South Australia (P=0.022) during the period 22 May to 2

  10. [An outline medical history of Taiwan (I): the period of folklore medicine and witch doctor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C

    1997-01-01

    The paper makes a correlated analysis on the origin of health folklore between Chinese in mainland and Taiwan island. After quoting literatures written by authors living in the Qing dynasty in Taiwan, this paper analyses health condition among aboriginals of Taiwan during the witchcraft age. Along with the increasing immigration from China mainland to Taiwan island, health of folklore and gods from China mainland were introduced into Taiwan, hence the period of witch doctor in Taiwan, featuring the correlation of both. Though modern medicine in Taiwan is so advanced, yet there are still witch doctors elsewhere.

  11. The Geothermal Potential, Current and Opportunity in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sheng-Rong

    2016-04-01

    Located in the west Pacific Rim of Fire, Taiwan possesses rich geothermal resources due to volcanic activities and rapid uplifting of plate collision. Based on available data prior to 1980, Taiwan may have about 1 GWe of potential shallow geothermal energy, which is less than 3% of the national gross power generation. A 3-Mw pilot power plant, therefore, was constructed in 1981 and terminated in 1993 in the Chingshui geothermal field of Ilan, northeastern Taiwan. Recently, one of the National Science & Technology Program (NSTP) projects has been conducting research and reevaluating the island-wide deep geothermal energy. Four hot potential sites have been recognized. They are: (1) Tatun Volcano Group of northern Taiwan; (2) I-Lan Plain of NE Taiwan; (3) Lu-Shan area of Central Taiwan; and (4) Hua-Tung area of eastern Taiwan. We found that the geothermal resource in Taiwan may be as high as 160 GWe, with 33.6 GWe of exploitable geothermal energy. There are no any commercial geothermal power plants until now in Taiwan, although the potential is great. However, geothermal energy has been listed as one of major tasks of National Energy Program, Phase II (NEP-II) in Taiwan. We will conduct more detailed geothermal energy surveys on some proposed hot sites and to construct an EGS pilot geothermal plant with 1 MWe capability in a few years. Currently, there are three nuclear power plants, named No. 1, 2 & 3, in operations, which produce 16.5% gross generation of electricity and one (No. 4) is under construction, but is stopped and sealed now in Taiwan. Furthermore, the life-span of 40-year operation for those three power plants will be close-at hand and retire in 2018-2019, 2021-2023 and 2024-2025, respectively. Therefore, to find alternative energy sources, especially on the clean, renewable and sustainable ones for generating electricity are emergent and important for Taiwan's government in next few years. Among various energy sources, geothermal energy can be as base

  12. Airport sentinel surveillance and entry quarantine for dengue infections following a fever screening program in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue has not reached an endemic status in Taiwan; nevertheless, we have implemented a fever screening program at airports for the early detection of febrile passengers with a dengue infection. This study is intended to assess the performance of the airport screening procedures for dengue infection. Methods We analyzed data from the national surveillance system of the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control. We included the imported dengue cases reported by sentinel airports and clinics as well as the domestic cases from 2007–2010. Results Approximately 44.9% (95%CI: 35.73-54.13%) of the confirmed imported dengue cases with an apparent symptom (febrile) in the viremic stage were detected via the airport fever screening program, with an estimated positive predictive value of 2.36% (95% CI: 0.96- 3.75%) and a negative predictive value > 99.99%. Fluctuations in the number of the symptomatic imported dengue cases identified in the airports (X) were associated with the total number of imported dengue cases (Y) based on a regression analysis of a biweekly surveillance (i.e., n = 104, R2X:Y = 0.61, P dengue cases (X) with a 1–2 month lead time (t) was in parallel with that of the domestic dengue cases (Y) based on a consecutive 4-year surveillance (i.e., n = 48, R2X(t-1):Y = 0.22, R2X(t-2):Y = 0.31, P dengue at the airports examined in this study indicated some limitations of the fever screening program for the prevention of importation. The screening program could assist in the rapid triage for self-quarantine of some symptomatic dengue cases that were in the viremic stage at the borders and contribute to active sentinel surveillance; however, the blocking of viral transmission to susceptible populations (neighbors or family) from all of the viremic travelers, including those with or without symptoms, is critical to prevent dengue epidemics. Therefore, the reinforcement of mosquito bite prevention and household vector control in

  13. Epidemiological trends and the effect of airport fever screening on prevention of domestic dengue fever outbreaks in Taiwan, 1998-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Mei-Mei; Lin, Ting; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang; Wu, Ho-Sheng

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the epidemiological trends in dengue infection and the impact of imported cases and airport fever screening on community transmission in Taiwan, a dengue non-endemic island. All of the dengue case data were obtained from the surveillance system of the Taiwan Center for Disease Control and were analyzed by Pearson correlations, linear regression, and geographical information system (GIS)-based mapping. The impact of implementing airport fever screening was evaluated using the Student's t-test and two-way analysis of variance. A total of 10 351 dengue cases, including 7.1% of imported cases were investigated between 1998 and 2007. The majority of indigenous dengue cases (98.5%) were significantly clustered in southern Taiwan; 62.9% occurred in the metropolitan areas. The seasonality of dengue cases showed a peak from September to November. Airport fever screening was successful in identifying 45% (244/542 ; 95% confidence interval 33.1-57.8%) of imported dengue cases with fever. However, no statistical difference was found regarding the impact on community transmission when comparing the presence and absence of airport fever screening. Our results show that airport fever screening had a positive effect on partially blocking the local transmission of imported dengue cases, while those undetected cases due to latent or asymptomatic infection would be the source of new dengue outbreaks each year. Copyright © 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. "Foreign brides" meet ethnic politics in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang

    2011-01-01

    A great number of women from China, Vietnam, and Indonesia recently arrived in Taiwan to marry men of lower social strata. Such an unusual pattern of migration has stimulated debates about the status and the citizenship of the new arrivals. This study analyzes Taiwanese responses toward these marriage migrants by using a national survey conducted in 2004. Three aspects of restrictive attitudes were tapped concerning these newcomers: (1) rights to work; (2) access to public health insurance; and (3) full citizenship. Immigrants from China were most opposed, compared to women with other origins (Southeast Asia, Japan, Europe, and the US). The seemingly unrelated regression estimation regression results do not support the split labor market hypotheses, as marriage migrants do not appear to be economic threats toward members of the lower classes. In contrast, ethnic nationalism plays a key role in determining the natives’ restrictive attitudes. The case of Taiwan represents a special genre, where ethnic politics selectively arouses the social rejection of women immigrants of certain origins.

  15. Molluscan fauna of Gueishan Island, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This dataset records the occurrence and inventory of molluscan fauna on Gueishan Island, the only active volcanic island in Taiwan, based on the literature survey and field investigation conducted between 2011 and 2012. The literature review involved seven studies published from 1934 to 2003, which collectively reported 112 species from 61 genera and 37 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. Through our field investigation, we identified 34 species from 28 genera and 23 families. Fourteen of these species were new records on Gueishan Island: Liolophura japonica, Lottia luchuana, Nerita costata, Nerita rumphii, Diplommatina suganikeiensis, Littoraria undulata, Solenomphala taiwanensis, Assiminea sp., Siphonaria laciniosa, Laevapex nipponica, Carychium hachijoensis, Succinea erythrophana, Zaptyx crassilamellata, and Allopeas pyrgula. In Total, there are 126 species from 71 genera and 45 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. These data have been published through GBIF [http://taibif.org.tw/ipt/resource.do?r=gueishan_island] and integrated into the Taiwan Malacofauna Database (http://shell.sinica.edu.tw/.

  16. Recycling and reuse of industrial wastes in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, M S; Huang, K H

    2001-01-01

    Eighteen million metric tons of industrial wastes are produced every year in Taiwan. In order to properly handle the industrial wastes, the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (Taiwan EPA) has set up strategic programs that include establishment of storage, treatment, and final disposal systems, establishment of a management center for industrial wastes, and promotion of recycling and reuse of industrial wastes. The Taiwan EPA has been actively promoting the recycling and reuse of industrial wastes over the years. In July 1995 the Taiwan EPA amended and promulgated the Criteria for the Industrial Waste Storage, Collection and Processing Facility, July, 1995 that added articles related to general industrial waste recycling and reuse. In June 1996 the Taiwan EPA promulgated the Non-listed General Industrial Waste Reuse Application Procedures, June, 1996, followed by the Regulations Governing the Permitting of Hazardous Industrial Waste Reuse, June 1996, setting up a full regulatory framework for governing industrial waste reuse. To broaden the recycling and reuse of general industrial wastes, the Taiwan EPA has listed 14 industrial waste items for recycling and reuse, including waste paper, waste iron, coal ash, tempered high furnace bricks (cinder), high furnace bricks (cinder), furnace transfer bricks (cinder), sweetening dregs, wood (whole/part), glass (whole/part), bleaching earth, ceramics (pottery, brick, tile and cast sand), individual metal scraps (copper, zinc, aluminum and tin), distillery grain (dregs) and plastics. As of June 1999, 99 applications for reuse of industrial wastes had been approved with 1.97 million metric tons of industrial wastes being reused.

  17. Real-Time Surveillance of Infectious Diseases: Taiwan's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Shu-Wan; Chen, Chiu-Mei; Lee, Cheng-Yi; Liu, Ding-Ping

    Integration of multiple surveillance systems advances early warning and supports better decision making during infectious disease events. Taiwan has a comprehensive network of laboratory, epidemiologic, and early warning surveillance systems with nationwide representation. Hospitals and clinical laboratories have deployed automatic reporting mechanisms since 2014 and have effectively improved timeliness of infectious disease and laboratory data reporting. In June 2016, the capacity of real-time surveillance in Taiwan was externally assessed and was found to have a demonstrated and sustainable capability. We describe Taiwan's disease surveillance system and use surveillance efforts for influenza and Zika virus as examples of surveillance capability. Timely and integrated influenza information showed a higher level and extended pattern of influenza activity during the 2015-16 season, which ensured prompt information dissemination and the coordination of response operations. Taiwan also has well-developed disease detection systems and was the first country to report imported cases of Zika virus from Miami Beach and Singapore. This illustrates a high level of awareness and willingness among health workers to report emerging infectious diseases, and highlights the robust and sensitive nature of Taiwan's surveillance system. These 2 examples demonstrate the flexibility of the surveillance systems in Taiwan to adapt to emerging infectious diseases and major communicable diseases. Through participation in the GHSA, Taiwan can more actively collaborate with national counterparts and use its expertise to strengthen global and regional surveillance capacity in the Asia Pacific and in Southeast Asia, in order to advance a world safe and secure from infectious disease.

  18. Liver Stage specific response among Endemic Populations: Diet & Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarat Kumar Dalai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing effective anti-malarial vaccine has been a challenge for long. Various factors including complex life cycle of parasite and lack of knowledge of stage specific critical antigens are some of the reasons. Moreover, inadequate understanding of the immune responses vis-à-vis sterile protection induced naturally by Plasmodia infection has further compounded the problem. It has been shown that people living in endemic areas take years to develop protective immunity to blood stage infection. But hardly anyone believes that immunity to liver-stage infection could be developed. Various experimental model studies using attenuated parasite suggest that liver stage immunity might exist among endemic populations. This could be induced because of the attenuation of parasite in liver by various compounds present in the diet of endemic populations.

  19. Does Large Genome Size Limit Speciation in Endemic Island Floras?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Kapralov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome sizes in plants vary by several orders of magnitude, and this diversity may have evolutionary consequences. Large genomes contain mainly noncoding DNA that may impose high energy and metabolic costs for their bearers. Here we test the large genome constraint hypothesis, which assumes that plant lineages with large genomes are diversifying more slowly Knight et al. (2005, using endemic floras of the oceanic archipelagos of the Canaries, Hawaii, and Marquesas Islands. In line with this hypothesis, the number of endemic species per genus is negatively correlated with genus-average genome size for island radiations on Hawaiian and Marquesas archipelagos. However, we do not find this correlation on the Canaries, which are close to the continent and therefore have higher immigration rate and lower endemism compared to Hawaii. Further work on a larger number of floras is required to test the generality of the large genome constraint hypothesis.

  20. Elevational plant species richness patterns and their drivers across non-endemics, endemics and growth forms in the Eastern Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manish, Kumar; Pandit, Maharaj K; Telwala, Yasmeen; Nautiyal, Dinesh C; Koh, Lian Pin; Tiwari, Sudha

    2017-09-01

    Despite decades of research, ecologists continue to debate how spatial patterns of species richness arise across elevational gradients on the Earth. The equivocal results of these studies could emanate from variations in study design, sampling effort and data analysis. In this study, we demonstrate that the richness patterns of 2,781 (2,197 non-endemic and 584 endemic) angiosperm species along an elevational gradient of 300-5,300 m in the Eastern Himalaya are hump-shaped, spatial scale of extent (the proportion of elevational gradient studied) dependent and growth form specific. Endemics peaked at higher elevations than non-endemics across all growth forms (trees, shrubs, climbers, and herbs). Richness patterns were influenced by the proportional representation of the largest physiognomic group (herbs). We show that with increasing spatial scale of extent, the richness patterns change from a monotonic to a hump-shaped pattern and richness maxima shift toward higher elevations across all growth forms. Our investigations revealed that the combination of ambient energy (air temperature, solar radiation, and potential evapo-transpiration) and water availability (soil water content and precipitation) were the main drivers of elevational plant species richness patterns in the Himalaya. This study highlights the importance of factoring in endemism, growth forms, and spatial scale when investigating elevational gradients of plant species distributions and advances our understanding of how macroecological patterns arise.

  1. The Critical Role of Early Dengue Surveillance and Limitations of Clinical Reporting - Implications for Non-Endemic Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Hung Kao

    Full Text Available The increasing dengue burden and epidemic severity worldwide have highlighted the need to improve surveillance. In non-endemic areas such as Taiwan, where outbreaks start mostly with imported cases from Southeast Asia, a closer examination of surveillance dynamics to detect cases early is necessary. To evaluate problems with dengue surveillance and investigate the involvement of different factors at various epidemic stages, we investigated 632 laboratory-confirmed indigenous dengue cases in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan during 2009-2010. The estimated sensitivity of clinical surveillance was 82.4% (521/632. Initially, the modified serological surveillance (targeting only the contacts of laboratory-confirmed dengue cases identified clinically unrecognized afebrile cases in younger patients who visited private clinics and accounted for 30.4% (35/115 of the early-stage cases. Multivariate regression indicated that hospital/medical center visits [Adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR: 11.6, 95% confidence interval (CI: 6.3-21.4], middle epidemic stage [aOR: 2.4 (1.2-4.7], fever [aOR: 2.3 (2.3-12.9], and musculo-articular pain [aOR: 1.9 (1.05-3.3] were significantly associated with clinical reporting. However, cases with pruritus/rash [aOR: 0.47 (0.26-0.83] and diarrhea [aOR: 0.47 (0.26-0.85] were underreported. In conclusion, multiple factors contributed to dengue surveillance problems. To prevent a large-scale epidemic and minimize severe dengue cases, there is a need for integrated surveillance incorporating entomological, clinical, serological, and virological surveillance systems to detect early cases, followed by immediate prevention and control measures and continuous evaluation to ensure effectiveness. This effort will be particularly important for an arbovirus, such as Zika virus, with a high asymptomatic infection ratio. For dengue- non-endemic countries, we recommend serological surveillance be implemented in areas with high Aedes mosquito indices or many

  2. The Critical Role of Early Dengue Surveillance and Limitations of Clinical Reporting - Implications for Non-Endemic Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Jui-Hung; Chen, Chaur-Dong; Tiger Li, Zheng-Rong; Chan, Ta-Chien; Tung, Tsung-Hwa; Chu, Yin-Hsia; Cheng, Hau-Yuan; Liu, Jien-Wei; Shih, Fuh-Yuan; Shu, Pei-Yun; Lin, Chien-Chou; Tsai, Wu-Hsiung; Ku, Chia-Chi; Ho, Chi-Kung; King, Chwan-Chuen

    2016-01-01

    The increasing dengue burden and epidemic severity worldwide have highlighted the need to improve surveillance. In non-endemic areas such as Taiwan, where outbreaks start mostly with imported cases from Southeast Asia, a closer examination of surveillance dynamics to detect cases early is necessary. To evaluate problems with dengue surveillance and investigate the involvement of different factors at various epidemic stages, we investigated 632 laboratory-confirmed indigenous dengue cases in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan during 2009-2010. The estimated sensitivity of clinical surveillance was 82.4% (521/632). Initially, the modified serological surveillance (targeting only the contacts of laboratory-confirmed dengue cases) identified clinically unrecognized afebrile cases in younger patients who visited private clinics and accounted for 30.4% (35/115) of the early-stage cases. Multivariate regression indicated that hospital/medical center visits [Adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR): 11.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.3-21.4], middle epidemic stage [aOR: 2.4 (1.2-4.7)], fever [aOR: 2.3 (2.3-12.9)], and musculo-articular pain [aOR: 1.9 (1.05-3.3)] were significantly associated with clinical reporting. However, cases with pruritus/rash [aOR: 0.47 (0.26-0.83)] and diarrhea [aOR: 0.47 (0.26-0.85)] were underreported. In conclusion, multiple factors contributed to dengue surveillance problems. To prevent a large-scale epidemic and minimize severe dengue cases, there is a need for integrated surveillance incorporating entomological, clinical, serological, and virological surveillance systems to detect early cases, followed by immediate prevention and control measures and continuous evaluation to ensure effectiveness. This effort will be particularly important for an arbovirus, such as Zika virus, with a high asymptomatic infection ratio. For dengue- non-endemic countries, we recommend serological surveillance be implemented in areas with high Aedes mosquito indices or many breeding

  3. The mammalian faunas endemic to the Cerrado and the Caatinga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E; Marinho-Filho, Jader

    2017-01-01

    We undertook a comprehensive, critical review of literature concerning the distribution, conservation status, and taxonomy of species of mammals endemic to the Cerrado and the Caatinga, the two largest biomes of the South American Dry-Diagonal. We present species accounts and lists of species, which we built with criteria that, in our opinion, yielded results with increased scientific rigor relative to previously published lists - e.g., excluding nominal taxa whose statuses as species have been claimed only on the basis of unpublished data, incomplete taxonomic work, or weak evidence. For various taxa, we provided arguments regarding species distributions, conservation and taxonomic statuses previously lacking in the literature. Two major findings are worth highlighting. First, we unveil the existence of a group of species endemic to both the Cerrado and the Caatinga (i.e., present in both biomes and absent in all other biomes). From the biogeographic point of view, this group, herein referred to as Caatinga-Cerrado endemics, deserves attention as a unit - just as in case of the Caatinga-only and the Cerrado-only endemics. We present preliminary hypotheses on the origin of these three endemic faunas (Cerrado-only, Caatinga-only, and Caatinga-Cerrado endemics). Secondly, we discovered that a substantial portion of the endemic mammalian faunas of the Caatinga and the Cerrado faces risks of extinction that are unrecognized in the highly influential Red List of Threatened Species published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). "Data deficient" is a category that misrepresents the real risks of extinction of these species considering that (a) some of these species are known only from a handful of specimens collected in a single or a few localities long ago; (b) the Cerrado and the Caatinga have been sufficiently sampled to guarantee collection of additional specimens of these species if they were abundant; (c) natural habitats of the Cerrado and

  4. Cool Season Paleotemperatures at Tree Line in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, W. E.; Chan, M.

    2011-12-01

    Taiwan has over 200 mountains whose peaks exceed 3,000 meters in elevation. Despite straddling the Tropic of Cancer, the higher peaks have snow and freezing temperatures every winter. Trees growing above 3,500 meters show clear temperature variation, even producing frost rings. Yet unlike temperate tree-line species, with their warm season temperature signal, trees growing at Taiwan's tree line show sensitivity to cool season temperatures. Juniperus squamata growing above 3,500 meters in central Taiwan have ring width time series that commonly exceed 600 years. Presented are the first dendroclimatological analyses from Taiwanese Juniperus squamata.

  5. The key for competitive nuclear power, a view from Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.

    2000-01-01

    The article mainly deals with the current situation of nuclear power generation in Taiwan. The development of nuclear power has been long and punctilious, whereas the contribution to meet the power demand in the lean resource country is prodigious. This article delineate the structure of power generation costs with coal, petroleum oil, and nuclear reactors in Taiwan in the recent 20 years, which highlights the superiority of nuclear application. However, as we see it from Taiwan, the nuclear power could have been better if we can simplify the design and regulation of the reactor. (author)

  6. Records of new and rare elasmobranchs from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hua Hsun; Joung, Shoou Jeng; Ebert, David A; Lin, Chia Yen

    2013-01-01

    Five new records of elasmobranchs collected from eastern Taiwan fish markets, Da-xi and Cheng-gong, are presented. Samples were caught by deepsea longliners and bottom trawlers which operate in northeastern waters off Taiwan between 2004 and 2012. These five new species records include the smalltooth sandtiger, Odontaspis ferox (Risso, 1810) (Lamniformes: Odontaspididae), salamander shark, Parmaturus pilosus Garman, 1906 (Carcharhiniformes: Scyliorhinidae), leadhued skate Notoraja tobitukai (Hiyama, 1940) (Rajiformes: Arhynchobatidae), giant skate Dipturus gigas (Ishiyama, 1958) (Rajiformes: Rajidae), and the pelagic stingray Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Bonaparte, 1832) (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae), Diagnostic characteristics for each species are given and a key to the genera Parmaturus and Dipturus from Taiwan is presented.

  7. Endemism in the Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Van Damme

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We review the current state of knowledge and patterns of distribution in the endemic Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of Southern Africa and describe two species of the Western Cape, of which one is new to science. Frey (1993, Korovchinsky (2006 and Smirnov (2008 previously suggested that South Africa harbours few endemics in the Cladocera. In the current study, we show that so-called low endemism in this region is mainly attributed to our limited state of knowledge of the local cladoceran fauna. Many of the South African taxa are ignored and revisions are lacking, as we briefly discuss for the genus Daphnia. We list known Southern African endemic Cladocera with notes on their status, map the distributions of well-studied taxa, and discuss the importance of temporary freshwater rockpools. We confirm that Southern Africa is a region of endemism for the group. We recognise three categories of endemics: i Montane endemics in the East (e.g. Drakensberg mountains; ii endemics of the Western Cape (lowlands; iii South African endemics, widely distributed in the region, both in the mountains and the lowlands. South African endemics have previously been regarded as relicts (Korovchinsky 2006, yet for the two taxa explored in detail in this study, there are no specific primitive morphological characters in comparison to congeners (within their respective genus/species group and the morphology mainly suggests strong isolation. The two species belong to the Chydoridae and the Eurycercidae, respectively, and are used here as case studies for the investigation of Western Cape endemics. The first, Alona capensis Rühe, 1914 (Anomopoda: Chydoridae: Aloninae, is redescribed based on the type material. We discuss the affinities of this enigmatic species for the first time. Morphology of the habitus and the postabdomen parallel that of members of the Alona affinis-complex. The disconnected head pores and limb characters, on the other hand, place A. capensis in

  8. Management of ulcerative colitis in Taiwan: consensus guideline of the Taiwan Society of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chen Wei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is an inflammatory bowel disease characterized by chronic mucosal inflammation of the colon, and the prevalence and incidence of UC have been steadily increasing in Taiwan. A steering committee was established by the Taiwan Society of Inflammatory Bowel Disease to formulate statements on the diagnosis and management of UC taking into account currently available evidence and the expert opinion of the committee. Accurate diagnosis of UC requires thorough clinical, endoscopic, and histological assessment and careful exclusion of differential diagnoses, particularly infectious colitis. The goals of UC therapy are to induce and maintain remission, reduce the risk of complications, and improve quality of life. As outlined in the recommended treatment algorithm, choice of treatment is dictated by severity, extent, and course of disease. Patients should be evaluated for hepatitis B virus and tuberculosis infection prior to immunosuppressive treatment, especially with steroids and biologic agents, and should be regularly monitored for reactivation of latent infection. These consensus statements are also based on current local evidence with consideration of factors, and could be serve as concise and practical guidelines for supporting clinicians in the management of UC in Taiwan.

  9. Management of Crohn's disease in Taiwan: consensus guideline of the Taiwan Society of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chen Wei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease (CD is a chronic relapsing and remitting inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract. CD is rare in Taiwan and other Asian countries, but its prevalence and incidence have been steadily increasing. A steering committee was established by the Taiwan Society of Inflammatory Bowel Disease to formulate statements on the diagnosis and management of CD taking into account currently available evidence and the expert opinion of the committee. Thorough clinical, endoscopic, and histological assessments are required for accurate diagnosis of CD. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are complementary to endoscopic evaluation for disease staging and detecting complications. The goals of CD management are to induce and maintain remission, reduce the risk of complications, and improve quality of life. Corticosteroids are the mainstay for inducing re-mission. Immunomodulating and biologic therapies should be used to maintain remission. Patients should be evaluated for hepatitis B virus and tuberculosis infection prior to treatment and receive regular surveillance for cancer. These consensus statements are based on current local evidence with consideration of factors, and could be serve as concise and practical guidelines for supporting clinicians in the management of patients with CD in Taiwan.

  10. Vegetation habitats and small mammals in a plague endemic area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetation habitats and small mammals in a plague endemic area in Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. ... Human plague still exists in different parts of the world, including some landscapes in north-eastern Tanzania. Wherever the hotspot of plague, small mammals seem to play a key role as host. The objective of ...

  11. an endemic rare species of Uludağ mountain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... In vitro methods were widely used in the conservation of the threatened plants in recent years and it is clear that this trend is increasingly applied to more plant species facing risk of extinction. This study aimed to standardise a simple and proper micropropagation system for relic endemic plant species.

  12. Zidovudine: a targeted therapy for endemic Burkitt's lymphoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although cyclophosphamide based regimens can produce remission rates approaching 60 to 80% in endemic Burkitts lymphoma, relapses and refractory disease are fairly common in developing countries, due to advanced stage disease and costconstraints in the implementation of optimal chemotherapeutic ...

  13. An Investigation on the antimicrobial activity of some endemic plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study performed on six endemic plant species, antimicrobial activity was observed in Campanula lyrata subsp.lyrata and Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmuelleriana plants. The minimum inhibitory concentration of C. lyrata subsp. lyrata (leaf and flower) extract was found to be 29 mg/ml for Baccillus subtilis and 14.5 ...

  14. The endemicity of dracunculiasis, transmission pattern and ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the endemicity of dracunculiasis, it's transmission pattern and ecology of cyclopoid copepods in Ezza North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State Nigeria were carried out between January and December 2001. Of the 2226 persons examined in eight communities, 426 (19.1%) were infected. This included 24 ...

  15. Nature Watch-Biological Invasion and Loss of Endemic Biodiversity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 3. Nature Watch - Biological Invasion and Loss of Endemic Biodiversity in the Thar Desert. Ishwar Prakash. Feature Article Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 76-85. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Global patterns in endemism explained by past climatic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Roland

    2003-03-22

    I propose that global patterns in numbers of range-restricted endemic species are caused by variation in the amplitude of climatic change occurring on time-scales of 10-100 thousand years (Milankovitch oscillations). The smaller the climatic shifts, the more probable it is that palaeoendemics survive and that diverging gene pools persist without going extinct or merging, favouring the evolution of neoendemics. Using the change in mean annual temperature since the last glacial maximum, estimated from global circulation models, I show that the higher the temperature change in an area, the fewer endemic species of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and vascular plants it harbours. This relationship was robust to variation in area (for areas greater than 10(4) km2), latitudinal position, extent of former glaciation and whether or not areas are oceanic islands. Past climatic change was a better predictor of endemism than annual temperature range in all phylads except amphibians, suggesting that Rapoport's rule (i.e. species range sizes increase with latitude) is best explained by the increase in the amplitude of climatic oscillations towards the poles. Globally, endemic-rich areas are predicted to warm less in response to greenhouse-gas emissions, but the predicted warming would cause many habitats to disappear regionally, leading to species extinctions.

