Kotzé, Sebastian Ranzi; Zinyama-Gutsire, Rutendo; Kallestrup, Per
BACKGROUND: Vitamin A has widespread effects on immune function and is therefore interesting in HIV-infection. Retinol-binding protein (RBP or RBP4) is a negative acute-phase protein and a marker of vitamin A status. Our aim was to investigate the association of RBP with HIV progression, infection...... with schistosomiasis, inflammatory cytokines, and mortality. METHODS: The study included 192 HIV-infected and 177 HIV-uninfected individuals from Mupfure in rural Zimbabwe. Of these, 208 were infected with Schistosoma haematobium, 27 with S. mansoni and 48 with both. Plasma RBP, HIV-RNA, CD4 cell count, haemoglobin......, cytokines, clinical staging (CDC category), self-reported level of function (Karnoffsky Performance Score, KPS) and schistosomiasis status were assessed at baseline. Participants were followed up for survival 3-4 years post-enrolment. RESULTS: RBP levels were lower in HIV-infected individuals(p
Though HIV prevention campaigns in Zimbabwe have increased public awareness of HIV, they have not meaningfully changed sexual behaviour. Possibly these campaigns are based on wrong assumptions about sexual behaviour. By means of 111 structured interviews with hospital patients, secondary school students and teachers, and 11 focus group discussions with traditional healers, midwives, village community workers, secondary school students and teachers, and commercial sex workers in a rural district of Matabeleland in Zimbabwe, this low-budget study explores attitudes towards sex and sexual behaviour in order to define more appropriate health education messages. Results indicate that traditional sex education no longer takes place and that communication between sexual partners is limited. The almost ubiquitous expectation of women to get rewards for sex outside marriage motivates mostly single women out of economic necessity to meet the male demand for sexual partners, which is created by large scale migrant labour and men's professed 'biological' need for multiple partners. Types of sexual behaviour other than penetrative vaginal sex are uncommon and considered deviant. Safe sex messages from the West therefore are inappropriate in the Zimbabwean context. Recommendations are given to restore traditional communication about sexual matters across generations and to urge sexual partners to discuss sex. Women who, for economic reasons, engage in casual sex should at least learn to negotiate the use of condoms. Men seriously need to reconsider their attitudes to sex and sexual practices in view of the high HIV sero-prevalence. Faithfulness, rather than multiple sexual contacts, should become a reason to boast.
Zimbabwe is a land-locked plateau country of 151,000 square miles, divided into 8 provinces, in Southeastern Africa, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. Its population consists of 8.8 million blacks, divided between the Shona-speaking Mashona (80%) and the Sindebele-speaking Matabele (19%), 100,000 whites, 20,000 coloreds, and 10,000 Asians. Many of the blacks are Christians. More than 1/2 the whites migrated to Zimbabwe after the Second World War at a rate of about 1000 a year until the mid-1970s; since then 12,000 whites have left the country. The official language is English, and education is free. Most African children 5-19 years old attend school, and literacy is between 40% and 50%. The University of Zimbabwe is located in Harare, the capital, and there are several technical institutes and teacher-training colleges. Zimbabwe has been inhabited since the stone age, and evidence of a high indigenous civilization remains in the "Great Zimbabwe Ruins" near Masvingo. The present black population is descended from later migrations of Bantu people from central Africa. Cecil Rhodes was granted concessions for mineral rights in the area in 1888, and the territory, which administered by the British South Africa Company, was called Rhodesia. Southern Rhodesia became a self-governing entity within the British Empire in 1913. In 1953 Southern Rhodesia was joined with the British protectorates of Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland in the Central African Federation, but this dissolved in 1963, and Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland became independent as Zambia and Malawi in 1964. Independence was withheld from Rhodesia because Prime Minister Ian Smith refused to give Britain assurances that the country would move toward majority rule. In 1965 Smith issued a Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) from the UK. In 1966 the UN Security Council imposed mandatory economic sanctions on Rhodesia. Within Rhodesia the major African nationalist groups -- the
KEY WORDS: Teenage pregnancy, sexuality, reproductive health, gender violence, socio-cultural context, Zimbabwe ... violence. Sexuality and contraception are pre- eminent aspects of life in which inequalities be- tween men and women are reproduced, and in which women's rights ...... however, towards boys and girls:.
previously served as the executive secretary of SADC. Opposition leader Tsvangirai dismissed Makoni as “old wine in a new bottle,” but rival MDC...political violence, and strictly enforced laws restricting basic freedoms. The government contends its detractors have engaged in a “ propaganda war...would provide a quicker path to easing the crisis. Cynics suggest that France may see engagement with Zimbabwe as a means of extending French
Full Text Available A technological divide exists in Zimbabwe between urban and rural schools that puts rural based students at a disadvantage. In Zimbabwe, the government, through the president donated computers to most rural schools in a bid to bridge the digital divide between rural and urban schools. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the experiences of Advanced Level students using computers at two rural boarding Catholic High Schools in Zimbabwe. The study was guided by two research questions: (1 How do Advanced level students in the rural areas use computers at their school? and (2 What is the experience of using computers for Advanced Level students in the rural areas of Zimbabwe? By performing this study, it was possible to understand from the students’ experiences whether computer usage was for educational learning or not. The results of the phenomenological study showed that students’ experiences can be broadly classified into five themes, namely worthwhile (interesting experience, accessibility issues, teachers’ monopoly, research and social use, and Internet availability. The participants proposed teachers use computers, but not monopolize computer usage. The solution to the computer shortage may be solved by having donors and government help in the acquisitioning of more computers.
Admos Chimhowu; Philip Woodhouse
The idea of communal tenure has formed a key plank in the rural governance of Zimbabwe since independence, but its retention following the Fast Track land reforms of 2000-2002 perpetuates a distinction between ‘commercial’ land governed by a land market and ‘communal’ land on which market transactions are illegal. This paper draws on recent research in Svosve Communal Area to examine the dynamics of land access and their implications for rural poverty in Zimbabwe. The paper argues that, as in...
Full Text Available Despite development of numerous food security measures for humanitarian emergency programs, there is limited research on which food security measures complement each other. A comparative analysis of household food security measures, that is, household hunger scale, food consumption score, and consolidated approach for reporting food security indicators, utilizing Zimbabwe Vulnerability Assessment Committee 2014 Rural Livelihoods Assessment data, was conducted in Zimbabwe. According to the results, the household hunger score produced the least levels of food insecurity, followed by the consolidated approach for reporting food security indicators while the food consumption score produced the highest food insecurity prevalence. The consolidated approach for reporting food security indicators is recommended for supporting long-term chronic food insecurity interventions and the household hunger score for food security assessments to inform emergency relief. Further research is required to refine and contextualize the food consumption score cut-off points to rural Zimbabwe
In the introductory section this paper argues that there are links between the theories of development, development communication and audience studies. The main body of the paper discusses a study done in 1997 on the reactions of audiences to a "development" film in rural Zimbabwe. Such a once-off study, as the paper ...
G. Ncube (Gracsious); G.M. Gómez (Georgina)
textabstractThe paper explores the impact of migrant remittances on local economic development in a locality where more than half of the households have been recipients for at least five years. The study has taken place in rural Zimbabwe and uses an ethnographic method devised for this research. The
Langhaug, Lisa F; Pascoe, Sophie J; Mavhu, Webster; Woelk, Godfrey; Sherr, Lorraine; Hayes, Richard J; Cowan, Frances M
Poor mental health accounts for considerable disease burden among young people globally. We investigated the prevalence and determinants of affective disorders among rural Zimbabwean youth in 2006. We undertook a cross-sectional survey among 1495 Zimbabwean youth aged 15-23 (median 18) from 12 rural communities in three provinces in south-eastern Zimbabwe. Mental health was assessed using the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ), a locally validated 14-item indigenous screening tool for affective disorders, notably depression and anxiety disorders. Participants scoring >or=8/14 were considered at risk of being affected and >or=11 as at risk of being severely affected. Most participants (93.1%) completed the SSQ. Of these, 51.7% (95%CI:49.0-54.3%) scored >or=8/14 and 23.8% (95%CI:21.5-26.0%) scored >or=11. Affective disorders were independently associated with household poverty (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.9, 95%CI:1.4-2.7), living in a female-headed household (AOR 1.3, 95%CI:1.0-1.7), having moved home within last 5 years (AOR 1.4, 95%CI:1.0-1.9) and feeling stigmatized (AOR being shunned by others 3.7, 95%CI:2.5-5.7). There was a strong linear association between risk of affective disorders and sexual risk taking (ever sex AOR 1.5, 95%CI:1.0-2.4, and 2.8, 95%CI:1.9-4.2 for affected and severely affected, respectively, test for trend P or=2 lifetime partners AOR 2.3, 95%CI:1.1-4.8 and 5.4, 95%CI:2.7-10.7, test for trend P mental health disorders in this vulnerable population are urgently required. In HIV-endemic countries, such interventions may also help reduce HIV transmission.
Full Text Available The increasing occurrence of disastrous flooding events and the mounting losses in both life and property values in Zimbabwe have drawn attention to the flooding situation in the country, especially the rural areas. This article explores the resilience of vulnerable rural communities to flood risks associated within increasingly frequent and severe events linked to climate change. Starting by reviewing the current literature on rural livelihoods, resilience and vulnerability research, the paper argues for a coordinated teamwork approach in flood risk mitigation in rural areas. The paper concludes with several recommendations for enhanced resilience to flood hazards.
... of standpipe fitted with a tap. A quarter million people take their water from about 35 000 family owned "upgraded" wells, with some 55 000 people taking water from springs. All these sources are relatively safe and impose a minimal health risk. The Zimbabwe Science News Volume 33(1) January-March 1999, pp. 20-25 ...
Full Text Available The attraction and retention of teachers in Zimbabwe is a problem not only unique to Zimbabwean schools, but all over the world. The problem is more pronounced in rural areas where resources are scarce, hence the tendency to repel teachers. Although the problem of teacher turnover is real, there are teachers who have remained in the profession for many years. The aim of the study is to find the factors that have influenced teachers to remain in teaching in rural Zimbabwe. Participants (n = 6 in the study were all practicing as teachers, having taught in the rural areas for at least ten years. Data was collected through interviews which were audio-taped and transcribed. The results from this basic interpretive qualitative study showed that teachers remained in the profession because of need to support their families, job security, unmarketable, support from colleagues and administration, and self-sacrifice leadership by principals.
Mapako, Felix Petros; Mareva, Rugare; Chindedza, Winnet
The study sought to establish and compare the views of rural and urban primary school pupils on homework in Zimbabwe, using six purposively sampled Masvingo rural and urban primary schools. The inquiry employed a qualitative methodology in which data were gathered through semi-structured personal interviews and document analysis. A sample of…
G. Ncube (Gracsious); G.M. Gómez (Georgina)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ When remittances become widespread and stable in a rural village, they adopt a critical role in supporting local development. They contribute via the promotion of businesses and employment. Productive consumption creates opportunities for investment in growth
G. Ncube (Gracsious); G.M. Gómez (Georgina)
textabstractWhen remittances become widespread and stable in a rural village, they adopt a critical role in supporting local development. They contribute via the promotion of businesses and employment. Productive consumption creates opportunities for investment in growth oriented SMEs, whether their
Full Text Available The main focus of the research was to analyse the role of cooperatives in sustaining the livelihoods of local rural communities in Shurugwi District in Zimbabwe. Descriptive survey design was used in this mixed method approach to the study. A questionnaire, interviews and observation methods were employed as the main research instruments. Purposive sampling technique was adopted and data were collected from government officials and from members of the six cooperatives in Shurugwi District. A total of 50 research participants were involved in the study. It was found that cooperatives were established as a strategy to sustain livelihoods of rural communities. With the adoption of cooperatives, people in the rural communities managed to generate employment, boost food production, empower the marginalised, especially women, and promote social cohesion and integration, thereby improving their livelihoods and reducing poverty. Most cooperatives face a number of challenges that include lack of financial support, poor management and lack of management skills, and lack of competitive markets to sell their produce. The study recommends that the government and the banking sector render financial support to cooperatives in rural communities to allow them to expand and diversify their business operations; constant training on leadership and management skills is provided to cooperatives’ members. There is also a need for cooperatives, especially those in the agricultural sector, to form some producer associations so as to easily market their produce. Lastly, the study recommends that future research should focus on investigating issues that hinder the growth of the cooperative movement in rural communities of Zimbabwe. It is hoped that policy-makers, the academia and communities would benefit from the study.
Full Text Available Many rural communities that depend on smallholder farming face food insecurity induced by climate-related disasters. In response, some communities are taking the initiative to cope and adapt to climate-related disasters. Using case study material from the Zambezi Valley, Zimbabwe, this article examines how traditional institutions are enhancing resilience to food insecurity in rural areas. The data were collected through interviews and focus groups involving traditional leaders, ward councillors, village civil protection members and villagers selected in the valley. The findings point to how the Zunde raMambo informal safety net, nhimbe form of collective work and the practice of share-rearing arrangement to access draught power help save lives and alleviate food insecurity induced by flood or drought disasters. The study concludes that the three schemes are evidence of community reorganisation or change in response to food insecurity. They are a form of absorptive capacities enabling the community to cope with food insecurity.
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in order to detect antibodies for Brucella canis (B. canis in dogs from urban Harare and five selected rural communities in Zimbabwe. Sera from randomly selected dogs were tested for antibodies to B. canis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 17.6% of sera samples tested (57/324, 95% CI: 13.5–21.7 were positive for B. canis antibodies. For rural dogs, seroprevalence varied from 11.7% – 37.9%. Rural dogs recorded a higher seroprevalence (20.7%, 95% CI: 15.0–26.4 compared with Harare urban dogs (12.7%, 95% CI: 6.9–18.5 but the difference was not significant (p = 0.07. Female dogs from both sectors had a higher seroprevalence compared with males, but the differences were not significant (p > 0.05. Five and two of the positive rural dogs had titres of 1:800 and 1:1600, respectively, whilst none of the positive urban dogs had a titre above 1:400. This study showed that brucellosis was present and could be considered a risk to dogs from the studied areas. Further studies are recommended in order to give insight into the epidemiology of brucellosis in dogs and its possible zoonotic consequences in Zimbabwe. Screening for other Brucella spp. (Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis other than B. canis is also recommended.
Eitzel Solera, M. V.; Madzoro, S.; Solera, J.; Mhike Hove, E.; Changarara, A.; Ndlovu, D.; Chirindira, A.; Ndlovu, A.; Gwatipedza, S.; Mhizha, M.; Ndlovu, M.
Participatory mapping is now a staple of community-based work around the world. Particularly for indigenous and rural peoples, it can represent a new avenue for environmental justice and can be a tool for culturally appropriate management of local ecosystems. We present a successful example of teaching and learning digital mapping technology in rural Zimbabwe. Our digital mapping project is part of the long-term community-based participatory research of The Muonde Trust in Mazvihwa, Zimbabwe. By gathering and distributing local knowledge and also bringing in visitors to share knowledge, Muonde has been able to spread relevant information among rural farmers. The authors were all members of Muonde or were Muonde's visitors, and were mentors and learners of digital mapping technologies at different times. Key successful characteristics of participants included patience, compassion, openness, perseverance, respect, and humility. Important mentoring strategies included: 1) instruction in Shona and in English, 2) locally relevant examples, assignments, and analogies motivated by real needs, 3) using a variety of teaching methods for different learning modalities, 4) building on and modifying familiar teaching methods, and 5) paying attention to the social and relational aspects of teaching and learning. The Muonde mapping team has used their new skills for a wide variety of purposes, including: identifying, discussing, and acting on emerging needs; using digital mapping for land-use and agropastoral planning; and using mapping as a tool for recording and telling important historical and cultural stories. Digital mapping has built self-confidence as well as providing employable skills and giving Muonde more visibility to other local and national non-governmental organizations, utility companies, and educational institutions. Digital mapping, as taught in a bottom-up, collaborative way, has proven to be both accessible and of enormous practical use to rural Zimbabweans.
Victor K. Muposhi
Full Text Available Trophy hunting has potential to support conservation financing and contribute towards rural development. We conducted a systematic review of the Zimbabwean trophy hunting perspective spanning from pre-1890 to 2015, by examining the following: (1 evolution of legal instruments, administration, and governance of trophy hunting, (2 significance of trophy hunting in conservation financing and rural development, and (3 key challenges, emerging issues in trophy hunting industry, and future interventions. Our review shows that (i there has been a constant evolution in the policies related to trophy hunting and conservation in Zimbabwe as driven by local and international needs; (ii trophy hunting providing incentives for wildlife conservation (e.g., law enforcement and habitat protection and rural communities’ development. Emerging issues that may affect trophy hunting include illegal hunting, inadequate monitoring systems, and hunting bans. We conclude that trophy hunting is still relevant in wildlife conservation and rural communities’ development especially in developing economies where conservation financing is inadequate due to fiscal constraints. We recommend the promotion of net conservation benefits for positive conservation efforts and use of wildlife conservation credits for the opportunity costs associated with reducing trophy hunting off-take levels and promoting nonconsumptive wildlife use options.
Full Text Available A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice, 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas, 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7 % followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9 %. Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11 followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11 both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4 %, followed by Raillletina echinobothrida (32.2 %. Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9, followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9. In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised.
Ferreira, Efigênia F; Vargas, Andréa Maria D; Castilho, Lia S; Velásquez, Leila Nunes M; Fantinel, Lucia M; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N G
The present paper examines the relationship between hydrochemical characteristics and endemic dental fluorosis, controlling for variables with information on an individual level. An epidemiological survey was carried out in seven rural communities in two municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Thystrup & Fejerskov index was employed by a single examiner for the diagnosis of dental fluorosis. A sampling campaign of deep groundwater in the rural communities of interest was carried out concomitantly to the epidemiological survey for the determination of physiochemical parameters. Multilevel modeling of 276 individuals from seven rural communities was achieved using the non-linear logit link function. Parameters were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Analysis was carried out considering two response variables: presence (TF 1 to 9) or absence (TF = 0) of any degree of dental fluorosis; and presence (TF ≥ 5-with loss of enamel structure) or absence of severe dental fluorosis (TF ≤ 4-with no loss of enamel structure). Hydrogeological analyses revealed that dental fluorosis is influenced by the concentration of fluoride (OR = 2.59 CI95% 1.07-6.27; p = 0.073) and bicarbonate (OR = 1.02 CI95% 1.01-1.03; p = 0.060) in the water of deep wells. No other variable was associated with this prevalence (p > 0.05). More severe dental fluorosis (TF ≥ 5) was only associated with age group (p dental fluorosis (p > 0.05). Dental fluorosis was found to be highly prevalent and severe. A chemical element besides fluoride was found to be associated (p > 0.05) to the prevalence of dental fluorosis, although this last finding should be interpreted with caution due to its p value.
Mauro Henrique N. G. Abreu
Full Text Available The present paper examines the relationship between hydrochemical characteristics and endemic dental fluorosis, controlling for variables with information on an individual level. An epidemiological survey was carried out in seven rural communities in two municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Thystrup & Fejerskov index was employed by a single examiner for the diagnosis of dental fluorosis. A sampling campaign of deep groundwater in the rural communities of interest was carried out concomitantly to the epidemiological survey for the determination of physiochemical parameters. Multilevel modeling of 276 individuals from seven rural communities was achieved using the non-linear logit link function. Parameters were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Analysis was carried out considering two response variables: presence (TF 1 to 9 or absence (TF = 0 of any degree of dental fluorosis; and presence (TF ≥ 5—with loss of enamel structure or absence of severe dental fluorosis (TF ≤ 4—with no loss of enamel structure. Hydrogeological analyses revealed that dental fluorosis is influenced by the concentration of fluoride (OR = 2.59 CI95% 1.07–6.27; p = 0.073 and bicarbonate (OR = 1.02 CI95% 1.01–1.03; p = 0.060 in the water of deep wells. No other variable was associated with this prevalence (p > 0.05. More severe dental fluorosis (TF ≥ 5 was only associated with age group (p < 0.05. No other variable was associated to the severe dental fluorosis (p > 0.05. Dental fluorosis was found to be highly prevalent and severe. A chemical element besides fluoride was found to be associated (p > 0.05 to the prevalence of dental fluorosis, although this last finding should be interpreted with caution due to its p value.
Chopera, P; Chagwena, D T; Mushonga, N G T
Overweight and obesity prevalence is rapidly rising in developing countries. The reading and understanding of nutrition information on food packages has been shown to improve food choices and instill healthy eating habits in individuals. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of food label usage and understanding among urban and rural adults in Zimbabwe and its association with demographic and socio economic factors. A cross sectional study was conducted on 320 adults (147 urban and 173 rural) using a validated questionnaire adapted from previous similar studies. Data were analysed using SPSS-17 statistical software. A high proportion (77.2%) of the respondents read food labels. Food label reading differed significantly by educational status (p food label readers mostly understood the information on the food labels. More urban shoppers (86.1%) read food labels than their rural counterparts (66.7%). A significant number of participants (80.6%) indicated they would like to be educated on the meaning of food labels and 80.3% preferred the nutrition information on food labels to be simplified. The study found above average reported reading of nutrition information on food labels with partial understanding. Efforts should be made to determine how all consumers could be made to understand the nutrition information on food labels and use it effectively in decision making.
Remittances, Informalisation and Dispossession in Urban Zimbabwe Sarah Bracking and Lloyd Sachikonye. 324. Chapter Fifteen Transnationalism and Undocumented Migration Between Rural Zimbabwe and South Africa France Maphosa. 346. Chapter Sixteen Metaphors of Migration: Zimbabwean Migrants in the South ...
Full Text Available CD4 cell count measurement remains an important diagnostic tool for HIV care in developing countries. Insufficient laboratory capacity in rural Sub-Saharan Africa is frequently mentioned but data on the impact at an individual patient level are lacking. Urban-rural discrepancies in CD4 testing have not been quantified to date. Such evidence is crucial for public health planning and to justify new yet more expensive diagnostic procedures that could circumvent access constraints in rural areas.To compare CD4 testing among rural and urban HIV patients during the first year of treatment.Records from 2,145 HIV positive adult patients from a Médecins sans Frontières (Doctors without Borders HIV project in Beitbridge, Zimbabwe, during 2011 and 2012 were used for a retrospective cohort analysis. Covariate-adjusted risk ratios were calculated to estimate the effects of area of residence on CD4 testing at treatment initiation, six and 12 months among rural and urban patients.While the proportion of HIV patients returning for medical consultations at six and 12 months decreased at a similar rate in both patient groups, CD4 testing during consultations dropped to 21% and 8% for urban, and 2% and 1% for rural patients at six and 12 months, respectively. Risk ratios for missing CD4 testing were 0.8 (95% CI 0.7-0.9, 9.2 (95% CI 5.5-15.3, and 7.6 (95% 3.7-17.1 comparing rural versus urban patients at treatment initiation, six and 12 months, respectively.CD4 testing was low overall, and particularly poor in rural patients. Difficulties with specimen transportation were probably a major factor underlying this difference and requires new diagnostic approaches. Our findings point to severe health system constraints in providing CD4 testing overall that need to be addressed if effective monitoring of HIV patients is to be achieved, whether by alternative CD4 diagnostics or newly-recommended routine viral load testing.
Irene O. Chiringa
Full Text Available Background: Medical male circumcision (MMC has become a significant dimension of HIV prevention interventions, after the results of three randomised controlled trials in Uganda, South Africa and Kenya demonstrated that circumcision has a protective effect against contracting HIV of up to 60%. Following recommendations by the World Health Organization, Zimbabwe in 2009 adopted voluntary MMC as an additional HIV prevention strategy to the existing ABC behaviour change model.Purpose: The purpose of this study is thus to investigate the factors contributing to the low uptake of MMC.Methods: The study was a quantitative cross-sectional survey conducted in Mutare rural district, Zimbabwe. Questionnaires with open- and closed-ended questions were administered to the eligible respondents. The target population were male participants aged 15–29 who met the inclusion criteria. The households were systematically selected with a sample size of 234. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was used to analyse the data.Results: Socioculturally, circumcised men are viewed as worthless (37%, shameful (30% and are tainted as promiscuous (20%, psychological factors reported were infection and delayed healing (39%, being ashamed and dehumanised (58%, stigmatised and discriminated (40.2% and fear of having an erection during treatment period (89.7% whilst socio-economic factors were not having time, as it will take their time from work (58% and complications may arise leading to spending money on treatment (84%.Conclusion: Knowledge deficits regarding male medical circumcision lead to low uptake, education on male medical circumcision and its benefits. Comprehensive sexual health education should target men and dispel negative attitudes related to the use of health services.Keywords: Factors, Low uptake, Medical Male Circumcision (MMC
Full Text Available The study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of community participation in rural development projects in Zimbabwe testing the credibility of the popularized supposition that almost all contemporary development efforts characteristically embrace local participation. Public participation is widely assumed to be an essential ingredient for the fruition of rural development efforts. The research made use of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies in which unstructured interviews, focus group discussions and questionnaires were used as data gathering instruments. The analysis of data was enabled by the use of People-Centered Development (PCD as a conceptual framework. Findings revealed that the level of community participation in the district is not only minimal, but it is also top down. This has much to do with the negative perceptions by facilitating agents viewing local people as passive recipients of externally crafted models of development and other factors such as the power dynamics within and between the community and other stakeholders. The research also found preferential treatment of other tribal groups by the facilitating agent, intra group conflicts and bureaucratic and political influence as obstacles militating against effective participation. Based on these findings, and consistent with the wider literature, recommendation are that the nature of community engagement should be based on the principle of equal partnership among all stakeholders as this would encourage full cooperation and thus effective participation.
In the Flore générale de l’Indochine, 217 families have been described, 1794 genera, c. 9000 species. There is an amount of endemism, on the basis of which attempts have been made towards an inner subdivision of the region. The problem is, that the endemism is of uncertain status. A few percentages
Perez, Freddy; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Mukotekwa, Tarisai; Miller, Anna; Glenshaw, Monica; Mahomva, Agnes; Dabis, François
Zimbabwe has one of the highest rates of HIV seroprevalence in the world. In 2001 only 4% of women and children in need of services for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV were receiving them. Pilot implementation of the first programme for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in rural Zimbabwe. 120 bed district hospital in Buhera district (285,000 inhabitants), Manicaland, Zimbabwe. Programme uptake indicators monitored for 18 months; impact of policy evaluated by assessing up-scaling of programme. Voluntary counselling and testing services for HIV were provided in the hospital antenatal clinic. Women identified as HIV positive and informed of their serostatus and their newborn were offered a single dose antiretroviral treatment of nevirapine; mother-child pairs were followed up through routine health services. Nursing staff and social workers were trained, and community mobilisation was conducted. No services for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV were available at baseline. Within 18 months, 2298 pregnant women had received pretest counselling, and the acceptance of HIV testing reached 93.0%. Of all 2137 women who had an HIV test, 1588 (74.3%) returned to collect their result; 326 of the 437 HIV positive women diagnosed had post-test counselling, and 104 (24%) mother-child pairs received nevirapine prophylaxis. Minimum staffing, an enhanced training programme, and involvement of district health authorities are needed for the implementation and successful integration of services for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. Voluntary counselling and testing services are important entry points for HIV prevention and care and for referral to community networks and medical HIV care services. A district approach is critical to extend programmes for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in rural settings. The lessons learnt from this pilot programme have contributed to the design of the national expansion
Kativhu, T.; Mazvimavi, D.; Tevera, D.; Nhapi, I.
Sustainability of point water facilities is a major development challenge in many rural settings of developing countries not sparing those in the Sub-Saharan Africa region. This study was done in Zimbabwe to investigate the factors influencing sustainability of rural water supply systems. A total of 399 water points were studied in Nyanga, Chivi and Gwanda districts. Data was collected using a questionnaire, observation checklist and key informant interview guide. Multi-Criteria analysis was used to assess the sustainability of water points and inferential statistical analysis such as Chi square tests and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to determine if there were significant differences on selected variables across districts and types of lifting devices used in the study area. The thematic approach was used to analyze qualitative data. Results show that most water points were not functional and only 17% across the districts were found to be sustainable. A fusion of social, technical, financial, environmental and institutional factors was found to be influencing sustainability. On technical factors the ANOVA results show that the type of lifting device fitted at a water point significantly influences sustainability (F = 37.4, p planning stage of water projects was also found to be critical for sustainability although field results showed passive participation by communities at this critical project stage. Financial factors of adequacy of financial contributions and establishment of operation and maintenance funds were also found to be of great importance in sustaining water supply systems. It is recommended that all factors should be considered when assessing sustainability since they are interrelated.
Full Text Available This study seeks to assess the impact of rural high way service centres on livelihood diversity. The establishment of Ngundu rural highway service centre was an approach to assist highway travelers and local residents in accessing essential services without going off-route. Since the establishment of these highway service centers, little has been realized in terms of their utility. Data was collected using questionnaires; participatory observation and interviews and presented in the form of graphs; pie charts and tables. The rural highway service centre benefited local residents in its sphere of influence through social welfare provision; employment creation; recreation and as agricultural inputs collection centres. However the opportunity on livelihoods diversity by locals and travelers to enjoy their need has been abused .Both locals and travelers have turned the centre into risk livelihood strategies arena, crime and deviant behavior proliferated turning it into life threatening zone. Therefore need is there to reinforce overnight surveillance through the neighborhood watch for security and welfare of genuine dealers and travelers for sustainable and investment confident and promotion climate.
Full Text Available This case study looked at 76 randomly selected preservice science teachers from Mbire and Guruve districts who were learning at the Mushumbi Centre in Zimbabwe and assessed their motivations for enrolling under the Bindura University of Science Education (BUSE’s Virtual and Open Distance Learning (VODL programme. It also looked at the challenges they faced, their views on how instruction under the programme can be improved, and their deployment preferences after graduation. The districts are located in the remote Zambezi Valley, which is characterized by poor infrastructure, pests and diseases, frequent attacks by wild animals on people, domestic animals, and crops, harsh climatic conditions, and seasonal floods, which make it very difficult to attract and retain qualified teachers. Through targeted recruitment, BUSE’s VODL programme sought to train relief teachers already serving in the area in the hope that personal history and family connections would entice them to continue teaching in these areas after attaining their teacher certification. Data was collected using a questionnaire with closed and open-ended questions. Results obtained indicate that despite a lack of funding, a shortage of reading materials, and the nonavailability of e-learning facilities, the students were motivated to join the programme for personal and professional motives and that the students, the majority of whom had taught for two or more years in the districts, would prefer deployments in the area after graduation. The study therefore recommends that deliberate efforts be directed toward the targeted recruitment of school leavers and relief teachers from disadvantaged rural areas who possess the requisite minimum entry qualifications to train as science teachers in order to improve teacher retention in remote areas. Further research into the intrinsic problems in BUSE’s VODL programme and a close scrutiny of its course development techniques are also
Campbell, Catherine; Andersen, Louise; Mutsikiwa, Alice; Madanhire, Claudius; Skovdal, Morten; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon
HIV has left many African children caring for sick relatives, orphaned or themselves HIV-positive, often facing immense challenges in the absence of significant support from adults. With reductions in development funding, public sector budgetary constraints, and a growing emphasis on the importance of indigenous resources in the HIV response, international policy allocates schools a key role in 'substituting for families' (Ansell, 2008) in supporting child health and well-being. We explore children's own accounts of the challenges facing their HIV-affected peers and the role of schools in providing such support. Contextualised within a multi-method study of school support for HIV-affected children in rural Zimbabwe, and regarding children's views as a key resource for child-relevant intervention and policy, 128 school children (10-14) wrote a story about an HIV-affected peer and how school assisted them in tackling their problems. Children presented harrowing accounts of negative impacts of HIV on the social, physical and mental well-being of peers, and how these manifested in the school setting. Whilst relationships with fellow learners and teachers were said to provide a degree of support, this was patchy and minimal, generally limited to small-scale and often one-off acts of material help or kindness (e.g. teachers giving children pens and exercise books or peers sharing school lunches), with little potential to impact significantly on the wider social drivers of children's daily challenges. Despite having respect for the enormity of the challenges many HIV-affected peers were coping with, children tended to keep a distance from them. School was depicted as a source of the very bullying, stigma and social exclusion that undermined children's opportunities for well-being in their lives more generally. Our findings challenge glib assumptions that schools can serve as a significant 'indigenous' supports of the health and well-being of HIV-affected children in the
Background HIV has left many African children caring for sick relatives, orphaned or themselves HIV-positive, often facing immense challenges in the absence of significant support from adults. With reductions in development funding, public sector budgetary constraints, and a growing emphasis on the importance of indigenous resources in the HIV response, international policy allocates schools a key role in ‘substituting for families’ (Ansell, 2008) in supporting child health and well-being. We explore children’s own accounts of the challenges facing their HIV-affected peers and the role of schools in providing such support. Methods Contextualised within a multi-method study of school support for HIV-affected children in rural Zimbabwe, and regarding children’s views as a key resource for child-relevant intervention and policy, 128 school children (10–14) wrote a story about an HIV-affected peer and how school assisted them in tackling their problems. Results Children presented harrowing accounts of negative impacts of HIV on the social, physical and mental well-being of peers, and how these manifested in the school setting. Whilst relationships with fellow learners and teachers were said to provide a degree of support, this was patchy and minimal, generally limited to small-scale and often one-off acts of material help or kindness (e.g. teachers giving children pens and exercise books or peers sharing school lunches), with little potential to impact significantly on the wider social drivers of children’s daily challenges. Despite having respect for the enormity of the challenges many HIV-affected peers were coping with, children tended to keep a distance from them. School was depicted as a source of the very bullying, stigma and social exclusion that undermined children’s opportunities for well-being in their lives more generally. Conclusions Our findings challenge glib assumptions that schools can serve as a significant ‘indigenous’ supports of
Munodawafa, D; Marty, P J; Gwede, C
This demonstration project used student nurses (n = 12) on community deployment to provide health instruction among rural school-age populations in Zimbabwe. A quasi-experimental (pre- and post-test), non-equivalent control group design was used and consisted of 141 school pupils in the intervention group and 144 pupils in the comparison group (N = 285). The curriculum focused on prevention of STDs, HIV/AIDS and drugs (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana). A gain in health knowledge scores among the intervention group was reported at post-test. More than 70% of the pupils who received health instruction from student nurses gave a high approval rating of student nurses' performance. Further, student nurses, teachers and tutors all support school health instruction by student nurses although tutors and teachers differ on teaching about condoms.
Sarnoff, Rhonda; Desai, Jaikishan; Desjeux, Philippe; Mittal, Atul; Topno, Roshan; Siddiqui, Niyamat Ali; Pandey, Arvind; Sur, Dipika; Das, Pradeep
To estimate the economic burden of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) on the rural population of one VL endemic district of Bihar, the state with 85% of India's cases. Using a survey of a stratified multistage sampling of 15 178 households with 214 individuals with VL in the previous 12 months, the study provides data on VL treatment expenditures, financing and days of work lost in the context of overall household expenditures, income sources and assets. Median household expenditures on VL treatment represent, on average, 11% of annual household expenditures and an estimated 7 months of an individual's income at the daily wage in rural Bihar. With 87% of households forced to take out loans to finance disease costs, VL can contribute to a spiral of increasing poverty. The current pattern of VL treatment, with multiple visits and treatments for a single episode of illness, significantly increases the economic burden on the household. India's National Elimination Program to make effective treatments accessible to the rural poor, if combined with expanded efforts to improve timely access to diagnosis by conducting rapid diagnostic tests closer to the community (and mobilizing the rural population to seek effective treatment earlier), can reduce VL's economic burden on India's rural households.
This article identifies the important issues addressed by programs and projects that are aimed at promoting women's equality through entrepreneurship and suggests several actions for future focus of gender programs and training. Culture was seen as a barrier to the self-confident and autonomous economic activities of women in Zimbabwe. Likewise, structural barriers such as lack of marketable skills, time and ability to travel, land and assets, education, and position as primary family providers all compounded to the problem of entrepreneurship among women. Establishment of policy approaches for women like vocational skills training augmented by training in business skills and marketing, however, are insufficient since it failed to discuss and transfer behavioral skills necessary to make one an entrepreneur. To conclude, programs must be designed to empower personal skills and self-awareness, as well as address the constraints to entrepreneurship, and macroeconomic policy change.
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess perceptions of rural household heads with regard to various aspects of water access and climate change, and to evaluate whether there were significant differences in perceptions of respondents from female-headed and male-headed households. The study is based on a cross-sectional survey of 300 respondents conducted in the Seke and Murewa districts of Zimbabwe in 2011. The analysis included mainly descriptive statistics. The majority of both female-headed and male-headed households relied on rainfall for their crops, rivers were cited as the main water source for their livestock and protected wells supplied water for household use. Households experienced water shortages, which were attributed mainly to reduced rainfall. The general perception was that there would be less water available in future, with a greater proportion of female-headed than male-headed households perceiving such difficulties. However, very few respondents indicated that they would consider emigrating, although female-headed households were more likely to consider emigrating than male-headed households. A considerable number of respondents indicated that they did not have any means to overcome the water shortages. This highlights the need for interventions such as training and empowerment of individuals with regard to sustainable water use and management.
Examines alternatives to traditional library services being developed in Zimbabwe. Highlights include home libraries connected with literacy groups; the Rural Libraries and Resources Development Programme that develops community libraries, oral archives, and training manuals; mobile library services; culture houses; problems with donated books;…
Makoni, Fungai S.; Manase, Gift; Ndamba, Jerry
This paper presents practical experiences into the pattern of domestic water use, benefits and the gender realities. The study was undertaken in two districts of Zimbabwe, Mt Darwin and Bikita covering a total of 16 villages. The study aimed to assess the patterns of domestic water use, benefits derived from its use among the gender groups. Methodology for participatory assessment (MPA) was used for data collection and was done in a participatory manner. Traditionally most people in Zimbabwe are subsistence farmers who rely on rain fed agriculture. Where primary water sources are available such as shallow wells, family wells, deep wells and boreholes households use the water for household water and sanitation, irrigate small family gardens as well as their livestock. The survey established that women and men usually rank uses of water differently. In the two districts it was evident that women are playing more roles in water use and it is apparent that women are most often the users, managers and guardians of household water and hygiene. Women also demonstrated their involvement in commercial use of water, using water for livestock watering (20%) as well as brick moulding (21%). These involvement in commercial use were influenced by survival economics as well as the excess and reliability of the supply. The different roles and incentives in water use of women and men was demonstrated in how they ranked the benefits of water and sanitation. Men ranked clean drinking water among others as a top priority while women ranked improved health and hygiene and reduced distance as top priority. Overall the benefits highlighted by the communities and especially women were meeting the practical needs such as better access to water and reducing their work load. The assessment demonstrated the active role of women in water sources management highlighting quality, reliability and restrictions to their use. Though the communities gave the impression that decision making in the
Full Text Available and deliver to site electrical machinery like grinding mills, irrigation equipment and welding machines that entrepreneurs may order. This paper discusses the findings of recent case studies among small enterprise beneficiaries of rural electrification...
Increasing human population, economic challenges, climate change impacts are intensifying reliance by local communities on savanna woodlands in tropical regions. Knowledge of the importance and value of savanna woodland ecosystems to rural livelihoods and wildlife conservation is therefore needed to
Despite a number of programs aimed at the transfer of reproductive health information, adolescents in Zimbabwe still face unprecedented reproductive challenges. The study sought to explore adolescent girls' knowledge of their sexual and reproductive health; the factors that influence their sexual behaviors and to determine the extent to which adolescents had access to sexual and reproductive health information. The case study methodology was used for the study. The interpretive paradigm was used as the methodological theory and Grunig's model of excellence in communication was used as the substantive theory. Data was obtained through the use of focus group discussions and indepth interviews. Although adolescents knew the different types of sexually transmitted diseases and were aware of the consequences of engaging in risky sexual behaviors, they engaged in health behaviors which had potential for serious consequences. The study established that adolescents did not have adequate access to sexual and reproductive health information. Sexual issues were not adequately addressed both at school and at home. Adolescents lack adequate access to reproductive health information and there is need for effective communication programs that contribute towards the understanding of communicated messages by audiences and the understanding of audiences by communicators.
The central objective of the present research is to serve as an in-depth technical introduction to small-scale concentrating systems tailored for application especially in rural areas in Africa located outside the national electricity grids. For example, MSc and doctoral-students recently matriculated on NUFU-sponsorship at some universities in Africa (i.e Mozambique, Uganda, Tanzania, South Africa and Ethiopia) for research in solar-concentrator technologies will find most of the material in this work quite useful. Chapter 1 discusses the premise on which this research is based. It essentially highlights the gravity of the energy crisis as experienced by the impoverished masses living in most parts of Africa. The situation in Zimbabwe was discussed in detail (for case-studies1) because it is a suitable example added to the convenience of being the country of the author's origin. The second chapter is thus a detailed study on the solar energy resource situation in Zimbabwe. It describes the availability and patterns of solar energy based on the existing solar radiation data obtained from meteorological stations scattered throughout the country. These results were necessary for assessing the potential of the proposed system in Zimbabwe, and can also be extended for use in other solar energy projects. Chapter 3 focuses on the collection of solar radiation using parabolic concentrators. Major determinants that include errors and optical sensitivity of parabolic solar collectors, the correlation between receiver configuration and the parabolic collector are expounded. Arguments for and the main principle on how-to incorporate a mechanical solar tracking device are also laid-out in this part of the thesis. A very critical component of the concentrating system: the volumetric fibrous receiver, is described in the 4th chapter. Here, the theory on which one of the major computer programmes developed in this research, is given an in-depth treatment. The gist of this
Campbell, Catherine; Andersen, Louise; Mutsikiwa, Alice
We present multi-method case studies of two Zimbabwean primary schools - one rural and one small-town. The rural school scored higher than the small-town school on measures of child well-being and school attendance by HIV-affected children. The small-town school had superior facilities, more teac...... and specialist school-based activities should be supplemented with greater attention to impacts of school leadership and the nature of the school-community interface on the HIV-competence of schools....
Mbuya, Mduduzi N. N.; Humphrey, Jean H.; Majo, Florence; Chasekwa, Bernard; Jenkins, Alison; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Muti, Monica; Paul, Keriann H.; Madzima, Rufaro C.; Lawrence H Moulton; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.
In the context of a prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV program promoting exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) to 6 mo and offering HIV-PCR testing at ∼6 mo, we ascertained the feasibility of expressing and heat-treating (EHT) all breast milk fed to HIV-exposed, uninfected infants following 6 mo of EBF. Twenty mother-baby pairs were enrolled from a hospital in rural Zimbabwe. Research nurses provided lactation, EHT, and complementary feeding counseling through 21 home visits conducted...
