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Sample records for endemic fluorosis presenting

  1. [Safety threshold of fluorine in endemic fluorosis regions in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghua; Wang, Wuyi; Hou, Shaofan

    2002-07-01

    Four endemic fluorosis regions in China and their environmental epidemiological characteristics were summarized in this paper. It shows that the epidemiology of endemic fluorosis is closely related to geochemical parameters of local environment. The food-web and dose-effect relationship of fluoride from environment to human body in different types of endemic fluorosis regions were studied. And the safety threshold of fluoride in different regions was determined. The results have provided a scientific basis for environmental risk assessment of fluoride in China.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Dental and Skeletal Fluorosis in an Endemic Fluorosed District, Salem, Tamil Nadu.

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    Ramesh, Maya; Malathi, N; Ramesh, K; Aruna, Rita Mary; Kuruvilla, Sarah

    2017-11-01

    High levels of fluoride in the drinking water, especially ground water, results in skeletal fluorosis which involves the bone and major joints. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of skeletal fluorosis to compare with dental fluorosis in an endemically fluorosed population in the District of Salem, Tamil Nadu. Institutional ethical clearance was obtained. A total of 206 patients who reported to the Department of Hematology for blood investigations were the participants in this study. Age, sex, place, weight, height, dental fluorosis, and skeletal complaints were noted down. Body mass index was calculated, and statistical analysis was performed. Dental fluorosis was present in 63.1% and absent in 36.9% of the samples reported. Skeletal fluorosis was present in 24.8% and was absent in 75.2%. A large number of the patients had knee pain and difficulty in bending. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Skeletal fluorosis and age were compared and P value was 0.00 and was significant. Dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis were compared and P value was found to be 0.000 and significant. There is a need to take measures to prevent dental and skeletal fluorosis among the residents of Salem district. Calcium balance should be maintained, and fluoride intake should be minimized to reduce the symptoms. The government should provide water with low fluoride level for drinking and cooking. Once the symptoms develop, treatment largely remains symptomatic, using analgesics and physiotherapy.

  3. Neglected health literacy undermining fluorosis control efforts: A pilot study among schoolchildren in an endemic village of rural Rajasthan, India

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    Neeti Rustagi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ingestion of excess fluoride can cause fluorosis which adversely affects teeth and bones. Fluorosis is a major public health problem in the state of Rajasthan with all its 32 districts having variable fluoride contamination, and many initiatives are currently implemented in this region to mitigate the fluorosis burden. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess fluorosis, its risk factors, and the awareness among school students and teachers in endemic villages of Jodhpur district, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: A representative sample of 300 students of age 12–15 years were enrolled for cross-sectional study in selected villages. Data were collected regarding awareness, behavioral and preventive practices about fluorosis and clinical assessment and fluoride estimation in water and urine samples was done. Results: Dental fluorosis through Dean's index was observed in 24.5% of students. The awareness and practices for fluorosis prevention and its risk factors were poor among both students and teachers. Intake of piped water supply was reported by majority of students (95.8%. High fluoride concentration was found in 35 (81.3% out of 43 urine samples. Conclusion: Improvement in drinking water supply in the endemic village of Rajasthan has decreased the burden of fluorosis, but low level of awareness and prevailing dietary and behavioral practices still pose them at risk of high fluoride intake. This signifies the need to address nonconventional sources of fluoride intake (diet and toothpaste and early screening of disease by involving teachers and family physicians in fluoride mitigation efforts.

  4. Evaluation of mandibular bone mineral density using the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry technique in edentulous subjects living in an endemic fluorosis region.

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    Buyukkaplan, U S; Guldag, M U

    2012-07-01

    Fluoride is one of the biological trace elements with a strong affinity for osseous, cartilaginous and dental tissue. The dental and skeletal effects of high fluoride intake have already been studied in the literature, but little is known about the effects of high fluoride intake on edentulous mandibles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of high fluoride intake on mandibular bone mineral density (BMD) measured by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technique in edentulous individuals with systemic fluorosis. 32 people who were living in an endemic fluorosis area since birth and 31 people who were living in a non-endemic fluorosis area since birth (control group) participated in this study. Systemic fluorosis was diagnosed in the patients using the sialic acid (NANA)/glycosaminoglycan (GAG) ratio. The BMDs of the mandibles were determined by the DXA technique. The serum NANA/GAG ratios in the fluorosis group were significantly lower than those in the control group (p structures of the stomatognathic system.

  5. Prevalence and characteristics of MIH in school children residing in an endemic fluorosis area of India: an epidemiological study.

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    Krishnan, R; Ramesh, M; Chalakkal, P

    2015-12-01

    This was to study the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) among school children residing in a fluorosis endemic area in Tamilnadu (Salem, India). A target sample of 5000 children of age ranging between 9 and 14 years, comprising 250 children from each of 20 blocks of Salem, participated in this study. The examination was completed in their respective schools by a calibrated examiner using EAPD criteria. Of 4989 children examined, 384 children had MIH. A prevalence of 7.3 %. The MIH found in girls was 8.9 % compared with 6.1 % in boys. Single-tooth involvement of MIH was seen predominantly in incisors (2.24 %), whereas with molars usually three teeth were involved (1.1 %). MIH with caries involvement was found in 51 % of the teeth. The prevalence of MIH in the endemic fluorosis district was found to be 7.3 %. A gradual increase in MIH was seen with age due to post enamel breakdown. Caries involvement was also seen in more than 50 % of the MIH-involved teeth. This prevalence study for molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) is rare in the literature, especially in a fluorosis endemic district in Tamilnadu.

  6. Calcium metabolism in fluorosis and endemic genu valgum using radioactive tracer, whole body counting and radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasinga Rao, B.

    1979-11-01

    Endemic fluorosis with extensive skeletal changes has been reported from several parts of India. In recent years a new condition, endemic genu valgum, has been recognized in one of these areas. In both conditions osteosclerosis, particularly of the spine, has been observed, but in genu valgum the most distinctive pathology is osteoporosis in bones of the extremities and presumably as a result the ''knock knees'' that give the syndrome its name. In this project certain aspects of calcium metabolism were investigated in endemic fluorosis and genu valgum and in appropriate control subjects. Calcium kinetics were studied by intravenously injecting a tracer dose of 47 Ca and following for 10 days thereafter the concentration of the tracer in serum and excreta, as well as its total retention in the body (the latter measured by whole body counting). In addition calcium balance was measured on some of the subjects while resident in a metabolic ward. Statistical analysis of the results showed in general a higher metabolic activity of calcium in the fluorosis and genu valgum cases than in the controls (specifically, higher ''turnover'' of calcium in the blood pool and an apparently elevated bone mineralization rate). Whole body retention was somewhat greater in the patients than in the controls. Several measurements were also performed relative to blood chemistry, and in particular the serum concentration of 25-OHD 3 (a metabolite of vitamin D) was measured. There was no evidence that vitamin D deficiency played a significant role in the causation of genu valgum

  7. Epidemiological and radiological study of skeletal fluorosis of Minzhu Town, Longli County, Guizhou Province, China

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    Li, D.S.; Duan, R.X.; Wang, S.Q.; He, G.Y.; Li, P.; Nie, Z.X.; Wen, T.G. [Guizhou Province Health and Antiepidemiology Station, Guiyang (China)

    1999-05-01

    A study was carried out on an area of endemic fluorosis based on the relation between detection rate or incidence, classification and severity of skeletal fluorosis, and sex-age distribution. The results show that Minzhu Town of Longli County is a moderate and typical epidemic area of endemic fluorosis resulting from coal-burning pollution in Guizhou Province, China. Five features characterize the skeletal fluorosis of the residents: Osteosclerosis is significantly more prevalent than osteoporosis; no mixed type of skeletal fluorosis and no osteomalacia were found in the subjects examined; no cases with moderate or severe osteoporosis were found; the severity of osteosclerosis in females was significantly milder than in males; and the rate of osteoporosis caused by fluoride in females showed no difference from that in males. These observations provide new parameters for assessing collective conditions of epidemic regions of endemic fluorosis resulting from coal-burning pollution.

  8. MULTIPLE MYELOMA-LIKE SPINAL MRI FINDINGS IN SKELETAL FLUOROSIS: AN UNUSUAL PRESENTATION OF FLUORIDE TOXICITY IN HUMAN

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    Javed Ahsan Quadri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Endemic fluorosis is a worldwide environmental problem due to excessive fluoride, commonly due to increased drinking water fluoride levels but sometimes due to other sources such food with high fluoride content. In India, 21 of the 35 states are known to have health problems associated with fluoride toxicity. The present report is a case of a 50-year-old female who was seen with progressive spinal complications and a MRI of the spine suggestive of multiple myeloma. The MRI of the lumbo-sacral spine showed a diffuse and heterogeneous marrow signal of the lower dorsal and lumbo-sacral vertebrae. The MRI was also suggestive of coarse trabeculation and appeared predominantly hypointanse on the T1W image and had mixed signal intensity on the T2W image. These findings were suggestive of neoplastic bone marrow infiltration and the presence of a proliferative disorder, with multiple myeloma being the most likely. During the patient workup, it was found that other family members were also having similar complications and, after investigation of these family members, it was found that they are suffering from systemic fluorosis. The patient was then evaluated for skeletal fluorosis and this condition was found to be present. Multiple myeloma was ruled out by the finding of a negative serum protein electrophoresis. The spinal complications appeared to be mainly due to the compression of the spinal cord and nerve roots by protruding osteophytes, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, and thickening of the ligamentum flavum resulting in a compressive myeloradiculopathy and compressive myelopathy. The finding of multiple myeloma- like findings on the spinal MRI in association with skeletal fluorosis was considered to be a very rare event. This case report underlines the need to consider the presence of spinal skeletal fluorosis when evaluating spinal complications with unusual pseudo-multiple myeloma-like changes on the spinal MRI.

  9. Health impact of supplying safe drinking water on patients having various clinical manifestations of fluorosis in an endemic village of West Bengal

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    Kunal K Majumdar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. The World Health Organization (WHO guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS is 1.5 mg/L. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride, often leads to reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or ten days and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. Objective: To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis along with food habits, addictions and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above permissible limit and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after consumption of safe drinking water with fluoride concentration below permissible limit. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal intervention study was conducted from October 2010 to December 2011 in a village selected randomly in Purulia District of West Bengal which is endemic for fluorosis. Thirty-six families with 104 family members in the above village having history of taking unsafe water containing high level of fluoride were selected for the study. The occurrence of various dental, skeletal and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis along with food habits, addictions and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste among the study population was assessed; the impact of taking safe water with fluoride concentration below permissible limit from a supplied community filter on these clinical manifestations was studied by follow-up examination of the above participants for six months. The data obtained is compared with the collected data from the baseline survey. Results: The prevalence of signs and symptoms of

  10. Health impact of supplying safe drinking water on patients having various clinical manifestations of fluorosis in an endemic village of west bengal.

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    Majumdar, Kunal K; Sundarraj, Shunmuga N

    2013-01-01

    Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is 1.5 mg/L. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride, often leads to reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or ten days) and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis along with food habits, addictions and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above permissible limit and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after consumption of safe drinking water with fluoride concentration below permissible limit. A longitudinal intervention study was conducted from October 2010 to December 2011 in a village selected randomly in Purulia District of West Bengal which is endemic for fluorosis. Thirty-six families with 104 family members in the above village having history of taking unsafe water containing high level of fluoride were selected for the study. The occurrence of various dental, skeletal and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis along with food habits, addictions and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste among the study population was assessed; the impact of taking safe water with fluoride concentration below permissible limit from a supplied community filter on these clinical manifestations was studied by follow-up examination of the above participants for six months. The data obtained is compared with the collected data from the baseline survey. The prevalence of signs and symptoms of dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis was (18.26%), (18

  11. Occurrence and mobility of toxic elements in coals from endemic fluorosis areas in the Three Gorges Region, SW China.

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    Xiong, Yan; Xiao, Tangfu; Liu, Yizhang; Zhu, Jianming; Ning, Zengping; Xiao, Qingxiang

    2017-10-01

    Fluorine (F) is a topic of great interest in coal-combustion related endemic fluorosis areas. However, little extent research exists regarding the environmental geochemistry of toxic elements that are enriched in coals and coal wastes in traditional endemic fluorosis areas, particularly focusing on their occurrences and mobilities during the weathering-leaching processes of coals and coal wastes in the surface environment. This paper addressed the issue of toxic elements in coals and coal wastes in the Three Gorges Region, Southwest (SW) China, where endemic fluorosis has historically prevailed, and investigated the distribution, occurrence, mobility features, and associated potential health risks. For this purpose, a modified experiment combined with long-term humidity cell test and column leaching trial was applied to elucidate the mobility of toxic elements in coals and coal wastes. In addition, sequential chemical extraction (SCE) was used to ascertain the modes of occurrence of toxic elements. The results demonstrated that the contents of toxic elements in the study area followed the order: stone coals > gangues > coal balls > coals. Furthermore, modes of occurrence of toxic elements were obviously different in coals and coal wastes. For example, cadmium (Cd) was mainly associated with monosulfide fraction in coals, molybdenum (Mo) and arsenic (As) were mainly associated with carbonate and silicate in coal gangues and stone coals, chromium (Cr) mainly existed in silicate and insoluble matter in coal gangues and coal balls, thallium (Tl) mainly occurred in organic matter in stone coals and sulfide in coals, and the occurrence of antimony (Sb) varied with different kinds of samples. Moreover, a large amount of toxic elements released to the leachates during the weathering and leaching process, which might pollute the environment and threaten human health. Based on the geo-accumulation index (I geo ), single factor index (P i ) and Nemerow index (P N ), soils i n

  12. Dental fluorosis and dental caries prevalence among 12 and 15 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Fluoride is a double edged sword. The assessment of dental caries and fluorosis in endemic fluoride areas will facilitate in assessing the relation between fluoride concentrations in water with dental caries, dental fluorosis simultaneously. Aim: The objective of the following study is to assess the dental caries ...

  13. Association of dental and skeletal fluorosis with calcium intake and serum vitamin D concentration in adolescents from a region endemic for fluorosis

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    Prerna P Patel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fluorosis is controlled by the duration of fluoride exposure and calcium and Vitamin D nutrition status. Aim: To examine (a prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis in adolescents from upper, middle, and lower socioeconomic strata (SES and (b association of fluorosis with calcium intake and Vitamin D status. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted in 10–13.9 years apparently healthy adolescents (n = 90, from different SES of Patan (Gujarat, India. Materials and Methods: Dental fluorosis was graded as mild, moderate, and severe. Radiographs of the right hand and wrist were examined and graded. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD and parathyroid hormone concentrations were measured. Diet was recorded (24 h recall and calcium intake was computed (C-diet V-2.1, 2013, Xenios Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Statistical Analysis: Generalized linear model was used to analyze relationships between fluorosis, SES, serum 25OHD concentration, and calcium intake. Results: Fluorosis was predominant in lower SES (17% had both dental and radiological features whereas 73% had dental fluorosis; no skeletal deformities were observed. Mean 25OHD concentrations and dietary calcium were 26.3 ± 4.9, 23.4 ± 4.7, and 18.6 ± 4 ng/ml and 441.2 ± 227.6, 484.3 ± 160.9, and 749.2 ± 245.4 mg/day, respectively, for lower, middle, and upper SES (P < 0.05. Fluorosis and SES showed a significant association (exponential β = 2.5, P = 0.01 as compared to upper SES, middle SES adolescents were at 1.3 times while lower SES adolescents were at 2.5 times higher risk. Serum 25OHD concentrations (P = 0.937 and dietary calcium intake (P = 0.825 did not show a significant association with fluorosis. Conclusion: Fluorosis was more common in lower SES adolescents, probably due to the lack of access to bottled water. Relatively adequate calcium intake and serum 25OHD concentrations may have increased the efficiency of dietary calcium absorption, thus preventing severe

  14. Investigation of children's intelligence quotient and dental fluorosis in drinking water-type of endemic fluorosis area in Pucheng county Shaanxi province before and after drinking water change%陕西省蒲城县饮水型地方性氟中毒病区改水前后儿童智商及氟斑牙患病情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺明侠; 张崇农

    2010-01-01

    Objective To further understand the effect of anti-fluoride water on intellectual development of children and dental fluorosis in drinking water-type of endemic fluorosis area Pucheng county Shaanxi province.Methods Two hundred 8 to 12 years old children were randomly selected in endemic fluorosis area with changed water or unchanged water, in 2009 in Pucheng county Shaanxi province. Intelligence quotient(IQ) of children was measured by Raven's test. Children's dental fluorosis was examined by Dean's classification scheme. Results The rates of child dental fluorosis in changed water and unchanged water endemic fluorosis areas were 28.50%(57/200), 87.88%(203/231) , respectively, the difference was statistically significant(x2 = 159.19, P< 0.01),while dental fluorosis indices were 0.57,1.97, was marginal, moderate epidemic. Children with IQ above 90 was accounted for 89.5% (179/200), 91.5% (183/200) in changed water and unchanged water endemic fluorosis area,respectively, the difference was not significant (x2 = 0.46, P > 0.05). Conclusions Changed water may decrease the incidence of child dental fluorosis, but has no obvious effect on children's IQ development in endemic fluorosis area.%目的 了解防氟改水前后陕西省蒲城县饮水型地方性氟中毒(简称地氟病)病区儿童智力发育和氟斑牙患病情况.方法 2009年,在陕西省蒲城县饮水型地氟病病区中,从改水与未改水病区各抽取8~12岁儿童200名,采用瑞文测验进行儿童智商测定,Dean法进行儿童氟斑牙检查.结果 改水和未改水病区儿童氟斑牙检出率分别为28.50%(57/200)、87.88%(203/231),两者比较差异有统计学意义(x2=159.19,P<0.01);氟斑牙指数分别为0.57、1.97,呈边缘、中等流行.改水病区智商≥90的儿童占89.5%(179/200),而未改水病区占91.5%(183/200),两者比较差异无统计学意义(x2=0.46,P>0.05).结论 防氟改水明显降低病区儿童氟斑牙的发生,但对儿童智力发育作用不明显.

  15. [Study on the relationship between ER Rsa I gene polymorphism and children's dental fluorosis].

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    Ba, Yue; Li, Hai-Xia; Yin, Gong-Ju; Wu, Wei-Hua; Yu, Bo; Cheng, Xue-Min; Cui, Liu-Xin

    2009-09-01

    To explore the distribution of ER Rsa I genotype in children who lived in the areas with or without high fluoride, and evaluate the relationship between ER Rsa I gene polymorphism and children's dental fluorosis. Children aged 8 to 12 years, born and raised in high fluoride areas and control areas in two counties of Henan Province were recruited. The Rsa I marker of ER gene was genotyped in 237 children composed of both dental fluorosis cases and controls by PCR-RFLP procedure. Urine fluoride was detected with fluoride ion selective electrode method. The frequency distribution of ER Rsa I genotype was rr 60.81% (45/74), Rr 27.02% (20/74), RR 12.16% (9/74) in children with fluorosis; rr 73.91% (51/69), Rr 20.29% (14/69), RR 5.80% (4/69) in children without fluorosis from high fluoride areas, and rr 63.83% (60/94), Rr 34.04% (32/94), RR 2.13% (2/94) in the children without fluorosis from control areas respectively. There were no significant differences in the three groups (P>0.05), but children carrying allele R of ER Rsa I had a significantly increased risk of dental fluorosis (OR=1.821, 95% CI: 1.013-3.274) compared to children carrying the allele r in endemic fluorosis areas. Although no significant difference was found in ER Rsa I genotype between cases and non-dental fluorosis in endemic fluorosis areas, children carrying R allele of ER Rsa I had a higher risk compared to children carrying r allele, and the further study is needed.

  16. X-ray analysis of 80 patients with severe endemic fluorosis caused by coal burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Z.P.; Yuan, M.B.; Liu, G.F. [Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou (China)

    1996-05-01

    Radiographs of 80 patients with severe endemic fluorosis of coalburning type (CBFF) - 49 males and 31 females aged 30 to 70 years - were analysed to examine the changes to the bone substance, peripheral structure of bone, and joints. The changes to bone substance were: (1) osteosclerosis type, 62 cases (77.5%); (2) mixed type, 16 cases (21.25%); (3) osteoporosis type, one case (1.25%); (4) osteomalacia type, one case (1.25%). The changes to the joints were found in the hips and elbows in 79 cases (98.75%), and in the knees in 75 cases (93.75%). When combinations of the above three changes occur, the classification of the disease is according to the most severe one of the three. Our findings can increase the accuracy of X-ray diagnosis, making it more consistent with clinical diagnosis, thus improving prevention and treatment of CBEF.

  17. Sociodemographic and behavioural correlates of severe dental fluorosis.

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    Wondwossen, F; Astrøm, A N; Bjorvatn, K; Bårdsen, A

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify sociodemographic and behavioural factors associated with the prevalence of severe dental fluorosis in moderate- and high-fluoride areas of the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Three hundred and six adolescents (12-15 years) and 233 mothers participated in the study. The children were examined for dental fluorosis according to the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index (TFI). The children and their mothers were subsequently interviewed. Sixty mothers had more than one participating child. In order to perform a paired parent/child analysis, a total of 73 younger siblings had to be excluded. Among the remaining 233 children, the prevalence of severe dental fluorosis (TFI >or= 5) was 24.1% and 75.9% in the moderate- and high-fluoride areas, respectively. According to bivariate as well as multivariate analyses, a number of sociodemographic and behavioural factors were related to severe fluorosis. The odds for having severe fluorosis varied according to the fluoride concentration of the drinking water, age, consumption of tea, length of breastfeeding and method of storing water. The adjusted odds ratios ranged from 2.6 to 26.1. Breastfeeding for > 18 months and the use of clay pots for storing drinking water helped protect against severe dental fluorosis. Bivariate analyses indicated that being male and consuming fish might be associated with higher TFI scores. In order to avoid dental fluorosis, low-fluoride drinking water should be provided in the relevant villages. A prolonged period of breastfeeding, the use of clay pots for storing water, and possibly a reduced intake of tea and whole fish in infants might also help to avoid severe fluorosis in children growing up in traditionally fluoride-endemic areas.

  18. Perception of dental fluorosis amongst Ethiopian children and their mothers.

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    Wondwossen, Fantaye; Astrøm, Anne Nordrehaug; Bårdsen, Asgeir; Bjorvatn, Kjell

    2003-04-01

    This study was conducted in three Ethiopian Rift Valley villages known for endemic fluorosis. Three-hundred-and-six adolescents (12-15 years) and 233 mothers participated. The aim was to study dental fluorosis in the youngsters and to assess the extent of agreement between clinical and self-rated discoloration and pitting of teeth, and also the level at which dental fluorosis is perceived as a problem both by children and their mothers. The children (154 M and 152 F) gave a simple self-assessment of tooth-color and quality of their teeth, and were subsequently examined for dental fluorosis. Finally, four color photographs of teeth with dental fluorosis (TF-scores 2, 3, 5, and 7) were used as references during a structured oral interview of the children, as well as their mothers. At TF score > or = 2, the prevalence of dental fluorosis on maxillary central incisors was 72% and 37% at TF score > or = 4. The mean TF score was significantly higher among boys than among girls of unemployed fathers compared to children of employed fathers. The likelihood of reporting problems with dental appearance increased with increasing individual TF scores. The child/mother pairs found teeth with TF scores 2 and 3 esthetically acceptable, while teeth with TF scores 5 and 7 were considered unacceptable. Mothers were more critical of severe fluorosis than were their children.

  19. Child Skeletal Fluorosis from Indoor Burning of Coal in Southwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, X.; Wang, S.; Yu, M.; Li, X.; Zuo, Z.; Zhang, X.; Wang, L.; Zhang, L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assess the prevalence and pathogenic stage of skeletal fluorosis among children and adolescents residing in a severe coal-burning endemic fluorosis area of southwest China. Methods. We used a cross-sectional design. A total of 1,616 students aged between 7 and 16 years in Zhijin County, Guizhou, China in late 2004 were selected via a cluster sampling of all 9-year compulsory education schools to complete the study questionnaire. Any student lived in a household that burned coal, used an open-burning stove, or baked foodstuffs over a coal stove was deemed high-risk for skeletal fluorosis. About 23% (370) of students (188 boys, 182 girls) were identified as high-risk and further examined by X-ray. Results. One-third of the 370 high-risk participants were diagnosed with skeletal fluorosis. Overall prevalence of child skeletal fluorosis due to indoor burning of coal was 7.5%. Children aged 12 16 years were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with skeletal fluorosis than children aged 7 11 years (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17 2.90; P = .0082). Four types of skeletal fluorosis were identified: constrictive (60.7%), raritas (15.6%), mixed (16.4%), and soft (7.4%). Most diagnosed cases (91%) were mild or moderate in severity. In addition, about 97% of 370 high-risk children were identified with dental fluorosis. Dental fluorosis was highly correlated with skeletal fluorosis in this study. Conclusions. Skeletal fluorosis among children may contribute to poor health and reduced productivity when they reach adulthood. Further efforts to reduce fluoride exposure among children in southwestern of China where coal is burned indoors are desperately needed.

  20. Fluoride Levels in Urine, Blood Plasma and Serum of People Living in an Endemic Fluorosis Area in the Thar Desert, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, T.; Shirin, K.; Ahmed, I.; Khan, M. H.; Soomro, F.

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride (F/sup -/) levels in the urine, blood plasma and serum samples of people living in a village in the Thar Desert have been analysed where fluorosis is endemic and groundwater contains fluoride as high as 9.76 mg/L. Average values of fluoride levels in these human specimens i.e. urine, blood plasma and serum have been found to be 12.98 mg/L, 0.61 mg/L and 0.75 mg/L, respectively. These values are much higher than the normal values reported from other parts of the world. It was observed that urinary fluoride levels increase with age of an individual but with an insignificant correlation (r = 0.116), however, fluoride levels in plasma and serum samples did not vary considerably with age in male and female subjects. It has been found that after the age of 50 years the urinary fluoride decreases with its concomitant increase in serum fluoride level. Since groundwater is the only available source of water for human consumption and it contains higher fluoride (av. 7.09 mg/L) than WHO limit (1.5 mg/L), therefore, it is the main cause of fluorosis in the area. (author)

  1. The relationships between low levels of urine fluoride on children's intelligence, dental fluorosis in endemic fluorosis areas in Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia, China.