  17. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckx, Vincent S F T; Hendriks, Kasper P; Beentjes, Kevin K; Mennes, Constantijn B; Becking, Leontine E; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; Afendy, Aqilah; Arumugam, Nivaarani; de Boer, Hugo; Biun, Alim; Buang, Matsain M; Chen, Ping-Ping; Chung, Arthur Y C; Dow, Rory; Feijen, Frida A A; Feijen, Hans; Feijen-van Soest, Cobi; Geml, József; Geurts, René; Gravendeel, Barbara; Hovenkamp, Peter; Imbun, Paul; Ipor, Isa; Janssens, Steven B; Jocqué, Merlijn; Kappes, Heike; Khoo, Eyen; Koomen, Peter; Lens, Frederic; Majapun, Richard J; Morgado, Luis N; Neupane, Suman; Nieser, Nico; Pereira, Joan T; Rahman, Homathevi; Sabran, Suzana; Sawang, Anati; Schwallier, Rachel M; Shim, Phyau-Soon; Smit, Harry; Sol, Nicolien; Spait, Maipul; Stech, Michael; Stokvis, Frank; Sugau, John B; Suleiman, Monica; Sumail, Sukaibin; Thomas, Daniel C; van Tol, Jan; Tuh, Fred Y Y; Yahya, Bakhtiar E; Nais, Jamili; Repin, Rimi; Lakim, Maklarin; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these

  18. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckx, V.S.F.T.; Hendriks, K.P.; Beentjes, K.K.; Mennes, C.B.; Becking, L.E.; Peijnenburg, K.T.C.A.; Afendy, A.; Arumugam, N.; de Boer, H.; Biun, A.; Buang, M.M.; Chen, P.P.; Chung, A.Y.C.; Dow, R..; Feijen, F.A.A.; Feijen, H.; Feijen-van Soest, C.; Geml, J.; Geurts, R.; Gravendeel, B.; Hovenkamp, P.; Imbun, P.; Ipor, I.; Janssens, S.B.; Jocqué, M.; Kappes, H.; Khoo, E.; Koomen, P.; Lens, F.; Majapun, R.J.; Morgado, L.N.; Neupane, S.; Nieser, N.; Pereira, J.T.; Rahman, H.; Sabran, S.; Sawang, A.; Schwallier, R.M.; Shim, P.S.; Smit, H.; Sol, N.; Spait, M.; Stech, M.; Stokvis, F.; Sugau, J.B.; Suleiman, M.; Sumail, S.; Thomas, D.C.; van Tol, J.; Tuh, F.Y.Y.; Yahya, B.E.; Nais, J.; Repin, R.; Lakim, M.; Schilthuizen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism1, 2, 3, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood4. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of

  19. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckx, V.; Hendriks, K.; Beentjes, K.; Mennes, C.B.; Becking, L.E.; Geurts, R.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism1–3, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood4. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these

  20. Geographical impact on essential oil composition of endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Kundmannia anatolica Hub.-Mor. is an endemic specie of Apiaceae diversified in Turkey. Several parts of the plant may contain essential oils in different quantity which can be influenced by environmental factors, mainly altitude. The aim of this study was to test whether there is any altitude effect on volatile ...

  1. Factors Affecting Agroforestry Sustainability in Bee Endemic Parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts, in an exploratory manner, to identify the various ways in which bad beekeeping and honey hunting practices result in the loss of important multi-purpose agro-forestry tree species in bee endemic parts of South Eastern Nigeria. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches (Participatory Rural Appraisal ...

  2. Genetic variability in the population of the endemic bee Anthophora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic diversity and spatial genetic population structure of the solitary bee Anthophora pauperata Walker 1871, a species endemic to St Katherine Protectorate, were studied by RAPD markers in seven wadis in the St Katherine Protectorate, South Sinai, Egypt. High levels of genetic diversity were found, mostly within ...

  3. Some conservation aspects of papyrus endemic passerines around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bradypterus carpalis, Greater Swamp Warbler Acrocephalus rufescens, Papyrus ... Papyrus Yellow Warbler, the globally Near-threatened Papyrus Gonolek and .... Bennun, L.A. & Njoroge, P. 999. Important bird areas in Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya: East. Africa Natural History Society. Papyrus endemic passerines around Lake ...

  4. Toponyms for centers of endemism in Madagascar | Wilmé ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A biogeographical model was proposed in 2006 to explain the centers of endemism and the importance of riparian forest of some watersheds as refuges or dispersal corridors during paleoclimatic oscillations. Here, we consider these geographical features highlighting their biological and socio-cultural importance.

  5. In vitro propagation of Ceropegia thwaitesii Hook- an endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro propagation of Ceropegia thwaitesii Hook (Asclepiadaceae), an endemic plant species of Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu (India), was carried out. Auxiliary bud explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with cytokinins (KIN), 6-benzyl adenine (BA), 2-isopentenyladenine (2-iP) and ...

  6. Cotrimoxazole for childhood febrile illness in Malaria-endemic regions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ren younger than 5 years of age was evaluated in. Malawi. ... limitations in diagnostic technology and personnel, disease-specific clinical ... In practice, the World. Health Organisation (WHO) recommends that in highly endemic areas all young children with fever should be treated for malaria, because of the likeli- hood of ...

  7. Trichomonad infection in endemic and introduced columbids in the Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunbury, N

    2011-07-01

    Island endemic avifaunas face many threats, including the now well-documented impacts of pathogens. The impacts of pathogens on the endemic Seychelles avifauna, however, have been little studied. The protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae has been shown to reduce survival and reproductive success of the endemic Pink Pigeon Columba mayeri on the nearby island of Mauritius. I investigated trichomonad infection prevalence and pathogenicity in endemic Seychelles Blue Pigeons, Alectroenas pulcherrima, and two introduced species of columbid, the Madagascar Turtle-dove, Streptopelia picturata, and the Barred Ground Dove, Geopelia striata, on the Seychelles island of Mahé during September-October 2007. I asked whether: 1) trichomonad infections occur in these species; 2) prevalence varies among species; and 3) birds show any signs of pathogenicity consistent with tricho-monosis. I use the results to assess the potential threat of this pathogen to A. pulcherrima. All three species were infected with trichomonads, and the overall prevalence was 27.5%. Alectroenas pulcherrima had higher prevalence (47.1%) than the two introduced species combined (24.3%). No infected individuals showed any signs of disease. These findings suggest that trichomonad parasites should be considered as a potential disease threat to the A. pulcherrima population.

  8. Historic forests and endemic mountain pine beetle and dwarf mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Negron

    2012-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle has always been a significant disturbance agent in ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests in Colorado. Most studies have examined the impacts to forest structure associated with epidemic populations of a single disturbance agent. In this paper we address the role of endemic populations of mountain pine and their interactions with dwarf mistletoe...

  9. Anticancer Activity of Extracts from some Endemic Tanzanian Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anticancer Activity of Extracts from some Endemic Tanzanian Plants. CM Nshimo, A Kamuhabwa, Z Mbwambo, P De Witte. Abstract. Plants have shown to be good sources of a variety of drugs for human ailments including cancer. Tanzania is rich in plant species most of which have not been investigated for any biological ...

  10. Antimicrobial activity of some endemic plant species from Turkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six plant extracts obtained from different parts such as the leaves, flowers and seeds of four species of the endemic plants in Turkey were tested on a total of 14 microorganisms, 10 of which were bacterial strains and 4 yeast strains. Verbascum eriocarpum (flower) extract was found to be effective against Staphylococcus ...

  11. Small mammals distribution and diversity in a plague endemic area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small mammals play a role in plague transmission as hosts in all plague endemic areas. Information on distribution and diversity of small mammals is therefore important for plague surveillance and control in such areas. The objective of this study was to investigate small mammals' diversity and their distribution in plague ...

  12. West Africa's Atlantic humpback dolphin ( Sousa teuszii ): endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atlantic humpback dolphins (Sousa teuszii) are endemic to nearshore West African waters between Western Sahara and Angola. They are considered Vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature based on restricted geographic range, low abundance and apparent decline in recent decades. We review ...

  13. Biological Invasion and Loss of Endemic Biodiversity in the Thar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 3. Nature Watch - Biological Invasion and Loss of Endemic Biodiversity in the Thar Desert. Ishwar Prakash. Feature Article Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 76-85. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. Rediscovery of Curcuma sumatrana (Zingiberaceae) endemic to West Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardiyani, M.; Anggara, A.; Leong-Škorničková, J.

    2011-01-01

    A recent exploration of Sumatra resulted in the re-collection of Curcuma sumatrana, an endemic Zingiberaceae species of unclear identity that was first described by Miquel nearly 150 years ago. The history of this species is discussed, a detailed description with a colour plate is provided and a

  15. Patterns of endemicity and range restriction among southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patterns of endemicity and range restriction among southern African coastal marine invertebrates. RJ Scott, CL Griffiths, TB Robinson. Abstract. Southern Africa supports a rich marine biota of 12 734 currently described marine species. Although the distribution and overall species-richness patterns of several component ...

  16. Endemism due to climate change: Evidence from Poeciloneuron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A fossil leaf resembling Poeciloneuron indicum Bedd. (Clusiaceae) is described from the Late Oligocene (Chattian 28.4–23 Myr) sediments of Assam. The modern analogue is endemic to the Western Ghats which is situated in the same palaeolatitude. Its presence, along with other known fossil records, indicates that the ...

  17. Investigating The Travelling Wave Solution For an SIR Endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the travelling wave solution for an SIR endemic disease model with no disease related death when the spatial spread of the susceptible is not negligible. In this case the disease is driven by both the susceptible and the infective classes. The population is open since the disease is habitually prevalent in ...

  18. Direct shoot organogenesis of Digitalis trojana Ivan., an endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... In vitro culture technologies support a rapid propagation of plants and production of an economically viable amounts of plant secondary metabolites. Digitalis trojana Ivan. (foxglove), in the family. Scrophulariaceae, is an endemic plant of Ida Mountain,. Canakkale, Turkey (Uysal and Öztürk, 1991). This plant.

  19. A treasure of endemic fauna of Mauritius and Rodrigues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winters, Ria

    2011-01-01

    This publication deals with the endemic species of the Indian ocean islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues. The author describes the extinct and extant birds and animals in word and art. The book is illustrated with the authors drawings and paintings. Full colour.

  20. Niche partitioning and densities of Albertine Rift endemics and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biogeographical theory predicts that restricted-range species should typically occur at lower densities than ecologically similar, but geographically widespread species. ... Two endemic apalises were among the most abundant of their genus, achieving densities at least seven times that of the least abundant apalis at Bwindi.

  1. Faeco-histological Method of Studying Worm Endemicity with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worms are endemic in various parts of the world, the patterns varying from community to community, even in the same country. A rough index of those common among Nigerians of the Igbo ethnic group has been obtained using a histological study of the ova present in the luminal faeces of the vermiform appendix in 559 ...

  2. Grass survey of the Itremo Massif records endemic central highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty species are endemic to the central highlands, and a further 1 4 species are restricted to Madagascar. Five ecological groups of grasses were identified in the Itremo Massif: shade species in gallery forests, open wet area species, fire grasses, anthropogenic disturbance associated grasses and rock-dwelling grasses.

  3. Allozyme diversity in Macbridea alba (Lamiaceae), an endemic Florida mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.J.W. Godt; Joan L. Walker; J.L. Hamrick

    2004-01-01

    Macbridea alba is a herbaceous perennial mint endemic to the panhandle region of Florida. We used starch gel electrophoresis to describe allozyme diversity and genetic structure in this federally threatened plant. Ten populations were analyzed, with an average sample size of 47 plants (range 41-48 plants) per population. Of the 22 loci analyzed, 11 (...

  4. Urinary Schistosomiasis in Gedarif: An endemic New Focus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Schistosomiasis is endemic in many parts of Sudan. Despite the ongoing control activities, new foci are continuously discovered and documented. Objectives: To document the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in Gedarif, Eastern Sudan, and to elaborate on risk factors for infection. Materials and Methods: ...

  5. Open data mining for Taiwan's dengue epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, ChienHsing; Kao, Shu-Chen; Shih, Chia-Hung; Kan, Meng-Hsuan

    2018-03-13

    By using a quantitative approach, this study examines the applicability of data mining technique to discover knowledge from open data related to Taiwan's dengue epidemic. We compare results when Google trend data are included or excluded. Data sources are government open data, climate data, and Google trend data. Research findings from analysis of 70,914 cases are obtained. Location and time (month) in open data show the highest classification power followed by climate variables (temperature and humidity), whereas gender and age show the lowest values. Both prediction accuracy and simplicity decrease when Google trends are considered (respectively 0.94 and 0.37, compared to 0.96 and 0.46). The article demonstrates the value of open data mining in the context of public health care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nationwide Twin Birth Weight Percentiles by Gestational Age in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Jan Hu

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: This is the first nationwide birth weight norm for twins in Taiwan, which is particularly useful for investigation into the predictors and outcomes of altered fetal growth through twin studies in the Taiwanese population.

  7. Establishing and evaluating FRAX® probability thresholds in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Cheng Chan

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Three FRAX®-based models of alendronate use were established in Taiwan to help optimize treatment strategies. The government is encouraged to incorporate FRAX®-based approaches into the reimbursement policy for antiosteoporosis medicines.

  8. The Genus of Acanthephippium Blume (Orchidaceae in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Wen Chung

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Three species of Acanthephippium (Orchidaceae are recognized from Taiwan: Acanthephippium pictum Fukuyama, A. striatum Lindley and A. sylhetense Lindley. According to previous reports, A. pictum is a synonymy of A. sylhetense, although A. pictum can be distinguished from A. sylhetense by the shape and color of the flowers, and the structures of the lips. The distribution pattern of these two species are also different. A. pictum occurs only on Iriomote island, Japan and Lanyu island, Taiwan. A taxonomic treatment and line drawings of A. pictum in Taiwan are provided. A somatic chromosome counts of 2n = 48 are reported for A. pictum from Lanyu island and for A. striatum and A. sylhetense from Taiwan island.

  9. Experience and Strategy of Biodiversity Data Integration in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K T Shao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The integration of Taiwan's biodiversity databases started in 2001, the same year that Taiwan joined GBIF as an associate participant. Taiwan, hence, embarked on a decade of integrating biodiversity data. Under the support of NSC and COA, the database and websites of TaiBIF, TaiBNET (TaiCOL, TaiBOL, and TaiEOL have been established separately and collaborate with the GBIF, COL, BOL, and EOL respectively. A cross-agency committee was thus established in Academia Sinica in 2008 to formulate policies on data collection and integration as well as the mechanism to make data available to the public. Any commissioned project will hereafter be asked to include these policy requirements in its contract. So far, TaiBIF has gained recognition in Taiwan and abroad for its efforts over the past several years. It can provide its experience and insights for others to reference or replicate.

  10. Taiwan links up to world's first LHC computing grid project

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Taiwan's Academia Sinica was linked up to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Computing Grid Project last week to work jointly with 12 other countries to construct the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator" (1/2 page).

  11. Discrepancy of Cytogenetic Analysis in Western and Eastern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsun Chang

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: We demonstrated regional differences in second-trimester amniocyte karyotyping results and established a database of common chromosomal anomalies that could be useful for genetic counseling, especially in eastern Taiwan.

  12. Taiwan-China: The Gordian Knot Stays Tied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Istenič

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Separated historical, geographical, economic, political, and social processes on the two sides of the Taiwan Strait have formed two entirely different political, economic and cultural entities. However, up to now, the governments in Beijing and Taipei have not yet found a common language regarding the questions related to Taiwan’s sovereignty. Whereas for the government in Beijing, Taiwan is an inalienable part of the People’s Republic of China, the government of the Republic of China who has actually been ruling Taiwan for almost 70 years, regards it as a sovereign, independent country. How to find a manageable political consensus that would please both parties remains a key question. The present article will outline the recent dynamics and illuminate the obstacles on the road toward long-term peace and stability in the Taiwan Strait.

  13. The Midwife in Taiwan: An Alternative Model for Maternity Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang-Wang, Janet F.

    1980-01-01

    The author compares and analyzes American and Taiwanese maternity care systems, discussing the history of midwifery in Taiwan; the process by which a midwife establishes her practice; and her role in childbirth, abortion, adoption, and other services. (Author/DS)

  14. Intraspecific karyotypic polymorphism is highly concordant with allozyme variation in Lysimachia mauritiana (Primulaceae: Myrsinoideae) in Taiwan: implications for the colonization history and dispersal patterns of coastal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Yoshiko; Chung, Kuo-Fang; Chen, Chih-Hui; Hoshi, Yoshikazu; Setoguchi, Hiroaki; Chou, Chang-Hung; Oginuma, Kazuo; Peng, Ching-I

    2012-11-01

    Investigating intraspecific karyotypic and genetic variations jointly can provide unique insights into how historical, ecological and cytogenetic factors influence microevolution. A coastal herb, Lysimachia mauritiana, exhibits extensive karyotypic polymorphism and displays a complex cytogeographic pattern across the Ryukyus. To explore whether a similar degree of chromosomal variation exists south of the Ryukyus, and in an attempt to ascertain the mechanisms that may have generated the patterns, comprehensive sampling was conducted in Taiwan. Karyotypes were analysed at mitotic metaphase for 550 individuals from 42 populations throughout Taiwan Proper and its adjacent islands. In addition, genetic variation was estimated using 12 allozymes (21 loci) of 314 individuals sampled from 12 localities. Four chromosome numbers and eight cytotypes, including four endemic cytotypes, were detected. Cytotype distributions were highly structured geographically, with single cytotypes present in most populations and four major cytotypes dominating the north, east and south of Taiwan and the Penghu Archipelago. Allozyme variation was very low and F-statistics indicated an extremely high level of population differentiation, implying limited gene flow among populations. Cluster analysis of allozyme variation uncovered four geographic groups, each corresponding perfectly to the four dominant cytotypes. The geographic structure of cytotype distribution and allozyme variation probably resulted from severe genetic drift triggered by genetic bottlenecks, suggesting that Taiwanese populations were likely to be derived from four independent founder events. In the few localities with multiple cytotypes, cytogeographic patterns and inferences of chromosomal evolution revealed a trend of northward dispersal, consistent with the course of the Kuroshio Current that has been influential in shaping the coastal biota of the region. The data elucidate the patterns of colonization and the effects

  15. Workplace bullying among Nurses in South Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li; Huang, Su-Hui; Fang, Shu-Hui

    2016-09-01

    This study was to investigate bullying among hospital nurses and its correlates. Chinese people were unlikely to express their opinions or pursue individual rights. Workplace bullying took place more easily among the educated people within Chinese culture. However, studies related to workplace bullying among hospital nurses in Taiwan were still limited. A cross-sectional design. Two hundred and eighty-five nurses who worked in the regional teaching hospital in south Taiwan were recruited. The significant predictors of workplace bullying were identified by using linear regression analysis. The mean of overall bullying was 1·47, showing that the frequency of the nurses having experienced workplace bullying was between 'never' and 'now and then'. The most frequent bullying item was 'being yelled at or being the target of anger', followed by 'being the objects of untruthful criticism' and 'having views ignored'. Hospital nurses working in the Emergency room would gain 10·888 points more in the overall bullying scale compared with those who worked in operation rooms or haemodialysis rooms. They were more likely to be bullied. Hospital nurses with one year increase in nursing experience were 0·207 points less likely to be bullied. Reducing workplace bullying among hospital nurses was an essential method to provide quality assurance to health care. Nurse managers should build up zero tolerance policy to decrease nurses' exposure to workplace bullying. Training programmes related to bullying prevention are suggested to avoid workplace bullying. The contents of the educational training programmes or workshops should incorporate the characteristics and consequences of the workplace bullying, and the strategies to deal with bullying. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    Taiwan is an island of 36,000 sq km located 160 km east of mainland China. Geologically, the oldest rocks are Tertiary, and the only igneous rocks on the island are Quaternary andesites and basalts. Copper, gold, and silver are the only known metallic minerals produced. Uranium occurrences and exploration efforts are unknown. The potential uranium resource of Taiwan is considered a category 1 resource. (author)

  17. Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-29

    fighter pilots have trained at Luke Air Force Base, AZ, since 1997. However, in 2004, Taiwan’s Minister of Defense Lee Jye surprisingly wanted to...Military Ties with Taiwan,” LA Times, July 24, 1999; Kurt M. Campbell (former Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Asian and Pacific Affairs) and...attending the U.S.-Taiwan Defense Industry Conference in Jacksonville, FL, and visiting Luke Air Force Base, Naval Warfare Systems Command in San Diego

  18. Cyber Conflict Between Taiwan and China; Strategic Insights, Spring 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yao-chung

    2011-01-01

    This article appeared in Strategic Insights, Spring 2011 The Republic of China (Taiwan hereafter) and the People’s Republic of China (China hereafter) are two particularly attractive targets for internet hackers. Reports have found that, compared to other countries in the Asia and Pacific regions, China and Taiwan rank as the top two countries in terms of malicious computer activity. Reports have also shown that most hacking into Taiwanese computer systems is initiated from wit...

  19. Assessing Alternative Policies for Reducing Household Waste in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Daigee Shaw; Yue-Mi Tsai

    2004-01-01

    In the last few years, the three major cities in Taiwan have been experimenting with two different demand-side management approaches to reduce the waste generated by households and to promote the recycling of recyclables. Thus, there are three different kinds of approaches of waste management that are concurrently used in Taiwan: fee-per-bag, mandatory recycling with free waste collection services, and the zero price of trash collection. We performed a comparative analysis of these policy ins...

  20. Application of INCSEA principles to the Taiwan Strait.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen-Chung, Chai (Taiwan Navy, Taiwan)

    2003-06-01

    The waters surrounding Taiwan are important international waterways. In addition to merchant ships of every nation, the warships of the United States, Japan, Russia, and China may appear in these waters. No hostility is expected between Taiwan and the United States, Japan, or Russia; however, Taiwan and China have a tense relationship, and both sides face a potential for naval incidents. As Taiwan and China expand their naval capability, the International Maritime Organization Convention for the lnternational Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea may not be sufficient to prevent naval incidents, any of which might develop into conflict or war. Therefore, China and Taiwan need to develop maritime confidence building measures (CBMs) that could reduce the chance of naval incidents and strengthen mutual trust and confidence. Among the variety of maritime CBM concepts for military purposes, the most successful and effective measure has been the 1972 U.S.-Soviet Union Agreement on the Prevention of Incidents On and Over the High Seas (INCSEA). The success of the agreement demonstrates that CBMs represent a workable alternative to traditional arms controls. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a concrete approach to the constraint of naval activities between China and Taiwan to reduce accidents and misunderstandings. This paper outlines the categories and characteristics of incidents at sea. Next, the author identifies the successful factors of the U.S.-Soviet INCSEA and applies the INCSEA concept to the Taiwan Strait. Finally, the author develops a framework of options and a step-by-step approach for establishing an INCSEA between Taiwan and China.

  1. Merchant Shipping in a Chinese Blockade of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Taiwan; 58 percent of Taiwan’s natural gas imports in 2004 came from Indonesia and 40 percent from Malaysia .39 Where the distances to crude oil and LPG...processed foods, are typically containerized, most cereals are transported in loose bulk form. Taiwan depends on considerable quantities of the latter...imported annually.48 The United States is the primary supplier of these commodities, providing 99 percent of the corn cereals , 74 percent of the soybeans

  2. Composition and antimicrobial activities of the leaf essential oil of Machilus zuihoensis from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Lung Ho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the chemical composition, and antimicrobial and anti-wood-decay fungal activities of the essential oil isolated from the leaf of endemic Machilus zuihoensis Hayata, Lauraceae, of Taiwan. The essential oil from the fresh leaves of M. zuihoensis was isolated using hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus, and characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 104 compounds were identified, representing 100% of the oil. The main components identified were n-dodecanal (23.8% and (E-nerolidol (10.5%. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was tested by the disc diffusion method and micro-broth dilution method against ten microbial species (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans, respectively. The oil exhibited strong growth suppression against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast with inhibition zones of 35~43 mm to MIC values of 125 µg mL-1, respectively. The anti-wood-decay fungal activity of the oil was also evaluated. Results showed that the oil demonstrated excellent activity against four wood-decay-fungi species (Trametes versicolor, Phaneochaete chrysosporium, Phaeolus schweintizii, and Lenzites sulphureu. For the antimicrobial and anti-wooddecay fungal activities of the oil, the active source compounds were determined to be τ-cadinol, β-eudesmol, and n-dodecanal.

  3. Composition and antimicrobial activities of the leaf essential oil of Machilus zuihoensis from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Lung Ho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the chemical composition, and antimicrobial and anti-wood-decay fungal activities of the essential oil isolated from the leaf of endemic Machilus zuihoensis Hayata, Lauraceae, of Taiwan. The essential oil from the fresh leaves of M. zuihoensis was isolated using hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus, and characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 104 compounds were identified, representing 100% of the oil. The main components identified were n-dodecanal (23.8% and (E-nerolidol (10.5%. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was tested by the disc diffusion method and micro-broth dilution method against ten microbial species (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans, respectively. The oil exhibited strong growth suppression against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast with inhibition zones of 35~43 mm to MIC values of 125 µg mL-1, respectively. The anti-wood-decay fungal activity of the oil was also evaluated. Results showed that the oil demonstrated excellent activity against four wood-decay-fungi species (Trametes versicolor, Phaneochaete chrysosporium, Phaeolus schweintizii, and Lenzites sulphureu. For the antimicrobial and anti-wooddecay fungal activities of the oil, the active source compounds were determined to be τ-cadinol, β-eudesmol, and n-dodecanal.

  4. A Study of Sustainable Material Management Approach in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Mingchien; Chou Chenpei; Chen Yizih

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable material management (SMM) has been initiated by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in 2005. SMM is an approach to promote resource conservation, reducing negative environmental impacts and preserving the natural capital of material and the balance of economic efficiency and social equity. Life cycle assessment and material flow analysis have been widely used to estimate the environmental impacts for resource consumption, but economic development has not been taken into account. Before 1984, improper garbage disposal was not an important issue in Taiwan. But over the past three decades, the Taiwan Government has accomplished not only waste disposal but also resource recycling, which are conducive to the essence of SMM. This study is the first research project to develop a SMM conceptual model for policy and strategy in Taiwan. SMM is the suitable waste management concept for the next era. This study reviewed the policy and strategy that has been applied in Taiwan's waste management, and compares the efficiency of waste management policy in Taiwan with the concept of SMM. A case study of the waste flow will be used to prove that the sustainable material policy can be a suitable management system to achieve sustainable development. This study will open a new chapter of research on global SMM for Taiwan.

  5. Adjoint sensitivity studies of coastal upwelling at northeast of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.; Cornuelle, B. D.; Hoteit, I.