Eriksen, K; Forland, F; Rygnestad, T
In the districts of Mudzi and Mutoko in Zimbabwe, 25% of pregnant women and 50% of patients with sexually transmitted diseases are infected with HIV. A major challenge of AIDS prevention work lies in changing sexual behavior by local planning and organization and school education in order to halt the most important routes of transmission. The International Aid Fund of Students and Academicians (SAIH) has been involved in health care work in Mutoko and later Mudzi since 1980. The authors, Norwegian doctors, worked there during 1991-93. In Mutoko there are two small mission hospitals in addition to the Mutoko District Hospital with 140 beds. Furthermore, there are 14 health care clinics of varying sizes and quality. Most have 2-4 health workers and at least one nurse. Mudzi is without a hospital; health care is provided from 19 health clinics. It is partly accepted that men can have several sexual partners, and prostitution is not regarded negatively. The socioeconomic changes have loosened erstwhile stronger sexual mores. The AIDS prevention campaign laid the emphasis on courses for health workers and village leaders with health education and campaigns in schools, villages, and district centers using audiovisual aids. Survey showed that the knowledge about HIV and AIDS was high, but there were about 8000-10,000 sexually transmitted diseases in Mutoko a year. In 1992, courses were held for traditional healers, teachers, church leaders, party members, and rural health workers. School children received the highest priority because their sexual behavior is not yet established. Community village workers numbered 140 in Mutoko and 124 in Mudzi who are paid to carry out AIDS prevention work two days a week. In 1992, in Mutoko 333 and in Mudzi 140 HIV tests were carried out, of which 74% and 90%, respectively, were positive. A campaign will be organized for voluntary testing of symptom-free population, and an HIV center is needed with same-day test results.
Sophie J S Pascoe
Full Text Available Assessing socio-economic position can be difficult, particularly in developing countries. Collection of socio-economic data usually relies on interviewer-administered questionnaires, but there is little research exploring how questionnaire delivery mode (QDM influences reporting of these indicators. This paper reports on results of a trial of four QDMs, and the effect of mode on poverty reporting.This trial was nested within a community-randomised trial of an adolescent reproductive health intervention conducted in rural Zimbabwe. Participants were randomly allocated to one of four QDMs (three different self-administered modes and one interviewer-administered mode; a subset was randomly selected to complete the questionnaire twice. Questions covered three socio-economic domains: i ownership of sellable and fixed assets; ii ability to afford essential items; and iii food sufficiency. Statistical analyses assessed the association between QDM and reporting of poverty, and compared the extent of response agreement between questionnaire rounds.96% (n = 1483 of those eligible took part; 395 completed the questionnaire twice. Reported levels of poverty were high. Respondents using self-administered modes were more likely to report being unable to afford essential items and having insufficient food. Among those completing the questionnaire twice using different modes, higher levels of poverty and food insufficiency were reported when they completed the questionnaire using a self-administered mode.These data suggest that QDM plays a significant role in how different socio-economic indicators are reported, and reminds us to consider the mode of collection when identifying indicators to determine socio-economic position.
Pascoe, Sophie J S; Hargreaves, James R; Langhaug, Lisa F; Hayes, Richard J; Cowan, Frances M
Assessing socio-economic position can be difficult, particularly in developing countries. Collection of socio-economic data usually relies on interviewer-administered questionnaires, but there is little research exploring how questionnaire delivery mode (QDM) influences reporting of these indicators. This paper reports on results of a trial of four QDMs, and the effect of mode on poverty reporting. This trial was nested within a community-randomised trial of an adolescent reproductive health intervention conducted in rural Zimbabwe. Participants were randomly allocated to one of four QDMs (three different self-administered modes and one interviewer-administered mode); a subset was randomly selected to complete the questionnaire twice. Questions covered three socio-economic domains: i) ownership of sellable and fixed assets; ii) ability to afford essential items; and iii) food sufficiency. Statistical analyses assessed the association between QDM and reporting of poverty, and compared the extent of response agreement between questionnaire rounds. 96% (n = 1483) of those eligible took part; 395 completed the questionnaire twice. Reported levels of poverty were high. Respondents using self-administered modes were more likely to report being unable to afford essential items and having insufficient food. Among those completing the questionnaire twice using different modes, higher levels of poverty and food insufficiency were reported when they completed the questionnaire using a self-administered mode. These data suggest that QDM plays a significant role in how different socio-economic indicators are reported, and reminds us to consider the mode of collection when identifying indicators to determine socio-economic position.
Background Despite the successful scale-up of ART services over the past years, long term retention in ART care remains a major challenge, especially in high HIV prevalence and resource-limited settings. This study analysed the short (12 months) term retention on ART in two ART programmes in Malawi (Thyolo district) and Zimbabwe (Buhera district). Methods Retention rates at six-month intervals are reported separately among (1) patients since ART initiation and (2) patients who had been on ART for at least 12 months, according to the site of ART initiation and follow-up, using the Kaplan Meier method. ‘Retention’ was defined as being alive on ART or transferred out, while ‘attrition’ was defined as dead, lost to follow-up or stopped ART. Results In Thyolo and Buhera, a total of 12,004 and 9,721 patients respectively were included in the analysis. The overall retention among the patients since ART initiation was 84%, 80% and 77% in Thyolo and 88%, 84% and 82% in Buhera at 6, 12 and 18 months, respectively. In both programmes the largest drop in ART retention was found during the initial 12 months on ART, mainly related to a high mortality rate in the health centres in Thyolo and a high loss to follow-up rate in the hospital in Buhera. Among the patients who had been on ART for at least 12 months, the retention rates leveled out, with 97%, 95% and 94% in both Thyolo and Buhera, at 18, 24 and 30 months respectively. Loss to follow-up was identified as the main contributor to attrition after 12 months on treatment in both programmes. Conclusions To better understand the reasons of attrition and adapt the ART delivery care models accordingly, it is advisable to analyse short and long term retention separately, in order to adapt intervention strategies accordingly. During the initial months on ART more medical follow-up, especially for symptomatic patients, is required to reduce mortality. Once stable on ART, however, the ART care delivery should focus on regular
Full Text Available Abstract Participation is the cornerstone of citizen engagement. In constitution making and other public policy formulation processes public participation typically involves preparing the public to participate through civic education and public information campaigns as well as consulting the public on issues such as how the process should take place and the contents of the constitution itself. This study sought to examine the factors that influence womens participation in constitution making processes specifically relating to voting in the constitution referendum in the case of rural women residing in ward 22 of Gutu district of Zimbabwe. Gutu District is the third largest district in Masvingo province. Ward 22 is located in the communal region of Gutu central. The people of ward 22 largely depend on subsistence farming and market gardening for their livelihoods. The objectives of the study were to ascertain to what extent media campaign and publicity efforts by womens civic groups and public interaction through public meetings and hearings were able to influence the participation of Zimbabwean women in the 2013 referendum in ward 22 Gutu district. Over and above these objectives the study sought to document the experiences and views of rural Zimbabwean women on the constitution making process. This study adopted a descriptive case study research design. Samples of 108 women from Ward 22 Gutu District were conveniently selected to participate in this study. Data was collected using a structured interview guide and questionnaires which were administered to the respondents. A focused group discussion was also carried out to verify the information gathered through these instruments. Findings and conclusions were derived by means of detailed comparative and inductive analysis of data. Descriptive statistics were employed in the presentation of the findings. Amongst the major findings are that rural women in ward 22 in Gutu district were in actual
Noriode, Rukeme M; Idowu, Emmanuel T; Otubanjo, Olubunmi A; Mafe, Margaret A
Urinary schistosomiasis is endemic in many rural communities of Nigeria and school aged children are mostly affected. A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis infection among 251 school aged children in two communities of Ovia South West LGA of Edo State, Nigeria, as well as their knowledge on the control/elimination measures. Urine samples were collected and examined by microscopy using filtration technique. In addition, a questionnaire survey was conducted among school-aged children and health care providers, probing their knowledge, attitude and practices on on-going control activities. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among the school-aged children was 65.3%. The prevalence was generally higher among females (68.8%) and children in the age groups 10-14 (69.9%). The intensity of infection ranged from 1 to 5044 (mean=449.8) eggs/10ml of urine with a higher proportion having heavy infections (76.8%, P<0.05). Water contact was attested by 123 (49.0%) of the children; of these 123, 74 (60.1%) were infected. The children's knowledge on urinary schistosomiasis was deficient. The high prevalences reported in these communities require integrated approach to control which essentially should incorporate the provision of safe water supply and sanitary facilities, and health education in addition to the annual mass praziquantel distribution, to reduce transmission. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Costa, Simone de Melo; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimaraes; Vargas, Andrea Maria Duarte; Vasconcelos, Mara; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigenia; Castilho, Lia Silva de
It is observational, analytical and cross-sectional aimed to evaluate the association between severity and prevalence of fluorosis and dental caries in rural communities with endemic dental fluorosis in the north state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, with fluoride concentrations in water up to 4.8 mg/L. Data were collected by one examiner (intra-examiner kappa, 0.96 to 0,95 for caries and fluorosis) after toothbrushing. The study included 511 individuals aged 7 - 22 years, categorized according to age: 7 - 9 years (n = 227), 10 to 12 years (n = 153), 13 to 15 years (n = 92), 16 to 22 years (n = 39). For the diagnosis of dental caries used the criteria of the World Health Organization to measure indices DMFT. For fluorosis used the index Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF), dichotomized according to prevalence (TF = 0 and TF > 0) and severity (TF 5). In the two younger groups, the DMFT and its decay component were higher in the group with more severe fluorosis (p 0.05). The association was found between the conditions more severe fluorosis and caries in individuals under 12 years.
Simone de Melo Costa
Full Text Available It is observational, analytical and cross-sectional aimed to evaluate the association between severity and prevalence of fluorosis and dental caries in rural communities with endemic dental fluorosis in the north state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, with fluoride concentrations in water up to 4.8 mg/L. Data were collected by one examiner (intra-examiner kappa, 0.96 to 0,95 for caries and fluorosis after toothbrushing. The study included 511 individuals aged 7 - 22 years, categorized according to age: 7 - 9 years (n = 227, 10 to 12 years (n = 153, 13 to 15 years (n = 92, 16 to 22 years (n = 39. For the diagnosis of dental caries used the criteria of the World Health Organization to measure indices DMFT. For fluorosis used the index Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF, dichotomized according to prevalence (TF = 0 and TF > 0 and severity (TF 5. In the two younger groups, the DMFT and its decay component were higher in the group with more severe fluorosis (p 0.05. The association was found between the conditions more severe fluorosis and caries in individuals under 12 years.
Substance Abuse by Rural High School Students: A Case Study of one High School in Mutasa District Situated in Rural Zimbabwe · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. C. Dziro, T. Makaruse ...
Opio, Christopher Kenneth; Kazibwe, Francis; Ocama, Ponsiano; Rejani, Lalitha; Belousova, Elena Nikolaevna; Ajal, Paul
Severe chronic hepatic schistosomiasis is a common cause of episodes upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, there is paucity of data on clinical epidemiology of episodes of UGIB from rural Africa despite on going public health interventions to control and eliminate schistosomiasis. Through a cross sectional study we profiled lifetime episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and associated factors at a rural primary health facility in sub-Saharan Africa were schistosomiasis is endemic. The main outcome was number of lifetime episodes of UGIB analyzed as count data. From 107 enrolled participants, 323 lifetime episodes of UGIB were reported. Fifty-seven percent experienced ≥ 2 lifetime episodes of UGIB. Ninety-four percent had severe chronic hepatic schistosomiasis and 80% esophageal varices. Alcohol use and viral hepatitis was infrequent. Eighty-eight percent were previously treated with praziquantel and 70% had a history of blood transfusion. No patient had ever had an endoscopy or treatment for prevention of recurrent variceal bleeding. Multivariable analysis identified a cluster of eight clinical factor variables (age ≥ 40, female sex, history of blood transfusion, abdominal collaterals, esophageal varices, pattern x periportal fibrosis, anemia, and thrombocytopenia) significantly associated (P-value < 0.05) with increased probability of experiencing two or more lifetime episodes of UGIB in our study. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a common health problem in this part of rural SSA where schistosomiasis is endemic. The clinical profile described is unique and is important for improved case management, and for future research.
that “ blood diamonds ” from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) were being smuggled along with rough stones from Zimbabwe into South Africa for...33 “ Blood Diamonds ...were released after paying fines. “ Blood Diamonds ”? The World Diamond Council (WDC), a diamond industry organization that aims to prevent the
Mukeredzi, Tabitha Grace
Attempts to address global pressure to achieve Education for All have been hampered by two fundamental challenges in developing countries, namely an acute shortage of teachers and large rural populations in these countries. In addition, qualified, competent teachers shun working in rural settings. While recruitment of professionally unqualified…
This book consists of four articles containing detailed ethnographic studies of people who are commonly known as migrant workers.Conventional studies on rural-urban migration and urbanisation have often examined such people in either rural or urban social situations,analysing respectively the
Luz M Moyano
Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a common helminthic infection of the central nervous system and an important cause of adult-onset epilepsy in endemic countries. However, few studies have examined associations between neurologic symptoms, serology and radiographic findings on a community-level.We conducted a population-based study of resident's ≥2 years old in a highly endemic village in Peru (pop. 454. We applied a 14 -question neurologic screening tool and evaluated serum for antibodies against Taenia solium cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (LLGP-EITB. We invited all residents ≥18 years old to have non-contrast computerized tomography (CT of the head.Of the 385 residents who provided serum samples, 142 (36.9% were seropositive. Of the 256 residents who underwent CT scan, 48 (18.8% had brain calcifications consistent with NCC; 8/48 (17.0% reported a history of headache and/or seizures. Exposure to T. solium is very common in this endemic community where 1 out of 5 residents had brain calcifications. However, the vast majority of people with calcifications were asymptomatic.This study reports a high prevalence of NCC infection in an endemic community in Peru and confirms that a large proportion of apparently asymptomatic residents have brain calcifications that could provoke seizures in the future.
Moyano, Luz M; O'Neal, Seth E; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Gamboa, Ricardo; Vilchez, Percy; Rodriguez, Silvia; Reistetter, Joe; Tsang, Victor C W; Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Garcia, Hector H
Neurocysticercosis is a common helminthic infection of the central nervous system and an important cause of adult-onset epilepsy in endemic countries. However, few studies have examined associations between neurologic symptoms, serology and radiographic findings on a community-level. We conducted a population-based study of resident's ≥2 years old in a highly endemic village in Peru (pop. 454). We applied a 14 -question neurologic screening tool and evaluated serum for antibodies against Taenia solium cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (LLGP-EITB). We invited all residents ≥18 years old to have non-contrast computerized tomography (CT) of the head. Of the 385 residents who provided serum samples, 142 (36.9%) were seropositive. Of the 256 residents who underwent CT scan, 48 (18.8%) had brain calcifications consistent with NCC; 8/48 (17.0%) reported a history of headache and/or seizures. Exposure to T. solium is very common in this endemic community where 1 out of 5 residents had brain calcifications. However, the vast majority of people with calcifications were asymptomatic. This study reports a high prevalence of NCC infection in an endemic community in Peru and confirms that a large proportion of apparently asymptomatic residents have brain calcifications that could provoke seizures in the future.
Pinheiro, Raquel Silva; Araújo, Lyriane Apolinário de; Caetano, Karlla Antonieta Amorim; Matos, Marcos André de; Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida dos Santos; Teles, Sheila Araújo
Rural populations present an elevated risk of exposure to hepatitis A virus. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors associated with hepatitis A virus infection among residents of rural settlement projects of southwest Goiás, Central Brazil. A total of 466 residents were interviewed and tested for the detection of anti- hepatitis A virus antibodies by ELISA. The global prevalence of anti- hepatitis A virus was 82.2%. In individuals aged 5-9 years and 10-19 years, the prevalence was 15% and 58.8%, respectively. Persons in the 10-19 age group, with a history of life in encampments, with more than five people per residence consuming well water, were predictors for exposure to hepatitis A virus. Our results suggest that the hepatitis A virus endemicity in rural settlements in southwest Goiás similar to that found in the urban population of the Midwest Region, confirming the implementation of universal hepatitis A vaccination in children.
Chikovore, Jeremiah; Lindmark, Gunilla; Nystrom, Lennarth; Mbizvo, Michael T; Ahlberg, Beth Maina
This paper is based on a study aimed at understanding the perceptions of men to induced abortion and contraceptive use within marriage in rural Zimbabwe. Two qualitative methods were combined. Men were found to view abortion not as a reproductive health problem for women. Instead, they described abortion as a sign of illicit sexual activity and contraceptive use as a strategy married women use to conceal their involvement in extramarital sexual activity. Men felt anxious and vulnerable for lack of control over women. In the absence of verbal communication on sexual matters, women and men resort to what are called here 'hide-and-seek' strategies, where women acquire and use contraceptives secretly while men search for evidence of such use. It is concluded that promoting women's sexual and reproductive health requires both short- and long-term strategies. The short-term strategy would entail providing women with reproductive technology they can use without risking violence. The long-term strategy would entail understanding men's concerns and the way these are manifested. In turn this requires the use of methodologies that encourage dialogue with research participants, in order to capture their deep meanings and experiences.
Crea, Thomas M; Lombe, Margaret; Robertson, Laura A; Dumba, Lovemore; Mushati, Phyllis; Makoni, J C; Mavise, Gideon; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Munatsi, Brighton; Nyamukapa, Constance A; Gregson, Simon
The high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in sub-Saharan Africa has resulted in a dramatic increase in orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) over the past decade. These children typically rely on extended family networks for support, but the magnitude of the crisis has resulted in traditional familial networks becoming overwhelmed and more economically and socially vulnerable. Previous research consistently demonstrates the positive influence of household asset ownership on children's well-being. Using data from impoverished households caring for OVC in rural Manicaland Province, Zimbabwe, this study explores the influence of household asset ownership on OVC health vulnerability (HV) and social vulnerability (SV). Findings indicate that asset ownership is associated with significantly lower SV, in terms of school attendance and birth registration. Yet, assets do not emerge as a direct influence of OVC HV as measured by disease and chronic illness, although having a chronically ill adult in the household increases HV. These findings suggest that asset ownership, specifically a combination of fixed and movable assets, may offset the influence of other risk factors for children's SV.
Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Humphrey, Jean H; Majo, Florence; Chasekwa, Bernard; Jenkins, Alison; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Muti, Monica; Paul, Keriann H; Madzima, Rufaro C; Moulton, Lawrence H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J
In the context of a prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV program promoting exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) to 6 mo and offering HIV-PCR testing at approximately 6 mo, we ascertained the feasibility of expressing and heat-treating (EHT) all breast milk fed to HIV-exposed, uninfected infants following 6 mo of EBF. Twenty mother-baby pairs were enrolled from a hospital in rural Zimbabwe. Research nurses provided lactation, EHT, and complementary feeding counseling through 21 home visits conducted over an 8-wk period and collected quantitative and qualitative data on the mothers' EHT experiences, children's diets, and anthropometric measurements. Mothers kept daily logs of EHT volumes and direct breast-feeding episodes. Mothers successfully initiated and sustained EHT for 4.5 mo (range, 1-11 mo), feeding 426 +/- 227 mL/d (mean +/- SD). By wk 2 of follow-up, children were receiving EHT and Nutributter-enriched complementary foods that satisfied 100% of their energy requirements. During the 8-wk follow-up period, no growth faltering was experienced [changes in weight-for-age, weight-for-length, and length-for-age Z scores = +0.03 +/- 0.50; +0.77 +/- 1.59; and +0.02 +/- 0.85 (mean +/- SD), respectively]. Stigma was not a major deterrent, likely due to a social marketing campaign for EBF that promoted EHT as a practice to sustain breast-feeding for all women. This study provides evidence that resource-poor rural women can initiate and sustain EHT given family and health systems support. EHT provides a strategy for improving the diets of HIV-exposed but uninfected children after direct breast-feeding has ceased.
Desai, Amy; Smith, Laura E; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Chigumira, Ancikaria; Fundira, Dadirai; Tavengwa, Naume V; Malaba, Thokozile R; Majo, Florence D; Humphrey, Jean H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J
The Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) trial is designed to measure the independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene and improved infant feeding on child stunting and anemia in Zimbabwe. We developed and pilot-tested the infant feeding intervention delivered by 9 village health workers to 19 mothers of infants aged 7-12 months. Between September 2010 and January 2011, maternal knowledge was assessed using mixed methods, and infant nutrient intakes were assessed by 24-hour recall. We observed positive shifts in mothers' knowledge. At baseline, 63% of infants met their energy requirement and most did not receive enough folate, zinc, or calcium; none met their iron requirement. Postintervention, all infants received sufficient fat and vitamin A, and most consumed enough daily energy (79%), protein (95%), calcium (89%), zinc (89%), folate (68%), and iron (68%). The SHINE trial infant feeding intervention led to significant short-term improvements in maternal learning and infant nutrient intakes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Campbell, Catherine; Scott, Kerry; Nhamo, Mercy; Nyamukapa, Constance; Madanhire, Claudius; Skovdal, Morten; Sherr, Lorraine; Gregson, Simon
Community involvement is increasingly identified as a "critical enabler" of an effective HIV/AIDS response. We explore pathways between community participation and HIV prevention, treatment and impact mitigation in Zimbabwe, reviewing six qualitative studies in Manicaland. These find that community group membership is often (not always) associated with decreased HIV incidence, reduced stigma and improved access to some services, particularly amongst women. Participation in formal community groups (e.g., church or women's groups) and informal local networks (e.g., neighbours, families) provides opportunities for critical dialogue about HIV/AIDS, often facilitating renegotiation of harmful social norms, sharing of previously hidden personal experiences of HIV/AIDS, formulation of positive action plans and solidarity to action them. However, implementation of new plans and insights is constrained by poverty, social uncertainty and poor service delivery. Furthermore, dialogue may have negative effects, spreading false information and entrenching negative norms. The extent that formal groups and informal networks facilitate externally imposed HIV/AIDS interventions varies. They potentially provide vital practical and emotional support, facilitating service access, treatment adherence and AIDS care. However, they may sometimes play a negative role in prevention activities, challenging stereotypes about sexuality or gender. There is an urgent need for greater recognition of the role of indigenous community groups and networks, and the inclusion of "strengthening local responses" as a key element of interventions and policy. Such efforts require great sensitivity. Heavy-handed external interference in complex indigenous relationships risks undermining the localism and bottom-up initiative and activism that might be central to their effectiveness. Cautious efforts might seek to enhance the potentially beneficial effects of groups, especially for women, and limit potentially
Kevany, J; Fierro-Benitez, R; Pretell, E A; Stanbury, J B
Endemic goiter is a health problem in many areas of the world; in some areas the disease is so severe that cretinism and other defects are found. In many areas geographic, economic, and other factors prevent the use of iodized salt as a preventive measure. Field studies were begun in 1966 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of parenteral administration of iodized oil in goiter prevention. Studies were carried out in Ecuador and Peru. In Ecuador 2 villages were chosen in which the prevalence of goiter was about 60%; in Peru 3 villages were chosen where incidence was about 50%. Prevalence of goiter decreased for 20 months during the study but then began to rise again with the maximum reduction seen up to age 18 and minimal reduction after 40 years of age. The control groups in the study experienced only slight decreases in rate of incidence. Cretinism has not yet appeared among the progeny of the population injected with iodized oil but several instances have appeared in control groups. The use of iodized oil as a public health procedure for the prevention of endemic goiter and its associated defects is an acceptable measure in regions where salt iodization cannot be done.
Mauro Henrique N. G. Abreu
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the values of the Thylstrup & Fejerskov Index (TF index for the determination of the prevalence of dental fluorosis using either all teeth (gold standard or six upper anterior teeth (simplified TF index. The sample was made up of 396 individuals aged six to 22 years from three Brazilian cities with endemic fluorosis caused by the ingestion of water with high fluoride concentration. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was evaluated by a single trained examiner with excellent intraexaminer agreement (kappa = 0.95. Intraexaminer reproducibilities were calculated at tooth level. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the simplified TF compared to gold standard were 90.6 (95%CI: 86.6 to 93.6, 100 (95%CI: 95.3 to 100, 100 (95%CI: 98.3 to 100 and 77.5 (95%CI: 69.8 to 83.5, respectively. The ROC value was 0.953 (95%CI: 0.933 to 0.973. The simplified TF index proved suitable for determining the prevalence of dental fluorosis in regions with endemic fluorosis caused by the ingestion of water with high concentrations of fluoride.
Machado, Vanessa Wolff; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa; Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto; Santos, João Barberino
The yellow fever epidemic that occurred in 1972/73 in Central Brazil surprised the majority of the population unprotected. A clinical-epidemiological survey conducted at that time in the rural area of 19 municipalities found that the highest (13.8%) number of disease cases were present in the municipality of Luziânia, State of Goiás. Thirty-eight years later, a new seroepidemiological survey was conducted with the aim of assessing the degree of immune protection of the rural population of Luziânia, following the continuous attempts of public health services to obtain vaccination coverage in the region. A total of 383 volunteers, aged between 5 and 89 years and with predominant rural labor activities (75.5%), were interviewed. The presence of antibodies against the yellow fever was also investigated in these individuals, by using plaque reduction neutralization test, and correlated to information regarding residency, occupation, epidemiological data and immunity against the yellow fever virus. We found a high (97.6%) frequency of protective titers (>1:10) of neutralizing antibodies against the yellow fever virus; the frequency of titers of 1:640 or higher was 23.2%, indicating wide immune protection against the disease in the study population. The presence of protective immunity was correlated to increasing age. This study reinforces the importance of surveys to address the immune state of a population at risk for yellow fever infection and to the surveillance of actions to control the disease in endemic areas.
Vanessa Wolff Machado
Full Text Available Introduction The yellow fever epidemic that occurred in 1972/73 in Central Brazil surprised the majority of the population unprotected. A clinical-epidemiological survey conducted at that time in the rural area of 19 municipalities found that the highest (13.8% number of disease cases were present in the municipality of Luziânia, State of Goiás. Methods Thirty-eight years later, a new seroepidemiological survey was conducted with the aim of assessing the degree of immune protection of the rural population of Luziânia, following the continuous attempts of public health services to obtain vaccination coverage in the region. A total of 383 volunteers, aged between 5 and 89 years and with predominant rural labor activities (75.5%, were interviewed. The presence of antibodies against the yellow fever was also investigated in these individuals, by using plaque reduction neutralization test, and correlated to information regarding residency, occupation, epidemiological data and immunity against the yellow fever virus. Results We found a high (97.6% frequency of protective titers (>1:10 of neutralizing antibodies against the yellow fever virus; the frequency of titers of 1:640 or higher was 23.2%, indicating wide immune protection against the disease in the study population. The presence of protective immunity was correlated to increasing age. Conclusions This study reinforces the importance of surveys to address the immune state of a population at risk for yellow fever infection and to the surveillance of actions to control the disease in endemic areas.
Sibanda, Euphemia L; Tumushime, Mary; Mufuka, Juliet; Mavedzenge, Sue Napierala; Gudukeya, Stephano; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Hatzold, Karin; Thirumurthy, Harsha; McCoy, Sandra I; Padian, Nancy; Copas, Andrew; Cowan, Frances M
Couples' HIV testing and counselling (CHTC) is associated with greater engagement with HIV prevention and care than individual testing and is cost-effective, but uptake remains suboptimal. Initiating discussion of CHTC might result in distrust between partners. Offering incentives for CHTC could change the focus of the pre-test discussion. We aimed to determine the impact of incentives for CHTC on uptake of couples testing and HIV case diagnosis in rural Zimbabwe. In this cluster-randomised trial, 68 rural communities (the clusters) in four districts receiving mobile HIV testing services were randomly assigned (1:1) to incentives for CHTC or not. Allocation was not masked to participants and researchers. Randomisation was stratified by district and proximity to a health facility. Within each stratum random permutation was done to allocate clusters to the study groups. In intervention communities, residents were informed that couples who tested together could select one of three grocery items worth US$1·50. Standard mobilisation for testing was done in comparison communities. The primary outcome was the proportion of individuals testing with a partner. Analysis was by intention to treat. 3 months after CHTC, couple-testers from four communities per group individually completed a telephone survey to evaluate any social harms resulting from incentives or CHTC. The effect of incentives on CHTC was estimated using logistic regression with random effects adjusting for clustering. The trial was registered with the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry, number PACTR201606001630356. From May 26, 2015, to Jan 29, 2016, of 24 679 participants counselled with data recorded, 14 099 (57·1%) were in the intervention group and 10 580 (42·9%) in the comparison group. 7852 (55·7%) testers in the intervention group versus 1062 (10·0%) in the comparison group tested with a partner (adjusted odds ratio 13·5 [95% CI 10·5-17·4]). Among 427 (83·7%) of 510 eligible
Mavhu, Webster; Langhaug, Lisa; Pascoe, Sophie; Dirawo, Jeffrey; Hart, Graham; Cowan, Frances
Concurrent sexual partnerships are important in understanding the evolution and maintenance of the HIV heterosexual epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. While it is possible to measure individual attitudes around sensitive behaviours through questionnaire surveys, studies suggest that responses may be subject to social desirability bias and may not reflect community norms. This study used a novel tool to collect data on community norms relating to the acceptability of concurrency in rural Zimbabwe. Six questions exploring general concurrency concepts and 28 scenarios in which multiple-partnerships might occur were developed and translated into Shona. Participatory attitudinal ranking (PAR), an approach adapted from participatory wealth ranking, was used to conduct group discussions (n=24) with 170 participants recruited in a household survey. Participants discussed and ranked scenarios according to the acceptability of the multiple-partnering described in the short accounts. Data analysis followed grounded theory principles. Qualitative data were examined against quantitative survey data collected from a representative sample of 18-44-year olds. While discussants indicated that concurrency was common among both males and females, self-reports from survey participants indicated that 37.1% of males (n=717/1931; 95% CI: 35.0-39.3%) and only 7.3% of females (n=215/2948; 95% CI: 6.4-8.3%) were in concurrent relationships suggesting under-reporting of this behaviour, particularly by women. We found that concurrency is an accepted community norm for men but never for women. Concurrency is considered more acceptable in specific social contexts, including infertility and lack of a male heir. Having protected rather than unprotected sex with a concurrent partner does not render this behaviour more acceptable. Using PAR, we managed to gain a more nuanced understanding of socially sanctioned concurrency, knowledge that could prove useful for improving behaviour change interventions
Mutebi, Francis; Krücken, Jürgen; Feldmeier, Hermann; Waiswa, Charles; Mencke, Norbert; Sentongo, Elizabeth; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg
Background Animal tungiasis is believed to increase the prevalence and parasite burden in humans. Animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans differ among endemic areas and their role in the epidemiology of tungiasis had never been investigated in Uganda. Methods and Findings To identify the major animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans and their relative importance in the transmission of tungiasis in Uganda, a cross sectional study was conducted in animal rearing households in 10 endemic villages in Bugiri District. T. penetrans infections were detected in pigs, dogs, goats and a cat. The prevalences of households with tungiasis ranged from 0% to 71.4% (median 22.2) for animals and from 5 to 71.4% (median 27.8%) for humans. The prevalence of human tungiasis also varied among the population of the villages (median 7%, range 1.3–37.3%). Pig infections had the widest distribution (nine out of 10 villages) and highest prevalence (median 16.2%, range 0–64.1%). Pigs also had a higher number of embedded sand fleas than all other species combined (panimal and human tungiasis correlated at both village (rho = 0.89, p = 0.0005) and household (rho = 0.4, panimals correlated with the median intensity of infection in children three to eight years of age (rho = 0.47, pAnimal tungiasis increased the odds of occurrence of human cases in households six fold (OR = 6.1, 95% CI 3.3–11.4, pAnimal and human tungiasis were closely associated and pigs were identified as the most important animal hosts of T. penetrans. Effective tungiasis control should follow One Health principles and integrate ectoparasites control in animals. PMID:26473360
Full Text Available Introduction: Early diagnosis of children living with HIV is a prerequisite for accessing timely paediatric HIV care and treatment services and for optimizing treatment outcomes. Testing of HIV-exposed infants at 6 weeks and later is part of the national prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT of HIV programme in Zimbabwe, but many opportunities to test infants and children are being missed. Early childhood development (ECD playcentres can act as an entry point providing multiple health and social services for orphans and vulnerable children (OVC under 5 years, including facilitating access to HIV treatment and care. Methods: Sixteen rural community-based, community-run ECD playcentres were established to provide health, nutritional and psychosocial support for OVC aged 5 years and younger exposed to or living with HIV, coupled with family support groups (FSGs for their families/caregivers. These centres were located in close proximity to health centres giving access to nurse-led monitoring of 697 OVC and their caregivers. Community mobilisers identified OVC within the community, supported their registration process and followed up defaulters. Records profiling each child's attendance, development and health status (including illness episodes, vaccinations and HIV status were compiled at the playcentres and regularly reviewed, updated and acted upon by nurse supervisors. Through FSGs, community cadres and a range of officers from local services established linkages and built the capacity of parents/caregivers and communities to provide protection, aid psychosocial development and facilitate referral for treatment and support. Results: Available data as of September 2011 for 16 rural centres indicate that 58.8% (n=410 of the 697 children attending the centres were tested for HIV; 18% (n=74 tested positive and were initiated on antibiotic prophylaxis. All those deemed eligible for antiretroviral therapy were commenced on treatment and
Full Text Available Animal tungiasis is believed to increase the prevalence and parasite burden in humans. Animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans differ among endemic areas and their role in the epidemiology of tungiasis had never been investigated in Uganda.To identify the major animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans and their relative importance in the transmission of tungiasis in Uganda, a cross sectional study was conducted in animal rearing households in 10 endemic villages in Bugiri District. T. penetrans infections were detected in pigs, dogs, goats and a cat. The prevalences of households with tungiasis ranged from 0% to 71.4% (median 22.2 for animals and from 5 to 71.4% (median 27.8% for humans. The prevalence of human tungiasis also varied among the population of the villages (median 7%, range 1.3-37.3%. Pig infections had the widest distribution (nine out of 10 villages and highest prevalence (median 16.2%, range 0-64.1%. Pigs also had a higher number of embedded sand fleas than all other species combined (p < 0.0001. Dog tungiasis occurred in five out of 10 villages with low prevalences (median of 2%, range 0-26.9%. Only two goats and a single cat had tungiasis. Prevalences of animal and human tungiasis correlated at both village (rho = 0.89, p = 0.0005 and household (rho = 0.4, p < 0.0001 levels. The median number of lesions in household animals correlated with the median intensity of infection in children three to eight years of age (rho = 0.47, p < 0.0001. Animal tungiasis increased the odds of occurrence of human cases in households six fold (OR = 6.1, 95% CI 3.3-11.4, p < 0.0001.Animal and human tungiasis were closely associated and pigs were identified as the most important animal hosts of T. penetrans. Effective tungiasis control should follow One Health principles and integrate ectoparasites control in animals.
Vladimir Luna Tedesqui
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL, including mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL and localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL, is endemic in Bolivia. We describe the results of active surveillance of ATL from 2001 to 2006 and assess demographic data related to ATL epidemiology in the Yungas valleys. METHODS: Community-based active ATL surveillance was performed by the institutions SERVIR, CÁRITAS, and the Health Services Department of La Paz, whose files were reviewed retrospectively. A cross-sectional survey was carried out to assess demographic data in two communities. RESULTS: Two thousand nine hundred nine cases of ATL were detected from 2001 to 2006: 2,488 (85.5% corresponded to LCL and 421 (14.5% to MCL. A reduction in the proportion of mucosal cases was observed between 2001 and 2006. The proportion of MCL cases increased with age and was higher among males (15.5% versus 12.1%, p=0.018. The rate of positivity via direct observation of the parasite in dermal scrapings and in parasite cultivation was significantly higher for LCL than for MCL (p<0.001 and p=0.009, respectively. The rate of reactivity in the leishmanin skin test was higher in the group with mucosal lesions (p=0.012. The cross-sectional survey showed that 40% of the families had emigrated from the Altiplano. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to undertake continuous case detection of ATL in the area, where the disease presents a high rate of mucosal cases. Increasing incidence seems to be associated with immigration and continuous deforestation to expand the crop-growing areas.
Objective. To evaluate the level of awareness of hypertension, treatment and blood pressure control in rural and urban communities in Zimbabwe. Design. Community-based cross-sectional survey. Subjects and setting. 749 male and female heads of households aged> 34 years recruited from alternate households of ...
Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefevre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M; Phiri, Isaak K; Gabriël, Sarah
Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Z...
Huerta, M; Avila, R; Jiménez, H I; Díaz, R; Díaz, J; Díaz Huerta, M E; Hernández, M; Martinez, J J; Garate, T; Gómez, E; Abad, T; Fragoso, G; Fleury, A; Sciutto, E
High neurocysticercosis (NC) prevalence was recently determined by a computed tomography (CT) scan study in the community of Tepetzitzintla, State of Puebla, Mexico. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the magnitude of fecal and parasite contamination by Taenia spp. in the soil of households of this community during the four seasons of the year. The toilet, backyard, kitchen, washboard, water containers and corrals of 14 to 26 households were sampled during each season. High Taenia spp. egg intensity was found in 24.2% of the sampled areas. The highest percentage was detected in Spring and the lowest in Summer. Significantly higher levels of Taenia spp. eggs were present in kitchen soil samples. A significant correlation was found between the presence of Taenia spp. eggs in household soil during the Summer, and NC diagnoses of the inhabitants by CT scan. Coproparasitological examinations and anti-cysticercal antibodies were determined in a cohort of inhabitants of the sampled households. Antibody levels and coproparasitological results were not associated with NC. Overall, these results illustrate the high degree of fecal contamination of potential risk to human health in rural communities and could be of use for control programmes.
Langhaug, Lisa F; Cheung, Yin Bun; Pascoe, Sophie; Hayes, Richard; Cowan, Frances M
Previous studies have suggested that interviewer-administered questionnaires can under-estimate the prevalence of depression and suicidal ideation when compared with self-administered ones. We report here on differences in prevalence of reporting mental health between four questionnaire delivery modes (QDM). Mental health was assessed using the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ), a locally validated 14-item indigenous measure for common mental affective disorders. A representative sample of 1495 rural Zimbabwean adolescents (median age 18) was randomly allocated to one of four questionnaire delivery modes: self-administered questionnaire (SAQ), SAQ with audio (AASI), interviewer-administered questionnaire (IAQ), and audio computer-assisted survey instrument (ACASI). Prevalence of common affective disorders varied between QDM (52.3%, 48.6%, 41.5%, and 63.6% for SAQ, AASI, IAQ, and ACASI respectively (P<0.001)). Fewer participants failed to complete SSQ using IAQ and ACASI than other methods (1.6% vs. 12.3%; P<0.001). Qualitative data suggested that respondents found it difficult answering questions honestly in front of an interviewer. Direction of accuracy cannot be ascertained due to lack of objective or clinical assessments of affective disorders. Estimates of prevalence of psychosomatic symptoms and suicidal ideation varied according to mode of interview. As each mode's direction of accuracy remains unresolved evaluations of interventions continue to be hampered.
Howard, Brian H.; Phillips, Carl V.; Matinhure, Nelia; Goodman, Karen J.; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Johnson, Cary A.
Background: Africa is in an orphan-care crisis. In Zimbabwe, where one-fourth of adults are HIV-positive and one-fifth of children are orphans, AIDS and economic decline are straining society's ability to care for orphans within their extended families. Lack of stable care is putting thousands of children at heightened risk of malnourishment,…
Okello, Walter O; Muhanguzi, Dennis; MacLeod, Ewan T; Welburn, Susan C; Waiswa, Charles; Shaw, Alexandra P
A study was conducted in Tororo District in eastern Uganda to assess the socio-economic contribution of draft cattle to rural livelihoods. The aim of the study was to empirically quantify the economic value of draft cattle thus contributing to understanding the impact of endemic parasitic diseases of cattle on livestock productivity and subsequently household income, labor and food security. A total of 205 draft cattle keeping households (n = 205) were randomly selected and structured household questionnaires were administered, focusing on work oxen use, productivity, inputs and outputs. The data obtained was analyzed using standard statistical methods and used to calculate the gross margin from the draft cattle enterprise. Secondary data were obtained from focus group discussions and key informant interviews and these were analyzed using Bayesian methods. The study showed that, apart from being labor saving, the use of animal traction is highly profitable with the gross margin per year from the use of draft cattle amounting to 245 United States dollars per work oxen owning household. The cash obtained from hiring out draft animals was equivalent to nearly a quarter of the average local household's monetary receipts. It also revealed that endemic bovine parasitic diseases such as trypanosomiasis and tick-borne diseases reduced draft cattle output by 20.9 % and potential household income from the use of draft oxen by 32.2 %. The presence of endemic cattle diseases in rural Uganda is adversely affecting the productivity of draft cattle, which in turn affects household income, labor and ultimately food security. This study highlights the contribution of draft cattle to rural livelihoods, thus increasing the expected impact of cost-effective control strategies of endemic production limiting livestock diseases in Uganda.
Carla van Tienen
Full Text Available Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1 infection causes lethal adult T-cell leukemia (ATL and severely debilitating HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP in up to 5% of infected adults. HTLV-1 is endemic in parts of Africa and the highest prevalence in West Africa (5% has been reported in Caio, a rural area in the North-West of Guinea-Bissau. It is not known which HTLV-1 variants are present in this community. Sequence data can provide insights in the molecular epidemiology and help to understand the origin and spread of HTLV-1.To gain insight into the molecular diversity of HTLV-1 in West Africa.HTLV-1 infected individuals were identified in community surveys between 1990-2007. The complete Long Terminal Repeat (LTR and p24 coding region of HTLV-1 was sequenced from infected subjects. Socio-demographic data were obtained from community census and from interviews performed by fieldworkers. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to characterize the relationship between the Caio HTLV-1 and HTLV-1 from other parts of the world.LTR and p24 sequences were obtained from 72 individuals (36 LTR, 24 p24 only and 12 both. Consistent with the low evolutionary change of HTLV-1, many of the sequences from unrelated individuals showed 100% nucleotide identity. Most (45 of 46 of the LTR sequences clustered with the Cosmopolitan HTLV-1 subtype 1a, subgroup D (1aD. LTR and p24 sequences from two subjects were divergent and formed a significant cluster with HTLV-1 subtype 1g, and with the most divergent African Simian T-cell Lymphotropic Virus, Tan90.The Cosmopolitan HTLV-1 1aD predominates in this rural West African community. However, HTLV-1 subtype 1g is also present. This subtype has not been described before in West Africa and may be more widespread than previously thought. These data are in line with the hypothesis that multiple monkey-to-man zoonotic events are contributing to HTLV-1 diversity.