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    Ding, Yunpeng; YanhuiGao; Sun, Huixin; Han, Hepeng; Wang, Wei; Ji, Xiaohong; Liu, Xuehui; Sun, Dianjun

    2011-02-28

    There has been public concern about children's intellectual performance at high levels of fluoride exposure, but few studies provide data directly to the question of whether low fluoride exposure levels less than 3.0 mg/L in drinking water adversely associated with children's intelligence. In this survey, we investigated the effects of low fluoride exposure on children's intelligence and dental fluorosis. 331 children aged from 7 to 14 were randomly recruited from four sites in Hulunbuir City, China. Intelligence was assessed using Combined Raven Test-The Rural in China while dental fluorosis was diagnosed with Dean's index. Mean value of fluoride in drinking water was 1.31±1.05 mg/L (range 0.24-2.84). Urine fluoride was inversely associated with IQ in the multiple linear regression model when children's age as a covariate variable was taken into account (Pintelligence and dental health and confirmed the dose-response relationships between urine fluoride and IQ scores as well as dental fluorosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among primary school children in rural areas of Chidambaram taluk, Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluorosis is one of the common but major emerging areas of research in the tropics. It is considered endemic in 17 states of India. However, the Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu is categorised as a fluorosis non-endemic area. But clinical cases of dental fluorosis were reported in the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Rajah Muthiah Medical College, Annamalai University, Chidambaram. Since dental fluorosis has been described as a biomarker of exposure to fluoride, we assessed the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among primary school children in the service area. Materials and Methods: Children studying in six primary schools of six villages in the field practice area of Rural Health Centre of Faculty of Medicine, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, were surveyed. Every child was clinically examined at the school by calibrated examiners with Dean′s fluorosis index recommended by WHO (1997. Chi-square test, Chi-square trend test and Spearman′s rank correlation coefficient test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Five hundred and twenty-five 5- to 12-year-old school children (255 boys and 270 girls were surveyed. The overall dental fluorosis prevalence was found to be 31.4% in our study sample. Dental fluorosis increased with age P < 0.001, whereas gender difference was not statistically significant. Aesthetically objectionable dental fluorosis was found in 2.1% of the sample. Villages Senjicherry, Keezhaperambai and Kanagarapattu revealed a community fluorosis index (CFI score of 0.43, 0.54 and 0.54 with 5.6%, 4.8% and 1.4% of objectionable dental fluorosis, respectively. Correlation between water fluoride content and CFI values in four villages was noted to be positively significant. Conclusion: Three out of six villages studied were in ′borderline′ public health significance (CFI score 0.4-0.6. A well-designed epidemiological investigation can be undertaken to evaluate the risk factors

  3. The relationship between dental caries and dental fluorosis in areas with moderate- and high-fluoride drinking water in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondwossen, Fantaye; Astrøm, Anne Nordrehaug; Bjorvatn, Kjell; Bårdsen, Asgeir

    2004-10-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the relationship between caries and dental fluorosis in Ethiopian children living in Rift Valley areas known for endemic fluorosis. A total of 306 children (12-15 years old), selected from areas with moderate (0.3-2.2 mg/l), or high (10-14 mg/l) fluoride concentration in the drinking water were interviewed and examined for caries and dental fluorosis. Scorings were recorded according to the DMF system, and the Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF) Index. Prevalence of dental fluorosis (TF-score > or = 1) was 91.8% (moderate area) and 100% (high-fluoride area). The corresponding caries prevalence and mean DMFT in the areas were 45.3% versus 61.6%, and 1.2 versus 1.8, respectively. Age and severity of dental fluorosis were found to be independent predictors for DMFT > or = 1. When compared with 12-year olds with TF-scores 0-4, odds ratios were 3.0 (95% CI 1.6-5.7) and 2.0 (95% CI 1.2-3.2) if TF-scores were > or = 5 and age 13-15 years, respectively. A positive relationship between caries and fluorosis was observed across tooth types in both areas. The percentage of children with DMFT > or = 1 was highest in groups with TF-score > or = 5 in the second molar, followed by the first molar. The present findings indicate that the second molar is the tooth most severely affected by dental fluorosis and dental caries. Dental caries increased with increasing severity of dental fluorosis, both in moderate- and high-fluoride areas. Thus, a positive relationship between dental caries and dental fluorosis was observed across various tooth types, in both areas. Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004

  4. Modifying effect of COMT gene polymorphism and a predictive role for proteomics analysis in children's intelligence in endemic fluorosis area in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun; Zhang, Xiaofei; Liu, Hongliang; Qu, Weidong; Guan, Zhizhong; Zeng, Qiang; Jiang, Chunyang; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Cheng; Lei, Rongrong; Xia, Tao; Wang, Zhenglun; Yang, Lu; Chen, Yihu; Wu, Xue; Cui, Yushan; Yu, Linyu; Wang, Aiguo

    2015-04-01

    Cumulative fluoride exposure has adverse influences on children's intelligence quotient (IQ). In addition, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene Val158Met polymorphism (rs4680) is associated with cognitive performance. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of COMT polymorphism and alterations of protein profiles with children's intelligence in endemic fluorosis area. We recruited 180 schoolchildren (10-12 years old) from high fluoride exposure (1.40 mg/l) and control areas (0.63 mg/l) in Tianjin City, China. The children's IQ, fluoride contents in drinking water (W-F), serum (S-F), and urine (U-F); serum thyroid hormone levels, COMT Val158Met polymorphism, and plasma proteomic profiling were determined. Significant high levels of W-F, S-F, U-F, along with poor IQ scores were observed in the high fluoride exposure group compared with those in control (all P intelligence, whereas the COMT polymorphism may increase the susceptibility to the deficits in IQ due to fluoride exposure. Moreover, the proteomic analysis can provide certain basis for identifying the early biological markers of fluorosis among children. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Chronic Fluoride Toxicity: Dental Fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    DenBesten, Pamela; Li, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Dental fluorosis occurs as a result of excess fluoride ingestion during tooth formation. Enamel fluorosis and primary dentin fluorosis can only occur when teeth are forming, and therefore fluoride exposure (as it relates to dental fluorosis) occurs during childhood. In the permanent dentition, this would begin with the lower incisors, which complete mineralization at approximately 2–3 years of age, and end after mineralization of the third molars. The white opaque appearance of fluorosed enam...

  6. Comparative study of fluoride concentration in human serum and drinking water in fluorinated endemic and non endemic areas of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qayyum, M.; Ahmad, B.; Ahmad, M.

    2013-01-01

    For comparing the human blood serum and drinking water fluoride levels of subjects with dental fluorosis and bony deformities, this study is carried out with individuals ranging 8-17 age group fluorinated Sham Ki Bhatiyan, Punjab (endemic) and Queens Road, Lahore, Punjab (non-endemic) areas. Fluoride concentrations were determined using ion selective electrode methodology and statistically compared. Both the groups showed a significant difference (p < 0.05). Subjects from fluorotic area showed high concentration of fluoride in water and blood serum samples (mean value: 135.587+-77.435 and 2.765+-0.469 micro molL/sup -1/ in water and blood serum samples respectively) as compared to controls (mean value: 19.509+-2.432 and 2.364+- 0.667 micro molL -1). These findings indicate that serum and water fluoride concentrations have a significant positive dose response relationship with the prevalence of dental fluorosis in an area associated with high fluoride level in drinking water. (author)

  7. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aweke Kebede

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F in drinking water (~5 mg F/L. The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60 and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220. Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed.

  8. Fluoride use in Controlling Dental Caries and Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, severity and risk factors for fluorosis, and to describe the trend of fluorosis among Indian children. The study also aimed of exploring the effect of the change in fluoride exposure on dental fluorosis and caries. Establishing an appropriate use of fluoride toothpaste could be successful in reducing fluorosis without a significant increase in caries experience. The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s.

  9. Fluoride Alters Serum Elemental (Calcium, Magnesium, Copper, and Zinc) Homeostasis Along with Erythrocyte Carbonic Anhydrase Activity in Fluorosis Endemic Villages and Restores on Supply of Safe Drinking Water in School-Going Children of Nalgonda District, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandare, Arjun L; Validandi, Vakdevi; Boiroju, Naveen

    2018-02-17

    The present study aimed to determine the serum trace elements (copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg)) along with erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity and effect of intervention with safe drinking water for 5 years in the school children of fluorosis endemic area. For this purpose, three categories of villages were selected based on drinking water fluoride (F): Category I (control, F = 1.68 mg/L), category II (affected F = 3.77 mg/L), and category III (intervention village) where initial drinking water F was 4.51 mg/L, and since the last 5 years, they were drinking water containing water for 5 years in school-going children.

  10. Dental fluorosis and its influence on children’s life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzely Adas Saliba MOIMAZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study verified the prevalence of dental fluorosis in 12-year-old children and its association with different fluoride levels in the public water supply, and evaluated the level of perception of dental fluorosis by the studied children. To assess fluorosis prevalence, clinical examinations were performed and a structured instrument was used to evaluate the self-perception of fluorosis. The water supply source in the children’s area of residence since birth was used as the study criterion. In total, 496 children were included in the study. Fluorosis was diagnosed in 292 (58.9% children; from these, 220 (44.4% children were diagnosed with very mild fluorosis, 59 (11.9% with mild fluorosis, 12 (2.4% with moderate fluorosis, and 1 (0.2% child with severe fluorosis. A significant association (p = 0.0004 was observed between the presence of fluorosis and areas with excessive fluoride in the water supply. Among the 292 children that showed fluorosis, 40% perceived the presence of spots in their teeth. The prevalence of fluorosis was slightly high, and the mildest levels were the most frequently observed. Although most of the children showed fluorosis to various degrees, the majority did not perceive these spots, suggesting that this alteration did not affect their quality of life.

  11. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures - paper 1: assessing fluorosis risk, predictors of fluorosis and the potential role of food preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrady, Michael G; Ellwood, Roger P; Srisilapanan, Patcharawan; Korwanich, Narumanas; Worthington, Helen V; Pretty, Iain A

    2012-06-21

    To determine the severity of dental fluorosis in selected populations in Chiang Mai, Thailand with different exposures to fluoride and to explore possible risk indicators for dental fluorosis. Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8-13 years. For each child the fluoride content of drinking and cooking water samples were assessed. Digital images were taken of the maxillary central incisors for later blind scoring for TF index (10% repeat scores). Interview data explored previous cooking and drinking water use, exposure to fluoride, infant feeding patterns and oral hygiene practices. Data from 560 subjects were available for analysis (298 M, 262 F). A weighted kappa of 0.80 was obtained for repeat photographic scores. The prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) for subjects consuming drinking and cooking water with a fluoride concentration of cooking water >0.9 ppm F the prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) rose to 37.3%. Drinking and cooking water at age 3, water used for infant formula and water used for preparing infant food all demonstrated an increase in fluorosis severity with increase in water fluoride level (p cooking water (≥1.6 ppm). The consumption of drinking water with fluoride content >0.9 ppm and use of cooking water with fluoride content >1.6 ppm were associated with an increased risk of aesthetically significant dental fluorosis. Fluoride levels in the current drinking and cooking water sources were strongly correlated with fluorosis severity. Further work is needed to explore fluorosis risk in relation to total fluoride intake from all sources including food preparation.

  12. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures – Paper 1: assessing fluorosis risk, predictors of fluorosis and the potential role of food preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the severity of dental fluorosis in selected populations in Chiang Mai, Thailand with different exposures to fluoride and to explore possible risk indicators for dental fluorosis. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8–13 years. For each child the fluoride content of drinking and cooking water samples were assessed. Digital images were taken of the maxillary central incisors for later blind scoring for TF index (10% repeat scores). Interview data explored previous cooking and drinking water use, exposure to fluoride, infant feeding patterns and oral hygiene practices. Results Data from 560 subjects were available for analysis (298 M, 262 F). A weighted kappa of 0.80 was obtained for repeat photographic scores. The prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) for subjects consuming drinking and cooking water with a fluoride concentration of 0.9 ppm F the prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) rose to 37.3%. Drinking and cooking water at age 3, water used for infant formula and water used for preparing infant food all demonstrated an increase in fluorosis severity with increase in water fluoride level (p 0.9 ppm and use of cooking water with fluoride content >1.6 ppm were associated with an increased risk of aesthetically significant dental fluorosis. Fluoride levels in the current drinking and cooking water sources were strongly correlated with fluorosis severity. Further work is needed to explore fluorosis risk in relation to total fluoride intake from all sources including food preparation. PMID:22720834

  13. Content and distribution of fluorine in rock, clay and water in fluorosis area Zhaotong, Yunnan Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, K.; Li, H.; Feng, F. (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2007-04-15

    About 160 samples of coal, pyritic coal balls, coal seam gangue, clay, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin county, China to determine the fluorine content, distribution pattern and source in this fluorosis area. The study shows that the average fluorine content in the coal samples collected from 3 coal mines of the Late Permian coals in Zhenxiong and Weixin county, Zhaotong City, which are the main mining coals there, is 77.13 mg/kg. The average fluorine content coals collected form thee typical fluorosis villages in 72.56 mg/kg. Both of them are close to the world average and little low than the Chinese average. The fluorine content of drinking water is lower than 0.35 mg/L, the clay used as an additive for coal-burning and as a binfer in briquette-making by local residents has a high content of fluorine, ranging from 367-2,435 mg/kg, with the majority higher than 600 mg/kg and an average of 1,084.2 mg/kg. 29 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures – Paper 1: assessing fluorosis risk, predictors of fluorosis and the potential role of food preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrady Michael G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the severity of dental fluorosis in selected populations in Chiang Mai, Thailand with different exposures to fluoride and to explore possible risk indicators for dental fluorosis. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8–13 years. For each child the fluoride content of drinking and cooking water samples were assessed. Digital images were taken of the maxillary central incisors for later blind scoring for TF index (10% repeat scores. Interview data explored previous cooking and drinking water use, exposure to fluoride, infant feeding patterns and oral hygiene practices. Results Data from 560 subjects were available for analysis (298 M, 262 F. A weighted kappa of 0.80 was obtained for repeat photographic scores. The prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+ for subjects consuming drinking and cooking water with a fluoride concentration of 0.9 ppm F the prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+ rose to 37.3%. Drinking and cooking water at age 3, water used for infant formula and water used for preparing infant food all demonstrated an increase in fluorosis severity with increase in water fluoride level (p  Conclusions The consumption of drinking water with fluoride content >0.9 ppm and use of cooking water with fluoride content >1.6 ppm were associated with an increased risk of aesthetically significant dental fluorosis. Fluoride levels in the current drinking and cooking water sources were strongly correlated with fluorosis severity. Further work is needed to explore fluorosis risk in relation to total fluoride intake from all sources including food preparation.

  15. Rapid-Onset Diffuse Skeletal Fluorosis from Inhalant Abuse: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Eric; Hsu, Raymond Y; Evangelista, Peter; Aaron, Roy; Rubin, Lee E

    A thirty-year-old man presented with severely debilitating left hip pain and stiffness. Radiographs demonstrated diffuse osteosclerosis and heterotopic bone formation with near ankylosis of the left hip. The patient underwent successful joint-preserving surgery to restore hip range of motion. After disclosing a history of inhalant abuse, which was confirmed by elevated serum fluoride levels, he was diagnosed with diffuse skeletal fluorosis. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first reported case of diffuse skeletal fluorosis caused by inhalant abuse of 1,1-difluoroethane. Skeletal fluorosis is uncommon in the United States but is important to consider in the differential diagnosis when a patient presents with otherwise unexplained joint pain and osteosclerosis.

  16. Dental Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Private Wells Infant Formula Fluorosis Public Health Service Recommendation Water Operators & Engineers Water Fluoridation Additives Shortages of Fluoridation Additives Drinking Water Pipe Systems CDC-Sponsored Water Fluoridation Training Links to Other ...

  17. Probabilistic risk assessment of Chinese residents' exposure to fluoride in improved drinking water in endemic fluorosis areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li E; Huang, Daizheng; Yang, Jie; Wei, Xiao; Qin, Jian; Ou, Songfeng; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zou, Yunfeng

    2017-03-01

    Studies have yet to evaluate the effects of water improvement on fluoride concentrations in drinking water and the corresponding health risks to Chinese residents in endemic fluorosis areas (EFAs) at a national level. This paper summarized available data in the published literature (2008-2016) on water fluoride from the EFAs in China before and after water quality was improved. Based on these obtained data, health risk assessment of Chinese residents' exposure to fluoride in improved drinking water was performed by means of a probabilistic approach. The uncertainties in the risk estimates were quantified using Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis. Our results showed that in general, the average fluoride levels (0.10-2.24 mg/L) in the improved drinking water in the EFAs of China were lower than the pre-intervention levels (0.30-15.24 mg/L). The highest fluoride levels were detected in North and Southwest China. The mean non-carcinogenic risks associated with consumption of the improved drinking water for Chinese residents were mostly accepted (hazard quotient risk of children in most of the EFAs at the 95th percentile exceeded the safe level of 1, indicating the potential non-cancer-causing health effects on this fluoride-exposed population. Sensitivity analyses indicated that fluoride concentration in drinking water, ingestion rate of water, and the exposure time in the shower were the most relevant variables in the model, therefore, efforts should focus mainly on the definition of their probability distributions for a more accurate risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chronic fluoride toxicity: dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denbesten, Pamela; Li, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Dental fluorosis occurs as a result of excess fluoride ingestion during tooth formation. Enamel fluorosis and primary dentin fluorosis can only occur when teeth are forming, and therefore fluoride exposure (as it relates to dental fluorosis) occurs during childhood. In the permanent dentition, this would begin with the lower incisors, which complete mineralization at approximately 2-3 years of age, and end after mineralization of the third molars. The white opaque appearance of fluorosed enamel is caused by a hypomineralized enamel subsurface. With more severe dental fluorosis, pitting and a loss of the enamel surface occurs, leading to secondary staining (appearing as a brown color). Many of the changes caused by fluoride are related to cell/matrix interactions as the teeth are forming. At the early maturation stage, the relative quantity of amelogenin protein is increased in fluorosed enamel in a dose-related manner. This appears to result from a delay in the removal of amelogenins as the enamel matures. In vitro, when fluoride is incorporated into the mineral, more protein binds to the forming mineral, and protein removal by proteinases is delayed. This suggests that altered protein/mineral interactions are in part responsible for retention of amelogenins and the resultant hypomineralization that occurs in fluorosed enamel. Fluoride also appears to enhance mineral precipitation in forming teeth, resulting in hypermineralized bands of enamel, which are then followed by hypomineralized bands. Enhanced mineral precipitation with local increases in matrix acidity may affect maturation stage ameloblast modulation, potentially explaining the dose-related decrease in cycles of ameloblast modulation from ruffle-ended to smooth-ended cells that occur with fluoride exposure in rodents. Specific cellular effects of fluoride have been implicated, but more research is needed to determine which of these changes are relevant to the formation of fluorosed teeth. As further

  19. 综合治理对燃煤污染型地方性氟中毒病区学龄儿童智力的影响%The effects of comprehensive control measures on intelligence of school-age children in coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏娜; 李毅; 邓婕; 徐仕清; 官志忠

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of dental fluorosis,urinary fluoride level and intelligence of children who lived in the coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis areas and to reveal the effects of comprehensive control measures on intelligence of children in this area.Methods Children aged 8-12 who lived in coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis areas in Bijie City of Guizhou Province were selected and divided into two groups according to the duration of comprehensive treatments given:long treatment group (Xiaba Village and Zhongtun Village,furnace stovewas changed and comprehensive control measure of health education was carried out for more than 3 years) and short treatment group(Chadi Village and Maoliping Village,stoves were improved and health education time < 1 year).The children who lived in a non-fluorosis area were selected as controls in 2012.Dental fluorosis was diagnosed by the method of Dean; urinary fluoride was analyzed by the method of fluoride-ion selective electrode; and the intelligence quotient (IQ) was measured by Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices Test.Results The number of children surveyed in control group was 104,long treatment group was 298,short treatment group was 339,and the incidence rates of dental fluorosis were 0 (0/104),725%(216/298) and 85.2% (289/339),respectively,and the incidence rates of dental fluorosis in children lived in the endemic fluorosis areas were significantly increased compared with that of control group; the difference of incidence rates between long treatment group and short treatment group was statistically significantly(x2 =15.736,P < 0.01).Urinary fluoride content were (2.33 ± 0.18) and (3.03 ± 0.16)mg/L,respectively,compared with the control group[(1.34 ± 0.64) mg/L],the values in endemic fluorosis areas were significantly higher(F =306.53,P < 0.01).Above average IQ of children in the control group was 97.1% (101/104),which was significantly higher than that of long and short treatment

  20. Investigation of intelligence level in children aged 8-12 in coal-burning fluorosis area, Guizhou%燃煤型氟中毒病区8~12岁儿童智力水平调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金庭旭; 王忠宏; 韦艳; 吴彦秋; 韩涛; 张华

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between age,dental fluorosis and intelligence in children aged 8-12 in coal-burning fluorosis (CBF) area,Guizhou province.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis and intellectual level in 284 children (n=167 for CBF area,n=120 for control area) aged 8-12 in Mar.,2015.The difference of intelligence level with different levels of dental fluorosis were analyzed.Results The prevalence rate of dental fluorosis of children in the endemic fluorosis area was 53.9%,which was significantly higher than that in the control (P<0.01),the dental fluorosis index was 0.59,which meant the area was an edge of epidemic area of endemic fluorosis.The standard score of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM) of children in endemic area was lower than that in the control (Zss=3.124,P=0.002).The intelligence level in endemic area was lower compared with the control and showed a significant difference in 12-year old group(Z=3.244,P=0.001),no significant relationship between intelligence level and levels of dental fluorosis was seen (H=5.057,P=0.281).However,the degree of intelligence level negatively correlated with age (r=-0.232,P=0.003).Conclusion The intelligence level of children living in the endemic fluorosis area is lower and more further research need to be done to show the reason.%目的 探讨燃煤型氟中毒病区8~12岁儿童智力水平及其与年龄、氟斑牙程度的关系,为氟中毒致中枢神经损伤的相关研究提供人群数据资料.方法 于2015年3月对贵州省284名8~12岁儿童(包括燃煤型氟中毒病区167人,对照区117人)进行氟斑牙诊断,并用《瑞文标准推理测验》测试其智力水平;分析不同年龄组病区与对照区儿童智力水平差异,以及病区儿童不同氟斑牙程度的智力水平及与年龄和氟斑牙程度的相关关系.结果 病区儿童氟斑牙检出率为53.9

  1. Distinguishing between enamel fluorosis and other enamel defects in permanent teeth of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aira Sabokseir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The inconsistent prevalence of fluorosis for a given level of fluoride in drinking water suggests developmental defects of enamel (DDEs other than fluorosis were being misdiagnosed as fluorosis. The imprecise definition and subjective perception of fluorosis indices could result in misdiagnosis of dental fluorosis. This study was conducted to distinguish genuine fluorosis from fluorosis-resembling defects that could have adverse health-related events as a cause using Early Childhood Events Life-grid method (ECEL. Methods. A study was conducted on 400 9-year-old children from areas with high, optimal and low levels of fluoride in the drinking water of Fars province, Iran. Fluorosis cases were diagnosed on the standardized one view photographs of the anterior teeth using Dean’s and TF (Thylstrup and Fejerskov Indices by calibrated dentists. Agreements between examiners were tested. Early childhood health-related data collected retrospectively by ECEL method were matched with the position of enamel defects. Results. Using both Dean and TF indices three out of four dentists diagnosed that 31.3% (115 children had fluorosis, 58.0%, 29.1%, and 10.0% in high (2.12–2.85 ppm, optimal (0.62–1.22 ppm, and low (0.24–0.29 ppm fluoride areas respectively (p < 0.001. After matching health-related events in the 115 (31.3% of children diagnosed with fluorosis, 31 (8.4% of children had fluorosis which could be matched with their adverse health-related events. This suggests that what was diagnosed as fluorosis were non-fluoride related DDEs that resemble fluorosis. Discussion. The frequently used measures of fluorosis appear to overscore fluorosis. Use of ECEL method to consider health related events relevant to DDEs could help to differentiate between genuine fluorosis and fluorosis-resembling defects.

  2. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8-12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05), and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis.

  3. A review of the prevalence of dental fluorosis in Mexico Revisión de la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Ernesto Soto-Rojas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There has been a worrisome increase in the prevalence of dental fluorosis worldwide. The objective of this study was to review research on dental fluorosis prevalence in Mexico in order to assess if that prevalence is rising and if dental fluorosis constitutes a public health problem for the country. METHODS: Clinical, experimental, and review reports were searched for in a number of bibliographic databases for scientific literature, using the search phrase "fluorosis and Mexico." All the materials that were initially identified had to satisfy eight specific criteria in order to be included in our study. RESULTS: Of the 24 publications that the literature search yielded, 14 satisfied all the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of dental fluorosis reported in Mexico ranged from 30% to 100% in areas where water is naturally fluoridated and from 52% to 82% in areas where fluoridated salt is used. Most of the 14 studies were conducted in areas where water fluoride levels were above optimal, and the fluorosis cases reported in these publications ranged from "mild" to "severe." There have been only a small number of reports on dental fluorosis since the introduction of fluoridated salt in the country in 1991. However, some of those studies have shown that the prevalence of fluorosis was higher than what would be expected given the historical data from communities with optimal fluoridation in other countries. CONCLUSION: Due to the limited amount of information, it is not possible to determine if the prevalence of dental fluorosis in Mexico is rising or if it constitutes a public health problem. To objectively answer these questions more controlled studies are needed in areas where fluoridated salt is distributed, where water fluoride is above optimal, and where residents live at a high altitude.OBJETIVOS: La prevalencia de fluorosis dental ha aumentado de forma alarmante en todo el mundo. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar las

  4. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Fan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea, and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results: The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05, urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05, urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05, and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05 were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions: Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis.

  5. Differential Expression ESTs Associated with Fluorosis in Rats Liver

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    Y. Q. He

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fluoride has volcanic activity and abundantly exists in environment combining with other elements as fluoride compounds. Recent researches indicated that the molecular mechanisms of intracellular fluoride toxicity were very complex. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects on gene expression of chronic fluoride-induced damage is unknown, especially the detailed regulatory process of mitochondria. In the present study, we screened the differential expression ESTs associated with fluorosis by DDRT-PCR in rat liver. We gained 8 genes, 3 new ESTs, and 1 unknown function sequence and firstly demonstrated that microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1 (MGST1, ATP synthase H+ transporting mitochondrial F0 complex subunit C1, selenoprotein S, mitochondrial IF1 protein, and mitochondrial succinyl-CoA synthetase alpha subunit were participated in mitochondria metabolism, functional and structural damage process caused by chronic fluorosis. This information will be very helpful for understanding the molecular mechanisms of fluorosis.

  6. Fluorosis dental: no solo un problema estético Dental fluorosis: not only an aesthetic problem

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    Iliana Hidalgo-Gato Fuentes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Mientras la profesión estomatológica plantea que la fluorosis dental es solamente un problema estético y no un efecto de salud, esta declaración es una asunción y no un hecho. Ciertamente, la fluorosis dental representa un efecto tóxico en las células del diente, pero se pregunta si las células del diente son las únicas células en el cuerpo que son impactadas por este efecto. Motivados por lo controvertido del tema, se realiza una revisión bibliográfica con el objetivo fundamental de profundizar en los conocimientos teóricos y las características clínicas de esta afección que puede manifestarse tanto de formal local como general, y las consecuencias del uso inadecuado del flúor en el organismo humano. Se concluye que fluorosis es una enfermedad que no solo afecta las estructuras dentarias, y no puede ser enmarcada solamente pos los estomatólogos debido a las afecciones dentarias que puede producir, pues en muchas ocasiones es el primer signo de que la persona ha estado expuesta a niveles elevados de flúor.While the stomatological profession states that dental fluorosis is only an aesthetic problem and not a health effect, this declaration is an assumption and not a fact. Certainly, dental fluorosis represents a toxic effect in the tooth cells, but it is asked if the tooth cells are the only body cells impacted by this effect. Motivated by this controversial topic, a bibliographic review was made aimed mainly at going deep into the theoretical knowledge and the clinical characteristics of this affection that may manifest in a local or general way, and into the consequences of the inadequate use of fluor in the human organism. It was concluded that fluorosis is a disease that not only affects the dental structures and that it can not only be defined by the stomatologists due to the dental affections it may produce, since in many occasions it is the first sign that the person has been exposed to elevated levels of fluorine.