    2010-12-01

    The north Pacific western boundary current (Kuroshio) begins to the east of the Philippines, crosses the Luzon strait and flows northward close to the Taiwan coast following the continental shelf. The Kuroshio shows occasional splitting near the shelf northeast of Taiwan where one branch carries Kuroshio waters onto the shelf north of Taiwan while the major part flows along the shelf oriented in the east-west direction. Previous modeling and observational studies of the Kuroshio near the Taiwan coast showed that during summer (May - September) the core of the Kuroshio moves offshore by 100 km, while during winter (October - April) Kuroshio waters flows closer to the Taiwan coast. Another interesting phenomenon is the occurrences of cold waters ”cold-dome” just northeast of Taiwan, which is closely associated with the seasonal migration of Kuroshio waters. Cold water upwells in this area during summer, associated with cyclonic eddies. This patch of cold water can be clearly distinguished from surrounding warm waters in satellite sea-surface temperature (SST) maps. This seasonal upwelling is more pronounced during summer, when the axis of the Kuroshio shifts offshore, and is less persistent during winter when the Kuroshio flows closer to the Taiwan coast. A number of five year forward model simulation have been made using realistic forcings, initial conditions and boundary conditions. The forward model simulations have been tested by comparing with satellite measurements of sea-surface height (SSH) and SST. An adjoint-based sensitivity study been performed for the ”cold-dome” upwelling features and northward shelf intrusion of Kuroshio waters at northeast coast of Taiwan. The system uses the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) and its adjoint. The goal is to understand the influences on the cold-dome and the shelf intrusions. The adjoint sensitivities of SST, SSH, velocities, and transport were computed with respect to

  6. The Long Term Features of Tropical Cyclones Nearby Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yueh-Shyuan; Lee, Cheng-Shang

    2017-04-01

    Tropical cyclone (TC) activity is affected by several factors. The variability of TC activity over the western North Pacific (WNP) has been examined in the past decade. Previous studies showed that TC activity (such as TC number, intensity and tracks) has multiscale variation or affected by natural oscillation of different scales. However, most of these studies focused mainly on the entire WNP. Very few studies examined the variability of annual TC track or the variability of TC number in the area nearby Taiwan, which caused severe economic loss and life damage to Taiwan in the typhoon season. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the variation of TC activity nearby Taiwan to address its long term features, and also the possible relationship with the associated flow patterns. Preliminary results of wavelet analysis showed that the TC number nearby Taiwan during 1970-2014 had multiscale variations. The following analysis focused on the scale about 4- and 11-year signals, in the targeted area of 118o-125oE, 20o-27oN. The positive phases of both scale 4 and scale 11 showed a tendency of TC tracks toward Taiwan area, while the negative phases showed a lower tendency toward Taiwan. An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was applied on the 4-yr and the 11-yr filtered 500-hPa wind fields and geopotential heights. Results showed that the 4-yr signal was mostly dominated by the 500-hPa U- and V-wind fields, suggesting that the TC track patterns were affected mainly by the midlevel steering flow. On the other hand, the 11-yr signal was mostly dominated by the 500-hPa U-wind field and geopotential anomalies, indicating that the main cause of the difference in TC occurrence nearby Taiwan was the location of TC formation.

  7. Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mei-Chuan; Lin, Jim Juimin

    2008-11-01

    Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the fact that it is not flexible and hence increases cost. This study presents an overview of current management practices for handling infectious industrial waste in Taiwan, and addresses the current waste disposal methods. The number of small clinics in Taiwan increased from 18,183 to 18,877 between 2003 and 2005. Analysis of the data between 2003 and 2005 showed that the majority of medical waste was general industrial waste, which accounted for 76.9%-79.4% of total medical waste. Infectious industrial waste accounted for 19.3%-21.9% of total medical waste. After the SARS event in Taiwan, the amount of infectious waste reached 19,350 tons in 2004, an increase over the previous year of 4000 tons. Waste minimization was a common consideration for all types of waste treatment. In this study, we summarize the percentage of plastic waste in flammable infectious industrial waste generated by medical units, which, in Taiwan was about 30%. The EPA and Taiwan Department of Health have actively promoted different recycling and waste reduction measures. However, the wide adoption of disposable materials made recycling and waste reduction difficult for some hospitals. It has been suggested that enhancing the education of and promoting communication between medical units and recycling industries must be implemented to prevent recyclable waste from entering the incinerator.

  8. Development and Verification of the Taiwan Ocean Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liau, J. M.; Lai, J. W.; Yang, Y.; Chen, S. H.

    2016-02-01

    Taiwan is an island state surrounded by the sea to which the economic activity and the ecological environment are closely related. The aim of the Taiwan ocean prediction system is to satisfy the assessment of the marine environment and the reduction of risks in the coastal zone of Taiwan. The high-resolution wave and ocean numerical models, the data assimilation and the observing database are established and operated by Taiwan Ocean Research Institute (TORI). In order to reduce computational time and increase the grid resolution, the one-way nested grids are adopted for Northwestern Pacific Ocean and the sea around Taiwan. The WAVEWACTCH-III and the nested SWAN wave models and the multi-scales Princeton Ocean Model (POM) are respectively used for the predictions of the wind wave and the three-dimensional ocean current. A joint effect composed of the tide and the ocean circulation is also taken into consideration for resolving the complex current field around Taiwan. The performance evaluations are well carried out to investigate the rationality of the numerical models by using the observed data, such as temperature and current velocity profile, wave height and wave period of data buoys and sea surface current of the TORI high frequency radar observing system. The well verified results of the numerical ocean model assimilated by the sea surface height are used to investigate characteristics of Kuroshio in the waters off eastern Taiwan, and several value-added modules, such as storm surge simulation and particle tracking, are also developed to apply to the maritime casualty search and rescue, the hazard mitigation and the disaster assistance.

  9. Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, M.-C.; Lin, Jim Juimin

    2008-01-01

    Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the fact that it is not flexible and hence increases cost. This study presents an overview of current management practices for handling infectious industrial waste in Taiwan, and addresses the current waste disposal methods. The number of small clinics in Taiwan increased from 18,183 to 18,877 between 2003 and 2005. Analysis of the data between 2003 and 2005 showed that the majority of medical waste was general industrial waste, which accounted for 76.9%-79.4% of total medical waste. Infectious industrial waste accounted for 19.3%-21.9% of total medical waste. After the SARS event in Taiwan, the amount of infectious waste reached 19,350 tons in 2004, an increase over the previous year of 4000 tons. Waste minimization was a common consideration for all types of waste treatment. In this study, we summarize the percentage of plastic waste in flammable infectious industrial waste generated by medical units, which, in Taiwan was about 30%. The EPA and Taiwan Department of Health have actively promoted different recycling and waste reduction measures. However, the wide adoption of disposable materials made recycling and waste reduction difficult for some hospitals. It has been suggested that enhancing the education of and promoting communication between medical units and recycling industries must be implemented to prevent recyclable waste from entering the incinerator

  10. Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, Hans; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    "Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle" provides the key elements that should be addressed in the establishment of bovine disease control and eradication programmes. The book aims to reach a broad group of readers, including: students; professionals in veterinary practice......, industry and governmental institutions; researchers; and others involved in control and eradication of endemic diseases in livestock. Key elements range from socioeconomic aspects such as motivation; veterinary science (including assessment of biosecurity and establishment of test...... examples: bovine virus diarrhoea virus, Salmonella Dublin and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The three authors have been particularly involved in the research and development of control and eradication efforts in the Danish cattle industry for these three diseases. The basic idea is to enable...

  11. Responses to TRH in patients with endemic goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Laureano; Watanabe, Tomas; El Tamer, Elias; Varela, Amalia; Moran, Dardo; Rinaudo, Antonio; Staneloni, Luis; Degrossi, O.J.

    1978-12-01

    The response to TRH was studied in 32 patients from an endemic goiter area, 20 of them had been previously treated with iodized oil. Blood samples were taken at 0, 20, 40 and 120 minutes after de i.v. administration of 400μg of TRH, and serum levels of TSH, T3 and T4 were measured. The results obtained show that in endemic goiter area there is a modification in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism, with increased reserve of pituitary TSH and changes in T4 and T3 secretion. The injection of TRH gave exaggerated and delayed responses in the secretion of TSH and T3. Iodized oil used as a prophylatic method produced a disminution of pituitary TSH reserve, and of serum levels of TSH and T3, as a result of the return tonormality of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism. (author) [es

  12. Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette K Howard

    Full Text Available The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe, created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939 are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6% of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%. The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to

  13. Mitogenomic phylogeny of cone snails endemic to Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalde, Samuel; Tenorio, Manuel J; Afonso, Carlos M L; Zardoya, Rafael

    2017-07-01

    Cone snails attain in Senegal one of their highest peaks of species diversity throughout the continental coast of Western Africa. A total of 15 endemic species have been described, all placed in the genus Lautoconus. While there is ample data regarding the morphology of the shell and the radular tooth of these species, virtually nothing is known regarding the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of one of the most endangered groups of cones. In this work, we determined the complete or near-complete (only lacking the control region) mitochondrial (mt) genomes of 17 specimens representing 11 endemic species (Lautoconus belairensis, Lautoconus bruguieresi, Lautoconus cacao, Lautoconus cloveri, Lautoconus cf. echinophilus, Lautoconus guinaicus, Lautoconus hybridus, Lautoconus senegalensis, Lautoconus mercator, Lautoconus taslei, and Lautoconus unifasciatus). We also sequenced the complete mt genome of Lautoconus guanche from the Canary Islands, which has been related to the cones endemic to Senegal. All mt genomes share the same gene arrangement, which conforms to the consensus reported for Conidae, Neogastropoda and Caenogastropoda. Phylogenetic analyses using probabilistic methods recovered three major lineages, whose divergence coincided in time with sea level and ocean current changes as well as temperature fluctuations during the Messinian salinity crisis and the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Furthermore, the three lineages corresponded to distinct types of radular tooth (robust, small, and elongated), suggesting that dietary specialization could be an additional evolutionary driver in the diversification of the cones endemic to Senegal. The reconstructed phylogeny showed several cases of phenotypic convergence (cryptic species) and questions the validity of some species (ecotypes or phenotypic plasticity), both results having important taxonomic and conservation consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Biogeographical note on Antarctic microflorae: Endemism and cosmopolitanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqar Azeem Jadoon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the biogeography of Antarctic microflora (Antarctica acts as best model to study microbial biogeography such as cyanobacteria and selected halophiles with special emphasis on Halomonas variabilis and Bacillus licheniformis. Halophiles are known to be resistant not only to salt stress, but also to extreme temperature, pressure, and aridity and they are capable of surviving in harsh environments such as polar regions, deep-sea habitats, and deserts. Many microbes are known to be resistant to hostile environmental conditions, and are capable of surviving in harsh environments. Our group has isolated 444 strains belonging to 28 genera of halophiles from various environments around the world. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that many of the isolated strains from geographically distant habitats having different environmental conditions, were closely related to each other, with some strains possessing 100% identical sequences. Organisms possessing survival mechanism such as spore formation are usually ubiquitous. The genus Halomonas is represented by potentially endemic strains and the ubiquitous H. variabilis, while spore-forming B. licheniformis showed cosmopolitan distribution. One potentially endemic (moderate endemicity that is regional and/or continental distribution strain was reported from Syowa station, East Antarctica, and Mario Zucchelli station, West Antarctica, which are geographically separated by 3000 km. Moreover, 15 strains having 100% similarity with B. licheniformis were considered cosmopolitans. The results of this work provide support for the middle-ground model that some microbes have moderate endemicity and others have cosmopolitan distribution. These results will contribute to a greater understanding of microbial biogeography with special emphasis on Antarctica.

  15. Secondary metabolites of three endemic Centaurea L. species

    OpenAIRE

    Tešević Vele; Aljančić Ivana; Milosavljević Slobodan; Vajs Vlatka; Đorđević Iris; Jadranin Milka; Menković Nebojša; Matevski Vlado

    2014-01-01

    The aerial parts of three endemic Centaurea L. species, namely C. tomorosii Micevski, C. soskae Hayek and C. galicicae Micevski, afforded sesquiterpene lactone cnicin (1) and seven flavonoids: apigenin (2), isokaempferide (3), hispidulin (4), eupatorin (5), cirsimaritin (6), santaflavone (7) and salvigenin (8). The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by UV, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy and HR-ESI-MS spectrometry. 1H NMR spectroscopy was ...

  16. Perceptions of Clostridium difficile infections among infection control professionals in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Pin Hung

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: There were substantial gaps in infection control polices and therapeutic choices for CDI between international guidelines and the perceptions of medical professionals in Taiwan. Professional education program and the setup of guideline for CDI should be considered in Taiwan.

  17. Taiwan: Overall Developments and Policy Issues in the 109th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    U.S. officials saw relations with Taiwan as especially troubled during the 109th Congress in 2005-2006, beset by the increasing complexity and unpredictability of Taiwan's democratic political environment...

  18. 76 FR 19383 - Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From China and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From China and Taiwan AGENCY: United States..., by reason of imports from China and Taiwan of certain stilbenic optical brightening agents, provided...

  19. A Firm-Level Analysis of Productivity and the Export Market in Taiwan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerkman, Adam

    2000-01-01

    Over the past four decades Taiwan has experienced tremendous economic growth. Much of the debate surrounding Taiwan's success has focused on its trade policies and the relationship between export-orientation and high output growth...

  20. Temporal trend and nationwide utility for hysterectomies in Taiwan, 1997–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yi Huang

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: As in most Western countries, hysterectomy rates in Taiwan declined by year. There was a marked shift in the types of hysterectomies from 1997 through to 2010 in Taiwan. Minimally invasive surgeries and supracervical hysterectomies were more commonly adopted.

  1. The continuing medical mystery of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Lynn M.; Tatu, Calin A.; Orem, William H.; Pavlovic MD PhD, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) is a disease of subtle onset and insidious progression that typically occurs between the 4th and 6th decade in long‐resident individuals in highly specific geographic locations of the Balkan region and affects 1 – 5% of the population. Though it does not follow typical Mendelian genetics, there is a familial pattern of occurrence. Although residents may live only a few kilometers apart, certain locations are highly affected while others close by, even as close as across the road, remain unscathed. Because of this geographic selectivity scientists have searched for an environmental cause. It is thought that exposure to the toxic plant Aristolochia clematitis is to blame. Genotoxic N‐heterocyclic or polycyclic aromatic containing coal water leachates entering cultivated soil and drinking water are also a possible cause due to the proximity and predictive power of endemic foci to coal deposits. Evidence for Ochratoxin A fungal poisoning also exists. High levels of phthalates have been measured in BEN‐endemic drinking water. BEN is a probably a multifactorial disease that may result from exposure through some of above‐mentioned environmental sources, with genetic factors contributing. This review will discuss recent research concerning the etiology, potential therapies for the treatment of nephropathy, and unexplored research directions for this chronic kidney disease.

  2. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckx, Vincent S F T; Hendriks, Kasper P; Beentjes, Kevin K; Mennes, Constantijn B; Becking, Leontine E; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; Afendy, Aqilah; Arumugam, Nivaarani; de Boer, Hugo; Biun, Alim; Buang, Matsain M; Chen, Ping-Ping; Chung, Arthur Y C; Dow, Rory; Feijen, Frida A A; Feijen, Hans; Feijen-van Soest, Cobi; Geml, József; Geurts, René; Gravendeel, Barbara; Hovenkamp, Peter; Imbun, Paul; Ipor, Isa; Janssens, Steven B; Jocqué, Merlijn; Kappes, Heike; Khoo, Eyen; Koomen, Peter; Lens, Frederic; Majapun, Richard J; Morgado, Luis N; Neupane, Suman; Nieser, Nico; Pereira, Joan T; Rahman, Homathevi; Sabran, Suzana; Sawang, Anati; Schwallier, Rachel M; Shim, Phyau-Soon; Smit, Harry; Sol, Nicolien; Spait, Maipul; Stech, Michael; Stokvis, Frank; Sugau, John B; Suleiman, Monica; Sumail, Sukaibin; Thomas, Daniel C; van Tol, Jan; Tuh, Fred Y Y; Yahya, Bakhtiar E; Nais, Jamili; Repin, Rimi; Lakim, Maklarin; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-08-20

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these communities. Also, it is debated whether mountain endemics mostly originate from local lowland taxa, or from lineages that reach the mountain by long-range dispersal from cool localities elsewhere. Here we investigate the evolutionary routes to endemism by sampling an entire tropical mountain biota on the 4,095-metre-high Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, East Malaysia. We discover that most of its unique biodiversity is younger than the mountain itself (6 million years), and comprises a mix of immigrant pre-adapted lineages and descendants from local lowland ancestors, although substantial shifts from lower to higher vegetation zones in this latter group were rare. These insights could improve forecasts of the likelihood of extinction and 'evolutionary rescue' in montane biodiversity hot spots under climate change scenarios.

  3. A study on brain CT of neurological endemic cretinism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J.; Wang, K.; Li, J.; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Inomata, Taiten; Maeda, Tomoho.

    1988-01-01

    A study on brain CT was made in 20 cases of typical endemic cretinism and 15 cases of normal persons. These patients from severely iodine deficient area were diagnosed as neurological endemic cretinism characterized by severe mental retardation with impairment of hearing, speech, neuromotor, etc. to varying degrees. The brain CT showed that there were many and deep depressions in cerebral cortex, especially in frontal and parietal lobes of some cretins, the lateral ventricle system was dilated, particularly in posterior part of it, and the interhemisphere fissure, lateral fissure and subarachnoid cisterns were also expanded. The CT value of cortex was higher and white matter was lower than that of normal persons. In some severe cases, the two hemispheres of brain were not the same in size. These findings above indicated that these endemic cretins had a severe retardation of brain development including cerebral cortex and white matter. In addition, some abnormal calcification in brain and abnormal structure of middle line of brain were also found. (author)

  4. The pattern of endemic parvovirus infection in four pig herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointon, A M; Surman, P G; McCloud, P I; Whyte, P B

    1983-06-01

    Serological surveys were conducted on the gilts and adult sows in 4 herds endemically infected with porcine parvovirus. The study assessed the influence of the type of management of breeders on the spread of virus infection and the influence of endemic parvovirus infection on reproductive parameters of the herd. The practice of holding gilts and sows in groups did not reliably promote infection or maintain a 100% level of active immunity amongst adult sows in 2 of 3 group husbandry herds. In the 4 herds, the prevalence of adult sows (greater than 12 months) with active immune haemagglutination inhibition titres (greater than or equal to 256) ranged between 44% and 100%, while between 0% and 100% of gilts (6 to 12 months of age) had active immune titres. Fully susceptible gilts older than 9 months of age held in groups, failed to become infected by 12 months of age on farms endemically infected with PPV. In 2 herds a continued low infection rate of gilts resulted in increasing the potential of breeding animals becoming susceptible to parvovirus infection as infected sows were replaced by noninfected gilts. In both herds, epidemics of parvovirus infection followed, which were characterised by an increase in reproductive failure. Parvovirus infection during the first 70 days of pregnancy reduced the average number of piglets born alive per litter by 1.6 piglets (p less than 0.05). This was due to the combined effect of more piglets being born dead per litter and an overall reduction in litter size.

  5. Human African trypanosomiasis in endemic populations and travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J A; Neumayr, A L; Hatz, C F

    2012-06-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is caused by the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.) gambiense (West African form) and T.b. rhodesiense (East African form) that are transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly, Glossina spp.. Whereas most patients in endemic populations are infected with T.b. gambiense, most tourists are infected with T.b. rhodesiense. In endemic populations, T.b. gambiense HAT is characterized by chronic and intermittent fever, headache, pruritus, and lymphadenopathy in the first stage and by sleep disturbances and neuro-psychiatric disorders in the second stage. Recent descriptions of the clinical presentation of T.b. rhodesiense in endemic populations show a high variability in different foci. The symptomatology of travellers is markedly different from the usual textbook descriptions of African HAT patients. The onset of both infections is almost invariably an acute and febrile disease. Diagnosis and treatment are difficult and rely mostly on old methods and drugs. However, new molecular diagnostic technologies are under development. A promising new drug combination is currently evaluated in a phase 3 b study and further new drugs are under evaluation.

  6. Public acceptance of nuclear power in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, T.T.L.

    1992-01-01

    It is necessary to reach the public acceptance for nuclear power development program. During the process of the application for the approval from the government to implement the Fourth Nuclear Power Plant program in Taiwan, we initialized a series of communication program in the last two years and are expecting to convince the public that to develops nuclear power is essential to the country from a viewpoint of energy diversified. The basic strategies of the communication program not only emphasized the new nuclear power project, but also for the long term public acceptance on nuclear power. The strategies include: (1) Preview and implement the promotion program for the performance of the existing nuclear power plants. (2) Designate and communicate with the major communication target groups: elected delegates, journalists, local residents, scholars and experts. (3) Edit and incorporate the basic nuclear knowledge into the preliminary school educational materials. (4) Subsidize the adjacent communities of nuclear power plants for the public well-being construction. In order to implement the mentioned strategies, Taipower has reorganized the public service department and the existing nuclear power plants, setup the nuclear exhibition center, conducted fullscale emergency drill biannually for each of nuclear power plant, and prepared the seminars for the teacher

  7. Performance evaluation for solar collectors in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the global irradiation observed in Taiwan from 1990 to 1999 was used to estimate the optimal tilt angle for solar collectors. The observed data are resolved into diffusion and beam components, and transformed into instantaneous time frames using mathematical models. The energy gain on installing a single-axis tracked panel as compared to a traditional fixed panel is originally analyzed theoretically. In addition to the observation data, both types of radiation will be taken into account for comparison, i.e. both extraterrestrial radiation and global radiation predicted using empirical models. The results show that the yearly optimal angles for six selected stations are about 0.95 and 0.88 times their latitudes for extraterrestrial and predicted radiation, respectively. All of the observed irradiations are less than the predicted values for all times and stations, consequently resulting in a flatter tilt angle, with a few exceptions in summer. Since Taipei has the lowest clearness index, its yearly optimal angle calculated from observed data shows the greatest discrepancy when compared to its latitude. By employing a tracked panel, the yearly gains calculated from the observed data lie between 14.3% and 25.3%, which is significantly less than those from the extraterrestrial and predicted radiations

  8. Space Radar Image of Taipei, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The northern end of the island country of Taiwan, including the capital city of Taipei, is shown in this spaceborne radar image. Taipei is the bright blue and red area in the lower center of the image. A portion of the city sits on an island surrounded by the Keelung and Freshwater Rivers. The main channel of the Freshwater River is to the right of the island and appears dark in the image. The channel to the left of the island is no longer active and appear slighter. Rugged, heavily vegetated mountains surround the city and are shown in green. The runways of the Chiang Kai Shek International Airport are seen as dark parallel strips in the upper left of the image. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10, 1994. The image is 50 kilometers by 33 kilometers (31 miles by 20 miles) and is centered at 25.1 degrees north latitude, 121.5 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  9. Structural design of Kaohsiung Stadium, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hideyuki; Tanno, Yoshiro; Nakai, Masayoshi; Ohshima, Takashi; Suguichi, Akihiro; Lee, William H.; Wang, Jensen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an outline description of the structural design of the main stadium for the World Games held in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, in 2009. Three new design concepts, unseen in previous stadiums, were proposed and realized: “an open stadium”, “an urban park”, and “a spiral continuous form”. Based on the open stadium concept, simple cantilever trusses in the roof structure were arranged in a delicate rhythm, and a so-called oscillating hoop of steel tubes was wound around the top and bottom surfaces of a group of cantilever trusses to form a continuous spiral form. Also, at the same time by clearly grouping the structural elements of the roof structure, the dramatic effect of the urban park was highlighted by unifying the landscape and the spectator seating area to form the stadium facade. This paper specifically reports on the overview of the building, concepts of structural design, structural analysis of the roof, roof design, foundation design, and an outline of the construction.

  10. Predictive factors for early menarche in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chie, W C; Liu, Y H; Chi, J; Wu, V; Chen, A

    1997-06-01

    The rapid increase of breast cancer in Taiwan has prompted the authors to evaluate the predictive factors of early menarche among contemporary Taiwanese girls. A total of 895 four-grade girls from eight elementary schools in Taipei City and County were identified as a closed cohort from the first semester of 1993. Data were collected from self-administered questionnaires and school records. A total of 799 girls who had not menstruated in the first year remained in the group through 1994. The effects of potential predictive factors were assessed by logistic regression. Among the 799 girls followed, 69 (8.6%) had first menstruation between the fourth and fifth grades. Height, weight, body mass index and maternal early onset of menarche were positively related to the onset of menarche within the preceding year. Energy consumption during exercise showed only moderate association after being adjusted for age and weight. Calorie intake from junk food was not associated with early menarche within the preceding year. Poor interpersonal family relationships and stressful life events also showed a moderate association with early menarche. The data obtained supported the hypothesis that height, weight, body mass index and maternal early menarche are positive predictive factors of early menarche. The effects of exercise and childhood stress are less prominent.

  11. State Spatiality and Identity Formation in Postwar Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Fix

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bi-yu Chang, Place, Identity and National Imagination in Postwar Taiwan. New York: Routledge, 2015. 260 pp. $145 (cloth. In her new book, Place, Identity and National Imagination in Postwar Taiwan, Chang Bi-yu argues that, despite this avalanche of publications and websites devoted to Taiwan’s (historical geography and cartography, few publications have offered a comprehensive and detailed analysis of Taiwan’s spatiality, in particular the representations and spatial discourse of nation and homeland that have been propagated and controlled by the Kuomintang (hereafter KMT regime since its retreat to Taiwan in late 1949. To fill that gap in the literature (particularly in the English-language scholarship on Taiwan’s spatiality, Chang has examined the annual Taiwan Yearbook, Taiwan-based cartographic production, elementary-school textbooks, and the 1950s design and construction of Chunghsing New Village (site of the relocated provincial government. Her goal has been a better understanding of the symbolism, construction, visualization, and contested meanings of Taiwan’s geography and political landscape. In this monograph, Chang also seeks to examine the ways in which state spaces are operated, contested, and changed, as well as how power relations are concretized, social alliances established, and cultural changes enacted through state spatiality. Although the central focus is state spatiality, this is also a book about Taiwan’s identity politics and the highly contested postwar power relationships on the island...

  12. SWOT Analysis on Educational Systems on the Two Sides of the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-Ming; Shieh, Chich-Jen

    2005-01-01

    It was an important, historic phenomenon for Taiwan to separate from mainland China in 1949. Mainland China and Taiwan were originally a unified country, using the same language and same alphabet characters. Now there are still similarities in many aspects; the differences are primarily governmental. Taiwan has become more Westernized and more…

  13. 76 FR 57075 - Helical Spring Lock Washers From China and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... COMMISSION Helical Spring Lock Washers From China and Taiwan Scheduling of expedited five-year reviews concerning the antidumping duty orders on helical spring lock washers from China and Taiwan. AGENCY: United... from China and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a...

  14. 76 FR 50495 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan Determinations On the... Africa, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an..., South Africa, and Taiwan. \\3\\ Commissioner Charlotte R. Lane dissents with respect to the determination...

  15. 76 FR 72722 - Helical Spring Lock Washers From China and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... COMMISSION Helical Spring Lock Washers From China and Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty orders on helical spring lock washers from China and Taiwan would be likely to lead to... with respect to helical spring lock washers from Taiwan. Background The Commission instituted these...

  16. 76 FR 11268 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... COMMISSION Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade... staple fiber from Korea and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted... whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on certain polyester staple fiber from Korea and Taiwan...

  17. Utterance-final particles in Taiwan Mandarin : contact, context and core functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Chin-hui

    2014-01-01

    The use of utterance-final particles (UFPs) is a salient feature of Taiwan Mandarin, a Mandarin variety spoken in Taiwan. Despite their widespread use, Taiwan Mandarin UFPs have not attracted much attention in previous research. One reason for this neglect is that previous studies focus on UFPs that

  18. 76 FR 76437 - Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe From Korea and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... COMMISSION Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe From Korea and Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on certain welded stainless steel pipe from Korea and Taiwan would... Publication 4280 (December 2011), entitled Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe from Korea and Taiwan...

  19. 75 FR 32503 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan Determinations On the basis..., Spain, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an..., Spain, and Taiwan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-770-773 and 775 (Second Review). By order of the Commission...

  20. 75 FR 53714 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... 564 (Third Review)] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan AGENCY... antidumping duty orders on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The... stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to...

  1. 76 FR 58040 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... COMMISSION Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty orders on certain polyester staple fiber from Korea and Taiwan would be likely to lead to...), entitled Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-825 and 826...

  2. 75 FR 67110 - Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... COMMISSION Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade... stainless steel flanges from India and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has... Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury. Pursuant to section 751...

  3. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade... on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The... stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to...

  4. 77 FR 27079 - Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From China and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... COMMISSION Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From China and Taiwan Determinations On the basis of... and Taiwan of certain stilbenic optical brightening agents, provided for in subheadings 3204.20.80 and... agents from China and Taiwan were being sold at LTFV within the meaning of section 733(b) of the Act (19...

  5. 76 FR 30967 - Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From China and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Taiwan Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject investigation, the United... the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from China and Taiwan of certain... from China and Taiwan. Accordingly, effective March 31, 2011, the Commission instituted antidumping...

  6. 77 FR 3497 - Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ...)] Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty order on light-walled rectangular pipe and tube from Taiwan would be likely to lead to...), Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from Taiwan (Inv. No. 731-TA-410 (Third Review)). By order of the...

  7. 75 FR 30434 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade... Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has... Africa, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury. Pursuant to...