All this against the backdrop of a population that is only a tenth of the world's population. Southern African countries are the hardest hit in the world with respect to HIV/AIDS. In Zimbabwe, in particular, HIV sentinel surveillance through antenatal screening shows an increasing prevalence in both urban and rural areas.
Ari W Satyagraha
Full Text Available Patients infected by Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium ovale suffer repeated clinical attacks without primaquine therapy against latent stages in liver. Primaquine causes seriously threatening acute hemolytic anemia in patients having inherited glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency. Access to safe primaquine therapy hinges upon the ability to confirm G6PD normal status. CareStart G6PD, a qualitative G6PD rapid diagnostic test (G6PD RDT intended for use at point-of-care in impoverished rural settings where most malaria patients live, was evaluated.This device and the standard qualitative fluorescent spot test (FST were each compared against the quantitative spectrophotometric assay for G6PD activity as the diagnostic gold standard. The assessment occurred at meso-endemic Panenggo Ede in western Sumba Island in eastern Indonesia, where 610 residents provided venous blood. The G6PD RDT and FST qualitative assessments were performed in the field, whereas the quantitative assay was performed in a research laboratory at Jakarta. The median G6PD activity ≥ 5 U/gHb was 9.7 U/gHb and was considered 100% of normal activity. The prevalence of G6PD deficiency by quantitative assessment (<5 U/gHb was 7.2%. Applying 30% of normal G6PD activity as the cut-off for qualitative testing, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for G6PD RDT versus FST among males were as follows: 100%, 98.7%, 89%, and 100% versus 91.7%, 92%, 55%, and 99%; P = 0.49, 0.001, 0.004, and 0.24, respectively. These values among females were: 83%, 92.7%, 17%, and 99.7% versus 100%, 92%, 18%, and 100%; P = 1.0, 0.89, 1.0 and 1.0, respectively.The overall performance of G6PD RDT, especially 100% negative predictive value, demonstrates suitable safety for G6PD screening prior to administering hemolytic drugs like primaquine and many others. Relatively poor diagnostic performance among females due to mosaic G6PD phenotype is an
Satyagraha, Ari W; Sadhewa, Arkasha; Elvira, Rosalie; Elyazar, Iqbal; Feriandika, Denny; Antonjaya, Ungke; Oyong, Damian; Subekti, Decy; Rozi, Ismail E; Domingo, Gonzalo J; Harahap, Alida R; Baird, J Kevin
Patients infected by Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium ovale suffer repeated clinical attacks without primaquine therapy against latent stages in liver. Primaquine causes seriously threatening acute hemolytic anemia in patients having inherited glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Access to safe primaquine therapy hinges upon the ability to confirm G6PD normal status. CareStart G6PD, a qualitative G6PD rapid diagnostic test (G6PD RDT) intended for use at point-of-care in impoverished rural settings where most malaria patients live, was evaluated. This device and the standard qualitative fluorescent spot test (FST) were each compared against the quantitative spectrophotometric assay for G6PD activity as the diagnostic gold standard. The assessment occurred at meso-endemic Panenggo Ede in western Sumba Island in eastern Indonesia, where 610 residents provided venous blood. The G6PD RDT and FST qualitative assessments were performed in the field, whereas the quantitative assay was performed in a research laboratory at Jakarta. The median G6PD activity ≥ 5 U/gHb was 9.7 U/gHb and was considered 100% of normal activity. The prevalence of G6PD deficiency by quantitative assessment (G6PD activity as the cut-off for qualitative testing, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for G6PD RDT versus FST among males were as follows: 100%, 98.7%, 89%, and 100% versus 91.7%, 92%, 55%, and 99%; P = 0.49, 0.001, 0.004, and 0.24, respectively. These values among females were: 83%, 92.7%, 17%, and 99.7% versus 100%, 92%, 18%, and 100%; P = 1.0, 0.89, 1.0 and 1.0, respectively. The overall performance of G6PD RDT, especially 100% negative predictive value, demonstrates suitable safety for G6PD screening prior to administering hemolytic drugs like primaquine and many others. Relatively poor diagnostic performance among females due to mosaic G6PD phenotype is an inherent limitation of any current practical screening
This essay focuses mostly on the Zimbabwean experience. Poverty reached endemic levels in Zimbabwe during the first decade of the twenty first century partly due to economic mismanagement and the devastating effects of western backed economic sanctions. Education is touted as one of the key factors that can ...
Journal Homepage Image. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal contains original and review papers on all aspects of animal health in Zimbabwe and SADC countries, including articles by non-veterinarians. This journal did not publish any issues between 2002 and 2015 but has been revived and and it actively accepting papers ...
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Taylor, Tonya N
Zimbabwe is experiencing one of the most severe AIDS epidemics in the world, with an estimated one out of seven people infected with HIV. For both palliative care and pragmatic treatment of HIV-related opportunistic infections, people turn to Un'anga (the traditional system of health and healing), not as a substitute for Western therapeutics but as an alternative explanatory model for the diagnosis and management of illness. Through the use of highly charged symbols and ritualized communication, n'angas (traditional healers) seek to transform patients' understandings and experiences of HIV-related illness. Using performance theory and discourse analysis, this article seeks to expand our understanding of how competing therapeutic goals in the performance of healing affect the structure and content of performance, its subsequent meaning, and the therapeutic effect on those afflicted with HIV.
Carolina Fordellone Rosa Cruz
Full Text Available The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7% and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3% were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2% and rural (42.8% areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5% and Ny. whitmani (31.4% were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.
Focus and Scope. The Zimbabwe Scientific Association was founded in Bulawayo in 1899 to promote the study and advancement of science in Zimbabwe and to facilitate the acquisition and dissemination of scientific knowledge. The Zimbabwe Science News was first published in 1967 and is now in its thirty-third volume.
Chikara, F; Manley, M R
Like many developing countries, Zimbabwe has a shortage of trained mental health professionals. The country is coping by developing an expanded role for nurses and other nonphysician mental health workers and by emphasizing use of medication in treating mental illnesses. The authors review traditional Zimbabwean beliefs about mental illness and healing and describe culturally specific patterns of illness presentation. To reverse the historic pattern in which psychiatric care was centralized in cities, Zimbabwe is establishing a countrywide system of primary health clinics, part of whose role is to screen and treat common mental disorders, educate communities about mental illness, and promote prevention of illness.
Ahmed, Syed Masud; Hossain, Mohammad Shamim; Kabir, Moktadir
Since 2007, BRAC has been implementing malaria prevention and control programme in 13 endemic districts of Bangladesh under the National Malaria Control Programme. This study was done to examine the role of different communication media in bringing about changes in knowledge and awareness which facilitate informed decision-making for managing malaria-like illnesses. A baseline survey in 2007 before inception of the programme, and a follow-up survey in 2012 were done to study changes in different aspects of programme interventions including the communication component. Both the surveys used the same sampling technique to select 25 households at random from each of the 30 mauza/villages in a district. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information from respondents in face-to-face interview. Analysis was done comparing the study areas at two different times. Statistical tests were done as necessary to examine the differences. The intervention succeeded in improving knowledge in some trivial areas (e.g., most frequent symptom suggestive of malaria, importance of using insecticidal bed nets) but not in critical domains necessary for taking informed action (e.g., mode of malaria transmission, awareness about facilities providing free malaria treatment). Inequity in knowledge and practice was quite common depending upon household affluence, location of households in high or low endemic districts, and sex. Of the different media used in Information, Education and communication (IEC) campaigns during the study period, interpersonal communication with community health workers/relatives/neighbours/friends was found to be more effective in improving knowledge and practice than conventional print and audio-visual media. This study reiterates the fact that conventional media may not be user-friendly or culture-sensitive for this semi-literate/illiterate community where dissemination through 'words of mouth' is more common, and as such
benefits of recent economic growth to. Zimbabwe's poorest populations. Food security, nutrition, and health. Research carried out in the early 2000s strengthened access to quality, nutritious food by developing ways to produce and process indigenous vegetables and by raising awareness of their nutritional value. Working ...
Lester, David; Wilson, C.
The teenage suicide rate in Zimbabwe did not change much during the 1970s, though the rate rose for female teenagers. Female teenagers used poison as a method of suicide more often than did adults, and self-immolation had increased in frequency among young women by the mid-1980s. (Author)
Principal Contact. Prof. S Feresu Editor P.O. Box CY 124 Causeway, Harare, Zimbabwe Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Support Contact. Prof. S Feresu Email: email@example.com. ISSN: 1016-1503. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...
K. R. IDRC support for research strengthened food security in Zimbabwe. IDRC support is helping: I Policymakers address reconstruction and development. I Farmers experiment with different crops. I Vulnerable communities adapt to climate change. I Communities live sustainably in a conservation area. I Women become ...
By the end of December 2008, alarming reports and articles concerning the cholera outbreak in Zimbabwe received plenty of international media coverage. By that time nearly 30000 cases of cholera infections and 1600 cholera deaths had been reported. In the first week of January 2009, a System
Earthquake magnitudes are unified to surface-wave magnitude (Ms), facilitating easy evaluation of seismicity of the region. Seismicity is confined ... magnitude representing the seismic wave energy. Fault plane solutions and energy .... a network of six stations that became fully operational by. 1985. Zimbabwe seismographs ...
Despite making tremendous progress in education since independence to become a leader in literacy in Africa, Zimbabwe lags behind other nations in providing special programming for its gifted children and youths. Not only do gifted and talented students exist in Zimbabwean schools and colleges, giftedness has also been confirmed in research on…
Pig Industry Board, PO. Box H6297, Highlands, Harare, Zimbabwe. Received April I 998; accepted August 1999. The effect of environmental factors on preweaning performance traits was studied using 3556 records collected between 1980 and 1995. Sow performance in terms of number born alive was higher if sows ...
The Zimbabwe Science News has ceased publication. Vol 33, No 1 (1999). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of Contents. Articles. Science-based economic development: The Eureka Factor · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...
Lybbert, Travis J.; Aboudrare, Abdellah; Chaloud, Deborah; Magnan, Nicholas; Nash, Maliha
Morocco's argan oil is now the most expensive edible oil in the world. High-value argan markets have sparked a bonanza of argan activity. Nongovernmental organizations, international and domestic development agencies, and argan oil cooperatives aggressively promote the win–win aim of simultaneously benefiting local people and the health of the argan forest. This paper tests some of these win–win claims. Analysis of a panel of detailed household data suggests that the boom has enabled some rural households to increase consumption, increase their goat herds (which bodes poorly for the argan forest), and send their girls to secondary school. The boom has predictably made households vigilant guardians of fruit on the tree, but it has not incited investments in longer term tree and forest health. We evaluate landscape-level impacts of these changes using commune-level data on educational enrollment and normalized difference vegetation index data over the period from 1981 to 2009. The results of the mesoanalysis of enrollment are consistent with the microanalysis: the argan boom seems to have improved educational outcomes, especially for girls. Our normalized difference vegetation index analysis, however, suggests that booming argan prices have not improved the forest and may have even induced degradation. We conclude by exploring the dynamic interactions between argan markets, local institutions, rural household welfare, and forest conservation and sustainability. PMID:21873185
Lybbert, Travis J; Aboudrare, Abdellah; Chaloud, Deborah; Magnan, Nicholas; Nash, Maliha
Morocco's argan oil is now the most expensive edible oil in the world. High-value argan markets have sparked a bonanza of argan activity. Nongovernmental organizations, international and domestic development agencies, and argan oil cooperatives aggressively promote the win-win aim of simultaneously benefiting local people and the health of the argan forest. This paper tests some of these win-win claims. Analysis of a panel of detailed household data suggests that the boom has enabled some rural households to increase consumption, increase their goat herds (which bodes poorly for the argan forest), and send their girls to secondary school. The boom has predictably made households vigilant guardians of fruit on the tree, but it has not incited investments in longer term tree and forest health. We evaluate landscape-level impacts of these changes using commune-level data on educational enrollment and normalized difference vegetation index data over the period from 1981 to 2009. The results of the mesoanalysis of enrollment are consistent with the microanalysis: the argan boom seems to have improved educational outcomes, especially for girls. Our normalized difference vegetation index analysis, however, suggests that booming argan prices have not improved the forest and may have even induced degradation. We conclude by exploring the dynamic interactions between argan markets, local institutions, rural household welfare, and forest conservation and sustainability.
Poshiwa, X.; Groeneveld, R.A.; Heitkonig, I.M.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Ierland, van E.C.
Annual rural incomes in Southern Africa show large rainfall-induced fluctuations. Variable rainfall has serious implications for agro-pastoral activities (crop cultivation and livestock keeping), whereas wildlife and tourism are less affected. The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of
Campbell, Catherine; Scott, Kerry; Madanhire, Claudius; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon
Antiretroviral treatment for HIV is gradually being made available across sub-Saharan Africa. With antiretroviral treatment, HIV can be approached as a chronic, manageable condition rather than a shorter-term issue of palliative care. This treatment involves repeated interaction between health staff and patients for ongoing check-ups and prescription refills. This study aimed to understand patient and healthcare staff perceptions of good clinical antiretroviral treatment care. Over 100 h of ethnographic observation at healthcare sites; interviews and focus groups with 25 healthcentre workers (mostly nurses), 53 HIV-positive adults taking ARVs and 40 carers of children on ART. The data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Three healthcare sites providing free antiretroviral drugs in rural Zimbabwe, where the adult HIV infection rate is approximately 20%. Contrary to reports of poor antiretroviral treatment adherence and task-oriented rather than patient-oriented nursing, our study found great patient commitment to adherence, outstanding nurse dedication and a pervasive sense of hope about coping with HIV. Within this context however there were some situations where patients and nurses had different expectations of the medical encounter, leading to stress and dissatisfaction. Patients and staff both emphasized the importance of nurse kindness, understanding, confidentiality and acceptance (i.e. treating HIV patients 'like normal') and patient adherence to medical directions. However, nurses at times overlooked the negative effects of long wait times and frequent hospital visits. Further, nurses sometimes conflated medical adherence with general patient obedience in all aspects of the nurse-patient relationships. Patients and staff were frustrated by the ambiguity and unpredictability surrounding key elements of hospital visits such as how much patients had to pay for service, how long it would take to be served, and whether drugs or the doctor's services
Dhliwayo, Solomon; Makonese, Tariro A; Whittall, Belinda; Chikerema, Silvester M; Pfukenyi, Davies M; Tivapasi, Musavenga T
A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of blood group antigen dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1.1 in mixed breed dogs in rural Chinamhora, Zimbabwe. DEA 1.1 is clinically the most important canine blood group as it is the most antigenic blood type; hence, DEA 1.1 antibodies are capable of causing acute haemolytic, potentially life-threatening transfusion reactions. In this study, blood samples were collected from 100 dogs in Chinamhora, and blood typing was carried out using standardised DEA 1.1 typing strips with monoclonal anti-DEA 1.1 antibodies (Alvedia® LAB DEA 1.1 test kits). Polymerase chain reaction for detecting Babesia spp. antigen was carried out on 58 of the samples. Of the 100 dogs, 78% were DEA 1.1 positive and 22% were DEA 1.1 negative. A significantly (p = 0.02) higher proportion of females (90.5%) were DEA 1.1 positive than males (69.0%). The probability of sensitisation of recipient dogs following first-time transfusion of untyped or unmatched blood was 17.2%, and an approximately 3% (2.95%) probability of an acute haemolytic reaction following a second incompatible transfusion was found. Babesia spp. antigen was found in 6.9% of the samples. No significant relationship (χ2 = 0.56, p = 0.45) was found between DEA 1.1 positivity and Babesia spp. antigen presence. Despite a low probability of haemolysis after a second incompatibility transfusion, the risk remains present and should not be ignored. Hence, where possible, blood typing for DEA 1.1 is recommended. A survey of DEA 3, 4, 5 and 7 in various breeds is also recommended.
Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of blood group antigen dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA 1.1 in mixed breed dogs in rural Chinamhora, Zimbabwe. DEA 1.1 is clinically the most important canine blood group as it is the most antigenic blood type; hence, DEA 1.1 antibodies are capable of causing acute haemolytic, potentially life-threatening transfusion reactions. In this study, blood samples were collected from 100 dogs in Chinamhora, and blood typing was carried out using standardised DEA 1.1 typing strips with monoclonal anti–DEA 1.1 antibodies (Alvedia® LAB DEA 1.1 test kits. Polymerase chain reaction for detecting Babesia spp. antigen was carried out on 58 of the samples. Of the 100 dogs, 78% were DEA 1.1 positive and 22% were DEA 1.1 negative. A significantly (p = 0.02 higher proportion of females (90.5% were DEA 1.1 positive than males (69.0%. The probability of sensitisation of recipient dogs following first-time transfusion of untyped or unmatched blood was 17.2%, and an approximately 3% (2.95% probability of an acute haemolytic reaction following a second incompatible transfusion was found. Babesia spp. antigen was found in 6.9% of the samples. No significant relationship (χ2 = 0.56, p = 0.45 was found between DEA 1.1 positivity and Babesia spp. antigen presence. Despite a low probability of haemolysis after a second incompatibility transfusion, the risk remains present and should not be ignored. Hence, where possible, blood typing for DEA 1.1 is recommended. A survey of DEA 3, 4, 5 and 7 in various breeds is also recommended.
Simon Chiutsi; Boycen Kumira Mudzengi
Zimbabwe tourism development has suffered the pitfalls of uneven development often producing disproportionate distribution of returns. While tourism has been promulgated as a panacea to the socio-economic development challenges Zimbabwe is facing, local and often marginalized rural communities have not meaningfully reaped the benefits through tourism income. In this paper community tourism entrepreneurship is suggested as a viable option to promote sustainable tourism as it places the local c...
Report of the Subcommittee for the Study 01 EndemiC Goitre and Iodine. DefiCiency of the European Thyroid Association. Goitre and iodine deficiency in. Europe. Lancet 1985; 1: 1289-1293. 22. Todd CH, Bourdoux PP. Severe iodine detioeney 10 two endemic goitre areas CIf. Zimbabwe. Cent AIr.J Med 1991; 37: 237-241.
Zinyama-Gutsire, Rbl; Gomo, E.; Kallestrup, P
influence. METHODS: To determine levels of MIP-1alpha/CCL3 chemokine in plasma of S. haematobium and HIV-1 co-infected and uninfected individuals in a rural black Zimbabwean community.A cohort was established of HIV-1 and schistosomiasis infection and co-infection comprising 379 participants. Outcome....../CCL3 levels between HIV-1 positive and negative individuals (p = 0.631). MIP-1alpha/CCL3 concentration in plasma was significantly reduced at three months after treatment with praziquantel (p = 000). CONCLUSION: The results of our study show that the MIP-1alpha/CCL3 levels were positively associated...
Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M; Phiri, Isaak K; Gabriël, Sarah
Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be
Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints.The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in
Part of the series "Early Childhood Development: Practice and Reflections," this report details the Kushanda Project, an early childhood education program in Zimbabwe. The Kushanda Project is a 16-person organization that has helped parents in rural Zimbabwe communities to understand the value of early childhood education and…
Zimbabwe Journal of Educational Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 1 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Urban-Rural Disparity in Helicobacter Pylori Infection-Related Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer in China and the Decreasing Trend in Parallel with Socioeconomic Development and Urbanization in an Endemic Area.
Wen, Xiaoduo; Wen, Denggui; Yang, Yi; Chen, Yuetong; Wang, Guiying; Shan, Baoen
Globally China has the largest urban-rural disparity in socioeconomic development, and the urban-rural difference in upper gastrointestinal cancer (UGIC) is similar to the difference between developed and developing countries. To describe urban-rural disparity in UGIC and to emphasize prevention by socioeconomic development and urbanization in China. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) of cancers in 2012 were compared between urban Shijiazhuang city and rural Shexian County, and trends from 2000-2015 in Shexian County were analyzed. Compared with urban Shijiazhuang city, the ASR of gastroesophageal cancers in rural Shexian County was 5.3 times higher in men (234.1 vs 44.2/100,000, P rural-urban disparity in UGIC is associated with differences in socioeconomic development in annual gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of US$2700 vs US$6965, in urbanization rate of 48% vs 100%, and in adult Helicobacter pylori infection prevalence of 75% vs 50%. From 2000-2015, the GDP per capita in Shexian County increased from US$860 to US$3000, urbanization rate increased from 22.4% to 54.8%, and prevalence of H pylori infection among 3- to 10-year-old children decreased from 60% to 46.1% (P rural disparity in UGIC is related to inequity in socioeconomic development. Economic growth and urbanization is effective for prevention in endemic regions in China and should be a policy priority. Copyright © 2017 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The difficulties of health education concerning AIDs prevention in Zimbabwe include communicating simple information about complicated processes, resistance to the information because of status or tradition, and lack of experience with translating material that was produced in the West. The beliefs in ghosts and witch doctors are still part of the tradition in Zimbabwe, providing cultural diversity and a sense of identification. Traditional medicine is characterized by Westerners as often irrational behavior that is deleterious to one's health. However, even in the allegedly educated part of the world compliance is often lacking and alternative treatment forms are actively pursued in tandem with formal medicine. When there is a short time period between harmful behavior and infection, most people realize that there is a causative connection. On the other hand, it is a more complicated mental exercise to fathom that intercourse can result in HIV infection that 5 years later may lead to death from tuberculosis. No other disease is known by these people that has a corresponding delay from the time of infection to disease or death. It is also confusing that a sexually transmitted disease does not produce symptoms such as discharge or genital sores. It is difficult to comprehend that a sole causative agent, HIV, can lead to so many different diseases and symptoms. When a young man died after having been hospitalized with protracted cough and TB as a result of HIV infection that he had contracted from a girlfriend, the father told the folks at home that his son had died of TB. These conflicting pieces of information make AIDS prevention education wrought with difficulties, which adds to the rapid spread of the disease, although the authorities and international organizations have responded with strategies, informational materials, and educational courses.
The Zimbabwe Scientific Association was founded in Bulawayo in 1899 (called the Rhodesia Scientific Assocation at the time) to promote the study and advancement of science in Zimbabwe and to facilitate the acquisition and dissemination of scientific knowledge. Its journal, Transactions of the Zimbabwe Scientific ...
The main purpose of this paper is to highlight some issues and concerns in the Zimbabwean educational system in general, and in particular, issues and concerns within the purview for technical and vocational education. The paper will further provoke debate within the context of technical and vocational education as a ...
Q.J.Med. 44,325—47. Keeley DJ, Neill P, Gallivan S. Comparison of the prevalence of reversible airway airway obstruction in rural and urban Zimbabwe children. Thorax 1991; 46: 549-53. Clark T] H and Godfrey S in 'Asthma' 2"d. Ed. Chapman & Hall. Lee DA, et al. prevalence and spectrum of asthma in childhood. Br. Med.
Ethnomedicine has gained a lot of recognition in post-independence Zimbabwe and yet little research on anti-fertility medicines has been done. Information on plants used as anti-fertility medicines was obtained by interviewing women, men, traditional healers and traditional midwives in urban Harare and surrounding rural ...
Gandiwa, E.; Gandiwa, P.
Artisanal gold mining plays an important role in sustainable development of rural communities. The objectives of this study were to: i) assess the environmental impacts of recent artisanal gold mining activities in Chimanimani National Park (CNP), eastern Zimbabwe, and ii) discuss the associated
Conflicts over land, a major theme in Zimbabwe's rural history, are widely recognized as 'most serious' in the densely populated Communal Areas. Pressure on land in these areas is considerable because of population growth and the segregationist policies of the colonial government that concentrated
The Female Condom: Acceptability and Perception among Rural Women in Zimbabwe. Monica Francis-Chizororo, Neddy Rita Natshalaga. Abstract. This study was conducted to generate data for developing an action plan for accessing the female condom through primary health care centres in Zimbabwe. It used both ...
Implementation of Antiretroviral Therapy for Life in Pregnant/Breastfeeding HIV+ Women (Option B+) Alongside Rollout and Changing Guidelines for ART Initiation in Rural Zimbabwe: The Lablite Project Experience.
Ford, Deborah; Muzambi, Margaret; Nkhata, Misheck J; Abongomera, George; Joseph, Sarah; Ndlovu, Makosonke; Mabugu, Travor; Grundy, Caroline; Chan, Adrienne K; Cataldo, Fabian; Kityo, Cissy; Seeley, Janet; Katabira, Elly; Gilks, Charles F; Reid, Andrew; Hakim, James; Gibb, Diana M
Lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for pregnant and breastfeeding women (Option B+) was rolled out in Zimbabwe from 2014, with simultaneous raising of the CD4 treatment threshold to 500 cells per cubic millimeter in nonpregnant/breastfeeding adults and children 5 years and over. Lablite is an implementation project in Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Uganda evaluating ART rollout. Routine patient-level data were collected for 6 months before and 12 months after Option B+ rollout at a district hospital and 3 primary care facilities in Zimbabwe (2 with outreach ART and 1 with no ART provision before Option B+). Between September 2013 and February 2015, there were 1686 ART initiations in the 4 facilities: 91% adults and 9% children younger than 15 years. In the 3 facilities with established ART, initiations rose from 300 during 6 months before Option B+ to 869 (2.9-fold) and 463 (1.5-fold), respectively, 0-6 months and 6-12 months after Option B+. Post-Option B+, an estimated 43% of pregnant/breastfeeding women needed ART for their own health, based on World Health Organization stage 3/4 or CD4 ≤350 per cubic millimeter (64% for CD4 ≤500). Seventy-four men (22%) and 123 nonpregnant/breastfeeding women (34%) initiated ART with CD4 >350 after the CD4 threshold increase. Estimated 12-month retention on ART was 79% (69%-87%) in Option B+ women (significantly lower in younger women, P = 0.01) versus 93% (91%-95%) in other adults (difference P ART initiations in all patient groups after implementation of World Health Organization 2013 guidelines. Retention of Option B+ women was poorer than retention of other adults; younger women require attention because they are more likely to disengage from care.
In 1991, the Matabeleland AIDS Council (MAC) in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, established a peer education program for industry workers. To date, workers from 45 companies, particularly manufacturing companies, have participated in the program. Program goals include prevention of the spread of HIV and promotion of a supportive response to co-workers known or suspected to have HIV infection or AIDS. MAC first contacts senior management to get company support. It then helps personnel and training management staff develop each company's program. MAC negotiates free time for the 5-day initial training course of peer educators and for the quarterly follow-up meetings. Workers complete questionnaires so MAC can determine training content and materials required. Management and workers choose workers to be trained as informal resource persons. The criteria for the non-paid peer educators are that they be permanent employees, good communicators, literate in English, highly motivated, and persons trusted and respected by their co-workers. The peer educator/worker ratio is 1-2/100. The task of peer educators is dispelling misconceptions and myths and creating on-going discussions about HIV/AIDS both in and outside the workplace. MAC also trains nurses in 16 companies in AIDS counseling and methods of training peer educators. MAC conducted an evaluation of the peer educator program in 1994 in 15 companies. 13 companies either did not have an AIDS policy or did not address AIDS in its general health policy. 91% of workers had received written materials. 74% attended drama or video sessions, 66% received condoms. 30% asked a peer educator personal questions. Between 1992 and 1993, distribution of condoms increased from 25,776 to 49,392. Workers have adopted a positive attitude towards persons with AIDS. Many peer educators have taken up AIDS related-community work. Business leaders acknowledge the benefits of the peer educator program.
became a favourite nation within the donor community and international organisations. As the country scored ... Zimbabweans to pull together, in the 19905 protest music became more nuanced. Artists challenged the ..... Sociological studies of gospel music in Zimbabwe demonstrate a preoccupa- tion with death (Chitando ...
The Zimbabwe Journal of Educational Research comprised of four sections: Scholarly articles - reporting on research findings and policy issues relating to education and human resources issues in sub-Saharan Africa; Research in progress - reporting on major research projects and new human resource initiatives in the ...
The Zimbabwe Journal of Technological Sciences receives and publishes articles that address issues in Technology as a developmental field in Africa. The aim is to develop new technological knowledge that is geared to enhance the lives of the African people through solving pertinent problems that affect them.
They evoke emotions, create a common sense of belonging and communicate dogmas effectively. Alongside slogans, political parties in Zimbabwe used songs to appeal to voters. During the liberation struggle, nationalists had used music to instil a sense of pride and interest in indigenous arts and culture (Turino 2000:.
1965 the Rhodesia Family Planning Association (FPA) was formed and 1966 contraceptives were distributed ... function is to educate, motivate and screen clients for oral contraceptives. The distributors role is to ... The Zimbabwe Reproductive Health Survey in 1984 showed that 2 out of 3 ever-in-union women had ever ...
Rural communities of Zimbabwe have long been marginalised as evidenced by a large development gap between them and urban communities. The idea of linking lack of development in rural areas with participation in policy making process is vital for many policy makers. This research focused on assessing the roles ...
Nyambuya, M N
Since the International Monetary Fund/World Bank Economic Structural Adjustment Program (ESAP) in Zimbabwe was adopted in 1990, health care and education costs have escalated, and many people fail to get these services owing to poverty. The post-independence era in Zimbabwe witnessed a tremendous growth in education and health with many schools, colleges, hospitals and clinics built, professional staff employed, and a general expansion in demand. Nevertheless, the question of drug shortages and ever-increasing health care costs were not addressed. A deficient transport network, the increases in drug prices, the exodus of professional staff, the devaluation of the Zimbabwe dollar, and the cost recovery measures endangered the right to acceptable health care. The social service cutbacks adopted by the government in education will deepen poverty. After independence, the Zimbabwean education system had a free tuition policy at primary school levels. Now that the government reintroduced school fees, a generation of illiterate and semi-illiterate school dropouts will grow up. The social implications of this include increases in crime, prostitution, the number of street kids, the spread of diseases, and social discontent, which are the symptoms of a shrinking economy. As a result of the cost recovery measures, school enrollment in rural areas has gone up. Some urban parents have been forced to transfer their children to rural schools. Higher education also suffers, as government subsidies to colleges and universities have been drastically curtailed. The budgetary cuts have grave repercussions for teaching and research, as poor working conditions and low morals of lecturers and students become prevalent. Most wage-earning Zimbabweans' living standards have deteriorated as the cost of living continues to escalate, coupled with the cost recovery measures in the name of ESAP.
Mantula, Fennie; Saloojee, Haroon
Although child sexual abuse is a significant public health problem globally, its incidence, prevention, and management is less well described in resource-poor settings. In poorer settings prevention initiatives assume even more importance since resources for managing abused children are severely limited. This article examines the current status of policy and practice related to the prevention of child sexual abuse in Zimbabwe. It identifies implementation challenges and highlights opportunities that could be embraced to reduce CSA in Zimbabwe, based on evidence synthesized from recent work. Although Zimbabwe has a well-established legal and regulatory framework to protect children from child sexual abuse, implementation of existing policies is weak. Financial, human, and material resource constraints are frequently cited to explain limited prevention activity. Effective strategies for the prevention of child sexual abuse should focus on implementing existing legislation, targeting schoolchildren, and getting community involvement. A dedicated budget would help entrench these strategies, but gains can be achieved even in the absence of this.
Mufuka, K; Iverson, S
The size of Zimbabwe's African population has grown dramatically over the past 50 years, with 5.7 children on average being born per woman. The following factors are responsible for the rapid population growth in Zimbabwe: the country's economic prosperity during the period of the Central African Federation from 1953 to 1963, and its successful food policy before and after independence; the success of the health system, also in both periods; and the fact that women have not been incorporated into the economy as wage-earners. A brief historical overview is presented, followed by sections on the food policy and health system, reasons for the persistence of large families, and the relationship between wage-earning by women and the birth rate. The author also describes some of the problems caused by overpopulation. Engaging more women in regular wage-earning employment is the key to controlling the birth rate in Zimbabwe. Current government policies encouraging female employment in government services and the economy in general, along with the expansion of contraceptive services, could influence female fertility over the long term.
Democratic discourse? Realising alternatives in Zimbabwe political discourse. A. Love. Abstract. (ZAMBEZIA: Journal of Humanities of the Univ of Zimbabwe, 2000 27(1): 27-46). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/zjh.v27i1.6742.
Zimbabwe's Exodus: Crisis, Migration, Survival. Book cover Zimbabwe's Exodus: Crisis, Migration, Survival. Editor(s):. Jonathan Crush and Daniel Tevera. Publisher(s):. Southern African Migration Programme, IDRC. July 1, 2010. ISBN: 9781920409227. 420 pages. e-ISBN: 9781552504994. Download PDF · Read the e- ...
Seismic hazard potential for Zimbabwe may be inferred from the total magnitude representing the seismic wave energy. Fault plane solutions and energy release during the period of study show that high seismic hazard potential lies along the Deka fault zone mid- Zambezi basin to the north and northwest of Zimbabwe, ...
MRSA) in Africa is sparsely documented. In Zimbabwe there is no routine patient or specimen screening for MRSA. The aim of this study was to document the presence and epidemiology of MRSA in Zimbabwe. Method: The study was done in one ...
This paper discusses the potential impacts of macroeconomic policies on forestry in Zimbabwe. Over the period 1980 – 2001, macroeconomic policies have swung from a centrally controlled economy to a liberalized economy and back to a centrally controlled economy. In general, Zimbabwe's experience suggests that ...
Schielke, Anika; Sachs, Katja; Lierz, Michael; Appel, Bernd; Jansen, Andreas; Johne, Reimar
Hepatitis E is an increasingly diagnosed human disease in Central Europe. Besides domestic pigs, in which hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is highly prevalent, wild boars have been identified as a possible source of human infection. In order to assess the distribution of HEV in the wild boar population of Germany, we tested liver samples originating from different geographical regions for the presence of the HEV genome and compared the detected sequences to animal and human HEV strains. A total of 148 wild boar liver samples were tested using real-time RT-PCR resulting in an average HEV detection rate of 14.9% (95% CI 9.6-21.6). HEV was detected in all age classes and all geographical regions. However, the prevalence of HEV infection was significantly higher in rural as compared to urban regions (p wild boars in the federal state of Brandenburg was determined. It belongs to genotype 3i and shows 97.9% nucleotide sequence identity to a partial sequence derived from a human hepatitis E patient from Germany. The results indicate that wild boars have to be considered as a reservoir for HEV in Germany and that a risk of HEV transmission to humans is present in rural as well as urban regions.
Zuwarimwe, J.; Kirsten, Johann F.
The past decade has witnessed an increased interest in the concept of social networks after the seminal theses of Coleman (1988) and Putnam (1993). An area that has attracted a great deal of interest is the value of social networks in small-scale enterprise development. This paper interrogates the role of social networks in the establishment and expansion of rural non-farm enterprises in the Chimanimani district of Zimbabwe and established that rural non-farm entrepreneurs resort to their soc...
Majumdar, Kunal Kanti
The problem of high fluoride concentration in groundwater resources has become one of the most important toxicological and geo-environmental issues in India. Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental and skeletal fluorosis, which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) is 1.5 mg/L. About 20 states of India, including 43 blocks of seven districts of West Bengal, were identified as endemic for fluorosis and about 66 million people in these regions are at risk of fluoride contamination. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride often leads reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or 10 days) and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above the permissible limit, and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water. A longitudinal intervention study was conducted in three villages in Rampurhat Block I of Birbhum district of West Bengal to assess the occurrence of various dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among the study population and the impact of taking safe water from the supplied domestic and community filters on these clinical manifestations. The impact was studied by follow-up examination of the participants for 5 months to determine the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water from supplied
Makate, Clifton; Wang, Rongchang; Makate, Marshall; Mango, Nelson
This paper demonstrates how crop diversification impacts on two outcomes of climate smart agriculture; increased productivity (legume and cereal crop productivity) and enhanced resilience (household income, food security, and nutrition) in rural Zimbabwe. Using data from over 500 smallholder farmers, we jointly estimate crop diversification and each of the outcome variables within a conditional (recursive) mixed process framework that corrects for selectivity bias arising due to the voluntary...
Gandiwa, E.; Gandiwa, P.
Artisanal gold mining plays an important role in sustainable development of rural communities. The objectives of this study were to: i) assess the environmental impacts of recent artisanal gold mining activities in Chimanimani National Park (CNP), eastern Zimbabwe, and ii) discuss the associated implications of artisanal gold mining to sustainable development in the Chimanimani area. Data were collected in January 2010 and law enforcement records kept at CNP were examined to gather trends in ...
Sharma, Sandeep; Kumari, Nitu
In this paper, a nonlinear deterministic model is proposed with a saturated treatment function. The expression of the basic reproduction number for the proposed model was obtained. The global dynamics of the proposed model was studied using the basic reproduction number and theory of dynamical systems. It is observed that proposed model exhibits backward bifurcation as multiple endemic equilibrium points exist when R0 cholera in the community. We also obtain a unique endemic equilibria when R0 > 1. The global stability of unique endemic equilibria is performed using the geometric approach. An extensive numerical study is performed to support our analytical results. Finally, we investigate two major cholera outbreaks, Zimbabwe (2008-09) and Haiti (2010), with the help of the present study.
Full Text Available Malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection are major public health problems particularly among school age children in Nigeria. However the magnitude and possible interactions of these infections remain poorly understood. This study determined the prevalence, impact and possible interaction of Plasmodium falciparum and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in rural communities of Kwara State, Nigeria.Blood, urine and stool samples were collected from 1017 primary school pupils of ages 4-15 years. Stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal helminths infection. Urine samples were analyzed using sedimentation method for Schistosoma haematobium. Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed by microscopy using thick and thin blood films methods and packed cell volume (PCV was determined using hematocrit reader. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data.Overall, 61.2% of all school children had at least an infection of either P. falciparum, S. haematobium, or intestinal helminth. S. haematobium accounted for the largest proportion (44.4% of a single infection followed by P. falciparum (20.6%. The prevalence of malaria and helminth co-infection in the study was 14.4%. Four species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were hookworm (22.5%, Hymenolepis species (9.8%, Schistosoma mansoni (2.9% and Enterobius vermicularis (0.6%. The mean densities of P. falciparum in children co-infected with S. haematobium and hookworm were higher compared to those infected with P. falciparum only though not statistically significant (p = 0.062. The age distribution of both S. haematobium (p = 0.049 and hookworm (p = 0.034 infected children were statistically significant with the older age group (10-15 years recording the highest prevalence of 47.2% and 25% respectively. Children who were
Full Text Available One of the features of Balcan endemic nephropathy (BEN is higher frequency of urothelium malignant tumors, primarily of pyelon (Mtp and urether (Mtu. Jablanica region is known for the presence of endemic, hypoendemic and non-endemic areas with BEN. The aim of our research was to analyze the appearance of MTUi n endemic settlements of Jablanica region with BEN and to see what the relation of tumor frequency between endemic and non-endemic settlements is. The appearance of MTU was analyzed on the basis of operative protocol data of Urology department, The Health Center in Leskovac and Urology Clinic of The Clinical Center in Nis for the period from 1978 to 2002. We collected data about our patiens regarding their sex, age, the place of living and the place of birth. In order to make classification of settlements we used data of the Institute for Nephrology and hemodialysis (INH in Nis. Data on total number of population living in these settlements were obtained from the official registration data published in 1981 and 1991. The incidence rate was calculated in the sample of 100,000 people.The average annual incidence rate (AAIR of MTU in endemic settlements for the considered period is 37.82 (tumors of urether and pyelon - 17.56; malignant tumors of urinary bladder (MTUB 20.26; in hypoendemic settlements the rate is 13.28 (MTp and Mtu - 5.06; MTUB - 8.22; and in non-endemic urban settlements it is 7.35 (Mtu and MTp - 1.04, MTUB - 6.31.AAIR of MTU in endemic areas is 2.85 times higher when compared to hypoendemic areas; it is 6.75 times higher than in non-endemic urban areas, and 5.15 times higher than the rate of non-endemic rural areas. Mtu and MTp are 18.68 times more frequent in endemic settlements than in non-endemic urban areas and 3.47 times more frequent when compared to hypoendemic settlements. The linear trend of the diseased from MTp and MTu in endemic areas of Jablanica region for 25-year period was slowly decreasing according to
In Zimbabwe, traditional healers enjoy a social role which is much broader than that of a doctor. The healer is an integral part of a complex world view which sees religious beliefs, concepts of disease, human growth and development, and life and the hereafter as intricately interwoven. The government of Zimbabwe therefore recognized as early as 1980 the potential population health benefits of organizing traditional healers and establishing grassroots cooperation toward an integrated approach to health care. To that end, traditional healers were pressured to establish an associate body, ZINTHA, and soon after, the Traditional Medical Practitioners Act established a licensing system for traditional healers to be run by the Traditional Medical Council (TMC). ZINTHA and TMC are now in every administrative district of the country. Traditional midwives and their practices are an accepted part of the maternity system, with most receiving training in basic hygiene and sterilization techniques; a traditional drug used to induce labor has been accepted by doctors; and all medical students spend part of their training in rural areas to gain first-hand experience in traditional medicine. Against AIDS, workshops have been held in every district to facilitate the exchange of practical knowledge and advice among traditional healers and Western doctors on managing the disease. Western medicine is, however, mainly interested in the pharmacological knowledge of the herbalist and healer. These traditional practitioners are loathe to share their knowledge for the profit of Western pharmaceutical companies. The healers fear that giving away too much information may put them out of business.
Development journalism in Zimbabwe: Practice, problems, and prospects. ... Journal of Development and Communication Studies ... Through a case study of the Chronicle newspaper coverage of the Millennium Development Goals, the paper explores issues in development journalism practice, problems and prospects.