  7. Assessment of Dental Fluorosis in Mmp20+/− Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, R.; Tye, C.E.; Arun, A.; MacDonald, D.; Chatterjee, A.; Abrazinski, T.; Everett, E.T.; Whitford, G.M.; Bartlett, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that underlie dental fluorosis are poorly understood. The retention of enamel proteins hallmarking fluorotic enamel may result from impaired hydrolysis and/or removal of enamel proteins. Previous studies have suggested that partial inhibition of Mmp20 expression is involved in the etiology of dental fluorosis. Here we ask if mice expressing only one functional Mmp20 allele are more susceptible to fluorosis. We demonstrate that Mmp20+/− mice express approximately half ...

  8. Dental Fluorosis and Dental Caries Prevalence among 12 and 15-Year-Old School Children in Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhabogi, JR; Parthasarathi, P; Anjum, S; Shekar, BRC; Padma, CM; Rani, AS

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fluoride is a double edged sword. The assessment of dental caries and fluorosis in endemic fluoride areas will facilitate in assessing the relation between fluoride concentrations in water with dental caries, dental fluorosis simultaneously. Aim: The objective of the following study is to assess the dental caries and dental fluorosis prevalence among 12 and 15-year-old school children in Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Two stage cluster sampling technique was employed to select 20 schools from Nalgonda district. The oral examination of available 12 and 15-year-old children fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria was carried out to assess dental caries and fluorosis. The examination was conducted by a single trained and calibrated examiner using the mouth mirror and community periodontal index probe under natural daylight. These areas were divided into four categories, low, medium, high and very high fluoride areas based on the fluoride concentration at the time of statistical analysis. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 (IBM, Chicago, USA). Results: The caries prevalence was less among 12-year-old children (39.9% [369/924]) compared with 15-years-old children (46.7% [444/951]). The prevalence was more among females (50.4% [492/977]) than males (35.8% [321/898]). The prevalence was more in low fluoride area (60.5% [300/496]) followed by very high fluoride area (54.8% [201/367]), high fluoride area (32.4% [293/904]) and medium fluoride area (17.6% [19/108]) in the descending order. The fluorosis prevalence increased with increasing fluoride concentration with no difference in gender and age distribution. Conclusion: Low fluoride areas require fluoridation or alternate sources of fluoride, whereas high fluoride areas require defluoridation. Defluoridation of water is an immediate requirement in areas with fluoride concentration of 4

  9. Skeletal fluorosis in relation to drinking water in rural areas of West Azerbaijan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Yousefi, Mahmood; Yaseri, Mehdi; Jalilzadeh, Mohsen; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2017-12-11

    Skeletal fluorosis resulting from high fluoride level in drinking water is a major public health problem. The present study evaluated the association between exposures to drinking water fluoride and skeletal fluorosis in 5 villages of Poldasht County, Iran. All the data and information on the prevalence of bone diseases were obtained from the Health Record Department, Poldasht Health Centre. To obtain the odds ratio of bone disease problem in different risk factors, when considering the cluster effect of rural area, logistic regression in a multilevel model was used. Results showed that skeletal fluorosis of people who live in areas with high fluoride concentration is 18.1% higher than that of individuals who live in areas with low fluoride concentration. Skeletal fluorosis (54.5%) was observed in the age group of 71 years and above, and was more commonly found in females than males. According to Unadjusted, individuals who consume ≤3 unit milk and dairy products per week have almost the same level of bone diseases as compared to those that consume more than 3 units. This study indicated that, skeletal fluorosis is a general health problem in these rural areas because the results revealed that high percentage of the studied population had symptoms of skeletal fluorosis.

  10. Radiological criteria of industrial fluorosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boillat, M.A.; Garcia, J.; Velebit, L.

    1980-01-01

    The bone radiographs of 43 potroom workers in an aluminium factory, on whom the diagnosis of industrial fluorosis had been confirmed by bone biopsy, are compared with radiographs from 18 control subjects. A higher frequency of ossification of ligament, tendon, and muscle attachments is observed among the fluoride exposed subjects. These changes increase with the bone fluoride content. The presence of hyperostosis is an important aid in the diagnosis of skeletal fluorosis. However, this radiological sign has to be complemented by clinical data and estimation of the concentration of urinary fluoride. Final confirmation of the diagnosis is obtained by bone biopsy. (orig.) [de

  11. Relation between dental fluorosis and intelligence quotient in school children of Bagalkot district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P K Shivaprakash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on 160 children, in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka state between August and October 2010, with the aim of finding out if there is a relation between dental fluorosis status and Intelligence Quotient (IQ. Children were categorized as, those suffering from dental fluorosis and those not suffering from dental fluorosis and for all children in both categories, Intelligence testing was done using the Raven′s Coloured Progressive Matrices. The following observations were made from the data gathered: The mean IQ score of children without dental fluorosis was significantly higher than those children who had dental fluorosis. The mean IQ scores did not vary with the severity of dental fluorosis as classified by Dean′s fluorosis index. Also it was noticed that the percentage of children with dental fluorosis was more in Extremely Low and Low IQ categories whereas the percentage of children without dental fluorosis was more in Average and High Average IQ categories. Previous studies had indicated toward decreased Intelligence in children exposed to high levels of fluoride and our study also confirmed such an effect.

  12. Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Private Wells Infant Formula Fluorosis Public Health Service Recommendation Water Operators & Engineers Water Fluoridation Additives Shortages of Fluoridation Additives Drinking Water Pipe Systems CDC-Sponsored Water Fluoridation Training Links to Other ...

  13. Dental enamel, fluorosis and amoxicillin

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    I. Ciarrocchi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amoxicillin is one of the most used antibiotics among pediatric patients for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections and specially for acute otitis media (AOM, a common diseases of infants and childhood. It has been speculated that the use of amoxicillin during early childhood could be associated with dental enamel fluorosis, also described in literature with the term Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH, because they are generally situated in one or more 1st permanent molars and less frequently in the incisors. The effect of Amoxicillin seems to be independent of other risk factors such as fluoride intake, prematurity, hypoxia, hypocalcaemia, exposure to dioxins, chikenpox, otitis media, high fever and could have a significant impact on oral health for the wide use of this drug in that period of life. Objective: The aim of this work was to review the current literature about the association between amoxicillin and fluorosis. Methods and Results: A literature survey was done by applying the Medline database (Entrez PubMed; the Cochrane Library database of the Cochrane Collaboration (CENTRAL. The databases were searched using the following strategy and keywords: amoxicillin* AND (dental fluorosis* OR dental enamel* AND MIH*. After selecting the studies, only three relevant articles published between 1966 and 2011 were included in the review. Conclusion: The presence of several methodological issues does not allow to draw any evidence-based conclusions. No evidence of association was detected, therefore, there is a need of further well-designed studies to assess the scientific evidence of the relationship between amoxicillin and fluorosis and to restrict the prescription of this drug for recurrent upper respiratory tract infections especially acute otitis media (AOM during the first two years of life. When it is possible can be opportune to use an alternative antibiotic treatment.

  14. Dental fluorosis knowleDge anD perception among stuDents of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Newbrun, E. Fluoride and Dental caries (3 ed.). San francisco: Springfield. 1978. 5.Vuhahula et al. Dental fluorosis in Great Rift Valley in relation to fluoride level in water and Magadi. Desalination. 2010; 252: 193-198. 3. Group students who didn't know how fluorosis can be avoided students who knew how fluorosis can be.

  15. Stress Response Pathways in Ameloblasts: Implications for Amelogenesis and Dental Fluorosis

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    John D. Bartlett

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Human enamel development of the permanent teeth takes place during childhood and stresses encountered during this period can have lasting effects on the appearance and structural integrity of the enamel. One of the most common examples of this is the development of dental fluorosis after childhood exposure to excess fluoride, an elemental agent used to increase enamel hardness and prevent dental caries. Currently the molecular mechanism responsible for dental fluorosis remains unknown; however, recent work suggests dental fluorosis may be the result of activated stress response pathways in ameloblasts during the development of permanent teeth. Using fluorosis as an example, the role of stress response pathways during enamel maturation is discussed.

  16. Chronic fluorosis: The disease and its anaesthetic implications

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    Madhuri S Kurdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic fluorosis is a widespread disease-related to the ingestion of high levels of fluoride through water and food. Prolonged ingestion of fluoride adversely affects the teeth, bones and other organs and alters their anatomy and physiology. Fluoride excess is a risk factor in cardiovascular disease and other major diseases, including hypothyroidism, diabetes and obesity. Although anaesthesiologists may be aware of its skeletal and dental manifestations, other systemic manifestations, some of which may impact anaesthetic management are relatively unknown. Keeping this in mind, the topic of chronic fluorosis was hand searched from textbooks, scientific journals and electronically through Google, PubMed and other scientific databases. This article concentrates on the effect of chronic fluorosis on various organ systems, its clinical features, diagnosis and the anaesthetic implications of the disease.

  17. Effects of enamel fluorosis and dental caries on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoriobe, U; Rozier, R G; Cantrell, J; King, R S

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of enamel fluorosis and dental caries on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in North Carolina schoolchildren and their families. Students (n = 7,686) enrolled in 398 classrooms in grades K-12 were recruited for a onetime survey. Parents of students in grades K-3 and 4-12 completed the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) and Family Impact Scale (FIS), respectively. Students in grades 4-12 completed the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10 in grades 4-5; CPQ11-14 in grades 6-12). All students were examined for fluorosis (Dean's index) and caries experience (d2-3fs or D2-3MFS indices). OHRQoL scores (sum response codes) were analyzed for their association with fluorosis categories and sum of d2-3fs and D2-3MFS according to ordinary least squares regression with SAS procedures for multiple imputation and analysis of complex survey data. Differences in OHRQoL scores were evaluated against statistical and minimal important difference (MID) thresholds. Of 5,484 examined students, 71.8% had no fluorosis; 24.4%, questionable to very mild fluorosis; and 3.7%, mild, moderate, or severe fluorosis. Caries categories were as follows: none (43.1%), low (28.6%), and moderate to high (28.2%). No associations between fluorosis and any OHRQoL scales met statistical or MID thresholds. The difference (5.8 points) in unadjusted mean ECOHIS scores for the no-caries and moderate-to-high caries groups exceeded the MID estimate (2.7 points) for that scale. The difference in mean FIS scores (1.5 points) for the no-caries and moderate-to-high groups exceeded the MID value (1.2 points). The sum of d2-3fs and D2-3MFS scores was positively associated with CPQ11-14 (B = 0.240, p caries experience negatively affects OHRQoL, while fluorosis has little impact. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  18. Diagnosing dental caries in populations with different levels of dental fluorosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvad, Bente; Machiulskiene, Vita; Fejerskov, Ole

    2009-01-01

    concentrations of 0.3 and 1.1 ppm (0.3 and 1.1 mg/l) fluoride, respectively, 150 children were clinically examined twice, 2 wk apart, for dental fluorosis, using the Thylstrup-Fejerskov index (TF index), and for dental caries using the Nyvad visual-tactile caries criteria. The prevalence of dental fluorosis......, a pronounced dental fluorosis background did not reduce the reliability of the caries recordings, which appeared to be slightly less reliable at very low levels of dental fluorosis.......The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the Nyvad visual-tactile caries-diagnostic criteria when used among children who have been lifelong residents in areas with 'optimal' or low concentrations of fluoride in the drinking water. In each of two areas with drinking water fluoride...

  19. Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Alan; Larsen, Mogens Joost; Maare, L.

    2006-01-01

    tooth types in children born and reared in an area with drinking water with (regularly monitored, naturally-occurring) fluoride concentrations of 1 ppm and compare with data recorded for a similar group of children examined in the same way and residing in the same area 20 years ago. Methods: Dental...... children, of similar ages, examined in the same area in 1984. Results: The prevalence and severity of fluorosis varied between tooth types so that the later in childhood the teeth are mineralized the higher the prevalence of dental fluorosis. When the data were compared to those collected 20 years...... in the (later formed) premolars and second molars. Conclusions: A significant increase in fluorosis prevalence has occurred over the last 20 years due to increased fluoride exposure of pre-school children. These findings may be explained by increased use of fluoride toothpaste by this age group from...

  20. Examiner Reliability of Fluorosis Scoring: A Comparison of Photographic and Clinical Examination Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Orcutt, Noemi; Warren, John J.; Broffitt, Barbara; Levy, Steven M.; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess and compare examiner reliability of clinical and photographic fluorosis examinations using the Fluorosis Risk Index (FRI) among children in the Iowa Fluoride Study (IFS). Methods The IFS examined 538 children for fluorosis and dental caries at age 13 and obtained intra-oral photographs from nearly all of them. To assess examiner reliability, duplicate clinical examinations were conducted for 40 of the subjects. In addition, 200 of the photographs were scored independently for fluorosis by two examiners in a standardized manner. Fluorosis data were compared between examiners for the clinical exams and separately for the photographic exams, and a comparison was made between clinical and photographic exams. For all 3 comparisons, examiner reliability was assessed using kappa statistics at the tooth level. Results Inter-examiner reliability for the duplicate clinical exams on the sample of 40 subjects as measured by kappa was 0.59, while the repeat exams of the 200 photographs yielded a kappa of 0.64. For the comparison of photographic and clinical exams, inter-examiner reliability, as measured by weighted kappa, was 0.46. FRI scores obtained using the photographs were higher on average than those obtained from the clinical exams. Fluorosis prevalence was higher for photographs (33%) than found for clinical exam (18%). Conclusion Results suggest inter-examiner reliability is greater and fluorosis scores higher when using photographic compared to clinical examinations. PMID:22316120

  1. A cross-sectional study to assess the effect of dental fluorosis on periodontal status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Chopra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of fluoride in the reduction of dental caries is well established, its effect on periodontal tissues is enigmatic. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between dental fluorosis and the periodontal status. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 600 subjects suffering from fluorosis. Variables such as age, gender, and smoking, which could act as covariates for the periodontal disease were recorded. The oral examination included assessment of oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S, community periodontal index and treatment need, and assessment of dental fluorosis by Jackson's fluorosis index. Results: Periodontitis was more common in females than in males. As the age advances, the rate of periodontal disease increases steadily. Periodontitis was significantly associated with poor oral hygiene and tobacco usage. As the degree of fluorosis increased, the severity of gingivitis reduced and periodontitis increased. Conclusion: There is a strong association between the degree of dental fluorosis and periodontal disease along with other factors such as age, gender, OHI-S, and tobacco usage.

  2. Health impact of supplying safe drinking water containing fluoride below permissible level on flourosis patients in a fluoride-endemic rural area of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Kunal Kanti

    2011-01-01

    The problem of high fluoride concentration in groundwater resources has become one of the most important toxicological and geo-environmental issues in India. Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental and skeletal fluorosis, which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) is 1.5 mg/L. About 20 states of India, including 43 blocks of seven districts of West Bengal, were identified as endemic for fluorosis and about 66 million people in these regions are at risk of fluoride contamination. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride often leads reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or 10 days) and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above the permissible limit, and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water. A longitudinal intervention study was conducted in three villages in Rampurhat Block I of Birbhum district of West Bengal to assess the occurrence of various dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among the study population and the impact of taking safe water from the supplied domestic and community filters on these clinical manifestations. The impact was studied by follow-up examination of the participants for 5 months to determine the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water from supplied

  3. Fluorosis dental en escolares de una zona rural de Camagüey

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    Naise López Larquin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de los factores de riesgo de la fluorosis dental es importante para disminuir la prevalencia de esta enfermedad. Determinar su severidad y evaluar los factores de riesgo asociados fue el objetivo de esta investigación, para lo cual se realizó un estudio descriptivo en los consultorios 46 y 64 de la zona rural de Ingenio Viejo, del municipio de Camagüey, en el período comprendido entre julio de 2011 y febrero de 2012. El universo estuvo constituido por 84 niños de seis a doce años y la muestra por 67 escolares. La fluorosis dental se clasificó en: leve, moderada y grave. Las concentraciones de flúor natural en el agua de consumo, la exposición a altas concentraciones del elemento y el tiempo de exposición al mismo, fueron los factores de riesgo asociados a la fluorosis dental estudiados. Al concluir el estudio, se observó un predominio de la fluorosis dental leve (52,9 %, seguido de la moderada (38,2 %. Las concentraciones de flúor natural encontradas en las aguas de consumo fueron óptimas (0,7 y 1,2 ppm en el 44,8 % de los casos y altas (1,7 y 2,0 ppm en el 55,2 %. El 81,8 % de los casos sin fluorosis han estado expuestos a la acción del flúor solamente de uno a tres años, mientras que todos los niños con fluorosis dental lo han recibido por más de cuatro años, aumentando la severidad en la medida en que se incrementa el tiempo de exposición. El 36,4 % de los niños que ingirieron flúor antes de los seis años no presentaron fluorosis dental

  4. [Differential diagnosis of dental enamel focal demineralization and fluorosis by means of spectrophotometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, N E; Vinnichenko, Yu A

    2018-01-01

    The article presents the results of spectrophotometric tooth enamel scanning for differential diagnosis of focal enamel demineralization and fluorosis. Research was conducted in vivo on teeth affected by these diseases. VITA EasyShade spectrophotometer measurements were made on the affected area and on the visually healthy part of enamel. The lightness appeared as the only one differential significant optical characteristics of tooth enamel. Lightness metrics were higher in the case of initial caries than on the healthy part of enamel when these metrics were lower in the case of fluorosis than on the healthy part of enamel.

  5. Fluorosis in a dairy herd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, W G

    1972-04-29

    Investigation of a high incidence of hip arthritis in a herd of Ayrshires resulted in the discovery of abnormal levels of fluorine in samples of bone. Suspicion of fluorosis was not aroused earlier as the area is not contaminated by industrial fall-out. In addition, many affected animals had no lesions in their teeth; this was because their dentition was complete before ingesting fluorine from a mineral supplement. Only cows receiving toxic levels of fluorine during their first lactation showed lesions, and these were confined to the fourth pair of incisors. Two metabolic profile tests were caried out to establish that the input-output balance in the main metabolites was normal. Analysis of various constituents of the diet revealed significant levels of fluorine in the mineral supplement only. Arthritis was the most prominent feature. This led to debility, with loss of milk and carcase value. Confirmation of fluorosis was obtained by analysis of bone and urine.

  6. The impact of fluoride on ameloblasts and the mechanisms of enamel fluorosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronckers, A.L.J.J.; Lyaruu, D.M.; Denbesten, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    Intake of excess amounts of fluoride during tooth development cause enamel fluorosis, a developmental disturbance that makes enamel more porous. In mild fluorosis, there are white opaque striations across the enamel surface, whereas in more severe cases, the porous regions increase in size, with

  7. Dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride in 10-12 years old adolescents of Bushehr port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giti Javan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluoride increases tooth resistance to dental caries, but mild toxicity due to excessive ingestion of fluoride can cause dental fluorosis. Drinking water naturally contains fluoride and is a major source of fluoride. In Bushehr port, drinking water is supplied from limestone springs with normal fluoride levels but dental fluorosis is observed. Methods: A total of 95 native school children (between the ages of 10-12 years old were randomly selected from four Bushehr port regions. Dental fluorosis, height and weight were examined. Probable attributing factors of dental fluorosis were also questioned. A 16 to 18 hours urinary fluoride concentration was measured with a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results: Dental fluorosis in four upper incisors was apparent in 52.6 % of the subjects. The urinary fluoride concentration was 2.18 mg/lit. Fluoride concentration in drinking water of schools ranged from 0.41 to 0.58 mg/lit. Forty percent of subjects were caries free. Conclusion: In spite of the normal range of fluoride concentration in the drinking water of Bushehr, dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride concentration are higher than the recommended ranges. Therefore, it is necessary to further investigate the amount and effects of fluoride ingestion in residents of Bushehr province.

  8. Fluorosis y caries dental en niños de 6 a 12 años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Dobarganes Coca

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de los factores de riesgo de la fluorosis y la caries dental es importante para disminuir la prevalencia de estas enfermedades. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en niños de la zona rural de Ingenio Viejo, del municipio de Camagüey, con el objetivo de caracterizar la fluorosis y la caries dental, desde septiembre de 2011 hasta septiembre de 2012. La población de estudio estuvo conformada por 67 escolares, a los que se les determinó la presencia de fluorosis dental y los índices de dientes cariados, perdidos y obturados, en la dentición temporal y en la permanente (ceo-d y COP-D, respectivamente. Los factores de riesgo asociados a la caries dental que se tomaron en consideración fueron: susceptibilidad del esmalte, dieta cariogénica e higiene bucal deficiente. Se detectó la presencia de higiene bucal deficiente (71,6 % y dieta cariogénica (82,1 %, sin embargo, el 29,8 % y el 41,8 % de los niños, respectivamente, aunque estuvieron sometidos a estos factores de riesgo no desarrollaron caries dental. El mayor por ciento de los niños sin caries (70,3 % presentó esmalte resistente. Se observó un índice ceo-d de 1,50 y COP-D de 0,20. De los pacientes sin fluorosis, el 60,6 % no presentó caries dental

  9. Enamel microabrasion for aesthetic management of dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pallavi; Ansari, Afroz Alam; Moda, Preeti; Yadav, Madhulika

    2013-10-11

    Fluorosis has increased in recent times due to fluoridation of drinking water and addition of fluoride to various edible items, which leads to unaesthetic appearance of teeth visible at close quarters. The enamel microabrasion technique is a conservative method that improves the appearance of the teeth by restoring bright and superficial smoothness, without causing significant structural loss. The aim of this article is to describe an easy technique for managing mild to moderate dental fluorosis using Opalustre (Ultradent Products) microabrasion slurry. This conservative approach may be considered an interesting alternative to more invasive prosthetic techniques like composite resin restorations, ceramic veneers or crown fabrications.

  10. Relationship between water, urine and serum fluoride and fluorosis in school children of Jhajjar District, Haryana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Lata, Suman; Yadav, Jyoti; Yadav, J. P.

    2017-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the relationship between fluoride in water, urine and serum and dental fluorosis. The fluoride level in water and urine were measured spectrophotometrically by using acid zirconyl and SPADNS reagents, while the fluoride level in serum was determined by ion selective electrode meter. Dental fluorosis survey was conducted with the help of Performa prescribed by Rajiv Gandhi Drinking Water Mission and the use of Tooth Surface Index for Fluorosis. Mean fluoride values in water samples of Jhajjar City and Dadanpur and Dariyapur villages of Jhajjar District were measured to be 2.17 (range from 1.92 to 2.60 mg/L), 2.81 (range from 2.53 to 3.14 mg/L) and 2.22 mg/L (range from 1.63 to 3.33 mg/L), respectively. The mean fluoride values in the urine samples of children were found to be 1.51 (range from 0.05 to 2.64 mg/L), 1.71 (range from 0.69 to 2.80 mg/L) and 1.45 mg/L (range from 0.31 to 2.50 mg/L) at Jhajjar City and Dadanpur and Dariyapur sites, respectively. Serum fluoride was detected in the blood samples of children, who have high urinary fluoride at these three sites. The mean serum fluoride level was reported to be 0.15, 0.34 and 0.17 mg/L, respectively. A total of 842 children were also analyzed for dental fluorosis. The mean values of fluorosis-affected children in Jhajjar, Dadanpur and Dariyapur were 51.90, 94.63 and 36.84 %, respectively. A significantly positive correlation between water, urine, serum fluoride concentration and fluorosis was seen.

  11. Fluorosis in humans and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirona Palczewska-Komsa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluorine compounds occur quite commonly in nature. They are exist in water, in soil, in geological decks, in living organisms. On human and animal bodies can influence moderately preferably or more often unfavorably. The deficiency or excess of this element results in undesirable effects in hard tissue, nervous tissue and other organs. Due to adverse effect of this element to a living organism it comes to fluorosis. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the toxic effect of fluoride compounds on the human and other vertebrate animals depending on the time and dosage F- and the type of tissue and / or organ on the basis of the scientific literature. On the basis of the available publications, it was revealed that F- toxicity substantially depends on time and dose exposure on these element. Chronic fluorosis, more often than acute is observed in human and animals. Biological factors (including species differences susceptibility, metabolic activity of tissue and environmental factors can accumulate, which increases probability of F- toxicity for living organisms.

  12. Prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and genu valgum among school children in rural field practice area of a medical college

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    Banavaram Anniappan Arvind

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis and genu valgum among school children in the above mentioned area. Methods: A Cross sectional study was conducted on school children of 1st to 7th standard in the rural field practice area of a medical college. Children were examined for dental fluorosis and genu valgum. Drinking water samples were also tested for fluoride levels. Proportion of children with dental fluorosis and genu valgum were calculated by severity, age and sex. Statistical significance was analyzed by using Chisquare test or Mc Nemar test. Results: Of the 1 544 children examined 42.1% and 8.4% had dental fluorosis and genu valgum respectively. Prevalence of very mild dental fluorosis and moderate grade genu valgum were high compared to other categories. Prevalence rates increased with the age (P<0.05 and was more among girls (45.2% as compared to boys (39.1% (P<0.05. Of the 26 water samples analysed, 18 samples (69.2% revealed the fluoride content above the permissible limit. Conclusions: Findings of the present study reveal a high prevalence of dental fluorosis and genu valgum amongst school children and high fluoride level in the water. Further studies are needed to evaluate the other risk factors and reasons for gender differences.

  13. Impact of Dental Fluorosis, Socioeconomic Status and Self-Perception in Adolescents Exposed to a High Level of Fluoride in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Nevarez-Rascón, Martina; Nevarez-Rascón, Alfredo; González-González, Rogelio; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Sánchez-Pérez, Leonor; López-Verdin, Sandra; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2017-01-12

    Objective : To identify adolescents' self-perception of dental fluorosis from two areas with different socioeconomic levels. Methods : A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 15-year-old youths by applying a questionnaire designed and validated to assess self-perceptions of dental fluorosis in two areas with different socioeconomic statuses (SESs). Fluorosis was clinically evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerkov (TF) index on the upper front teeth. Results : A total of 308 adolescents were included in the study. The medium-SES population, which was exposed to 2.5 ppm of fluoride in water, and the low-SES population, which was exposed to 5.1 ppm, presented the following levels of dental fluorosis: TF 2-3 (50%), TF 4-5 (45.6%) and TF 6-7 (4.4%) for medium SES and TF 2-3 (12.3%), TF 4-5 (67.1%) and TF 67 (20.6%) for low SES. A significant association was found between self-perception and dental fluorosis in those with medium and low SESs ( p self-perception, with a 6-7 TF level for concerns about color (OR = 1.6), smile (OR = 1.2) and appearance (OR = 3.36). Conclusions : Self-perceptions of dental fluorosis affect adolescents such that adolescents with a medium SES have more negative perceptions than those with a low SES. Such perceptions increase as the TF index increases.