  8. 75 FR 81309 - Stainless Steel Plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade... from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of... from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  9. 78 FR 80447 - Proposed Agreement for Cooperation Between the American Institute in Taiwan and the Taipei...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... for Cooperation Between the American Institute in Taiwan and the Taipei Economic and Cultural... Taiwan and the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States Concerning... American Institute in Taiwan and the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United...

  10. Relations Across the Taiwan Strait: A New Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Shaocheng

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El autor analiza las relaciones Taiwan-RPCh del nuevo gobierno de Ma Ying-jeou desde la perspectiva tanto internacional como bilateral. Las posiciones de los EEUU y la UE presentan buenos augurios. Junto con el compromiso del "consenso de 1992", la concepción de Ma de una "relación especial" no ha sido rechazada por Pekín a pesar de cierta desconfianza latente hacia Taiwan. Así las experiencias de Alemania, donde el concepto de "relación especial" surgió, podrían ser usadas como referencia para las relaciones Taiwan-RPCh, si bien sólo de manera selectiva. Podría servir como una buena base para un ulterior desarrollo de las relaciones entre ambas partes. Por tanto, las posibilidades de mejores relaciones, por lo menos a corto plazo, parecen prometedoras.

  11. Predictive susceptibility analysis of typhoon induced landslides in Central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Keh-Jian; Lin, Zora

    2017-04-01

    Climate change caused by global warming affects Taiwan significantly for the past decade. The increasing frequency of extreme rainfall events, in which concentrated and intensive rainfalls generally cause geohazards including landslides and debris flows. The extraordinary, such as 2004 Mindulle and 2009 Morakot, hit Taiwan and induced serious flooding and landslides. This study employs rainfall frequency analysis together with the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) downscaling estimation to understand the temporal rainfall trends, distributions, and intensities in the adopted Wu River watershed in Central Taiwan. To assess the spatial hazard of the landslides, landslide susceptibility analysis was also applied. Different types of rainfall factors were tested in the susceptibility models for a better accuracy. In addition, the routes of typhoons were also considered in the predictive analysis. The results of predictive analysis can be applied for risk prevention and management in the study area.

  12. A dermatoglyphic study of the Kavalan aboriginal population of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao-Fong; Zhang, HaiGuo; Lai, Chun-Hung; Lu, ZhenYu; Wang, ZhuGang

    2007-02-01

    By the 1970s, a number of dermatoglyphic studies of Taiwan aborigines (Gaoshan nationality) had been published, however in each only a few dermatoglyphic variables were addressed. Since that time, little new research has been conducted. In this study, we collected and analyzed the dermatoglyphs of 100 individuals of Kavalan, a Taiwan aboriginal population, and we reported a wide range of dermatoglyphic variables including total finger ridge count (TFRC), a-b total ridge count (a-b RC), atd angle and axial triradius percent distance (tPD), and frequencies of fingerprint pattern, palmar thenar pattern, palmar interdigital pattern, palmar hypothenar pattern, and simian line. This study is the first comprehensive dermatoglyphic research of any Taiwan aboriginal population.

  13. Use of traditional Chinese medicine among pregnant women in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsiao-Yun; Chen, Yu-Chun; Chen, Fang-Pey; Chou, Li-Fang; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the patterns of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) use among pregnant women in the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan. Women who gave birth in Taiwan in 2006 were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Claims for reimbursement following TCM ambulatory visits by these women were analyzed. In total, 20.9% of women in the study who gave birth in 2006 used TCM during pregnancy, with older women more likely to utilize this form of care (23.9% of women >35 years of age vs 16.2% of women women before pregnancy vs 2163 during) and nausea/vomiting (220 women before vs 1648 during). The predominant modality (88.4%) of TCM treatment during pregnancy was herbal preparation. Traditional Chinese medicine, with the exception of acupuncture, is popular among pregnant women in Taiwan. In addition to its efficacy, the safety of TCM during pregnancy requires future investigation.

  14. Education and training in nuclear science/engineering in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, C.

    1994-01-01

    The present status of nuclear education and training in Taiwan is reviewed. The nuclear science/engineering program has been established in Taiwan under the College of Nuclear Science at the National Tsing Hua University since 1956; it remains the only program among 123 universities and colleges in Taiwan where education and training in nuclear fields are offered. The program, with 52 faculty members, offers advanced studies leading to BSc, MSc, and PhD degrees. Lectures and lab classes are given to 600 students currently registered in the program. Career placement program geared for the 200 graduate and 400 undergraduate students is to orientate them into the local nuclear power utilities as well as agricultural, medical, industrial, academic and governmental sectors where nuclear scientists and engineers at all levels are needed. 8 refs., 1 fig

  15. Taiwan's industrial heavy metal pollution threatens terrestrial biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, M.J.; Selvaraj, K.; Agoramoorthy, G.

    2006-01-01

    The bioconcentration levels of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn) and non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Sn) elements have been investigated in different terrestrial biota such as fungi, plant, earthworm, snail, crab, insect, amphibian, lizard, snake, and bat including the associated soil, to investigate the ecosystem health status in Kenting National Park, Taiwan. High bioconcentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in snail, earthworm, crab, lizard, snake, and bat indicated a contaminated terrestrial ecosystem. High concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in plant species, effective bioaccumulation of Cd by earthworm, snail, crab and bat, as well as very high levels of Hg found in invertebrates, amphibians, and reptiles revealed a strong influence from industrial pollution on the biotic community. This study for the first time presents data on the impact of heavy metal pollution on various terrestrial organisms in Taiwan. - Metal effects occur at any terrestrial levels in Taiwan

  16. Pleural Plaque Related to Asbestos Mining in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Yu Yang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A 78-year-old woman complained of twisting-like pain in her left lower chest. During physical examination, friction rubbing was noted in both lungs. Chest radiography showed extensive bilateral pleural calcification. High-resolution computed tomography confirmed the presence of bilateral calcified pleural plaques. The patient had worked at a Japanese asbestos factory in Taiwan for 1 year when she was 16 years old. Her job involved picking out asbestos fibers from crushed asbestos minerals, but no protective equipment was used at that time. This is believed to be the first reported case of asbestos-related disease in Taiwan that resulted from asbestos mining. We also summarize the history of domestic asbestos mining, importation of asbestos, and trends in asbestos use in Taiwan.

  17. [The internationalization of the nursing profession in Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Ling; Wang, Cheng-Ching; Kuo, Pi-Chao

    2011-06-01

    Globalization, nursing manpower migration, and the multinational nature of the medical industry have increased the level of internationalization in Taiwan's nursing profession. In nursing practice, competencies for the general nursing list (Taiwan version) and ICNP (International Classification for Nursing Practice) have been clinically tested and revised. In academic nursing, significant effort is invested toward achieving the three general objectives of internationalized teaching, internationalized campuses, and international academic exchanges. We should further test and revise Taiwan's competencies for the general nursing list, and the ICNP should be continually tested and revised. Additionally, nursing personnel should strengthen foreign language competencies, appreciate different nursing practice cultures, participate in international exchange activities, and place increasing emphasis on international cooperation in research and nursing education accreditation. Such should further enhance and strengthen international cooperation, which should further encourage internationalization in the domestic nursing profession.

  18. Uncertainty and Spatial Correlation of Earthquake Ground Motion in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Sokolov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyzed characteristics of aleatory variability with regard to intra-event and inter-event components in the prediction of peak ground acceleration in Taiwan and the spatial (site-to-site correlation of ground motion residuals. The characteristics are very important for an assessment of seismic hazard and loss for regionally located building assets (portfolio and spatially distributed systems (lifelines and ShakeMap generation. The strong-motion database collected by the TSMIP network in Taiwan, which includes about 4650 records from 66 shallow earthquakes (ML > 4.5, focal depth < 30 km occurred in 1993 - 2004, was used for this purpose. The results of the analysis show that the ground motion correlation structure is highly dependent on local geology and on peculiarities of the propagation path (azimuth-dependent attenuation. Thus, a single generalized spatial correlation model may not be adequate for all of Taiwan territory or similar large areas.

  19. A Crowdsourcing-based Taiwan Scientific Earthquake Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, W. T.; Lee, J. C.; Lee, C. F.

    2017-12-01

    To collect immediately field observations for any earthquake-induced ground damages, such as surface fault rupture, landslide, rock fall, liquefaction, and landslide-triggered dam or lake, etc., we are developing an earthquake damage reporting system which particularly relies on school teachers as volunteers after taking a series of training courses organized by this project. This Taiwan Scientific Earthquake Reporting (TSER) system is based on the Ushahidi mapping platform, which has been widely used for crowdsourcing on different purposes. Participants may add an app-like icon for mobile devices to this website at https://ies-tser.iis.sinica.edu.tw. Right after a potential damaging earthquake occurred in the Taiwan area, trained volunteers will be notified/dispatched to the source area to carry out field surveys and to describe the ground damages through this system. If the internet is available, they may also upload some relevant images in the field right away. This collected information will be shared with all public after a quick screen by the on-duty scientists. To prepare for the next strong earthquake, we set up a specific project on TSER for sharing spectacular/remarkable geologic features wherever possible. This is to help volunteers get used to this system and share any teachable material on this platform. This experimental, science-oriented crowdsourcing system was launched early this year. Together with a DYFI-like intensity reporting system, Taiwan Quake-Catcher Network, and some online games and teaching materials, the citizen seismology has been much improved in Taiwan in the last decade. All these constructed products are now either operated or promoted at the Taiwan Earthquake Research Center (TEC). With these newly developed platforms and materials, we are aiming not only to raise the earthquake awareness and preparedness, but also to encourage public participation in earthquake science in Taiwan.

  20. Linking the Taiwan Fish Database to the Global Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Tsao Shao

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Under the support of the National Digital Archive Program (NDAP, basic species information about most Taiwanese fishes, including their morphology, ecology, distribution, specimens with photos, and literatures have been compiled into the "Fish Database of Taiwan" (http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw. We expect that the all Taiwanese fish species databank (RSD, with 2800+ species, and the digital "Fish Fauna of Taiwan" will be completed in 2007. Underwater ecological photos and video images for all 2,800+ fishes are quite difficult to achieve but will be collected continuously in the future. In the last year of NDAP, we have successfully integrated all fish specimen data deposited at 7 different institutes in Taiwan as well as their collection maps on the Google Map and Google Earth. Further, the database also provides the pronunciation of Latin scientific names and transliteration of Chinese common names by referring to the Romanization system for all Taiwanese fishes (2,902 species in 292 families so far. The Taiwanese fish species checklist with Chinese common/vernacular names and specimen data has been updated periodically and provided to the global FishBase as well as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF through the national portal of the Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility (TaiBIF. Thus, Taiwanese fish data can be queried and browsed on the WWW. For contributing to the "Barcode of Life" and "All Fishes" international projects, alcohol-preserved specimens of more than 1,800 species and cryobanking tissues of 800 species have been accumulated at RCBAS in the past two years. Through this close collaboration between local and global databases, "The Fish Database of Taiwan" now attracts more than 250,000 visitors and achieves 5 million hits per month. We believe that this local database is becoming an important resource for education, research, conservation, and sustainable use of fish in Taiwan.

  1. Mycotoxin monitoring for commercial foodstuffs in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tzai Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are toxic food contaminants that are naturally produced by certain fungi. They induce negative effects on human health by making food unsafe for consumption. In this study, analyses were performed to determine the levels and incidence of aflatoxins (AFs in peanut products, tree nuts, spices, and Coix seeds; ochratoxin A (OTA in wheat and roasted coffee, as well as OTA and AFs in rice; and citrinin (CIT in red yeast rice (RYR products. A total of 712 samples from nine different food categories were collected between 2012 and 2013. The samples were analyzed over 2 years for AFs, OTA, and CIT by methods recommended by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. These official analytical methods were extensively validated in-house and through interlaboratory trials. The analytical values of suspected contaminated specimens were confirmed by liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry analysis to identify the specific mycotoxin present in the sample. We show that 689 samples (96.8% complied with the regulations set by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. AFs were found in four peanut-candy products, one peanut-flour product, one pistachio product, one Sichuan-pepper product, and one Coix seed product. All had exceeded the maximum levels of 15 parts per billion for peanut and 10 parts per billion for other food products. Furthermore, 14 RYR samples contained CIT above 5 parts per million, and one RYR tablet exceeded the maximum amount allowed. Instances of AFs in substandard Sichuan pepper and Coix seeds were first detected in Taiwan. Measures were taken by the relevant authorities to remove substandard products from the market in order to decrease consumer exposure to mycotoxin. Border control measures were applied to importing food commodities with a higher risk of mycotoxin contamination, such as peanut, Sichuan pepper, and RYR products. Declining trends were observed in the noncompliance rate of AFs in peanut products, as well as that of

  2. A synthesized biophysical and social vulnerability assessment for Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-Jaan

    2017-11-01

    Taiwan, located in the Western Pacific, is a country that is one of the most vulnerable to disasters that are associated with the changing climate; it is located within the Ring of Fire, which is the most geologically active region in the world. The environmental and geological conditions in Taiwan are sensitive and vulnerable to such disasters. Owing to increasing urbanization in Taiwan, floods and climate-related disasters have taken an increasing toll on human lives. As global warming accelerates the rising of sea levels and increasing of the frequency of extreme weather events, disasters will continue to affect socioeconomic development and human conditions. Under such circumstances, researchers and policymakers alike must recognize the importance of providing useful knowledge concerning vulnerability, disaster recovery and resilience. Strategies for reducing vulnerability and climate-related disaster risks and for increasing resilience involve preparedness, mitigation and adaptation. In the last two decades, extreme climate events have caused severe flash floods, debris flows, landslides, and other disasters and have had negative effects of many sectors, including agriculture, infrastructure and health. Since climate change is expected to have a continued impact on socio-economic development, this work develops a vulnerability assessment framework that integrates both biophysical and social vulnerability and supports synthesized vulnerability analyses to identify vulnerable areas in Taiwan. Owing to its geographical, geological and climatic features, Taiwan is susceptible to earthquakes, typhoons, droughts and various induced disasters. Therefore, Taiwan has the urgent task of establishing a framework for assessing vulnerability as a planning and policy tool that can be used to identify not only the regions that require special attention but also hotspots in which efforts should be made to reduce vulnerability and the risk of climate-related disaster. To

  3. Development and issues of nuclear industry in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuangchi Liu

    1994-01-01

    Industrial and economic developments in Taiwan have achieved a so-called 'miracle' in the last decades. Endeavors by the private enterprise, prudent planning by the government, and the devoted efforts by the diligent and creative labor forces have been credited jointly with the result. To develop a sustainable nuclear industry in support of an efficient and safe power generation and other applications of nuclear energy in Taiwan, continuing efforts from the private industry, government and each individual of the nuclear industry will be required. In this paper, milestones of the past and major issues for future developments will be discussed

  4. Recent achievements in regulating nuclear power activities in taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The energy resources in Taiwan are very scarce with more than 98% of the fuel sources imported from foreign countries. The nuclear power became essential because of its stability and economy in price. There are six operating nuclear power units in Taiwan, and two more advanced boiling water reactor units under construction. As the country's nuclear power still plays an important role, the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) devotes its great efforts working on reactor safety regulation, radiation protection, nuclear security, nuclear emergency preparedness, nuclear waste management and environmental monitoring. Recent achievements of AEC on the above mentioned topics will be covered in this presentation

  5. Progress and Prospect of Physics Research and Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynien Kwo, J.

    2010-03-01

    Started about two decades ago, the global trend of shifting industrial manufacture power from western developed countries toward developing countries in Asia has in turn become the impetus in building up physical science and research in these areas. A very good example is the remarkable progress of physical research and education in Taiwan, in terms of quantity and quality. The continuous elevation of Taiwan's high education into graduate level plus the government's strong commitment to research and development on a level of 2.62 % GDP have led to an impressive physics program with an annual budget ˜32 million USD from National Science Council in supporting 568 PIs. The investigation scope encompasses high energy and astrophysics, nano and condensed matter, and semiconductor, optoelectronic physics, etc. The former is vigorously conducted via international collaborative efforts of LHC, KEK, ALMA, Pan-STARRS, etc. The latter is driven by vital Taiwan high tech industry mostly semiconductor IC and optoelectronics flourished during this period. The early trend of outflows of BS physics majors to western world for advanced studies has reversed dramatically. Nearly 80% of the BS students continue their MS and PhD degrees in Taiwan, attracted by lucrative job markets of high tech industry. In addition, healthy inflow of high-quality science manpower of well trained PhDs and senior scholars returning to homeland has strengthened the competitiveness. Overall, the physics community in Taiwan is thriving. The annual Physical Society meeting is expanding at a rate of 6%, reaching ˜1800 attendants and 1200 papers, and dedicated to promotions of female physicists and students. The publication quantity of Taiwan in top journals of PRs and PRL is ranked among top 20^th for all fields of physics, and ranked the 6^th in APL. Clearly Taiwan has now emerged as a strong power in applied science, not limited by its population size. Concerted efforts on scientific exchanges are being

  6. Happiness and social determinants across age cohorts in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Chang, Wen-Chiung; Chong, Young-Sook; An, Jeong Shin

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine happiness and social determinants across age cohorts in Taiwan. The data were obtained from the 2011 Taiwan Social Change Survey (aged 18 +, n = 2,199). The social determinants of happiness included socioeconomic status and social connection. Happiness was not different across the age groups. Receiving less family support, less formal support, more social trust and more control over life were significant for the younger group. Being married and having more social participation were significant for the middle-aged. Receiving less family support and having a higher economic status were significant for the older group. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Technical development if integrated radwaste management information system in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.; Tsai, C.M.; Chang, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive waste poses very complex problems from its generation, processing, shipping, in-transit and interim storage, to its final destination and is carefully planned in Taiwan. Technical management skills and integrated computer technology are used to provide an Electronic Information Service Environment. A relational data structure was used to established a computerized management of the radioactive waste. It combine methodologies in technical management, data processing, data base, hierarchical tree structure, multi-media user interface, decision analysis, and artificial intelligence, etc., to accomplish the integration of radioactive waste information and to effectively utilize resources in order to rise overall management level and efficiency in Taiwan. 11 refs., 2 figs

  8. Maintaining the Status Quo in the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    relief (HA/DR) actions within the region. Taiwan currently only dedicates 0.1% of its GDP to HA/DR while the regional average is 0.5%.40 A more...Taiwan: Evolution of the “One China” Policy-Key Statements from Washington, Beijing and Taipei (Washington, DC: U.S. Library of Congress, Congressional...the “One China” Policy-Key Statements from Washington, Beijing and Taipei , 35. 5 Ibid., 39. 6 Harvey Feldman, “President Reagan’s Six Assurances to

  9. Multiple sensors applied to monitorland subsidence in Central Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-C. Hung

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During 1992–2013, pumping of groundwater caused large-scale aquifer-system compaction and land subsidence in the Choshui River Alluvial Fan (CRAF in Taiwan. The subsidence has already endangered the operation of Taiwan High Speed Rail (THSR. In this paper, we introduce the multiple sensors monitoring system to study the extent of subsidence in CRAF and its mechanism, including GPS (Global Positioning System, PSI (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry, leveling and multi-layer compaction monitoring well. These sensors complement each other in spatial and temporal resolutions.

  10. Management consensus guideline for hepatocellular carcinoma: 2016 updated by the Taiwan Liver Cancer Association and the Gastroenterological Society of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Nan Lu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in Taiwan. To help clinical physicians to manage patients with HCC, the Taiwan Liver Cancer Association and the Gastroenterological Society of Taiwan produced the management consensus guideline for HCC. Methods: The recommendations focus on nine important issues on management of HCC, including surveillance, diagnosis, staging, surgery, local ablation, transarterial chemoembolization/transarterial radioembolization/hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy, systemic therapy, radiotherapy, and prevention. Results: The consensus statements were discussed, debated and got consensus in each expert team. And then the statements were sent to all of the experts for further discussion and refinement. Finally, all of the experts were invited to vote for the statements, including the level of evidence and recommendation. Conclusion: With the development of the management consensus guideline, HCC patients could benefit from the optimal therapeutic modality. Keywords: Diagnosis, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Staging, Surveillance, Treatment

  11. High estimated prevalence of asymptomatic dengue viremia in blood donors during a dengue epidemic in southern Taiwan, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yu-Wen; Shu, Yu-Chen; Chuang, Kun-Ta; Yeh, Chun-Yin; Ko, Wen-Chien; Ko, Nai-Ying; Perng, Guey-Chuen

    2017-11-01

    Southern Taiwan experienced a severe dengue epidemic in 2015. Adult asymptomatic cases would raise concerns on transfusion-transmitted dengue virus (DENV) infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the magnitude of such a risk in Tainan City during this epidemic. The daily prevalence of asymptomatic dengue viremia in blood donors in Tainan City and in selected high-incidence districts during the 2015 dengue epidemic was estimated by an established mathematical model. Duration of viremia, duration of viremia before symptom onset, apparent-to-inapparent infection ratio, and reporting-to-underreporting ratio were four main parameters used in the model. The estimated maximal and mean daily prevalence of asymptomatic dengue viremia in blood donors in Tainan during this dengue epidemic was 74.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 60.8-88.0) and 15.0 (95% CI, 12.3-17.7) per 10,000, respectively. In the district with the highest incidence, the maximal and mean daily prevalence of asymptomatic viremia was 328.8 (95% CI, 271.1-386.2) and 55.3 (95% CI, 43.4-63.3) per 10,000, respectively. Approximately 234 (95% CI, 191-276) blood components containing DENV were produced during the epidemic. Although dengue is currently not endemic in Taiwan, physicians need to be aware of the risk of transfusion-transmitted DENV infection. Our results suggest that screening measures to ensure blood safety should be evaluated and implemented during dengue epidemics even in nonendemic areas. Timely estimation of daily asymptomatic viremia prevalence by districts can help to select high-risk areas for such measures and to evaluate cost-effectiveness. © 2017 AABB.

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with HIV infection among injection drug users at methadone clinics in Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yung-Feng; Yen, Muh-Yong; Lin, Ting; Li, Lan-Huei; Jiang, Xiao-Ru; Chou, Pesus; Deng, Chung-Yeh

    2014-07-04

    Methadone treatment was introduced in Taiwan in 2006 as a harm-reduction program for injection drug users (IDUs), among whom HIV was endemic. We examined the association of HIV serostatus with demographic characteristics, substance use, and sexual behaviors among IDUs at methadone clinics in Taipei, Taiwan. During 2012-2013, IDUs at methadone clinics in Taipei were recruited to complete a risk assessment interview and undergo serologic testing for HIV infection. Correlates of HIV infection were identified by multivariate logistic regression. Of the 827 eligible participants, 85.9% were male, median age was 45 years, and mean years of injecting was 18.0 (range 1-56). The prevalence of HIV infection was 17.7%. In multivariate analysis, HIV infection was significantly associated with age ≤ 45 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-2.62), being divorced (AOR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.06-2.62), deriving the majority of income during the previous 6 months from temporary jobs or other noncriminal sources (AOR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.02-2.30), unstable housing during the previous 6 months (AOR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.003-2.15), higher number of incarcerations (AOR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.03-1.26), and a history of overdose (AOR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.01-2.28). Taiwanese IDUs at methadone clinics have a relatively high HIV prevalence, which was associated with younger age and history of overdose. It is imperative to educate IDUs' about HIV transmission, particularly for the younger and overdosed IDUs.

  13. ANALYSIS OF ENDEMISM OF THE XEROPHILOUS FLORA IN THE RUSSIAN CAUCASUS

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    M. A. Taysumov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research is to study the endemics of the xerophilous flora of the Russian Caucasus in connection with the matter of knowing the genesis.Methods. The study is based on the field research expeditions.Findings. The presence of endemic species in flora is an indicator of its originality, and the degree of originality is determined by the extent of the endemic species. In general, according to our geographic analysis, the number of endemic species in xerophilous flora of the Russian Caucasus accounts for 32% (326 species, of which 25% of all endemic species have natural habitats within entire Caucasus, 66% are widespread in the Greater Caucasus, and 9% in the Pre-Caucasian region.Conclusion. Endemic species of xerophytes of the flora, in their overwhelming majority, are euxerophytes, and most steno-endemics also belong to this group of xerophytes. In a systematic aspect, the leading family, containing the largest number of endemic species, is Asteraceae (in percentage terms - Lamiaceae and Jurinea is a leading genus (in percentage terms - Psephellus. In relation to the substrate, calcixerophytes are the dominants and most saturated endemics in quantitative terms are the belt of mountain xerophytes. The predominant biomes are hemicryptophytes; as compared with the number of biomorphes, among chamaephytes there is the biggest quantity of endemics

  14. Evidence for endemic chikungunya virus infections in Bandung, Indonesia.

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    Herman Kosasih

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is known to cause sporadic or explosive outbreaks. However, little is known about the endemic transmission of CHIKV. To ascertain the endemic occurrence of CHIKV transmission, we tested blood samples from patients with a non-dengue febrile illness who participated in a prospective cohort study of factory workers in Bandung, Indonesia. From August 2000 to June 2004, and September 2006 to April 2008, 1901 febrile episodes occurred and 231 (12.2% dengue cases were identified. The remaining febrile cases were evaluated for possible CHIKV infection by measuring anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG antibodies in acute and convalescent samples. Acute samples of serologically positive cases were subsequently tested for the presence of CHIKV RNA by RT-PCR and/or virus isolation. A total of 135 (7.1% CHIKV infections were identified, providing an incidence rate of 10.1/1,000 person years. CHIKV infections were identified all year round and tended to increase during the rainy season (January to March. Severe illness was not found and severe arthralgia was not a prominently reported symptom. Serial post-illness samples from nine cases were tested to obtain a kinetic picture of IgM and IgG anti-CHIKV antibodies. Anti-CHIKV IgM antibodies were persistently detected in high titers for approximately one year. Three patients demonstrated evidence of possible sequential CHIKV infections. The high incidence rate and continuous chikungunya cases in this adult cohort suggests that CHIKV is endemically transmitted in Bandung. Further characterization of the circulating strains and surveillance in larger areas are needed to better understand CHIKV epidemiology in Indonesia.

  15. Book Review: Cooper, John F. Taiwan Nation-State or Province? Boulder: Westview Press, 2009. 288 PP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardian Bakhtiar Rivai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe about my analysis of Cooper (2009 perspective in how we understand Taiwan as identity. There are two perspective that to see Taiwan in recent day. First of all, for nation who believe One China Policy, they assume that Taiwan is a province of People Republic of China which is Taiwan is part of Beijing government. Secondly, for nation who do not believe it, they assume that Taiwan is independence identity, a nation identity, and also sovereign country which is separated from mainland China influences. In this discourse about how we understand Taiwan,  this article is going to review from John F. Cooper which is in his book, Taiwan: nation state or province?. This book not only discuss how we can see Taiwan, however, how Taiwan in the future in political dynamic especially after US president Donald Trump who intent to support Taiwan as independence identity. 

  16. A new world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gething Peter W

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmission intensity affects almost all aspects of malaria epidemiology and the impact of malaria on human populations. Maps of transmission intensity are necessary to identify populations at different levels of risk and to evaluate objectively options for disease control. To remain relevant operationally, such maps must be updated frequently. Following the first global effort to map Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity in 2007, this paper describes the generation of a new world map for the year 2010. This analysis is extended to provide the first global estimates of two other metrics of transmission intensity for P. falciparum that underpin contemporary questions in malaria control: the entomological inoculation rate (PfEIR and the basic reproductive number (PfR. Methods Annual parasite incidence data for 13,449 administrative units in 43 endemic countries were sourced to define the spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission in 2010 and 22,212 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR surveys were used in a model-based geostatistical (MBG prediction to create a continuous contemporary surface of malaria endemicity within these limits. A suite of transmission models were developed that link PfPR to PfEIR and PfR and these were fitted to field data. These models were combined with the PfPR map to create new global predictions of PfEIR and PfR. All output maps included measured uncertainty. Results An estimated 1.13 and 1.44 billion people worldwide were at risk of unstable and stable P. falciparum malaria, respectively. The majority of the endemic world was predicted with a median PfEIR of less than one and a median PfRc of less than two. Values of either metric exceeding 10 were almost exclusive to Africa. The uncertainty described in both PfEIR and PfR was substantial in regions of intense transmission. Conclusions The year 2010 has a particular significance as an evaluation milestone for malaria global health policy. The

  17. Endemic Sexual Violence and Abuse: Contexts and Dispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Nicole Rayment-McHugh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Endemic sexual violence and abuse has been observed in a number of specific circumstances, most notably conflict zones, remote and marginalised communities, and religious and state institutions. In this article we examine several documented examples and argue that a similar set of causal processes are at work in all of these otherwise apparently disparate circumstances. Rather than construing the problem as ‘organised’ sexual abuse, we present the problem in terms of the breakdown (or disorganisation of usual individual, situational and ecological constraints.