Olesk, Arko, 1981-
Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 9. august lk. 7. Zimbabwe võimud vahistasid 7600 poodnikku, kes ei allunud valitsuse korraldusele alandada kaupade hindu poole võrra, et ohjeldada hüperinflatsiooni
Del Brutto, Oscar H; Arroyo, Gianfranco; Del Brutto, Victor J; Zambrano, Mauricio; García, Héctor H
Using a large-scale population-based study, we aimed to assess prevalence and patterns of presentation of neurocysticercosis (NCC) and its relationship with epilepsy in community-dwellers aged ≥20 years living in Atahualpa (rural Ecuador). In a three-phase epidemiological study, individuals with suspected seizures were identified during a door-to-door survey and an interview (phase I). Then, neurologists evaluated suspected cases and randomly selected negative persons to estimate epilepsy prevalence (phase II). In phase III, all participants were offered noncontrast computed tomography (CT) for identifying NCC cases. The independent association between NCC (exposure) and epilepsy (outcome) was assessed by the use of multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, level of education, and alcohol intake. CT findings were subsequently compared to archived brain magnetic resonance imaging in a sizable subgroup of participants. Of 1,604 villagers aged ≥20 years, 1,462 (91%) were enrolled. Forty-one persons with epilepsy (PWE) were identified, for a crude prevalence of epilepsy of 28 per 1,000 population (95% confidence interval [CI] = 20.7-38.2). A head CT was performed in 1,228 (84%) of 1,462 participants, including 39 of 41 PWE. CT showed lesions consistent with calcified parenchymal brain cysticerci in 118 (9.6%) cases (95% CI = 8.1-11.4%). No patient had other forms of NCC. Nine of 39 PWE, as opposed to 109 of 1,189 participants without epilepsy, had NCC (23.1% vs. 9.2%, p = 0.004). This difference persisted in the adjusted logistic regression model (odds ratio = 3.04, 95% CI = 1.35-6.81, p = 0.007). This large CT-based study demonstrates that PWE had three times the odds of having NCC than those without epilepsy, providing robust epidemiological evidence favoring the relationship between NCC and epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.
Zimbabwe's economic development blueprint aims to revive the country's economy by attracting greater investment in agriculture, infrastructure, and mining. Topic: AFRICA, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, LAW, POLICY MAKING, Mining, LAND. Region: Zimbabwe. Program: ... Start Date: July 4, 2014. Topic: MAIZE, FOOD ...
Full Text Available This study sought to pilot a range of long-term adaptation measures in the agriculture sector because of climate change shocks. Past droughts in Zimbabwe have had devastating environmental and socio-economic impacts in rural areas where livelihoods mainly depend on agriculture. Over the past few years, many parts of Zimbabwe have been experiencing extreme events. The study sought to address the following objectives to describe smallholder farmers’ knowledge of climate change variability and change in Chilonga Ward and to explore the potential of cassava production as a climate change adaptation strategy in Chiredzi. An assessment of the impact of cassava production on rural livelihoods as a climate change adaptation strategy was also done. Focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, desk research and observation were the tools used to collect data. The results show that cassava has an extensive root system that can penetrate poor soils which may not support crops like maize. Zimbabwe has to increase cassava production as its tubers can be value added to produce a range of products that include livestock feed and porridge.
Principal Contact. Ndai Nyamakura Director of Publications University of Zimbabwe Publications University of Zimbabwe Publications P. O. Box MP 203 Mount Pleasant Harare Zimbabwe Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Support Contact. Agnes Chikonzo Email: email@example.com. ISSN: 0379-0622. AJOL African ...
This article discusses the intersections of language, identity formation and nation building in Zimbabwe.The article argues that political aspirations for empire building by the ruling elite have come to bepopularized and legitimized as language policy and nation building initiatives in postcolonial Zimbabwe.While Zimbabwe ...
Focus and Scope. The Zimbabwe Scientific Association was founded in Bulawayo in 1899 to promote the study and advancement of science in Zimbabwe and to facilitate the acquisition and dissemination of scientific knowledge. Its journal, Transactions of the Zimbabwe Scientific Association, was first published in 1903 ...
.... Challenges grew in the 1990s, however. Rising inflation and unemployment bred discontent, as evidenced by regular student and labor protests, and led in 1999 to the formation of the opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC...
farms during the 2000 invasions were evicted.101 Many of these displaced inhabited the urban “ slums ” prior to the demolitions, making their living from...how to address Zimbabwe’s political situation at the 2008 AU Summit in Egypt , despite election observer reports from the AU, SADC, and the Pan-African
ISSN:1998-0507 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejesm.v9i2.2S. Submitted: August 13, 2016. Accepted: December 14, 2016. Department of Rural and Urban Planning, University of Zimbabwe. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Abstract. Visualization of tsetse eradication operations that have been going on since early 20 th.
Pufall, Erica L.; Gregson, Simon; Eaton, Jeffrey W.
Objectives:Schools are often cited as a source of support for orphans and children affected by HIV/AIDS in populations experiencing generalized HIV epidemics and severe poverty. Here we investigate the success of schools at including and supporting the well being of vulnerable children in rural...... quality may enhance the well being of primary school-age children in eastern Zimbabwe. Local community context also plays an important role in child well being....
Full Text Available Improving livelihoods in rural areas is important to progress of the developing world and it helps in the creation of the domestic demand for the productive sector. Private sector partnerships in rural areas have been the major driver to reduction of market uncertainties and management of risk and thus bring development, these partnerships are done through private loans and contract farming in Zimbabwe. The major question however is do these partnerships increase rural household welfare in Zimbabwe or it is clearly a capitalist method of rural labour exploitation. Using Propensity Score Matching (PSM method for rural communities in Chiredzi and Masvingo rural in Zimbabwe we found out that individual households that participates in contract farming and private loans have increased welfare gains than those that do not participate.
Child, B; Muir, K; Blackie, M
This article proposes a system for Zimbabwe which retains government control of national stocks and enables the parastatal marketing system to stabilize prices, at the same time ensuring a more rational delivery system in rural areas with prices reflecting storage and transport costs. The local population is encouraged to fulfill local needs, thus avoiding the expense of directing all marketing and processing through the urban areas. A more localized system will also have greater multiplier effects. Zimbabwe's maize marketing system is used to show how this system could be modified with benefits to rural consumers, producers and government. Data suggest there is little market exploitation: price differentials between markts reflect transport costs, returns on storage are reasonable, and voluntary procurement operations are usually able to stabilize prices. Zoning, movement restrictions and compulsory procurement have been shown to destabilize food markets; prices between markets are higher in periods of strict control than when marketing is relatively free. Controlled marketing answers a real political and economic need in Zimbabwe. Existing public food marketing agencies are not inherently inefficient. While stabilizing maize supply, there are important advantages in announcing preplanting prices, but any trade in maize only takes place after price setting. It is unlikely that there would be both imports and exports in any 1 year, except when previous contracts are being fulfilled. 2 policy options are available to cover anticipated periods of insufficient national maize production: the maintenance of a strategic reserve; and importation of maize to cover supply shortfalls. Single-channel marketing should be replaced by an internal free market operating between floor and ceiling prices by supply manipulation to prevent excessive producer and consumer welfare fluctuations. This system would be more efficient and have beneficial effects on development. It is more
Aknowledgement of 2013 Reviewers. The Editor-in-Chief and the Editorial Board of the Zimbabwe Journal of Educational Research would like to express their sincere gratitude to the colleagues below who gave their precious time to review articles herein and those which appeared in Volumes 25, Numbers 1 & 2, 2013.
Hypertension management in Zimbabwe - awareness, treatment and blood pressure control. A community-based study. J A Matenga, T J Allain, A 0 Wilson, D J Adamchak,. B 5enzanje, E ... blood pressure (DBP) > 94 mmHg or were on treatment with a DBP ... worker and to being told that the BP was high was considered to ...
Kariwo, Michael Tonderai
Higher education in Zimbabwe is undergoing changes mainly because of the rapid expansion that started in 1999. The current situation is that higher education is going through a series of crises due to the fact that government subventions are diminishing in real terms as a result of the decline in economic growth, yet at the same time, student…
Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 28, No 2 (1997) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL ...
Batidzirai, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341355909; Lysen, E.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071394923; van Egmond, S.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526
This paper discusses the economic, social and environmental benefits from using solar water heating (SWH) in Zimbabwe. By comparing different water heating technology usage in three sectors over a 25-year period, the potential of SWH is demonstrated in alleviating energy and economic problems that
This paper explores the impact of remittances on private consumption in Zimbabwe for the period 1980 to 2007. An augmented Keynesian consumption function which incorporates income, remittances, exchange rate, taxation, inflation and an economic and political instability dummy variable is postulated for this purpose.
The second economy in Zimbabwe have grown from less than 10% of official GDP at independence in 1980 to an all-time higher share of 70 percent in 2008 before subsiding to a still higher percentage share of 52% by end of 2009. The existence of such a sizeable sector of unrecorded domestic and international economic ...
This paper examines post independence Zimbabwe's attempts to introduce a form of citizenship education in the nation's education curricula, first in the name of Political Economy introduced at secondary school level shortly after independence in the early 1980s but abandoned soon afterwards, only to resurface as ...
Chitiyo, Morgan; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Changara, Darlington M.; Chitiyo, George; Montgomery, Kristen M.
Since 1980 when Zimbabwe obtained political independence, special education has not received the same priority as the entire education system. One of the manifestations of this discrepancy is the shortage of qualified special education teachers in the country. In order to address this trend and promote the development of special education,…
throughout Zimbabwe (population 12.3 million, area. 390,000km2). Tests of nerve function carried out in this laboratory ... neurophysiological evaluation, to have lesions of peripheral nerves were retrospectively reviewed .... the arm extending to the shoulder was painful. Nineteen patients complained of additional weakness ...
The capital city of Zimbabwe, has adopted an urban water cycle that is geared towards high level service provision. Water supply and sewerage/sanitation coverage amounts to over 98%, which makes Harare with the highest coverage. The city's high volume of water abstraction from its main water
It is the responsibility of the social worker to work hand in glove with the tracing office to help locate the whereabouts of the parents. In Zimbabwe at Tongogara Refugee Camp, International Committee of the Red Cross. (ICRC) is carrying out the tracing process of parents and reunite families. Under this arrangement it is the.
This paper examines the apparent conflict between persistent attempts to vocationalise school curricula in relation to the controversy surrounding the provision of school-based vocational education in developing countries. It is argued in the paper that given the socio-economic and political context of Zimbabwe as a ...
Between 1983 and 1987, an estimated 20 000 people from Matabeleland and parts of Midlands Province in Zimbabwe were killed by government forces in an operation code-named Gukurahundi. Since that time no official apology, justice, reparations or any form of healing process has been offered by the government ...
... political conditions, along with a mass exodus of researchers and academics, made it more challenging to work in Zimbabwe. Much of our efforts are now aimed at preserving research capacity inside the country. Our areas of focus have included forestry and tree crops, public health challenges such as malaria and AIDS, ...
Full Text Available Geochemical anomalies of fluorine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and other chemical elements in soils, sediments and water, as well as exposure to asbestiform materials in mining areas may adversely affect human and animal health. Rural and peri-urban communities in Zimbabwe living within the vicinity of mining and mineralized areas are most prone to the impacts of their environment because of they often rely on artisanal, small-scale mining, and subsistence agriculture. Cases of dental and skeletal fluorosis, mercury and arsenic poisoning and the more deadly mesothelioma have been reported in Zimbabwe dating back to the last millennium and mitigation measures have been proposed in a number of publications, though their implementation is still relatively poor. We intend to summarize the work done up to date on the effects of geological elements on human and ecosystems in and around Zimbabwe, their impacts and the need to further research and implementation of mitigation measures
Most agricultural weeds are usually regarded as undesirable and targeted for eradication. However, weeds are useful to human beings as food and traditional medicines. Few studies have been done to document the uses of weeds as traditional vegetables. This study was therefore, done to document indigenous knowledge related to the diversity and use of agricultural weeds as traditional vegetables in Shurugwi District, Zimbabwe, emphasizing their role in food security and livelihoods of the local people. Semi-structured interviews, observation and guided field walks with 147 participants were employed between December 2011 and January 2012 to obtain ethnobotanical data on the use of edible weeds as traditional vegetables. Based on ethnobotanical information provided by the participants, botanical specimens were collected, numbered, pressed and dried for identification. A total of 21 edible weeds belonging to 11 families and 15 genera, mostly from Amaranthaceae (19%), Asteraceae and Tiliaceae (14.3%), Capparaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae (9.5% each) were identified. Of the documented edible weeds, 52.4% are indigenous while 47.6% are exotic to Zimbabwe; either semi-cultivated or growing naturally as agricultural weeds in farmlands, fallow land and home gardens. Among the main uses of edible weeds were leafy vegetables (81%), followed by edible fruits (19%), edible corms (9.5%), edible flowers and seeds (4.8% each). The most important edible weeds were Cleome gynandra, cited by 93.9% of the participants, Cucumis metuliferus (90.5%), Cucumis anguria (87.8%), Corchorus tridens (50.3%) and Amaranthus hybridus (39.5%). All edible weeds were available during rainy and harvest period with Cleome gynandra, Corchorus tridens, Cucumis anguria, Cucumis metuliferus and Moringa oleifera also available during the dry season, enabling households to obtain food outputs in different times of the year. The importance of edible weeds for local livelihoods was ubiquitously perceived
Background Most agricultural weeds are usually regarded as undesirable and targeted for eradication. However, weeds are useful to human beings as food and traditional medicines. Few studies have been done to document the uses of weeds as traditional vegetables. This study was therefore, done to document indigenous knowledge related to the diversity and use of agricultural weeds as traditional vegetables in Shurugwi District, Zimbabwe, emphasizing their role in food security and livelihoods of the local people. Materials and methods Semi-structured interviews, observation and guided field walks with 147 participants were employed between December 2011 and January 2012 to obtain ethnobotanical data on the use of edible weeds as traditional vegetables. Based on ethnobotanical information provided by the participants, botanical specimens were collected, numbered, pressed and dried for identification. Results A total of 21 edible weeds belonging to 11 families and 15 genera, mostly from Amaranthaceae (19%), Asteraceae and Tiliaceae (14.3%), Capparaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae (9.5% each) were identified. Of the documented edible weeds, 52.4% are indigenous while 47.6% are exotic to Zimbabwe; either semi-cultivated or growing naturally as agricultural weeds in farmlands, fallow land and home gardens. Among the main uses of edible weeds were leafy vegetables (81%), followed by edible fruits (19%), edible corms (9.5%), edible flowers and seeds (4.8% each). The most important edible weeds were Cleome gynandra, cited by 93.9% of the participants, Cucumis metuliferus (90.5%), Cucumis anguria (87.8%), Corchorus tridens (50.3%) and Amaranthus hybridus (39.5%). All edible weeds were available during rainy and harvest period with Cleome gynandra, Corchorus tridens, Cucumis anguria, Cucumis metuliferus and Moringa oleifera also available during the dry season, enabling households to obtain food outputs in different times of the year. The importance of edible weeds for local
Muller, T; Feichtinger, H; Berger, H; Muller, W
138 infants and young children died from an endemic infantile liver cirrhosis in a circumscribed rural area of western Austria between 1900 and 1974. Frequency of the disease peaked between 1930 and 1960. It has disappeared from this area since 1974. Clinical and genetic data on the patients was gathered; pedigrees analysed and ethnographic studies and interviews were undertaken. The disease, which was clinically and pathologically indistinguishable from Indian childhood cirrhosis and hepatic copper toxicosis, was transmitted by autosomal recessive inheritance. Cow's milk, contaminated with copper from untinned copper or brass vessels, may have contributed to the development of copper toxicosis. Replacement of untinned copper cooking utensils by modern industrial vessels has eradicated the disease. Our findings strongly suggest that the endemic Tyrolean childhood cirrhosis-and by analogy non-Wilsonian hepatic copper toxicosis occurring elsewhere-is an ecogenetic disorder requiring the involvement of both genetic and environmental factors for the disease to become manifest.
This paper attempts, in an exploratory manner, to identify the various ways in which bad beekeeping and honey hunting practices result in the loss of important multi-purpose agro-forestry tree species in bee endemic parts of South Eastern Nigeria. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches (Participatory Rural Appraisal ...
Endemicity of onchocerciasis in some communities in Taraba State, Nigeria, following long term treatment with ivermectin. ... that sustainability of the annual drug distribution is essential for effective control of the disease in these rural communities. Keywords: onchocerciasis, long term treatment, community perception.
Chirikure, Shadreck; Manyanga, Munyaradzi; Pollard, A Mark; Bandama, Foreman; Mahachi, Godfrey; Pikirayi, Innocent
Across the globe, the emergence of complex societies excites intense academic debate in archaeology and allied disciplines. Not surprisingly, in southern Africa the traditional assumption that the evolution of socio-political complexity began with ideological transformations from K2 to Mapungubwe between CE1200 and 1220 is clouded in controversy. It is believed that the K2-Mapungubwe transitions crystallised class distinction and sacred leadership, thought to be the key elements of the Zimbabwe culture on Mapungubwe Hill long before they emerged anywhere else. From Mapungubwe (CE1220-1290), the Zimbabwe culture was expressed at Great Zimbabwe (CE1300-1450) and eventually Khami (CE1450-1820). However, new fieldwork at Mapela Hill, when coupled with a Bayesian chronology, offers tremendous fresh insights which refute this orthodoxy. Firstly, Mapela possesses enormous prestige stone-walled terraces whose initial construction date from the 11th century CE, almost two hundred years earlier than Mapungubwe. Secondly, the basal levels of the Mapela terraces and hilltop contain élite solid dhaka (adobe) floors associated with K2 pottery and glass beads. Thirdly, with a hilltop and flat area occupation since the 11th century CE, Mapela exhibits evidence of class distinction and sacred leadership earlier than K2 and Mapungubwe, the supposed propagators of the Zimbabwe culture. Fourthly, Mapungubwe material culture only appeared later in the Mapela sequence and therefore post-dates the earliest appearance of stone walling and dhaka floors at the site. Since stone walls, dhaka floors and class distinction are the essence of the Zimbabwe culture, their earlier appearance at Mapela suggests that Mapungubwe can no longer be regarded as the sole cradle of the Zimbabwe culture. This demands not just fresh ways of accounting for the rise of socio-political complexity in southern Africa, but also significant adjustments to existing models.
Full Text Available Across the globe, the emergence of complex societies excites intense academic debate in archaeology and allied disciplines. Not surprisingly, in southern Africa the traditional assumption that the evolution of socio-political complexity began with ideological transformations from K2 to Mapungubwe between CE1200 and 1220 is clouded in controversy. It is believed that the K2-Mapungubwe transitions crystallised class distinction and sacred leadership, thought to be the key elements of the Zimbabwe culture on Mapungubwe Hill long before they emerged anywhere else. From Mapungubwe (CE1220-1290, the Zimbabwe culture was expressed at Great Zimbabwe (CE1300-1450 and eventually Khami (CE1450-1820. However, new fieldwork at Mapela Hill, when coupled with a Bayesian chronology, offers tremendous fresh insights which refute this orthodoxy. Firstly, Mapela possesses enormous prestige stone-walled terraces whose initial construction date from the 11th century CE, almost two hundred years earlier than Mapungubwe. Secondly, the basal levels of the Mapela terraces and hilltop contain élite solid dhaka (adobe floors associated with K2 pottery and glass beads. Thirdly, with a hilltop and flat area occupation since the 11th century CE, Mapela exhibits evidence of class distinction and sacred leadership earlier than K2 and Mapungubwe, the supposed propagators of the Zimbabwe culture. Fourthly, Mapungubwe material culture only appeared later in the Mapela sequence and therefore post-dates the earliest appearance of stone walling and dhaka floors at the site. Since stone walls, dhaka floors and class distinction are the essence of the Zimbabwe culture, their earlier appearance at Mapela suggests that Mapungubwe can no longer be regarded as the sole cradle of the Zimbabwe culture. This demands not just fresh ways of accounting for the rise of socio-political complexity in southern Africa, but also significant adjustments to existing models.
Bhat, Nisha; Kilmarx, Peter H; Dube, Freeman; Manenji, Albert; Dube, Medelina; Magure, Tapuwa
We conducted a case study of the Zimbabwe National AIDS Trust Fund ('AIDS Levy') as an approach to domestic government financing of the response to HIV and AIDS. Data came from three sources: a literature review, including a search for grey literature, review of government documents from the Zimbabwe National AIDS Council (NAC), and key informant interviews with representatives of the Zimbabwean government, civil society and international organizations. The literature search yielded 139 sources, and 20 key informants were interviewed. Established by legislation in 1999, the AIDS Levy entails a 3% income tax for individuals and 3% tax on profits of employers and trusts (which excluded the mining industry until 2015). It is managed by the parastatal NAC through a decentralized structure of AIDS Action Committees. Revenues increased from inception to 2006 through 2008, a period of economic instability and hyperinflation. Following dollarization in 2009, annual revenues continued to increase, reaching US$38.6 million in 2014. By policy, at least 50% of funds are used for purchase of antiretroviral medications. Other spending includes administration and capital costs, HIV prevention, and monitoring and evaluation. Several financial controls and auditing systems are in place. Key informants perceived the AIDS Levy as a 'homegrown' solution that provided country ownership and reduced dependence on donor funding, but called for further increased transparency, accountability, and reduced administrative costs, as well as recommended changes to increase revenue. The Zimbabwe AIDS Levy has generated substantial resources, recently over US$35 million per year, and signals an important commitment by Zimbabweans, which may have helped attract other donor resources. Many key informants considered the Zimbabwe AIDS Levy to be a best practice for other countries to follow.
The capital city of Zimbabwe, has adopted an urban water cycle that is geared towards high level service provision. Water supply and sewerage/sanitation coverage amounts to over 98%, which makes Harare with the highest coverage. The city's high volume of water abstraction from its main water resource, Chivero, however, can no longer be sustained. The lake has been seriously polluted by large volumes of (partially) treated effluents from wastewater treatment plants in Harare and the neighbouri...
Mugabe and his top generals personally acquired diamond and cobalt mining resources from southern Congo, Zimbabwe’s economy paid $5 million per week for...2000), 53; Marian Tupy, “ Botswana and Zimbabwe: a Tale of Two Countries,” CATO Institute, March 14, 2008, http://www.cat.org/pub_display.php?pub_id...to Botswana in fear for their lives.61 In February 1984 the government imposed a food embargo on Matabeleland South, the home of Nkomo and largely
Full Text Available This article examines the implementation of fish farming as an innovative and economic strategy for promoting food security and dietary diversities among vulnerable households in drought risk areas of Zimbabwe. The declining climatic conditions and lack of economic opportunities in Mwenezi district of Zimbabwe attracted the attention of three nongovernmental organisations (NGOs to implement fish farming as an innovative mechanism to stimulate food security and generate employment in the district. The article used a qualitative research approach that includes semi-structured interviews and secondary data. The purposive sampling technique was adopted to interview participants in Mwenezi district who were involved in fish farming to assess and explore the experiences and benefits they derive from such development projects. Results for the article revealed that fish farming was well embraced by local communities as it led to improvements in food security, household income and employment regeneration. The local government including traditional leadership (Chiefs and Headmen’s supported the NGO activities as they benefited local communities. The article concludes that although fish farming was instrumental in regenerating employment, some participants still fail to participate because of laziness and desire to maintain dependency syndrome. The article recommends the NGOs to launch awareness campaigns in rural communities and increase networking with the donor community which is fundamental in attracting sustainable funding. The government can also promote fish farming in vulnerable rural communities by providing funding and capacity building programmes.
Full Text Available The study investigated the contribution of SAT's agricultural intervention in ward 21 of Bikita in an attempt to improve food security to this drought prone area. The research was largely premised on qualitative methodology and unstructured interviews, focus group discussions and onsite observation were employed as techniques for data gathering. Using these methodological techniques, it was revealed that conservation farming brought by SAT was not smoothly appreciated by the intended beneficiaries. Regardless the fact that the majority of the farmers were given free farming inputs, they failed to fully embrace all the instructions like minimizing soil tillage, reliance on compost manure only to mention but a few. The farmers resisted total participation because the techniques were labor intensive and sometimes contradict their orthodox or indigenous farming techniques. This has resulted in the emergence of an antagonistic relationship between SAT officials and the local farmers on the best method of farming which may improve food security. Also the research revealed that too much reliance on compost manure has created environmental challenges with fears of its depletion since the area was already overpopulated. This led to the emergence of conflicts between the participants, non-participants, owners and non-owners of domestic animals because the forage was under threat. All these events were analyzed using Darendorf's (1959's Conflict theory which explains the potential of conflicts outbreak between two or more groups interacting. This can be best explained with the conflicts which existed between the locals on the environment and also between SAT and the locals on the way forward about farming. It was concluded that there was a need for encompassing approach where all stakeholders should sit down together and consider the favorable conditions to make the programme acceptable, successful and sustainable.
Full Text Available This article explores the impact of climate change and variability on agricultural productivity in the communal area of Bikita. The article further examines the adaptation and mitigation strategies devised by farmers to deal with the vagaries of climate change and variability. The sustainability of these is also interrogated in this article. This study juxtaposed qualitative and quantitative methodologies albeit with more bias on the former. A total of 40 farmers were sampled for unstructured interviews and focus group discussions. This article argues that the adverse impacts of climate change and variability are felt heavily by the poor communal farmers who are directly dependent on agriculture for livelihood. From the study, some of the widely reported signs of climate variability in Bikita included late and unpredictable rains, high temperatures (heat waves, successive drought, shortening rainfall seasons and seasonal changes in the timing of rainfall. The paper argues that climate change has compounded the vulnerability of peasant farmers in the drought - prone district of Bikita plunging them into food insecurity and abject poverty. It emerged in the study that some of effects of climate variability felt by communal farmers in Bikita included failure of crops, death of livestock and low crop yields, all of which have led to declining agricultural productivity. Findings in this study however established that communal farmers have not been passive victims of the vagaries of climate change and variability. They have rationally responded to it through various adaptation and mitigation strategies both individually and collectively.
Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama, Rutendo; Gomo, Exnevia
Stunted development and reduced fecundity of Schistosoma parasites in immunodeficient mice and the impaired ability of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected humans to excrete schistosome eggs have been described. This study explores the effect that HIV-1-associated immunodeficiency has ...
Advancing Equity in Universal Health Coverage and in the Social Determinants of Health in Zimbabwe ... Understanding why women are involved in small and micro-enterprise (SME) businesses in Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Uganda, and Rwanda can help governments design policies to support this sector of the economy.
Zimbabwe's ruling Zimbabwe African National Union (Patriotic Front) (ZANU-PF) has developed promotional discourse that is packaged in various forms and spread through such institutions as the media. This article is concerned with the discursive aspect of songs used as ZANU-PF promotional jingles on national radio ...
Zimbabwe continues to experience high levels of poverty and unemployment. IDRC is supporting the University of Zimbabwe's Institute of Environmental Studies (IES) as it explores the multiple dimensions of the country's challenges and generates debates and ideas for reconstruction and development. The project ...
Engineering Education in Zimbabwe from Antiquity to the Present · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Co-incidence or collusion: An Analysis of the Relationship between the Proposal to Ban the use of Contraceptives and Lowering the Age of Consent in Zimbabwe · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT
As one of the most valuable gemstones, emeralds are known to occur in several countries of the world, such as Colombia, Zambia, Brazil, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Russia, Madagascar and Zimbabwe. The emerald deposits at Sandawana, Zimbabwe, are described, the emeralds from this deposit characterised and
Zambezia is a bi-annual journal of the University of Zimbabwe. Its focus is humanities in Zimbabwe and the surrounding region but specialist articles of a more general interest are also published. Vol 32, No 1 (2005). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of ...
When requested to write about the history of Mathematics at the University of Zimbabwe (UZ), I was surprised to find out that there was very little documented information about it. Apparently, this fairly important aspect of the subject had escaped the practitioners of Mathematics at the University of Zimbabwe. It is my hope ...
Higher education in Zimbabwe began in the 1950s with the establishment of the University of Zimbabwe (then known as the University College of Rhodesia and Nyasaland) being the first institution to offer university education. Since then there has been a rapid growth of universities, particularly after in 1990. What can be ...
... has achieved international stature. Here we review the development and directions of veterinary research in Zimbabwe, and discuss how its record forms the basis for the justification, formulation and assessment of research targets and strategies for the future. The Zimbabwe Science News Volume 34(1) March 2001, pp.
This paper presents some temperature-depth data for boreholes in Zimbabwe. Thermal conductivity measurements on slices of rock from borecores are also examined and the linearity of some temperature-depth profiles are briefly examined to assess the possibility of global warming. The Zimbabwe Science News Volume ...
Mathematics at the University of Zimbabwe. Its past and future · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. T Shonhiwa, 59-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/zsn.v33i3.18526 · A century of vegetation survey in Zimbabwe · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ...
A survey of herd size, disease and health management systems of cattle in Sanyati Communal Area of Zimbabwe · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ... The effect of tick control on bovine dermatophilosis in a smallholder farming area of Zimbabwe · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ...
Part of Zimbabwe's socio-political and economic crisis of the past decade can be easily traced back to contestations about the place of Zimbabwe's war of liberation (1966 – 1979) in constructions of political legitimacy. Since, for obvious reasons, the liberation war and its memory are inseparable from power and hegemonic ...
The paper examines the problem of social exclusion in the provision of social security in Zimbabwe. After sketching a historical perspective of the problem of social exclusion in Zimbabwe, it is argued that social exclusion emanates largely from the orientation of social security which places emphasis on protecting persons ...
The purpose of this paper is to conduct an independent review of the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe's monetary policy in the context of monetary policy transparency, through comparing the results with other central banks in order to draw conclusions regarding the monetary policy of the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe. Monetary ...
Jambanja”: Moral Paralysis and Postcolonial Politics in Zimbabwe. ... Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research ... This work focuses on the normative dimension of politics in Zimbabwe over the last decade and draws special interest to the post March 2008 historic harmonised elections, that is, the presidential runoff ...
This paper provides an analysis of land-related corruption in Zimbabwe. It uses document analysis to highlight the emerging patterns, scope, scale and impacts of land-based corruption. Corruption has become an intrinsic part of everyday life in Zimbabwe, and this corruption is a manifestation of political power.
Rural poverty is a major challenge in most developing countries especially in Africa where the majority of people are still living below the poverty datum line. In Zimbabwe, poverty is made more severe by occasional droughts associated with climate change, climate variability and failed socio-economic-political governance.
Assessment of Rural Women\\'s Knowledge, Constraints and Perceptions on Cervical Cancer Screening: The Case of Two Districts in Zimbabwe. ... 95.78% of the interviewed women had never gone for screening and had little knowledge about the various aspects of the disease in terms of causes, prevention and treatment.
This paper contributes to the ongoing discussion on the implementation of water reforms in rural African waterscapes and explores how farmers in a tertiary catchment in Zimbabwe react to these reforms. It shows how privileged farmers have jumped the water queue by moving their agricultural activities upstream where ...
By taking into account gender differences through which social capital is formed and operates, the article is based on the study that examines how indigenous social capital influences and impacts on women led businesses in rural Zimbabwe. It revealed that in indigenous settings, the notion of social capital is a gendered ...
influence their sexual behaviors and to determine the extent to which adolescents had access to sexual and reproductive health information. ... Cite as: Ngwenya S. Communication of reproductive health information to the rural girl child in Filabusi, Zimbabwe. Afri Health .... behavioral changing communication strategies15.
Brouwer Kimberly C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Helminth infection rates in grade three children are used as proxy indicators of community infection status and to guide treatment strategies in endemic areas. However knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP of this target age group (8-10 years in relation to schistosomiasis, soil transmitted helminthiasis (STHs and malaria is not known at a time when integrated plasmodium - helminth control strategies are being advocated. This study sought to assess KAP of grade 3 children in relation to schistosomiasis, STHs and malaria in order to establish an effective school based health education for disease transmission control. Methods Grade 3 children (n = 172 attending four randomly selected primary schools (one in rural and 3 in the commercial farming areas in Zimbabwe were interviewed using a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire. The urine filtration technique was used to determine S. haematobium infection status. Infection with S. mansoni and STHs was determined using a combination of results from the Kato Katz and formol ether concentration techniques. P. falciparum was diagnosed by examination of Giemsa stained thick blood smears. Results It was observed that 32.0%, 19.2% and 4.1% of the respondents had correct knowledge about the causes of schistosomiasis, malaria and STHs, respectively, whilst 22.1%, 19.2% and 5.8% knew correct measures to control schistosomiasis, malaria and STHs. Sixty-two percent and 44.8% did not use soap to wash hands after toilet and before eating food respectively, whilst 33.1% never wore shoes. There were no functional water points and soap for hand washing after toilet at all schools. There was a high prevalence distribution of all parasites investigated in this study at Msapa primary school - S. haematobium (77.8%, S. mansoni (33.3% hookworms (29.6% and P. falciparum (48.1%. Reports that participant had suffered from schistosomiasis and malaria before were significant predictors of
SUMMARY The agents of human treponematoses include four closely related members of the genus Treponema: three subspecies of Treponema pallidum plus Treponema carateum. T. pallidum subsp. pallidum causes venereal syphilis, while T. pallidum subsp. pertenue, T. pallidum subsp. endemicum, and T. carateum are the agents of the endemic treponematoses yaws, bejel (or endemic syphilis), and pinta, respectively. All human treponematoses share remarkable similarities in pathogenesis and clinical manifestations, consistent with the high genetic and antigenic relatedness of their etiological agents. Distinctive features have been identified in terms of age of acquisition, most common mode of transmission, and capacity for invasion of the central nervous system and fetus, although the accuracy of these purported differences is debated among investigators and no biological basis for these differences has been identified to date. In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially set a goal for yaws eradication by 2020. This challenging but potentially feasible endeavor is favored by the adoption of oral azithromycin for mass treatment and the currently focused distribution of yaws and endemic treponematoses and has revived global interest in these fascinating diseases and their causative agents. PMID:24396138
Business confidence has not been affected in Zimbabwe despite the AIDS epidemic in that country. An Australian mining company has recruited people to work at its platinum mine in Zimbabwe and also instituted an AIDS awareness program. The National Chamber of Commerce disclosed that semiskilled and unskilled workers who are the "easiest to replace" have been most affected by the epidemic. The impact of AIDS has not been as bad as had been predicted several years ago. By the end of the 1990s, however, there might be a skills shortage. The first AIDS case was detected in 1985 in Zimbabwe. By the end of 1995 a cumulative total of 38,500 cases had been reported, but the National AIDS Control Program believes that the true figure is over 100,000. The estimated number of HIV-infected people is about 1 million. The most economically productive age group (30-50) has the highest rates of infection. Transport is affected most, followed by mining and commercial farming. Infection rates among miners are estimated to be 20-30% and the rates are the highest at the mines on the major transport routes. The mining industry has not had any problems in recruiting labor, but, increasingly, deaths are AIDS-related. The growing sex industry at the mines has accelerated the spread of HIV. In addition, small mines do not have AIDS awareness programs in place. The National Employment Council runs a project for the transport industry, which seeks to intensify AIDS campaigns at truck stops. This also entails talks to drivers about AIDS; courses for police, nurses, and sex workers; and the distribution of condoms. In commercial farming, two-thirds of workers are unskilled casual laborers who live in squalid conditions that foster the spread of AIDS. At these farms there is also a growing number of orphans, whose number is estimated to rise to 60,000 by the late 1990s.
Margaret Macherera, MSc
Full Text Available Objectives:Despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART, many children, particularly in the rural communities of Zimbabwe, remain vulnerable. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors and challenges facing children on antiretroviral therapy (ART in Brunapeg area of Mangwe District, Zimbabwe.Methods:A mixed-method approach involving interviewer-guided focus group discussions and piloted semi-structured questionnaires was utilized to collect data from different key population groups. The data obtained were analyzed through content coding procedures based on a set of predetermined themes of interest.Results:A number of challenges emerged as barriers to the success of antiretroviral therapy for children. Primary care givers were less informed about HIV and AIDS issues for people having direct impact on the success of antiretroviral therapy in children whilst some were found to be taking the antiretroviral drugs meant for the children. It also emerged that some primary care givers were either too young or too old to care for the children while others had failed to disclose to the children why they frequently visited the Opportunistic Infections (OI clinic. Most primary care givers were not the biological parents of the affected children. Other challenges included inadequate access to health services, inadequate food and nutrition and lack of access to clean water, good hygiene and sanitation. The lack of community support and stigma and discrimination affected their school attendance and hospital visits. All these factors contributed to non-adherence to antiretroviral drugs.Conclusions and Public Health Implications:Children on ART in rural communities in Zimbabwe remain severely compromised and have unique problems that need multi-intervention strategies both at policy and programmatic levels. Effective mitigating measures must be fully established and implemented in rural communities of developing countries in the fight for
The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something...... or quite a lot about the plants, no intelligent steps can be taken towards protecting them. 520 of the c. 750 endemics are listed on the Red Data "endangered list" by the Council of Europe in 1986 but few know the nature or extent of the threat. Work is currently in preparation on an Endemic Flora...
Full Text Available Background: Maternal and infant mortality remains a huge public health problem in developing countries. One of the strategies to minimise the risks of both maternal and infant mortality is access to and utilisation of antenatal care (ANC services.Aim: This study aimed to investigate the accessibility factors that influence the use of ANC services in Mangwe district.Methods: A qualitative approach using explorative design was adopted to target women who have babies under 1 year of age. The study was conducted in Mangwe district, Matabeleland South province, Zimbabwe. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and observations. Data saturation was reached after 15 women who were conveniently sampled were interviewed. Field notes were analysed thematically using Tech’s steps. Lincoln and Guba’s criteria ensured trustworthiness of the study findings.Results: Accessibility factors such as lack of transport, high transport costs and long distances to health care facilities, health care workers’ attitudes, type and quality of services as well as delays in receiving care influence women’s utilisation of ANC services in Mangwe district, Zimbabwe.Conclusion: The study concluded that women were still facing problems of unavailability of nearby clinics; therefore, it was recommended that the government should avail resources for women to use.Recommendations: Mangwe District Health Department should provide mobile clinics rendering ANC services in distant rural areas.
Use of Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Scientific Methods for Climate Forecasting in Southern Zambia ... Employee Identification and their Perceived Customer Satisfaction: A 2008 Case Study of Chinhoyi University Hotel – Zimbabwe.
The Integration of Instructional Technology by Teacher Educators at a State University in Zimbabwe: Are They Leading by Example? EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. L Chitanana ...
Campbell, B; Mbizvo, M T
A study on sexual behaviour and knowledge of HIV risk was undertaken amongst 511 male students in Zimbabwe. The study was conducted amongst pupils aged 11 to 19 years drawn from urban and rural secondary schools using a self-administered questionnaire. Thirty seven pc of the students reported that they had experienced sexual intercourse, with up to 63 pc reporting having had more than one partner. Twenty one pc of boys aged 12 years reported having had intercourse and the proportion increased with age. Knowledge about AIDS was high (93 pc) with up to 75 pc of the boys reporting that they received the information through the media and only 31 pc got it from their teachers. Logistic regression used to analyse reasons for variation in HIV/AIDS knowledge and of modes of its transmission determined that educational level, actual school attended, access to information from magazines and educational aspirations were significant predictors (p values = 0,005) of knowledge. Individual risk assessment was higher amongst students who reported sexual experience (p = 0,0001). Sixty pc of the sexually experienced boys reported having used condoms. Six pc of the boys reported having intercourse with a commercial sex worker and of these, 85 pc used condoms. Compared with previous studies there appeared to be a reduction in high risk behaviours amongst male secondary school students. However, there is need for increased HIV preventive information through school educational programmes, as increase and variation in HIV information and modes of transmission was seen depending on access to information.
Howard, Brian; Matinhure, Nelia; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Johnson, Cary Alan
Few programmes for sub-Saharan Africa's 12.3 million children orphaned by AIDS have focused on their high risk for psychosocial problems. As groundwork for supporting orphans' healthy development, this study describes the preparation, grief, and memorial experiences and the physical and psychosocial well-being of 144 double orphans and 109 single orphans in rural eastern Zimbabwe. Most received no preparation or orphan-specific support for mourning and emotional recovery. On measures of physical and psychosocial well-being, orphans did more poorly than 87 non-orphaned classmates, perhaps reflecting the combined interaction of economic disadvantage and orphan status. Financial hardship was most severe among single orphans. Double orphans' responses suggested perceptions of isolation, lack of support and personal difference. Distress was greatest among younger orphans (health to child and societal development, scaled-up financial assistance should incorporate programmes to help children prepare for and recover from the loss of their parents.
Sulas, Federica; Pikirayi, Innocent; Sagiya, Munyaradzi Elton
In Africa, research on water management in urban contexts has often focussed rainfall, and the occurrence floods and droughts, whereas small-scale catchment systems and soil moisture regimes have received far less attention. This paper sets out to re-address the issue by examining the occurrence......, distribution and use of multiple water resources at the ancient urban landscape of Great Zimbabwe. Here, the rise and demise of the urban site have been linked to changing rainfall in the 1st mill. AD. Accordingly, rainfall shortages and consequent droughts eventually leading to the decline and abandonment...... management of water resources over the last thousand years or so. These findings call for a rethinking of current models of urban evolutions in the region. More importantly, this study illustrates the need for integrating different datasets at multiple spatial and temporal scales to address people...
Full Text Available With negative coverage largely by the media on state procurement, this article aims at exploring challenges and issues that militate against public procurement in Zimbabwe. The exploration is done through content analysis of statutes and procurement practices that currently obtain in the country. The study shows that despite the presence of some regulations public officials manipulate tender procedures for personal gains. There is need for improved political will to enforce the law on errant behavior. The value for money that the procurement system should promote is lost. There is no mechanism for feedback to inform management and policy makers. The article provides recommendations for the government in pursuit of public procurement best practices.
Full Text Available Zimbabwe has experienced an unprecedented decline of nearly all human development indicators for the past ten years. Despite the introduction of community gardens in drought-prone areas of Zimbabwe, poverty persists amongst the vulnerable groups. The potential to improve household, community and national food and nutrition security through garden activities is high if issues of water availability cost and availability of inputs, marketing and farmer empowerment can be addressed. This paper seeks to assess the community garden's cost structure to sales volume and profitability and the land use efficiency. Primary data were collected through structured questionnaire. A two stage sampling techniques was used to select respondents. The study was conducted in Zaka district. Three major crops namely tomatoes, covo and onion were chosen for the study basing on size of land under that particular crop. Cost-Volume-Profit analysis employed for analysis of cost structure to sales volume and profitability. Land use efficiency was also employed to measure the ratio yield per acre of farm to average yield of locality. The results showed that although the farmers are able to break even the margin of safety is small especially for cove and onion. The study recommends farmers to increase the size of acreage under onion production whilst reduce acreage under production of covo. Farmers should adopt technology that would improve land use efficiency of onion. There is a need for the intervention by the Government and other stakeholders to improve the profitability and efficiency of the community gardeners. Stakeholders' collaboration especially, in terms of farmer training which can improve garden activities as participants lack knowhow.