  14. Dental caries, fluorosis, and oral health behavior of children from Herat, Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Doost, Ferhat; Hopfenmüller, Werner; Meyer-Lueckel, Hendrik; Paris, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    Decades of conflict, poverty, and dysfunctional public services have affected people's health in Afghanistan. To estimate treatment needs and guide health initiatives, epidemiologic data are required. Such data are currently unavailable for dental health. The present study assessed caries experience, fluorosis, and oral health behavior in children from Afghanistan. We performed a two-stage, school-based cross-sectional study in Herat province in Afghanistan. A total of 1059 children, 369 children aged 6-7, 300 aged 12, and 390 aged 15 years, were sampled. Caries was assessed according to ICDAS, and oral hygiene, dietary habits, and parental economic and educational status evaluated. Prevalence of fluorosis was assessed, and fluoride concentrations in drinking water and in used toothpastes were measured. Mean (SD) number of decayed, missing, or filled teeth was dmft = 4.88 (3.11), DMFT = 2.57 (2.16), and DMFT = 4.04 (3.03) in 6-/7-, 12-, and 15-year-olds, respectively. The majority of lesions in 6-year-olds were cavitated, while 12- and 15-year-olds showed more non- or microcavitated lesions. Most lesions, especially in young children, were untreated. Mean (range) water fluoride concentration was 0.37 (0.19-0.67) ppm. Fluoride concentrations in evaluated toothpastes did not meet internationally recommended levels. The majority of children showed no or minimal fluorosis. Having fluorosis, infrequently consuming sweets, or having a father with high education was associated with low caries experience (dmfs/DMFS dental treatment needs and caries experience. Sufficient access to restorative treatment and prevention measures is urgently required. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Impact of Dental Fluorosis, Socioeconomic Status and Self-Perception in Adolescents Exposed to a High Level of Fluoride in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Nevarez-Rascón, Martina; Nevarez-Rascón, Alfredo; González-González, Rogelio; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Sánchez-Pérez, Leonor; López-Verdin, Sandra; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify adolescents’ self-perception of dental fluorosis from two areas with different socioeconomic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 15-year-old youths by applying a questionnaire designed and validated to assess self-perceptions of dental fluorosis in two areas with different socioeconomic statuses (SESs). Fluorosis was clinically evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerkov (TF) index on the upper front teeth. Results: A total of 308 adolescents were included in the study. The medium-SES population, which was exposed to 2.5 ppm of fluoride in water, and the low-SES population, which was exposed to 5.1 ppm, presented the following levels of dental fluorosis: TF 2–3 (50%), TF 4–5 (45.6%) and TF 6–7 (4.4%) for medium SES and TF 2–3 (12.3%), TF 4–5 (67.1%) and TF 67 (20.6%) for low SES. A significant association was found between self-perception and dental fluorosis in those with medium and low SESs (p < 0.05). The multiple regression model found differences between TF levels and self-perception, with a 6–7 TF level for concerns about color (OR = 1.6), smile (OR = 1.2) and appearance (OR = 3.36). Conclusions: Self-perceptions of dental fluorosis affect adolescents such that adolescents with a medium SES have more negative perceptions than those with a low SES. Such perceptions increase as the TF index increases. PMID:28085102

  16. Impact of Dental Fluorosis, Socioeconomic Status and Self-Perception in Adolescents Exposed to a High Level of Fluoride in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Molina-Frechero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify adolescents’ self-perception of dental fluorosis from two areas with different socioeconomic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 15-year-old youths by applying a questionnaire designed and validated to assess self-perceptions of dental fluorosis in two areas with different socioeconomic statuses (SESs. Fluorosis was clinically evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerkov (TF index on the upper front teeth. Results: A total of 308 adolescents were included in the study. The medium-SES population, which was exposed to 2.5 ppm of fluoride in water, and the low-SES population, which was exposed to 5.1 ppm, presented the following levels of dental fluorosis: TF 2–3 (50%, TF 4–5 (45.6% and TF 6–7 (4.4% for medium SES and TF 2–3 (12.3%, TF 4–5 (67.1% and TF 67 (20.6% for low SES. A significant association was found between self-perception and dental fluorosis in those with medium and low SESs (p < 0.05. The multiple regression model found differences between TF levels and self-perception, with a 6–7 TF level for concerns about color (OR = 1.6, smile (OR = 1.2 and appearance (OR = 3.36. Conclusions: Self-perceptions of dental fluorosis affect adolescents such that adolescents with a medium SES have more negative perceptions than those with a low SES. Such perceptions increase as the TF index increases.

  17. Amelogenesis Imperfect, Enamel Hypoplasia and Fluorosis Dental - Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Magnani Bevilacqua

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The developmental disorders of enamel are abnormalities of structure which can affect both dentitions. These abnormalities include amelogenesis imperfecta, enamel hypoplasia and dental fluorosis. The amelogenesis imperfecta is a hereditary change and enamel hypoplasia is a quantitative defect of enamel that occurs as a result of systemic problems, local and also inherited factors, or even the combination of them. Dental fluorosis is a hypoplasia caused by the chronic ingestion of fluoride during odontogenesis. All these anomalies have similar clinical characteristics, and it is necessary to be careful in their assessment. It is extremely important to know these abnormalities to establish a differential diagnosis and, consequently, a treatment plan, which can be set for each situation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review the literature regarding these three anomalies: amelogenesis imperfecta, enamel hypoplasia and dental fluorosis. It was concluded that to establish the differential diagnosis of these abnormalities as well as a proper treatment plan, it is indispensable the professional knowledge associated with the clinical examination. The examination has to consist of medical history and physical examination, and in some cases, x-ray examination.

  18. Comparative evaluation of esthetic changes in nonpitted fluorosis stains when treated with resin infiltration, in-office bleaching, and combination therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugnani, Neeraj; Pandit, I K; Gupta, Monika; Gugnani, Shalini; Soni, Sugandhi; Goyal, Virender

    2017-09-01

    Dental fluorosis leads to esthetic deviation and varies from nonpitted white opacities, dark brown stains to pitting or structural breakdown of enamel surface. Treatment for fluorosis depends on the severity of condition and includes both noninvasive methods and invasive methods. Recently resin infiltration has been proposed as an alternative treatment for nonpitted fluorosis. This study was done to evaluate the esthetic changes in nonpitted fluorosis stains when treated with resin infiltration, in-office bleaching and combination therapies. The present study is a randomized, single blinded controlled trial with four parallel arms with 1:1 allocation ratio. The intervention arms included bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide, resin infiltration, resin infiltration with increased infiltration time and a combination approach of bleaching and infiltration. Immediate esthetic changes were evaluated for two parameters including, 'Change in esthetics' and 'Improvement in opacities/stains' using a VAS scale by two independent observers. Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test were done for intergroup comparisons. Best results for both the parameters were observed among patients treated with resin infiltration with increased infiltration time. Mann-Whitney U test revealed significantly better results for resin infiltration groups (alone or combination with bleaching) as compared to bleaching alone (P esthetics and improvement in stains. White and brown opacities due to fluorosis have always been a concern for esthetics. In our study, resin infiltration technique with tailored etching times and increased infiltration time exhibited best immediate esthetic improvement for nonpitted fluorotic opacities and stains. These esthetic outcomes reaffirm the applicability of RI technique for nonpitted fluorosis, which was originally advocated only for white spot lesions due to early caries. This will in turn help the dentists to plan the esthetic management of nonpitted fluorosis

  19. [Clinical observation of 5 cases of diabetes insipidus complicated with skeletal fluorosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuan-Chi; Tao, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Nan

    2017-07-25

    To investigate the mechanism of diabetes insipidus complicated with skeletal fluorosis and the surgical treatment of spinal canal stenosis caused by skeletal fluorosis. From January 2000 to November 2011, 5 patients with diabetes insipidus complicated with skeletal fluorosis were treated with drug and cervical or thoracic posterior decompression including 2 males and 3 females with age of 35, 45, 47, 49, 55 years old respectively. The symptoms was mainly limb motor sensory disturbance accompanied by polyuria and polyuria. Imaging showed that cervical and thoracic multi-segmental continuous spinal stenosis. It was diagnosed with diabetes insipidus according to the symptoms and laboratory tests. According to the symptoms, the vertebral with problems were located and treated by posterior laminectomy decompression or the expansive open-door laminectomy. The recovery of neurological symptoms were recorded and the operation result were evaluate by JOA score improvement rate. The wound healed well in 5 cases, and 1 case of cervical axial pain was improved after symptomatic treatment. Five patients were followed up for 2 to 6 years with an average of 4 years. Numbness of limb and weakness symptoms of follow-up patients were significantly improved, muscle strength and acupuncture hypothyroidism were significantly improved compared with preoperative, the JOA score was significantly improved. At the final follow-up, the improvement rate got excellent results in 2 cases, good in 2 and fair in 1. Long-term high intake of fluoride can cause skeletal fluorosis in patients with diabetes insipidus. The posterior decompression is effective for the majority of spinal canal stenosis caused by skeletal fluorosis.

  20. FACTORES DE RIESGO DE FLUOROSIS DENTAL EN ESCOLARES DE LA I.E.P. N°40088 REYNO DE BÉLGICA DEL DISTRITO DE UCHUMAYO. AREQUIPA, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    GUEVARA MAMANI, LOURDES ISABEL

    2014-01-01

    FLUOROSIS DEFINICIÓN PATOGENIA CARACTERÍSTICAS CLÍNICAS DE LA FLUOROSIS DENTAL ÍNDICE DE FLUOROSIS REGISTRO DE LA FLUOROSIS DENTAL ÍNDICE COMUNITARIO DE FLUOROSIS DENTAL FLÚOR EN LA SAL DENTÍFRICOS FLUORADOS FLÚOR DE APLICACIÓN PROFESIONAL ENJUAGUES FLUORADOS BEBIDAS PREPARADAS CON AGUA FLUORADA PREVENCIÓN DE LA FLUOROSIS DENTAL

  1. Vitamin E and Lycopene Reduce Coal Burning Fluorosis-induced Spermatogenic Cell Apoptosis via Oxidative Stress-mediated JNK and ERK Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuan; Xiao, Yuehai; Wang, Bolin; Sun, Chao; Tang, Kaifa; Sun, Fa

    2017-12-22

    Although fluoride has been widely used in toothpaste, mouthwash, and drinking water to prevent dental caries, the excessive intake of fluoride can cause fluorosis which is associated with dental, skeletal, and soft tissue fluorosis. Recent evidences have drawn the attention to its adverse effects on male reproductive system that include spermatogenesis defect, sperm count loss, and sperm maturation impairment. Fluoride induces oxidative stress through the activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade which can lead to cell apoptosis. Vitamin E (VE) and lycopene are two common anti-oxidants, being protective to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced toxic effects. However, whether and how these two anti-oxidants prevent fluoride-induced spermatogenic cell apoptosis are largely unknown. In the present study, a male rat model for coal burning fluorosis was established and the histological lesions and spermatogenic cell apoptosis in rat testes were observed. The decreased expression of clusterin, a heterodimeric glycoprotein reported to regulate spermatogenic cell apoptosis, is detected in fluoride-treated rat testes. Interestingly, the co-administration with VE or lycopene reduced fluorosis-mediated testicular toxicity and rescued clusterin expression. Further, fluoride caused the enhanced Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, which was reduced by VE or lycopene. Thus, VE and lycopene prevent coal burning fluorosis-induced spermatogenic cell apoptosis through the suppression of oxidative stress-mediated JNK and ERK signaling pathway, which could be an alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of fluorosis. ©2017 The Author(s).

  2. Content of arsenic, selenium, mercury in the coal, food, clay and drinking water on the Zhaotong fluorosis area, eastern Yunnan Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Kun-li; Li Hui-jie; Chen Tong-bin (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research

    2008-03-15

    About 160 samples of coal, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin County, Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province, to determine the arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) content by AAF-800. The study found that the As content in the main coal seam from the Late Permian coal mines in Zhaotong City is 8.84 mg/kg and some civil coal can reach 89.09 mg/kg. The Se and Hg in the coal samples of Late Permian is lower, but Se and Hg are more concentrated in the pyritic coal balls and the pyritic gangue of the coal seam. The As content in corn and capsicum dried by coal-burning is more than 0.7 mg/kg, the natural standard amount of arsenic content permitted in food by China. The Se and Hg content in corn dried by coal-burning is lower than the natural standard of Se and Hg content in food in China but the Se and Hg content of capsicum dried by coal-burning exceeds the amount permitted by the natural standard for food in China. Clay, used as an additive for the coal-burning process and as a binder in making briquettes, contains a high content of As, generally more than 16 mg/kg. However, the Se and Hg content of clay itself are low. The As, Se and Hg content of drinking water are lower than the natural standard of As, Se and Hg content in the drinking water. So, there is high-As content coal and high-As content dried corn and capsicum in the endemic fluorosis area of Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province. The high As content of the dried corn and capsicum might have originated from the high arsenic content of burnt coal and clay. 30 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Analysis of Ground Water Fluoride Content and its Association with Prevalence of Fluorosis in Zarand/Kerman: (Using GIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    T, Malek Mohammadi; R, Derakhshani; M, Tavallaie; M, Raoof; N, Hasheminejad; Aa, Haghdoost

    2017-06-01

    The concentration of fluoride in water is usually higher in areas around the coal mines. Zarand region in the south-east of Iran is known for its coal mines. Some studies have shown the high prevalence of fluorosis and some studies reported high levels of fluoride in the region. This study aimed to use Geographic Information System (GIS) to assess the relationship between water fluoride content and the prevalence of fluorosis and its spatial distribution in Zarand region. This cross-sectional study aimed to recruit 550 people aged 7-40 years in Zarand. Dental examination for fluorosis was conducted based on the Dean's Index. The level of fluoride in the water was determined in samples of water taken from 35 areas. Information on fluorosis and fluoride content was mapped on GIS. Most participants lived in rural areas (87.25%) and had an educational status of high school level (66%). About 23% of the examined people had normal teeth, 10% had severe and 67% had mild to moderate fluorosis. Distribution of severe fluorosis was higher in areas with higher levels of fluoride in the water according to GIS map. GIS map clearly showed a positive relationship between the prevalence and severity of fluorosis with the level of fluoride in water in Zarand. The GIS analysis may be useful in the analysis of other oral conditions.

  4. Quantitative Light Fluorescence (QLF and Polarized White Light (PWL assessments of dental fluorosis in an epidemiological setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pretty Iain A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine if a novel dual camera imaging system employing both polarized white light (PWL and quantitative light induced fluorescence imaging (QLF is appropriate for measuring enamel fluorosis in an epidemiological setting. The use of remote and objective scoring systems is of importance in fluorosis assessments due to the potential risk of examiner bias using clinical methods. Methods Subjects were recruited from a panel previously characterized for fluorosis and caries to ensure a range of fluorosis presentation. A total of 164 children, aged 11 years (±1.3 participated following consent. Each child was examined using the novel imaging system, a traditional digital SLR camera, and clinically using the Dean’s and Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF Indices on the upper central and lateral incisors. Polarized white light and SLR images were scored for both Dean’s and TF indices by raters and fluorescence images were automatically scored using software. Results Data from 164 children were available with a good distribution of fluorosis severity. The automated software analysis of QLF images demonstrated significant correlations with the clinical examinations for both Dean’s and TF index. Agreement (measured by weighted Kappa’s between examiners scoring clinically, from polarized photographs and from SLR images ranged from 0.56 to 0.92. Conclusions The study suggests that the use of a digital imaging system to capture images for either automated software analysis, or remote assessment by raters is suitable for epidemiological work. The use of recorded images enables study archiving, assessment by multiple examiners, remote assessment and objectivity due to the blinding of subject status.

  5. Fluorosis as an Environmental Disease and its Effect on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simge Varol

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride is a halogene found in earth, water, rocks, air, plants and animal tissue in various amounts. In normal conditions, people daily take fluoride compounds in amounts without any harmful effects this cause fewer dental caries and the formation of stronger bones. However, if the amount of fluoride taken daily exceeds the safety threshold, chronic fluoride intoxication, known as fluorosis, arises. As a result of fluorosis, pathological changes appear in tooths, skeletal system, liver, kidney, heart, gastrointestinal system and endocrin system. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(3.000: 233-238

  6. Geochemical characterization of fluoride in water, table salt, active sediment, rock and soil samples, and its possible relationship with the prevalence of enamel fluorosis in children in four municipalities of the department of Huila (Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignon, Stefania; Opazo-Gutiérrez, Mario Omar; Velásquez-Riaño, Möritz; Orjuela-Osorio, Iván Rodrigo; Avila, Viviana; Martinez-Mier, Esperanza Angeles; González-Carrera, María Clara; Ruiz-Carrizosa, Jaime Alberto; Silva-Hermida, Blanca Cecilia

    2017-06-01

    Fluoride is an element that affects teeth and bone formation in animals and humans. Though the use of systemic fluoride is an evidence-based caries preventive measure, excessive ingestion can impair tooth development, mainly the mineralization of tooth enamel, leading to a condition known as enamel fluorosis. In this study, we investigated the geochemical characterization of fluoride in water, table salt, active sediment, rock and soil samples in four endemic enamel fluorosis sentinel municipalities of the department of Huila, Colombia (Pitalito, Altamira, El Agrado and Rivera), and its possible relationship with the prevalence of enamel fluorosis in children. The concentration of fluoride in drinking water, table salt, active sediment, rock, and soil was evaluated by means of an ion selective electrode and the geochemical analyses were performed using X-ray fluorescence. Geochemical analysis revealed fluoride concentrations under 15 mg/kg in active sediment, rock and soil samples, not indicative of a significant delivery to the watersheds studied. The concentration of fluoride in table salt was found to be under the inferior limit (less than 180 μg/g) established by the Colombian regulations. Likewise, exposure doses for fluoride water intake did not exceed the recommended total dose for all ages from 6 months. Although the evidence does not point out at rocks, soils, fluoride-bearing minerals, fluoridated salt and water, the hypothesis of these elements as responsible of the current prevalence of enamel fluorosis cannot be discarded since, aqueducts might have undergone significant changes overtime.

  7. Relationship Between Dental Fluorosis and Intelligence Quotient of School Going Children In and Around Lucknow District: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Suleman Abbas; Singh, Rahul Kumar; Navit, Saumya; Chadha, Dheera; Johri, Nikita; Navit, Pragati; Sharma, Anshul; Bahuguna, Rachana

    2015-11-01

    Fluoridation of drinking water, despite being regarded as one of the top ten public health achievements of the twentieth century, has remained a much debated concept. Various studies on animals and aborted human fetuses have confirmed that excessive fluoride intake during infancy and early childhood, causes a number of irreversible structural and functional changes in the CNS leading to memory, learning and intellectual deficits. To compare the IQ levels of school children of two different locations, having different fluoride levels in water, and to establish a relationship between fluoride levels, prevalence of fluorosis and its effect on IQ levels. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 children aged 6 - 12 years, selected by stratified random sampling from two different areas with different levels of fluoride in drinking water in and around Lucknow district. Dental fluorosis was measured using Dean's Fluorosis Index. Intelligence Quotient was measured using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (1998 edition). Majority of the fluorosis free children (76.3%) had an IQ grade 2 (definitely above the average). Majority of the children suffering from very mild and mild dental fluorosis were found to have IQ grade 3 (Intellectually average). Children with moderate cases of dental fluorosis were found to have IQ grade 4 (Definitely below average). Only 5 children with severe fluorosis were included in the study and they all were found to have an IQ grade 5. Hence, a trend of increase in the IQ grade (decrease in intellectual capacity) was observed indicating a strong correlation between fluorosis grade and IQ grade. Findings of this study suggest that the overall IQ of the children exposed to high fluoride levels in drinking water and hence suffering from dental fluorosis were significantly lower than those of the low fluoride area.

  8. Application of PIGE to determine fluorine concentration in human teeth. Contribution to fluorosis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah, H.; Arab, N.

    2007-01-01

    Fluorosis, osteoselerosis, and systemic illness may result when tolerance levels of fluorine intake are exceeded. To avoid these abnormalities, we shall be aware of the mechanisms of their development. For this, quantitative results gathered from different parts of the world are necessary. In this paper, PIGE method is used to determine fluorine concentration in human teeth, collected from different regions of the Algerian Sahara. Both enamel and dentine regions were inspected. The external and internal mappings of the analyzed teeth have shown more variation in the localized fluorine concentration in dentine than in enamel, and the lowest level of fluorine concentration was observed in the frontier crown-root zone. The obtained results reveal relatively high fluorine concentration lying within the limit of fluorosis, according to the standardised grading dental fluorosis. (author)

  9. Mapping of fluoride endemic area and assessment of F(-1) accumulation in soil and vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Poonam; Khan, Suphiya; Baunthiyal, Mamta; Sharma, Vinay

    2013-02-01

    The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride (F(-1)) through drinking water, vegetables, and crops. The objective of the study was mapping of F(-1) endemic area of Newai Tehsil, Tonk district, Rajasthan, India. For the present study, water, soil (0-45 cm), and vegetation samples were collected from 17 villages. Fluoride concentration in water samples ranged from 0.3 to 9.8 mg/l. Out of 17 villages studied, the amounts of F(-1) content of eight villages were found to exceed the permissible limits. Labile F(-1) content and total F(-1) content in soil samples ranges 11.00-70.05 mg/l and 50.3-179.63 μg g(-1), respectively. F(-1) content in tree species was found in this order Azadirachta indica 47.32-55.76 μg g(-1) > Prosopis juliflora 40.16-49.63 μg g(-1) > Acacia tortilis 34.39-43.60 μg g(-1). While in case of leafy vegetables, F(-1) content order was Chenopodium album 54.23-98.42 μg g(-1) > Spinacea oleracea 30.41-64.09 μg g(-1) > Mentha arvensis 35.48-51.97 μg g(-1). The order of F(-1) content in crops was found as 41.04 μg g(-1) Pennisetum glaucum > 13.61 μg g(-1) Brassica juncea > 7.98 μg g(-1) Triticum sativum in Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) farms. Among vegetation, the leafy vegetables have more F(-1) content. From the results, it is suggested that the people of KVK farms should avoid the use of highly F(-1) containing water for irrigation and drinking purpose. It has been recommended to the government authority to take serious steps to supply drinking water with low F(-1) concentration for the fluorosis affected villages. Further, grow more F(-1) hyperaccumulator plants in F(-1) endemic areas to lower the F(-1) content of the soils.

  10. Skeletal Fluorosis Due To Inhalation Abuse of a Difluoroethane-Containing Computer Cleaner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Joseph R; Whitford, Gary M; McAlister, William H; Novack, Deborah V; Mumm, Steven; Keaveny, Tony M; Whyte, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal fluorosis (SF) is endemic in many countries and millions of people are affected worldwide, whereas in the United States SF is rare with occasional descriptions of unique cases. We report a 28-year-old American man who was healthy until 2 years earlier when he gradually experienced difficulty walking and an abnormal gait, left hip pain, loss of mobility in his right wrist and forearm, and progressive deformities including enlargement of the digits of both hands. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of his lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip, and the one-third forearm revealed bone mineral density (BMD) Z-scores of +6.2, +4.8, +3.0, and -0.2, respectively. Serum, urine, and bone fluoride levels were all elevated and ultimately explained by chronic sniffing abuse of a computer cleaner containing 1,1-difluoroethane. Our findings reflect SF due to the unusual cause of inhalation abuse of difluoroethane. Because this practice seems widespread, particularly in the young, there may be many more such cases. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  11. Influencia de los tratamientos microabrasivos sobre la resistencia adhesiva en dientes con fluorosis

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    Paola Mena Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La búsqueda de tratamientos mínimamente invasivos y altamente estéticos para pacientes con fluorosis, ha llevado a buscar mecanismos para solucionar esta problemática, mediante la utilización de resinas como la primera opción. Sin embargo el principal problema del tratamiento, se centra en la poca adhesión debido a las características estructurales del esmalte fluorótico, en grados de fluorosis TF 1 al 3, el ácido no actúa correctamente, causando ausencia de grabado principalmente entre las estrías de Retzius, en las rugosidades y espacios adamantinos ocupados por detritus de materia orgánica y cúmulos de placa dentobacteriana, siendo necesario efectuar técnicas microabrasivas y desproteinizantes como paso previo a los procesos adhesivos. Así, el presente estudio pretendió determinar la resistencia adhesiva en dientes con fluorosis grados TF 2 y 3, empleando tres diferentes técnicas de abrasión adamantina, se seleccionaron 48 dientes divididos en 3 grupos de 16 muestras cada uno, 8 con grado TF2 y 8 con grado TF3. Las superficies del esmalte fueron preparadas mediante la técnica “microabrasión modificada”, la “técnica de microabrasión” y “Opalustre”, todos los grupos recibieron desproteinización con hipoclorito de sodio al 5% por un minuto. Posterior a lo cual fueron realizados los procesos adhesivos mediante sistema adhesivo y resina compuesta, sometiéndose posteriormente a pruebas de cizallamiento. Los resultados analizados mediante testes de ANOVA y T de Student no determinaron una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los grupos, la facilidad en los protocolos de aplicación debe ser considerada en la elección de la técnica, sin embargo resulta importante su ejecución en dientes afectados por fluorosis.

  12. Association between urine fluoride and dental fluorosis as a toxicity factor in a rural community in the state of San Luis Potosi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarquín-Yañez, Lizet; de Jesús Mejía-Saavedra, José; Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Gaona, Enrique; Rocha-Amador, Diana Olivia; López-Guzmán, Olga Dania; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate urine fluoride concentration as a toxicity factor in a rural community in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. A sample of 111 children exposed to high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water (4.13 mg/L) was evaluated. Fluoride exposure was determined by measuring urine fluoride concentration using the potentiometric method with an ion selective electrode. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis was performed by clinical examination, and the severity of damage was determined using Dean's index and the Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF) index. The range of exposure in the study population, evaluated through the fluoride content in urine, was 1.1 to 5.9 mg/L, with a mean of 3.14±1.09 mg/L. Dental fluorosis was present in all subjects, of which 95% had severe cases. Higher urine fluoride levels and greater degrees of severity occurred in older children. The results show that dental fluorosis was determined by the presence of fluoride exposure finding a high positive correlation between the severity of fluorosis and urine fluoride concentration and the years of exposure suggested a cumulative effect.

  13. Assessment of Fluoride Level in Groundwater and Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis in Didwana Block of Nagaur District, Central Rajasthan, India

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    M Arif

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, for the high concentration of fluoride in groundwater, people are at risk of dental fluorosis. The problem is common in various states of India. The condition in Rajasthan is worse where all districts have such a problem. Objective: To study the fluoride concentration in groundwater and prevalence of dental fluorosis in Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India. Methods: The fluoride concentration in water of 54 villages was measured electrochemically, using fluoride ion selective electrode. Dental fluorosis was assessed in 1136 people residing in study area by Dean's classification for dental fluorosis. Results: The fluoride concentration in groundwater in studied sites ranged from 0.5 to 8.5 mg/L. The concentration of fluoride was more than the maximum permissible limit set by WHO and Bureau of Indian Standards (1 mg/L in 48 groundwater sources. Of 1136 people studied, 788 (69.4%; 95% CI: 66.7%–72.1% had dental fluorosis—252 had mild and 74 had severe dental fluorosis. Conclusion: High level of fluoride in drinking water of Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India, causes dental fluorosis in most people in the region and is an important health problem that needs prompt attention.