  18. Intergenerational representations of schistosomiasis in endemic area, Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Maria Modena

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the intergenerational process of disease/health representations constitutes a requisite for the construction of projects and health education interventions. The objective of this work is to describe the meaning attributed to schistosomiasis in the family context. Twenty-one residents of an endemic area were interviewed. The interviews were submitted to content analysis. The results demonstrated different representations of the disease by the children, parents and grandparents. This paper discusses the differences in these representations and its impact in schistosomiasis control programs.

  19. ?Suspects? in Etiology of Endemic Nephropathy: Aristolochic Acid versus Mycotoxins

    OpenAIRE

    Pepeljnjak, Stjepan; Klari?, Maja ?egvi?

    2010-01-01

    Despite many hypotheses that have been challenged, the etiology of endemic nephropathy (EN) is still unknown. At present, the implications of aristolochic acid (AA) and mycotoxins (ochratoxin A—OTA and citrinin—CIT) are under debate. AA-theory is based on renal pathohistological similarities between Chinese herbs nephropathy (CHN) and EN, findings of AA-DNA adducts in EN and in patients with urinary tract tumors (UTT), as well as the domination of A:T→T:A transversions in the p53 mutational s...

  20. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anielle de Pina-Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation’s territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation’s malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013. The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex. The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites

  1. Plasmodium vivax malaria endemicity in Indonesia in 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal R F Elyazar

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax imposes substantial morbidity and mortality burdens in endemic zones. Detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of this parasite is needed to combat it. We used model based geostatistics (MBG techniques to generate a contemporary map of risk of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Indonesia in 2010.Plasmodium vivax Annual Parasite Incidence data (2006-2008 and temperature masks were used to map P. vivax transmission limits. A total of 4,658 community surveys of P. vivax parasite rate (PvPR were identified (1985-2010 for mapping quantitative estimates of contemporary endemicity within those limits. After error-checking a total of 4,457 points were included into a national database of age-standardized 1-99 year old PvPR data. A Bayesian MBG procedure created a predicted PvPR(1-99 endemicity surface with uncertainty estimates. Population at risk estimates were derived with reference to a 2010 human population surface.We estimated 129.6 million people in Indonesia lived at risk of P. vivax transmission in 2010. Among these, 79.3% inhabited unstable transmission areas and 20.7% resided in stable transmission areas. In western Indonesia, the predicted P. vivax prevalence was uniformly low. Over 70% of the population at risk in this region lived on Java and Bali islands, where little malaria transmission occurs. High predicted prevalence areas were observed in the Lesser Sundas, Maluku and Papua. In general, prediction uncertainty was relatively low in the west and high in the east.Most Indonesians living with endemic P. vivax experience relatively low risk of infection. However, blood surveys for this parasite are likely relatively insensitive and certainly do not detect the dormant liver stage reservoir of infection. The prospects for P. vivax elimination would be improved with deeper understanding of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd distribution, anti-relapse therapy practices and manageability of P

  2. Human African trypanosomiasis in non-endemic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshi, Darshan; Brown, Mike

    2015-02-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is a parasitic disease, acquired by the bite of an infected tsetse fly. In non-endemic countries HAT is rare, and therefore the diagnosis may be delayed leading to potentially fatal consequences. In this article the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of the two forms of HAT are outlined. Rhodesiense HAT is an acute illness that presents in tourists who have recently visited game parks in Eastern or Southern Africa, whereas Gambiense HAT has a more chronic clinical course, in individuals from West or Central Africa. © 2015 Royal College of Physicians.

  3. Dynamic generalized linear models for monitoring endemic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina; Jensen, Dan; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to use a Dynamic Generalized Linear Model (DGLM) based on abinomial distribution with a linear trend, for monitoring the PRRS (Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome sero-prevalence in Danish swine herds. The DGLM was described and its performance for monitoring control...... in sero-prevalence. Based on this, it was possible to detect variations in the growth model component. This study is a proof-of-concept, demonstrating the use of DGLMs for monitoring endemic diseases. In addition, the principles stated might be useful in general research on monitoring and surveillance...

  4. Is the endemic Maltese Top-shell Gibbula nivosa extinct?

    OpenAIRE

    Schembri, Patrick J.; Borg, Joseph A.; Deidun, Alan; Knittweis, Leyla; Mellado Lopez, T.

    2007-01-01

    The trochid gastropod Gibbula nivosa, endemic to the Maltese Islands, has recently only been found in two Maltese bays, where it occurred on seagrass leaves and under stones at depths of 1-4m. Intensive sampling of Cymodocea nodosa and Posidonia oceanica meadows, sediment and pebbles at depths of 2-12m, carried out in 2000 and 2002, resulted only in empty shells but no live animals, suggesting that the species is extinct from these localities where previously good populations were found. Howe...

  5. Brucella epididymo-orchitis: a consideration in endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella sp. and may affect many parts of the body. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This is a case report of Brucella epididymo-orchitis in a Saudi male patient. He presented with a unilateral swelling of the left testicle. He had fever, arthralgia and night sweats. Ultrasound examination revealed enlarged left epididymis and testicle. Brucella serology was positive and the patient responded to treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin. Thus, brucella infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with epididymo-orchitis from an endemic area.

  6. Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women in Taiwan: Comparison between women born in Taiwan and other southeast countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yu-Jie

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taiwan's national vaccination program has successfully decreased the prevalence of hepatitis B infection after twenty years of implementation and might be indirectly beneficial to the second generation. In this study, we compared the hepatitis B infection status of two groups: pregnant Taiwanese women and other Southeast Asian women, who because they had immigrated later in life to Taiwan by marriage to a Taiwanese man, had not been exposed to that vaccination program to evaluate the effect of hepatitis vaccination program on women of child-bearing age and further explored the potential impact of immigration on the hepatitis B public health policy in Taiwan. Methods Data was collected from 10,327 women born in Taiwan and 1,418 women born in other Southeast Asian countries, both groups receiving prenatal examinations at Fooyin University Hospital between 1996 and 2005. The results of serum hepatitis B s-Antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis B e-Antigen (HBeAg tests and other demographic data were obtained by medical chart review. Results The pregnant women from Taiwan had a higher HBsAg positive rate (15.5% but lower HBeAg(+/HBsAg(+ ratio (32.1% than the women from other countries (8.9% and 52.4%. For those born before July, 1984, the period of no national vaccination program, Taiwanese women had a higher HBsAg positive rate than other Southeast Asian women (15.7% vs. 8.4%, but for women born after that day and before June 1986, the period of vaccination for high risk newborns, the HBsAg positive rates found to be slightly lower for Taiwanese women than for other Southeast Asian women (11.4% vs. 12.3% and the difference was more significant (3.1% vs. 28.6% after June 1986, the period of vaccination for all newborns. While the HBeAg(+/HBsAg(+ ratios decreased with age in both groups, they were consistently higher in women from other Southeast Asian countries than in women born in Taiwan after age 20. Conclusion In Taiwan, the neonatal

  7. Chronic arsenic exposure and its adverse health effects in Taiwan: A paradigm for management of a global environmental problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Che Lan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It was estimated that, nearly 100 million people are at risk for drinking arsenic (As-contaminated drinking water. Although the WHO guideline recommends that levels of As in drinking water should not exceed 10 μm/L, it was estimated that more than 30 million people drink As-containing water at levels more than 50 μm/L in Bangladesh and India alone. Therefore, the adverse health effects resulting from chronic As exposure pose a global threat. In Taiwan, studies focusing on the health effects resulting from chronic As exposure through contaminated drinking water have been ongoing for more than 50 years. During the past half century, it was recognized that the impact of high As exposure on human health is much more complicated than originally anticipated. Chronic As exposure resulted in infamous blackfoot disease, which is unique to As endemic areas in Taiwan, and various diseases including cancers and non-cancers. Although the potential-biological outcomes have been well-documented, the pathomechanisms leading from As exposure to occurrence and development of the diseases remain largely unclear. One of the major obstacles that hindered further understanding regarding the adverse health effect resulting from chronic As exposure is documentation of cumulative As exposure from the distant past, which remains difficult as the present technologies mostly document relatively recent As exposure. Furthermore, the susceptibility to As exposure appears to differ between different ethnic groups and individuals and is modified by lifestyle factors including smoking habits and nutrition status. No consensus data has yet been reached even after comparing the study results obtained from different parts of the world focusing on associations between human As toxicity and genetic polymorphisms in terms of cellular detoxification enzymes, tumor suppressor proteins, and DNA repair pathway. With the availability of the new powerful “OMIC” technologies, it may

  8. Chronic arsenic exposure and its adverse health effects in Taiwan: a paradigm for management of a global environmental problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Cheng-Che; Yu, Hsin-Su; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2011-09-01

    It was estimated that, nearly 100 million people are at risk for drinking arsenic (As)-contaminated drinking water. Although the WHO guideline recommends that levels of As in drinking water should not exceed 10 μm/L, it was estimated that more than 30 million people drink As-containing water at levels more than 50 μm/L in Bangladesh and India alone. Therefore, the adverse health effects resulting from chronic As exposure pose a global threat. In Taiwan, studies focusing on the health effects resulting from chronic As exposure through contaminated drinking water have been ongoing for more than 50 years. During the past half century, it was recognized that the impact of high As exposure on human health is much more complicated than originally anticipated. Chronic As exposure resulted in infamous blackfoot disease, which is unique to As endemic areas in Taiwan, and various diseases including cancers and non-cancers. Although the potential-biological outcomes have been well-documented, the pathomechanisms leading from As exposure to occurrence and development of the diseases remain largely unclear. One of the major obstacles that hindered further understanding regarding the adverse health effect resulting from chronic As exposure is documentation of cumulative As exposure from the distant past, which remains difficult as the present technologies mostly document relatively recent As exposure. Furthermore, the susceptibility to As exposure appears to differ between different ethnic groups and individuals and is modified by lifestyle factors including smoking habits and nutrition status. No consensus data has yet been reached even after comparing the study results obtained from different parts of the world focusing on associations between human As toxicity and genetic polymorphisms in terms of cellular detoxification enzymes, tumor suppressor proteins, and DNA repair pathway. With the availability of the new powerful "OMIC" technologies, it may now be possible to gain

  9. Mycotoxin monitoring for commercial foodstuffs in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Tzai; Hsu, Yuan-Hsin; Wang, Tzu-Sui; Chien, Shi-Wern

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic food contaminants that are naturally produced by certain fungi. They induce negative effects on human health by making food unsafe for consumption. In this study, analyses were performed to determine the levels and incidence of aflatoxins (AFs) in peanut products, tree nuts, spices, and Coix seeds; ochratoxin A (OTA) in wheat and roasted coffee, as well as OTA and AFs in rice; and citrinin (CIT) in red yeast rice (RYR) products. A total of 712 samples from nine different food categories were collected between 2012 and 2013. The samples were analyzed over 2 years for AFs, OTA, and CIT by methods recommended by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. These official analytical methods were extensively validated in-house and through interlaboratory trials. The analytical values of suspected contaminated specimens were confirmed by liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry analysis to identify the specific mycotoxin present in the sample. We show that 689 samples (96.8%) complied with the regulations set by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. AFs were found in four peanut-candy products, one peanut-flour product, one pistachio product, one Sichuan-pepper product, and one Coix seed product. All had exceeded the maximum levels of 15 parts per billion for peanut and 10 parts per billion for other food products. Furthermore, 14 RYR samples contained CIT above 5 parts per million, and one RYR tablet exceeded the maximum amount allowed. Instances of AFs in substandard Sichuan pepper and Coix seeds were first detected in Taiwan. Measures were taken by the relevant authorities to remove substandard products from the market in order to decrease consumer exposure to mycotoxin. Border control measures were applied to importing food commodities with a higher risk of mycotoxin contamination, such as peanut, Sichuan pepper, and RYR products. Declining trends were observed in the noncompliance rate of AFs in peanut products, as well as that of CIT in RYR raw

  10. Carbapenem-Nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jann-Tay; Wu, Un-In; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling Yang; Chen, Mei-Chen; Li, Shu-Ying; Hsu, Le-Yin; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2015-01-01

    A total of 1135 carbapenem-resistant (nonsusceptible) Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) isolates were recovered between November 2010 and July 2012 (517 from 2010-2011 and 618 from 2012) from 4 hospitals in Taiwan. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) comprised 5.0% (57 isolates), including 17 KPC-2 (16 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 1 Escherichia coli), 1 NDM-1 (K. oxytoca), 37 IMP-8 (26 Enterobacter cloacae, 4 Citrobacter freundii, 4 Raoultella planticola, 1 K. pneumoniae, 1 E. coli and 1 K. oxytoca), and 2 VIM-1 (1 E. cloacae, 1 E. coli). The KPC-2-positive K. pneumoniae were highly clonal even in isolates from different hospitals, and all were ST11. IMP-8 positive E. cloacae from the same hospitals showed higher similarity in PFGE pattern than those from different hospitals. A total of 518 CRE isolates (45.6%) were positive for bla ESBL, while 704 (62.0%) isolates were bla AmpC-positive, 382 (33.6% overall) of which carried both bla ESBL and bla AmpC. CTX-M (414, 80.0%) was the most common bla ESBL, while DHA (497, 70.6%) and CMY (157, 22.3%) were the most common bla AmpC. Co-carriage of bla ESBL and bla AmpC was detected in 31 (54.4%) and 15 (26.3%) of the 57 CPE, respectively. KPC-2 was the most common carbapenemase detected in K. pneumoniae (2.8%), while IMP-8 was the most common in E. cloacae (9.7%). All KPC-2-positive CRE were resistant to all three tested carbapenems. However, fourteen of the 37 IMP-8-positive CRE were susceptible to both imipenem and meropenem in vitro. Intra- and inter-hospital spread of KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae and IMP-8-producing E. cloacae likely occurred. Although the prevalence of CPE is still low, careful monitoring is urgently needed. Non-susceptibility to ertapenem might need to be considered as one criterion of definition for CRE in areas where IMP type carbapenemase is prevalent. PMID:25794144

  11. New Energy Villages in Taiwan and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. S.; Wang, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan locates in the active tectonic subdution and collision belts, therefore, the geothermal gradient is very high and have found 128 sites of high geothermal areas; 20% of them have the temperature between 75 - 200 degree C in which they can be directly used for the electricity generation; 50% of them are in 50 - 74 degree C and the rest 30% are below 50 degree C. These areas need the deep drillings to get into higher temperature for power energy. The first 20% high temperature areas are mostly located in the coastal or mountain regions. The government is interesting to develop these areas as the "New Energy Villages" so that they can not only become self-energy sufficient sites, but also to protect themself from being the loss of electricity and water during the typhoon and earthquake hazards. The multiple usages of hot water (such as the first power generation and then the hot spring utilization) have its merits. China, in the other hand, is not within the present-day active tectonic zone. However, the recent Sino Probe Experiments (Deep Exploration in China) have mapped the Cetaceous plate boundaries in the coast of China. The heat is still possibly migrating to near the surface through the existing structures. For example, the Feng Shun Geothermal Power Station in north of Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, used the 96 degree C hot water from a well of 800 m producing a small amount of 300 KW power since 1984. The Guangdong Province is located in the edge of Mesozoic South China Plate. Further in land, the Huang Mountain, one of the world heritage sites, is located at the boundary of another Mesozoic Yangtze River Plate. There is not a geothermal power plant; however, a number of hot springs are in a booming tour business at the foot hill of the mountain. The electricity has to come from a long way of net working. If China develops the local, small, but sufficient power plants by using the modern geothermal exploration and drilling techniques. The "New Energy

  12. Preschool Principal's Curriculum Leadership Indicators: A Taiwan Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Fen; Lee, John Chi-Kin

    2013-01-01

    The role of a principal's curriculum leadership has become an educational issue in Taiwan's early childhood education. This study represents a pioneering attempt in adopting a target school interview, fuzzy Delphi, and analytic hierarchy process for constructing preschool principal's curriculum leadership indicators. Fifteen experts and…

  13. Environment-adjusted regional energy efficiency in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jin-Li; Lio, Mon-Chi; Yeh, Fang-Yu; Lin, Cheng-Hsun

    2011-01-01

    This study applies the four-stage DEA procedure to calculate the energy efficiency of 23 regions in Taiwan from 1998 to 2007. After controlling for the effects of external environments, only Taipei City, Chiayi City, and Kaohsiung City are energy efficient. Note that Kaohsiung City reaches the efficiency frontier due to the adjustment via partial environmental factors such as higher education attainment and transport vehicles. We also find a worsening trend for Taiwan's energy efficiency. Not only is there a gap of energy efficiency between Taiwan's metropolitan areas and the other regions, but the gap has also widened in recent years. Those inefficient counties should be given priority and the savings potential. Except for road density, the evidence indicates that each environmental factor has partial incremental effects on input slacks. As more cars and motorcycles are unfavorable externalities affecting partial energy efficiency, the central government should help local governments retire inefficient old motor vehicles, encourage energy-saving vehicle models, and provide convenient mass transportation systems. Besides, people with higher education cause industrial energy inefficient in Taiwan. The conscious of effective energy saving is necessary to schools, communities, and employee accordingly.

  14. Ideal Careers Perceived by Education Major Undergraduates in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsuan-Fu

    2013-01-01

    The higher educational institutions produce several times as many college graduates each year as there are jobs available recently in Taiwan. This coupled with the deep recession of economy in recent years have contributed to the intensified competition for jobs. The fierce unemployment among young people has revived the demand on the contribution…

  15. Population distribution and quality of life in the Taiwan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K T

    1983-01-01

    The unbalanced distribution of population in Taiwan is first described, together with the problems posed by both uneven distribution and overpopulation. The characteristics of migrants are examined, and their motives for migration are reviewed. In the second part, a design for a more rational urban hierarchy is proposed. The design involves a redistribution of the population away from the Taipei metropolitan area.

  16. Comparing PETS and GEPT in China and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mei

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the Public English Test System (PETS) administered in mainland, China and the General English Proficiency Test (GEPT) administered in Taiwan, from the aspects of test levels, test contents and scoring weight. Compared with the PETS, the GEPT is found to value the English productive skills more, and have a greater ability to…

  17. A Newly Naturalized Species in Taiwan: Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Nan Ko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A newly naturalized plant, Rauvolfia tetraphylla L., a native species of the Apocynaceae distributed in the tropical Americas, has recently been found in southern Taiwan. It is a new record for this species to the flora of this island. A detailed description, line-drawings, photographs and geographic distribution are provided for identification of this species.

  18. Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    sell military parts (including an F-16 fighter engine) to the PRC. U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) stated that it deported Moo to Taipei...agreements with South Korea, Colombia , and Panama. Senator John Kerry expressed opposition, including Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

  19. Instructor-Student Rapport in Taiwan ESL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nathan G.; Barrett, Laura Obrycki

    2014-01-01

    Positive relationships between instructors and students are critical to effective learning in the classroom. Rooted in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL), and centered at the crossroads of interpersonal communication and instructional communication (Affective Learning Model), this study examines how instructors in a Taiwan ESL school…

  20. Exploring "Gift" Theories for New Immigrants' Literacy Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, Ho-Chia

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses "the gift" as the central concept in a discussion about the literacy education for new immigrants that has been developing in Taiwan since the early 1990s. The point of departure for this discussion is the advent of international marriages that are the consequence of new arrivals from Southeast Asia and China, and…

  1. 77 FR 72884 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1197 (Final)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers... Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1673d(b)) (the Act), that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment hangers from Taiwan, provided for in subheading 7326.20...

  2. The status of energy conservation in Taiwan's cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Te-Li; Chan, David Yih-Liang; Hung, Ching-Yuan; Hong, Gui-Bing

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry represents one of the most energy intensive sectors in Taiwan. Energy audits are the direct tools which are employed to help reduce energy consumption. The objectives of energy audits are to establish energy audit systems, provide on-site energy audit service and reduce production cost. This study summarized the energy savings implemented in Taiwan's cement industry; the data were obtained from the on-line Energy Declaration System in 2010. The total implemented energy savings amounted to 68,512 kilo liter of crude oil equivalent (KLOE). The energy audit group audited seven Taiwanese cement plants in 2011 and revealed an energy saving potential of 2571.6 MWh of electricity and 1002.8 KLOE of thermal energy. The total potential energy saving was 1708.5 KL of crude oil equivalent (KLOE), equivalent to a 4560 t reduction in CO 2 emissions, representing the annual CO 2 absorption capacity of a 122 ha forest plantation. - Highlights: • This study summarizes the energy savings implemented in Taiwan's cement industry from the on-line Energy Declaration System. • The energy audit group audited seven Taiwanese cement plants in 2011 and revealed energy saving potential was 1708.5 KLOE. • This work aims to examine what Taiwan has done and also describes the current status in cement industry. • In addition, some potential energy conservation opportunities or measures are revealed in this paper

  3. Behavioral Regulation and Early Academic Achievement in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanless, Shannon B.; McClelland, Megan M.; Acock, Alan C.; Chen, Fu-Mei; Chen, Jo-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Behavioral regulation (the integration of attention, working memory, and inhibitory control) is critical for school readiness and early academic achievement. In Taiwan, however, where academic success is highly valued, there is a dearth of assessments available to measure young children's behavioral regulation. The present study…

  4. A trend analysis of ergonomic research themes in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Long

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the development of ergonomics in Taiwan by analysing 1404 scientific articles published by 113 permanent members of the Ergonomics Society of Taiwan (EST). Each article was classified by key words and abstract content. Each article was also coded by period of publication (1971-1992 (first period), 1993-1997 (second period), 1998-2002 (third period), 2003-2007 (fourth period), and 2008-2012 (fifth period), and against 13 topic categories. The results show that rate of publication has increased by approximately 100 articles every five years since 1993.The most popular topic was ergonomics assessment and analysis techniques in the first period, force exertion-related research in the second period, product design and evaluation in the third period, occupational safety and health in the fourth period and human-computer interface in the fifth period. Each of these is highly relevant to current contemporary issues around the world. Finally, potential areas for future ergonomics research in Taiwan are discussed. This study investigates the trends in academic papers published by members of the EST. Over time, topics have shifted from ergonomics evaluation methods to occupational safety and health, and human–computer interaction. The findings should be considered as important references for planning the future of ergonomics in Taiwan.

  5. Vocational Training for the Disabled in Taiwan, Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Robert T. Y.

    For Taiwan, Republic of China, a nation with limited natural resources and a population of 22 million people in an area of only 36,000 square kilometers, the development and use of human resources plays a pivotal role in sustainable economic growth. Vocational education and training are two major human development methods. Since persons with…

  6. Energy Usage of Residents on Offshore Islands in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Cheng Lu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted through interviews on offshore islands in Taiwan to investigate the energy usage of local residents. A comparison of household appliance usage in mainland Taiwan with that on the offshore islands revealed that, overall, the most commonly used household appliances are steam cookers/rice cookers, water dispensers, and washing machines. For other household appliances, Levels 2 and 3 offshore isles have lower use penetration rates compared with those in mainland Taiwan and on Level 1 offshore isles, particularly for the use of computers. By contrast, the use penetration rate for chest freezers on Levels 2 and 3 offshore isles is high, and each household has one or more freezers on average. This appliance is not a commonly observed household product in mainland Taiwan or on Level 1 offshore isles. Furthermore, because of the government policy, every household on parts of Level 2 offshore isles and on all Level 3 offshore isles has a fixed monthly charge of electricity. The transportation of liquefied petroleum gas is also inconvenient, and the gas price is slightly higher, leading to the tendency of residents to consume excessive amounts of electrical energy, which does not correspond with the aim of the government to conserve energy and reduce carbon emissions; thus, the relevant authorities’ review and improvement on energy consumption on Levels 2 and 3 offshore isles are required.

  7. Social Capital and Health Inequality: Evidence from Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lijun; Lin, Nan

    2009-01-01

    Does social capital, resources embedded in social relationships, influence health? This research examines whether social capital impacts depressive symptoms and overall perceived health status over and above the effects of social support. Our analyses use unique data from the Taiwan Social Change Survey collected in 1997, and measures social…

  8. Educational expansion and inequality in Taiwan and the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, Michael; Tsai, S. L.; Matějů, P.; Huang, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2016), s. 339-374 ISSN 0010-4086 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP404/12/J006 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : educational inequality * Taiwan * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.231, year : 2016

  9. Policies and Practices in Educational Gerontology in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Yin; Huang, Chin-Shan

    2013-01-01

    Policy on educational gerontology seems a relatively recent subfield in most countries' social policies. The concept of education for older adults did not appear in Taiwan's political discourse until 1980. The purposes of this paper are to provide an overall introduction to the development of educational gerontology policies and practices in…

  10. Gender Ideologies, Marital Roles, and Marital Quality in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohe; Lai, Shu-Chuan

    2004-01-01

    This study uses the multidimensional measures included in the 1996 Taiwan Social Change Survey to examine the effects of gender ideologies and marital role sharing on marital quality among married Taiwanese men and women as reporting spouses. The authors' quantitative analyses indicate that (a) there is little direct relationship between gender…

  11. Notes on Eragrostis Wolf (Poaceae for the Flora of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jung

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Eragrostis atrovirens (Desf. Trin. ex Steud. and E. tenuifolia (A. Rich. Hochst. ex Steud. are new records for Taiwan. Eragrostis curvula (Schrad. Nees has now become naturalized in low to high elevations. Descriptions, distribution maps, and ine-drawings are presented.

  12. A Newly Naturalized Species in Taiwan: Phytolacca icosandra L. (Phytolaccaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-I Hsieh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytolacca icosandra L. (Phytolaccaceae, native to the South America has been found recently in central Taiwan. This newly naturalized species is distinguished by its erect spike-like racemes and 12–20 stamens. This paper describes the morphology of the species and provides line drawing and photographs for identification.

  13. Characteristics of the First Human Milk Bank in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Yuan Chang

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: Proper management and operation of a human milk bank can support breastfeeding, and provide a safe alternative to artificial formula for feeding preterm or ill infants in Taiwan. Sustainability of the milk bank needs more propagation and financial support by health authorities.

  14. Parents' Perspectives on Adopting English Names in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiu-Yen; Ke, I-Chung

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the adoption of English names in Taiwan through questionnaires and interviews with parents of junior high school students. In total, 564 parents filled out a questionnaire regarding their adoption of an English name, reasons for needing an English name, and their perspectives about their child's English name. We interviewed…

  15. A dataset from bottom trawl survey around Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-tsao Shao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottom trawl fishery is one of the most important coastal fisheries in Taiwan both in production and economic values. However, its annual production started to decline due to overfishing since the 1980s. Its bycatch problem also damages the fishery resource seriously. Thus, the government banned the bottom fishery within 3 nautical miles along the shoreline in 1989. To evaluate the effectiveness of this policy, a four year survey was conducted from 2000–2003, in the waters around Taiwan and Penghu (Pescadore Islands, one region each year respectively. All fish specimens collected from trawling were brought back to lab for identification, individual number count and body weight measurement. These raw data have been integrated and established in Taiwan Fish Database (http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw. They have also been published through TaiBIF (http://taibif.tw, FishBase and GBIF (website see below. This dataset contains 631 fish species and 3,529 records, making it the most complete demersal fish fauna and their temporal and spatial distributional data on the soft marine habitat in Taiwan.