Nangombe, Shingirai; Madyiwa, Simon; Wang, Jianhong
Despite the increasing severity of droughts and their effects on Zimbabwe's agriculture, there are few tools available for predicting these droughts in advance. Consequently, communities and farmers are more exposed, and policy makers are always ill prepared for such. This study sought to investigate possible cycles and precursor meteorological conditions prior to drought seasons that could be used to predict impending droughts in Zimbabwe. The Single Z-Index was used to identify and grade drought years between 1951 and 2010 according to rainfall severity. Spectral analysis was used to reveal the cycles of droughts for possible use of these cycles for drought prediction. Composite analysis was used to investigate circulation and temperature anomalies associated with severe and extreme drought years. Results indicate that severe droughts are more highly correlated with circulation patterns and embedded weather systems in the Indian Ocean and equatorial Pacific Ocean than any other area. This study identified sea surface temperatures in the average period June to August, geopotential height and wind vector in July to September period, and air temperature in September to November period as precursors that can be used to predict a drought occurrence several months in advance. Therefore, in addition to sea surface temperature, which was identified through previous research for predicting Zimbabwean droughts, the other parameters identified in this study can aid in drought prediction. Drought cycles were established at 20-, 12.5-, 3.2-, and 2.7-year cycles. The spectral peaks, 12.5, 3.2, and 2.7, had a similar timescale with the luni-solar tide, El Niño Southern Oscillation and Quasi Biennial Oscillation, respectively, and hence, occurrence of these phenomena have a possibility of indicating when the next drought might be.
New Zimbabwe Constitution and the Right to Health Campaign 2010. In September 2008 the three main political parties in Zimbabwe signed a Global Political Agreement (GPA), undertaking to engage in the development of a new democratic constitution of over the next... View moreNew Zimbabwe Constitution and the ...
Full Text Available The discourse on “environmental conservation” is highly dynamic and has generated controversies of epic proportions in conservation sciences and environmental anthropology. Given the nebulous nature of conservation, coupled with the varying interpretations evoked by the deployment of the concept across different disciplines, a more robust understanding of the notion calls into question its practical manifestations and application in particular situated contexts – particularly within the conservation sciences and environmental anthropology. In Zimbabwe, conservation by the state has tended to favour and privilege Western scientific models at the expense of the “indigenous” conservation practices of local people, as informed by their indigenous epistemologies. This paper thus represents an attempt to rethink conservation in Zimbabwe, adopting the Norumedzo communal area in south-eastern Zimbabwe as its case study. The choice of Norumedzo is based on the fact that this is one area where the highly esteemed and delicious harurwa (edible stink bugs, Encosternum delegorguei are found. As a result of these insects being valued as “actors” and the appreciation shown to both Western and indigenous epistemologies, conservation in the area has enjoyed considerable success. To this end, this paper lends support to the arguments of Walter Mignolo and Ramon Grosfoguel in their advocacy for critical border thinking in issues of knowledge regarding environmental conservation.Der Diskurs zur “Bewahrung der Umwelt” ist ausgesprochen dynamisch und hat in den Umweltwissenschaften und in der Ethnologie zu ausufernden Kontroversen geführt. Angesichts des schwer abzugrenzenden Gegenstandsbereichs und der unterschiedlichen Interpretationen innerhalb der verschiedenen Disziplinen sollte eine schärfere Konturierung des Begriffs seine konkreten Erscheinungsformen und seine Anwendbarkeit in spezifischen Kontexten einbeziehen – insbesondere innerhalb
Full Text Available Several challenges involving torture-related human rights violations have been reported in Zimbabwe from the late 1970s to date. Notably, these torture-related human rights violations were problematic during the liberation war era in Zimbabwe. Regrettably, such violations are allegedly still prevalent, especially prior to and/or during general political elections in Zimbabwe. Accordingly, this article investigates torture as a human rights violation in Zimbabwe, inter alia by focusing on the role of selected law enforcement agencies in the protection of human rights in Zimbabwe. The article also discusses the legal position on torture and the perpetration of torture against ordinary people prior to as well as after independence in Zimbabwe. This is done to investigate the adequacy of the legal framework in Zimbabwe with regard to the combatting of torture. In relation to this, selected regional and international legal frameworks against torture are briefly discussed in order to determine possible measures that could be utilised in Zimbabwe. The authors submit that although the Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No 20 Act, 2013 (Zimbabwe Constitution, 2013 prohibits torture, more may still need to be done to enhance the combatting of torture in Zimbabwe. For instance, apart from the prohibition contained in the Zimbabwe Constitution, 2013, there is no legislation that expressly outlaws torture in Zimbabwe. Moreover, Zimbabwe has not ratified the United Nations (UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment of 1984 (UN Convention against Torture to date. Lastly, concluding remarks and possible recommendations that could be employed to discourage torture-related human rights abuses in Zimbabwe are provided.
John MPOFU, Zimbabwe Open University ZIMBABWE
Full Text Available Zimbabwe Distance Open University is enrols students from both urban and rural settings. The majority of students living and working in rural areas have limited or no access to computers and electricity as a result the use of information and communication technology (ICT in the learning process is very limited. Though government has realized the importance of developing ICT for learning purposes, in practice very little has materialized in the provision of the ICT technology especially in rural areas. The majority of Zimbabwe Open University students have expressed difficulties in coping with their studies partly due to lack of supplementary reading materials from internet. The research will use a descriptive survey method to extract information regarding use of ICT from students living in rural areas and those in urban areas. Observation on what actually takes place in the library and learning process will be highlighted by the researching team comprising three lecturers who all work for ZOU. A contrastive approach will be used to compare the performance of students with access to internet with those without access to internet. Interviews of ZOU students and lecturers will be used to collect data.
Mafuvadze, Brighton Tasara; Mahachi, Lovemore; Mafuvadze, Benford
Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases affecting children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Previous studies show a higher prevalence of dental caries in children from low socio-economic status backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries among 12 year old children in urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe and establish preliminary baseline data. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 12 year old children at primary schools in Harare and Bikita district. A Pre-tested questionnaire was administered to elicit information from the participants on tooth cleaning, dietary habits and dental experience. Dental caries status was assessed using the DMFT index following World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Our results showed a high prevalence of dental caries in both urban (59.5%) and rural (40.8%) children. The mean DMFT in urban and rural areas was 1.29 and 0.66, respectively. Furthermore, our data showed a general lack of knowledge on oral health issues by the participants. There is high prevalence of dental caries among 12 years old school children in both urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe. This calls for early preventive strategies and treatment services. We recommend incorporation of oral health education in the elementary school curricula.
Ngarivhume, Talkmore; Van't Klooster, Charlotte I E A; de Jong, Joop T V M; Van der Westhuizen, Jan H
Because about 50% of the Zimbabwean population is at risk of contracting malaria each year, the majority of people, especially in rural areas, use traditional plant-based medicines to combat malaria. This explorative ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to document how malaria is conceptualized and diagnosed by traditional healers, and to record the medicinal plants used in the prevention and treatment of malaria, their mode of preparation and administration. The research was conducted in three villages in Headman Muzite׳s area and in Chiriga village. These villages are located in the Chipinge district in the Manicaland Province in Zimbabwe.Traditional healers were selected with the assistance of the headman of the Muzite area and a representative of the Zimbabwe National Traditional Healers Association. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 traditional healers from four villages in the Chipinge district in Zimbabwe. In total, 28 plants from 16 plant families are used by the healers who manage malaria with medicinal plants. The most cited plant is Cassia abbreviata Oliv. (Leguminosae) followed by Aristolochia albida Duch (Aristolociaceae) and Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (Rutaceae). Roots (55.3%) are the most common part used. Most of the plant parts used to treat malaria are stored as dried powders in closed bottles. The powders are soaked in hot or cold water and the water extract is taken as the active medicine. The healers consider their medicinal knowledge as a spiritual family heritage. Only 25% of the healers refer the malaria patients that do not respond to their treatment to hospital - they believe evil spirits cause their remedies to failure and they would rather try a different plant or perform a cleansing ceremony. Local knowledge of medicinal plants in the treatment of malaria still exists in all four villages surveyed and traditional healers appear to play an important role in primary health care services in this remote rural area in
admissions are AIDS-related, leaving few beds or resources for other CRS-25 93 Dr. Peter Piot , “Launch of the 2005 AIDS Epidemic Update,” November 21, 2005...in “Zimbabwe Leader ‘Frantically’ Seeking Allies,” BBC Monitoring Africa, November 23, 2006. Chinese firms are playing roles in the cell phone industry...167 Teddy Brett and Simon Winter, “Origins of the Zimbabwe Crisis,” Focus ( Helen Suzman Foundation), June 2003. Although Mugabe’s neighboring
Full Text Available Review Article: Josephine Lucy Fisher (2010, Pioneers, Settlers, Aliens, Exiles: The Decolonisation of White Identity in Zimbabwe, Canberra: Australian National University Press, ISBN 978-1-921-66614-8 (pbk., xiii + 276 pp. David McDermott Hughes (2010, Whiteness in Zimbabwe: Race, Landscape, and the Problem of Belonging, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 978-0-230-62143-5 (pbk., 204 pp. Kate Victoria Law (2012, Writing White Women: Whiteness, Gender, Politics and Power in Rhodesia, c.1950s–1980s, Ph.D. thesis, University of Sheffield, 249 pp.
Davidson, O.R.; Mwakasonda, S.A.
This study focuses on the accessibility of electricity to the poor in South Africa and Zimbabwe as a means to improve understanding of the various factors that affect the provision of modern energy to the poor in these countries. The study examines the impact on the poor of power sector reforms. Specifically, it makes an assessment of the impact of the electrification programmes in the two countries. The situation in the two countries is discussed separately, followed by a comparative analysis. South Africa is the most industrialised country in Africa and it is endowed with a wide variety of natural resources. It is currently going through major changes in many spheres of its economy, including energy, following the democratic elections in 1994. An important consideration that is directing all aspects of government policy is the need to address the enormous disparities in income levels and living conditions betaveen the different racial groups, a result of apartheid. The rural areas are even more impoverished than urban ones. Alter the 1994 democratic elections, the South African Government launched the first phase of the National Electrification Programme (1994-99), aimed at increasing electrification from 36 per cent to about 66 per cent nationally by 2001 - 46 per cent rural and 80 per cent urban. By the end of 2001, 66.1 per cent of households were electrified, with more than 3.4 million connections made since 1994. Since then, several polities have been introduced in the electricity sector that are of direct relevance to this work. The most important of these concern the restructuring of the electricity supply industry and direct subsidies for the poor and disadvantaged. The South African Government established a National Electrification Fund to subsidise a portion of the capital costs of new electricity connections under the National Electrifcation Programme. The Fund derives its income not only from the electricity industry, but also from fiscal allocations
Full Text Available Artisanal small-scale mining (ASM has devastating impacts on the environment, such as deforestation, over-stripping of overburden, burning of bushes and use of harmful chemicals like mercury. These environmental impacts are a result of destructive mining, wasteful mineral extraction and processing practices and techniques used by the artisanal small-scale miners. This paper explores the ecological problems caused by ASM in Mzingwane District, Zimbabwe. It seeks to determine the nature and extent to which the environment has been damaged by the ASM from a community perspective. Interviews, questionnaires and observations were used to collect qualitative data. Results indicated that the nature of the mining activities undertaken by unskilled and under-equipped gold panners in Mzingwane District is characterised by massive stripping of overburden and burning of bushes, leading to destruction of large tracts of land and river systems and general ecosystem disturbance. The research concluded that ASM in Mzingwane District is an ecological time bomb, stressing the need for appropriate modifications of the legal and institutional frameworks for promoting sustainable use of natural resources and mining development in Zimbabwe. Government, through the Ministry of Small Scale and Medium Enterprises, need to regularise and formalise all gold mining activities through licensing, giving permanent claims and operating permits to panners in order to recoup some of the added costs in the form of taxes. At the local level, the Mzingwane Rural District Council (MRDC together with the Environmental Management Agency (EMA need to design appropriate environmental education and awareness programmes targeting the local community and gold panners.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early infant male circumcision (EIMC is simpler, safer and more cost-effective than adult circumcision. In sub-Saharan Africa, there are concerns about acceptability of EIMC which could affect uptake. In 2009 a quantitative survey of 2,746 rural Zimbabweans (aged 18-44 indicated that 60% of women and 58% of men would be willing to have their newborn son circumcised. Willingness was associated with knowledge of HIV and male circumcision. This qualitative study was conducted to better understand this issue. METHODS: In 2010, 24 group discussions were held across Zimbabwe with participants from seven ethnic groups. Additionally, key informant interviews were held with private paediatricians who offer EIMC (n = 2 plus one traditional leader. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, translated into English (where necessary, coded using NVivo 8 and analysed using grounded theory principles. RESULTS: Knowledge of the procedure was poor. Despite this, acceptability of EIMC was high among parents from most ethnic groups. Discussions suggested that fathers would make the ultimate decision regarding EIMC although mothers and extended family can have (often covert influence. Participants' concerns centred on: safety, motive behind free service provision plus handling and disposal of the discarded foreskin. Older men from the dominant traditionally circumcising population strongly opposed EIMC, arguing that it separates circumcision from adolescent initiation, as well as allowing women (mothers to nurse the wound, considered taboo. CONCLUSIONS: EIMC is likely to be an acceptable HIV prevention intervention for most populations in Zimbabwe, if barriers to uptake are appropriately addressed and fathers are specifically targeted by the programme.
Full Text Available This study investigated perceptions of rural communities on climate change and its impacts on livelihoods. The research was conducted in the semi-arid Hwange district in Matebelel and North province of Zimbabwe. The perceptions were compared with empirical evidence from climatic studies on trends on temperature and rainfall, and impacts on livelihoods in the country and region. The findings from the current study are generally in agreement with those of other studies that indicate changes in the climate, especially in terms of rainfall. This largely applies to short-term periods; however, for long-term periods it is difficult to accurately relate rural community perceptions to changes in rainfall over time. Despite perceived changes and impacts of climate change on local livelihood activities, mainly agriculture, there are multiple stressors that the communities face which also affect their livelihoods. Further evidence-based research is required to disentangle climate change impacts on livelihoods, including livelihood impacts arising from interactions of climate and non-climatic factors.
Makate, Clifton; Wang, Rongchang; Makate, Marshall; Mango, Nelson
This paper demonstrates how crop diversification impacts on two outcomes of climate smart agriculture; increased productivity (legume and cereal crop productivity) and enhanced resilience (household income, food security, and nutrition) in rural Zimbabwe. Using data from over 500 smallholder farmers, we jointly estimate crop diversification and each of the outcome variables within a conditional (recursive) mixed process framework that corrects for selectivity bias arising due to the voluntary nature of crop diversification. We find that crop diversification depends on the land size, farming experience, asset wealth, location, access to agricultural extension services, information on output prices, low transportation costs and general information access. Our results also indicate that an increase in the rate of adoption improves crop productivity, income, food security and nutrition at household level. Overall, our results are indicative of the importance of crop diversification as a viable climate smart agriculture practice that significantly enhances crop productivity and consequently resilience in rural smallholder farming systems. We, therefore, recommend wider adoption of diversified cropping systems notably those currently less diversified for greater adaptation to the ever-changing climate.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT IT governance is one of the major areas of concern in Zimbabwe public and private sector organisations. Most organisations in the country are running their IT function without any consideration of the international best practices in as far as governance of the IT function is concerned. This research seeks to identify the structure of the IT services department in polytechnics and its associated roles and responsibilities the structure of the board that play the oversight function over the IT service department and conduct a detailed investigation on a wide range of IT governance issues that include - IT governance status and alignment drivers and barriers Input and decision making in IT governance IT governance structures and processes IT performance and accountability and assessing IT governance performance.
The right to 'freedom from all forms of violence from public or private sources', enshrined in Zimbabwe's new Constitution, could have a significant impact on efforts to end violence against women (VAW) in the country. The right is particularly relevant in the Zimbabwean context where VAW occurs in a range of settings, from ...
This paper explores the prominence of spirituality in social work practice. It maintains that spirituality is a very critical aspect of social work and the two must never be detached. It is also the authors' contention that the centrality of spirituality in social work is not a well taught and well researched area in Zimbabwe. Just like ...
Zambezia: The Journal of Humanities of the University of Zimbabwe. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 28, No 2 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Aug 31, 2006 ... and desperately hold on to political power. This paper is an appraisal of electoral politics in Zimbabwe since the attainment of political independence in 1980. The paper proceeds from the premise that dictators and authoritarian regimes are not easily removed from office through democratic means. Indeed.
This study was to determine the prevalence of entomophagy in the post independence era (after 1980) in Zimbabwe given that the social status of many families has changed. A cross-sectional non probability sampling was used to determine who ate which insect and how much they ate and where they came from.
The article looks at the introduction of a Library and Information Science programme at the National University of Science and Technology (NUST) in Zimbabwe, as the first step towards paving the way for an introduction of a Records and Archives Management degree programme. In this article, the authors who are Third ...
Promoting the developmental social welfare approach in Zimbabwe: Challenges and prospects. STW Mhiribidi ... The reason given for this anomaly was mainly scarcity of resources. The study revealed that while developmental social work was preferred (especially by the professional social workers), remedial social work is ...
Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Khoza, Star; Hassall, Oliver; Faragher, Brian E.; Kajja, Isaac; Mvere, David A.; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus
Background. There are limited published data on the characteristics of blood transfusion recipients in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the demographic characteristics of blood transfusion recipients and patterns of blood and blood component use in Zimbabwe. Materials and methods. Data on
This paper argues that, contrary to the picture portrayed by the government of Zimbabwe, internal displacement, as one form of (forced) migration within a country's borders, is more prevalent in the country than is at first discernable. The paper offers an overview of the current scholarship on the forced mobility of particular ...
The ability by government departments to attain effective service delivery, accountability and good governance is largely determined by their records management practices. Delays and failure to access services due to missing or misplaced records from public institutions is a common challenge in Zimbabwe.
Change in size and extent of cultivation and vegetation cover was analysed in three villages of an initial resettlement scheme in Zimbabwe using change detection depicted on serial aerial photographs taken at eight-year intervals from inception in 1981 to 1997. A geographic information system was used as an analytical ...
Williams, G; Ray, S
Strategies for Hope is a series of booklets and videos about innovative and practical approaches to AIDS management and prevention in developing countries. It is published by the UK development agency ACTIONAID and the African Medical and Research Foundation with technical and financial support from the World Health Organization Global Program on AIDS. More than 500,000 booklets and 5000 videos have been distributed worldwide. The authors describe what they learned while researching the eighth booklet in the series, Work Against AIDS, analyzing seven workplace-based AIDS programs in Zimbabwe. They argue that the workplace can play a far greater role in AIDS awareness and prevention than is generally realized. AIDS is already affecting the health and productivity of the workforce in Zimbabwe, where in some areas more than 15% of adults are estimated to be HIV-positive. Morbidity and mortality are rising with concomitant worker absenteeism, yet most workplaces in Zimbabwe do not have even a poster about AIDS on display. There are, however, some impressive education programs under way. These programs, run by a significant number of volunteer peer educators, are working to reduce the stigma attached with sexually transmitted diseases and promote low-cost or free treatment. The authors also note as most promising the program of the Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions training 700 Health and Safety representatives at shop-floor and branch levels in AIDS-related human rights issues at the workplace as well as AIDS awareness and prevention.
Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Nyoni, Herbert; Nkomo, Sisodwa Z; Jacob, Jeffery S; Chikwereti, Radhi; Musekiwa, Zamile; Khoza, Star; Mvere, David A; Emmanuel, Jean C; Postma, Maarten J; van Hulst, Marinus
BACKGROUND: There is lack of published data on the costs of blood and blood transfusion in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to assess the unit costs of producing blood in Zimbabwe using an activity-based costing (ABC) method. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A management accounting approach, based on
The National Archives of Zimbabwe ( NAZ) houses the film archives of the institution as well as other audiovisual material. This includes sound archives, slides and literature. The Unit used to be part of our Library until 1988, when it became separate. Assistance in setting up the Unit was obtained from the Beit Trust and ...
-Saharan Africa. This article is trying to fill this gap by analysing the ZDHS data. The total fertility rate of Zimbabwe was close to 7 births during independence in 1980. However, it has declined to 3.8 in 2006. This does not only show that fertility ...
This paper discusses the integration of information services in the Parliament of Zimbabwe (PoZ). An organizational chart of the information systems at PoZ in 1999 is provided, and each of the four departments managing information services are described, i.e., the library, the research department, public relations, and information technology. An…
Tarusarira, Joram; Castryck, Geert; Strickrodt, Silke; Werthmann, Katja
That ‘correct’ history of Zimbabwe must be taught in schools and universities is not a contested a proposition. Controversy however centers on what ‘correct’ and ‘authentic’ history is. Historians and activists of late have re-emphasised the question, against the background of the need to know the
Aug 31, 2006 ... opposition political parties, and fraudulent tallying of the votes at counting. ... bulletins de vote. La violence politique joue également un rôle crucial dans la politique électorale au Zimbabwe. Les principaux acteurs de cette violence ..... had set up illegal roadblocks in many parts of the country, refused them.
less glamour was the staff training provided to senior officers of the new Zimbabwe National Army. Part of the difficulties facing BMATT in creating...1989, pp. 17-19. 26. Rake, Alan. "Will SWAPO Win?" New Africa, November 1989, pp. 36-37. 27. Schoeman, Elna. The Namibian Issue. 1920 -1980. A Selected
With the formation of an inclusive government in March 2009, Zimbabwe is emerging from a decade of socioeconomic decline evident in high levels of poverty, unemployment, inflation and poor service provision in the areas of education, health and infrastructure. Start Date: August 12, 2010. End Date: October 16, 2012.
Nyanga, L.K.; Nout, M.J.R.; Gadaga, T.H.; Boekhout, T.; Zwietering, M.H.
A survey of the traditional processing techniques of masau was conducted using a questionnaire and two focus group discussions in Mudzi, Mt. Darwin, and Muzarabani districts in Zimbabwe. Masau fruits form part of the family diet and generate additional income by selling at local markets. Surplus
The majority of Zimbabweans are now accustomed to electoral fraud as practised by the ruling Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) led by President Mugabe. Elections are generally not conducted in a manner that can be deemed to be free, fair and transparent. The major electoral malpractices ...
Seroprevalence of leptospiral antibodies in commercial pigs in the Mashonaland East Province of Zimbabwe · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M Mavenyengwa, E Keller, T Munyombwe, 85-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/zvj.v30i3.5349 ...
Prevalence of tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis in donkeys in Nyaminyami District, Zimbabwe · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Mudavanhu Nyagura, Nyaradzo Masvanganye, Gillian Maregere, Thokozani Hove, Andrew Garura, Erick Mutizhe, Hannah Davies ...
The role of iodine in livestock production under natural conditions in Zimbabwe · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. U Ushewokunze-Obatolu, A A Majok, H T Matarira, A Brand, 99-108. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/zvj.v28i3.5318 ...
Original Papers Ostertagia ostertagi infection in cattle on an irrigated farm on the highveld of Zimbabwe · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. D Z Moyo, M Eysker, W M L Hendrikx, O Bwangamoi, M J Obwolo, 1-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/zvj.v28i1.5307 ...
This grant will allow researchers from the two institutions to conduct a new baseline survey on poverty, well-being and inequality in Zimbabwe, and to build the capacity of researchers at CASS to contribute to recovery and growth in the county. At the same time, it will disseminate to a wider audience (especially policymakers ...
The relevance of social work as a helping profession in Zimbabwe is under threat because its major purpose remains cramped within social issues devoid of environmental concerns. The key functions of the profession revolve around the restoration of coping capacities and enhancement of social functioning in the upkeep ...
... Pointer bitch which lost weight and had hindlimb ataxia due to lesions in the vertebrae and spinal cord. Granulomatous nodules containing colonies of Norcardia species were found in the sublumbar muscles, lungs and pleura. These cases confirm the occurrence of norcardiosis in Zimbabwe. The Kenya Veterinarian Vol.
The paper synthesizes findings based on a wide ranging research on university marketing in Zimbabwe. The research was primarily aimed at determining university Vice Chancellors' and internal marketers' perceptions of marketing, how the marketing function was organized and how specific university customer groups ...
Microclimate at Mana Pools: effects of a total eclipse of the sun · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. J. Milford, 63-68. Zimbabwe's total solar eclipse June 21st 2001 · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Unknown ...
Animal Science in Zimbabwe: Strategies and Solutions · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. (The Late) J H Topps, 35-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/zsn.v33i2.18523 ...
This paper identifies shortfalls in the Children's Act (Zimbabwe) which reduce its alignment with the international and domestic legal instruments such as the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (ACRWC), Child Protection Model Law, ...
Common property resource (CPR) management approaches are now thought to provide a viable alternative to natural resource management. Our investigations on common property issues for woodlands in communal areas in Zimbabwe reveal numerous cases showing a breakdown of local institutions for CPR ...
Objectives: The study aimed to look at the demographic information, size and location of intracranial aneurysms, treatment rendered and the outcomes in Zimbabwe. Design: ... Subjects: Adult intracranial aneurysm patients. ... Ten of the seventeen (58.8%) had hypertension while two had a history of aneurysms in the family.
... social protection policy and programmes that may have a positive impact on the welfare of the urban poor. This study assesses the prevalence of morbidity and mortality in some low-income suburbs of Zimbabwe. Results indicate that the reported leading causes of long illness and death were predominantly AIDS related.
This study examined mainstream teachers' preparation for inclusion in Early Childhood Education (ECE). Embedded within the "core expertise" of inclusive pedagogy, this descriptive study drew on a sample of 23 mainstream teachers purposively drawn from the Midlands educational province of Zimbabwe. A constant comparative approach of…
More than 10% of Zimbabwe's population is thought to be infected with HIV. Protector condoms, marketed by Johnson and Johnson (Zimbabwe), have been available in Zimbabwe for several years, but supplies often ran out due to contractual difficulties with the US Agency for International Development (USAID). Population Services International (PSI), with the financial support of Britain's Overseas Development Administration (ODA) and USAID, has relaunched the condom social marketing program in Zimbabwe and will also introduce female condoms for the first time in May. Selling for about Z$1 (US$0.09) each, the subsidized male condoms will be marketed in places where the public sector cannot go, such as gas stations, supermarkets, convenience grocery stores in high-density suburbs, beer halls, and night clubs. Approximately 5 million condoms are expected to be sold in 1997, although most condoms will still be supplied free of charge through the public sector. The female condoms will be priced at Z$3 each. PSI hopes to sell 40,000 per year, while another 400,000 will be given away in hospitals, family planning clinics, and other public health services.
SIPHAMBE, H.K. (PROF.)
be 59.4% of gross national product (GNP) in 1999/2000. According to Poverty Assessment. Study Survey (Zimbabwe) conducted by the United Nations Development Fund (UNDP) in collaboration with Ministry of Public Service, Labour and Social Welfare (MPSLSW), 50% of all jobs between 2003 and 2006 were in the ...
Gender disparities in every economic sector are not peculiar to Zimbabwe, but have long been standing anomalies worldwide. It is well documented that the reasons that have largely disadvantaged women stem from patriarchy, customary law and the colonial legacy that continue to short-change women. As a result ...
Gandiwa, E.; Heitkonig, I.M.A.; Gandiwa, P.; Matsvayi, W.; Westhuizen, van der H.; Ngwenya, M.M.
We compared densities and distribution of wild ungulates and domestic livestock based on aerial surveys conducted during 1991 - 2,010 in northern parts of Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), Zimbabwe. The sampled area covered approximately 320 km(2) (Chipinda Pools area) representing ca. 27 % of the
Sexually transmitted diseases in Zimbabwe: a qualitative analysis of factors associated with choice of a health care facility. ... Data from 26 FGDs attended by 281 antenatal clinic attendees, 34 FGDs of 350 women attending well baby clinics, 8 FGDs of 82 women recruited at long distance bus stops/market places, 9 FGDs of ...
Nov 16, 2015 ... Abstract. Land is undoubtedly the most important resource in any country as it contributes to economic development. ... Land can ideally drive the economy yet part of the value is lost due to lengthy .... This negatively affected the progression of the development of a digital cadastral system for Zimbabwe. 2.
This paper bemoans the current scourge of child- sexual abuse as well as the recent disturbing phenomenon of ... KEY TERMS: irrationality, cultural rationality, education for hunhu, chivanhu. Department of Educational ... Zimbabwe, this paradox is evident, among other crimes, in the increasing despicable and horrible ...
JASSA: Journal of Applied Science in Southern Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 2 (2000) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Random walk and the Zimbabwe capital markets.
After years of political and economic upheavals and disappointing trade performance, Zimbabwe sorely needs to revitalise its economy. An important step towards this outcome is to grow and strengthen the country's export sector. This article looks at whether an export promotion strategy, based on the application of a ...
Sujet: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MEDICAL RECORDS, HEALTH SURVEYS, HEALTH STATISTICS, DATA COLLECTING, TELECOMMUNICATIONS. Région: Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South of Sahara, South Africa. Financement total : CA$ 1,047,039.00. Renforcement de la capacité d'adaptation aux changements ...
the child, survival and development, participation and non-discrimination. KEY TERMS: children's rights, participation, child protection, harmonisation, legislation, gaps. Author details: Bhaiseni Blessing, National Executive Committee member of the National Association of Social Workers of Zimbabwe/ District Child Welfare ...
Zambezia: The Journal of Humanities of the University of Zimbabwe. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 29, No 1 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access ...
Richards, Kimberly A. M.; Zivave, Athanas T.; Govere, Saunsuray M.; Mphande, Joyce; Dupwa, Beatrice
Counseling in Zimbabwe has a long tradition, dating back to pre-Colonial times. In the modern context, counseling has evolved through the educational and health care sectors. Since the 1990s, Zimbabwean counselors have advocated for professional recognition, a struggle similar to that of counselors in the United States. In this article, the…
Population distribution, land-use, industrial activity, urban agricultural activities, and pollution control strategies in Harare, Zimbabwe, have all changed significantly since independence in 1980. The effects of these changes on water quality and the consequences on human and ecological health are of major economic and ...
Garwe, Evelyn Chiyevo
The objective of the study was to document initiatives for enhancing graduate employability and building successful future careers for students. The author used the case of Zimbabwe to explore interventions by higher education institutions, government, industry and commerce as well as professional bodies. The methodology involved a mix of…
Patriotic Front) (ZANU-PF) has used song to develop its group identity. During the war, choirs related to the party's military wing, the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army, sang in support of the party's war effort. After independence ...
In September 2008 the three main political parties in Zimbabwe signed a Global Political Agreement (GPA), undertaking to engage in the development of a new democratic constitution of over the next 24 months. This project will feed into that process by promoting the inclusion of right to health in the new constitution.
... attempt will be made to discuss those of the greatest importance. An alternative way to write a comprehensive review is to base it on type of livestock, viz. beef cattle, dairy cattle, pigs, etc. (Ndlovu, 1994a) so this approach is also incorporated in this paper. The Zimbabwe Science News Volume 33(2) April – July 1999, pp.
We argue that current institutional systems are rooted in norm-based controls contrary to the formal rule-based systems that form the cornerstones of the proposed CPR systems. We suggest that interventions that propose CPR systems need critical analysis. The Zimbabwe Science News Volume 36 (1+ 2) 2002, pp. 13-17 ...
On the 20th of January 2016, the Constitutional Court of Zimbabwe went a step ahead to protect children's rights by banning child marriages and other harmful practices that are detrimental to childhood. The ruling comes at an opportune time to denounce the inadequacy of marriage laws, and to ban all archaic practices ...
This article analyses the language in education policy of Zimbabwe. It attempts to highlight the factors that informed the formulation of this policy, as well as the challenges and constraints that have affected its implementation. The country's language in education policy can be traced back to the colonial history of the country, ...
This paper will explore the definition of CSA, its effects and prevention strategies. The paper adopts Meili's model of prevention which suggests prevention of CSA at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. The authors conclude that social workers in Zimbabwe have a role to play at all the three levels of intervention.
stimulate and achieve sustainable economic growth in order to create a basis for funding social protection .... met by the family or market system and that the state should only assist when these systems breakdown. ..... elderly in Zimbabwe but it cannot be relied upon as payment of allowances is not always guaranteed.
May 30, 2016 ... human rights litigation by extending standing to a human rights orgnisation28 and the law society.29 In the Catholic Commission for Justice and Peace in. Zimbabwe v Attorney-General30 case, the Supreme Court allowed a human rights organisation to challenge the constitutionality of the death sentence.
While the issue of Ndebele particularism is currently overshadowed by the recent political and economic crisis that has seen Zimbabwe becoming a pariah state, it has continued to haunt both the project of nationalism that ended up unravelling along the fault-lines of Ndebele-Shona ethnicities and the post-colonial ...
The purpose of the article is to trace the development of student unionism in Zimbabwe. On the basis of a discussion of the nature of the university, the article argues that because the university environment tolerates and promotes academic freedom and liberal values, it provides an environment conducive to critical thought and oppositional…
Jan 1, 2001 ... Zimbabwe medical school) and access to patients (who would largely be urban ... to be taken at breakfast, lunch-time, evening-meal and bedtime were stated in four ... The mean New York Heart Association functional class ...
Mines, Energy , and Transport, and several senior MDC-M parliamentarians, including Mutambara, lost to MDC-T candidates. The Presidency. The MDC’s...and processes in Zimbabwe, who are included in a Specially Designated Nationals( SDN ) list maintained by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of
The following sociocultural factors that may affect science education in Zimbabwe are discussed: sex or gender bias, reverence for authority, religious ideology, causality and causal attribution and relationship with nature. It is also recommended that science educators should view science from a cultural context and that ...
Yaya, Sanni; Bishwajit, Ghose; Ekholuenetale, Michael; Shah, Vaibhav
Globally, low birth weight (LBW) remains a leading cause of neonatal and infant mortality and poses significant challenges toward the progress of achieving infant mortality-related goals. Experience from developed countries shows that two major causes of LBW (premature delivery and intrauterine growth restriction) can be averted to a great extent by adequate utilization of maternal health-care services, during pregnancy. In this study, we attempt to measure the prevalence of LBW in Zimbabwe and explore the association between adequate utilization of prenatal care (PNC) services and LBW in Zimbabwe. We also explore other possible associations with LBW. This study was based on nationally representative, cross-sectional data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey round 5, conducted in 2014. Participants included 3,221 mothers from both rural and urban areas. The participants were selected regardless of their current pregnancy status. Sample characteristics were presented using descriptive statistics. Association between utilization status of ANC and LBW was measured by chi-square (bivariate) test and logistic regression methods. Prevalence of LBW was 12.8%. There was 11% reduction in the odds of having LBW babies for participants from urban area when compared with rural area (AOR = 0.897; 95% CI = 0.707-1.138). When compared to women with higher education, those having primary/below primary and secondary level qualification had higher odds of experiencing LBW babies by 73 and 56%, respectively. Participants who had less than four PNC/ANC visits had 34% higher odds (AOR = 1.340; 95% CI = 1.065-1.685) than those with at least four visits, and those who had given birth more than once, had 38% lower odds (AOR = 0.620; 95% CI = 0.493-0.780) of giving birth to LBW babies when compared to those who had given birth only once. The findings of this study have programmatic and policy implications for low-resource nations and suggest that promoting access
Langsford, Marian; Griffiths, Trevor
This article describes an innovative, rapidly effective, low cost, health promoting educational input that can strengthen social systems to support the social and emotional development of orphan children. The training project took place in a resource-poor area of rural southern Zimbabwe. The teaching was found to be culturally relevant and transferable, to the extent that several of the learners progressed to become tutors, training others to use the method in local languages. The method promotes healthy adjustment, emotional resilience and intelligent decision-making for health. By reducing chronic stress in orphans and their carers, lifelong learning may improve immune function. © The Author(s) 2015.
Background: Lathyrism is a neurotoxic disorder caused by over consumption of grass pea (lathyrism sativus). It is endemic in Ethiopia, India and Bangladesh. The fact that grass pea usually tends to replace the staple serial based diet of rural north and central Ethiopia during times of acute food shortages, makes the disease ...
Evans, W Douglas; Taruberekera, Noah; Longfield, Kim; Snider, Jeremy
Zimbabwe suffers from one of the greatest burdens of HIV/AIDS in the world that has been compounded by social and economic instability in the past decade. However, from 2001 to 2009 HIV prevalence among 15-49 year olds declined from 26% to approximately 14%. Behavior change and condom use may in part explain this decline.PSI-Zimbabwe socially markets the Protector Plus (P+) branded line of condoms. When Zimbabwe converted to a dollar-based economy in 2009, the price of condoms was greatly increased and new marketing efforts were undertaken. This paper evaluates the role of condom marketing, a multi-dimensional scale of brand peceptions (brand equity), and price in condom use behavior. We randomly sampled sexually active men age 15-49 from 3 groups - current P+ users, former users, and free condom users. We compared their brand equity and willingness to pay based on survey results. We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to compare the 3 groups. We found that the brand equity scale was positive correlated with willingness to pay and with condom use. Former users also indicated a high willingness to pay for condoms. We found differences in brand equity between the 3 groups, with current P+ users having the highest P+ brand equity. As observed in previous studies, higher brand equity was associated with more of the targeted health behavior, in this case and more consistent condom use. Zimbabwe men have highly positive brand perceptions of P+. There is an opportunity to grow the total condom market in Zimbabwe by increasing brand equity across user groups. Some former users may resume using condoms through more effective marketing. Some free users may be willing to pay for condoms. Achieving these objectives will expand the total condom market and reduce HIV risk behaviors.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Zimbabwe suffers from one of the greatest burdens of HIV/AIDS in the world that has been compounded by social and economic instability in the past decade. However, from 2001 to 2009 HIV prevalence among 15-49 year olds declined from 26% to approximately 14%. Behavior change and condom use may in part explain this decline. PSI-Zimbabwe socially markets the Protector Plus (P+ branded line of condoms. When Zimbabwe converted to a dollar-based economy in 2009, the price of condoms was greatly increased and new marketing efforts were undertaken. This paper evaluates the role of condom marketing, a multi-dimensional scale of brand peceptions (brand equity, and price in condom use behavior. Methods We randomly sampled sexually active men age 15-49 from 3 groups - current P+ users, former users, and free condom users. We compared their brand equity and willingness to pay based on survey results. We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to compare the 3 groups. Results We found that the brand equity scale was positive correlated with willingness to pay and with condom use. Former users also indicated a high willingness to pay for condoms. We found differences in brand equity between the 3 groups, with current P+ users having the highest P+ brand equity. As observed in previous studies, higher brand equity was associated with more of the targeted health behavior, in this case and more consistent condom use. Conclusions Zimbabwe men have highly positive brand perceptions of P+. There is an opportunity to grow the total condom market in Zimbabwe by increasing brand equity across user groups. Some former users may resume using condoms through more effective marketing. Some free users may be willing to pay for condoms. Achieving these objectives will expand the total condom market and reduce HIV risk behaviors.
Full Text Available Forest benefit analysis is vital in ensuring sustainable community-based natural resources management. Forest depletion and degradation are key issues in rural Zimbabwe and strategies to enhance sustainable forest management are continually sought. This study was carried out to assess the impact of forests on communities from Nyanga, Guruve and Zvimba districts of Zimbabwe. It is based on a Big Lottery Fund project implemented by Progressio-UK and Environment Africa. Itfocuses on identifying replicable community forest and landmanagement strategies and the level of benefits accruing to the community. Analysis of change was based on the Income and Food Security and Forest benefits, which also constitutes the tools used during the research. The study confirms the high rate of deforestation and the increased realisation by communities to initiate practical measures aimed at protecting and sustaining forest and land resources from which they derive economic and social benefits. The results highlight the value of community structures (Farmer Field Schools and Environmental Action Groups as conduits for natural resource management. The interconnectivity among forests, agricultural systems and the integral role of people are recognised as key to climate change adaptation.Keywords: Forest benefits; sustainability,;livelihoods; farmer field schools
It is concluded that equality for women in education, which was a state aim in 1980, is no longer a state concern in Zimbabwe. It is argued that protection of the patriarchal order has been the operating principle of both colonial and post-colonial periods, and education is used to maintain the gender imbalance. Black women under colonialism were subjected to both sexism and racism. The socioeconomic order was maintained by ensuring that Blacks remained uneducated and unskilled. Colonial policy was race specific. Education was free and compulsory for Whites only. Black parents paid fees for a son's education. Post colonialism and in 1971, only 43.5% of Black children were enrolled in school, of which 3.9% were in secondary school. Only 19 girls with at the highest level in school. School curriculum was gender based, which meant girls were taught cooking and typing. During independence, education policy was instituted, and education was considered as a human right and gender neutral. Tuition fees in primary grades were eliminated, and education was expanded. However, changes after independence did not result in equal advantage for girls. By 1985-91, girls had lower enrollments at all grade levels. The widest gaps in enrollment were at the highest levels. School curriculum changed very little, and girls were directed to the "feminine" courses of study. Girls performed poorly in math and sciences. Girls were underenrolled in technical and vocational institutions. After 1989, structural adjustment programs negatively impacted on women. There was reduced access to employment, limited access to services, and increased demands on women's time in order to compensate for gaps created by cuts in services. New changes in education policy are expected to negatively impact on girl's education. Fees for primary school were reintroduced in urban areas, and secondary school fees were increased. The government dropped the requirement of certification for technical and commercial
31 janv. 2011 ... Le Zimbabwe postcolonial tire son nom du Grand Zimbabwe, une cité d'Afrique australe composée de bâtiments en pierre, ayant atteint son apogée entre les XIe et XVe siècles. Bien que le Grand Zimbabwe soit le monument national du pays, il reste qu'aujourd'hui, ces structures saisissantes sont en ruine ...
Robinson, Peter B.
In southern Africa, gross disparities in access to water are symptomatic of the overall uneven pattern of development. Despite post-independence egalitarian rhetoric, in countries such as Zambia and Zimbabwe inappropriate models (piped house connections in the urban areas, high technology irrigation schemes in the agricultural sector), combined with weak macro-economies and poorly formulated sectoral policies have actually exacerbated the disparities. Zero or very low tariffs have played a major role in this. Although justified as being consistent with water's special status, inadequate tariffs in fact serve to undermine any programme of making water accessible to all. This has led to a narrowing of development options, resulting in exclusivist rather than inclusivist development, and stagnation rather than dynamism. A major part of the explanation for perpetuation of such unsatisfactory outcomes is the existence of political interest groups who benefit from the status quo. The first case study in the paper involves urban water consumers in Zambia, where those with piped water connections seek to continue the culture of low tariffs which is by now deeply embedded. The result is that the water supply authorities (in this case the newly formed, but still politically constrained 'commercialised utilities') are unable even to maintain adequate supplies to the piped customers, let alone extend service to the peri-urban dwellers, 56% of whom do not have access to safe water. The paper outlines some modest, workable principles to achieve universal, affordable access to water in the urban areas, albeit through a mix of service delivery mechanisms. In a second case study of rural productive water in Zimbabwe, the reasons for only 2% of the rural subsistence farming households being involved in formal small-scale irrigation schemes 20 years after independence are explored. Again, a major part of the explanation lies in government pursuing a water delivery model which is not
.... A decade ago, the situation appeared to be reversed, with South Africa bleeding from the tribal and political violence of Apartheid's death throes, while Zimbabwe was portrayed internationally...