  14. Dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride in 10-12 years old adolescents of Bushehr port

    OpenAIRE

    Giti Javan; Ehsan Mostaghni; Seyed Mojtaba Jafary; Batoul Amini; Bahram Hematinejad

    2006-01-01

    Background: Fluoride increases tooth resistance to dental caries, but mild toxicity due to excessive ingestion of fluoride can cause dental fluorosis. Drinking water naturally contains fluoride and is a major source of fluoride. In Bushehr port, drinking water is supplied from limestone springs with normal fluoride levels but dental fluorosis is observed. Methods: A total of 95 native school children (between the ages of 10-12 years old) were randomly selected from four Bushehr port regions. ...

  15. Influencia de los tratamientos microabrasivos sobre la resistencia adhesiva en dientes con fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Mena Silva; Ana del Carmen Armas

    2015-01-01

    La búsqueda de tratamientos mínimamente invasivos y altamente estéticos para pacientes con fluorosis, ha llevado a buscar mecanismos para solucionar esta problemática, mediante la utilización de resinas como la primera opción. Sin embargo el principal problema del tratamiento, se centra en la poca adhesión debido a las características estructurales del esmalte fluorótico, en grados de fluorosis TF 1 al 3, el ácido no actúa correctamente, causando ausencia de grabado principalmente entre las e...

  16. Factores de riesgo ambientales y alimentarios para la fluorosis dental, Andes, Antioquia, 2015

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    Gustavo A. Posada-Jaramillo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar los factores ambientales y alimentarios asociados a la fluorosis dental en la población de 12 a 15 años del municipio de Andes en el año 2015, para generar propuestas de intervención en salud bucal. Metodología: estudio de casos y controles, con un control por caso. Con una población de 206 adolescentes de 12 a 15 años. Criterios de selección: adolescentes con diagnóstico de fluorosis dental entre 2012 y 2014, reportados al Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica; se excluyeron aquellas personas que no tuvieran dientes erupcionados en más de un 50%, restauraciones amplias o caries extensas, dientes fracturados y edentulos totales. Los casos fueron seleccionados por muestreo aleatorio simple, los controles a conveniencia. Se realizó examen clínico para clasificar según el Índice de Dean la presencia y nivel de fluorosis dental, se aplicó encuesta a los padres para indagar sobre hábitos de autocuidado, e identificar posibles fuentes de exposición a flúor. Se analizaron variables sociodemográficas, alimentarias y comportamentales, ambientales y clínicas, se utilizaron Chi2 de Pearson – or con intervalos de confianza del 95%. Se efectúo análisis de contenido de concentración de flúor en muestras de agroquímicos, alimentos, agua de consumo humano, sal, cremas dentales y suelos. Resultados: mediante regresión logística binaria usando el método stepwise los resultados mostraron una asociación entre manipulación de agroquímicos y fluorosis dental (or = 2,093; 95% 1,017 y 4,307. Conclusión: la manipulación de agroquímicos es un factor de riesgo para la aparición de la fluorosis dental en los adolescentes del municipio de Andes.

  17. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures - Paper 2: The ability of fluorescence imaging to detect differences in fluorosis prevalence and severity for different fluoride intakes from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the ability of fluorescence imaging to detect a dose response relationship between fluorosis severity and different levels of fluoride in water supplies compared to remote photographic scoring in selected populations participating in an observational, epidemiological survey in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8-13 years. For each child the fluoride content of cooking water samples (CWS) was assessed to create categorical intervals of water fluoride concentration. Fluorescence images were taken of the maxillary central incisors and analyzed for dental fluorosis using two different software techniques. Output metrics for the fluorescence imaging techniques were compared to TF scores from blinded photographic scores obtained from the survey. Results Data from 553 subjects were available. Both software analysis techniques demonstrated significant correlations with the photographic scores. The metrics for area effected by fluorosis and the overall fluorescence loss had the strongest association with the photographic TF score (Spearman’s rho 0.664 and 0.652 respectively). Both software techniques performed well for comparison of repeat fluorescence images with ICC values of 0.95 and 0.85 respectively. Conclusions This study supports the potential use of fluorescence imaging for the objective quantification of dental fluorosis. Fluorescence imaging was able to discriminate between populations with different fluoride exposures on a comparable level to remote photographic scoring with acceptable levels of repeatability. PMID:22908997

  18. Association between Urine Fluoride and Dental Fluorosis as a Toxicity Factor in a Rural Community in the State of San Luis Potosi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizet Jarquín-Yañez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate urine fluoride concentration as a toxicity factor in a rural community in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Materials and Methods. A sample of 111 children exposed to high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water (4.13 mg/L was evaluated. Fluoride exposure was determined by measuring urine fluoride concentration using the potentiometric method with an ion selective electrode. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis was performed by clinical examination, and the severity of damage was determined using Dean’s index and the Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF index. Results. The range of exposure in the study population, evaluated through the fluoride content in urine, was 1.1 to 5.9 mg/L, with a mean of 3.14 ± 1.09 mg/L. Dental fluorosis was present in all subjects, of which 95% had severe cases. Higher urine fluoride levels and greater degrees of severity occurred in older children. Conclusions. The results show that dental fluorosis was determined by the presence of fluoride exposure finding a high positive correlation between the severity of fluorosis and urine fluoride concentration and the years of exposure suggested a cumulative effect.

  19. Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis Among 6–12-Year-Old School Children of Mahabubnagar District, Telangana State, India − A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Kola S Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Telangana state in southern India has many areas which have high–low fluoride levels in drinking water, and Mahabubnagar district is one among them, where people are affected with dental and skeletal fluorosis, with the majority belonging to low socio-economic status. Aims: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis in school going children of Mahabubnagar district and also to assess fluoride levels in drinking water from different areas of Mahabubnagar district. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2000 children in the age group 6–12 years in different areas of Mahabubnagar district. Dental fluorosis status was assessed by using Modified Dean’s Fluorosis Index. Alizarin visual method was used to estimate fluoride levels in water. The data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Dental fluorosis in primary and permanent dentition was 15 and 70.3%, respectively. In the northern part of Mahabubnagar district, primary dentition was more affected by fluorosis whereas in southern part, the permanent dentition was more affected. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition was more in 6–7-year-old children (35.5%, and in permanent dentition, it was more in 9–10-year-old children (70%. The fluoride level in drinking water was more in Kosghi, Kalwakurthy (2.0 ppm. Conclusion: Dental fluorosis was more in 10-year-old and less in 6-year-old children. It was more in eastern and northern zones of Mahabubnagar district and less in local villages of Mahabubnagar.

  20. FACTORES ASOCIADOS A LA FLUOROSIS DENTAL EN ESCOLARES DEL COLEGIO NACIONAL JOSE DOMINGO ZUZUNAGA OBANDO, UCHUMAYO-AREQUIPA 2015

    OpenAIRE

    BÉJAR DE CALDERÓN, ZAIDA MOYA

    2016-01-01

    FLÚOR DINÁMICA DEL FLÚOR ADMINISTRACIÓN DEL FLÚOR FLÚOR TÓPICO FLÚOR SISTÉMICO INTOXICACIÓN AGUDA TOXICIDAD CRÓNICA: FLUOROSIS PATOGÉNESIS ASPECTOS CLÍNICOS DIAGNÓSTICO DIFERENCIAL ASPECTOS EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS FACTORES DETERMINANTES FACTORES DE RIESGO FACTORES DE PROTECCIÓN ÍNDICES DE FLUOROSIS

  1. Dental fluorosis: prevalence and associated factors in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Goiânia, Goiás

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    Lidia Moraes Ribeiro Jordão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of dental fluorosis, to investigate its association with individual and contextual variables among 12-year-old schoolchildren, and to determine whether there were changes in the prevalence of this condition from 2003 to 2010.METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from an oral health survey carried out in Goiânia, Goiás, in 2010 (n = 2,075, and secondary data from the files of the local health authority. Clinical data were collected through oral examinations in public and private schools. The dependent variable was the presence of dental fluorosis, assessed using the Dean Index. The independent individual variables were sociodemographic characteristics (the child's gender and race, and the mother's level of schooling and those related to clinical conditions (caries experience, evaluated using Decayed, Missing, and Filled teeth index; and presence of periodontal calculus and/or bleeding, evaluated using Community Periodontal Index. The contextual variables were linked to the school (type and existence of toothbrushing program and its geographic location in the city's health districts. The Rao-Scott test was performed, and the percentage difference between the prevalences in the period from 2003 to 2010 was calculated.RESULTS: The prevalence of dental fluorosis in 2010 was 18.7%, being distributed as very mild (11.2%, mild (4.4%, moderate (2.6%, and severe (0.5%. No significant association was found between prevalence of dental fluorosis and the investigated variables. The prevalence of fluorosis increased 230% from 2003 to 2010, and such difference was significant.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of dental fluorosis was low, predominantly of the very mild degree, has increased over a 7-year period, and was not associated with the individual or contextual factors studied.

  2. The prevalence of fluorosis in children is associated with naturally occurring water fluoride concentration in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Rodrigo

    2013-09-01

    Fluorosis and dental caries in Mexican schoolchildren residing in areas with different water fluoride concentrations and receiving fluoridated salt. Garcia-Perez A, Irigoyen-Carnacho ME, Borges-Yanez A. Caries Res 2013;47(4):299-308. Rodrigo Mariño Is there an association between the presence of dental fluorosis and fluoride concentration in drinking water? and Is there an association between the severity of fluorosis and dental caries experience in schoolchildren residing in two rural towns in Mexico (with water fluoride concentrations of 0.70 and 1.50 ppm) that also receive fluoridated salt? Government: National Council of Science and Technology (Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia, CONACYT) Other: Autonomous University, Xochimilco (Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, UAM-X) TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Cross-sectional Level 3: Other evidence Not applicable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dental Fluorosis and Catalase Immunoreactivity of the Brain Tissues in Rats Exposed to High Fluoride Pre- and Postnatally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, Şirin; Uyar-Bozkurt, Süheyla; Haznedaroğlu, Eda; Menteş, Ali

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated dental fluorosis of the incisors and immunoreactivity in the brain tissues of rats given chronic fluoride doses pre- and postnatally. Female rats were given drinking water with 0, 30 or 100 ppm fluoride ad libitum throughout gestation and the nursing period. In addition, 63 male offspring were treated with the same water regimens as the mothers after weaning and were followed for 1, 3 or 5 months. The upper and lower incisors were collected, and all teeth were examined under a stereomicroscope and scored by two blinded examiners using a modified rodent enamel fluorosis index. Cortical, hippocampal and cerebellar brain samples were evaluated morphologically and immunohistochemically. All fluoride-treated pups were born with low body weight (p = 0.001). All animals from the fluoride groups had enamel fluorosis with defects of various degrees. The increase in the dental fluorosis scores in the fluoride treatment groups was significant (p fluoride groups was significantly higher than that in the controls after 1, 3 and 5 months (p toxicity of fluoride.

  4. Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia

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    Ene Indermitte

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to drinking water fluoride and evaluate the risk of dental fluorosis among the Estonian population. The study covered all 15 counties in Estonia and 93.7% of population that has access to public water supplies. In Estonia groundwater is the main source for public water supply systems in most towns and rural settlements. The content of natural fluoride in water ranges from 0.01 to 7.20 mg/L. The exposure to different fluoride levels was assessed by linking data from previous studies on drinking water quality with databases of the Health Protection Inspectorate on water suppliers and the number of water consumers in water supply systems. Exposure assessment showed that 4% of the study population had excessive exposure to fluoride, mainly in small public water supplies in western and central Estonia, where the Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is the only source of drinking water. There is a strong correlation between natural fluoride levels and the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Risk of dental fluorosis was calculated to different fluoride exposure levels over 1.5 mg/L.

  5. Is severe early childhood caries predictive of caries and fluorosis in permanent teeth? Ten-year follow-up

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    Danila Lorena NUNES-DOS-SANTOS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Severe early childhood caries is defined as the presence of any sign of decay in children younger than three years. Objective This retrospective longitudinal observational study investigated caries and fluorosis in children with S-ECC from a city with fluoridated water. Material and method We included children under the age of three years who followed a maternal and child dental care program between the years of 1997 and 2003. The children were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (S-ECC and group 2 (no caries. Guardians were contacted by telephone or mail. Caregivers completed questionnaire on socio-demographic and behavioral variables. The clinical dental examinations were performed in a dental clinic to assess caries experience and dental fluorosis. Multiple linear regression was used to determine factors associated with DMFT, and multivariate analysis by multiple logistic regression was used to determine the possible independent factors associated with the occurrence of fluorosis. Result The sample consisted of 126 patients aged 8-12 years, of whom 52.4% were male. The presence of S-ECC increased the DMFT by an average of 0.84 (p = 0.02. Both the frequency of tooth brushing and the use of standard toothpaste were protective factors from the development of caries in the permanent dentition (p <0.05. Parents who reported that their children refused to brush their teeth had 70% less chance of developing fluorosis (p = 0.02. Conclusion The presence of S-ECC was a risk factor for the development of caries in the permanent dentition, but not for the development of fluorosis.

  6. Renal Proteome in Mice with Different Susceptibilities to Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres-Buzalaf, Camila; Salvato, Fernanda; Labate, Carlos Alberto; Everett, Eric T.; Whitford, Gary Milton; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2013-01-01

    A/J and 129P3/J mouse strains have different susceptibilities to dental fluorosis due to their genetic backgrounds. They also differ with respect to several features of fluoride (F) metabolism and metabolic handling of water. This study was done to determine whether differences in F metabolism could be explained by diversities in the profile of protein expression in kidneys. Weanling, male A/J mice (susceptible to dental fluorosis, n = 18) and 129P3/J mice (resistant, n = 18) were housed in pairs and assigned to three groups given low-F food and drinking water containing 0, 10 or 50 ppm [F] for 7 weeks. Renal proteome profiles were examined using 2D-PAGE and LC-MS/MS. Quantitative intensity analysis detected between A/J and 129P3/J strains 122, 126 and 134 spots differentially expressed in the groups receiving 0, 10 and 50 ppmF, respectively. From these, 25, 30 and 32, respectively, were successfully identified. Most of the proteins were related to metabolic and cellular processes, followed by response to stimuli, development and regulation of cellular processes. In F-treated groups, PDZK-1, a protein involved in the regulation of renal tubular reabsorption capacity was down-modulated in the kidney of 129P3/J mice. A/J and 129P3/J mice exhibited 11 and 3 exclusive proteins, respectively, regardless of F exposure. In conclusion, proteomic analysis was able to identify proteins potentially involved in metabolic handling of F and water that are differentially expressed or even not expressed in the strains evaluated. This can contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying genetic susceptibility to dental fluorosis, by indicating key-proteins that should be better addressed in future studies. PMID:23308176

  7. Microabrasion as treatment of enamel fluorosis

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    Ana Caroline Brito

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is currently a trend in favor of using fluoride as a coadjuvant in reducing caries indexes, as much in underdeveloped as in developedcountries. However, simultaneously the indexes of dental fluorosis seem to grow in an inverse proportion. This is brought about by chronic ingestion of fluoride for a prolonged length of time or in high concentration. Enamel microabrasion is an effective method to remove superficial stains caused by this condition, which affects esthetics of that tissue. The use of 18% hydrochloric acid in association with pumice, despite being a simple and low cost method, has been gradually replaced due to its potential of causing damage to periodontal tissues. Thus, this article reports the treatment of a fluorosis clinical case solved with microabrasion using phosphoric acid 37%, because its costbenefit is supposedly better than with chloridric acid. The deliberate ingestion of toothpaste was the probable cause of the tooth stains. Due to the location of the teeth and to the patient’s smile, only the six upper anterior teeth were selected to receive the proposed treatment. Four clinical sessions, with a seven days interval between each other, were carried out using 37% phosphoric acid and pumice. Under rubber dam isolation, the two first sessions consisted of rubbing the acid-pumice mix on enamel surface using a rubber cup on slow speed, and abrasive paper strips on the interproximal tooth surfaces. On the two final sessions, only finishing touches were performed using a wooden spatula to manually rub the acid-pumice paste.

  8. iTRAQ-Based Proteomics Analysis of Serum Proteins in Wistar Rats Treated with Sodium Fluoride: Insight into the Potential Mechanism and Candidate Biomarkers of Fluorosis

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    Yan Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluorosis induced by exposure to high level fluoride is quite widespread in the world. The manifestations of fluorosis include dental mottling, bone damage, and impaired malfunction of soft tissues. However, the molecular mechanism of fluorosis has not been clarified until now. To explore the underlying mechanisms of fluorosis and screen out serum biomarkers, we carried out a quantitative proteomics study to identify differentially expressed serum proteins in Wistar rats treated with sodium fluoride (NaF by using a proteomics approach of isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ. We fed Wistar rats drinking water that had 50, 150, and 250 mg/L of dissolved NaF for 24 weeks. For the experimental duration, each rat was given an examination of the lower incisors to check for the condition of dental fluorosis (DF. By the end of the treatment, fluoride ion concentration in serum and lower incisors were detected. The results showed that NaF treatment can induce rat fluorosis. By iTRAQ analysis, a total of 37 differentially expressed serum proteins were identified between NaF-treated and control rats. These proteins were further analyzed by bioinformatics, out of which two proteins were validated by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assays (ELISA. The major proteins were involved in complement and coagulation cascade, inflammatory response, complement activation, defense response, and wound response, suggesting that inflammation and immune reactions may play a key role in fluorosis pathogenesis. These proteins may contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of fluoride toxicity, and may serve as potential biomarkers for fluorosis.

  9. Extra-intestinal amebiasis: clinical presentation in a non-endemic setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, S; Rønne-Rasmussen, J; Petersen, E

    1993-01-01

    37/38 patients with reciprocal titers > or = 512 against Entamoeba histolytica in Denmark over a 5-year period were evaluated retrospectively in order to establish the clinical profile of extra-intestinal amebiasis in a non-endemic area. 24 of these had extra-intestinal amebiasis, all presenting 1...... or more amebic liver abscesses on ultrasonography. Fever was the most common finding, present in 91% of the cases. The most striking observation was the lack of both abdominal pain and tenderness in 22% of the patients with liver abscess. Pulmonary symptoms and abnormal chest X-rays were each recorded...

  10. Prevalence and Severity of Dental Fluorosis in the United States, 1999-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surveys. References Aoba T, Fejerskov O. Dental fluorosis: Chemistry and biology. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 13( ... National Center for Health Statistics Edward J. Sondik, Ph.D., Director Jennifer H. Madans, Ph.D., Associate ...

  11. Dose-dependent effect of fluoride on clinical and subclinical indices of fluorosis in school going children and its mitigation by supply of safe drinking water for 5 years: an Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandare, Arjun L; Validandi, Vakdevi; Gourineni, Shankar Rao; Gopalan, Viswanathan; Nagalla, Balakrishna

    2018-02-02

    Fluorosis is a public health problem in India; to know its prevalence and severity along with its mitigation measures is very important. The present study has been undertaken with the aim to assess the F dose-dependent clinical and subclinical symptoms of fluorosis and reversal of the disease by providing safe drinking water. For this purpose, a cross-sectional study was undertaken in 1934 schoolgoing children, Nalgonda district. Study villages were categorized into control (category I, F = 0.87 mg/L), affected (category II, F = 2.53 mg/L, and category III, F = 3.77 mg/L), and intervention categories (category IV, F = water and urinary fluoride (UF) in different categories. However, there was a significant decrease in the UF levels in the intervention category IV compared to affected group (category III). Fluoride altered the clinical (dental fluorosis and stunting) and subclinical indices (urine and blood) of fluorosis in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the biochemical indices were altered in a dose-dependent manner and intervention with safe drinking water for 5 years in intervention group-mitigated clinical and subclinical symptoms of fluorosis.

  12. Prevalence of gingival diseases, malocclusion and fluorosis in school-going children of rural areas in Udaipur district

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    Dhar V

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available High prevalence of dental diseases has been recorded in Rajasthan, however, not much work has been done to ascertain the prevalence of dental diseases in Udaipur district. This study was conducted among 1,587 government school children of Udaipur district in the age group of 5-14 years for recording the prevalence of gingival diseases, fluorosis and malocclusion. Gingivitis was found in 84.37% of children, malocclusion in 36.42% and fluorosis in 36.36%.

  13. Life history dictates fluorosis risk in a small mammal community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafferty, D.P.; Faulkner, B.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Qualls, C.W. Jr.; McBee, K.

    1995-01-01

    Dental lesions, due to fluorosis, previously have been reported in wild, male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) on an abandoned oil refinery located at the Oklahoma Refining Company in Cyril, Oklahoma. This study was expanded to include examinations of the fulvous harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys fulvescens), house mouse (Mus musculus), prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), plains pocket gopher (Geomys bursarius), least shrew (Cryptotis parva), shorttailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda), and deer mouse (Peromyscus spp.) at this same site. A sample of each species was collected form the contaminated refining site and a reference site with no known contamination. The authors grossly scored dentition of lower and upper incisors, microscopically examined cellular aberrations in ameloblasts and ondontoblasts, and quantified femur fluoride levels. Alterations in the lower and upper incisors were common in prairie voles, whose incisors possessed striations and erosion of the enamel and appeared chalky white. Incisors of animals taken from the reference site were normal. Patterns in occurrence of fluorosis and degree of enamel erosion was examined relative to the life history characteristics of the species

  14. Beliefs and attitudes about endemic dental fluorosis among adolescents in rural Brazil Creencias y actitudes con relación a la fluorosis dentaria de jóvenes en región rural de Brasil Crenças e atitudes em relação à fluorose dentária de jovens em região rural do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Silva de Castilho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To understand beliefs and attitudes about fluorosis among young people living in a rural area. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES: Qualitative study consisting of semi-structured interviews with 23 adolescents with dental fluorosis, 14 teachers and three health authorities in the city of São Francisco, Southeastern Brazil, in 2002. Content analysis and social representation theory were applied. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS: The organoleptic characteristics of carbonates that affect groundwater (salty flavor, whitish coloration, and turbidity associated with negative aspects of household use of this water are considered a cause of mottled enamel. Even after contact with researchers who investigated this phenomenon and helped find a solution for this condition, the local population is still unwilling to accept fluoride as the cause of the problem and does not fully agree to use water from other sources because they are afraid of the quality of water. CONCLUSIONS: Misperceptions of the causes of dental fluorosis and water treatment costs compromise the implementation of uncontaminated surface water supplies. Health education strategies are required in parallel with solutions for securing water supply in drought-ravaged areas.OBJETIVO: Comprender creencias y actitudes con relación a la fluorosis dentaria de jóvenes residentes en región rural de Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudio cualitativo en que fueron realizadas entrevistas semi-estructuradas con 23 adolescentes con fluorosis dentaria, 14 profesores y tres gestores públicos en el municipio de Sao Francisco, en Sureste de Brasil, en 2002. Fueron empleadas la técnica de análisis de contenido y la teoría de las representaciones sociales. RESULTADOS: Por las características organolépticas que imprime al agua (sabor salado, coloración blanquecina y turbidez y su asociación con aspectos negativos relacionados al uso doméstico, el carbonato es considerado la causa de la fluorosis por adolescentes y

  15. Caries With Dental Fluorosis and Oral Health Behaviour Among 12-year School Children In Moderate-fluoride Drinking Water Community in Quetta, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami, E.; Vichayanrat, T.; Satitvipawee, P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of dental caries and its relationship with dental fluorosis, oral health behaviour and dietary behaviour among 12-year school children in moderate-fluoride drinking water community in Quetta, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Government and private schools of Quetta, from November 2012 to February 2013. Methodology: A total of 349 children aged 12-year from 14 randomly selected schools were included. The data collection was done on questionnaire designed for children. Dental caries status was examined by using WHO criteria. Result: Dental caries was found in 81 children (23.2 percent) with mean DMFT 0.61. Boys had 1.6 times more chance to have dental caries than girls. Dental fluorosis was found in 63.6 percent of children with majority of moderate degree (50.5 percent). Dental fluorosis status was found significantly associated with dental caries status in children. The children who had mild, moderate and severe fluorosis, had 4 times more chances to develop caries than those who did not have fluorosis. There was no significant association between children's caries status and use of paste, brushing habit, miswak, and visit to the dentist. The use of pastries and juices had a direct relation with the children's dental caries status. Conclusion: Dental caries in children of Quetta is not so much frequent as compared to the fluoride deficient countries. However, the high prevalence of moderate dental fluorosis and consumption of pastries and juices resulted in dental caries. (author)

  16. Application of quantitative light-induced fluorescence to determine the depth of demineralization of dental fluorosis in enamel microabrasion: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Young Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Enamel microabrasion has become accepted as a conservative, nonrestorative method of removing intrinsic and superficial dysmineralization defects from dental fluorosis, restoring esthetics with minimal loss of enamel. However, it can be difficult to determine if restoration is necessary in dental fluorosis, because the lesion depth is often not easily recognized. This case report presents a method for analysis of enamel hypoplasia that uses quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF followed by a combination of enamel microabrasion with carbamide peroxide home bleaching. We describe the utility of QLF when selecting a conservative treatment plan and confirming treatment efficacy. In this case, the treatment plan was based on QLF analysis, and the selected combination treatment of microabrasion and bleaching had good results.