  16. Procedure Transparency in the Taiwan Fair Trade Commission

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Tsai

    2015-01-01

    From the standpoint of business planning, two dimensions of procedure transparency are worth noting in the TFTC—in clearing legal criteria and during the decision-making process. Diana H.A. Tsai (Taiwan Fair Trade Commission & National Chiao Tung University)

  17. Consolidating the University Career Service System in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsuan-Fu; Hu, Tien-Ling

    2017-01-01

    The university graduate unemployment rate reached a record high of 6% in 2009 in Taiwan; paradoxically, business managers complained that they could not find enough qualified employees. The mismatch between knowledge taught in universities and the requests of the job market has been criticized as the main reason for the escalation of the…

  18. Lactuca serriola (Asteraceae, a Newly Naturalized Plant in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Mei Wang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A newly naturalized herb was recently recorded here. Lactuca serriola L. (Asteraceae was found in the central part of western Taiwan and Penghu island, as an alien weed. This report gives taxonomic descriptions and illustrations. Photographs are also provided for identification.

  19. Educational Expansion and Inequality in Taiwan and the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael; Tsai, Shu-Ling; Mateju, Petr; Huang, Min-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of educational inequality by family background and gender in Taiwan and the Czech Republic, which have both experienced substantial educational expansion in the last half-century under different educational systems. We highlight the specific institutional histories of both countries and examine the role…

  20. Patterns of Psychiatric Outpatient Practice in Taiwan: A Nationwide Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Xiu Dai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Limited studies have utilized nationwide data to assess the patterns of psychiatric practice in other countries. In this study, data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan (NHIRD-TW for 2012 was analyzed to determine the patterns of psychiatric outpatient practice in Taiwan; (2 Methods: To determine the patterns of psychiatric outpatient practice in Taiwan, the data were drawn from the datasets of Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database for 2012, with 619,760 records of outpatient visits representing 1/500 of all the claims in Taiwan for that year. The analysis of psychiatric outpatient visits included patient demographics, diagnoses, and prescribed medications; (3 Results: Neurotic disorders were the most prevalent diagnoses (43.1%, n = 5714. Hypnotics-sedatives and anxiolytics were prescribed in 51.7% (n = 6850 and 39.1% (n = 5181 of psychiatric visits, respectively, with zolpidem being the most commonly prescribed drug (22.6%, n = 2998; and (4 Conclusion: Hypnotics and sedatives were widely prescribed for the outpatient population, and zolpidem had the highest annual prevalence of use. These findings deserve the attention of clinicians and policy makers for monitoring the abuse and dependence of these agents and subsequent adverse events.

  1. The Ranking Phenomenon and the Experience of Academics in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, William Yat Wai

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of the paper is to examine how global university rankings have influenced the higher education sector in Taiwan from the perspective of academics. A qualitative case study method was used to examine how university ranking influenced the Taiwanese higher education at institutional and individual levels, respectively, thereby…

  2. ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES AND PROSPECTS - TAIWAN MIRACLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, B

    1990-01-01

    Energy use in Taiwan has grown exponentially at rates of 8-10%/year between 1952 and 1988. Official scenarios, based on an average of 6.5%/year economic growth, extrapolate another doubling to tripling of energy and electricity use for the beginning of the next century. With help of a simple model,

  3. Statistical Modelling of Recent Changes in Extreme Rainfall in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Chu (Lan-Fen); M.J. McAleer (Michael); S-H. Wang (Szu-Hua)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper has two primary purposes. First, we fit the annual maximum daily rainfall data for 6 rainfall stations, both with stationary and non-stationary generalized extreme value (GEV) distributions for the periods 1911-2010 and 1960-2010 in Taiwan, and detect the changes between the

  4. Policy analysis of the English graduation benchmark in Taiwan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To nudge students to study English and to improve their English proficiency, many universities in Taiwan have imposed an English graduation benchmark on their students. This article reviews this policy, using the theoretic framework for education policy analysis proposed by Haddad and Demsky (1995). The author ...

  5. An investigation of snakebite antivenom usage in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chuan Lin

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: The results partially support Taiwan Poison Control Center guidelines for treating the hemorrhagic-type venom snakebite. However, deficit in the guidelines for treatment of neurotoxic-type venom snakebite is obvious and new guidelines for treatment of neurotoxic-type venom snakebite and diagnosis should be developed.

  6. Quercetin modulates activities of Taiwan cobra phospholipase A2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-04-25

    Apr 25, 2012 ... PLA2 from the venom of N. naja atra (Taiwan cobra) was isolated as previously described (Chang et al. 1998). Qct was purchased from Alexis Biochemicals. Calcein, 8- anilinonaphthalene sulphonate (ANS), egg yolk phosphati- dylcholine (EYPC), egg yolk sphingomyelin (EYSM), Chol and trinitrobenzene ...

  7. Life cycle assessment of palm-derived biodiesel in Taiwan

    KAUST Repository

    Maharjan, Sumit

    2016-10-01

    In Taiwan, due to the limited capacity of waste cooking oil, palm oil has been viewed as the potential low-cost imported feedstock for producing biodiesel, in the way of obtaining oil feedstock in Malaysia and producing biodiesel in Taiwan. This study aims to evaluate the cradle-to-grave life cycle environmental performance of palm biodiesel within two different Asian countries, Malaysia and Taiwan. The phases of the life cycle such as direct land-use-change impact, plantation and milling are investigated based on the Malaysia case and those of refining, and fuel production as well as engine combustion is based on Taiwan case. The greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and energy consumption for the whole life cycle were calculated as −28.29 kg CO2-equiv. and +23.71 MJ/kg of palm-derived biodiesel. We also analyze the impacts of global warming potential (GWP) and the payback time for recovering the GHG emissions when producing and using biodiesel. Various scenarios include (1) clearing rainforest or peat-forest; (2) treating or discharging palm-oil-milling effluent (POME) are further developed to examine the effectiveness of improving the environmental impacts © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  8. Notes on Three Newly Naturalized Plants in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Huei Chen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Chloris divaricata R. Br. var. cynodontoides (Bal. Lazarides, Boerhavia coccinea Mill., and Hyptis pectinata (L. Poit. are recently found naturalized in Taiwan. The present study gives the taxonomic description and line drawings of the three species. In addition, their distribution and notes on ecology and taxonomy are provided.

  9. Anticardiolipin antibodies in various diseases in Taiwan: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, M H; Tsai, W P; Liao, S T; Liou, L B

    2003-01-01

    The goals of this study are to determine the frequency of anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) in patients with various diseases and to evaluate the clinical significance of ACA in Taiwan. We collected 690 patients from ACA laboratory records. They were divided into eight groups in order to compare ACA percentages. Positive rates of ACA in different disease groups were below 20%, except for 38.2% in autoimmune diseases with vascular thrombosis. Compared with old stroke, the ACA positivity in young stroke was not significantly different (P = 0.482). The positive percentage of lupus anticoagulant (LA) (2.86%) was lower than that of ACA (15.66%) in young stroke (P = 0.015). Among patients with pregnancy loss or prematurity, the ACA positivity in lupus patients (44.44%) was higher than without lupus (9.76%; P = 0.01). The prevalence of ACA is higher in patients with vascular thrombosis complicated by autoimmune diseases than with thrombosis alone in Taiwan. Young and old stroke do not differ in ACA positivity. Moreover, ACA is more prevalent than LA for young stroke related coagulation. The ACA positivity for pregnancy loss or prematurity is very low in Taiwan. In summary, this is the first report on the frequency of ACA and other coagulation factors in various diseases in Taiwan.

  10. Five Trends of School Arts Education Reform in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ren-Lai

    2006-01-01

    In the torrents of globalization and social transition in Taiwan, it is particularly important to reinforce a sense of cultural subjectivity and localization, and promote new trends of arts education that emphasize the development of self and spirit. The fundamental principles of these new trends are: (1) that the purpose of arts education is to…

  11. A Parent-to-Parent Program in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kae

    2018-01-01

    Parent-to-parent programs provide emotional and informational support to parents of children with special needs by matching trained and experienced parents with parents needing support. This study examined the implementation and effects of a Parent-to-Parent Program in Taiwan that supported 3 families of youngsters with special needs. Based on the…

  12. Effective Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.; Yuan, C.; Fan, S.; Su, S.

    2004-01-01

    Since the incident of radioactively contaminated buildings first surfaced in Taiwan in 1992, efforts have been made by AEC (Atomic Energy Council) of Taiwan to prevent recurrence of similar incidents involving radioactive materials and to achieve effective regulatory control over radioactive sources. The most important milestone is when AEC began to enforce IRPA he Ionizing Radiation Protection Act with the promulgation of 18 relevant regulations on Feb. 1, 2003. In order to enhance accountability of radioactive material and equipment capable of producing ionizing radiation, AEC develops and begins implementing a RPCS Radiation Protection Control System which is a powerful tool in controlling radiation safety and security. In addition, AEC develops a monthly registration program via internet, an o n-line reporting system f or owners/operators of radioactive sources, to improve monitoring of sealed sources (in-use and not-in-use). The registration requirement applies to 469 licensees possessing about 3,000 sealed sources in Taiwan. Because of the threat of orphan sources, AEC has made great efforts in preventing their contamination of construction steel material by establishing and enforcing the RPMMPIRCB Regulation for Preventive Measures and Management Plans for Incident of Radioactively Contaminated Buildings. To comply with this regulation, all 19 of Taiwan's steel factories with melting furnace have installed portal-type radiation detection system to monitor incoming scrap metal. (Author)

  13. Configuring School Image Assets of Colleges in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia Kun; Chen, Hsin Chu

    2018-01-01

    Higher education in Taiwan faces various challenges, such as the low-birth rate, blurred positioning, and lack of marketing concepts. In order to sustain, more effect strategies and actions resource should be implemented to enhance service of the colleges and universities. Therefore, image asset management becomes a critical start. This study aims…

  14. Human sex ratio at amniocentesis and at birth in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Wen Lee

    2012-12-01

    Conclusions: The results showed that sex ratio was already skewed toward male at midtrimester. Our data imply that artificial sex selection, if it were present, might have already emerged prior to the timing of amniocentesis. However, more large nationwide studies on sex ratios in Taiwan are warranted.

  15. Pediatric Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Sedation: A 2010 Nationwide Survey in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hon Chen

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: A majority of pediatric EGD in Taiwan was performed under sedation and applied more often to younger children. Endoscopists were more satisfied during EGD when practicing sedation. This survey should help formulate updated practice guidelines and policies regarding endoscopic sedation.

  16. Internationalization versus Localization: "The Case of Primary Education in Taiwan"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ping; Ho, Hsuan-Fu

    2012-01-01

    Internationalization is receiving increasing attention at academic institutions all over the world. Taiwan is no exception, where the government is promoting internationalization not only in higher education, but also at the primary education level. In this research we identified the key factors of the internationalization of primary education in…

  17. Prevalence of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Ching Hwang

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: This study found a high prevalence of obesity and MS in Taiwan. The definitions of MS by the modified ATP III and MS-TW criteria were better able to detect high CVD risk than the MS-IDF(C criteria.

  18. The Attainment of Conservation by Visually Impaired Children in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan-Lin, M. M.; Tait, P. E.

    1987-01-01

    Among results comparing attainment of the conservation concept in blind (N=30), partially sighted (N=50), and sighted (N=40) children (ages 6-15) in Taiwan were that development of partially sighted children was more like the development of sighted than blind children, and that a 1-4 year developmental lag occurred in blind children. (Author/DB)

  19. Orchidaceous Additions to the Floras of China and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ormerod

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Literature and herbarium studies of Chinese and Taiwanese orchids has revealed a variety of new and noteworthy data pertinent to the floras of China and Taiwan. Three new combinations are proposed, viz. Anoectochilus baotingensis, Oberonia sinica and Odontochilus nanlingensis.

  20. Stemodia L. (Scrophulariaceae, a Newly Naturalized Genus in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shou Liang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Stemodia verticillata (Mill. Hassl. (Scrophulariaceae was found in the lowlands of northern Taiwan. This represents a new naturalization not only for this species but also for the genus on this island. A taxonomic account of S. verticillata is treated in this study. A line-drawing, distribution map and photographs of this species are also provided to aid in identification.

  1. A Case Study of an Affective Education Course in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chin-Chiang; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the components of a framework for affective education implementation based on a positive psychology approach. A fifth grade class of 31 students in a public rural elementary school in Taiwan participated in a 13-week long affective education course that consisted of six units: Self-discovery, Love and…

  2. Learning Vietnamese as a Heritage Language in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yu-Ching; Ho, Hsiang-Ju; Chen, Ming-Chung

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, the Taiwanese Government began a campaign to encourage new immigrants to teach their native languages (heritage languages) to their children. However, these heritage languages are seldom used in cross-national families and the effectiveness of formal heritage language courses in Taiwan has yet to be explored. The present study examines…

  3. Challenges and Opportunities Facing Technology Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng Steven

    2009-01-01

    The technology education in Taiwan is prescribed in the national curriculum and provided to all students in grades 1-12. However, it faces the following challenges: (1) Lack of worthy image, (2) Inadequate teachers in elementary schools, (3) Deficient teaching vitality in secondary schools, and (4) Diluted technology teacher education programs. In…

  4. Development of Taiwan College Students' Sense of Life Meaning Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ho-Tang; Chou, Mei-Ju; Lei, Meng-Shan; Hou, Jing-Fang; Wu, Ming-Hsyang

    2015-01-01

    The research aims to develop "Sense of Life Meaning Scale" of Taiwan college students. In accordance with the related literature, most Western scholars adopted Frankl's Logotherapy for developing "Sense of Life Meaning Scale", which consists of freedom of will, will to meaning and meaning of life. The research also adopts these…

  5. Analysis of a commercial wind farm in Taiwan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li; Yeh, Tai-Her; Lee, Wei-Jen

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents steady-state performance analysis of a commercial wind farm in Taiwan through field measurement results and computer simulations. The companion paper in Part II discusses the employment of current-limit reactors and load tap changers on power-quality improvement of the studied...

  6. Analysis of a commercial wind farm in Taiwan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li; Yeh, Tai-Her; Lee, Wei-Jen

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents both steady-state performance and dynamic simulations of a commercial wind farm (WF) in Taiwan through field measurement results and computer simulations. The companion paper in Part II discusses the dynamic and transient analyzed results of using current-limit reactors (CLRs...

  7. Higher Education Learning Experiences among Vietnamese Immigrant Women in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Ling; Wu, Hsing-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Based on a sociocultural approach to adult learning and poststructural feminist theories, this study draws on interviews with 11 married Vietnamese women to explore the higher education learning experiences of Vietnamese immigrant women in Taiwan. On the basis of their husbands' permission and support, Vietnamese immigrant women embraced the…

  8. b-Values Observations in Taiwan: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeen-Hwa Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High seismicity with spatial heterogeneity in Taiwan makes this region one of the best natural laboratories for seismological researches. Numerous seismicity studies, including the b-value, have been performed for more than one century. One of the possible ways to mitigate seismic risk is predicting an impending earthquake through various kinds of seismic precursors observations. The first seismic precursors project in Taiwan started in 1978. The temporal variation in b-value prior to a forthcoming earthquake has been considered a significant seismic precursor for earthquake prediction. In this review study, we focus on the studies of b-values of earthquakes in Taiwan, including the spatial distribution of b-values, temporal variation in b-values, correlation between the b-value and fractal dimension, and correlation between the b- and p-value of Omori law for aftershocks. Also included is the relation between the spatial distribution of b-values and regional geotectonics. The properties and controlling factors of b-value and earthquake monitoring in Taiwan will also be briefly described.

  9. The Technology Transfer of the ICT Curriculum in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Teng

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on the process of "technology transfer", this paper aims to critically examine the production and usage of the information and communication technology (ICT) curriculum, and discusses its possibilities. It is found that the goals in both of the two stages of the ICT curriculum in Taiwan were rather "rhetorical". Three…

  10. [The parenting practices of transnational marriage mothers in Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Li-Yu; Shu, Bih-Ching; Huang, Chiung-Chen

    2013-02-01

    Childhood experience is a cornerstone of personality development. A child's cognitive function, self-concept, and behavioral development relate significantly to parental attitudes as well as to the way they were treated during childhood. The literature suggests a significant association between parenting practices and the mental health of the parents, temperament of the child, and socio-cultural factors. Raising children is typically central to the life of transnational marriage women living in Taiwan. They view parenting children as a life transforming experience. However, they must invest more effort than local mothers to survive in Taiwan. Thus, it is worth investigating the parenting practices of this significant subset of Taiwan's population. This paper applied parenting concepts to describe the condition and possible problems of immigrant women in parenting children. Based on study results, we summarize transnational marriage and its impact on parenting practices. The authors hope this paper provides information useful to identifying parenting difficulties faced by immigrant mothers so that healthcare professionals can provide relevant information and assistance to improve overall parenting practices and benefit the development of Taiwan's youngest generation.

  11. Taiwan: Recent Developments and U.S. Policy Choices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    ...), by a 2.2 million vote margin of 58% to 42%. Following the KMT's sweeping victory in January's legislative elections, the result appears to be a further repudiation of Taiwan President Chen Shui-bian's 8-year record of governance...

  12. Fasciolopsiasis: Endemic focus of a neglected parasitic disease in Bihar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Achra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe a newly discovered, previously unreported endemic focus of fasciolopsiasis in the Phulwaria village, under tehsil Sugauli, East Champaran, Bihar. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted at village Phulwaria, following diagnosis of fasciolopsiasis in three children from the village. A total of 120 individuals, including all the children and adults who gave history of recent passage of red fleshy masses in their stool, were included in the study. The cases of fasciolopsiasis were treated with Praziquantel 25 mg/kg, three doses a day. Risk factors for the transmission of the parasite in the village were also studied. Results: Questionnaire revealed majority of the population suffering from abdominal discomfort and passage of red fleshy masses in stool. These fleshy masses were identified as Fasciolopsis buski. One hundred and eighteen individuals were presumably considered as cases of the parasitic infection. After treatment with Praziquantel, all of them passed the parasite in their stool for the next 2-3 days. On investigating, it was observed that all the conditions required for effective continuation of the life cycle of the parasite were present in this village. Conclusion: This study draws attention to a new endemic focus of fasciolopsiasis in Bihar, with a very high prevalence due to poverty, the lack of awareness about the parasite in villagers as well as ignorance among local medical practitioners. There is an urgent need for mass campaign around the region for its effective control.

  13. Euxinic freshwater hypolimnia promote bacterial endemicity in continental areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberán, Albert; Casamayor, Emilio O

    2011-02-01

    Bacteria and archaea represent the vast majority of biodiversity on Earth. The ways that dynamic ecological and evolutionary processes interact in the microbial world are, however, poorly known. Here, we have explored community patterns of planktonic freshwater bacteria inhabiting stratified lakes with oxic/anoxic interfaces and euxinic (anoxic and sulfurous) water masses. The interface separates a well-oxygenated upper water mass (epilimnion) from a lower anoxic water compartment (hypolimnion). We assessed whether or not the vertical zonation of lakes promoted endemism in deeper layers by analyzing bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from the water column of worldwide distributed stratified lakes and applying a community ecology approach. Community similarity based on the phylogenetic relatedness showed that bacterial assemblages from the same water layer were more similar across lakes than to communities from different layer within lakes and that anoxic hypolimnia presented greater β-diversity than oxic epilimnia. Higher β-diversity values are attributable to low dispersal and small connectivity between community patches. In addition, surface waters had significant spatial but non-significant environmental components controlling phylogenetic β-diversity patterns, respectively. Conversely, the bottom layers were significantly correlated with environment but not with geographic distance. Thus, we observed different ecological mechanisms simultaneously acting on the same water body. Overall, bacterial endemicity is probably more common than previously thought, particularly in isolated and environmentally heterogeneous freshwater habitats. We argue for a microbial diversity conservation perspective still lacking in the global and local biodiversity preservation policies.

  14. Detection of human taeniases in Tibetan endemic areas, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Wang, Hao; Long, Changping; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehir; Wu, Yunfei; Giraudoux, Patrick; Raoul, Francis; Nkouawa, Agathe; Nakao, Minoru; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira

    2013-11-01

    Detection of taeniasis carriers of Taenia solium is essential for control of cysticercosis in humans and pigs. In the current study, we assessed the positive detection rate of a self-detection tool, stool microscopy with direct smear and coproPCR for taeniasis carriers in endemic Tibetan areas of northwest Sichuan. The self-detection tool through questioning about a history of proglottid expulsion within the previous one year showed an overall positive detection rate of more than 80% for Taenia saginata, T. solium and T. asiatica. The positive detection rate was similar for T. saginata and T. solium. In 132 taeniid tapeworm carriers, 68 (51·5%) were detected by microscopy and 92 (69·7%) were diagnosed by coproPCR. A combination of microscopy and coproPCR increased the positive detection rate to 77·3%. There remained 10 cases (7·6%) coproPCR negative but microscopy positive. Due to the high cost and complicated process, coproPCR is required for the identification of Taenia species only when necessary, though it had a significant higher positive detection rate than microscopy. Combined use of self-detection and stool microscopy are recommended in community-based mass screening for taeniases in this Tibetan area or in other situation-similar endemic regions.

  15. Epidemiology of Chagas Disease in Non-Endemic European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Cambronero-Cortinas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease results from infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and was presviously described as an endemic disease focused in populations living in poor rural areas of Latin American countries. Currently, migrant populations and some modes of transmission such as blood and organ donation or vertical transmission from infected mothers to their children have caused the spread of this disease beyond its natural geographical boundaries. In Europe, Spain, with over half of these migrants, is undoubtedly the most important recipient, followed by Italy, France and United Kingdom. However, in non-endemic countries there is no universal screening systems and also physicians are often poorly trained in recognizing this disease. So far, few countries are aware of the emergence of this disease and only few European countries have established changes in their health system to address this disease. The National European Health authorities should take part to this model-of-care, adapting in this new epidemiological scenario with screening this pathology in blood donors, organ donations or vertically from mother to child at birth. These mechanisms are the main forms of human infestation in nonendemic countries and are, therefore, the major targets for reduction of spread.

  16. Hydrogeochemistry of Groundwater and Arsenic Adsorption Characteristics of Subsurface Sediments in an Alluvial Plain, SW Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libing Liao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies were conducted to investigate arsenic mobilization in different alluvial plains worldwide. However, due to the unique endemic disease associated with arsenic (As contamination in Taiwan, a recent research was re-initiated to understand the transport behavior of arsenic in a localized alluvial plain. A comprehensive approach towards arsenic mobility, binding, and chemical speciation was applied to correlate groundwater hydrogeochemistry with parameters of the sediments that affected the As fate and transport. The groundwater belongs to a Na-Ca-HCO3 type with moderate reducing to oxidizing conditions (redox potential = −192 to 8 mV. Groundwater As concentration in the region ranged from 8.89 to 1131 μg/L with a mean of 343 ± 297 μg/L, while the As content in the core sediments varied from 0.80 to 22.8 mg/kg with a mean of 9.9 ± 6.2 mg/kg. A significant correlation was found between As and Fe, Mn, or organic matter, as well as other elements such as Ni, Cu, Zn, and Co in the core sediments. Sequential extraction analysis indicated that the organic matter and Fe/Mn oxyhydroxides were the major binding pools of As. Batch adsorption experiments showed that the sediments had slightly higher affinity for As(III than for As(V under near neutral pH conditions and the As adsorption capacity increased as the contents of Fe oxyhydroxides as well as the organic matter increased.

  17. Characteristics of Broadband Seismic Noise in Taiwan and Neighboring Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Wei; Rau, Ruey-Juin

    2017-04-01

    We used seismic waveform data from 115 broad-band stations of BATS (Institute of Earth Science, Academia Sinica) and Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network from 2012 to 2016 for noise-level mapping in Taiwan and neighboring islands. We computed Power Spectral Density (PSD) for each station and analyzed long-term variance of microseism energy and polarizations of noise for severe weather events. The island of Taiwan is surrounded by ocean and the Central Range which has the highest peak Jade Mountain at 3,952 meters height occupies more than 66% of the island and departs it into the east and west coasts. The geographic settings then result in the high population density in the western plain and northern Taiwan. The dominant noise source in the microseism band (periods from 4-20 seconds) is the coupling between the near-coast ocean and sea floor which produces the high noise of averaging -130 dB along the west coastal area. In the eastern volcanic-arc coastal areas, the noise level is about 7% smaller than the west coast due to its deeper offshore water depth. As for the shorter periods (0.1-0.25 seconds) band, the so-called culture noise, an anthropic activity variance with the highest -103 dB can be identified in the metropolitan areas, such as the Taipei city and the noise level in the Central Range area is averaging -138 dB. Moreover, the noise also shows a daily and temporal evolution mainly related to the traffic effect. Furthermore, we determined the noise level for the entire island of Taiwan during 26-28 September, 2016, when the typhoon Megi hit the island and retrieved the enhancement of secondary microseism energy for each stations. Typhoon Megi landed in eastern and central Taiwan and reached the maximum wind speed of 45m/s in the surrounded eyewall. The Central Range, as a barrier, decreased the wind speed in southern Taiwan making an enhancement less than 10 dB, while in northern Taiwan where the direction the typhoon headed to, can reach more than 35

  18. Physician supply and demand in anatomical pathology in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Yi; Jung, Shih-Ming; Chuang, Shih-Sung

    2011-02-01

    Anatomical pathology was not popular in Taiwan a few decades ago, with a severe shortage of pathologists. However, there has been a steady increase in recent years, and now there is a threat of oversupply We evaluated supply and demand over the past three decades and compared the findings with other countries. We collected the enrollment data of pathologists and physicians from the Taiwan Society of Pathology, the Department of Health, Executive Yuan, and Taiwan Medical Association, and analyzed equivalent data from other countries. We sent questionnaires to pathology chiefs to inquire about future job vacancies. The number of pathologists has increased at an annual rate of 4.93% between 2004 and 2008, in contrast to 3.7% for all physicians. There has been a net annual increase of 12 pathologists in the past 13 years. The estimated average number of consultant posts per year was nine, which was only one-third of the average number of first-year residents (R1s). The number of pathologists/million population in Taiwan was 14.83, which was comparable to that in Japan and South Korea but much smaller than that in Canada and the United States. The ratio of pathologists to physicians in Taiwan was 0.97%, which was higher than that in Japan (0.68%) and South Korea (0.64%), but lower than in Canada (1.32%) and the United States (1.46%). On average, 1.79% of medical graduates chose pathology for their R1 training in Taiwan, which was higher than that in the United States (1.50%) and Canada (1.10-1.20%). Anatomical pathology is no longer a specialty that is facing a physician shortage in Taiwan, and there is now a relatively high pathologist/physician ratio among Asian countries. We suggest that a decrease in the number of R1s in pathology is needed to maintain a balance between supply and demand. Copyright © 2011 Formosan Medical Association & Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Modern sedimentation and sediment dispersal pattern off southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Sheng-Ting; Su, Chih-Chieh; Tsai, Po-Hsuan; Cheng, Yiya

    2015-04-01

    Taiwan is located at the collision zone between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea Plates and also on the Western North Pacific corridor of typhoons. Every year, three to four typhoons will invaded Taiwan and brought heavy rainfall. The active tectonic setting and climatic conditions create the extremely high sediment yield and export to the ocean. Our study area is located offshore southwestern Taiwan which is mainly composed of a narrow Gaoping Shelf and broad Gaoping Slope. Four major submarine canyons, the Shoshan Submarine Canyon, Kaohsiung Submarine Canyon, Gaoping Submarine Canyon, and Fangliao Submarine Canyon, extended into deep sea, through Penghu Submarine Canyon and subsequently merged into north terminus of Manila Trench. Over 50 box and gravity cores were collected by using R/V Ocean Research 1, 3 and 5 from 2005 to 2014. The cores were split and conducted core description and surface photographs at the Core Laboratory of the Taiwan Ocean Research Institute (TORI). The following analyses, including X-radiography, bulk density, particle size, Pb-210 chronology, were accomplished at the Marine Radioactivity and Sedimentology Lab at the Institute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University. The grain size analysis result shows a finer trend from coastal to deep water , except for the lower Fangliao basin which the grain size is larger than the expected value. According to the previous studies on the Pingtung Earthquake induced submarine geohazard, the Fangliao Submarine Canyon and the Lower Fangliao Basin is an important conduit for gravity flow which triggered large scale submarine cable breakages and left coarse sediments on the passage. By using the excess Pb-210 derived sediment accumulation rates, Huh et al. (2009) suggested the depocenter off the southwestern Taiwan is located at the flank of the Gaoping Canyon over the upper slope with the highest rate >1 cm/yr. In this study we integrate the Pb-210 inventory data which covered the area from the

  20. Classification management plan of groundwater quality in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun Ming; Chen, Yu Ying; Pan, Shih Cheng; Li, Hui Jun; Hsiao, Fang Ke

    2017-04-01

    Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration has been monitoring regional water quality for 14 years. Since the beginning of 2002 till now, there are 453 regional groundwater monitoring wells in ten groundwater subregions in Taiwan, and the monitoring of groundwater quality has been carried out for a long time. Currently, water quality monitoring project has reached 50 items, while the number of water quality monitoring data has reached more than 20,000. In order to use the monitoring data efficiently, this study constructed the localized groundwater quality indicators of Taiwan. This indicator takes into account the different users' point of view, incorporating the Taiwan groundwater pollution monitoring standards (Category II), irrigation water quality standard and drinking water source water quality standard. 50 items of water quality monitoring projects were simplified and classified. The groundwater quality parameters were divided into five items, such as potability for drinking water, salting, external influence, health influences and toxicity hazard. The weight of the five items of groundwater was calculated comprehensively, and the groundwater quality of each monitoring well was evaluated with three grades of good, ordinary, and poor. According to the monitoring results of the groundwater monitoring wells in October to December of 2016, about 70% of groundwater quality in Taiwan is in good to ordinary grades. The areas with poor groundwater quality were mostly distributed in coastal, agriculture and part of the urban areas. The conductivity or ammonia nitrogen concentration was higher in those regions, showing that groundwater may be salinized or affected by external influences. Groundwater quality indicators can clearly show the current comprehensive situation of the groundwater environment in Taiwan and can be used as a tool for groundwater quality classification management. The indicators can coordinate with the Taiwan land planning policy in the

  1. Characteristics of rainfall during tropical cyclone periods in Taiwan

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    K. K. W. Cheung

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the Central Mountain Range with an elevation up to about 4 km, the amount and distribution of rainfall in Taiwan associated with typhoons or tropical cyclones (TCs depends not only on the distribution of convection within the TCs (internal structure and influences from monsoon-scale environmental flow, but also on the orographic effect. This study analyzes the spatial and temporal characteristics of rainfall associated with 62 TC cases that affected Taiwan by using observations from the 371 automatic rain stations available in the period 1989–2002. It is found from the climatology maps that highly different rainfall distributions occurred for TCs that approached the Taiwan area from different directions. By performing objective clustering analysis of the rainfall time series of all the rain gauges, several characteristic temporal rainfall profiles are obtained. The geographic distribution of rain gauges that possess a particular temporal profile is also consistent with the possible TC track types that bring maximum rain to the Taiwan area at different times.