Fiona J. Gifford
Full Text Available There have been several global epidemics of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu. Some, such as Itai-Itai disease in Japan and Balkan endemic nephropathy, have been explained, whereas the etiology of others remains unclear. In countries such as Sri Lanka, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and India, CKDu is a major public health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Despite their geographical separation, however, there are striking similarities between these endemic nephropathies. Young male agricultural workers who perform strenuous labor in extreme conditions are the worst affected. Patients remain asymptomatic until end-stage renal failure. Biomarkers of tubular injury are raised, and kidney biopsy shows chronic interstitial nephritis with associated tubular atrophy. In many of these places access to dialysis and transplantation is limited, leaving few treatment options. In this review we briefly describe the major historic endemic nephropathies. We then summarize the epidemiology, clinical features, histology and clinical course of CKDu in Mesoamerica, Sri Lanka, India, Egypt, and Tunisia. We draw comparisons between the proposed etiologies and supporting research. Recognition of the similarities may reinforce the international drive to establish causality and to effect prevention.
Waterkeyn, Juliet; Cairncross, Sandy
Unless strategies are found to galvanise rural communities and create a demand for sanitation, we cannot achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goal of halving the 2.4 billion people without sanitation by the year 2015. This study describes an innovative methodology used in Zimbabwe--Community Health Clubs--which significantly changed hygiene behaviour and built rural demand for sanitation. In 1 year in Makoni District, 1244 health promotion sessions were held by 14 trainers, costing an average of US dollars 0.21 per beneficiary and involving 11,450 club members (68,700 beneficiaries). In Tsholotsho District, 2105 members participated in 182 sessions held by three trainers which cost US dollars 0.55 for each of the 12,630 beneficiaries. Within 2 years, 2400 latrines had been built in Makoni, and in Tsholotsho latrine coverage rose to 43% contrasted to 2% in the control area, with 1200 latrines being built in 18 months. Although Zimbabwe has historically relied on subsidies to stimulate sanitation, this intervention shows how total sanitation could be achievable. The remaining 57% of club members without latrines in Tsholotsho all practised faecal burial, a method previously unknown to them. Club members' hygiene was significantly different (p<0.0001) from a control group across 17 key hygiene practices including hand washing, showing that if a strong community structure is developed and the norms of a community are altered, sanitation and hygiene behaviour are likely to improve. This methodology could be scaled up to contribute to ambitious global targets.
Nare, Lerato; Love, David; Hoko, Zvikomborero
Stakeholder participation is viewed as critical in the current water sector reforms taking place in the Southern African region. In Zimbabwe, policies and legislation encourage stakeholder participation. A study was undertaken to determine the extent of stakeholder participation in water quality monitoring and surveillance at the operational level, and also to assess indigenous knowledge and practices in water quality monitoring. Two hundred and forty one questionnaires were administered in Mzingwane Catchment, the portion of the Limpopo Basin that falls within Zimbabwe. The focus was on small users in rural communities, whose experiences were captured using a questionnaire and focus group discussions. Extension workers, farmers and NGOs and relevant sector government ministries and departments were also interviewed and a number of workshops held. Results indicate that there is very limited stakeholder participation despite the presence of adequate supportive structures and organisations. For the Zimbabwe National Water Authority (ZINWA), stakeholders are the paying permit holders to whom feedback is given following analysis of samples. However, the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare generally only releases information to rural communities when it is deemed necessary for their welfare. There are no guidelines on how a dissatisfied member of the public can raise a complaint - although some stakeholders carry such complaints to Catchment Council meetings. With regard to water quality, the study revealed widespread use of indigenous knowledge and practice by communities. Such knowledge is based on smell, taste, colour and odour perceptions. Residents are generally more concerned about the physical parameters than the bacteriological quality of water. They are aware of what causes water pollution and the effects of pollution on human health, crops, animals and aquatic ecology. They have ways of preventing pollution and appropriate interventions to take when a source
Full Text Available The village Moravac, situated on the left bank of the River South Morava, has been known as endemic area for fifty years. The highest prevalence of Balcan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN was noted during the seventh and eight decade in the last century, and after that period, permanent decreasing has been shown. The present study involved fifty members of endemic families. In all investigated subjects, clinical observations included anamnesis, physical examinations and urinalysis. In twelve (24% subjects, urinary abnormalities were proven (proteinuria, microhaematuria, leucocyturia. These subjects further underwent the additional functional and morphological examinations at the Clinic of Nephrology, Clinical Center Nis. In 11 (22% subjects, clinical examinations showed different forms of renal diseases, but BEN was proven in four (one of them suffered from BEN since 2004 and he was treated by haemodialyses, while the others were diagnosed during the investigation. Other renal diseases in the examined patients were: cystic kidney disease (6%, nephrolithiasis (4%, diabetic nephropathy (2%, obstructive nephropathy (4% and tumores of kidney (2%. In our opinion, based on this investigation, BEN showed the rising tendency. Our retrograde study on the incidence of the upper urinary tract urothelial cancer in the endemic village Moravac showed the highest frequency, like BEN, in the seventh and eight decade in the last century. Despite encouraging results, further detailed and larger investigations are needed along the River South Morava, because a number of studies suggested lower progression and middle clinical course of disease, and also a rare appearance of the upper urinary tract cancer, which is why the patients seldom visit the health institutions, mostly in advanced stage of renal insufficiency. The aim of further investigations is to detect such subjects in the initial, early phase of disease, when prevention of progressive course and therapy are more
Heshmati, Almas; Ncube, Mkhululi
This paper is concerned with the estimation of an employment relationship and employment efficiency under production risk using a panel of Zimbabwe's manufacturing industries. A flexible labour demand functions are used and consist of two parts: the traditional labour demand function and labour demand variance function. Labour demand is a function of wages, output, quasi-fixed inputs and time variables. The variance function is a function of the determinants of labour demand and a number of p...
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to trace the development of student unionism in Zimbabwe.On the basis of a discussion of the nature of the university, the article argues that becausethe university environment tolerates and promotes academic freedom and liberal values, itprovides an environment conducive to critical thought and oppositional politics, while theuniversity quite often itself becomes the target for student attack. Student representationduring the pre-independence period in Zimbabwe sought to engage the institution in itseffort to re-order society at a time of racial struggle and class conflict. After independence,student representation was in support of government efforts to create a better Zimbabweand to consolidate the gains of independence. However, after the first decade ofindependence, the relationship between students and government soured due to students’opposition to the one-party system as well as the University of Zimbabwe AmendmentBill, among other issues. This article thus documents and analyses the relationship betweenstudents and government with reference to three periods and two key moments: the 1973protests against racial discrimination in the pre-independence phase and the post-1990developments in Zimbabwean national and university politics.
Full Text Available In Zimbabwe reports of abuse of public office have manifested in various forms resulting in public outcry; poor service delivery, and government losing millions of dollars. This study aims to undertake a reflective inquiry on the ethical conduct in the Zimbabwean public sector through content and process analysis in order to provide intervention mechanisms to the problem. Statistical analysis of corruption level is made to benefit the study. Results indicated some legislative gaps and an incapacitated Anti-Corruption Commission which has been unable to execute its mandate fully. Most senior public officials and politicians appear to have too much power and authority with no checks and balances in place. Practical implications of the widespread unethical practices call for the government to plug the glaring legislative gaps; take stern measures against offenders; empowering the Anti-Corruption Commission; term limits for senior public officials as well as for political appointments; and motivating political will to uphold ethical leadership. The recommendations will open a window for the Zimbabwean government and administrators to view how some advanced economies have propped up ethical behaviour in the public sector. It is the way to go for ailing economies like Zimbabwe. The paper demonstrated the importance of ethical awareness in another political and economic setting-Zimbabwe.
Kidia, Khameer; Machando, Debra; Mangezi, Walter; Hendler, Reuben; Crooks, Megan; Abas, Melanie; Chibanda, Dixon; Thornicroft, Graham; Semrau, Maya; Jack, Helen
There has been little external analysis of Zimbabwe's mental health system. We did a systems analysis to identify bottlenecks and opportunities for mental health service improvement in Zimbabwe and to generate cost-effective, policy-relevant solutions. We combined in-depth interviews with a range of key stakeholders in health and mental health, analysis of mental health laws and policies, and publicly available data about mental health. Five themes are key to mental health service delivery in Zimbabwe: policy and law; financing and resources; criminal justice; workforce, training, and research; and beliefs about mental illness. We identified human resources, rehabilitation facilities, psychotropic medication, and community mental health as funding priorities. Moreover, we found that researchers should prioritise measuring the economic impact of mental health and exploring substance use, forensic care, and mental health integration. Our study highlights forensic services as a central component of the mental health system, which has been a neglected concept. We also describe a tailored process for mental health systems that is transferable to other low-income settings and that garners political will, builds capacity, and raises the profile of mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Munjanja Stephan P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy (VA is a widely used method for analyzing cause of death in absence of vital registration systems. We adapted the InterVA method to extrapolate causes of death for stillbirths and neonatal deaths from verbal autopsy questionnaires, using data from Malawi, Zimbabwe, and Nepal. Methods We obtained 734 stillbirth and neonatal VAs from recent community studies in rural areas: 169 from Malawi, 385 from Nepal, and 180 from Zimbabwe. Initial refinement of the InterVA model was based on 100 physician-reviewed VAs from Malawi. InterVA indicators and matrix probabilities for cause of death were reviewed for clinical and epidemiological coherence by a pediatrician-researcher and an epidemiologist involved in the development of InterVA. The modified InterVA model was evaluated by comparing population-level cause-specific mortality fractions and individual agreement from two methods of interpretation (physician review and InterVA for a further 69 VAs from Malawi, 385 from Nepal, and 180 from Zimbabwe. Results Case-by-case agreement between InterVA and reviewing physician diagnoses for 69 cases from Malawi, 180 cases from Zimbabwe, and 385 cases from Nepal were 83% (kappa 0.76 (0.75 - 0.80, 71% (kappa 0.41(0.32-0.51, and 74% (kappa 0.63 (0.60-0.63, respectively. The proportion of stillbirths identified as fresh or macerated by the different methods of VA interpretation was similar in all three settings. Comparing across countries, the modified InterVA method found that proportions of preterm births and deaths due to infection were higher in Zimbabwe (44% than in Malawi (28% or Nepal (20%. Conclusion The modified InterVA method provides plausible results for stillbirths and newborn deaths, broadly comparable to physician review but with the advantage of internal consistency. The method allows standardized cross-country comparisons and eliminates the inconsistencies of physician review in such comparisons.
Mutsvangwa-Sammie, Eness P.; Manzungu, Emmanuel; Siziba, Shephard
Innovations are regarded as critical to improving the efficiency, productivity and effectiveness of African agriculture. However, few efforts have been directed at understanding 'agricultural innovators', especially among smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa who face low agricultural productivity and widespread food insecurity. This paper investigates the profile of innovators from a local perspective in a semi-arid smallholder farming area in south-west Zimbabwe. The paper is based on data collected from key informant interviews and a household questionnaire survey administered to 239 households from Gwanda and Insiza districts between 2013 and 2014. Qualities or attributes of an innovator (which constitute the profile of an innovator) identified by key informants included: resource endowment; social networks; education; and enthusiasm (passionate and hardworking). The attributes were used in a logit regression model to estimate the probability of the 239 households exhibiting the attributes of an innovator. Social networks and resource endowment, as depicted by amount of land cultivated, were found to significantly influence the probability of an individual being an innovator. Interestingly, the common attributes of education or belonging to an innovation platform used by extension and development agents, were found not to influence the probability of one being an innovator. The paper concludes that understanding local perceptions of innovators, which is based on appreciation of the socio-economic and biophysical circumstances, should be used to identify a 'basket' of context specific innovations that have potential to address the diverse needs of rural households farming households.
Gender discrimination in educational institutions persists, despite the vigorous pursuit of policies and programmes to reduce the varying degrees of gender inequity in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe is a signatory to international agreements and conventions which promote gender equity with a thrust towards increased access to education for girls and females.…
Eide, Arne Henning; Nhiwathiwa, Sekai; Muderedzi, Jennifer; Loeb, E Mitch
This research report provides results from a study on living conditions among people with and without activity limitations in Matabeleland, Manicaland and Midlands, Zimbabwe. The study began in 2001 and was completed in 2003. Living conditions among people with activity limitations in Zimbabwe. A representative regional survey.
This study re-classifies the agro-ecological regions (natural regions) of Zimbabwe using soil data, mean-annual rainfall and length of growing season. Rainfall data from selected meteorological stations covered the period 1972- 2006. Soil data were obtained from the soil map of Zimbabwe, while length of growing seasons ...
contemporary Zimbabwe, ethnicity, alongside race, has continued to shape and influence the economic, social, and political life of Zimbabwe since the ... The nationalist government's state-building project, especially its coercive mobilisation and nation-building projects of the early 1980s, paid little attention to the ethnic ...
Svubure, O.; Struik, P.C.; Haverkort, A.J.; Steyn, J.M.
Irish potato is the third most important carbohydrate food crop in Zimbabwe after maize and wheat. In 2012, the Government of Zimbabwe declared it a strategic national food security crop. In this study, we examine the country's potential for increasing Irish potato yield and help ease the nation's
Zimbabwe, being away from the screening effect of tropical humidity, desert dust, and the clouds of temperate areas receives more sunshine or solar radiation, also known as insolation, than almost any other country in the world (Johnston, 1977). The Zimbabwe Science News Volume 33(1) January-March 1999 ...
The sun is the source of virtually all our energy forms that we use in Zimbabwe, as illustrated in Fig. ... Zimbabwe, being away from the screening effect of tropical humidity, desert dust, and the clouds of temperate areas receives more sunshine or solar radiation, also known as insolation, than almost any other country in the ...
Home-based care for people living with AIDS in Zimbabwe: voluntary caregivers' motivations and concerns. ... In Zimbabwe, improvement of voluntary caregiving programmes requires better integration with the national healthcare system at the clinic level as well as collaboration with NGOs, community leaders and church ...
... or institutions in Zimbabwe, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C... States, the national emergency declared on March 6, 2003, and the measures adopted on that date, on... Notice of February 26, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe #0; #0; #0...
Lortholary, O; Denning, D W; Dupont, B
Endemic mycoses remain a major public health problem in several countries and they are becoming increasingly frequent with the spread of HIV infection. Amphotericin B remains the drug of choice during the acute stage of life-threatening endemic mycoses occurring in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. Ketoconazole is effective in non-AIDS patients with non-life-threatening histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, or paracoccidioidomycosis. Itraconazole is the treatment of choice for non-life-threatening Histoplasma capsulatum or Blastomyces dermatitidis infections occurring in immunocompetent individuals and is the most efficient secondary prophylaxis of histoplasmosis in AIDS patients. Itraconazole is also effective in lymphocutaneous and visceral sporotrichosis, in paracoccidioidomycosis, for Penicillum marneffei infection, and is an alternative to amphotericin B for Histoplasma duboisii infection. Coccidioidomycosis may be effectively treated with prolonged and sometimes life-long itraconazole or fluconazole therapy. Fluconazole has relatively poor efficacy against histoplasmosis, blastomycosis and sporotrichosis. New antifungal agents have been tested in vitro or in animal models and may soon be evaluated in clinical trials.
Dhliwayo Alice; Muchemwa Stella
While technology has been embraced by most of the people, use of smart phones in the classroom has been received with mixed feelings. Some say it enhances learning while others complain that it disturbs instruction. This research wanted to find out the stance of secondary school teachers on this issue in Zimbabwe. A sample of 50 randomly selected teachers from 10 randomly selected secondary schools in Gweru District, Midlands Province in Zimbabwe was used. Data from self-constructed questionn...
Full Text Available The definition of areas of endemism is central to studies of historical biogeography, and their interrelationships are fundamental questions. Consistent hypotheses for the evolution of Pentatomidae in the Neotropical region depend on the accuracy of the units employed in the analyses, which in the case of studies of historical biogeography, may be areas of endemism. In this study, the distribution patterns of 222 species, belonging to 14 Pentatomidae (Hemiptera genera, predominantly neotropical, were studied with the Analysis of Endemicity (NDM to identify possible areas of endemism and to correlate them to previously delimited areas. The search by areas of endemism was carried out using grid-cell units of 2.5° and 5° latitude-longitude. The analysis based on groupings of grid-cells of 2.5° of latitude-longitude allowed the identification of 51 areas of endemism, the consensus of these areas resulted in four clusters of grid-cells. The second analysis, with grid-cells units of 5° latitude-longitude, resulted in 109 areas of endemism. The flexible consensus employed resulted in 17 areas of endemism. The analyses were sensitive to the identification of areas of endemism in different scales in the Atlantic Forest. The Amazonian region was identified as a single area in the area of consensus, and its southeastern portion shares elements with the Chacoan and Paraná subregions. The distribution data of the taxa studied, with different units of analysis, did not allow the identification of individual areas of endemism for the Cerrado and Caatinga. The areas of endemism identified here should be seen as primary biogeographic hypotheses.
Chibanda, Dixon; Mangezi, Walter; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Woelk, Godfrey; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Stranix-Chibanda, Lynda; Midzi, Stanley; Shetty, Avinash K
Postnatal depression (PND) is a serious public health problem in resource-limited countries. Research is limited on PND affecting HIV-infected women in sub-Saharan Africa. Zimbabwe has one of the highest antenatal HIV infection rates in the world. We determined the prevalence and risk factors of PND among women attending urban primary care clinics in Zimbabwe. Using trained peer counselors, a simple random sample of postpartum women (n = 210) attending the 6-week postnatal visit at two urban primary care clinics were screened for PND using the Shona version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). All women were subsequently subjected to mental status examination using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for major depression by two psychiatrists who had no knowledge of the EPDS test results. Of the 210 mothers (31 HIV positive, 148 HIV negative, 31 unknown status) enrolled during the postpartum period, 64 (33%) met DSM-IV criteria for depression. The HIV prevalence was 14.8%. Of the 31 HIV-infected mothers, 17(54%) met DSM-IV criteria for depression. Univariate analysis showed that multiparity (prevalent odds ratio [OR] 2.22, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.15-4.31), both parents deceased (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.01-5.45), and having experienced a recent adverse life event (OR 8.34, CI 3.77-19.07) were significantly associated with PND. Multivariate analysis showed that PND was significantly associated with adverse life event (OR 7.04, 95% CI 3.15-15.76), being unemployed (OR 3.12, 95% CI 1.23-7.88), and multiparity (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.00-6.24). Our data indicate a high burden of PND among women in Zimbabwe. It is feasible to screen for PND in primary care clinics using peer counselors. Screening for PND and access to mental health interventions should be part of routine antenatal care for all women in Zimbabwe.
... Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Rural Aging The nation's population is aging, and with that change comes increased healthcare needs. ... Disease Control and Prevention report, The State of Aging and Health in America 2013 , the population 65 ...
Full Text Available Young people face sexual and reproductive health (SRH problems including Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. It is critical to continue documenting their situation including the contexts they live in. As part of a larger study that explored perspectives of men to SRH and more specifically abortion and contraceptive use, 546 pupils (51% female; age range 9-25 years from a rural area in Zimbabwe were invited to write anonymously questions about growing up or other questions they could not ask adults for fear or shame. The pupils were included following descriptions by adults of the violence that is unleashed on unmarried young people who engaged in sex, used contraceptives, or simply suggested doing so. The questions by the young people pointed to living in a context of prohibitive silence; their sexuality was silenced and denied. As a consequence they had poor knowledge and their fears and internal conflicts around sexuality and pregnancy were not addressed. Current action suggests concerted effort at the policy level to deal with young people's SRH in Zimbabwe. It nevertheless remains necessary, as a way to provide support to these efforts, to continue examining what lessons can be drawn from the past, and how the past continues to reflect in and shape present dynamics and relations. There is also need to look more critically at life skill education, which has previously been described as having failed to address adequately the practical needs of young people. Life skill education in Zimbabwe has rarely been systematically evaluated. A fuller understanding is also needed of the different factors co-existing in contemporary African societies and how they have been and continue to be constituted within history, and the implications to the promotion of adolescent SRH.
Drawing on a multi-method qualitative study, this article examines 'trophy-hunting' scripts among male university students in Zimbabwe. 'Trophy hunting' is a term I have adopted to refer to hegemonic masculinity rituals through which men gain social admiration for dating and having sex with as many women as possible. I argue that this trophy hunting is exacerbated by the 'crisis of masculinity' which has been brought about by the harsh macroeconomic environment in Zimbabwe. The latter has reduced men's access to the material trappings that denote successful masculinity in a competitive and materialistic environment. Sexual scripting that is based on such trophy hunting makes students susceptible to acquiring HIV infection. Research was conducted with 69 male social-science students at a Zimbabwean university, and the findings were analysed within a post-structural conceptual framework. The findings point to the existence of 'toxic masculinities' among male students. In their endeavour to live up to hegemonic masculinity expectations of the university bachelor, they end up being trapped in what can be described as 'toxic masculinity entrapments.' There is a need to challenge these identities if efforts against HIV and AIDS are to be successful.
Moses J. Chimbari
Full Text Available Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni are prevalent in Zimbabwe to levels that make schistosomiasis a public health problem. Following three national surveys to map the disease prevalence, a national policy on control of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths is being developed. This paper reviews the experiences that Zimbabwe has in the area of schistosomiasis control with a view to influence policy. A case study approach to highlight key experiences and outcomes was adopted. The benefits derived from intersectoral collaboration that led to the development of a model irrigation scheme that incorporates schistosomiasis control measures are highlighted. Similarly, the benefits of using plant molluscicides and fish and duck biological agents (Sargochromis codringtonii and Cairina moschata are highlighted. Emphasis was also placed on the importance of utilizing locally developed water and sanitation technologies and the critical human resource base in the area of schistosomiasis developed over years. After synthesis of the case studies presented, it was concluded that while there is a need to follow the WHO recommended guidelines for schistosomiasis control it is important to develop a control strategy that is informed by work already done in the country. The importance of having a policy and local guidelines for schistosomiasis control is emphasized.
Full Text Available The study assesses the need for a derivative market as an integral of Zimbabwe Stock Exchange. It also aims to evaluate the feasibility of establishing a derivative market as an essential element of Zimbabwe Stock Exchange. The research identifies factors that need to be addressed to facilitate such a market. Views of various fund managers, financial analysts and dealers drawn from asset management firms were used. Changes in market trends are influenced by hyper inflation and acute financial policies increase the level of unpredictability in fund growth and return. Asset managers need to be in a market where they are able to actively manage and devise mechanisms that promote fund growth and managing the risks they are exposed to. The study revealed that there are many institutional arrangements lacking to facilitate this financial innovation. A thorough analysis of the research findings was made and it concluded that there is need for a derivative market as it can be an efficient vehicle for improving investment performance.
Bracking, Sarah; Sachikonye, Lloyd
Evidence from household surveying in December 2005 in Harare and Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, indicates that a wide network of international migrant remitters are ameliorating the economic crisis in Zimbabwe by sending monetary and in-kind transfers to over 50 per cent of urban households. The research combines quantitative measurement of scale and scope, with demographic and qualitative narrative to build a holistic picture of the typography of receiving and non-receiving households. A complex set of interrelated variables helps to explain why some households do and others do not receive income and goods from people who are away, and the economic and social extent of their subsequent benefit from them. Moreover, the mixed methods approach is designed to capture inter-household and likely macroeconomic effects of how households receive their goods and money; and of how they subsequently exchange (if applicable), store and spend it. Evidence emerges of a largely informal, international social welfare system, but one which is not without adverse inter-household effects for some. These include suffering exclusion from markets suffering from inflationary pressures, not least as a result of other people’s remittances. This paper explores the role of remittances, within this internationalised informal welfare system which we can map from our household survey, in reframing vulnerability and marginalization differentially among and between our subject households.
Full Text Available The World Heritage Site of Great Zimbabwe is one of the most iconic and largest archaeological settlements in Africa. It was the hub of direct and indirect trade which internally connected various areas of southern Africa, and externally linked them with East Africa and the Near and Far East. Archaeologists believe that at its peak, Great Zimbabwe had a fully urban population of 20,000 people concentrated in approximately 2.9 square kilometres (40 percent of 720 ha. This translates to a population density of 6,897, which is comparable with that of some of the most populous regions of the world in the 21st century. Here, we combine archaeological, ethnographic and historical evidence with ecological and statistical modelling to demonstrate that the total population estimate for the site's nearly 800-year occupational duration (CE1000-1800, after factoring in generational succession, is unlikely to have exceeded 10,000 people. This conclusion is strongly firmed up by the absence of megamiddens at the site, the chronological differences between several key areas of the settlement traditionally assumed to be coeval, and the historically documented low populations recorded for the sub-continent between CE1600 and 1950.
ElNemr, W.; Jutla, A. S.; Constantin de Magny, G.; Hasan, N. A.; Islam, M.; Sack, R.; Huq, A.; Hashem, F.; Colwell, R.
Cholera remains a major public health threat. Since Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease, is autochthonous to riverine, estuarine, and coastal waters, it is unlikely the bacteria can be eradicated from its natural habitat. Prediction of disease, in conjunction with preventive vaccination can reduce the prevalence rate of a disease. Understanding the influence of environmental parameters on growth and proliferation of bacteria is an essential first step in developing prediction methods for outbreaks. Large scale geophysical variables, such as SST and coastal chlorophyll, are often associated with conditions favoring growth of V. cholerae. However, local environmental factors, meaning biological activity in ponds from where the bulk of populations in endemic regions derive water for daily usage, are either neglected or oversimplified. Using data collected from several sites in two geographically distinct locations in South Asia, we have identified critical local environmental factors associated with cholera outbreak. Of 18 environmental variables monitored for water sources in Mathbaria (a coastal site near the Bay of Bengal) and Bakergonj (an inland site) of Bangladesh, water depth and chlorophyll were found to be important factors associated with initiation of cholera outbreaks. Cholera in coastal regions appears to be related to intrusion. However, monsoonal flooding creates conditions for cholera epidemics in inland regions. This may be one of the first attempts to relate in-situ environmental observations with cholera. We anticipate that it will be useful for further development of prediction models in the resource constrained regions.
Angheben, Andrea; Boix, Lucia; Buonfrate, Dora; Gobbi, Federico; Bisoffi, Zeno; Pupella, Simonetta; Gandini, Giorgio; Aprili, Giuseppe
In the last decades, increasing international migration and travel from Latin America to Europe have favoured the emergence of tropical diseases outside their "historical" boundaries. Chagas disease, a zoonosis endemic in rural areas of Central and South America represents a clear example of this phenomenon. In the absence of the vector, one of the potential modes of transmission of Chagas disease in non-endemic regions is through blood and blood products. As most patients with Chagas disease are asymptomatic and unaware of their condition, in case of blood donation they can inadvertently represent a serious threat to the safety of the blood supply in non-endemic areas. Since the first cases of transfusion-transmitted Chagas disease were described in the last years, non-endemic countries began to develop ad hoc strategies to prevent and control the spread of the infection. United States, Spain, United Kingdom and France first recognised the need for Trypanosoma cruzi screening in at-risk blood donors. In this review, we trace an up-to-date perspective on Chagas disease, describing its peculiar features, from epidemiological, pathological, clinical and diagnostic points of view. Moreover, we describe the possible transmission of Chagas disease through blood or blood products and the current strategies for its control, focusing on non-endemic areas.
Oliveira, Ubirajara; Brescovit, Antonio D.; Santos, Adalberto J.
We propose a new approach for identification of areas of endemism, the Geographical Interpolation of Endemism (GIE), based on kernel spatial interpolation. This method differs from others in being independent of grid cells. This new approach is based on estimating the overlap between the distribution of species through a kernel interpolation of centroids of species distribution and areas of influence defined from the distance between the centroid and the farthest point of occurrence of each species. We used this method to delimit areas of endemism of spiders from Brazil. To assess the effectiveness of GIE, we analyzed the same data using Parsimony Analysis of Endemism and NDM and compared the areas identified through each method. The analyses using GIE identified 101 areas of endemism of spiders in Brazil GIE demonstrated to be effective in identifying areas of endemism in multiple scales, with fuzzy edges and supported by more synendemic species than in the other methods. The areas of endemism identified with GIE were generally congruent with those identified for other taxonomic groups, suggesting that common processes can be responsible for the origin and maintenance of these biogeographic units. PMID:25611971
Beliefs and attitudes about endemic dental fluorosis among adolescents in rural Brazil Creencias y actitudes con relación a la fluorosis dentaria de jóvenes en región rural de Brasil Crenças e atitudes em relação à fluorose dentária de jovens em região rural do Brasil
Lia Silva de Castilho
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To understand beliefs and attitudes about fluorosis among young people living in a rural area. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES: Qualitative study consisting of semi-structured interviews with 23 adolescents with dental fluorosis, 14 teachers and three health authorities in the city of São Francisco, Southeastern Brazil, in 2002. Content analysis and social representation theory were applied. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS: The organoleptic characteristics of carbonates that affect groundwater (salty flavor, whitish coloration, and turbidity associated with negative aspects of household use of this water are considered a cause of mottled enamel. Even after contact with researchers who investigated this phenomenon and helped find a solution for this condition, the local population is still unwilling to accept fluoride as the cause of the problem and does not fully agree to use water from other sources because they are afraid of the quality of water. CONCLUSIONS: Misperceptions of the causes of dental fluorosis and water treatment costs compromise the implementation of uncontaminated surface water supplies. Health education strategies are required in parallel with solutions for securing water supply in drought-ravaged areas.OBJETIVO: Comprender creencias y actitudes con relación a la fluorosis dentaria de jóvenes residentes en región rural de Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudio cualitativo en que fueron realizadas entrevistas semi-estructuradas con 23 adolescentes con fluorosis dentaria, 14 profesores y tres gestores públicos en el municipio de Sao Francisco, en Sureste de Brasil, en 2002. Fueron empleadas la técnica de análisis de contenido y la teoría de las representaciones sociales. RESULTADOS: Por las características organolépticas que imprime al agua (sabor salado, coloración blanquecina y turbidez y su asociación con aspectos negativos relacionados al uso doméstico, el carbonato es considerado la causa de la fluorosis por adolescentes y
Key words: vulnerability; resilience; livelihood; drought; Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area; south eastern Zimbabwe. Vulnerability and resilience have emerged as powerful analytical concepts in the study of socio-ecological systems. In this research these concepts are used to enhance
In 1992 UNEP-Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UNEP-CCEE), Denmark and Southern Centre for Energy and Environment (SCEE), Zimbabwe, prepared a country report for Zimbabwe on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Abatement Costing. Abatement technologies for both supply and demand side were identified in order to reduce GHG emission. The present study addresses environmental impacts of the entire energy cycle focusing on coal use in industry and power generation. Zimbabwe has proven coal reserves of more than 700 million tonnes, and the potential of geological coal resources is estimated beyond 30 billion tonnes. The conventional applications of coal include electricity generation, steam traction in railway transport, industrial boilers, tobacco curing and coking. As coal is the major source of energy for Zimbabwe, the present study aims at identification of environmental impacts of the entire coal cycle from mining to end-users of electrical energy. (EG)
Full Text Available This paper presents some insights into the intersection of physical planning and governance in Zimbabwe. It argues that the major theoretical, policy and practice discourses - explaining the intersection of physical planning and governance - relate...
Full Text Available Presents some prevalence data on Culicoides imicola and Culicoides bolitinos in Zimbabwe. Includes data on other common species, as revealed by collections made over 2 years at 8 widely-separated study sites
Choguya, Naume Zorodzai
... (SBAs) in Zimbabwe. Against a background of a frail health care system, characterised by a shortage in skilled professionals, increased cost of medical care, and geographic and economic inaccessibility of health care...
Hendler, Reuben; Kidia, Khameer; Machando, Debra; Crooks, Megan; Mangezi, Walter; Abas, Melanie; Katz, Craig; Thornicroft, Graham; Semrau, Maya; Jack, Helen
.... We conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with leaders in health and mental health in Zimbabwe to explore key stakeholder perceptions on the challenges and opportunities of the country's mental health system...
Rusakaniko, S; Mbizvo, M T; Kasule, J; Gupta, V; Kinoti, S N; Mpanju-Shumbushu, W; Sebina-Zziwa, J; Mwateba, R; Padayachy, J
Unwanted teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections and the attendant morbidity and mortality necessitate the need for understanding factors influencing adolescent sexuality and the implementation of programmes designed to improve their knowledge, reproductive behaviour, sexual and reproductive health. To determine the impact of an intervention package on knowledge levels of various reproductive health issues through trend analysis. Randomized controlled trial of a health education intervention in schools stratified for representativeness. Rural and urban secondary schools in Zimbabwe. 1,689 students recruited from 11 secondary schools in Mashonaland Central. Knowledge level before and after intervention. The demographic characteristics of the pupils at baseline, five months and nine months were comparable between the two groups. There was an overall increase in knowledge on menstruation. Students from the intervention schools were more likely to have correct knowledge over time on aspects of reproductive biology. A significant linear trend (p = 0.017) was observed in the area of family planning and contraception. A linear decreasing trend (p = 0.001) was observed on pregnancy risk. Though not significantly linear, the general trend of knowledge levels in all the areas of reproductive health, pregnancy risk, STDs and HIV/AIDS showed an upward trend, from 20% to 96%. Worth noting was that in all the areas the intervention group had knowledge above that in the control group. The reproductive health education intervention had an impact on aspects of reproductive biology and contraception as measured by the increased scoring at follow up when comparing intervention and control schools. The overall findings point to the need for early school based reproductive health education programmes incooperating correct information on reproductive biology and the prevention of subsequent reproductive morbidity by imparting information on non-risk behaviour during the early
Jennifer T. Muderedzi
Full Text Available Background: While it is widely assumed that disability, poverty and health are closely linked, research falls short of fully understanding the link. One approach to analysing the links between disability and poverty is through the concept of structural violence, referring to social structures that contribute to the impoverishment of individuals or communities. These structures can be political, ecological, legal and economic, among others.Objective: To explore structural violence and how it affects families of children with cerebral palsy among the Tonga ethnic group living in poor rural communities of Binga in Zimbabwe.Method: This is a longitudinal, qualitative and ethnographic study. Data were collected over a period of eight years from 2005 to 2013. Data collection techniques were in-depth interviews, participant observation and focus group discussions. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 53 informants.Results: Structural violence was noted through four themes: internal displacement and development, food and politics, water and sanitation, and social services. Poverty was noted in the form of unemployment, lack of education, healthcare, food and shelter. The concept of structural violence inflicted social suffering on the informants. Politics played a major role in activities such as food withdrawal, lack of water, development and allocation of local resources to ‘the people of the city’, leaving the informants struggling with care.Conclusion: Political and economic forces have structured risks and created a situation of extreme human suffering. The capabilities approach brings out the challenges associated with cerebral palsy in the context of development challenges.
Julia Mutambara; Levison Maunganidze; Pamela Muchichwa
Objectives: The study sought to determine the psychological effects of obstetric fistula on women in Zimbabwe. Methods: The study was qualitative in nature and the phenomenological design was used. Purposive sampling was used to identify four women with obstetric fistula in two hospitals in Zimbabwe. In-depth interviews using unstructured interview guides were done with these women. Strict ethical principles were adhered to inorder to avoid harm to participants. Data that was obtained from th...
Norseth, Hanne M.; Ndhlovu, Patricia D.; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Randrianasolo, Bodo S.; Jourdan, Peter M.; Roald, Borghild; Holmen, Sigve D.; Gundersen, Svein G.; Bagratee, Jayanthilall; Onsrud, Mathias; Kjetland, Eyrun F.
Background Schistosoma (S.) haematobium is a neglected tropical disease which may affect any part of the genital tract in women. Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) may cause abnormal vaginal discharge, contact bleeding, genital tumours, ectopic pregnancies and increased susceptibility to HIV. Symptoms may mimic those typical of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and women with genital schistosomiasis may be incorrectly diagnosed. An expert consensus meeting suggested that the following findings by visual inspection should serve as proxy indicators for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis of the lower genital tract in women from S. haematobium endemic areas: sandy patches appearing as (1) single or clustered grains or (2) sandy patches appearing as homogenous, yellow areas, or (3) rubbery papules. In this atlas we aim to provide an overview of the genital mucosal manifestations of schistosomiasis in women. Methodology/Principal findings Photocolposcopic images were captured from women, between 1994 and 2012 in four different study sites endemic for S. haematobium in Malawi, Zimbabwe, South Africa and Madagascar. Images and specimens were sampled from sexually active women between 15 and 49 years of age. Colposcopic images of other diseases are included for differential diagnostic purposes. Significance This is the first atlas to present the clinical manifestations of schistosomiasis in the lower female genital tract. It will be freely available for online use, downloadable as a presentation and for print. It could be used for training purposes, further research, and in clinical practice. PMID:25412334
Devlieger, P; Piachaud, J; Leung, P; George, N
In this article, the experiences of persons with epilepsy were explored in terms of coping with providing a basis of discussion and training to support groups, particularly in Zimbabwe. Coping mechanisms lay stress upon the individual's control in mastering the disease. It was assumed that a systematic research effort of intra-cultural and cross-cultural sharing of experiences could enhance discussion and training in the support groups. Coping with epilepsy was explored with 37 adults (27 from Zimbabwe and 10 from the Midwest, USA) using open-ended questions in a written questionnaire. Questions aimed to elicit general feelings, experiences and strategies and skills in coping with epilepsy. The questionnaire covered such semantic domains as childhood, education, employment, friendships, relations within the family, and handling of seizures in public places. Coping mechanisms were categorized into two modes, one, adjustment to the disability (palliative), the other adjustment to the environment (problem-solving). In comparing the information between the two groups, some trends can be distinguished which need a larger scale validation. First, palliative skills during childhood in the Zimbabwean group is indicative for early development of personality characteristics and socialization as a result of the illness experiences. A great variety in palliative mechanisms in handling seizures indicates better familiarity with seizures in the Midwestern group. Similarities between the two groups are found in the friendship domain, where palliative coping skills seem to be of no importance, as well as in the domain of intimate relations, where a trend in adherence to medication is observed in both groups. Second, many problem-solving skills are developed in both groups but vary in context. In view of public education and training activities and the enhancement of problem-solving skills, the domain of education for the Zimbabwean group and the domains of friendship with the
Full Text Available Various violations of the human rights of ordinary people and human rights defenders have been reported in Zimbabwe since the late 1980s. It is widely acknowledged that such violations have been perpetrated mostly by the government through its different organs for political and other related reasons. Human rights violations were also easily committed against ordinary people and human rights defenders because there was no Constitution that adequately protected such people's fundamental human rights (including their civil and political rights and their socio-economic rights in Zimbabwe. Given this background, the article discusses the protection of human rights in Zimbabwe, in the light of the Zimbabwe Constitution Amendment Act 20 of 2013 (Zimbabwe Constitution 2013. This is done in order to investigate whether the promotion, protection, enforcement and respect for human rights in Zimbabwe has now improved. To this end, the functions of selected national human rights institutions and other related role-players, namely civil society, the judiciary, the law enforcement organs and the Zimbabwe Human Rights Commission, are briefly discussed first. Secondly, the functions of selected regional and international institutions, namely the Southern African Development Community, the African Union and the United Nations are discussed in relation to the protection of human rights in Zimbabwe. Thereafter, concluding remarks and possible recommendations that could be utilised to combat human rights violations and enhance the protection of human rights in Zimbabwe are provided.
Jones, Robert T
Several cases of lymphatic filariasis (LF) have been reported in non-endemic countries due to travellers, military personnel and expatriates spending time in and returning from endemic areas, as well as immigrants coming from these regions. These cases are reviewed to assess the scale and context of non-endemic presentations and to consider the biological factors underlying their relative paucity. Cases reported in the English, French, Spanish and Portuguese literature during the last 30 years were examined through a search of the PubMed, ProMED-mail and TropNet resources. The literature research revealed 11 cases of lymphatic filariasis being reported in non-endemic areas. The extent of further infections in recent migrants to non-endemic countries was also revealed through the published literature. The life-cycle requirements of Wuchereria and Brugia species limit the extent of transmission of LF outside of tropical regions. However, until elimination, programmes are successful in managing the disease, there remains a possibility of low rates of infection being reported in non-endemic areas, and increased international travel can only contribute to this phenomenon. Physicians need to be aware of the signs and symptoms of lymphatic filariasis, and infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of people with a relevant travel history. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
California is known for its wide variety of endemic flora, from its annuals such as the Eschscholzia californica (California poppy) to the perennials like the Arctostaphylos pallida (Alameda manzanita), which happens to be a rare species. Each species plays an important role in the biodiversity of California, yet there are species that are threatened, not only by human interaction and urbanization, but by climate change. Species that we seldom see are now on the verge of becoming eradicated; rare endemics similar to Arctostaphylos pallida are now facing a new challenge that may severely impair their survival. The climate has changed significantly over the twentieth century and it has affected the distribution of rare endemics in California, both geographically as well as within their climatic and edaphic niches. Lilaeopsis masonii is just one rare endemic, however it serves as a representative of the other 23 species that were studied. Using Maxent, a climate-modeling program, it was viable to construct two climate envelopes of the masonii species: the early century envelope (1930-1959) and the later century envelope (1990-2009). When these two climate envelopes were compared, it became clear that the later century climate envelope had contracted radically, reshaping the climate niche of all rare endemics in California due to an increase in temperature. It is possible to conclude that the future of rare endemics hangs in the balance, where one degree higher in temperature is enough to topple the scale.