  17. Fluorosis: halo effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Madriz, Jose Esteban; Granados Quesada, Maria Pamela; Lopez Chacon, Angelica Maria; Monge Cantillo, Carol Paola; Munoz Aguero, Geiner Andres; Vargas Vargas, Jorge Andres

    2013-01-01

    The halo effect was determined from the consumption of potatoes from Tierra Blanca de Cartago and Palmira de Zarcero. Seminars were held to get to know the topic of fluorosis. A mini health fair was held to explain the effects of fluoride in a population affected by it. Samples of water and forest type potato were collected in the area of Zarcero and San Juan de Chicoa. Measurements of the samples were made in the Chemistry Laboratory of the Universidad de Costa Rica. 20 mg of potato from each zone and 80 ml of distilled water were weighed and then liquefied. Each shake was dispensed in 2 clean test tubes and 7 samples were obtained, of which, 2 test tubes contained the liquefied 1, 2 tubes the liquefied 2, 1 tube with the Rio Reventado water centrifuged. 1 tube with Zarcero irrigation water and 1 tube with distilled water, for the subsequent analysis of fluoride concentration. The samples were taken to the LAMBDA Chemical Laboratory, where the ion chromatography test was performed on each of the samples. A concentration of fluorides of 0.73 ppm was obtained in the water of the Rio Reventado, while a concentration of less than 0.60 ppm was obtained in the water collected in Zarcero. The highest concentration of fluoride was presented in the potato from the area of Palmira de Zarcero with 2.41 ppm compared to that obtained in Cartago, with a lower concentration of 1.34 ppm. The maximum recommended concentration was exceeded in both results. A concentration less than 0.02 ppm was obtained in the analysis of distilled water as a control test [es

  18. Dental caries, fluorosis, oral health determinants, and quality of life in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aimée, N.R.; van Wijk, A.J.; Maltz, M.; Varjão, M.M.; Mestrinho, H.D.; Carvalho, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the extent to which dental caries and fluorosis, in addition to sociodemographic and oral health behavior determinants, impact the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of adolescents. Methods: All adolescents attending from sixth to eighth grades in the

  19. Gene-environment interaction: Does fluoride influence the reproductive hormones in male farmers modified by ERα gene polymorphisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiang; Huang, Hui; Sun, Long; Zhou, Tong; Zhu, Jingyuan; Cheng, Xuemin; Duan, Lijv; Li, Zhiyuan; Cui, Liuxin; Ba, Yue

    2017-12-01

    The occurrence of endemic fluorosis is derived from high fluoride levels in drinking water and industrial fumes or dust. Reproductive disruption is also a major harm caused by fluoride exposure besides dental and skeletal lesions. However, few studies focus on the mechanism of fluoride exposure on male reproductive function, especially the possible interaction of fluoride exposure and gene polymorphism on male reproductive hormones. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study in rural areas of Henan province in China to explore the interaction between the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) gene and fluoride exposure on reproductive hormone levels in male farmers living in the endemic fluorosis villages. The results showed that fluoride exposure significantly increased the serum level of estradiol in the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis in male farmers. Moreover, the observations indicated that fluoride exposure and genetic markers had an interaction on serum concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol, and the interaction among different loci of the ERα gene could impact the serum testosterone level. Findings in the present work suggest that chronic fluoride exposure in drinking water could modulate the levels of reproductive hormones in males living in endemic fluorosis areas, and the interaction between fluoride exposure and ERα polymorphisms might affect the serum levels of hormones in the HPT axis in male farmers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fluorosis of cattle in the Wroclaw province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohosiewicz, M; Jopek, Z

    1975-01-01

    Fluorosis of cattle and sheep was diagnosed in the neighborhood of glassworks and a superphosphate mill. In cows there was a brown color and loss of the enamel on incisive teeth, uneven detrition of molar teeth, osseous lesions in teeth and limb bones, and in some animals also swelling and painfulness of limb joints, hobble and cachexia. In sheep the lesions were observed in teeth only. Exacerbation of the lesions in the animals coming from the neighborhood of the glass works was greater than in those coming from the neighborhood of the superphosphate mill. There was found no relation between exacerbation of the lesions in teeth and bones.

  1. Co-occurrence of arseniasis and fluorosis due to indoor combustion of high fluorine and arsenic content coal in a rural township in northwest China: epidemiological and toxicological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Guo-fang; Shen, Jian-hua [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai (China); Gong, Shi-you [County Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Ziyang, Ziyang, Shaanxi (China); Wei, Cheng [Township Clinics of Haoping, Ziyang, Shaanxi (China); Chen, Ji-gang [Municipal Center for Disease Prevention and Control of Shanghai, Shanghai (China); Golka, Klaus [Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo), Dortmund (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    A large number of fluorosis and arseniasis cases appeared in a mountainous area in northwest China. The residents relied on local inferior coal (''bone coal'') of high fluorine and arsenic content for domestic heating and cooking. For deep-inside information about this rare case of co-endemia of fluorosis and arseniasis in the population in this special exposure scenario, a field investigation in one of the hyperendemic townships was conducted. The resident population registered (n = 27,713) was enrolled in the investigation. All cases were diagnosed and assigned to three symptom severity groups, that is severe, medium, and mild according to Chinese National Standard Criteria GB 16396-96 and to the technical guideline WS/T208-01 or WS/T211-01 issued by the Chinese Ministry of Health. Gender difference was analyzed by standardized incidence ratio. Age trend and severity trend were tested by {chi}{sup 2} analysis. Fluorosis was diagnosed in 56.7% of the residents. Over 95% of the diagnosed arseniasis cases were simultaneously diagnosed with fluorosis symptoms. Combined fluorosis-arseniasis represented 11.9% of the total fluorosis cases and 6.7% of the local population. No gender-related differences in the prevalence of skeletal, dental, or dermal symptoms inside all severity groups were detected. Symptom severity increased with age. The high frequency of superposition of arseniasis with fluorosis might be due to the fact that the local resident population has been exposed to very high levels of fluorine and arsenic via the same exposure route. (orig.)

  2. Agreement in the diagnosis of dental fluorosis in central incisors performed by a standardized photographic method and clinical examination Concordância no diagnóstico da fluorose dentária em incisivos centrais realizado por um método fotográfico padronizado e pelo exame clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Castro Martins; Loliza Chalub; Ynara Bosco Lima-Arsati; Isabela Almeida Pordeus; Saul Martins Paiva

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess agreement in the diagnosis of dental fluorosis performed by a standardized digital photographic method and a clinical examination (gold standard). 49 children (aged 7-9 years) were clinically evaluated by a trained examiner for the assessment of dental fluorosis. Central incisors were evaluated for the presence or absence of dental fluorosis and were photographed with a digital camera. Photographs were presented to three pediatric dentists, who examined the...

  3. Nutritional status and dental fluorosis among schoolchildren in communities with different drinking water fluoride concentrations in a central region in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irigoyen-Camacho, M E; García Pérez, A; Mejía González, A; Huizar Alvarez, R

    2016-01-15

    Poor water quality and under nutrition are important factors affecting the health of many communities in developing countries. The aims of this study were: i) to describe the fluoride water concentration and the hydrogeological conditions in a region of a state located in the central in Mexico ii) to measure the association between undernutrition and dental fluorosis in children living in communities with different drinking water fluoride concentrations in a state located in the central region of Mexico. Field work was performed in the region to identify the prevailing groundwater flow characteristics and water wells were sampled to analyze water fluoride concentration. Children were selected from three communities that had different drinking water fluoride concentrations (i.e., 0.56, 0.70 and 1.60 mg/l). Fluoridated salt was available in these communities. The Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index (TFI) was used to assess dental fluorosis. Categories four or higher of this index involve changes in the entire tooth surface (ITF ≥ 4). The weight and height of the children were measured. The assessment of undernutrition was based on the World Health Organization criteria: children were classified as being at risk of low-height (Height-for-Age Z score water captured by the wells is the result of a reaction with volcanic materials. The water fluoride concentration in the region ranged from 0.2 to 1.6 mg/l. A total of 734 schoolchildren participated in the study. The percentage of children in fluorosis categories (ITF ≥ 4) was 15.9%, 21.1% of the children were at risk of low height-for-age, and 8.0% had low height-for-age. The percentage of children with fluorosis (ITF ≥ 4) was 6.3%, 9.1% and 31.9% (p ˂ 0.001) and low high-for-age was 2.9%, 2.5% and 8.4% (p ˂ 0.001), for the communities with F concentrations of 0.56 mg/l, 0.70 mg/l and 1.6 mg/l, respectively. The logistic regression model showed an association between dental fluorosis (TFI ≥ 4) and low height-for-age (OR

  4. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in children taking part in an oral health programme including fluoride tablet supplements from the age of 2 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckersten, Charlotte; Pylvänen, Lena; Schröder, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years.......To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years....

  5. Study on characteristics of fluorine concentration profiles in fluorosis sheep teeth and bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Shizhan; Shui Yongqing; Wang Lianbin; Yang Huazhong; Zhai Xujiu; Wang Yuwen; Lei Guilin

    1990-01-01

    The deep-ward fluorine concentration profiles in fluorosis sheep teeth and bones were determined through 19 F(p, αγ) 16 O reaction with proton energy 3.2 MeV. The profiles show a diffusion characteristic, indicating that the fluorine ion diffusion may be one of the important factors that brought forth pathological changes of livestock teeth and bones

  6. Changes of learning and memory ability and brain nicotinic receptors of rat offspring with coal burning fluorosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui, C.Z.; Ran, L.Y.; Li, J.P.; Guan, Z.Z. [Guiyang Medical College, Guiyang (China). Dept. of Pathology

    2010-09-15

    The purpose of the investigation is to reveal the mechanism of the decreased ability of learning and memory induced by coal burning fluorosis. Ten offspring SD rats aged 30 days, who were born from the mothers with chronic coal burning fluorosis, and ten offspring with same age from the normal mothers as controls were selected. Spatial learning and memory of the rats were evaluated by Morris Water Maze test. Cholinesterase activity was detected by photometric method. The expressions of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at protein and mRNA levels were detected by Western blotting and Real-time PCR, respectively. The results showed that in the rat offspring exposed to higher fluoride as compared to controls, the learning and memory ability declined; the cholinesterase activities in the brains were inhibited; the protein levels of alpha 3, alpha 4 and alpha 7 nAChR subunits were decreased which showed certain significant correlations with the declined learning and memory ability; and the mRNA levels of alpha 3 and alpha 4 nAChRs were decreased, whereas the alpha 7 mRNA increased. The data indicated that coal burning fluorosis can induce the decreased ability of learning and memory of rat offspring, in which the mechanism might be connected to the changed nAChRs and cholinesterase.

  7. Assessment of fluoride in groundwater and urine, and prevalence of fluorosis among school children in Haryana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritash, A. K.; Aggarwal, Ankur; Soni, Jigyasa; Sharma, Khyati; Sapra, Mohnish; Singh, Bhupinder

    2018-05-01

    Considering the health effects of fluoride, the present study was undertaken to assess the concentration of fluoride in groundwater, and urine of school children in Bass region of Haryana state. Fluoride in groundwater was observed to vary from 0.5 to 2.4 mg/l with an average concentration of 0.46 mg/l. On the other hand, F- in urine ranged from below the detection limit to 1.8 mg/l among girls and 0.17-1.2 mg/l among the boys. Higher average concentration of fluoride in urine (0.65 mg/l for boys and 0.34 mg/l for girls) may be ascribed to exposure to bioavailable fluoride through food, milk, tea, toothpaste, etc., in addition to intake through groundwater. Relatively more intake of water and food by the boys might be the reason for more cases of severe dental fluorosis (44%) among boys compared to girls (29% cases of moderate to severe dental fluorosis). The groundwater quality for drinking was compromised with respect to dissolved solids, hardness, magnesium ions, and dissolved iron. Hydro-geochemical investigation revealed that rock-water interaction, in terms of direct cation exchange, dominantly regulates groundwater chemistry, and groundwater is of Ca-Na-HCO3 type.

  8. Fluoride Consumption and Its Impact on Oral Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Jacinto-Alemán

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate caries and dental fluorosis among Mexican preschoolers and school-aged children in a non-endemic zone for fluorosis and to measure its biological indicators. Methods. DMFT, DMFS, dmft, dmfs, and CDI indexes were applied. Fluoride urinary excretion and fluoride concentrations in home water, table salt, bottled water, bottled drinks, and toothpaste were determined. Results. Schoolchildren presented fluorosis (CDI = 0.96 and dental caries (DMFT = 2.64 and DMFS = 3.97. Preschoolers presented dmft = 4.85 and dmfs = 8.80. DMFT and DMFS were lower in children with mild to moderate dental fluorosis (DF. Variable fluoride concentrations were found in the analyzed products (home water = 0.18–0.44 ppm F, table salt = 0–485 ppm F, bottled water = 0.18–0.47 ppm F, juices = 0.08–1.42 ppm F, nectars = 0.07–1.30 ppm F, bottled drinks = 0.10–1.70 ppm F, toothpaste = 0–2,053 ppm F. Mean daily fluoride excretion was 422 ± 176 µg/24 h for schoolchildren and 367 ± 150 µg/24 h for preschoolers. Conclusions. Data from our study show that, despite values of excretion within an optimal fluoride intake range, the prevalence of caries was significant in both groups, and 60% of the 11- to 12-year-old children presented with dental fluorosis. In addition, variable fluoride concentrations in products frequently consumed by children were found.

  9. Neurobrucellosis: clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic features and outcome. Unusual clinical presentations in an endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgul Ceran

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection and has endemic characteristics. Neurobrucellosis is an uncommon complication of this infection. The aim of this study was to present unusual clinical manifestations and to discuss the management and outcome of a series of 18 neurobrucellosis cases. Initial clinical manifestations consist of pseudotumor cerebri in one case, white matter lesions and demyelinating syndrome in three cases, intracranial granuloma in one case, transverse myelitis in two cases, sagittal sinus thrombosis in one case, spinal arachnoiditis in one case, intracranial vasculitis in one case, in addition to meningitis in all cases. Eleven patients were male and seven were female. The most prevalent symptoms were headache (83% and fever (44%. All patients were treated with rifampicin, doxycycline plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or ceftriaxone. Duration of treatment (varied 3-12 months was determined on basis of the CSF response. In four patients presented with left mild sequelae including aphasia, hearing loss, hemiparesis. In conclusion, although mortality is rare in neurobrucellosis, its sequelae are significant. In neurobrucellosis various clinical and neuroradiologic signs and symptoms can be confused with other neurologic diseases. In inhabitants or visitors of endemic areas, neurobrucellosis should be kept in mind in cases that have unusual neurological manifestations.

  10. Clinical evaluation of the effect of a herbal compound made for treatment of discolorations caused by dental fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Mohammdi Basir

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: The purpose of this study was research on a new herbal compound (Seidlitzia Rosmarinus made by Traditional Medicine Research Group, University of shahed to find a safer alternative to HCL-Pumice compound technique.   Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial seventy two anterior teeth from 9 patients were divided in to three groups according to fluorosis severity: mild (34 teeth, moderate (14 teeth, and sever (24 teeth. In each patient, half of the teeth were treated with “Shahed” compound and other half treated with HCL-Pumice compound. Before and after treatment, photographs were taken in both groups. HCL-Pumice treatment compound was applied for 30 seconds periods and continued for 10 minutes if necessary. In case of herbal Shahed compound the time was determined by clinical symptoms or when labial contour was dismissed, If the result was not esthetistically acceptabale for the patient, HCL-Pumice compound was applied on teeth. NaF was applied after mouth washing. The photographs of the teeth before and after treatment were reviewed by two experienced observer unaware of the treatment modality. The results were analyzed using willcoxon’s, kruskal-wallis and scheffe test.   Results: There was over 81.3% acceptance between two observers and no significant differences in intraobservers evaluation (P>0.05. Improvement in beauty indexes were observed in all degrees of dental fluorosis by 18% with HCL-Pumice compound application, but “Shahed” herbal compound induced significant reduction in the amount of white spots in mild fluorosis and stain intensity of moderate fluorosis (P<0.05 , while the reduction in the severity of discoloration in group 2, these two techniques were statistically equivalent but in the remainder, HCL-Pumice compound was more significantly effective (P<0.05 .   Conclusion: HCL-Pumice compound reduces the severity of the discoloration of the teeth. Shahed herbal compound

  11. Sensibilidad postratamiento de blanquamiento dental con la solución de McInnes en pacientes con fluorosis dental grado TF4

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes Balseca, Jenny Carolina

    2017-01-01

    The dental sensibility is one of the problems caused by multiple factors, one of them is the posttreatment sensibility to the dental clearance, nevertheless it is the most used method at present in the persons who has dental fluorosis with the purpose of improving the color of the tooth and the esthetics, in the present investigation there was studied the behavior of the application of solution of McInnes in this type of teeth by relation to the sensibility Objective: To evaluate the degree o...

  12. Use of fluoride tablets and effect on prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalsbeek, H.; Verrips, E.; Dirks, O.B.

    1992-01-01

    A study was executed to investigate the relation between the use of fluoride tablets by children in the age period 1.5-6 yr on the one hand and the caries experience at the age of 6 and 15 yr and the prevalence of fluorosis at the age of 15 yr on the other hand. The year of birth of the child, the

  13. Endemics and Pseudo-Endemics in Relation to the Distribution Patterns of Indian Pteridophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Fraser-Jenkins

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Of c. 530 Pteridophytes reported as endemic to the India in recent decades (about half the total number of c. 950-1000 known Indian species, the great bulk are mistaken, particularly those from the Indo-Himalaya. Only 47 endemic Indian ferns, less than 10% of those reported previously, are accepted here. But this figure includes several that are rather doubtfully endemic, mainly due to unresolved taxonomic doubt, or because they may be expected to occur in adjacent Countries. Thus 8 are taxonomically dubious, requiring further study, and a further 7, all from N.E. India, may possibly be expected elsewhere outside India. The c. 483 mistaken pseudo-endemics arose mainly due to naming of erroneous 'new species' thought to be endemic, or due to not knowing the range of species outside political India, combined with insufficient investigative taxonomic research. In the present paper previous reports of endemics are listed and their status is reappraised along with a new list of accepted endemics. Quite opposite to previous conclusions, the great majority of endemic Indian Pteridophytes are peninsular-Indian to south-Indian ferns (27, plus 5 more taxonomically dubious, with far fewer being N.E. Indian (7, all of which may possibly be expected elsewhere outside India and W. Himalayan (2, plus 1 taxonomically dubious; the floristically Malesian Nicobar Islands have (3, plus 2 more taxonomically dubious. These numbers are only to be expected as N.E. India is an intimate part of the Sino-Himalayan and S.E. Asian flora, connected without barriers to Tibet and China or to Myanmar by two mountain chains, while S. India is more isolated geographically since more ancient times and has a partly Malesian fern-flora. Some details of Indian endemics in relation to phytogeographical elements are given. Endemic species: Huperzia - 1, Selaginella - 9, Isoetes - 1, Osmunda - 1, Arthromeris - 1, Phymatosorus - 1, Oreogrammitis - 2, Trichomanes - 1, Pteris - 1, Cyathea

  14. A quantitative look at fluorosis, fluoride exposure, and intake in children using a health risk assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdal, Serap; Buchanan, Susan N

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of dental fluorosis in the United States has increased during the last 30 years. In this study, we used a mathematical model commonly employed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to estimate average daily intake of fluoride via all applicable exposure pathways contributing to fluorosis risk for infants and children living in hypothetical fluoridated and nonfluoridated communities. We also estimated hazard quotients for each exposure pathway and hazard indices for exposure conditions representative of central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) conditions. The exposure pathways considered were uptake of fluoride via fluoridated drinking water, beverages, cow's milk, foods, and fluoride supplements for both age groups. Additionally, consumption of infant formula for infants and inadvertent swallowing of toothpaste while brushing and incidental ingestion of soil for children were also considered. The cumulative daily fluoride intake in fluoridated areas was estimated as 0.20 and 0.11 mg/kg-day for RME and CTE scenarios, respectively, for infants. On the other hand, the RME and CTE estimates for children were 0.23 and 0.06 mg/kg-day, respectively. In areas where municipal water is not fluoridated, our RME and CTE estimates for cumulative daily average intake were, respectively, 0.11 and 0.08 mg/kg-day for infants and 0.21 and 0.06 mg/kg-day for children. Our theoretical estimates are in good agreement with measurement-based estimates reported in the literature. Although CTE estimates were within the optimum range for dental caries prevention, the RME estimates were above the upper tolerable intake limit. This suggests that some children may be at risk for fluorosis.

  15. Shifts in species interactions due to the evolution of functional differences between endemics and non-endemics: an endemic syndrome hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney E Gorman

    Full Text Available Species ranges have been shifting since the Pleistocene, whereby fragmentation, isolation, and the subsequent reduction in gene flow have resulted in local adaptation of novel genotypes and the repeated evolution of endemic species. While there is a wide body of literature focused on understanding endemic species, very few studies empirically test whether or not the evolution of endemics results in unique function or ecological differences relative to their widespread congeners; in particular while controlling for environmental variation. Using a common garden composed of 15 Eucalyptus species within the subgenus Symphyomyrtus (9 endemic to Tasmania, 6 non-endemic, here we hypothesize and show that endemic species are functionally and ecologically different from non-endemics. Compared to non-endemics, endemic Eucalyptus species have a unique suite of functional plant traits that have extended effects on herbivores. We found that while endemics occupy many diverse habitats, they share similar functional traits potentially resulting in an endemic syndrome of traits. This study provides one of the first empirical datasets analyzing the functional differences between endemics and non-endemics in a common garden setting, and establishes a foundation for additional studies of endemic/non-endemic dynamics that will be essential for understanding global biodiversity in the midst of rapid species extinctions and range shifts as a consequence of global change.

  16. Prevalence and extent of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and developmental enamel defects in Lithuanian teenage populations with different fluoride exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machiulskiene, Vita; Bælum, Vibeke; Fejerskov, Ole

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and developmental defects of non-fluoride origin in Lithuanian children born and raised in regions with 1.1 ppm (1.1 mg/l F) and 0.3 ppm (0.3 mg/l F) water fluoride levels, respectively. All permanent surfaces/t...... difference, 3.43). The results lend support to the hypothesis that the presence of fluoride in the oral environment promotes lesion arrest rather than inhibiting the initiation of new lesions......./teeth of 300 teenagers were examined for dental caries, dental fluorosis, and non-fluoride developmental defects. The caries prevalence of the study population was 100%. The mean number of decayed surfaces (DS) differed only slightly and statistically insignificantly between the '1.1 ppm fluoride' and '0.3 ppm...

  17. Comparison of Fluoride Content in Drinking Water and Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis in 6 - 12-Year-Old Students in Mariwan (a Cold Region and Behbahan (a Warm Region during the 2013 - 2014 Educational Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvan Rafatjou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Fluoride plays an important role in preventing dental caries. Low fluoride concentrations cannot prevent dental caries, but ingestion of very high concentrations of fluoride during enamel development and maturation could lead to fluorosis. Fluoridation of drinking water is the most effective and inexpensive method for preventing caries. The mandated concentration of fluoride incorporated into drinking water should consider the mean temperature of each region. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of fluorosis in children aged 6 - 12 in Mariwan and Behbahan and determine the fluoride content of drinking water in these two towns. Materials and Methods In the present descriptive and cross-sectional study, 13 water samples were taken from homes in Behbahan, 1 sample from the town’s water reservoir, 10 samples from homes in Mariwan (5 samples for each reservoir and 1 sample each from the town’s 2 reservoirs. The 26 samples (23 from homes and 3 from reservoirs were taken in polyethylene containers. The SPANDS colorimetric technique was used to determine fluoride content. Homes that used home-based water purification systems were excluded from the study. In addition, 128 students (62 girls and 66 boys in Behbahan and 90 students in Mariwan were randomly selected. Dean’s index was used to determine dental fluorosis. The mean yearly temperatures of the two towns were obtained from the metrological bureaus of the two towns. Results The means fluoride content of water in Behbahan’s reservoir and Mariwan’s reservoirs 1 and 2 were 0.7, 0.24 and 0.036 ppm, respectively. The mean fluoride content of Behbahan’s home waterlines and in the relevant home waterlines of reservoirs 1 and 2 in Mariwan were 0.67, 0.218, and 0.054 ppm, respectively. There were no significant differences between the relevant reservoirs. The prevalence of fluorosis in Behbahan was as follows: 84.4% healthy, 10.9% questionable, 1

  18. Spatial distribution of dental fluorosis in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from North Bohemia (Czech Republic) and its relationships with environmental factors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemek, František; Heřman, Michal; Kierdorf, H.; Kierdorf, U.; Sedláček, František

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 370, 2-3 (2006), s. 491-505 ISSN 0048-9697 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : biomonitoring * dental fluorosis * environmental pollution * fluoride * GIS * roe deer Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.359, year: 2006

  19. Dental caries and dental fluorosis in 7-12-year-old schoolchildren in Catalão, Goiás, Brazil Cárie e fluorose dentária em escolares de 7 a 12 anos de idade em Catalão, Goiás, Brasil

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    Priscila Ariede Petinuci Bardal

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Over the last two decades, the prevalence of dental caries in children has decreased and the prevalence of dental fluorosis has increased. Knowledge on the epidemiologic conditions of a population is fundamental for the planning of health programs. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among schoolchildren, in Catalão, Goiás, Brazil. METHODS: A random sample of 432 schoolchildren aged 7-12-years old was obtained. WHO (1997 criteria for dental caries and fluorosis diagnosis were used. RESULTS: The DMFT indexes were 0.97; 1.20; 1.80; 1.62; 2.40 and 2.51 for 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 years old, respectively. Analysis of dental fluorosis for the same ages presented higher prevalence at 12 years old and for the female gender. The percentage of questionable dental fluorosis (Dean's classification was 34.0%. Only 3% of the sample presented dental fluorosis with scores very mild, mild and moderate. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of caries in schoolchildren of Catalão, Goiás, Brazil, was low. In average, private schools showed better results than public schools; however, all schools presented a low DMFT index. In this study, dental fluorosis is not a public health problem and has not damaged dental esthetics.INTRODUÇÃO: Nas últimas duas décadas, a prevalência de cárie dentária tem diminuído e a prevalência de fluorose dentária tem aumentado. Para se planejar programas de saúde é fundamental conhecer o perfil epidemiológico das populações. OBJETIVOS: Determinar a prevalência de cárie dentária e fluorose dentária em escolares do município de Catalão, Goiás, Brasil. MÉTODOS: A amostra randomizada foi composta por 432 escolares de 7 a 12 anos de idade. Os critérios utilizados para determinar a prevalência de cárie dentária e fluorose seguiram a metodologia proposta pela OMS, 1997. RESULTADOS: Os valores do Índice CPOD foram de 0,97; 1,20; 1,80; 1,62; 2,40 e 2,51 para as idades de

  20. Non-endemic cases of lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert T

    2014-11-01

    Several cases of lymphatic filariasis (LF) have been reported in non-endemic countries due to travellers, military personnel and expatriates spending time in and returning from endemic areas, as well as immigrants coming from these regions. These cases are reviewed to assess the scale and context of non-endemic presentations and to consider the biological factors underlying their relative paucity. Cases reported in the English, French, Spanish and Portuguese literature during the last 30 years were examined through a search of the PubMed, ProMED-mail and TropNet resources. The literature research revealed 11 cases of lymphatic filariasis being reported in non-endemic areas. The extent of further infections in recent migrants to non-endemic countries was also revealed through the published literature. The life-cycle requirements of Wuchereria and Brugia species limit the extent of transmission of LF outside of tropical regions. However, until elimination, programmes are successful in managing the disease, there remains a possibility of low rates of infection being reported in non-endemic areas, and increased international travel can only contribute to this phenomenon. Physicians need to be aware of the signs and symptoms of lymphatic filariasis, and infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of people with a relevant travel history. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Industrial fluorosis of farm animals in England, attributable to the manufacture of bricks, the calcining of ironstone, and to enamelling processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakemore, F; Bosworth, T J; Green, H H

    1948-01-01

    An account is given of the occurrence in England of fluorosis in farm animals arising from industrial contamination of pasture due to the manufacture of bricks, the calcining of ironstone, and the fumes from a color and enamel factory. It is shown that the contamination of vegetation is entirely superficial and not due to fluorine compounds carried down into the soil by rain. The origin of the aerial fluorine is discussed in relation to the industrial processes involved, and extent of damage related to distance from source and direction of prevailing wind. A map showing levels of pasture contamination (7 ppm to 90 ppm) is given, and this is discussed in relation to the severity of clinical symptoms in animals. Considerable differences were observed in regard to susceptibility of different classes of stock. Urinary analysis was found to be a convenient way of diagnosing fluorosis, especially in sub-clinical cases where no dental signs or obvious skeletal changes were present. By correlating urinary excretion with fluorine values on rib bone removed surgically in an animal taken away from the source of fluorine ingestion, it was found that about half of the original skeletal fluorine still remained after eight months and that, although marked clinical improvement occurred quite soon, urinary values remained far above normal (13 ppm) in equilibrium with the very slow change of bone values in the later stages of skeletal reconstruction.