    Based on data in the 1989–2002 period, the development of a TC rainfall climatology-persistence (CLIPER model is described. CLIPER is an optimized combination of climatology and persistence with different relative weighting for different forecast periods. Independent cases (other than the model development database during 2003–2004 are used to validate the model. Objective measures like equitable threat score and bias score show that CLIPER's skill is acceptable for practical applications for 24-h rain threshold below 100 mm. However, the underestimation bias for more heavy rainfall is serious and CLIPER seems to have better performance for the northwestern Taiwan than for the other locations. Future directions for improvement of the CLIPER model are discussed.

  2. Religiosity influences on bereavement adjustments of older widows in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Shaw-Nin; Turale, Sue; Shih, Fu-Jin; Tsai, Jen-Chen

    2010-03-01

    To describe difficulties encountered by older widows in Taiwan and the impact of intrinsic or extrinsic religiosity on their coping strategies during early widowhood. There is very limited information about how Taiwan's widows cope with their bereavement and no studies reporting the relationship between religious beliefs and healthy adjustment during this distressing period. Between-method qualitative and quantitative triangulation was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and transcribed data were analysed by critical thematic analysis. Twenty women in Taiwan, >65 years old, (mean = 72.95) were interviewed within three years of being widowed. There were two informant groups: those with intrinsic religious beliefs and those with extrinsic religious beliefs. They all reported intrapersonal and interpersonal problems. Several major coping strategies arose: 'practising positive or negative attitudes for adaptation'; 'using person-focused actions'; and 'taking the initiative or passively seeking help from others or helping others'. Informants with intrinsic religious beliefs reported fewer coping problems by holding positive attitudes and taking multiple actions for adaptation. The extrinsic religious group had more negative adaptation attitudes, such as withdrawal and low self-esteem and practised less faith religious activities in worshipping ancestors, experiencing fatalism and using divination. They reported more coping problems than the intrinsic religious group. Widows in Taiwan have different coping problems and strategies in postbereavement adjustment, affected by their different religious beliefs systems. More research is required to establish the generalisabilty of these findings. Widows in Taiwan need to be assessed for their religious belief systems and how this affects their ability to cope during bereavement. Clinicians should actively provide grief support and encourage new methods of social adaptation, especially with widows with extrinsic

  3. Seasonal Prediction of Taiwan's Streamflow Using Teleconnection Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Jeng; Lee, Tsung-Yu

    2017-04-01

    Seasonal streamflow as an integrated response to complex hydro-climatic processes can be subject to activity of prevailing weather systems potentially modulated by large-scale climate oscillations (e.g., El Niño-Southern Oscillation, ENSO). To develop a seamless seasonal forecasting system in Taiwan, this study assesses how significant Taiwan's precipitation and streamflow in different seasons correlate with selected teleconnection patterns. Long-term precipitation and streamflow data in three major precipitation seasons, namely the spring rains (February to April), Mei-Yu (May and June), and typhoon (July to September) seasons, are derived at 28 upstream and 13 downstream catchments in Taiwan. The three seasons depict a complete wet period of Taiwan as well as many regions bearing similar climatic conditions in East Asia. Lagged correlation analysis is then performed to investigate how the precipitation and streamflow data correlate with predominant teleconnection indices at varied lead times. Teleconnection indices are selected only if they show certain linkage with weather systems and activity in the three seasons based on previous literature. For instance, the ENSO and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, proven to influence East Asian climate across seasons and summer typhoon activity, respectively, are included in the list of climate indices for correlation analysis. Significant correlations found between Taiwan's precipitation and streamflow and teleconnection indices are further examined by a climate regime shift (CRS) test to identify any abrupt changes in the correlations. The understanding of existing CRS is useful for informing the forecasting system of the changes in the predictor-predictand relationship. To evaluate prediction skill in the three seasons and skill differences between precipitation and streamflow, hindcasting experiments of precipitation and streamflow are conducted using stepwise linear regression models. Discussion and suggestions for coping

  4. Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources in Taiwan

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    An-Yuan Tsai Wen-Cheng Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a comprehensive assessment model to measure the regional impact of climate change on Taiwan¡¦s water resources. Working from future rainfall data simulated by Japan¡¦s high-resolution GCM model JMA/MRI TL959L60 in a SRES-A1B scenario, we first apply climate change to an assessment model of renewable water resources to estimate the volume of renewable water resources on a regional basis. We then conduct a water resources system simulation based on estimates of future water needs, regional reservoir effective capacity and renewable water resource volume. This paper uses three water resource assessment indicators: the annual water utilization ratio indicator, the water shortage indicator and the extreme event occurrence indicator. Through fuzzy comprehensive assessment, we divide the evaluation set into five levels: very good (L1, good (L2, fair (L3, poor (L4 and very poor (L5. Results indicate that, given the effects of future climate change (2080 - 2099 and the increase in water demand, future water resources conditions in northern and eastern Taiwan will not be significantly different from historical levels (1979 - 1998 and will maintain a ¡§good¡¨ level (L2, while the conditions in southern Taiwan will visibly deteriorate from its historical ¡§fair¡¨ level (L3 to ¡§poor¡¨ (L4; and the future conditions for central Taiwan will be ¡§poor¡¨ (L4. The initiation of adaptation options for water management in southern and central Taiwan would be needed by increasing reservoir capacity and reducing overall water use.

  5. Seismic Velocity Anomalies beneath Tatun Volcano Group, Northern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-yu; Lin, Cheng-Horng; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Chang, Li-Chin

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic eruption has been a natural disaster for human society. Taiwan is located in the Pacific Ring of Fire. Although there is no obvious phenomenon of volcanic activity in Taiwan, some volcanoes need to be monitored, especially the Tatun Volcano Group (TVG), which exhibits very active hydrothermal activity, is located on the tip of southwestern Ryukyu arc. TVG is about 15 km north to Taipei, capital of Taiwan, and is nearby two nuclear power plants along the northern coast of Taiwan. If TVG erupts, there must be a serious impact and damage to Taiwan. Since TVG is located within the Yangmingshan National Park, any artificial seismic source is not allowed to estimate possible eruption site and the degree of volcanic disaster. Instead, we use natural seismic waves generated by earthquakes to image the possible velocity anomaly of magma chamber and/or hydrothermal system beneath TVG. We systematically compare the differences of arrival times generated by some local earthquakes and recorded at 42 seismic stations in 2014 for finding any low-velocity zone within the crust. The results show that the arrival times always appeared significant delay at some particular seismic stations, such as Chi-Hsin-Shan (CHS), Siao-You-Keng (SYK) and some other stations at TVG, no matter where the earthquakes occurred. It implies that possible low-velocity zones, which could be the location of magma chamber and/or active hydrothermal system, exist beneath the CHS and SYK areas. This feature is generally consistent with the clustered micro-earthquakes in the shallow crust beneath the CHS area in the last decade.

  6. Mesoscopic Structural Observations of Cores from the Chelungpu Fault System, Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project Hole-A, Taiwan

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    Hiroki Sone

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural characteristics of fault rocks distributed within major fault zones provide basic information in understanding the physical aspects of faulting. Mesoscopic structural observations of the drilledcores from Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project Hole-A are reported in this article to describe and reveal the distribution of fault rocks within the Chelungpu Fault System.

  7. The Epidemiology and Characteristics of Q fever and Co-infections with Scrub Typhus, Murine Typhus or Leptospirosis in Taiwan: A Nationwide Database Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C-H; Sun, W; Lee, C-H; Lin, J-N; Liao, M-H; Liu, S-S; Chang, T-Y; Tsai, K-F; Chang, Y-C; Lin, H-H; Chen, Y-H

    2017-11-01

    Q fever (QF) is a worldwide zoonosis associated with outbreaks. Only a few nationwide studies regarding the surveillance and epidemiology of human QF have been reported. Although QF is endemic in Taiwan, a nationwide database investigation of the epidemiology and characteristics of QF and its associations with scrub typhus (ST), murine typhus (MT) and leptospirosis (LS) has never been reported. We analysed nationwide databases of suspected QF, ST, MT and LS cases from October 2007 to December 2014 obtained from the Centers for Disease Control, Taiwan. A total of 468 (4.2%) QF cases were identified among 11 109 suspected QF cases. QF cases were mainly distributed in the southern and Kaohsiung-Pingtung regions but rarely in the eastern region. Compared to non-QF cases, QF cases had significantly higher percentages of males (88.7 versus 66.2%) and high-risk occupations (farming, animal husbandry or veterinary medicine) (16.2 versus 10.5%). But the percentages of specific animal contact, including cattle (0.6 versus 0.8%) and goats (0.9 versus 1.0%), were low in both. The majority of suspected QF cases (89.4%) were simultaneously suspected with ST, MT or LS, and the combinations of suspected diseases differed between regions. The number of suspected QF cases from the eastern region decreased since 2009, which was not observed in other regions. A total of 1420 (12.8%) cases had confirmed diseases, including QF (453, 4.1%), QF+ST (7, 0.06%), QF+MT (4, 0.04%), QF+LS (4, 0.04%), MT (186, 1.7%), ST (545, 4.9%), ST+LS (11, 0.1%) and LS (210, 1.9%). Compared to cases of unknown disease, QF cases had larger percentages of high-risk occupations (16.2 versus 9.6%) but similar histories of animal contact (29.8 versus 25.1%). QF is an endemic disease in southern Taiwan. It is difficult to differentiate QF from ST, MT or LS only by high-risk occupations and history of animal contact, and co-infection of QF with these diseases should be considered. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. On the origin of endemic species in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph

    2015-10-19

    Aim The geological and palaeo-climatic forces that produced the unique biodiversity in the Red Sea are a subject of vigorous debate. Here, we review evidence for and against the hypotheses that: (1) Red Sea fauna was extirpated during glacial cycles of the Pleistocene and (2) coral reef fauna found refuge within or just outside the Red Sea during low sea level stands when conditions were inhospitable. Location Red Sea and Western Indian Ocean. Methods We review the literature on palaeontological, geological, biological and genetic evidence that allow us to explore competing hypotheses on the origins and maintenance of shallow-water reef fauna in the Red Sea. Results Palaeontological (microfossil) evidence indicates that some areas of the central Red Sea were devoid of most plankton during low sea level stands due to hypersaline conditions caused by almost complete isolation from the Indian Ocean. However, two areas may have retained conditions adequate for survival: the Gulf of Aqaba and the southern Red Sea. In addition to isolation within the Red Sea, which separated the northern and southern faunas, a strong barrier may also operate in the region: the cold, nutrient-rich water upwelling at the boundary of the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea. Biological data are either inconclusive or support these putative barriers and refugia, but no data set, that we know of rejects them. Genetic evidence suggests that many endemic lineages diverged from their Indian Ocean counterparts long before the most recent glaciations and/or are restricted to narrow areas, especially in the northern Red Sea. Main conclusions High endemism observed in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden appears to have multiple origins. A cold, nutrient-rich water barrier separates the Gulf of Aden from the rest of the Arabian Sea, whereas a narrow strait separates the Red Sea from the Gulf of Aden, each providing potential isolating barriers. Additional barriers may arise from environmental gradients

  9. Development of Safe Taiwan Information System (SATIS for Typhoon Early Warning in Taiwan

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    Wen-Ray Su

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the particular geographical location and geological condition, Taiwan is constantly attacked by typhoons, flood, landslides, debris flows, and earthquakes. Those natural hazards had caused huge loss of lives and properties. To reduce the damages and losses caused by the natural hazards, an integrated and complete decision support system for decision makers is necessary. In this study, Safe Taiwan information system (SATIS, which includes two subsystems, response operation subsystem for staff members and decision support subsystem for commanders, is developed for preparedness and response of typhoon hazards. It is based on the Web- GIS framework that the disaster information can be distributed via internet technology. When typhoon is approaching, response operation subsystem is used by National Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction (NCDR staffs to integrate real-time monitoring information, hazard models and graphical user interfaces to analyze and manage the disaster information such as the current position and possible path of typhoon, the spatial distribution of rainfalls, and potential areas of flooding, landslides and debris flows. The input data of this subsystem includes the basic maps, the real-time information of typhoon and rainfall issued by the Central Weather Bureau, the real-time water information from the Water Resources Agency, and the hazard maps indicating areas of potential landslide, debris flow and flooding made by NCDR herself to estimate endangered areas under the current typhoon. There are four main modules integrated into the subsystem including the rainfall monitoring and forecasting, the estimation of potential inundation areas, the estimation of potential landslide and debris flows, and the management of disaster information. The results of hazard risk analysis which include potential rainfall distribution, inundation and landslide risk areas, early warning messages, and total suggestion over the

  10. Niche divergence accelerates evolution in Asian endemic Procapra gazelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junhua; Jiang, Zhigang; Chen, Jing; Qiao, Huijie

    2015-05-07

    Ecological niche divergence and adaptation to new environments are thought to play important roles in driving speciation. Whether recently evolved species show evidence for niche divergence or conservation is vital towards understanding the role of ecology in the process of speciation. The genus Procapra is an ancient, monophyletic lineage endemic to Asia that contains three extant species (P. gutturosa, P. przewalskii and P. picticaudata). These species mainly inhabit the Qinghai-Tibetan and Mongolian Plateaus, and today have primarily allopatric distributions. We applied a series of geographic information system-based analyses to test for environmental variation and niche divergence among these three species. We found substantial evidence for niche divergence in species' bioclimatic preferences, which supports the hypothesis that niche divergence accelerates diversification in Procapra. Our results provide important insight into the evolutionary history of ungulates in Asia and help to elucidate how environmental changes accelerate lineage diversification.

  11. Cytotoxicity screening of endemic plants from Guayana highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guil-Guerrero, José Luis; Campra, Pablo

    2009-08-01

    A chemical-ecology approach has been used to screen plants growing in Guyana Highlands as an indicator of production of biologically active secondary metabolites. Extracts of leaves from 19 species, most of them endemic in this area, and collected at the top of Roraima Tepui (2,723 m) were screened in vitro at different concentrations for their potential cytotoxic activity against three tumour cell lines: HT29 (colon), A549 (lung) and MDA-MB-231 (breast). MTT (tetrazolium blue) colorimetric assay was employed as cytotoxicity test. Extracts of nine species caused less than 30% growth in at least one cell line. From these species, high cytotoxic activity was detected in Casearia sylvestris var. lingua and Ledotamnus sessiliflorus extracts; medium activity was found in Cyathea sp. Two other species, Cyrilla racemiflora and Heliamphora minor showed lower but significant cytotoxicity. Further cytotoxicity-directed fractionation of these extracts would be advisable to isolate and identify the active principles of these plants.

  12. Clinical presentation of rheumatic fever in an endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Megan P; Sive, Alan A; Norton, Robert E; McBride, William J H; Ketheesan, Natkunam

    2010-06-01

    This study documented whether patients diagnosed with acute rheumatic fever (ARF) in North Queensland, Australia, conformed to the 1992 Revised Jones Criteria (RJC). The authors aimed to determine whether inclusion of subclinical carditis (SCC) and monarthritis as major manifestations and a low-grade temperature as a minor manifestation in the RJC are justified in this population. A retrospective review of patients in whom the diagnosis of ARF relied on the experience of clinicians and who were admitted to the Townsville and Cairns Base Hospitals between 1997 and 2007 was undertaken. Of the 98 cases reviewed, 71.4% satisfied the RJC. Modification of the RJC increased the rate of criteria satisfaction to 91.8%. On presentation, 27 patients had SCC. Of the patients with SCC followed up, 70.5% had long-term valvular consequences. In populations endemic for ARF, monarthritis, SCC and a low-grade temperature should be included in the RJC.

  13. Anticholinesterase activity of endemic plant extracts from Soqotra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakthira, Hussein; Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Arnold, Norbert; Teichert, Axel; Wessjohann, Ludger

    2011-01-01

    A total of 30 chloroform and methanol extracts from the following endemic Soqotran plants Acridocarpus socotranus Olive, Boswellia socotranao Balf.fil, Boswellia elongata Balf. fil., Caralluma socotrana N. Br, Cephalocroton socotranus Balf.f, Croton socotranus Balf. fil.., Dendrosicycos socotrana Balf.f., Dorstenia gigas Schweinf. ex Balf. fil., Eureiandra balfourii Cogn. & Balf. fil., Kalanchoe farinaceae Balf.f, Limonium sokotranum (Vierh) Radcl. Sm), Oldenlandia pulvinata, Pulicaria diversifolia (Balf. and Pulicaria stephanocarpa Balf. were screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by using in vitro Ellman method at 50 and 200 µg/ml concentrations. Chloroform extracts of Croton socotranus, Boswellia socotrana, Dorstenia gigas, and Pulicaria stephanocarpa as well as methanol extracts of Eureiandra balfourii exhibited inhibitory activities higher than 50 % at concentration of 200 µg. At a concentrations of 50 µg, the chloroform extract of Croton socotranus exhibited an inhibition of 40.6 %.

  14. High unexpected genetic diversity of a narrow endemic terrestrial mollusc

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    Pedro M. Madeira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian Peninsula has an extensive record of species displaying strong genetic structure as a result of their survival in isolated pockets throughout the Pleistocene ice ages. We used mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data to analyze phylogeographic patterns in endemic land snails from a valley of central Portugal (Vale da Couda, putatively assigned to Candidula coudensis, that show an exceptionally narrow distributional range. The genetic survey presented here shows the existence of five main mitochondrial lineages in Vale da Couda that do not cluster together suggesting independent evolutionary histories. Our results also indicate a departure from the expectation that species with restricted distributions have low genetic variability. The putative past and contemporary models of geographic distribution of Vale da Couda lineages are compatible with a scenario of species co-existence in more southern locations during the last glacial maximum (LGM followed by a post-LGM northern dispersal tracking the species optimal thermal, humidity and soil physical conditions.

  15. Southern Tunisia: A still high endemicity area for hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffatti, Houcine; Lebraud, Patricia; Hottelet, Corinne; Gharbi, Jawher; Challouf, Taieb; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis A (HAV) and E (HEV) viruses are responsible for enterically transmitted hepatitis. Tunisia is reported to be of intermediate endemicity for HAV and of low seroprevalence for HEV; however, data from rural areas of South Tunisia are lacking. Sera from 216 asymptomatic pregnant women and from 92 patients with acute hepatitis were collected between October 2014 and November 2015. Total and IgM anti-HAV immunoglobulins and anti-HEV IgG and IgM were investigated. Anti-HAV IgM-positive samples were subjected to RT-PCR targeting the VP1/2A region and sequenced. HEV IgM positive samples and all samples from acute hepatitis patients were assessed for HEV RNA. Among pregnant women (mean age 32+/-8), HAV seroprevalence was 98.6%, none presented anti-HAV IgM; HEV seroprevalence was 5.1% and three presented weakly reactive anti-HEV IgM without detectable RNA. Among acute hepatitis patients (mean age 18.5 +/- 14), HEV seroprevalence was 19,5%, none presented anti-HEV IgM, nor HEV RNA. HAV seroprevalence exceeded 90% by age 5 and acute HAV infection was detected in 20 patients (21,7%), younger than patients with other hepatitis causes (9,8 years vs. 20,4 years, p = 0,004); 65% were male. Most acute HAV infections were observed in a coastal area where HAV infections represented 52% of hepatitis etiology. Phylogenetic analysis identified genotype IA strains, clustering close to previously published Tunisian sequences. The present study confirmed a low HEV endemicity and evidenced a still high level of HAV circulation in Southern Tunisia, suggesting distinct dissemination patterns for these viruses.

  16. Patterns of Endemism and Habitat Selection in Coalbed Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Christopher E; Strachan, Cameron R; Williams, Dominique D; Koziel, Susan; Hallam, Steven J; Budwill, Karen

    2015-11-01

    Microbially produced methane, a versatile, cleaner-burning alternative energy resource to fossil fuels, is sourced from a variety of natural and engineered ecosystems, including marine sediments, anaerobic digesters, shales, and coalbeds. There is a prevailing interest in developing environmental biotechnologies to enhance methane production. Here, we use small-subunit rRNA gene sequencing and metagenomics to better describe the interplay between coalbed methane (CBM) well conditions and microbial communities in the Alberta Basin. Our results show that CBM microbial community structures display patterns of endemism and habitat selection across the Alberta Basin, consistent with observations from other geographical locations. While some phylum-level taxonomic patterns were observed, relative abundances of specific taxonomic groups were localized to discrete wells, likely shaped by local environmental conditions, such as coal rank and depth-dependent physicochemical conditions. To better resolve functional potential within the CBM milieu, a metagenome from a deep volatile-bituminous coal sample was generated. This sample was dominated by Rhodobacteraceae genotypes, resolving a near-complete population genome bin related to Celeribacter sp. that encoded metabolic pathways for the degradation of a wide range of aromatic compounds and the production of methanogenic substrates via acidogenic fermentation. Genomic comparisons between the Celeribacter sp. population genome and related organisms isolated from different environments reflected habitat-specific selection pressures that included nitrogen availability and the ability to utilize diverse carbon substrates. Taken together, our observations reveal that both endemism and metabolic specialization should be considered in the development of biostimulation strategies for nonproductive wells or for those with declining productivity. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Barriers to typhoid fever vaccine access in endemic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan MI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available M Imran Khan,1 Carlos Franco-Paredes,2,3 Sushant Sahastrabuddhe,4 R Leon Ochiai,5 Vittal Mogasale,4 Bradford D Gessner6 1Center of Excellence in Women and Child Health, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan; 2Hospital Infantil de México, Federico Gómez, México DF., Mexico; 3Phoebe Putney Memorial Hospital, Albany, GA, USA; 4International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 5Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, 6Agence de Médecine Preventive, Ferney-Voltaire, France Abstract: Typhoid vaccines have been available as a means of disease control and prevention since 1896; however, their use as a routine tool for disease prevention in endemic settings has been hampered because of: 1 insufficient data on disease burden particularly regarding the lack of health care access in the poorest communities affected by typhoid; 2 limitations of the typhoid vaccine, such as shorter duration of protection, moderate efficacy in young children, and no efficacy for infants; 3 inadequate evidence on potential economic benefits when used for a larger population; 4 neglect in favor of alternative interventions that require massive infrastructure; 5 no financial support or commitment regarding vaccine delivery cost; 6 ambivalence about whether to invest in water and sanitation hygiene versus the vaccine; and 7 clarity on global policy for country adoption. If current typhoid-protein conjugate vaccines live up to their promise of higher efficacy, longer duration of protection, and efficacy in young children, typhoid vaccine use will be a critical component of short- and medium-term disease control strategies. Typhoid control could be accelerated if the global framework includes plans for accelerated introduction of the conjugate typhoid vaccine in developing countries. Keywords: typhoid fever, vaccines, policy, endemic countries, barriers, immunization

  18. Global warming and extinctions of endemic species from biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Jay R; Liu, Canran; Neilson, Ronald P; Hansen, Lara; Hannah, Lee

    2006-04-01

    Global warming is a key threat to biodiversity, but few researchers have assessed the magnitude of this threat at the global scale. We used major vegetation types (biomes) as proxies for natural habitats and, based on projected future biome distributions under doubled-CO2 climates, calculated changes in habitat areas and associated extinctions of endemic plant and vertebrate species in biodiversity hotspots. Because of numerous uncertainties in this approach, we undertook a sensitivity analysis of multiple factors that included (1) two global vegetation models, (2) different numbers of biome classes in our biome classification schemes, (3) different assumptions about whether species distributions were biome specific or not, and (4) different migration capabilities. Extinctions were calculated using both species-area and endemic-area relationships. In addition, average required migration rates were calculated for each hotspot assuming a doubled-CO2 climate in 100 years. Projected percent extinctions ranged from global vegetation model and then by migration and biome classification assumptions. Bootstrap comparisons indicated that effects on hotpots as a group were not significantly different from effects on random same-biome collections of grid cells with respect to biome change or migration rates; in some scenarios, however, botspots exhibited relatively high biome change and low migration rates. Especially vulnerable hotspots were the Cape Floristic Region, Caribbean, Indo-Burma, Mediterranean Basin, Southwest Australia, and Tropical Andes, where plant extinctions per hotspot sometimes exceeded 2000 species. Under the assumption that projected habitat changes were attained in 100 years, estimated global-warming-induced rates of species extinctions in tropical hotspots in some cases exceeded those due to deforestation, supporting suggestions that global warming is one of the most serious threats to the planet's biodiversity.

  19. New Whitening Constituents from Taiwan-Native Pyracantha koidzumii: Structures and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Analysis in Human Epidermal Melanocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Dih Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nontoxic natural products useful in skin care cosmetics are of considerable interest. Tyrosinase is a rate-limiting enzyme for which its inhibitor is useful in developing whitening cosmetics. Pyracantha koidzumii (Hayata Rehder is an endemic species in Taiwan that exhibits tyrosinase-inhibitory activity. To find new active natural compounds from P. koidzumii, we performed bioguided isolation and studied the related activity in human epidermal melanocytes. In total, 13 compounds were identified from P. koidzumii in the present study, including two new compounds, 3,6-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxy-dibenzofuran (9 and 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxybiphenyl-2ʹ-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (13, as well as 11 known compounds. The new compound 13 exhibited maximum potency in inhibiting cellular tyrosinase activity, the protein expression of cellular tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-2, as well as the mRNA expression of Paired box 3 and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor in a concentration-dependent manner. In the enzyme kinetic assay, the new compound 13 acted as an uncompetitive mixed-type inhibitor against the substrate l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and had a Km value against this substrate of 0.262 mM, as calculated using the Lineweaver–Burk plots. Taken together, our findings show compound 13 exhibits tyrosinase inhibition in human melanocytes and compound 13 may be a potential candidate for use in cosmetics.