Gonzales, Isidro; Miranda, J Jaime; Rodriguez, Silvia; Vargas, Victor; Cjuno, Alfredo; Smeeth, Liam; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tsang, Victor C W; Gilman, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H
To examine the prevalence of seizures, epilepsy and seropositivity to cysticercosis in rural villagers (cysticercosis-endemic setting), rural-to-urban migrants into a non-endemic urban shanty town and urban inhabitants of the same non-endemic shanty town. Three Peruvian populations (n = 985) originally recruited into a study about chronic diseases and migration were studied. These groups included rural inhabitants from an endemic region (n = 200), long-term rural-to-urban migrants (n = 589) and individuals living in the same urban setting (n = 196). Seizure disorders were detected by a survey, and a neurologist examined positive respondents. Serum samples from 981/985 individuals were processed for cysticercosis antibodies on immunoblot. Epilepsy prevalence (per 1000 people) was 15.3 in the urban group, 35.6 in migrants and 25 in rural inhabitants. A gradient in cysticercosis antibody seroprevalence was observed: urban 2%, migrant 13.5% and rural group 18% (P < 0.05). A similarly increasing pattern of higher seroprevalence was observed among migrants by age at migration. In rural villagers, there was strong evidence of an association between positive serology and having seizures (P = 0.011) but such an association was not observed in long-term migrants or in urban residents. In the entire study population, compared with seronegative participants, those with strong antibody reactions (≥ 4 antibody bands) were more likely to have epilepsy (P < 0.001). It is not only international migration that affects cysticercosis endemicity; internal migration can also affect patterns of endemicity within an endemic country. The neurological consequences of cysticercosis infection likely outlast the antibody response for years after rural-to-urban migration. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Muchie, Mammo; Mudombi, Shakespear
The paper provides an analysis of the role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in contributing to climate change awareness in rural areas namely Seke and Murewa districts in Zimbabwe. The literature review showed that for successful adaptation and mitigation by individuals...... on primary data whereby both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods were employed. The study found out that the majority of respondents are aware of climate change. Though there are many different sources of information, ICTs were found to significantly influence climate change awareness. ICTs...... such as the radio and mobile phone are likely to increase the odds of being aware of climate change. Reading Farming/Environmental magazines also had a significant influence on the odds of being aware of climate change. However a negative relationship was found between television ownership and the odds of climate...
Full Text Available This study is a syntactic analysis of text messages in English language used by University of Zimbabwe students. The study specifically focuses on sentences where there are omissions of pronouns, auxiliary verbs and where contractions occur. The study also analyzes the impact of sociolinguistic variables on the sentence structure of English language in text messages. The fifty respondents’ forwarded two messages each from their sent items on their cell phones to the researcher and to understand the factors triggering the syntactic structures the researcher carried out unstructured interviews. The data collected showed that cell phone texting has indeed been affected by the socio-economic factors and these factors trigger omissions of important elements of English language sentence structure such as ,pronouns, auxiliary verbs and contraction of phrases.
Full Text Available The small-scale (artisanal fisheries in Zimbabwe play an important role in income-generation and food security at the household level. This sector has the potential to significantly increase its contribution to household income and food security if more effective fisheries management strategies are put in place. Historically, fisheries management has adopted a centralised “Top-down” approach. This approach has had very limited effectiveness. Over the last decade, efforts have been made to implement co-management in the fisheries sector. Several factors have hampered the success of fisheries co-management in the artisanal fishery. These factors have been institutional, ecological, human and financial. This paper discusses these factors and proposes possible solutions. A more innovative and effective fisheries management approach is also proposed.
Pufall, E.L.; Nyamukapa, C.; Eaton, J.W.
Little is known about how HIV impacts directly and indirectly on receiving, or particularly succeeding in, education in sub-Saharan Africa. To address this gap, we used multivariable logistic regression to determine the correlation between education outcomes in youth (aged 15-24) (being...... in the correct grade-for-age, primary school completion and having at least five "O" level passes) and being HIV-positive; having an HIV-positive parent; being a young carer; or being a maternal, paternal or double orphan, in five rounds (1998-2011) of a general population survey from eastern Zimbabwe. The fifth...... survey round (2009-2011) included data on children aged 6-17, which were analysed for the impacts of the above risk factors on regular attendance in primary and secondary schools and being in the correct grade-for-age. For data pooled over all rounds, being HIV-positive had no association with primary...
Full Text Available There is a recognized gap in the evidence base relating to the nature and components of interventions to address the psycho-social needs of HIV positive young people. We used mixed methods research to strengthen a community support group intervention for HIV positive young people based in Harare, Zimbabwe.A quantitative questionnaire was administered to HIV positive Africaid support group attendees. Afterwards, qualitative data were collected from young people aged 15-18 through tape-recorded in-depth interviews (n=10, 3 focus group discussions (FGDs and 16 life history narratives. Data were also collected from caregivers, health care workers, and community members through FGDs (n=6 groups and in-depth interviews (n=12. Quantitative data were processed and analysed using STATA 10. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis.229/310 young people completed the quantitative questionnaire (74% participation. Median age was 14 (range 6-18 years; 59% were female. Self-reported adherence to antiretrovirals was sub-optimal. Psychological well being was poor (median score on Shona Symptom Questionnaire 9/14; 63% were at risk of depression. Qualitative findings suggested that challenges faced by positive children include verbal abuse, stigma, and discrimination. While data showed that support group attendance is helpful, young people stressed that life outside the confines of the group was more challenging. Caregivers felt ill-equipped to support the children in their care. These data, combined with a previously validated conceptual framework for family-centred interventions, were used to guide the development of the existing programme of adolescent support groups into a more comprehensive evidence-based psychosocial support programme encompassing caregiver and household members.This study allowed us to describe the lived experiences of HIV positive young people and their caregivers in Zimbabwe. The findings contributed to the enhancement of
Lena Morgon Banks
Full Text Available While the rapid expansion in antiretroviral therapy access in low and middle income countries has resulted in dramatic declines in mortality rates, many people living with HIV face new or worsening experiences of disability. As nearly 1 in 20 adults are living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa-many of whom are likely to develop disabling sequelae from long-term infection, co-morbidities and side effects of their treatment-understanding the availability and accessibility of services to address HIV-related disabilities is of vital importance. The aim of this study thus is to explore knowledge of HIV-related disabilities amongst stakeholders working in the fields of HIV and disability and factors impacting uptake and provision of interventions for preventing, treating or managing HIV-related disabilities.In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten stakeholders based in Harare, Zimbabwe, who were working in the fields of either disability or HIV. Stakeholders were identified through a priori stakeholder analysis. Thematic Analysis, complemented by constant comparison as described in Grounded Theory, was used to analyse findings.All key informants reported some level of knowledge of HIV-related disability, mostly from observations made in their line of work. However, they reported no interventions or policies were in place specifically to address HIV-related disability. While referrals between HIV and rehabilitation providers were not uncommon, no formal mechanisms had been established for collaborating on prevention, identification and management. Additional barriers to accessing and providing services to address HIV-related disabilities included: the availability of resources, including trained professionals, supplies and equipment in both the HIV and rehabilitation sectors; lack of disability-inclusive adaptations, particularly in HIV services; heavy centralization of available services in urban areas, without accessible, affordable
Ilbery, Brian; Maye, Damian; Kneafsey, Moya; Jenkins, Tim; Walkley, Catherine
Endemic problems in EU "lagging rural regions" (LRRs) are well documented and various support mechanisms have long been in place to help overcome structural difficulties. Nevertheless, new rural development architectures are now being sought and some scholars have posited that LRRs may benefit from the "quality (re)turn" in…
Based on a comprehensive survey and subsequent fieldwork, this chapter introduces the socio-economic characteristics and common livelihood strategies of rural households in Quang Nam, Central Vietnam. It demonstrates the basic premise of self-reliance in rural society and the decreasing economic...
Full Text Available Incidence of cholera outbreak is a serious issue in underdeveloped and developing countries. In Zimbabwe, after the massive outbreak in 2008-09, cholera cases and deaths are reported every year from some provinces. Substantial number of reported cholera cases in some provinces during and after the epidemic in 2008-09 indicates a plausible presence of seasonality in cholera incidence in those regions. We formulate a compartmental mathematical model with periodic slow-fast transmission rate to study such recurrent occurrences and fitted the model to cumulative cholera cases and deaths for different provinces of Zimbabwe from the beginning of cholera outbreak in 2008-09 to June 2011. Daily and weekly reported cholera incidence data were collected from Zimbabwe epidemiological bulletin, Zimbabwe Daily cholera updates and Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Zimbabwe (OCHA, Zimbabwe. For each province, the basic reproduction number ([Formula: see text] in periodic environment is estimated. To the best of our knowledge, this is probably a pioneering attempt to estimate [Formula: see text] in periodic environment using real-life data set of cholera epidemic for Zimbabwe. Our estimates of [Formula: see text] agree with the previous estimate for some provinces but differ significantly for Bulawayo, Mashonaland West, Manicaland, Matabeleland South and Matabeleland North. Seasonal trend in cholera incidence is observed in Harare, Mashonaland West, Mashonaland East, Manicaland and Matabeleland South. Our result suggests that, slow transmission is a dominating factor for cholera transmission in most of these provinces. Our model projects [Formula: see text] cholera cases and [Formula: see text] cholera deaths during the end of the epidemic in 2008-09 to January 1, 2012. We also determine an optimal cost-effective control strategy among the four government undertaken interventions namely promoting hand-hygiene & clean water distribution
Sardar, Tridip; Mukhopadhyay, Soumalya; Bhowmick, Amiya Ranjan; Chattopadhyay, Joydev
Incidence of cholera outbreak is a serious issue in underdeveloped and developing countries. In Zimbabwe, after the massive outbreak in 2008–09, cholera cases and deaths are reported every year from some provinces. Substantial number of reported cholera cases in some provinces during and after the epidemic in 2008–09 indicates a plausible presence of seasonality in cholera incidence in those regions. We formulate a compartmental mathematical model with periodic slow-fast transmission rate to study such recurrent occurrences and fitted the model to cumulative cholera cases and deaths for different provinces of Zimbabwe from the beginning of cholera outbreak in 2008–09 to June 2011. Daily and weekly reported cholera incidence data were collected from Zimbabwe epidemiological bulletin, Zimbabwe Daily cholera updates and Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Zimbabwe (OCHA, Zimbabwe). For each province, the basic reproduction number () in periodic environment is estimated. To the best of our knowledge, this is probably a pioneering attempt to estimate in periodic environment using real-life data set of cholera epidemic for Zimbabwe. Our estimates of agree with the previous estimate for some provinces but differ significantly for Bulawayo, Mashonaland West, Manicaland, Matabeleland South and Matabeleland North. Seasonal trend in cholera incidence is observed in Harare, Mashonaland West, Mashonaland East, Manicaland and Matabeleland South. Our result suggests that, slow transmission is a dominating factor for cholera transmission in most of these provinces. Our model projects cholera cases and cholera deaths during the end of the epidemic in 2008–09 to January 1, 2012. We also determine an optimal cost-effective control strategy among the four government undertaken interventions namely promoting hand-hygiene & clean water distribution, vaccination, treatment and sanitation for each province. PMID:24312540
Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama, Rutendo; Gomo, Exnevia
There is evidence from experimental models that the praziquantel-induced clearance of schistosomiasis is dependent on the host's immune response. Consequently, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related immunodeficiency may impair the effect of praziquantel treatment.......There is evidence from experimental models that the praziquantel-induced clearance of schistosomiasis is dependent on the host's immune response. Consequently, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related immunodeficiency may impair the effect of praziquantel treatment....
Erikstrup, Christian; Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama-Gutsire, Rutendo B L
We previously reported that treatment for schistosomiasis in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) attenuated HIV replication as measured by plasma HIV RNA. We investigated systemic inflammation as measured by plasma levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor II...... (sTNF-rII), interleukin-8, (IL-8), and IL-10 during schistosomiasis and HIV co-infection and after schistosomiasis treatment. The cohort was composed of 378 persons who were or were not infected with HIV-1, Schistosoma haematobium, or S. mansoni. Schistosomiasis-infected persons were randomized...... to receive praziquantel (40 mg/kg) at baseline or at the three-month follow-up. sTNF-rII and IL-8 were positively associated with schistosomiasis intensity as measured by circulating anodic antigen (CAA), regardless of HIV status. Interleukin-10 was positively associated with CAA in HIV-negative participants...
This book is based on iterative multi-sited ethnography at Merrivale farm, Tavaka village, and various sites in South Africa. The author reveals how the dynamics generated by fast-track potentially offer new development opportunities - specifically for women. The findings challenge existing expert
HIV and AIDS were visualised in terms of suffering, loneliness, quarantine and death. The youths stressed they would have difficulties ommunicating with other people should they suspect or find they were infected with HIV, as this would imply they had been sexually active. They seemed to have knowledge about HIV and ...
Full Text Available In 2014, we carried out a survey in Chinamhora and Chihota communal lands on the outskirts of Harare city, with the aim of understanding pesticide management practices among market gardening farmers. The farmers grew vegetables that mostly included tomatoes, cabbages, rape, cucumbers, onions and carrots, and they used mainly organophosphates and pyrethroids to control pests. A questionnaire was administered to 119 male heads of households across both study areas. The questionnaire contained 13 closed-ended questions in three sections: source and quality of pesticides, handling and use, and storage and disposal of pesticides used to protect crops. The study identified numerous gaps related to the handling of pesticides. Although the quality of labelling and packaging can largely identify the quality of pesticide, most of the farmers (77.3% could not distinguish between genuine and counterfeit pesticides; approximately half (47.9% of the farmers were not concerned about expiry dates; 27% did not observe post-spray periods; and 63% did not take precautions according to colour-coding of the pesticides. Also of concern were the large numbers of farmers who were not using protective coveralls (54.3%; a substantial number who were not using knapsacks for spraying (21.8%; poor storage of the pesticides, as shown by the variation in storage facilities; the use of empty pesticide containers for domestic purposes (20.2%; and lack of strict adherence to recommended dose levels, with some farmers (28.6% merely estimating the dilution of pesticides. Training through outreach programmes is recommended.
Full Text Available Active participation of the girl child in development is hampered by Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM challenges. MHM is an important gender issue and a critical component in holistic human development. It affects about 25% of the global population aged between 15 and 49 years. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH interventions in schools have not prioritised MHM, thus exposing girls and the entire school community to health related hazards. The study explored knowledge, attitudes and community practices, and investigated the impact of religious and cultural beliefs on MHM and how they impact on the girl child in Masvingo district. The survey was largely qualitative and employed methodologies of document analysis, Focus Group Discussions (FGD and structured interviews. Participants included four churches, 13 NGOs, eight government departments and 40 women. Findings revealed deeply embedded power relations, a culture of silence around MHM, noninvolvement of men in MHM issues, limited availability in terms of information, and a girl unfriendly infrastructure, and limited access to menstrual hygiene products due to poverty and poor management and disposal practices. Resultant effects ranged from poor class participation, lack of concentration and constrained interactions with peers and teachers, low self-esteem, anxiety and the general feeling of being discriminated against. Results confirmed the need for increased awareness initiatives on MHM in a bid to tackle inherent religious and cultural beliefs that are a barrier to effective holistic implementation of WASH interventions that empower women and girls. Lobbying government to provide an appropriate policy framework, education and training, construction of girl friendly sanitary facilities, exploring and capitalisation of local production of Reusable Menstrual Pads (RUMPS, more research targeting children living with disabilities, those living in refugee and makeshift camps and Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC, are some of the recommendations coming out of the study
Full Text Available Epilepsy is the most common condition reported through the psychiatric returns surveillance system in Gokwe South District. Review visits attendance is crucial to the successful control of seizures among epilepsy patients. We sought out to establish the attendance pattern of epileptic patients, prevalence of non-attendance and the associated factors. An analytic cross-sectional study was conducted where consenting respondents (N=110 were selected randomly from the district epilepsy register. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect data. Odds ratios were calculated to determine associations. Logistic regression analysis was done to identify independent risk factors and to control for confounding variables. A total of 110 epileptic patients were included in the study. The patients missed treatment review visits ranging from 1 to 11 of the expected 12 visits between June 2011 and June 2012. Most (70.9% missed at least 2 visits in a 12month period while 46.4% missed 2 or more consecutive visits. Knowledge of treatment duration [prevalence odds ratio (POR 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.08-0.74] and high risk perception [POR 0.14 (95% CI: 0.06-0.33] were associated with a lower likelihood of missing review visits. Barriers such as shortage of drugs [POR 7.09 (95% CI: 3.00-16.72] and long distances to health facilities [POR 6.63 (95% CI: 2.63-16.76] were associated with high likelihood of missing two or more review visits consecutively. Shortage of drugs [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 6.7336 (95% CI: 1.8538-24.4581] and higher risk perception [AOR 0.1948 (95% CI: 0.0625-0.6071] remained significant on logistic regression analysis. A high number of epileptic patients miss their review visits mainly owing to shortage of drugs, and long distances from health facilities.
Erikstrup, Christian; Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama-Gutsire, Rutendo B L
We previously reported that treatment for schistosomiasis in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) attenuated HIV replication as measured by plasma HIV RNA. We investigated systemic inflammation as measured by plasma levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor II...
Cho, Hyunsan; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Iritani, Bonita; Mapfumo, John; Halpern, Carolyn
Objectives. Using a randomized controlled trial in rural eastern Zimbabwe, we tested whether comprehensive support to keep orphan adolescent girls in school could reduce HIV risk. Methods. All orphan girls in grade 6 in 25 primary schools were invited to participate in the study in fall 2007 (n = 329). Primary schools were randomized to condition. All primary schools received a universal daily feeding program; intervention participants received fees, uniforms, and a school-based helper to monitor attendance and resolve problems. We conducted annual surveys and collected additional information on school dropout, marriage, and pregnancy rates. We analyzed data using generalized estimating equations over 3 time points, controlling for school and age at baseline. Results. The intervention reduced school dropout by 82% and marriage by 63% after 2 years. Compared with control participants, the intervention group reported greater school bonding, better future expectations, more equitable gender attitudes, and more concerns about the consequences of sex. Conclusions. We found promising evidence that comprehensive school support may reduce HIV risk for orphan girls. Further study, including assessment of dose response, cost benefit, and HIV and herpes simplex virus 2 biomarker measurement, is warranted. PMID:21493943
Conclusion: Providers in Zimbabwe have identified some key areas of focus for emergency medicine development within Zimbabwe. Respondents have suggested a path forward: the provision of increased undergraduate medical training; official certifications of emergency medical care skills; and government recognition. The low number of respondents significantly limits this study and its conclusions.
Kembo, J.; van Ginneken, J.K.S.
This study describes levels and trends in infant and childhood mortality in Zimbabwe over the past 50 years with emphasis on the past fifteen years. The most important data source consisted of four Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) surveys conducted in Zimbabwe between 1988 and 2005-06.
Gomo, E; Ndhlovu, P; Vennervald, B J
Laboratory, Harare, Zimbabwe. SUBJECTS: 41 HIV positive and 11 HIV negative men and women from Harare participating in HIV studies at Blair Research Laboratory, Zimbabwe. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: CD4 and CD8 T-cell counts by FC and the IA method. RESULTS: The IA method and FC were highly correlated for CD4...
Neffatti, Houcine; Lebraud, Patricia; Hottelet, Corinne; Gharbi, Jawher; Challouf, Taieb; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie
Hepatitis A (HAV) and E (HEV) viruses are responsible for enterically transmitted hepatitis. Tunisia is reported to be of intermediate endemicity for HAV and of low seroprevalence for HEV; however, data from rural areas of South Tunisia are lacking. Sera from 216 asymptomatic pregnant women and from 92 patients with acute hepatitis were collected between October 2014 and November 2015. Total and IgM anti-HAV immunoglobulins and anti-HEV IgG and IgM were investigated. Anti-HAV IgM-positive samples were subjected to RT-PCR targeting the VP1/2A region and sequenced. HEV IgM positive samples and all samples from acute hepatitis patients were assessed for HEV RNA. Among pregnant women (mean age 32+/-8), HAV seroprevalence was 98.6%, none presented anti-HAV IgM; HEV seroprevalence was 5.1% and three presented weakly reactive anti-HEV IgM without detectable RNA. Among acute hepatitis patients (mean age 18.5 +/- 14), HEV seroprevalence was 19,5%, none presented anti-HEV IgM, nor HEV RNA. HAV seroprevalence exceeded 90% by age 5 and acute HAV infection was detected in 20 patients (21,7%), younger than patients with other hepatitis causes (9,8 years vs. 20,4 years, p = 0,004); 65% were male. Most acute HAV infections were observed in a coastal area where HAV infections represented 52% of hepatitis etiology. Phylogenetic analysis identified genotype IA strains, clustering close to previously published Tunisian sequences. The present study confirmed a low HEV endemicity and evidenced a still high level of HAV circulation in Southern Tunisia, suggesting distinct dissemination patterns for these viruses.
Full Text Available Hepatitis A (HAV and E (HEV viruses are responsible for enterically transmitted hepatitis. Tunisia is reported to be of intermediate endemicity for HAV and of low seroprevalence for HEV; however, data from rural areas of South Tunisia are lacking.Sera from 216 asymptomatic pregnant women and from 92 patients with acute hepatitis were collected between October 2014 and November 2015. Total and IgM anti-HAV immunoglobulins and anti-HEV IgG and IgM were investigated. Anti-HAV IgM-positive samples were subjected to RT-PCR targeting the VP1/2A region and sequenced. HEV IgM positive samples and all samples from acute hepatitis patients were assessed for HEV RNA.Among pregnant women (mean age 32+/-8, HAV seroprevalence was 98.6%, none presented anti-HAV IgM; HEV seroprevalence was 5.1% and three presented weakly reactive anti-HEV IgM without detectable RNA. Among acute hepatitis patients (mean age 18.5 +/- 14, HEV seroprevalence was 19,5%, none presented anti-HEV IgM, nor HEV RNA. HAV seroprevalence exceeded 90% by age 5 and acute HAV infection was detected in 20 patients (21,7%, younger than patients with other hepatitis causes (9,8 years vs. 20,4 years, p = 0,004; 65% were male. Most acute HAV infections were observed in a coastal area where HAV infections represented 52% of hepatitis etiology. Phylogenetic analysis identified genotype IA strains, clustering close to previously published Tunisian sequences.The present study confirmed a low HEV endemicity and evidenced a still high level of HAV circulation in Southern Tunisia, suggesting distinct dissemination patterns for these viruses.
Renewable Energy Technologies (RETS) have over the years become an integral part of the energy supply chain in most developed countries. Recent projections show that 13.5% of the world's primary energy supply comes from renewable and this figure has an aggregated annual growth rate of 16%. Wind has the highest annual growth rate of 22% while the least annual growth rate of 2% is for hydropower. The main push for renewable like wind in the OECD countries are environmental concerns and the business aspect in power generation. The situation is however completely different in Africa, where the thrust for RETs is developmental based. Although the continent has abundant renewable energy resources like solar, biomass, wind and hydro potential, they have remained largely unexploited. Several efforts have been made to help African countries like Zimbabwe to exploit such resources. The main objectives of this country study included review of Zimbabwe's development of past RETs, establish barriers related lessons learnt from such projects and currently running RETs projects, identify barriers experienced by other projects and then select a few barrier removal projects and then develop them with the help of all stake holders in the country. The methodology of this study involved a review of past RETs projects to establish barriers faced and barriers related lessons learnt. An examination of the policy instruments related to RETs was done to establish how they promote the dissemination of the technologies as well as their adequacy. A survey of all possible RETs projects in the country was carried out and in this survey the end-users were visited and interviewed by the research team. An initial workshop, which was attended by all stake holders, was held in November 1999. An Advisory committee on RETs in Zimbabwe was then set up comprising of various stake holders from government, the private sector, research institutions, interviewed end-users and the NGO community
Background: Enteric fever is endemic in developing countries and frequently complicates with ileal perforation. Surgical intervention for the perforation is the usual treatment but attendant rate of postoperative complications high. It is unclear what the spec- trum of enteric fever perforations is in rural hospital practice in Kenya ...
Moyo, N. A. G.
Groundwater from boreholes and shallow wells is a major source of drinking water in most rural areas of Zimbabwe. The quality of groundwater has been taken for granted and the status and the potential threats to groundwater quality have not been investigated on a large scale in Zimbabwe. A borehole and shallow well water quality survey was undertaken between January, 2009 and February, 2010 to determine the chemical and microbial aspects of drinking water in three catchment areas. Groundwater quality physico-chemical indicators used in this study were nitrates, chloride, water hardness, conductivity, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, calcium, fluoride, sulphates, sodium and pH. The microbiological indicators were total coliforms, faecal coliforms and heterotrophs. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that most of the variation in ground water quality in all catchment areas is accounted for by Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), sodium, bicarbonate and magnesium. The principal dissolved constituents in ground water are in the form of electrically charged ions. Nitrate is a significant problem as the World Health Organization recommended levels were exceeded in 36%, 37% and 22% of the boreholes in the Manyame, Mazowe and Gwayi catchment areas respectively. The nitrate levels were particularly high in commercial farming areas. Iron and manganese also exceeded the recommended levels. The probable source of high iron levels is the underlying geology of the area which is dominated by dolerites. Dolerites weather to give soils rich in iron and other mafic minerals. The high level of manganese is probably due to the lithology of the rock as well as mining activity in some areas. Water hardness is a problem in all catchment areas, particularly in the Gwayi catchment area where a value of 2550 mg/l was recorded in one borehole. The problems with hard water use are discussed. Chloride levels exceeded the
Image analysis was used to study the karyotype of six Ethiopian Kniphofia species: K. foliosa, K. hildebrandtii, K. insignis, K. isoetifolia, K. schimperi and K. pumila. The first five are endemic to Ethiopia. All have somatic chromosome number of 2n = 12, and follow the same karyotype formula: 1m + 3sm + 2st. There was ...
199~31t (Sp 3) Endemic infectious Diseases of’Sonialia S139 methrin-impregnated jackets and mosquito netting should ofadequate food 1 571. Among...be 10"- 1 Oil spirocheties/iL- o~f blo~od (several have several attacks each month. The late chronic obstruc- or-a nisins per high-power field ). I
A study was carried to determine the presence, level of endemicity and the intensity of human Schistosoma haematobium infection in Shonga community of Edu Local Government Area in Kwara State, Nigeria. For permission and maximum cooperation, intensive advocacy and mobilization of the community leaders, school ...
and fever with convulsions . However, no guidelines have been published on the relationship between fever and diarrhoea. There is the tendency for health personnel in most areas endemic for malaria to prescribe antimalarials to children with acute diarrhoea. We have investigated in this study the prevalence of malaria ...
Domijan, Ana-Marija; Miletić-Medved, Marica; Peraica, Maja
Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a human chronic tubulointerstitial renal disease that occurs in rural areas of some Balkan countries. The disease is insidious and fatal, and mostly affects persons in their sixties or seventies. BEN areas have unusually high rates of otherwise rare upper urina...
Full Text Available Selected Papers from the Rhinoceros Conservation Workshop, Skukuza, Kruger National Park,31 August – 4 September 1988 The demise of black rhinoceros populations in Africa is alarming and the overriding cause for the decline is illicit poaching for horn. In 1987 Zimbabwe hosted the largest contiguous population of 500 animals in the Zambezi Valley while the country's overall population is now estimated to be nearly 2 000 individuals. A strategy to conserve and protect the black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis in Zimbabwe requires four dimensions, each dependent directly or indirectly on the other, if success is to be achieved. It includes a positive reaction by the Department of National Parks and Wild Life Management, a national reaction by the government totally committed to the protection of the species, an international reaction requiring support for the stand that Zimbabwe is taking and, finally, a system of intelligence gathering which assists the different authorities in the overall conservation strategy which is being implemented.
Full Text Available In Kadoma in Zimbabwe small-scale gold mining is widespread. Mothers and their infants are exposed in the mining communities to the toxic inorganic mercury vapors from processing the ore using elemental mercury. Methyl-mercury is a well known neurotoxin and endangers the regular development of children. This study examined the influence of exposure to elemental mercury for breast fed infants in Kadoma. 121 mother-child pairs were selected, 40 from a non-exposed control area, 81 from the exposed area in Kadoma. Urine, hair and breast milk was analyzed for total mercury. Mainly urine and breast milk levels were significantly higher for the exposed infants. The infants were clinically examined, and their developmental status assessed. In relation to the exposure markers in urine and breast milk several developmental parameters showed statistically significant negative results, such as the capability of infants to sit, crawl or stand at a certain age. These analyzes indicate that a higher body burden with elemental mercury decreases the speed of a regular development of infants.
Averbach, Sarah; Sahin-Hodoglugil, Nuriye; Musara, Petina; Chipato, Tsungai; van der Straten, Ariane
Managing menses is a challenge for women in developing countries. Duet is a cervical barrier being developed for contraception and STI prevention. We explored the hypothetical acceptability of using Duet as a menstrual cup, among Zimbabwean women. A survey and focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with 43 women aged 18-45 years to gain information about their menstrual practices and attitudes regarding the use of Duet for menstrual protection. All 43 women reported that if Duet were available, they would "definitely" try it, and that it was "very important" that Duet is low cost and easy to clean; 86% reported that using it would make a difference in their lives. FGD findings highlighted unhygienic practices due to the lack of affordable options for menstrual management and a genuine interest in Duet, including its potential use for multiple purposes (contraception, disease prevention and menstrual protection). Accessing affordable and hygienic menstrual protection was a problem for these Zimbabwean women. Duet appeared acceptable and it would be feasible to conduct a user-acceptability study of Duet as a menstrual cup in Zimbabwe.
Full Text Available Small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs play a key role in the world economy and contribute significantly to an economy’s output, income and employment. This paper seeks to assess the extent to which Zimbabwe’s commercial banks finance SMEs. Document analysis and an extensive review of the literature was undertaken to contextualize and draw a framework of analysis for the study. The literature shows that SMEs are of great socio-economic importance in developing countries but access to financial services for SMEs in Zimbabwe remains low. Zimbabwe’s economic challenges since 2000 to dollarization in 2009, the informalization of the SME sector, customers’ financial illiteracy and lack of training, lack of collateral security for loans, a high non-performing loans ratio, the lack of understanding of SMEs’ needs by banks, the inaccessibility of banks and the general lack of financial innovation are some of the major reasons for the low level of SME financing. A harmonised approach to policy suggestions for SMEs, lending institutions, the central bank and government to ensure the viability and growth of the SME sector are required and outlined. The research helps to formalize the SME sector considering its attendant benefits to the relevant players in the economy.
Musarurwa, C; Nyamayaro, T; Mujaji, W B; Matarira, H T; Gomo, Z A R
To compare the prices charged for clinical laboratory tests in Zimbabwean institutions with those of similar institutions abroad. An online analytical cross sectional study was conducted. An online survey. We did an online survey of clinical laboratories that published prices of the tests offered on their websites. We also extracted price information from documents published by fees regulatory authorities. Laboratory test prices for independent institutions, Laboratory test prices for State institutions. Overally for all countries, laboratory test prices were lower in state laboratories compared to the independent laboratories. In Zimbabwe, state laboratories generally charged about 50% of the independent laboratory tariff for most tests. However prices from both Zimbabwean institutions were generally much higher than those of the comparison countries (United Kingdom, South Africa, India, United States of America and New Zealand). Prices of laboratory tests are indeed higher in Zimbabwean institutions compared to other centres abroad. These higher prices could be attributed to challenges in consumable procurement logistics. We also present measures that could be put in place to reduce the costs and therefore prices.
Naume Zorodzai Choguya
Full Text Available This paper analyses the importance of the services rendered by traditional birth attendants (TBAs to pregnant women in Zimbabwe. It argues that, though an integral part of the health system, the ambivalence in terms of policy on the part of the government leaves them in a predicament. Sociocultural values as well as tradition imbue TBAs power and authority to manage pregnancies and assist in child deliveries. On the other hand, government policies expounded through the Ministry of Health (MoH programs and policies appear to be relegating them to the fringes of healthcare provision. However, in a country with a failing health system characterized by mass exodus of qualified personnel, availability of drugs, and understaffing of healthcare centres, among others, TBAs remain the lifeline for many women in the country. Instead of sidelining them in healthcare interventions, I argue that their integration, however, problematic and often noted to be with disastrous consequences for traditional medicine, presents the sole viable solution towards achieving MDGs 4 and 5. The government and MoH should capitalize on the availability of and standing working relations of TBAs with the grassroots for better/positive maternal health outcomes. In a country reeling with high maternal deaths, TBAs’ status and position in society make them the best intervention tools.
Campbell, Catherine; Scott, Kerry; Mupambireyi, Zivai; Nhamo, Mercy; Nyamukapa, Constance; Skovdal, Morten; Gregson, Simon
This paper presents community perceptions of a state-of-the-art peer education programme in Manicaland, Zimbabwe. While the intervention succeeded in increasing HIV knowledge among men and condom acceptability among women, and reduced HIV incidence and rates of unprotected sex among men who attended education events, it did not succeed in reducing population-level HIV incidence. To understand the possible reasons for this disappointing result, we conducted a qualitative study of local perspectives of the intervention. Eight focus group discussions and 11 interviews with 81 community members and local project staff were conducted. Transcripts were interrogated and analysed thematically. We identified three factors that may have contributed to the programme's disappointing outcomes: (1) difficulties of implementing all elements of the programme, particularly the proposed income generation component in the wider context of economic strain; (2) a moralistic approach to commercial sex work by programme staff; and (3) limitations in the programme's ability to engage with social realities facing community members. We conclude that externally-imposed programmes that present new information without adequately engaging with local realities and constraints on action can be met by resistance to change.
Nhapi, I; Mawere, M; Veenstra, S; Gijzen, H J
Harare, the capital city of Zimbabwe, is experiencing eutrophication-related problems in its downstream potable water supply source of Lake Chivero. This is due mainly to poorly treated sewage effluent encroachment into upstream rivers, especially Marimba River. Crowborough Pasture Irrigation farm is in the Marimba sub-catchment area and has 305 hectares of irrigated pastures. Studies started from July 2000 to August 2001 focusing on the pasture's management of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and their impact on Marimba River. Water and nutrient balances were developed. Reduction efficiencies for this pasture were found to be 84% for TN and 54% for TP. Both the Crowborough sewage treatment works and the pastures are overloaded. It was therefore concluded that the current system is no longer sustainable economically and environmentally. From the results of our study we recommend that additional treatment units be constructed at Crowborough sewage treatment works to meet current flows. Moreover, pasture management needs substantial improvement. Nutrient recovery should be enhanced by regular harvesting of pasture grass and converting cow dung into an economic commodity as manure for neighbouring residents. Maize cultivation is also recommended to replace pasture grass as it is a local staple crop and has high nutrient uptake rates.
Increasing demand for coal in Asia is stimulating interest in the potentially large coal resources in Southern African countries such as Botswana, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Namibia. These countries have been slow to utilise their coal as local demand has been limited and the means to export coal has been inadequate. The governments in these regions are now recognising coal as a strategically important commodity, capable of earning foreign revenue but also adding value to the economy by generating much needed electricity. This report looks in turn at the role of coal in the energy economies of each of these countries. As in most emerging economies, the provision of a reliable and cost-effective supply of electricity to industries and people is essential for economic growth and the welfare of communities. Demand for Africa's mineral commodities such as diamonds and copper is driving a massive need for electricity and coal will play a major role. Not only does the mining industry need power, but with these growing industries come communities and commerce which are also in need of energy.
Patel, V; Todd, C; Winston, M; Gwanzura, F; Simunyu, E; Acuda, W; Mann, A
Little is known about the outcome of common mental disorders (CMD) in primary care attenders in low income countries. Two and 12 month (T1 and T2) follow-up of a cohort of cases of CMD (n = 199) recruited from primary health, traditional medical practitioner, and general practitioner clinics in Harare, Zimbabwe. The Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ) was the measure of caseness. The persistence of case level morbidity was recorded in 41% of subjects at 12 months. Of the 134 subjects interviewed at both follow-up points, 49% had recovered by T1 and remained well at T2 while 28% were persistent cases at both T1 and T2. Higher SSQ scores, a psychological illness model, bereavement and disability predicted a poor outcome at both times. Poorer outcome at T1 only was associated with a causal model of witch-craft and an unhappy childhood. Caseness at follow-up was associated with disability and economic deprivation. A quarter of cases of CMD were likely to be ill throughout the 12 month follow-up period. Targeting risk groups for poor outcome for interventions and policy interventions to reduce the impact of economic deprivation may provide a way of tackling CMD in primary care in low income countries.
Carter, Benjamin E; Shaw, Blanka; Shaw, A Jonathan
Identifying regions of high endemism is a critical step toward understanding the mechanisms underlying diversification and establishing conservation priorities. Here, we identified regions of high moss endemism across North America. We also identified lineages that contribute disproportionately to endemism and document the progress of efforts to inventory the endemic flora. To understand the documentation of endemic moss diversity in North America, we tabulated species publication dates to document the progress of species discovery across the continent. We analyzed herbarium specimen data and distribution data from the Flora of North America project to delineate major regions of moss endemism. Finally, we surveyed the literature to assess the importance of intercontinental vs. within-continent diversification for generating endemic species. Three primary regions of endemism were identified and two of these were further divided into a total of nine subregions. Overall endemic richness has two peaks, one in northern California and the Pacific Northwest, and the other in the southern Appalachians. Description of new endemic species has risen steeply over the last few decades, especially in western North America. Among the few studies documenting sister species relationships of endemics, recent diversification appears to have played a larger role in western North America, than in the east. Our understanding of bryophyte endemism continues to grow rapidly. Large continent-wide data sets confirm early views on hotspots of endemic bryophyte richness and indicate a high rate of ongoing species discovery in North America. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.
Geertjes, G.J; Kamping, A; van Delden, W.; Videler, J.J
Three triplefin blennies occur sympatrically in the Mediterranean Sea; Tripterygion tripteronotus and T melanurus are endemic, whereas T delaisi is also found in the Eastern Atlantic. Although very similar in morphology, ecology and behaviour, some striking differences exist among reproductive
Chirwa, Yotamu; Witter, Sophie; Munjoma, Malvern; Mashange, Wilson; Ensor, Tim; McPake, Barbara; Munyati, Shungu
A paradigm shift in global health policy on user fees has been evident in the last decade with a growing consensus that user fees undermine equitable access to essential health care in many low and middle income countries. Changes to fees have major implications for human resources for health (HRH), though the linkages are rarely explicitly examined. This study aimed to examine the inter-linkages in Zimbabwe in order to generate lessons for HRH and fee policies, with particular respect to reproductive, maternal and newborn health (RMNH). The study used secondary data and small-scale qualitative fieldwork (key informant interview and focus group discussions) at national level and in one district in 2011. The past decades have seen a shift in the burden of payments onto households. Implementation of the complex rules on exemptions is patchy and confused. RMNH services are seen as hard for families to afford, even in the absence of complications. Human resources are constrained in managing current demand and any growth in demand by high external and internal migration, and low remuneration, amongst other factors. We find that nurses and midwives are evenly distributed across the country (at least in the public sector), though doctors are not. This means that for four provinces, there are not enough doctors to provide more complex care, and only three provinces could provide cover in the event of all deliveries taking place in facilities. This analysis suggests that there is a strong case for reducing the financial burden on clients of RMNH services and also a pressing need to improve the terms and conditions of key health staff. Numbers need to grow, and distribution is also a challenge, suggesting the need for differentiated policies in relation to rural areas, especially for doctors and specialists. The management of user fees should also be reviewed, particularly for non-Ministry facilities, which do not retain their revenues, and receive limited investment in
Full Text Available Sera from 173 apparently healthy, unvaccinated dogs from 4 widely separated communal lands in Zimbabwe were tested by ELISA for antibodies against canine distemper virus. Overall, 82 % were positive with high prevalences found in each communal land. The highest seroprevalence was in dogs between 1 and 2 years of age (91 %; 49/54. These results show dogs in the communal lands of Zimbabwe are commonly exposed to canine distemper virus and that a substantial number survive infection. The role that the virus might play in the high mortality rate of the dog population on communal land warrants further investigation.
McFarland, W; Mvere, D; Shamu, R; Katzenstein, D
Factors associated with an increased likelihood of HIV infection among newly recruited blood donors in Zimbabwe are identified. Their feasibility as criteria for exclusion from donation is assessed. A self-administered survey including demographic and behavioral questions was completed by 1199 first-time, volunteer blood donors in Harare, Zimbabwe. Methods for subject recruitment and laboratory screening followed usual blood bank protocols. Fifteen percent of subjects were HIV positive. Factors significantly associated with HIV seropositivity at the pblood safety and reducing operating costs worldwide. Identification of efficient donor selection criteria requires knowledge of the local epidemiology of HIV infection and the asking of questions that are likely to be answered accurately.
Full Text Available Understanding the dynamic nature of sex work is important for explaining the course of HIV epidemics. While health and development interventions targeting sex workers may alter the dynamics of the sex trade in particular localities, little has been done to explore how large-scale social and structural changes, such as economic recessions-outside of the bounds of organizational intervention-may reconfigure social norms and attitudes with regards to sex work. Zimbabwe's economic collapse in 2009, following a period (2000-2009 of economic decline, within a declining HIV epidemic, provides a unique opportunity to study community perceptions of the impact of socio-economic upheaval on the sex trade. We conducted focus group discussions with 122 community members in rural eastern Zimbabwe in January-February 2009. Groups were homogeneous by gender and occupation and included female sex workers, married women, and men who frequented bars. The focus groups elicited discussion around changes (comparing contemporaneous circumstances in 2009 to their memories of circumstances in 2000 in the demand for, and supply of, paid sex, and how sex workers and clients adapted to these changes, and with what implications for their health and well-being. Transcripts were thematically analyzed. The analysis revealed how changing economic conditions, combined with an increased awareness and fear of HIV-changing norms and local attitudes toward sex work-had altered the demand for commercial sex. In response, sex work dispersed from the bars into the wider community, requiring female sex workers to employ different tactics to attract clients. Hyperinflation meant that sex workers had to accept new forms of payment, including sex-on-credit and commodities. Further impacting the demand for commercial sex work was a poverty-driven increase in transactional sex. The economic upheaval in Zimbabwe effectively reorganized the market for sex by reducing previously dominant forms
Elmes, Jocelyn; Skovdal, Morten; Nhongo, Kundai; Ward, Helen; Campbell, Catherine; Hallett, Timothy B; Nyamukapa, Constance; White, Peter J; Gregson, Simon
Understanding the dynamic nature of sex work is important for explaining the course of HIV epidemics. While health and development interventions targeting sex workers may alter the dynamics of the sex trade in particular localities, little has been done to explore how large-scale social and structural changes, such as economic recessions-outside of the bounds of organizational intervention-may reconfigure social norms and attitudes with regards to sex work. Zimbabwe's economic collapse in 2009, following a period (2000-2009) of economic decline, within a declining HIV epidemic, provides a unique opportunity to study community perceptions of the impact of socio-economic upheaval on the sex trade. We conducted focus group discussions with 122 community members in rural eastern Zimbabwe in January-February 2009. Groups were homogeneous by gender and occupation and included female sex workers, married women, and men who frequented bars. The focus groups elicited discussion around changes (comparing contemporaneous circumstances in 2009 to their memories of circumstances in 2000) in the demand for, and supply of, paid sex, and how sex workers and clients adapted to these changes, and with what implications for their health and well-being. Transcripts were thematically analyzed. The analysis revealed how changing economic conditions, combined with an increased awareness and fear of HIV-changing norms and local attitudes toward sex work-had altered the demand for commercial sex. In response, sex work dispersed from the bars into the wider community, requiring female sex workers to employ different tactics to attract clients. Hyperinflation meant that sex workers had to accept new forms of payment, including sex-on-credit and commodities. Further impacting the demand for commercial sex work was a poverty-driven increase in transactional sex. The economic upheaval in Zimbabwe effectively reorganized the market for sex by reducing previously dominant forms of commercial sex
This work investigates cholera as a disease using mathematical models with emphasis on its endemic nature. The focal point is to investigate the persistent endemic nature of cholera in Nigeria using mathematical model. We found that, there can be no backward bifurcation because there existed only one positive endemic ...