  2. Moderate and high endemicity of schistosomiasis is a predictor of the endemicity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, A; Gabrielli, A F; Montresor, A; Engels, D

    2011-02-01

    The authors conducted a systematic literature review with the following aims: to investigate how frequently soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) infections are endemic where schistosomiasis is present; and to assess the correlation between the risk level of schistosomiasis and that of STH. Among 155 sites on which data were collected and analyzed, schistosomiasis was present in 130, all of which were also co-endemic for STH, whereas 25 sites were endemic only for STH. Ninety percent (117 out of 130) of the areas eligible for preventive chemotherapy (PC) against schistosomiasis are also eligible for PC against STH. This fact provides managers of control programmes with the operationally important indication that use of available information on endemicity of schistosomiasis is a valid tool to predict the presence of STH in the same geographical area and to estimate the need of PC for STH. The implementation of this tool is expected to save financial and human resources and help accelerate the scale-up of PC throughout the world. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Endemism hotspots are linked to stable climatic refugia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Susan; Noss, Reed

    2017-01-01

    Centres of endemism have received much attention from evolutionists, biogeographers, ecologists and conservationists. Climatic stability is often cited as a major reason for the occurrences of these geographic concentrations of species which are not found anywhere else. The proposed linkage between endemism and climatic stability raises unanswered questions about the persistence of biodiversity during the present era of rapidly changing climate. The current status of evidence linking geographic centres of endemism to climatic stability over evolutionary time was examined. The following questions were asked. Do macroecological analyses support such an endemism-stability linkage? Do comparative studies find that endemic species display traits reflecting evolution in stable climates? Will centres of endemism in microrefugia or macrorefugia remain relatively stable and capable of supporting high biological diversity into the future? What are the implications of the endemism-stability linkage for conservation? Recent work using the concept of climate change velocity supports the classic idea that centres of endemism occur where past climatic fluctuations have been mild and where mountainous topography or favourable ocean currents contribute to creating refugia. Our knowledge of trait differences between narrow endemics and more widely distributed species remains highly incomplete. Current knowledge suggests that centres of endemism will remain relatively climatically buffered in the future, with the important caveat that absolute levels of climatic change and species losses in these regions may still be large. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Características generales de la fluorosis dental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Calderón Betancourt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica, utilizando los recursos disponibles desde la red infomed, con el objetivo de describir las características generales de la fluorosis dental. Esta es la hipomineralización del esmalte dental y tiene tres formas de presentación: leve, moderada y severa. Su cuadro clínico esta dado principalmente por manchas blanquecinas que cubre una mínima superficie del diente, hasta manchas de color café oscuro y su complicación más temida es la fractura que causa una agresiva y acentuada pérdida de la estructura dentaria. Es causada por el acumulo excesivo de flúor en el diente. Su prevención está encaminada a la administración de flúor sistémico en las diferentes edades y entre las recomendaciones para evitarla se encuentra: usar en lo posible agua con el nivel adecuado de flúor, utilizar pastas de dientes con los contenidos óptimos de flúor, excepto en las zonas con aguas fluoradas y no aplicar las lacas fluoradas a estos niños

  5. Moderate and high endemicity of schistosomiasis is a predictor of the endemicity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis - Systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, A.; Gabrielli, A. F.; Montresor, A.; Engels, D.

    2017-01-01

    The authors conducted a systematic literature review with the following aims: (i) to investigate how frequently soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) infections are endemic where schistosomiasis is present; and (ii) to assess the correlation between the risk level of schistosomiasis and that of STH. Among 155 sites on which data were collected and analyzed, schistosomiasis was present in 130 sites, all of which were also co-endemic for STH, whereas 25 sites were endemic only for STH. Out of 83 sites where at least one biannual round of preventive chemotherapy (PC) for schistosomiasis is recommended, 94% were also eligible for at least a yearly round of PC against STH. And among 21 sites where PC for schistosomiasis is recommended once a year, 81% were also eligible for at least a yearly round of PC for STH. This fact provides managers of control programmes with the operationally important indication that use of available information on endemicity of schistosomiasis is a valid tool to predict the presence of STH in the same geographical area as well as to estimate the need of PC for STH. The implementation of this tool is expected to save financial and human resources and help accelerate the scale-up of PC throughout the world. PMID:21215979

  6. Endemic earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) of the Balkan Peninsula: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakić, Tanja; Valchovski, Hristo; Stojanović, Mirjana

    2016-11-10

    A list of the endemic earthworms of the Balkan Peninsula is presented. Comprehensive information on the ecology, distribution on the Balkan Peninsula and zoogeographical type of all endemics is given. The list comprises 90 species and subspecies, belonging to 11 genera of the family Lumbricidae. The largest number of the Balkan endemic earthworms belongs to a narrow range group (63.3%). Broad range endemic species take part with 36.7%. Our study shows that the degree of endemism on the Balkan Peninsula is extremely high (about 40%) suggesting an important process of autochthonous speciation on the Balkan Peninsula. This appearance is attributable to relative isolation of the mountains compared to the lowlands within the context of paleoenvironmental changes.

  7. Case study of the public relations program of U. S. Steel's Utah fluorosis program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuiddy, A.R.

    1958-01-01

    In the 1950s, fluoride emissions were determined to be a problem at US Steel's Geneva Steel Works in Utah. Neighboring farms were affected, in that fluorosis was found in cattle. The problem was settled in litigation, and US Steel installed state-of-the-art pollution control technology on the steel mill in order to eliminate recurrence. The investigations that led to the elucidation of fluorides as the problem, the installation of pollution control equipment, and the public relations efforts on the part of the company are described. 22 references.

  8. Role of viruses in Kenyan children presenting with acute encephalopathy in a malaria-endemic area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubart, Christian D.; Mturi, Neema; Beld, Marcel G. H. M.; Wertheim, Pauline M.; Newton, Charles R. J. C.

    2006-01-01

    In malaria-endemic areas, it is difficult to differentiate between cerebral malaria (CM), bacterial meningitis, and viral encephalitis. We examined the cerebrospinal fluid of 49 children who fulfilled the World Health Organization's (WHO) definition of CM and in 47 encephalopathic children, without

  9. Agreement in the diagnosis of dental fluorosis in central incisors performed by a standardized photographic method and clinical examination Concordância no diagnóstico da fluorose dentária em incisivos centrais realizado por um método fotográfico padronizado e pelo exame clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Castro Martins

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess agreement in the diagnosis of dental fluorosis performed by a standardized digital photographic method and a clinical examination (gold standard. 49 children (aged 7-9 years were clinically evaluated by a trained examiner for the assessment of dental fluorosis. Central incisors were evaluated for the presence or absence of dental fluorosis and were photographed with a digital camera. Photographs were presented to three pediatric dentists, who examined the images. Data were analyzed using Cohen's kappa and validity values. Agreement in the diagnosis performed by the photographic method and clinical examination was good (0.67 and accuracy was 83.7%. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was reported to be higher in the clinical examination (49% compared with the photographic method (36.7%. The photographic method presented higher specificity (96% than sensitivity (70.8%, a positive predictive value (PPV of 94.4% and a negative predictive value (NPV of 77.4%. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis performed using the photographic method presented high specificity and PPV, which indicates that the method is reproducible and reliable for recording dental fluorosis.O objetivo do estudo foi comparar o diagnóstico de fluorose dentária realizado por um método fotográfico com o exame clínico (padrão ouro. Quarenta e nove crianças, de 7 e 9 anos, foram clinicamente examinadas por um examinador calibrado para fluorose dentária. Os incisivos foram fotografados com câmera digital e as fotografias foram apresentadas a três odontopediatras, que examinaram as imagens. A concordância por kappa entre o método fotográfico e o padrão ouro foi boa (0,67 e a acurácia foi de 83,67%. A prevalência de fluorose dentária foi levemente maior pelo método clínico (49% do que pelo fotográfico (36,7%. O método fotográfico apresentou maior especificidade (96% que sensibilidade (70,83%, valor de predição positivo (VPP de 94

  10. Factors associated with dental fluorosis in school children in southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study

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    Marina Sousa Azevedo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed risk factors for dental fluorosis (DF among 8- to 12-year-old children in southern Brazil. Children attending 20 schools were randomly selected (n = 1,196. They were interviewed and their parents answered a questionnaire that was sent home. Prevalence of DF was 8.53% (modified Dean’s criteria, and the prevalence of severe DF was 0.17%. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that DF was associated with a higher frequency of tooth brushing and with initial use of fluoride toothpaste at the emergence of the first tooth. DF does not constitute a public health problem in southern Brazil.

  11. Spatial distribution of Madeira Island Laurisilva endemic spiders (Arachnida: Araneae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Madeira island presents a unique spider diversity with a high number of endemic species, many of which are still poorly known. A recent biodiversity survey on the terrestrial arthropods of the native forest, Laurisilva, provided a large set of standardized samples from various patches throughout the island. Out of the fifty two species recorded, approximately 33.3% are Madeiran endemics, many of which had not been collected since their original description. Two new species to science are reported – Ceratinopsis n. sp. and Theridion n. sp. – and the first records of Poeciloneta variegata (Blackwall, 1841) and Tetragnatha intermedia Kulczynski, 1891 are reported for the first time for Madeira island. Considerations on species richness and abundance from different Laurisilva locations are presented, together with distribution maps for endemic species. These results contribute to a better understanding of spider diversity patterns and endemic species distribution in the native forest of Madeira island. PMID:24855443

  12. Industrial fluorosis: a study of the hazard to man and animals near Fort William, Scotland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agate, J N; Bell, G H; Boddie, G F; Bowler, R G; Buckell, M; Cheeseman, E A; Douglas, T H.J.; Druett, H A; Garrad, J; Hunter, D

    1949-01-01

    From the mass of data collected in the course of the investigation, certain general conclusions emerge. It is clear that, especially in the older type of furnace room, workers inhale considerable quantities of fluorine. Their excretion of fluorine in the urine runs roughly parallel to the intensity of their exposure. Some of the older workers, exposed for a large number of years to conditions prevailing in the old furnace rooms, show bone changes of the type now generally recognized to be produced by fluorosis. Despite these bone changes none of the workers examined was found to suffer clinical disability. It does not follow that the risk to health of workers in the older type of furnace room is negligible, for it is well known that the progressive course of fluorosis is slow. Examination of samples of air, soil, etc., establishes beyond doubt that the amount of fluorine liberated from the factory is considerable. Because of the configuration of the country, the direction of the prevailing winds, and the heavy rainfall, fluorine compounds in the atmosphere tend to be deposited, mainly along a tract of country which can be defined in the light of the analytical results. While critical examination of a small number of residents in the neighborhood of the factory has shown no sign of injury to health, it is only prudent to site new developments in such a way that, so far as possible, residents are kept out of the zone known to be most liable to contamination. The effects on animal husbandry of fluorine contamination of herbage have been described in detail. They obviously constitute a serious impediment to economic methods of sheep and cattle farming in the area. It is important that everything practicable should be done to reduce the amount of fluorine discharged from the factory.

  13. Protective effect of lycopene on fluoride-induced ameloblasts apoptosis and dental fluorosis through oxidative stress-mediated Caspase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weishan; Jiang, Binghua; Cao, Xianglin; Xie, Yongjiang; Huang, Ting

    2017-01-05

    Fluoride is an environmental toxicant and induces dental fluorosis and oxidative stress. Lycopene (LYC) is an effective antioxidant that is reported to attenuate fluoride toxicity. To determine the effects of LYC on sodium fluoride (NaF) -induced teeth and ameloblasts toxicity, rats were treated with NaF (10 mg/kg) and/or LYC (10 mg/kg) by orally administration for 5 weeks; ameloblasts were treated with NaF (5 mM) and/or LYC (2 μM) for 6 h. We found that the concentrations of fluoride, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), gene expressions and activities of Caspase-9 and Caspase-3, and the gene expressions of Bax were significantly decreased, while the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), the gene expression of Bcl-2 were significantly increased in the LYC + NaF-treated rats group; concentrations of MDA and ROS, gene expressions and activities of Caspase-9 and Caspase-3, and the gene expression of Bax, and ameloblasts apoptosis rate were significantly decreased, while the activities of SOD and GPX, the gene expression of Bcl-2 were significantly increased in the LYC + NaF-treated ameloblasts group. These results suggest that LYC significantly combated NaF-induced ameloblasts apoptosis and dental fluorosis by attenuation oxidative stress and down-regulation Caspase pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Retention of fissure sealants in young permanent molars affected by dental fluorosis: a 12-month clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuddin, S; Reddy, E R; Manjula, M; Srilaxmi, N; Rani, S T; Rajesh, A

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate and compare retention and caries occurance following placement of Clinpro and FUJI VII fissure sealants, by two different techniques simultaneously in unsealed, contralateral young permanent molars of 7- to 10-year-old children affected by mild to moderate dental fluorosis at various recall intervals of 1 week, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. 80 schoolchildren with mild to moderate dental fluorosis were assigned to Group A and Group B with 40 children in each group. In Group A Clinpro fissure sealant and in Group B Fuji VII fissure sealant was used. In both the groups fissure sealants were applied by conventional fissure sealant technique (CST) on one side and enameloplasty sealant technique (EST) on the other side of the same arch. The applied fissure sealants were evaluated clinically for retention and caries incidence. Clinpro fissure sealant showed a retention rate of 95% when compared with Fuji VII (57.5%) at the end of 12 months, which was statistically significant. Regarding techniques, EST showed better results than CST in both the groups. Comparison of groups with respect to retention and techniques at different time periods was performed using Mann-Whitney U test (p < 0.05). Comparison of different time periods with respect to retention and technique in all the groups was performed using Wilcoxon matched pairs test by ranks (p < 0.05). Clinpro fissure sealant showed better retention at all treatment intervals, when compared with Fuji VII. Further follow-up is required to study the efficacy of the fissure sealant placement techniques.

  15. Dental fluorosis in Brazil: a systematic review from 1993 to 2004 Fluorose dentária no Brasil: uma revisão sistemática do período 1993/2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fernandes da Cunha

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The current article proposes a reflection on several aspect pertaining to dental fluorosis in Brazil, based on a systematic review of epidemiological surveys. The authors assess the prevalence and degrees of severity found in different studies and show that in methodological terms, there is a need for progress in procedures for population-based studies on fluorosis. Despite the different data collection approaches, there is some consensus among the different studies as to the limited severity of fluorosis in Brazil, as well as its association with the independent variables age and socioeconomic status. The authors also highlight the importance of adding subjective aspects to the normative diagnosis as a contribution to public health policy decisions, since the use of exclusively clinical criteria gives dental fluorosis more space than society ascribes to it. There is a lack of empirical evidence to reassess the fluoride content in public water supplies, a method that is known to be necessary to improve dental caries epidemiological indicators.O presente trabalho propõe uma reflexão sobre alguns aspectos relativos à fluorose dentária no Brasil, a partir de uma revisão sistemática de estudos e inquéritos epidemiológicos. A prevalência e os níveis de severidade encontrados nos diferentes estudos são avaliados, verificando-se que, quanto aos aspectos metodológicos, há necessidade de avançar no que diz respeito aos procedimentos para estudo da fluorose em âmbito populacional. Apesar das diferentes abordagens para coleta de dados, há algum consenso, entre os diferentes estudos, quanto à baixa severidade da fluorose no Brasil e a sua associação com as variáveis independentes idade e condição sócio-econômica. Destaca-se também a importância de incluir aspectos subjetivos ao diagnóstico normativo, como uma contribuição às decisões que envolvem o planejamento de políticas públicas de saúde, uma vez que o uso de crit

  16. Epidemiology of fluorosis and dental caries according to different types of water supplies Epidemiologia da fluorose e cáries dentárias de acordo com diferentes tipos de abastecimento de água

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange de Oliveira Braga Franzolin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the relationship between fluorosis/dental caries in schools, according to the level of fluoride in public water supply. The sample comprised of twelve-year-old daytime students (360 of both genders, attending schools close to the region where they were born. The schools were classified into three groups according to the presence of fluoride in the water supply: 1 fluoridation in the Water Treatment Station-WTS; 2 Direct Fluoridation in Wells-DFW; and 3 Non Fluoridated Areas-NFA. The χ2 and Goodman tests (significance=5% were used to evaluate the association between the origin of water and degree of fluorosis; percentage of distribution and descriptive measures were used for investigation of the degree of fluorosis. The following outcomes were predominant: presence of dental caries in the entire sample (P0.05. Dental caries is still an important problem in this population, despite the establishment of preventive measured. The observation of fluorosis in students living in non-fluoridated areas confirms the presence of other sources of fluoride.O objetivo do presente artigo é investigar a relação fluorose/cáries em escolas, de acordo com o nível de fluoreto no abastecimento público de água. A amostra consistiu em 360 alunos de doze anos de idade, de ambos os sexos, que frequentam as escolas próximas da região em que nasceram. As escolas foram classificadas em três grupos de acordo com a presença de fluoreto no abastecimento de água: 1 fluoretação na Estação de Tratamento de Água (ETA; 2 fluoretação direta em poços; e 3 áreas não fluoretadas (ANF. Os testes deχe de Goodman (significância = 5% foram utilizados para avaliar a associação entre a origem da água e o grau de fluorose. Os resultados mais predominantes foram presença de cáries em toda a amostra (P0,05. As cáries ainda são uma importante questão nessa população, apesar do estabelecimento de medida preventiva. A

  17. Dental fluorosis, nutritional status, kidney damage, and thyroid function along with bone metabolic indicators in school-going children living in fluoride-affected hilly areas of Doda district, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandare, Arjun L; Gourineni, Shankar Rao; Validandi, Vakdevi

    2017-10-23

    A case-control study was undertaken among the school children aged 8-15 years to know the presence and severity of dental fluorosis, nutrition and kidney status, and thyroid function along with bone metabolic indicators in Doda district situated at high altitude where drinking water was contaminated and heat stress. This study included 824 participants with an age of 8-15 years. The results of the study reviled that dental fluorosis was significantly higher in affected than control area children. Urinary fluoride was significantly higher (p school children. Nutritional status of affected children was lower than control area children. The chronic kidney damage (CKD) was higher in affected than control school children. Thyroid function was affected more in affected than control area schools. Serum creatinine, total alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, 1, 25(OH) 2 vitamin D, and osteocalcin were significantly higher in affected school children (p school children, whereas there was no significant difference in triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and 25-OH vitamin D among the two groups. There was a significant decrease in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the affected area school children compared to control. In conclusion, fluorotic area school children were more affected with dental fluorosis, kidney damage, along and some bone indicators as compared to control school children.

  18. A cross-sectional study to assess the intelligence quotient (IQ) of school going children aged 10-12 years in villages of Mysore district, India with different fluoride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Sunitha, S

    2015-01-01

    Besides dental and skeletal fluorosis, excessive fluoride intake can also affect the central nervous system without first causing the physical deformities associated with skeletal fluorosis. With the existence of widespread endemic fluorosis in India, the possible adverse effect of elevated fluoride in drinking water on the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) level of children is a potentially serious public health problem. This study assessed the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of school going children aged 10-12 years in villages of Mysore district with different fluoride levels. In this cross-sectional study, 405 school children aged 10-12 years were selected from three villages in Mysore district with normal fluoride (1.20 mg F/l), low fluoride (0.40 mg F/l) and high fluoride (2.20 mg F/l) in their water supplies. A pre designed questionnaire was used to collect the required data for the survey which included socio demographic details, oral hygiene practices, diet history, body mass index and dental fluorosis. Intelligence Quotient was assessed using Raven's colored Progressive Matrices Test. In bivariate analysis, significant relationships were found between water fluoride levels and Intelligence Quotient of school children (P intelligence when compared to school children residing in areas with normal and low water fluoride levels. Thus, children's intelligence can be affected by high water fluoride levels.

  19. Some heavy metals levels in drinking water and social characteristics in buruli ulcer endemic and non-endemic communities in the Amansie West district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odeh-Agbozo, Francis

    2009-06-01

    communities walked barefooted, whilst those in the non-endemic communities had footwear. In the District therefore, attitudinal behaviour/ social characteristics may play a role in the occurrence of the disease. Other heavy metals like arsenic should be investigated into, as well as the water usage patterns of the people in the community ( to determine whether the disease is water-washed, water-borne or water-based). The organism may be present in the water and/or soil, and it is recommended that more research be carried out to isolate it in the environment. (author)

  20. Endemic Images and the Desensitization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigh, Philip A.; Antoun, Fouad T.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the effects of endemic images on levels of anxiety and achievement of 48 high school students. Results suggested that a combination of endemic images and study skills training was as effective as desensitization plus study skills training. Includes the endemic image questionnaire. (JAC)

  1. Mammal endemism In Italy: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Amori

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although there are various checklists of Italian mammals, there is not yet a synthesis of those mammals that are endemic to Italy. Therefore, we provide for the first time a detailed review on Italian mammal endemic species including endemic taxa deserving additional studies. This review is based on the most recent taxonomic revisions obtained using Scopus and Google Scholar databases. We also considered the age of endemic species. Some aspects of mammalian conservation are also provided and discussed.

  2. Stability analysis of the endemic equilibrium state of an infection age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work we present an infection-age-structured mathematical model of AIDS disease dynamics and examine the endemic equilibrium state for stability. An explicit formula for the basic reproduction number R0 was obtained in terms of the demographic and epidemiological parameters of the model. The endemic ...

  3. Alteration of paraoxonase, arylesterase and lactonase activities in people around fluoride endemic area of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulkumar, Mani; Vijayan, Raji; Penislusshiyan, Sakayanathan; Sathishkumar, Palanivel; Angayarkanni, Jayaraman; Palvannan, Thayumanavan

    2017-08-01

    Toxicity due to excess fluoride concentration in drinking water is of great concern in people who rely only on the ground water as their water source in many region of the world. We collected samples and examined the toxicity of fluoride in a population residing at Salem, Dharmapuri and Krishnagiri districts of Tamil Nadu, India and measured HDL bound enzyme (PON1), erythrocyte membrane bound enzymes (acetylcholinesterase, AChE) and adenosine 5' triphosphatase (ATPases), plasma enzyme (butyrylcholinesterase, BChE) and rate limiting enzyme in heme biosynthesis (delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, δ-ALAD) activities. In fluorosis patients, formation of lipid peroxidation product was more in erythrocytes than in plasma. The observation further revealed that there was 50% reduction in the activity of HDL bound anti atherogenic enzyme-paraoxonase (PON1). The activities of membrane bound and signaling enzymes (acetylcholinesterase - AChE and adenosine 5' triphosphatase - ATPase) of erythrocyte were also diminished. These results suggested that there was defectiveness in the signaling and energy metabolism in fluorosis patients. Altered isoenzyme pattern of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in fluorosis samples was observed. Furthermore, the result suggested that both the heart (LDH 1) and liver (LDH 5) were most affected by fluoride toxicity. The study also provided reference values for tests which are used to predict the severity of fluoride toxicity. The toxic effect of fluoride was due to the collective effects on vital protective system rather than single factor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inferring the biogeographic origins of inter-continental disjunct endemics using a Bayes-DIVA approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AJ HARRIS; Jun WEN; Qiu-Yun (Jenny) XIANG

    2013-01-01

    The arcto-Tertiary relictual flora is comprised of many genera that occur non-contiguously in the temperate zones of eastern Asia,Europe,eastern North America,and westem North America.Within each distributional area,species are typically endemic and may thus be widely separated from closely related species within the other areas.It is widely accepted that this common pattern of distribution resulted from of the fragmentation of a once morecontinuous arcto-Tertiary forest.The historical biogeographic events leading to the present-day disjunction have often been investigated using a phylogenetic approach.Limitations to these previous studies have included phylogenetic uncertainty and uncertainty in ancestral range reconstructions.However,the recently described Bayes-DIVA method handles both types of uncertainty.Thus,we used Bayes-DIVA analysis to reconstruct the stem lineage distributions for 185 endemic lineages from 23 disjunct genera representing 17 vascular plant families.In particular,we asked whether endemic lineages within each of the four distributional areas more often evolved from (1) widespread ancestors,(2) ancestors dispersed from other areas,or (3) endemic ancestors.We also considered which of these three biogeographic mechanisms may best explain the origins of arcto-Tertiary disjunct endemics in the neotropics.Our results show that eastern Asian endemics more often evolved from endemic ancestors compared to endemics in Europe and eastern and western North America.Present-day endemic lineages in the latter areas more often arose from widespread ancestors.Our results also provide anecdotal evidence for the importance of dispersal in the biogeographic origins of arcto-Tertiary species endemic in the neotropics.

  5. Endangered, rare and endemic medicinal plants of the Kopetdag

    OpenAIRE

    AKMURADOV ALLAMURAD; SHAIYMOV BABAGULY; HALMEDOV BAZAR; YAKUBOV ATABEG; HALLIYEVA GULYAIYM

    2016-01-01

    The article presents some information of the place of growing of the endangered, rare and endemic medicinal plants of the Kopetdag. A monitoring has been carried out and the bioecological peculiarities, resource characteristics and modern state of the natural population of the most important species have been studied. Some scientifically based ways of protection and introduction into culture have been worked out to preserve the endangered, rare and endemic medicinal plants of the region.

  6. Endemism in the moss flora of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Benjamin E; Shaw, Blanka; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Identifying regions of high endemism is a critical step toward understanding the mechanisms underlying diversification and establishing conservation priorities. Here, we identified regions of high moss endemism across North America. We also identified lineages that contribute disproportionately to endemism and document the progress of efforts to inventory the endemic flora. To understand the documentation of endemic moss diversity in North America, we tabulated species publication dates to document the progress of species discovery across the continent. We analyzed herbarium specimen data and distribution data from the Flora of North America project to delineate major regions of moss endemism. Finally, we surveyed the literature to assess the importance of intercontinental vs. within-continent diversification for generating endemic species. Three primary regions of endemism were identified and two of these were further divided into a total of nine subregions. Overall endemic richness has two peaks, one in northern California and the Pacific Northwest, and the other in the southern Appalachians. Description of new endemic species has risen steeply over the last few decades, especially in western North America. Among the few studies documenting sister species relationships of endemics, recent diversification appears to have played a larger role in western North America, than in the east. Our understanding of bryophyte endemism continues to grow rapidly. Large continent-wide data sets confirm early views on hotspots of endemic bryophyte richness and indicate a high rate of ongoing species discovery in North America. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  7. Prevalência de cárie, gengivite e fluorose em escolares de 12 anos de Porto Alegre - RS, Brasil, 1998/1999 Prevalence of dental caries, gingivitis and fluorosis in 12-year-old schoolchildren from Porto Alegre - RS, Brazil, 1998/1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice Barbachan e SILVA

    2001-09-01

    fluorosis, 45.9% of the children had TFI 1, 6.1% TFI 2 and 0.9% TFI 3. A polarization of the experience of caries and gingivitis was observed in the studied population. Only 14.4% of the students had DMFS higher than 7. A small percentage of children (12% presented with BI ³ 40%. The experience of caries and gingivitis of 12-year-old schoolchildren in Porto Alegre is comparable to that of children from developed countries. That probably results from the intense utilization of fluoride, which is also causing an increased prevalence of fluorosis. The severity of fluorosis does not justify any public health measure. The results show that the employed public health measures are effective, although part of the population still needs additional care.