  20. A comparative evaluation of endemic and non-endemic region of visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar in India with ground survey and space technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreekant Kesari

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In visceral leishmaniasis, phlebotomine vectors are targets for control measures. Understanding the ecosystem of the vectors is a prerequisite for creating these control measures. This study endeavours to delineate the suitable locations of Phlebotomus argentipes with relation to environmental characteristics between endemic and non-endemic districts in India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 25 villages in each district. Environmental data were obtained through remote sensing images and vector density was measured using a CDC light trap. Simple linear regression analysis was used to measure the association between climatic parameters and vector density. Using factor analysis, the relationship between land cover classes and P. argentipes density among the villages in both districts was investigated. The results of the regression analysis indicated that indoor temperature and relative humidity are the best predictors for P. argentipes distribution. Factor analysis confirmed breeding preferences for P. argentipes by landscape element. Minimum Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, marshy land and orchard/settlement produced high loading in an endemic region, whereas water bodies and dense forest were preferred in non-endemic sites. Soil properties between the two districts were studied and indicated that soil pH and moisture content is higher in endemic sites compared to non-endemic sites. The present study should be utilised to make critical decisions for vector surveillance and controlling Kala-azar disease vectors.

  1. Assessing malaria transmission in a low endemicity area of north-western Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Speybroeck, Niko

    2013-01-01

    Where malaria endemicity is low, control programmes need increasingly sensitive tools for monitoring malaria transmission intensity (MTI) and to better define health priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low endemicity area of the Peruvian north-western coast to assess the MTI u...

  2. Differences in insect resistance between tomato species endemic to the Galapagos Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucatti, A.F.; Heusden, van A.W.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Visser, R.G.F.; Vosman, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Galapagos Islands constitute a highly diverse ecosystem and a unique source of variation in the form of endemic species. There are two endemic tomato species, Solanum galapagense and S. cheesmaniae and two introduced tomato species, S. pimpinellifolium and S. lycopersicum.

  3. Genetic and clonal diversity of the endemic ant-plant Humboldtia ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is endemic to the biodiversity hotspot of the southern Western Ghats of India and, besides ants, harbours many endemic invertebrate taxa, such as bees that pollinate it as well as arboreal earthworms, within swollen hollow stem internodes called domatia. Using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers, three ...

  4. Population viability of the narrow endemic Helianthemum juliae (CISTACEAE) in relation to climate variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marrero-Gomez, M.V.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; Carque-Alamo, E.; Banares-Baudet, A.

    2007-01-01

    Narrow endemic plants are highly vulnerable to extinction as a result of human disturbance and climate change. We investigated the factors affecting the population viability of Helianthemum juliae, a perennial plant endemic to the Teide National Park on Tenerife, Canary Islands. One population was

  5. Human African trypanosomiasis: a review of non-endemic cases in the past 20 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migchelsen, Stephanie J.; Büscher, Philippe; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Adams, Emily R.

    2011-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is caused by sub-species of the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei and is transmitted by tsetse flies, both of which are endemic only to sub-Saharan Africa. Several cases have been reported in non-endemic areas, such as North America and Europe, due to

  6. Human African trypanosomiasis : a review of non-endemic cases in the past 20 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migchelsen, Stephanie J.; Buescher, Philippe; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Adams, Emily R.

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is caused by sub-species of the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei and is transmitted by tsetse flies, both of which are endemic only to sub-Saharan Africa. Several cases have been reported in non-endemic areas, such as North America and Europe, due to

  7. Stability analysis of the endemic equilibrium state of an infection age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work we present an infection-age-structured mathematical model of AIDS disease dynamics and examine the endemic equilibrium state for stability. An explicit formula for the basic reproduction number R0 was obtained in terms of the demographic and epidemiological parameters of the model. The endemic ...

  8. United States-China-Taiwan Foreign Policy and Economic Globalization: An Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-03

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT UNITED STATES-CHINA-TAIWAN FOREIGN POLICY AND ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION : AN ASSESSMENT by Colonel Jim Coates United...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE United States-China-Taiwan Foreign Policy and Economic Globalization An Assessment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...TITLE: UNITED STATES-CHINA-TAIWAN FOREIGN POLICY AND ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION : AN ASSESSMENT FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 19 March 2004 PAGES

  9. Impacts of Tides and Typhoon Fanapi (2010) on Seas Around Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Dong S. Ko; Shenn-Yu Chao; Chun-Chieh Wu; I-I Lin; Sen Jan

    2016-01-01

    We used satellite data, typhoon-resolving atmospheric forcing and a data assimilating ocean model, the East Asian Seas Nowcast/Forecast System (EASNFS), to investigate circulation and three upwelling regions perturbed by tides and Typhoon Fanapi (2010) in the seas around Taiwan. The three upwelling areas located off northeast Taiwan, off southeast China and over the Penghu Channel off southwest Taiwan are normally limited in expanse before Fanapi. The tidal currents enhance all three. To cope...

  10. The Wage Premium and Market Structure: The Case of South Korea and Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Yen, Meng-Feng

    2013-01-01

    We seek to understand why the difference between wages earned by skilled and unskilled labor, the so-called “wage premium”, varies across developing countries, using South Korea and Taiwan as empirical case studies. South Korea and Taiwan are both small developing countries with export-led economies that enjoy relatively high incomes compared to their Asian counterparts (excluding Japan). Between 1990 and 2000, Taiwan experienced a decrease in the wage premium, while South Korea remained the ...

  11. Influenza A(H6N1) Virus in Dogs, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Ting; Wang, Ching-Ho; Chueh, Ling-Ling; Su, Bi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of influenza A virus in dogs in Taiwan and isolated A/canine/Taiwan/E01/2014. Molecular analysis indicated that this isolate was closely related to influenza A(H6N1) viruses circulating in Taiwan and harbored the E627K substitution in the polymerase basic 2 protein, which indicated its ability to replicate in mammalian species. PMID:26583707

  12. Using change theory to examine the nursing informatics development in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chi-Szu; Chang, Polun

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply Kurt Lewin's change theory to examine the nursing informatics development in Taiwan. The first stage, Unfreezing, is using Excel VBA training program to educate the nurses; the second stage, Change, is establishing the "Taiwan Nursing Informatics Association (TNIA)"; in the final stage, Refreezing, we are still working on new strategies to promote the NI nationwide. The recent challenge of nursing informatics in Taiwan is lack of programs to introduce the NI more systematically and thoroughly.

  13. Supplements to the Pteridophytes in Taiwan (II: A Newly Recorded Species Diplazium crassiusculum Ching (Athyriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Ming Chang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A newly recorded species, Diplazium crassiusculum Ching, in northern Taiwan is described and illustrated in this paper. It can be distinguished from other congeners by its coriaceous fronds, free terminal pinna, serrate margins, oblong-lanceolate pinnae, and sori solely formed at the acroscopic side of the first veinlet in each venous set. A key is provided to distinguish the morphologically related species of Taiwan. This species is apparently rare and is known only in one location in Taiwan.

  14. Endemic and widespread coral reef fishes have similar mitochondrial genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delrieu-Trottin, Erwan; Maynard, Jeffrey; Planes, Serge

    2014-12-22

    Endemic species are frequently assumed to have lower genetic diversity than species with large distributions, even if closely related. This assumption is based on research from the terrestrial environment and theoretical evolutionary modelling. We test this assumption in the marine environment by analysing the mitochondrial genetic diversity of 33 coral reef fish species from five families sampled from Pacific Ocean archipelagos. Surprisingly, haplotype and nucleotide diversity did not differ significantly between endemic and widespread species. The probable explanation is that the effective population size of some widespread fishes locally is similar to that of many of the endemics. Connectivity across parts of the distribution of the widespread species is probably low, so widespread species can operate like endemics at the extreme or isolated parts of their range. Mitochondrial genetic diversity of many endemic reef fish species may not either limit range size or be a source of vulnerability. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Phylogenetic endemism: a new approach for identifying geographical concentrations of evolutionary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosauer, Dan; Laffan, Shawn W; Crisp, Michael D; Donnellan, Stephen C; Cook, Lyn G

    2009-10-01

    We present a new, broadly applicable measure of the spatial restriction of phylogenetic diversity, termed phylogenetic endemism (PE). PE combines the widely used phylogenetic diversity and weighted endemism measures to identify areas where substantial components of phylogenetic diversity are restricted. Such areas are likely to be of considerable importance for conservation. PE has a number of desirable properties not combined in previous approaches. It assesses endemism consistently, independent of taxonomic status or level, and independent of previously defined political or biological regions. The results can be directly compared between areas because they are based on equivalent spatial units. PE builds on previous phylogenetic analyses of endemism, but provides a more general solution for mapping endemism of lineages. We illustrate the broad applicability of PE using examples of Australian organisms having contrasting life histories: pea-flowered shrubs of the genus Daviesia (Fabaceae) and the Australian species of the Australo-Papuan tree frog radiation within the family Hylidae.

  16. New Natural Hybrid, Alpinia × ilanensis (Zingiberaceae in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chuan Liu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Alpinia in Taiwan was very impressed by its frequent hybridization. Four out of 6 indigenous species in Taiwan proper have been reported to be involved in a reticulate hybridization. This paper describes and illustrates a new natural hybrid A. × ilanensis, putatively derived from A. japonica and A. pricei, which is supported by morphological and ecogeographical evidences. Based on sparse distribution mode and serious fertility reduction in these hybrid individuals, we suppose that the hybridization events between A. japonica and A. pricei have been independently occurred multiple times in field. This newly discovered hybrid reveals that all 6 independent species in this island possess the ability to cross each other.

  17. Anchoring effect on first passage process in Taiwan financial market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsing; Liao, Chi-Yo; Ko, Jing-Yuan; Lih, Jiann-Shing

    2017-07-01

    Empirical analysis of the price fluctuations of financial markets has received extensive attention because a substantial amount of financial market data has been collected and because of advances in data-mining techniques. Price fluctuation trends can help investors to make informed trading decisions, but such decisions may also be affected by a psychological factors-the anchoring effect. This study explores the intraday price time series of Taiwan futures, and applies diffusion model and quantitative methods to analyze the relationship between the anchoring effect and price fluctuations during first passage process. Our results indicate that power-law scaling and anomalous diffusion for stock price fluctuations are related to the anchoring effect. Moreover, microscopic price fluctuations before switching point in first passage process correspond with long-term price fluctuations of Taiwan's stock market. We find that microscopic trends could provide useful information for understanding macroscopic trends in stock markets.

  18. Updated Bionomics of Toxorhynchites aurifluus and Toxorhynchites manicatus in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hsien; Konradsen, Flemming; Schiøler, Karin L

    2016-06-01

    The larvae of the genus Toxorhynchites are typically found in sylvatic habitat environments. They have been proposed as potential biocontrol agents against disease vectors such as Aedes, specifically the larvae of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The only 2 species of Toxorhynchites identified in Taiwan are Tx. aurifluus and Tx. manicatus, but there have been no published records of either species since 1984. In January 2014, we identified 2 4th-stage Tx. aurifluus larvae and 2 4th-stage Tx. manicatus larvae in artificial habitats close to dwellings in Guichong village, Pingtung County, Taiwan. Here we update the bionomics of the larvae of both species, including coexisting aquatic fauna, the physicochemical parameters of the larval habitats, and developmental time. We further compare the findings with past records.

  19. Exotic Amphibians in the Pet Shops of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chun Lucy Hou

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Pet trade is an important mechanism for introducing alien species. We surveyed a total of 434 pet shops in major cities of Taiwan and found 49 species of alien amphibians belonging to 14 families and 31 genera. Two of the alien species, Rana catesbeiana and Kaloula pulchra, have established in the fields and the other three, Bufo marinus, Xenopus laevis, and Dendrobates auratus, have invasion records in other countries. There were 16 CITES Appendix II species. The most frequently displayed species were the horned frogs, eratophrys spp. And the most abundant species was the American Bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. We urge the authority of Taiwan establishing regulations on pet trade and enforcing the wildlife conservation law to reduce the risks of alien species invasions.

  20. “Making Connection”: Indonesian Migrant Entrepreneurial Strategies in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf YUNIARTO

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the function of network as a tool of problem solving in Indonesian migrant entrepreneurship escaping labor market challenges and social-cultural adjustment process in Taiwan. As the essential key to social mobility of migrant, networks is considered not only used as a migrant strategic survival, but may help them get resources to spur entrepreneurship. By cohesive personal/social networks with local fellow or nationals and using social media, it facilitated the entrepreneur’s to capital, support (mentoring, knowledge (access to sufficient capital and a reliable supply and customer. In case social network Indonesian entrepreneur in Taiwan is formed through personal or group migrant ties, religion, ethnic and hometown, or group association depends home base city where they work.

  1. The image of people with intellectual disability in Taiwan newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Hsuan; Hsu, Kan-Lin; Shu, Bih-Ching; Fetzer, Susan

    2012-03-01

    There is limited research on the development of newspaper analysis about the images of people with ID in Chinese newspapers. The purpose of this study was: (a) to understand the general image of persons with ID presented in printed newspapers in Taiwan, and (b) to classify the various images of persons with ID and to measure the relative proportions among these classifications. Articles from 2008 from the media databank UDNDATA were analysed by content analysis. Three main images were portrayed. The greatest number of articles revolved around the "dispirited" image (44.5%), followed by "needy" (32.7%), and "affirmative" (22.8%). Articles focused on families with a member with ID made up 20.8% of the total articles, and 81% of these stories had a negative theme. The pessimistic portrayal of people with ID is popular and newspapers may create stigma for people with ID in Taiwan.

  2. Hyphomycetes-Beltrania and Allied Species from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Liang Chen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Six hyphomycetous fungi: Beltrania concurvispora; Bispora betulina; Bispora novae-zelandiae; Blastophorum truncatum; Botryosporium pulchrum and Titaea volucriata on decaying leaves or stems were newly recorded from several localities of Taiwan using single or mass spore isolation technique. The morphological traits were closely examined, diagnosed and illustrated, and their distinguished characters for identification and comparison with conspecies from varied geographic regions were also briefly discussed.

  3. Demographic and Urbanization Disparities of Liver Transplantation in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Hung Wen; Chin-Li Lu; Carol Strong; Yih-Jyh Lin; Yao-Li Chen; Chung-Yi Li; Chiang-Chin Tsai

    2018-01-01

    Limited access to or receipt of liver transplantation (LT) may jeopardize survival of patients with end-stage liver diseases. Taiwan launched its National Health Insurance (NHI) program in 1995, which essentially removes financial barriers to health care. This study aims to investigate where there are still demographic and urbanization disparities of LT after 15 years of NHI program implementation. Data analyzed in this study were retrieved from Taiwan’s NHI inpatient claims. A total of 3020 ...

  4. Clinical characteristics of adult tetanus in a Taiwan medical center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chieh Weng

    2011-11-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed several characteristics of adult tetanus cases in the post-vaccine era in Taiwan. Further serological studies and improved tetanus vaccinations may be needed to ensure better protection, especially for high-risk populations. The exceptionally good prognosis for our patients confirms that appropriate treatment, including wound care, early diagnosis, proper medication, and prevention of complications, is essential in managing this traditional curable disease.

  5. Impact of Taiwan open policy on Chinese tourist satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Cang, Shuang; Sun, Y.; Li, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Taiwan government has imposed a daily visitation quota with strict regulations on Chinese visitor travel modes, length of stay, and visa authorizations since July 2008. This highly controlled scheme was an attempt to maintain service quality on top of security and political considerations. The purpose of this study is to provide in-depth analysis regarding the Chinese tourist satisfaction over time under different travel modes. The results indicated that package tour (PT) visitors general...

  6. Kindergarten teachers' experience with reporting child abuse in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Huang, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Chi-Jen

    2010-02-01

    The objectives were to examine factors associated with reporting child abuse among kindergarten teachers in Taiwan based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). A stratified quota sampling technique was used to randomly select kindergarten teachers in Taiwan. The Child Abuse Intention Report Scale, which includes demographics, attitudes about child discipline, punishment for perpetrators, and professional responsibility for reporting, subjective norms regarding support for reporting from the general and specific important persons, perceived behavioral control, and vignettes of child abuse, was used to collect data. A total of 598 kindergarten teachers (return rate 47%) provided data. While 97% of teachers reported having no experience with reporting a child abuse case, 11% indicated they had failed to report a suspected case of child abuse. Multiple regression revealed that, except for social norms, attitudes toward child discipline, punishments for perpetrators, and professional responsibility as well as perceived behavioral control explained 22.4% of variance of kindergarten teachers' intention to report child abuse. With the exception of the subjective norms, the findings of this study supported the TPB that kindergarten teachers' intention to report child abuse is associated with attitudes toward child discipline, punishment for perpetrators, professional responsibility, and perceived behavioral controls over reporting. This study revealed the problem of underreporting child abuse among kindergarten teachers in Taiwan, and highlighted the discrepancy between child abuse training and expected reporting outcomes suggesting an insufficiency in the current training programs on child abuse. There is a need to scrutinize the current training in child abuse and develop standardized training and clear reporting guidelines that will increase kindergarten teachers' confidence when confronted with suspected victims and perpetrators of child abuse in Taiwan. Copyright (c

  7. Exploring the Professional Competency Contents for International Marketer in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Shu-Ning Liou

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to establish Professional Competency Contents for International Marketer in Taiwan. To establish these contents a set of interviews with international marketing managers and three rounds of Delphi Technique surveys were employed. Five international marketing managers were interviewed for discussions on definitions, framework, and items of international marketing competency. A questionnaire for the " Delphi Technique Survey " was developed based on the result...

  8. The Past, Present, and Future of Discharge Planning in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chuan Lin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Discharge planning is an interdisciplinary approach to provide continuity of care; it is a process that includes identification, assessment, goal setting, planning, implementation, coordination, and evaluation. Discharge planning has been viewed as a major way to enhance a smooth transition for patients from the hospital to home or other chronic care units and as a solution to solve problems associated with postdischarge care. The promotion of discharge planning began in the United States in the 1960s. Nursing scholars from Taiwan learned about the concept of discharge planning from the United States in the early 1980s and subsequently introduced it to Taiwanese medical institutions in 1985. A policy to promote discharge planning in Taiwan was announced by the Executive Yuan, Department of Health in 1993. Following the healthcare reforms in 1995, discharge planning has since been strongly promoted. Studies concerning discharge planning in Taiwan showed some promising results, including increased satisfaction of patients and their families, improved preparation of caregivers, and improved quality of life for patients. However, patients receiving interdisciplinary discharge planning services were still in the minority. There was no standard evaluation procedure for interdisciplinary discharge planning, and a high percentage of patients thought that hospitals handled the postdischarge long-term care services referral procedure inadequately. Despite the positive attitudes toward discharge planning, many physicians still demonstrate an unsatisfactory level of knowledge and behaviors with regard to discharge planning. To enhance the implementation of discharge planning, a standard evaluation procedure for interdisciplinary discharge planning and improved physician awareness concerning the importance of discharge planning are needed. In Taiwan, the improvement of discharge planning in the foreseeable future is promising with the accreditation of the

  9. Building Networks of Disaster Preparedness Schools in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Tzu-chau; Lin, Weiru

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the education for natural disaster preparedness in Taiwan are to prepare every school disaster free and every student with disaster preparedness. The education for disaster preparedness has been through three stages since 2003: project for cultivating professionals for disaster preparedness education (2003-2006), project for disaster preparedness schools (2006- 2010), and building networks of disaster preparedness schools (2011-2014). The framework of the disaster preparedness edu...

  10. Characteristics and Diagnostic Yield of Pediatric Colonoscopy in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Ting Wu; Chih-An Chen; Yao-Jong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Colonoscopy of the lower gastrointestinal tract has diagnostic and therapeutic value. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the indications, complications, and diagnostic yield of diagnostic colonoscopy among Taiwanese children. Methods: The application of colonoscopy performed on children aged < 18 years between 1998 and 2010 in a referral tertiary center in Southern Taiwan was reviewed. Data on age, gender, indications, complications, and colonoscopic and final diagnoses were col...

  11. The Political Kinesthetics of Contemporary Dance: Taiwan in Transnational Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Seetoo, Chia-Yi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation considers dance practices emerging out of post-1980s conditions in Taiwan to theorize how contemporary dance negotiates temporality as a political kinesthetic performance. The dissertation attends to the ways dance kinesthetically responds to and mediates the flows of time, cultural identity, and social and political forces in its transnational movement. Dances negotiate disjunctures in the temporality of modernization as locally experienced and their global geotemporal mapp...

  12. A survey of reptiles and amphibians on Kinmen Island, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Saenz; Heather V. Podlipny; Pei-Yu Tasi; D. Brent Burt; Hsiao-Wei Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the reptiles and amphibians of Kinmen Island, Taiwan. Until recently, Kinmen had been off-limits to outsiders. It wasn’t until the mid 1990’s that civilian travel was allowed to and from the island. We surveyed 8 sites from 19 May through 18 July 2005, using 15 m drift fences with collapsible funnel traps on the ends. We documented encounters with...

  13. New Opportunities and Challenges for Taiwan’s Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    neither Taiwan nor China is a “unitary actor” easily represented by any “ median - voter ” concept, this list allows some discussion of the interaction...proceed with implementing CBMs. Such a top-down model has been followed in China’s relations with many of its neighbors, including Russia, the former... models for the cross- Strait situation, such as operational hotlines and transparency measures. - 25 - 4. Cross-Strait CBMs: Taiwan’s Views on

  14. Geographic Variations and Time Trends in Cancer Treatments in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jason C; Chang, Sheng-Mao; Lu, Christine Y

    2017-08-02

    Targeted therapies have become important treatment options for cancer care in many countries. This study aimed to examine recent trends in utilization of antineoplastic drugs, particularly the use of targeted therapies for treatment of cancer, by geographic region in Taiwan (northern, midwestern, southern, and eastern regions and the outer islands). This was a retrospective observational study of antineoplastic agents using 2009-2012 quarterly claims data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Yearly market shares by prescription volume and costs for targeted therapies among total antineoplastic agents by region were estimated. We used multivariate regression model and ANOVA to examine variations in utilization of targeted therapies between geographic regions and used ARIMA models to estimate longitudinal trends. Population-adjusted use and costs of antineoplastic drugs (including targeted therapies) were highest in the southern region of Taiwan and lowest in the outer islands. We found a 4-fold difference in use of antineoplastic drugs and a 49-fold difference in use of targeted therapies between regions if the outer islands were included. There were minimal differences in use of antineoplastic drugs between other regions with about a 2-fold difference in use of targeted therapies. Without considering the outer islands, the market share by prescription volume and costs of targeted therapies increased almost 2-fold (1.84-1.90) and 1.5-fold (1.26-1.61) respectively between 2009 and 2012. Furthermore, region was not significantly associated with use of antineoplastic agents or use of targeted therapies after adjusting for confounders. Region was associated with costs of antineoplastic agents but it was not associated with costs of targeted therapies after confounding adjustments. Use of antineoplastic drugs overall and use of targeted therapies for treatment of cancer varied somewhat between regions in Taiwan; use was notably low in the outer

  15. Gender Barriers in Higher Education: The Case of Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Ru-jer Wang

    2001-01-01

    As a consequence of the rapid expansion of higher education in Taiwan over the past decades, the enrolment of females in higher education has grown considerably. However, this article reports that in terms of institutional difference, access to advanced study, and differing subject preferences, the barriers to women's participation in higher education remain. Thus, the findings drawn from this article lead to the conclusion that females still suffer disadvantages in access to higher education...

  16. Electric power engineering in the Taiwan Chinese Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, V.B.

    1992-01-01

    The data charaterizing the status and prospects of development of electric power engineering in the Taiwan Chenese Republic are given. The Tainwan electric power consumptions are covered by operation of 56 large electric power plants (nuclear, thermal, hydroelectric ones). The marginal majority (58.1%) of the registered power is generated at thermal power plants. Electric power generation in 1991 amounted to 89639 million kWxh. At that 33878 million kWxh or about 37.9% were produced at NPPs

  17. Myxomycetes of Taiwan (XVII: Four New Records of Cribraria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hui Liu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Two species and two varieties of the genus Cribraria are described and illustrated in this paper. Included are Cribraria cf. laxa Hagelst., Cribraria microcarpa (Schrad. Pers. Var. Pachydictyon (Nann.-Bremek. Y. Yamam., Cribraria mirabilis (Rostaf. Massee, and Cribraria vulgaris Schrad. Var. oregana (H. C. Gilbert Nann.-Bremek. & Lado. They are all newly recorded in Taiwan and all their fruiting bodies are collected from fields.

  18. Tuberculosis in Healthcare Workers: A Matched Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ching Pan

    Full Text Available Proportional mortality ratio data indicate that healthcare workers (HCWs have an elevated tuberculosis (TB mortality. Whether this is caused by an increased TB incidence, a worse TB treatment outcome, or a combination of effects, remains unclear. To elucidate the hazard components of occupational TB, we assessed TB incidence and TB treatment outcome among HCWs in Taiwan.We compared the incidence of active TB among HCWs at a major medical center in Taiwan with that of Taiwan general population in 2004-2012. We also compared the TB treatment outcome of HCWs with that of age/sex-matched non-HCW patients treated at the same hospital, as well as that of nationally registered TB patients.The standardized TB incidence ratio of the HCWs was 1.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-2.9, compared with the general population. HCWs with pulmonary TB (n = 30 were less likely to have underlying diseases, delay in diagnosis, delay in treatment, or side effects of treatment, compared with age/sex-matched non-HCW TB patients (n = 120 (all Ps<0.05. The TB treatment outcome of HCWs was significantly better than that of non-HCW patients (TB-related mortality: 0.0% vs. 5.8%, P = 0.008, Mantel-Haenszel test. The standardized TB-related mortality rate was 1.08% [95% CI: 0.96% - 1.20%] for all of the nationally registered TB patients in Taiwan.HCWs are at increased risk of active TB, compared with general population. To mitigate this occupational hazard, more efforts need to be directed towards the prevention of nosocomial TB transmission. Healthy worker effect, more rapid diagnosis, and less delay in treatment contribute to a lower TB-related mortality in HCWs.

  19. Shallow Crustal Thermal Structures of Central Taiwan Foothills Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Kai Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Crustal thermal structures are closely related to metamorphism, rock rheology, exhumation processes, hydrocarbon maturation levels, frictional faulting and other processes. Drilling is the most direct way to access the temperature fields in the shallow crust. However, a regional drilling program for geological investigation is usually very expensive. Recently, a large-scale in-situ investigation program in the Western Foothills of Central Taiwan was carried out, providing a rare opportunity to conduct heat flow measurements in this region where there are debates as to whether previous measured heat flows are representative of the thermal state in this region. We successfully collected 28 geothermal gradients from these wells and converted them into heat flows. The new heat flow dataset is consistent with previous heat flows, which shows that the thermal structures of Central Taiwan are different from that of other subduction accretionary prisms. We then combine all the available heat flow information to analyze the frictional parameters of the Chelungpu fault zone that ruptured during the 1999, Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake. The heat flow dataset gave consistent results compared with the frictional parameters derived from another independent study that used cores recovered from the Chelungpu fault zone at depth. This study also shows that it is suitable for using heat-flow data obtained from shallow subsurface to constrain thrusting faulting parameters, similar to what had been done for the strike-slip San Andreas Fault in California. Additional fieldworks are planned to study heat flows in other mountainous regions of Taiwan for more advanced geodynamic modeling efforts.

  20. Quality Dimension for Elderly Service in Taiwan Hotel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Chieh Lee; Feng-Hua Yang; Chih-Jen Chen

    2013-01-01

    The author conducted a questionnaire survey on randomly selected elderly tourists from three hotel groups in Taiwan: international group, domestic-business group, and domestic-tourist group. Based on the literature, the author developed a questionnaire and asked these tourists to rate the hotels in which they were staying on three quality dimensions: brand awareness, hotel facilities, and hotel services. Through the questionnaire survey, the author wanted to determine the performance of the t...