Gilberto Chavez-Leon; Deborah M. Finch
Non-sustainable land use practices in the state of Michoacan, Mexico, have perturbed endemic bird h~bitats for several decades. Endemic birds have a restricted geographic and ecological distribution. This feature makes them suitable to be used as indicators of biological diversity and environmental perturbation. Forty-one Mexican endemic species have been recorded in...
Full Text Available Species richness, endemism and areas that are rich in both species and endemic species were assessed and mapped for Namibia. High species diversity corresponds with zones where species overlap. These are particularly obvious where there are altitudinal variations and in high-lying areas. The endemic flora of Namibia is rich and diverse. An estimated 16% of the total plant species in Namibia are endemic to the country. Endemics are in a wide variety of families and sixteen genera are endemic. Factors that increase the likelihood of endemism are mountains, hot deserts, diversity of substrates and microclimates. The distribution of plants endemic to Namibia was arranged in three different ways. Firstly, based on a grid count with the phytogeographic value o f the species being equal, overall endemism was mapped. Secondly, range restricted plant species were mapped individually and those with congruent distribution patterns were combined. Thirdly, localities that are important for very range-restricted species were identified. The resulting maps o f endemism and diversity were compared and found to correspond in many localities. When overall endemism is compared with overall diversity, rich localities may consist of endemic species with wide ranges. The other methods identify important localities with their own distinctive complement of species.
Wilson, Rhonda L.; Usher, Kim
that they align more closely to the developmental and social needs of young people with mental health problems. Design: A mixed methods case study design was used to explore the early mental health care needs of young rural people. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted and data were analysed...... to young people. Conclusions: Non-traditional venues such as community, school and justice settings are ideal places where more convenient first conversations about mental health with young people and their families, and rural nurses should be deployed to these settings. Relevance to Clinical Practice...
Background Cholera mainly affects developing countries where safe water supply and sanitation infrastructure are often rudimentary. Sub-Saharan Africa is a cholera hotspot. Effective cholera control requires not only a professional assessment, but also consideration of community-based priorities. The present work compares local sociocultural features of endemic cholera in urban and rural sites from three field studies in southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (SE-DRC), western Kenya and Zanzibar. Methods A vignette-based semistructured interview was used in 2008 in Zanzibar to study sociocultural features of cholera-related illness among 356 men and women from urban and rural communities. Similar cross-sectional surveys were performed in western Kenya (n = 379) and in SE-DRC (n = 360) in 2010. Systematic comparison across all settings considered the following domains: illness identification; perceived seriousness, potential fatality and past household episodes; illness-related experience; meaning; knowledge of prevention; help-seeking behavior; and perceived vulnerability. Results Cholera is well known in all three settings and is understood to have a significant impact on people’s lives. Its social impact was mainly characterized by financial concerns. Problems with unsafe water, sanitation and dirty environments were the most common perceived causes across settings; nonetheless, non-biomedical explanations were widespread in rural areas of SE-DRC and Zanzibar. Safe food and water and vaccines were prioritized for prevention in SE-DRC. Safe water was prioritized in western Kenya along with sanitation and health education. The latter two were also prioritized in Zanzibar. Use of oral rehydration solutions and rehydration was a top priority everywhere; healthcare facilities were universally reported as a primary source of help. Respondents in SE-DRC and Zanzibar reported cholera as affecting almost everybody without differentiating much for gender, age
Full Text Available While technology has been embraced by most of the people, use of smart phones in the classroom has been received with mixed feelings. Some say it enhances learning while others complain that it disturbs instruction. This research wanted to find out the stance of secondary school teachers on this issue in Zimbabwe. A sample of 50 randomly selected teachers from 10 randomly selected secondary schools in Gweru District, Midlands Province in Zimbabwe was used. Data from self-constructed questionnaires were analyzed by SPSS mainly on descriptive statistics and correlation. Findings showed that teachers possess smart phones which they use for researching and other instructional purposes with moderate expertise. Teachers consider smart phones as hand-held computers that can enhance learning for they have high engagement potential and they extend classroom walls allowing students to engage with the global village. A correlation computation showed that there is a significant relationship between perceived problems of smart phones and smart phones integration factors. However, respondents felt that smart phones can cause lower levels of attention during lessons and allows cheating and copying during exams. They also concurred that teachers’ technical skills lag behind those of digital native students. Thus, they foresaw instructional problems on the part of the teachers on the use of smart phones in the classroom and were against their use. They doubted if the use of smart phones can improve the pass rate and whether they wanted their students to bring cell phones and use them during lessons for they perceived problems in controlling students using them. They also doubted if schools in Zimbabwe would ever benefit if students are allowed to use their phones in class. The study concluded that teachers in Zimbabwe are not yet prepared to have students use smart phone in the classroom and recommended for further research on the potential benefits of using
Ira M Longini
Full Text Available Although advances in rehydration therapy have made cholera a treatable disease with low case-fatality in settings with appropriate medical care, cholera continues to impose considerable mortality in the world's most impoverished populations. Internationally licensed, killed whole-cell based oral cholera vaccines (OCVs have been available for over a decade, but have not been used for the control of cholera. Recently, these vaccines were shown to confer significant levels of herd protection, suggesting that the protective potential of these vaccines has been underestimated and that these vaccines may be highly effective in cholera control when deployed in mass immunization programs. We used a large-scale stochastic simulation model to investigate the possibility of controlling endemic cholera with OCVs.We construct a large-scale, stochastic cholera transmission model of Matlab, Bangladesh. We find that cholera transmission could be controlled in endemic areas with 50% coverage with OCVs. At this level of coverage, the model predicts that there would be an 89% (95% confidence interval [CI] 72%-98% reduction in cholera cases among the unvaccinated, and a 93% (95% CI 82%-99% reduction overall in the entire population. Even a more modest coverage of 30% would result in a 76% (95% CI 44%-95% reduction in cholera incidence for the population area covered. For populations that have less natural immunity than the population of Matlab, 70% coverage would probably be necessary for cholera control, i.e., an annual incidence rate of < or = 1 case per 1,000 people in the population.Endemic cholera could be reduced to an annual incidence rate of < or = 1 case per 1,000 people in endemic areas with biennial vaccination with OCVs if coverage could reach 50%-70% depending on the level of prior immunity in the population. These vaccination efforts could be targeted with careful use of ecological data.
Hethcote, H W; Tudor, D W
Endemic infectious diseases for which infection confers permanent immunity are described by a system of nonlinear Volterra integral equations of convolution type. These constant-parameter models include vital dynamics (birth and deaths), immunization and distributed infectious period. The models are shown to be well posed, the threshold criteria are determined and the asymptotic behavior is analysed. It is concluded that distributed delays do not change the thresholds and the asymptotic behaviors of the models.
Pufall, Erica L; Nyamukapa, Constance; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Campbell, Catherine; Skovdal, Morten; Munyati, Shungu; Robertson, Laura; Gregson, Simon
Little is known about how HIV impacts directly and indirectly on receiving, or particularly succeeding in, education in sub-Saharan Africa. To address this gap, we used multivariable logistic regression to determine the correlation between education outcomes in youth (aged 15-24) (being in the correct grade-for-age, primary school completion and having at least five "O" level passes) and being HIV-positive; having an HIV-positive parent; being a young carer; or being a maternal, paternal or double orphan, in five rounds (1998-2011) of a general population survey from eastern Zimbabwe. The fifth survey round (2009-2011) included data on children aged 6-17, which were analysed for the impacts of the above risk factors on regular attendance in primary and secondary schools and being in the correct grade-for-age. For data pooled over all rounds, being HIV-positive had no association with primary school completion, "O" level passes, or being in the correct grade-for-age in adolescents aged 16-17 years. Additionally, HIV status had no significant association with any education outcomes in children aged 6-17 surveyed in 2009-2011. In 2009-2011, being a young carer was associated with lower attendance in secondary school (69% vs. 85%, AOR: 0.44; p=0.02), whilst being a maternal (75% vs. 83%, AOR: 0.67; pforms of orphanhood also significantly decreased the odds of primary school completion in youths surveyed from 1998 to 2011 (all peducation but further evidence that orphans do experience worse education outcomes than other children. Combination approaches that provide incentives for children to attend school and equip schools with tools to support vulnerable children may be most effective in improving education outcomes and should be developed and evaluated.
Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Khoza, Star; Hassall, Oliver; Faragher, Brian E.; Kajja, Isaac; Mvere, David A.; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus
Background There are limited published data on the characteristics of blood transfusion recipients in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the demographic characteristics of blood transfusion recipients and patterns of blood and blood component use in Zimbabwe. Materials and methods Data on the characteristics of the blood transfusion recipients (age, sex, blood group), blood components received (type, quantity), discharge diagnoses and outcomes following transfusion (discharge status, duration of stay in hospital), were retrospectively collected from four major hospitals for the period from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012. Diagnoses were grouped into broad categories according to the disease headings of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Surgical procedures were grouped into broad categories according to organ system using ICD-9. Results Most of the 1,793 transfusion recipients studied were female (63.2%) and in the reproductive age group, i.e. 15–49 years (65.3%). The median age of the recipients was 33 years (range, 0–93). The majority of these recipients (n=1,642; 91.6%) received a red blood cell transfusion. The majority of the patients were diagnosed with conditions related to pregnancy and childbirth (22.3%), and diseases of blood and blood-forming organs (17.7%). The median time spent in hospital was 8 days (range, 0–214) and in-hospital mortality was 15.4%. Discussion Our sample of blood transfusion recipients were fairly young and most of them received red blood cell transfusions. The majority of patients in the reproductive age group received blood transfusions for pregnancy and childbirth-related diagnoses. PMID:26192782
Gandiwa, E.; Chikorowondo, G.; Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Muvengwi, J.
A study on the structure and composition of Androstachys johnsonii Prain (Euphorbiaceae) woodland across three strata was conducted in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), southeast Zimbabwe. Specifically, the objectives of the study were: (i) to determine the spatial structure and composition of A.
Incident cases of OKS from the upper and lower lips, oral vestibule, retromolar area, floor of mouth, tongue, cheek mucosa, gums, hard and soft palate were accessed from the Zimbabwe National Cancer Registry (ZNCR). Cases from the skin, pharynx, larynx and the major salivary glands were excluded from the study.
Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Mango, N.; Gandiwa, E.; Goza, D.; Parakasingwa, C.; Chinoitezvi, E.; Shimbani, J.; Muvengwi, J.
The objectives of this study were: i) to establish the status of woody vegetation structure and composition, and ii) to determine the main factors influencing woody vegetation structure and composition across Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. We divided the park into three large strata based on
Gandiwa, E.; Gandiwa, P.; Mxoza, T.
We investigated the structure and composition of Spirostachys africana woodlands in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), southeast Zimbabwe. We divided the GNP into three strata, namely northern, central and southern GNP, based on physical feature such as major perennial rivers. The main objective was to
Nyakudya, I.W.; Stroosnijder, L.
Food security in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in semi-arid tropics (41% of the region; 6 months of dry season) is threatened by droughts, dry spells and infertile soils. In Zimbabwe, 74% of smallholder farming areas are located in semi-arid areas mostly in areas with soils of low fertility and
The objectives of this study, done at the Makaholi Experiment Station, Zimbabwe, were to evaluate the effects of organic inputs, applied at 5t ha-1, in various combinations with inorganic fertiliser on the growth and yield of maize over three seasons, beginning in 1990/91. The inputs included manure, leaf litter from ...
Dambudzo, Ignatius Isaac
The study sought to investigate curriculum issues, teaching and learning for sustainable development in secondary schools in Zimbabwe. Education for sustainable development (ESD) aims at changing the approach to education by integrating principles, values, practices and needs in all forms of learning. Literature has documented the importance of…
The aim of this study was to (i) estimate wild animal abundances, distribution and species diversity and (ii) examine the opportunities for wildlife viewing in major tourist areas in the southern part of Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), southeast Zimbabwe. In this study, road strip counts were used.
Nyanga, L.K.; Gadaga, T.H.; Nout, M.J.R.; Smid, E.J.; Boekhout, T.; Zwietering, M.H.
Ziziphus mauritiana (masau) fruits are consumed by many people in Zimbabwe. The fruits contribute significantly to people's diet when they are in season. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional content of the fruits and, hence, quantify their contribution to the diet. Samples of
Nyanga, L.K.; Gadaga, T.H.; Nout, M.J.R.; Smid, E.J.; Boekhout, T.; Zwietering, M.H.
Ziziphus mauritiana (masau) fruits are consumed by many people in Zimbabwe. The fruits contribute significantly to people’s diet when they are in season. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional content of the fruits and, hence, quantify their contribution to the diet. Samples of
Spierenburg, Marja J.
This book describes efforts by the Zimbabwean government to enforce land reforms on African farmers in northern Zimbabwe. These efforts compounded rather than alleviated the problem of land scarcity for black small-scale farmers, a problem government now allegedly seeks to redress through invasions
Taylor, Julie S; Lund, Patricia
Feasibility studies are often a helpful prelude to constructing fundable research proposals. Where the intended research is in a foreign country, focuses on a vulnerable population, and is aggravated by political and pragmatic challenges, feasibility studies become essential. Albinism, a genetic condition of reduced melanin synthesis, is a major public health issue in southern Africa. Whilst much is known about the health needs of children with albinism, little is understood about how to address these effectively in low income countries. Further, the child care and protection needs of children with albinism are largely unexplored. Zimbabwe's current political and economic climate presents additional challenges to research on the topic. The technical, economic, legal, collaborative, operational, schedule and political feasibilities (acronym TELCOSP) to undertaking a study on children with albinism in Zimbabwe were explored over a six week period of fieldwork in the country. Using the TELSCOSP framework allowed a deconstruction of each challenge to provide innovative solutions. The economic and legal feasibility aspects presented some difficulties that will require flexibility and perseverance to overcome. With the assistance of the local communities and people with albinism in Zimbabwe, the obstacles appear surmountable. The feasibility study provided a productive framework for addressing potential challenges in studying the needs of Zimbabwe's children living with albinism.
Sibanda, T.; Nonner, J.C.; Uhlenbrook, S.
The Nyamandhlovu aquifer is the main water resource in the semi-arid Umguza district in Matebeleland North Province in Zimbabwe. The rapid increase in water demand in the city of Bulawayo has prompted the need to quantify the available groundwater resources for sustainable utilization. Groundwater
A framework for HIV/AIDS vaccine research in Zimbabwe. ... In recognition of this need, African scientists convened a consultative meeting in Kenya under the auspices of the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS) to discuss strategies to accelerate the development of HIV vaccines in Africa. This paper ...
Hove, T.; Lind, Peter; Mukaratirwa, S.
Serum samples from 474 domestic pigs (Sus scrola) from Zimbabwe were tested for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. The results showed that T gondii infection is widespread in Zimbabwean pigs. Seroprevalence was lowest in fattening pigs from large...
Hove, T.; Lind, Peter; Mukaratirwa, S.
Seroprevalence rates of Toxoplasma gondii anti-antibodies in adult goats and sheep from different parts of Zimbabwe were determined. A total of 225 (67.9 %) of the 335 serum samples tested were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies with the indirect fluorescent antibody test. There were...
Hove, T.; Lind, Peter; Mukaratirwa, S.
Cell-culture-derived clones of eight Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Zimbabwe were characterised in IFAT with a panel of five monoclonal antibodies (mAb). Each clone had been established from a single murine brain cyst. The antibodies were bradyzoite-specific (4.3), tachyzoite-specific (4.25, 5...
Mazvimavi, D.; Meijerink, A.M.J.; Savenije, H.H.G.; Stein, A.
The feasibility of predicting flow characteristics from basin descriptors using multiple regression and neural networks has been investigated on 52 basins in Zimbabwe. Flow characteristics considered were average annual runoff, base flow index, flow duration curve, and average monthly runoff . Mean
This study was carried out between October and December 1999. It looks at the nature of the literacy activities, successes and problems faced by the Adult Literacy Organization of Zimbabwe (ALOZ) in its efforts to spread literacy activities in the country. Data was collected by means of interviews and consultation of literature ...
... property of persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Zimbabwe, pursuant to the... democratic processes or institutions. These actions and policies have contributed to the deliberate breakdown..., and to political and economic instability in the southern African region. On November 22, 2005, the...
Developments in peace studies and peace theory have resulted in two conceptualizations of peace, notably, 'negative / cold' peace and 'positive / hot / stable' peace, respectively. It can be surmised that situations and conditions in most countries internationally and Zimbabwe in particular, seem consistent with negative ...
Garwe, Evelyn Chiyevo
A study on investigating the issues of quality associated with cross-border higher education was carried out using the case study approach focusing on Zimbabwe. The methodology involved document analysis of the cases of regulation and accreditation of cross-border higher education providers and assessment of qualifications acquired from foreign…
Nyikahadzoi, Loveness; Matamande, Wilson; Taderera, Ever; Mandimika, Elinah
The study seeks to establish scientific evidence of the factors affecting academic performance for first year accounting students using four selected courses at the University of Zimbabwe. It uses Ordinary Least Squares method to analyse the influence of personal and family background on performance. The findings show that variables age gender,…
Illegal hunting of wildlife is a major issue in today’s society, particularly in tropical ecosystems. In this study, a total of 114 local residents from eight villages located in four wards adjacent to the northern Gonarezhou National Park, south-eastern Zimbabwe were interviewed in 2009, using
This study carries out an economic analysis of the demand for fuelwood in urban areas using Harare, the capital city of Zimbabwe, as a case study. The demand for fuelwood in urban areas is one of the causes of several environmental and health problems in Africa, where the up to 90% of energy
Gandiwa, E.; Gandiwa, P.; Muboko, N.
Human-wildlife conflicts (HWC) are a common phenomenon world-wide, particularly in areas where humans and wild animal’s requirements overlap. In this study we focused on the nature of HWC in an area occurring within the northern Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), Zimbabwe. We collected data using focus
de Hamer, W.; Love, D.; Owen, R.; Booij, Martijn J.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert
Groundwater use by accessing alluvial aquifers of non-perennial rivers can be an important additional water resource in the semi-arid region of southern Zimbabwe. The research objective of the study was to calculate the potential water supply for the upper-Mnyabezi catchment under current conditions
Wolf, M. J.; Wolf, B.; Bijleveld, C.; Beunen, G.; Casaer, P.
The early identification of neurological dysfunction in the neonatal period, the predictive value of single items of the neonatal neurological examination (NNE) adapted from Prechtl and the developmental outcome at 1 year of age in infants with a low Apgar score in Zimbabwe were studied. One hundred
Trap, Birna; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Hogerzeil, Hans V
The number of dispensing doctors has increased in the last decade, but the implication of this trend on the quality of health care and drug use is unknown. We present a comparative drug utilization study of 29 dispensing doctors and 28 non-dispensing doctors in Zimbabwe based on standard indicato...
The family is a pillar of society as it influences the way society is structured, organized and functions, yet the Fast Track Land Reform Programme of 2000 in Zimbabwe came with disruptive tendencies to the family fabric. This paper targets the notion of split households as families spread their risk through maintaining dual ...
Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Gandiwa, E.; Jakarasi, J.; Westhuizen, van der H.; Muvengwi, J.
The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is an iconic or keystone species in many aquatic ecosystems. In order to understand the abundance, distribution, and population trends of Nile crocodiles in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), southeastern Zimbabwe, we carried out 4 annual aerial surveys, using
It is the writer`s perception that a multi-disciplinary approach must be adopted and that new ways of records management must be adopted so that availability of information must be relatively fair on many issues of our past. This article shall use the National Archives of Zimbabwe (NAZ) as its core case study to evaluate ...
Gwazani, R.; Gandiwa, E.; Gandiwa, P.; Mhaka, V.; Hungwe, T.; Muza, M.
Demand and supply of water over space and time is being influenced by changes in land use, population growth, industrial development and construction of dams. In this study, we focus on Mushandike dam located in Mushandike Sanctuary, Zimbabwe, and evaluate the socio-ecological impacts associated
In Zimbabwe, there have been some debates on democratisation and decentralisation, which led to the development of policies meant to increase teacher participation in decision-making in schools. However, despite these developments, teacher participation in decision-making in Zimbabwean schools is regarded as insignificant. Teachers work closely…
Magudu, Snodia; Gumbo, Mishack
This article demonstrates, through the example of Zimbabwe, the complexities of micro-political learning during induction. It reports on the experiences of ten newly qualified teachers with micro-politics or power relations in their schools during induction and locates these experiences within the broader context of their professional development.…
Mudege, Netsayi Noris
This study is an extension of an earlier interdisciplinary study on the impact of the adoption of high-yielding varieties of maize on poverty reduction in Mupfurudzi resettlement area in Shamva, Zimbabwe, carried out in 2001. The present study focuses on how farmers in resettlement areas produce and
Tanyanyiwa, Vincent Itai; Mutambanengwe, Betty
The teaching and designing of modules at Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU) is the principal responsibility of a single body of teaching staff, although some authors and content reviewers could be sourced from elsewhere if they are not available in ZOU. This survey, through a case study, examines the involvement of lecturers and staff in the…
Sithole, D.; Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Gandiwa, E.
This study investigated the occurrence of alien plant species in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), Zimbabwe. We focused on two main habitat types, namely riparian areas of the major rivers and dry land areas. Sampling was carried out from 42 sampling plots in both habitat types. Variables studied
Sigauke, Aaron T.
Educational discourse, like other fields, is not neutral. Through policy documents it has ideological functions of transmitting dominant cultures and serving certain sectional interest groups. In Zimbabwe 1998 was characterized by radical political discontent as witnessed by a rise in student activism and the formation of the main political…
Gandiwa, P.; Chinoitezvi, E.; Gandiwa, E.
This study assessed the status of woody vegetation structure and composition in two Important Bird Areas (IBA) i.e. Manjinji Pan and Save-Runde Junction located in southeastern Zimbabwe. The objectives of this study were to: (i) determine the woody vegetation structure and composition of the study
Zimbabwe's resettlement programme is nearly twenty years old. The first families were resettled in 1980, just a few months after independence, and the programme has to date resettled over 70,000 families, well short of the target of 162,000 set in the early 1980s. A tension exists over where the
Cooper, R. G.; Chifamba, J.
Studies on health pedagogy in medical students in African universities are lacking. The aim of the current investigation was to assess the following pedagogy influences on second year Zimbabwean medical students' well-being. A group of 100 students studying Physiology and Anatomy in MBChB. II program at the University of Zimbabwe College of Health…
Zisadza, P.; Gandiwa, E.; Westhuizen, van der H.; Westhuizen, van der E.; Bodzo, V.
To understand the abundance, distribution, and population trends of the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) in the Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), Zimbabwe, we (i) carried out an aerial survey along sections of major perennial rivers, namely Runde, Save and Mwenezi and other inland water
Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Chiganze, S.; Chirombe, P.; Mashapa, C.; Muboko, N.; Gandiwa, E.
African fish eagles (Haliaeetus vocifer) are important birds of prey and indicator of ecosystem integrity in aquatic environments. We assessed the population abundance and spatial distribution of African fish eagles along three major rivers in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. Data were collected
Full Text Available This paper reports the results on the impact of the current visa regime policy on tourism recovery and development in Zimbabwe. The focus was on finding out how the visa regime could impact on efforts to bring into the country more visitors following the decline in visitor inflows from 2000 to 2008. Data was collected from selected visitors from different member states which require visas to enter into the county in the period between January 2010 and July 2010.The findings shows that visa restrictions play a small part in discouraging visitors to visit Zimbabwe. The visa regime policy was designed in such a way that it was easy for passport holders from traditional markets to have relatively easy passage into Zimbabwe. It was also discovered that visa restrictions were part of international travel conditions but how to get the visa became the competitive advantage or disadvantage a destination can have compared with its competitors. Zimbabwe’s traditional markets believed that the visa was not difficult to get nor was it too expensive as to scare away visitors. However, the emerging markets such as China who are in Group C had problems getting the visa as they were required to apply for the visa before traveling to Zimbabwe.
Marashe, Joel; Ndamba, Gamuchirai Tsitsiozashe; Chireshe, Excellent
Zimbabwe's Education Ministry recommended the teaching of African Traditional Religion in recognition of its multi-religious society. This study sought to establish the extent to which African Traditional Religion is taught in primary schools, the challenges faced by teachers, and opportunities for promoting its teaching. A descriptive survey…
Nyakudya, I.W.; Stroosnijder, L.; Nyagumbo, I.
Realising that rainwater harvesting (RWH) improves crop productivity, smallholder farmers in semi-arid Zimbabwe modified contour ridges traditionally used for rainwater management by digging infiltration pits inside contour ridge channels in order to retain more water in crop fields. However,
Full Text Available Field outbreaks of Kalanchoe lanceolata poisoning in cattle on a commercial farm in Zimbabwe are reported. The clinical signs and pathological lesions observed in field cases resembled those reproduced in an experimental cow and were consistent with acute cardiac glycoside poisoning.
Mapfumo, John S.; Chitsiko, Natsirayi; Chireshe, Regis
We sought to establish stressors and coping mechanisms for student teachers on Teaching Practice from a Christian-related university and a government-owned teachers' college in Zimbabwe. The sample was made up of 77 participants (38 females, 39 males). Thirty-two participants were from the university and 45 were from the teachers' college. A…
... or institutions in Zimbabwe, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C... extraordinary threat to the foreign policy of the United States, the national emergency declared on March 6... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect...
Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Khoza, Star; Mvere, David A.; Chitiyo, McLeod E.; Postma, Maarten J.; Van Hulst, Marinus
Background. Haemovigilance hinges on a systematically structured reporting system, which unfortunately does not always exist in resource-limited settings. We determined the incidence and pattern of transfusion-related adverse events reported to the National Blood Service Zimbabwe. Materials and
Moyo, Nathan; Modiba, Maropeng M.
This paper reflects on the key actors in education policy making in Zimbabwe. It looks at the contextual complexities that characterized policy-making in this country to make sense of the contestations that the state had to confront and accommodate. The policy network approach is employed as an analytical framework to clarify how, in particular…
The main areas of study were the reported cash income and its sources, source of income in an emergency and the respondents' satisfaction with levels of the same. The study showed that slightly less than three-quarters of the rural elderly and slightly more than half of the urban elderly had incomes less than the minimum ...
The study showed that slightly less than three-quarters of the rural elderly and slightly more than half of the urban elderly had incomes less than the minimum wage specified then. Urban incomes were higher. Two-fifths of respondents were unemployed, with an equal number employed mostly in manual and low paying jobs ...
Full Text Available Zimbabwe’s casual, naturalised and invasive alien plant species were analysed with regard to their habit, origin, mode or purpose of introduction and their invasion status in the country. This alien flora of 391 taxa belonged to 239 genera and 73 families, corresponding to 6.6% of the total flora of Zimbabwe. Of these, 153 (39.1% plant species were casual aliens, 154 (39.4% were naturalised and 84 (21.5% were invasive species. Most invasions in terms of numbers of alien species were in the central and eastern parts of the country. Asteraceae (53 species, Poaceae (48 species and Fabaceae sensu lato (49 species families were prominent in all the floristic regions of the country. Annual and perennial herbaceous species formed the majority of life forms of the casual, naturalised and invasive alien flora of Zimbabwe. Genera with the highest number of alien species were Ipomoea with nine species, Acacia and Euphorbia with eight species each, Chenopodium and Senna with seven species each, Eucalyptus with six species, Oenothera, Physalis and Solanum with five species each. More than 49.6% of the alien plants in Zimbabwe originated primarily from South, Central and North America, followed by Europe (24.6%, Asia (23.8%, Africa (10.5% and Australasia (5.9%.Conservation implications: This research provides baseline information and historical invasion patterns of casual, naturalised and invasive alien flora in Zimbabwe. This inventory is a crucial starting point in trying to understand and initiate the management of biological invasions. This is also important for monitoring new introductions and management of existing alien plants in Zimbabwe.
Scherson, Rosa A; Albornoz, Abraham A; Moreira-Muñoz, Andrés S; Urbina-Casanova, Rafael
This study uses phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential (phylogenetic diversity and community structure) to evaluate the evolutionary value of vascular plant genera endemic to Chile. Endemicity is regarded as a very important consideration for conservation purposes. Taxa that are endemic to a single country are valuable conservation targets, as their protection depends upon a single government policy. This is especially relevant in developing countries in which conservation is not always a high resource allocation priority. Phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential such as phylogenetic diversity (PD) have been regarded as meaningful measures of the "value" of taxa and ecosystems, as they are able to account for the attributes that could allow taxa to recover from environmental changes. Chile is an area of remarkable endemism, harboring a flora that shows the highest number of endemic genera in South America. We studied PD and community structure of this flora using a previously available supertree at the genus level, to which we added DNA sequences of 53 genera endemic to Chile. Using discrepancy values and a null model approach, we decoupled PD from taxon richness, in order to compare their geographic distribution over a one-degree grid. An interesting pattern was observed in which areas to the southwest appear to harbor more PD than expected by their generic richness than those areas to the north of the country. In addition, some southern areas showed more PD than expected by chance, as calculated with the null model approach. Geological history as documented by the study of ancient floras as well as glacial refuges in the coastal range of southern Chile during the quaternary seem to be consistent with the observed pattern, highlighting the importance of this area for conservation purposes.
This study focuses on intervention processes in smallholder agriculture in the Nyanyadzi river catchment, located in Chimanimani district, Manicaland Province Zimbabwe. In particular it concerns itself with sociotechnical interventions that were implemented by Agritex, the local extension and
Chibanda, Dixon; Verhey, Ruth; Munetsi, Epiphany; Cowan, Frances M; Lund, Crick
.... This article describes the use of a theory of change (ToC) model to develop a brief psychological intervention for common mental disorders and its' evaluation through a cluster randomized controlled trial in Zimbabwe...
Full Text Available This article is in the field of Practical theology with specific reference to pastoral care. The article is motivated by the growing number of conversions of members of the Zimbabwe National Liberation War Veterans Association (ex-combatants/war veterans, through miracle and spiritual healing Ministries under the leadership of Prophets. This article exposes the challenge of injured morals as a result of traumatic war experiences of ex-combatants during the war of liberation from colonialism in Zimbabwe. The violent acts in the political arena in Zimbabwe are linked to the military behaviour of the ex-combatants. This article also makes a critical analysis of the therapeutic narratives from ex-combatants, to conclude that violence in Zimbabwe is highly related to the injured morals of the ex-combatants. The war veterans are finding healing of moral injury from the miracles and exorcisms performed by Prophets.
Campbell, Catherine; Scott, Kerry; Skovdal, Morten; Madanhire, Claudius; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon
While patient-provider interactions are commonly understood as mutually constructed relationships, the role of patient behaviour, participation in interactions, and characteristics, particularly ideals surrounding notions of 'good' and 'bad' patients, are under-examined. This article examines social representations of 'a good patient' and how these representations affect patient-healthcare provider relationships and antiretroviral treatment (ART) for people living with HIV. Using thematic network analysis, we examined interview and focus group transcripts involving 25 healthcare staff, 48 ART users, and 31 carers of HIV positive children, as well as field notes from over 100 h of ethnographic observation at health centres in rural Zimbabwe. Characteristics of a good patient include obedience, patience, politeness, listening, enthusiasm for treatment, intelligence, physical cleanliness, honesty, gratitude and lifestyle adaptations (taking pills correctly and coming to the clinic when told). As healthcare workers may decide to punish patients who do not live up the 'good patient persona', many patients seek to perform within the confines of the 'good patient persona' to access good care and ensure continued access to ART. The notion of a 'good ART patient' can have positive effects on patient health outcomes. It is one of the only arenas of the clinic experience that ART patients can influence in their favour. However, for people not conforming to the norms of the 'good patient persona', the productive and health-enabling patient-nurse relationship may break down and be detrimental to the patient. We conclude that policy makers need to take heed of the social representations that govern patient-nurse relationships and their role in facilitating or undermining ART adherence.
Haque, Ubydul; Ahmed, Syed Masud; Hossain, Shahed; Huda, Mamun; Hossain, Awlad; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Mondal, Dinesh; Khan, Wasif Ali; Khalequzzaman, Mohammod; Haque, Rashidul
Following the 1971 ban of DDT in Bangladesh, malaria cases have increased steadily. Malaria persists as a major health problem in the thirteen south-eastern and north-eastern districts of Bangladesh. At present the national malaria control program, largely supported by the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), provides interventions including advocacy at community level, Insecticide Treated Net (ITN) distribution, introduction of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) and combination therapy with Coartem. It is imperative, therefore, that baseline data on malaria prevalence and other malaria indicators are collected to assess the effectiveness of the interventions and rationalize the prevention and control efforts. The objective of this study was to obtain this baseline on the prevalence of malaria and bed net use in the thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. In 2007, BRAC and ICDDR,B carried out a malaria prevalence survey in thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used and 9750 blood samples were collected. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) were used for the diagnosis of malaria. The weighted average malaria prevalence in the thirteen endemic districts was 3.97%. In five south-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was 6.00% and in the eight north-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was (0.40%). The highest malaria prevalence was observed in Khagrachari district. The majority of the cases (90.18%) were P. falciparum infections. Malaria morbidity rates in five south-eastern districts was 2.94%. In eight north-eastern districts, morbidity was 0.07%. Bangladesh has hypoendemic malaria with P. falciparum the dominant parasite species. The malaria situation in the five north-eastern districts of Bangladesh in particular warrants urgent attention. Detailed maps of the baseline malaria prevalence and summaries of the data collected are provided along with the
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following the 1971 ban of DDT in Bangladesh, malaria cases have increased steadily. Malaria persists as a major health problem in the thirteen south-eastern and north-eastern districts of Bangladesh. At present the national malaria control program, largely supported by the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM, provides interventions including advocacy at community level, Insecticide Treated Net (ITN distribution, introduction of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT and combination therapy with Coartem. It is imperative, therefore, that baseline data on malaria prevalence and other malaria indicators are collected to assess the effectiveness of the interventions and rationalize the prevention and control efforts. The objective of this study was to obtain this baseline on the prevalence of malaria and bed net use in the thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2007, BRAC and ICDDR,B carried out a malaria prevalence survey in thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used and 9750 blood samples were collected. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT were used for the diagnosis of malaria. The weighted average malaria prevalence in the thirteen endemic districts was 3.97%. In five south-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was 6.00% and in the eight north-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was (0.40%. The highest malaria prevalence was observed in Khagrachari district. The majority of the cases (90.18% were P. falciparum infections. Malaria morbidity rates in five south-eastern districts was 2.94%. In eight north-eastern districts, morbidity was 0.07%. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Bangladesh has hypoendemic malaria with P. falciparum the dominant parasite species. The malaria situation in the five north-eastern districts of Bangladesh in particular warrants urgent attention. Detailed maps of the
Nordvik, Ragnhild Therese Valverde
This study examines the effect that legislation on insult and defamation has on media practitioners and artists in Zimbabwe. The results of the study are based on analysis of data gathered through interviews with Zimbabwean journalists, editors, artists and scholars in March/April 2014. I look at factors that have an impact on the deterring effect of legislation and apply these theories to the data from Zimbabwe. The study documents that the media and art practitioners in Zimbabwe have multip...
Bradshaw, Peter L.; Colville, Jonathan F.; Linder, H. Peter
We used a very large dataset (>40% of all species) from the endemic-rich Cape Floristic Region (CFR) to explore the impact of different weighting techniques, coefficients to calculate similarity among the cells, and clustering approaches on biogeographical regionalisation. The results were used to revise the biogeographical subdivision of the CFR. We show that weighted data (down-weighting widespread species), similarity calculated using Kulczinsky’s second measure, and clustering using UPGMA resulted in the optimal classification. This maximized the number of endemic species, the number of centres recognized, and operational geographic units assigned to centres of endemism (CoEs). We developed a dendrogram branch order cut-off (BOC) method to locate the optimal cut-off points on the dendrogram to define candidate clusters. Kulczinsky’s second measure dendrograms were combined using consensus, identifying areas of conflict which could be due to biotic element overlap or transitional areas. Post-clustering GIS manipulation substantially enhanced the endemic composition and geographic size of candidate CoEs. Although there was broad spatial congruence with previous phytogeographic studies, our techniques allowed for the recovery of additional phytogeographic detail not previously described for the CFR. PMID:26147438
Full Text Available The Western Ghats of India harbors a rich diversity of amphibians with more than 77% species endemic to this region. At least 42% of the endemic species are threatened due to several anthropogenic stressors. However, information on amphibian diseases and their impacts on amphibian populations in this region are scarce. We report the occurrence of Batrachochytridium dendrobatidis (Bd, an epidermal aquatic fungal pathogen that causes chytridiomycosis in amphibians, from the Western Ghats. In the current study we detected the occurrence of a native Asian Bd strain from three endemic and threatened species of anurans, Bombay Night Frog Nyctibatrachus humayuni, Leith's Leaping Frog Indirana leithii and Bombay Bubble Nest Frog Raorchestes bombayensis, for the first time from the northern Western Ghats of India based on diagnostic nested PCR, quantitative PCR, DNA sequencing and histopathology. While, the Bd infected I. leithii and R. bombayensis did not show any external symptoms, N. humayuni showed lesions on the skin, browning of skin and sloughing. Sequencing of Bd 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and the ITS1 and ITS2 regions, revealed that the current Bd strain is related to a haplotype endemic to Asia. Our findings confirm the presence of Bd in northern Western Ghats and the affected amphibians may or may not show detectable clinical symptoms. We suggest that the significance of diseases as potential threat to amphibian populations of the Western Ghats needs to be highlighted from the conservation point of view.
Full Text Available We present an annotated list for all land, aquatic and marine mammals known to occur in Peru and their distribution by ecoregions. We also present species conservation status according to international organizations and the legal conservation status in Peru. At present, we record 508 species, in 13 orders, 50 families, and 218 genera, making Peru the third most diverse country with regards to mammals in the New World, after Brazil and Mexico, and the fifth most diverse country for mammals in the World. This diversity includes 40 didelphimorphs, 2 paucituberculates, 1 manatee, 6 cingulates, 7 pilosa, 39 primates, 162 rodents, 1 rabbit, 2 soricomorphs, 165 bats, 34 carnivores, 2 perissodactyls, and 47 cetartiodactyls. Bats and rodents (327 species represent almost two thirds of total diversity (64% for Peru. Five genera and 65 species (12.8% are endemics to Peru, with the majority of these being rodents (45 species, 69,2%. Most of the endemic species are restricted to the Yungas of the eastern slope of the Andes (39 species, 60% followed by Selva Baja (14 species, 21.5%. The taxonomic status of some species is commented on, when those depart from accepted taxonomy. The marsupial Marmosa phaea; the rodents Melanomys caliginosus, M. robustulus, and Echinoprocta rufescens; the shrew Cryptotis equatoris; the bats Anoura fistulata, Phyllostomus latifolius, Artibeus ravus, Cynomops greenhalli, Eumops maurus, and Rhogeessa velilla; and the carnivore Nasuella olivacea are first records of species occurrence in Peru. Finally, we also include a list of 15 non-native species.
Jutla, A. S.; Whitcombe, E.; Colwell, R.
Cholera remains a major public health threat for the developing countries. Since the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae, is autochthonous to aquatic environment, it is not possible to eradicate the agent of the disease. Hydroclimatology based prediction and prevention strategies can be implemented in disease susceptible regions for reducing incidence rates. However, the precise role of hydrological and climatological processes, which will further aid in development of suitable prediction models, in creating spatial and temporal environmental conditions favorable for disease outbreak has not been adequately quantified. Here, we show distinction between seasonality and occurrence of cholera in epidemic and non-endemic regions. Using historical cholera mortality data, from the late 1800s for 27 locations in the Indian subcontinent, we show that non-endemic regions are generally located close to regional river systems but away from the coasts and are characterized by single sporadic outbreak in a given year. Increase in air temperature during the low river flow season increases evaporation, leading to an optimal salinity and pH required for bacterial growth. Thereafter, monsoonal rainfall, leads to interactions of contaminated river waters via human activity resulting in cholera epidemics. Endemic regions are located close to coasts where cholera outbreak occurs twice (spring and fall) in a year. Spring outbreak is generally associated with intrusion of bacterial seawater to inland whereas the fall peak is correlated with widespread flooding and cross-contamination of water resources via increased precipitation. This may be one of the first studies to hydroclimatologically quantitatively the seasonality of cholera in both endemic and non-endemic regions. Our results prompt the need of region and cause-specific prediction models for cholera, employing appropriate environmental determinants.
Horcajo, Susan Lori
The historical legacy of colonialism in Zimbabwe is revealed in the continued use of the colonial language, English, in education. However, many teachers use the local language along with particular techniques to address this language gap so that children learn the content of the lessons, especially in the rural areas where access to modern conveniences and the school language outside of class is limited. This research examines the use of an indigenous language in an educational system in which content area curricula are administered in a second language. Three third grade classes in a rural Zimbabwean village were video recorded for three weeks each during the teaching of science. Lessons were transcribed and questions devised for the teachers and a small number of students in order to explore issues related to language use and scientific concept development. The lessons and interviews were reviewed in order to determine particular language usage in the indigenous Shona language and its local dialect, Ndau. The questions addressed were: (1) When and how does the teacher use Shona to explain scientific concepts? (2) When and how do children use Shona to discuss these concepts? (3) What is the relationship among cognition, the use of Shona in the classroom and the learning of science? Analysis of Shona language use in these lessons revealed that while Shona was most commonly used in single words for affection, to facilitate instruction, and to support the lesson, large segments of four sentences or more allowed for more culturally relevant teaching and the development of concepts which served the purpose of science learning through identification, description, explanation and the reaching of conclusions. Metalinguistic awareness and literacy were seen to be salient elements in the lessons, especially given the fact that only English is allowed to be written; that is, while the teacher often explained elements of the lessons orally, all writing on the board, in