  8. The endemic flora of Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something or ...... have been mapped and it is already possible to recognize the hot-spots of biodiversity as these are linked to the centres of endemism. Determining the centres of diversity is an important and significant contribution to further conservation measures at the global level....

  9. Comparison of immune responses to a killed bivalent whole cell oral cholera vaccine between endemic and less endemic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sachin N; Akalu, Zenebe; Teferi, Mekonnen; Manna, Byomkesh; Teshome, Samuel; Park, Ju Yeon; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Deok Ryun; Kanungo, Suman; Digilio, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Studies on safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the killed, bivalent whole cell oral cholera vaccine (Shanchol) have been conducted in historically endemic settings of Asia. Recent cholera vaccination campaigns in Haiti and Guinea have also demonstrated favourable immunogenicity and effectiveness in nonendemic outbreak settings. We performed a secondary analysis, comparing immune responses of Shanchol from two randomised controlled trials performed in an endemic and a less endemic area (Addis Ababa) during a nonoutbreak setting. While Shanchol may offer some degree of immediate protection in primed populations living in cholera endemic areas, as well as being highly immunogenic in less endemic settings, understanding the characteristics of immune responses in each of these areas is vital in determining ideal dosing strategies that offer the greatest public health impact to populations from areas with varying degrees of cholera endemicity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Association between Urine Fluoride and Dental Fluorosis as a Toxicity Factor in a Rural Community in the State of San Luis Potosi

    OpenAIRE

    Jarquín-Yañez, Lizet; Mejía-Saavedra, José de Jesús; Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Gaona, Enrique; Rocha-Amador, Diana Olivia; López-Guzmán, Olga Dania; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate urine fluoride concentration as a toxicity factor in a rural community in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Materials and Methods. A sample of 111 children exposed to high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water (4.13?mg/L) was evaluated. Fluoride exposure was determined by measuring urine fluoride concentration using the potentiometric method with an ion selective electrode. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis was performed by clinica...

  11. Conservation assessment of the endemic plants from Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millaku Fadil

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen endemic plant taxa were selected from Kosovo, according to the IUCN standards and for each taxon the risk assessment and threat category has been assigned. The taxa were compared with their previous status from fifteen years ago. From sixteen plant taxa, which were included in this work, four are Balkan endemics, whereas, eight of them are local endemics and four of the taxa are stenoendemics. Six of the taxa are grown exclusively on serpentine soils, five of them on limestone substrate, four of them in carbonate substrate, yet only one in silicate substrate. The work has been done based on the standard working methodologies of the IUCN (Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria – Version 8.1. The most threatened plant taxa is Solenanthus krasniqii – which after its observance has only 20 mature individuals. As a result of the wild collection of the medicinal and aromatic plants, from the local population, Sideritis scardica is about to be completely go extinct. The aim of this study was to assess the state of endemics in the threats possessed to them during the previous times, present and predicting the trends for the upcoming years.

  12. Delimiting areas of endemism through kernel interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ubirajara; Brescovit, Antonio D; Santos, Adalberto J

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach for identification of areas of endemism, the Geographical Interpolation of Endemism (GIE), based on kernel spatial interpolation. This method differs from others in being independent of grid cells. This new approach is based on estimating the overlap between the distribution of species through a kernel interpolation of centroids of species distribution and areas of influence defined from the distance between the centroid and the farthest point of occurrence of each species. We used this method to delimit areas of endemism of spiders from Brazil. To assess the effectiveness of GIE, we analyzed the same data using Parsimony Analysis of Endemism and NDM and compared the areas identified through each method. The analyses using GIE identified 101 areas of endemism of spiders in Brazil GIE demonstrated to be effective in identifying areas of endemism in multiple scales, with fuzzy edges and supported by more synendemic species than in the other methods. The areas of endemism identified with GIE were generally congruent with those identified for other taxonomic groups, suggesting that common processes can be responsible for the origin and maintenance of these biogeographic units.

  13. Delimiting areas of endemism through kernel interpolation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara Oliveira

    Full Text Available We propose a new approach for identification of areas of endemism, the Geographical Interpolation of Endemism (GIE, based on kernel spatial interpolation. This method differs from others in being independent of grid cells. This new approach is based on estimating the overlap between the distribution of species through a kernel interpolation of centroids of species distribution and areas of influence defined from the distance between the centroid and the farthest point of occurrence of each species. We used this method to delimit areas of endemism of spiders from Brazil. To assess the effectiveness of GIE, we analyzed the same data using Parsimony Analysis of Endemism and NDM and compared the areas identified through each method. The analyses using GIE identified 101 areas of endemism of spiders in Brazil GIE demonstrated to be effective in identifying areas of endemism in multiple scales, with fuzzy edges and supported by more synendemic species than in the other methods. The areas of endemism identified with GIE were generally congruent with those identified for other taxonomic groups, suggesting that common processes can be responsible for the origin and maintenance of these biogeographic units.

  14. Effects of natural phenomena and human activity on the species richness of endemic and non-endemic Heteroptera in the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas, J. M.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The geographical patterns of Heteroptera species diversity in the Canary Islands were analysed, and endemic and non–endemic species were studied both together and separately. Causal processes most likely controlling these patterns, as well as the theory of island biogeography, hypotheses about evolutionary time, habitat heterogeneity, climatic stability, intermediate disturbances, energy, environmental favourableness–severity, productivity and human influence were investigated. The combination of habitat heterogeneity and human influence accounted for the total number of species. However, when endemic and non–endemic species were analysed separately, habitat heterogeneity and favourableness–severity explained the richness of endemic species, whereas habitat heterogeneity and human influence explained that of non–endemic species.

  15. Hydroclimatological Controls of Endemic and Non-endemic Cholera of the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, A. S.; Whitcombe, E.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat for the developing countries. Since the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae, is autochthonous to aquatic environment, it is not possible to eradicate the agent of the disease. Hydroclimatology based prediction and prevention strategies can be implemented in disease susceptible regions for reducing incidence rates. However, the precise role of hydrological and climatological processes, which will further aid in development of suitable prediction models, in creating spatial and temporal environmental conditions favorable for disease outbreak has not been adequately quantified. Here, we show distinction between seasonality and occurrence of cholera in epidemic and non-endemic regions. Using historical cholera mortality data, from the late 1800s for 27 locations in the Indian subcontinent, we show that non-endemic regions are generally located close to regional river systems but away from the coasts and are characterized by single sporadic outbreak in a given year. Increase in air temperature during the low river flow season increases evaporation, leading to an optimal salinity and pH required for bacterial growth. Thereafter, monsoonal rainfall, leads to interactions of contaminated river waters via human activity resulting in cholera epidemics. Endemic regions are located close to coasts where cholera outbreak occurs twice (spring and fall) in a year. Spring outbreak is generally associated with intrusion of bacterial seawater to inland whereas the fall peak is correlated with widespread flooding and cross-contamination of water resources via increased precipitation. This may be one of the first studies to hydroclimatologically quantitatively the seasonality of cholera in both endemic and non-endemic regions. Our results prompt the need of region and cause-specific prediction models for cholera, employing appropriate environmental determinants.

  16. [Comparison of the therapeutic effect on skeletal fluorosis and impact on urine fluoride value among fire needle therapy, electroacupuncture and calcium carbonate D3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Yang, Xu-Guang; Wu, Zhong-Chao; Zhou, Jin-Cao; Chen, Zhong-Jie; Hu, Jing; Jiao, Yue; Zhao, Xiao-Guang

    2014-03-01

    To observe the impacts on skeletal fluorosis pain, joint motor dysfunction and urine fluoride excretion in the treatment with fire needle therapy, electroacupuncture and calcium carbonate D3. The randomized controlled trial was adopted. Ninety-five patients were randomized into a fire needle group (31 cases), an electroacupuncture group (33 cases) and a calcium carbonate D3 group (31 cases). In the fire needle group and the electroacupuncture group, Ashi points, Dazhui (GV 14), Geshu (BL 17), Quchi (LI 11), Hegu (LI 4), Xuehai (SP 10) points were selected and stimulated with fire needle and electroacupuncture separately, three times a week. In the calcium carbonate D3 group, calcium carbonate D3 tablets was prescribed for oral administration, 600 mg each time, twice a day. The duration of treatment was 2 months in the electroacupuncture group and calcium carbonate D3 group and 1 month in the fire needle group. VAS score, the range of motion (ROM) and urine fluoride value were compared before and after treatment in the patients of the three groups. After treatment, VAS value and ROM were improved significantly in the patients of the three groups (all P 0.05). After treatment, the urine fluoride value was increased significantly in the fire needle group [(7.89 +/- 3.61) mg/L vs (9.81 +/- 4.17) mg/L, P electroacupuncture group [(7.53 +/- 3.46) mg/L vs (8.97 +/- 4.21) mg/L, P 0.05). The fire needle therapy, electroacupuncture and calcium carbonate D3 all have the clinical value in the prevention and treatment of skeletal fluorosis and the difference in the therapeutic effect has not been discovered among them yet at present. But it has been found that the fire needle therapy and electroacupuncture display the active significance in the promotion of urine fluoride excretion.

  17. Taxonomic Study of Endemic Species of Astragalus L. (Fabaceae of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Babu Chaudhary

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study is to provide a comprehensive taxonomic account of 12 endemic species of Astragalus occurring in India. The north-west Himalayan region harbors more endemic species (11 spp. than eastern Himalaya where only two species have been noticed from Sikkim. Jammu & Kashmir with seven species occupies first position in the list of endemic species. Five species are strictly confined to Jammu & Kashmir, while two species to Uttaranchal and one species to Sikkim. Only one species (A. tenuicaulis is found in both the Himalayas, otherwise the elements of both the Himalayas are quite distinct from each other. Most of the endemic species of Astragalus have been observed quite rare in the nature except A. uttaranchalensis. In the present investigation, A. turgidus, a newly described species from Jammu & Kashmir, has been found conspecific to A. kashmirensis. For each species nomenclature, description, distribution, phenology, taxonomic notes, list of the investigated materials, distribution map and figures are given. A new combination A. falconeri var. pilosus (Ali Chaudhary has been proposed based on A. hoffmeisteri var. pilosus Ali. A new endemic species A. nainitalensis from Kumaon Himalaya has also been described here along with illustrations.

  18. Ecoepidemiology, short history and control of Chagas disease in the endemic countries and the new challenge for non-endemic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigues Coura

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is maintained in nature through the interchange of three cycles: the wild, peridomestic and domestic cycles. The wild cycle, which is enzootic, has existed for millions of years maintained between triatomines and wild mammals. Human infection was only detected in mummies from 4,000-9,000 years ago, before the discovery of the disease by Carlos Chagas in 1909. With the beginning of deforestation in the Americas, two-three centuries ago for the expansion of agriculture and livestock rearing, wild mammals, which had been the food source for triatomines, were removed and new food sources started to appear in peridomestic areas: chicken coops, corrals and pigsties. Some accidental human cases could also have occurred prior to the triatomines in peridomestic areas. Thus, triatomines progressively penetrated households and formed the domestic cycle of Chagas disease. A new epidemiological, economic and social problem has been created through the globalisation of Chagas disease, due to legal and illegal migration of individuals infected by Trypanosoma cruzi or presenting Chagas disease in its varied clinical forms, from endemic countries in Latin America to non-endemic countries in North America, Europe, Asia and Oceania, particularly to the United States of America and Spain. The main objective of the present paper was to present a general view of the interchanges between the wild, peridomestic and domestic cycles of the disease, the development of T. cruzi among triatomine, their domiciliation and control initiatives, the characteristics of the disease in countries in the Americas and the problem of migration to non-endemic countries.

  19. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

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    Vishwas Sudhir Chitale

    Full Text Available India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single

  20. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitale, Vishwas Sudhir; Behera, Mukund Dev; Roy, Partha Sarthi

    2014-01-01

    India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a) regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b) mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single variable based

  1. The Resistance to Plague Infection among Meriones persicus from Endemic and Non-endemic Regions in Iran: The Role of Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASSMAR, Mehdi; KEYPOUR, Marjan; ROHANI, Mehdi; MOSTAFAVI, Ehsan; DANESHVAR FARHUD, Dariush

    2018-01-01

    Background: The present study was conducted approximately 40 years ago, but its results have not been released. At the time of this study, the importance of the gut microbiota was not fully understood. Methods: Meriones persicus rodents, as one of the major reservoirs of Yersinia pestis bacterium in Iran, were compared in a disease endemic area (Akanlu, Hamadan, western Iran) and a non-endemic zone (Telo, Tehran, Iran) from 1977 to 1981. Results: This study was able to transmit the resistance to Y. pestis to other rodents creatively by using and transferring gut microbiota. Conclusion: The study indicated for the first time that the gut microbiota could affect the sensitivity to plague in Meriones in Telo. PMID:29318122

  2. Urinary iodine excretion in relation to goiter prevalence in households of goiter endemic and non endemic regions of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuye, Chernet; Hailemariam, Bantiyrgu; Neka Tibeb, Hanna; Urga, Kelbesa; Woldegebriel, Zewidie

    1995-01-01

    A Survey of goiter prevalence, among population of five endemic and four non endemic regions of Ethiopia was carried out prior to the distribution of iodate d salt. urine samples were collected from 327 subjects selected by systematic random sampling from endemic and 276 taken as non endemic. The lowest mean urinary iodine excretion (UIE) value was recorded in Bure (22 micro gl/day) and the highest in Alemmaya (148 micro gl/day). The highest goiter rate ( percent TGR) was recorded in Sawla 55.6 %) and the lowest (0.6 %) in Yabello. Iodine content of drinking was in the range of 0.4 - 48.5 micro gl. Iodine content of water source was correlated positively ( r0.8399) with the mean of UIE and TGR, however, indicates that sites considered as non endemic seem to be affected by iodine deficiency. The study results urge the need for intervention in controlling Iodine Deficiency Disorders. 3 tab

  3. Optimising Regionalisation Techniques: Identifying Centres of Endemism in the Extraordinarily Endemic-Rich Cape Floristic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Peter L.; Colville, Jonathan F.; Linder, H. Peter

    2015-01-01

    We used a very large dataset (>40% of all species) from the endemic-rich Cape Floristic Region (CFR) to explore the impact of different weighting techniques, coefficients to calculate similarity among the cells, and clustering approaches on biogeographical regionalisation. The results were used to revise the biogeographical subdivision of the CFR. We show that weighted data (down-weighting widespread species), similarity calculated using Kulczinsky’s second measure, and clustering using UPGMA resulted in the optimal classification. This maximized the number of endemic species, the number of centres recognized, and operational geographic units assigned to centres of endemism (CoEs). We developed a dendrogram branch order cut-off (BOC) method to locate the optimal cut-off points on the dendrogram to define candidate clusters. Kulczinsky’s second measure dendrograms were combined using consensus, identifying areas of conflict which could be due to biotic element overlap or transitional areas. Post-clustering GIS manipulation substantially enhanced the endemic composition and geographic size of candidate CoEs. Although there was broad spatial congruence with previous phytogeographic studies, our techniques allowed for the recovery of additional phytogeographic detail not previously described for the CFR. PMID:26147438

  4. Lineage range estimation method reveals fine-scale endemism linked to Pleistocene stability in Australian rainforest herpetofauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosauer, Dan F; Catullo, Renee A; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Moussalli, Adnan; Moritz, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Areas of suitable habitat for species and communities have arisen, shifted, and disappeared with Pleistocene climate cycles, and through this shifting landscape, current biodiversity has found paths to the present. Evolutionary refugia, areas of relative habitat stability in this shifting landscape, support persistence of lineages through time, and are thus crucial to the accumulation and maintenance of biodiversity. Areas of endemism are indicative of refugial areas where diversity has persisted, and endemism of intraspecific lineages in particular is strongly associated with late-Pleistocene habitat stability. However, it remains a challenge to consistently estimate the geographic ranges of intraspecific lineages and thus infer phylogeographic endemism, because spatial sampling for genetic analyses is typically sparse relative to species records. We present a novel technique to model the geographic distribution of intraspecific lineages, which is informed by the ecological niche of a species and known locations of its constituent lineages. Our approach allows for the effects of isolation by unsuitable habitat, and captures uncertainty in the extent of lineage ranges. Applying this method to the arc of rainforest areas spanning 3500 km in eastern Australia, we estimated lineage endemism for 53 species of rainforest dependent herpetofauna with available phylogeographic data. We related endemism to the stability of rainforest habitat over the past 120,000 years and identified distinct concentrations of lineage endemism that can be considered putative refugia. These areas of lineage endemism are strongly related to historical stability of rainforest habitat, after controlling for the effects of current environment. In fact, a dynamic stability model that allows movement to track suitable habitat over time was the most important factor in explaining current patterns of endemism. The techniques presented here provide an objective, practical method for estimating

  5. Urinary fluoride as a monitoring tool for assessing successful intervention in the provision of safe drinking water supply in five fluoride-affected villages in Dhar district, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, R; Gautam, Anil; Jaiswal, Suresh Chandra; Singh, Pavitra

    2013-03-01

    Endemic fluorosis was detected in 31 villages in the Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh, Central India. Out of the 109 drinking water sources that were analyzed, about 67 % were found to contain high concentration of fluoride above the permissible level of 1.0 mg/l. Dental fluorosis among the primary school children in the age between 8 and 15 served as primary indicator for fluoride intoxication among the children. Urinary fluoride levels among the adults were found to be correlated with drinking water fluoride in 10 villages affected by fluoride. Intervention in the form of alternate safe water supply in five villages showed significant reduction in the urinary fluoride concentration when compared to the control village. Urinary fluoride serves as an excellent marker for assessing the effectiveness of intervention program in the fluoride-affected villages.

  6. Updated Global Burden of Cholera in Endemic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Nelson, Allyson R.; Lopez, Anna Lena; Sack, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The global burden of cholera is largely unknown because the majority of cases are not reported. The low reporting can be attributed to limited capacity of epidemiological surveillance and laboratories, as well as social, political, and economic disincentives for reporting. We previously estimated 2.8 million cases and 91,000 deaths annually due to cholera in 51 endemic countries. A major limitation in our previous estimate was that the endemic and non-endemic countries were defined based on the countries’ reported cholera cases. We overcame the limitation with the use of a spatial modelling technique in defining endemic countries, and accordingly updated the estimates of the global burden of cholera. Methods/Principal Findings Countries were classified as cholera endemic, cholera non-endemic, or cholera-free based on whether a spatial regression model predicted an incidence rate over a certain threshold in at least three of five years (2008-2012). The at-risk populations were calculated for each country based on the percent of the country without sustainable access to improved sanitation facilities. Incidence rates from population-based published studies were used to calculate the estimated annual number of cases in endemic countries. The number of annual cholera deaths was calculated using inverse variance-weighted average case-fatality rate (CFRs) from literature-based CFR estimates. We found that approximately 1.3 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.86 million cholera cases (uncertainty range: 1.3m-4.0m) occur annually in endemic countries. Among these cases, there are an estimated 95,000 deaths (uncertainty range: 21,000-143,000). Conclusion/Significance The global burden of cholera remains high. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for the majority of this burden. Our findings can inform programmatic decision-making for cholera control. PMID:26043000

  7. The endemic plants of Micronesia: a geographical checklist and commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorence, D.H.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Micronesia-Polynesia bioregion is recognized as a global biodiversity hotspot. However, until now estimates regarding the number of endemic plant species for the region were not supported by any comprehensive published work for the region. The results of this study indicate that Micronesia has the world’s highest percentage of plant endemism per square kilometer out of all globally recognized insular biodiversity hotspots. A checklist of all endemic plant species for Micronesia is presented here with their corresponding geographical limits within the region. A summary of previous work and estimates is also provided noting the degree of taxonomic progress in the past several decades. A total of 364 vascular plant species are considered endemic to Micronesia, most of them being restricted to the Caroline Islands with a large percentage restricted to Palau. The checklist includes seven new combinations, one new name, and two unverified names that require additional study to verify endemic status. Overviews of each respective botanical family represented in the list are given including additional information on the Micronesian taxa. Recommendations for future work and potential projects are alluded to throughout the text highlighting major data gaps and very poorly known taxa. The following new combinations and names are made: Cyclosorus carolinensis (Hosokawa Lorence, comb. nov. , Cyclosorusgretheri (W. H. Wagner Lorence, comb. nov., Cyclosorusguamensis (Holttum Lorence, comb. nov., Cyclosorus palauensis (Hosokawa Lorence, comb. nov. , Cyclosorus rupiinsularis (Fosberg Lorence, comb. nov., Dalbergia hosokawae (Hosokawa Costion nom. nov., Syzygium trukensis (Hosokawa Costion & E. Lucas comb. nov.

  8. Endemicity of cholera in Nigeria: A mathematical model to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focal point is to investigate the persistent endemic nature of cholera in Nigeria using mathematical model. We found that, there can be no backward bifurcation because there existed only one positive endemic equilibrium. In other words, it is not possible for multiple endemic equilibria to exist if the reproduction number ...

  9. Patterns of distribution and protection status of the endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-06-02

    Jun 2, 1995 ... South Africa contains the majority of southern Africa's endemic mammals and hence is an important ... example of an archaic fauna that has undergone local radia- ... Indeed, only six of South Africa's endemic. R eprodu ced by Sabin et G atew ..... of the endemic flora of this region is renowned (Cowling,.

  10. Poisoning by coal smoke containing arsenic and fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, D.; He, Y.G.; Hu, Q.X. [Guizhou Sanitary and Epidemiological Station, Guiyang (China)

    1997-02-01

    An investigation was made into a disease involving skin pigmentation, keratosis of the hands and feet, dental discoloration, and generalized bone and joint pain, stiffness and rigidity, in the village of Bazhi, Zhijin County, Ghizhou Province, People`s Republic of China. Measurements were made of the arsenic and fluoride levels of coal, water, air, food, urine and hair in Bazhi and a control village, Xinzhai, in which coal with a low arsenic content was used. Up to 188 people, including children, in Bazhi and 752 in Xinzhai, were examined for the presence of chronic arsenium, skeletal fluorosis, dental fluorosis and electrocardiogram abnormalities. The coal in Bazhi was found to contain high levels of arsenic and fluoride resulting, after burning in homes without an adequate chimney systems, in pollution of air and food with arsenic and fluoride. The coal in Xinzhai did not cause arsenic pollution but did produce a higher level of fluoride pollution. It was concluded that the endemic disease in Bazhi was caused by pollution by coal smoke containing arsenic and fluoride. It is suggested that arsenic may act synergistically with fluoride so that a lower level of fluoride may produce fluoride toxicity with dental and skeletal fluorosis.

  11. Oxidative stress in patients with endemic pemphigus foliaceus and healthy subjects with anti-desmoglein 1 antibodies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Ericson Leonardo; Ramos, Willy; Seminario-Vidal, Lucia; Tello, Mercedes; Ronceros, Gerardo; Ortega-Loayza, Alex G.

    2018-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown oxidative stress in pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus, nevertheless, it remains unknown whether a similar response is characteristic of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in Peru. Objectives To determine the oxidative stress response in endemic pemphigus foliaceus patients and subjects with positive for anti-desmoglein1 antibodies (anti-dsg1) from endemic areas of Peru. Subjects and Methods This is a cross-sectional study. The study population included 21 patients with Endemic Pemphigus foliaceus and 12 healthy subjects with anti-dsg1 antibodies from the Peruvian Amazon (Ucayali), as well as 30 healthy control subjects. Malondialdehyde, an indicator of lipid peroxidation by free radicals, was measured in serum. Results We collected 21 cases of endemic pemphigus foliaceus, 15 of them with active chronic disease and 6 in clinical remission. Serum malondialdehyde values in patients with chronic active evolution and healthy subjects with anti-dsg1 antibodies were statistically higher than those of healthy controls (p<0.001). There was no significant difference between serum values of localized and generalized clinical forms. Study limitations The main limitation of this present study is the small number of patients with endemic pemphigus and healthy subjects positive for desmoglein 1 antibodies. Conclusions The increased serum levels of malondialdehyde in patients with chronic active endemic pemphigus foliaceus and healthy subjects from endemic areas with anti-dsg1 antibodies may suggest a contribution of systemic lipid peroxidation in the pathogenesis of endemic pemphigus foliaceus. PMID:29723379

  12. Rapid assessment of endemic bird areas in Michoacan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberto Chavez-Leon; Deborah M. Finch

    1999-01-01

    Non-sustainable land use practices in the state of Michoacan, Mexico, have perturbed endemic bird h~bitats for several decades. Endemic birds have a restricted geographic and ecological distribution. This feature makes them suitable to be used as indicators of biological diversity and environmental perturbation. Forty-one Mexican endemic species have been recorded in...

  13. A world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon I Hay

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient allocation of resources to intervene against malaria requires a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of malaria risk. It is exactly 40 y since the last global map of malaria endemicity was published. This paper describes the generation of a new world map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity for the year 2007.A total of 8,938 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR surveys were identified using a variety of exhaustive search strategies. Of these, 7,953 passed strict data fidelity tests for inclusion into a global database of PfPR data, age-standardized to 2-10 y for endemicity mapping. A model-based geostatistical procedure was used to create a continuous surface of malaria endemicity within previously defined stable spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission. These procedures were implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework so that the uncertainty of these predictions could be evaluated robustly. The uncertainty was expressed as the probability of predicting correctly one of three endemicity classes; previously stratified to be an informative guide for malaria control. Population at risk estimates, adjusted for the transmission modifying effects of urbanization in Africa, were then derived with reference to human population surfaces in 2007. Of the 1.38 billion people at risk of stable P. falciparum malaria, 0.69 billion were found in Central and South East Asia (CSE Asia, 0.66 billion in Africa, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia (Africa+, and 0.04 billion in the Americas. All those exposed to stable risk in the Americas were in the lowest endemicity class (PfPR2-10 5 to or = 40% areas. High endemicity was widespread in the Africa+ region, where 0.35 billion people are at this level of risk. Most of the rest live at intermediate risk (0.20 billion, with a smaller number (0.11 billion at low stable risk.High levels of P. falciparum malaria endemicity are common in Africa. Uniformly low endemic levels are

  14. A world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Simon I; Guerra, Carlos A; Gething, Peter W; Patil, Anand P; Tatem, Andrew J; Noor, Abdisalan M; Kabaria, Caroline W; Manh, Bui H; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Brooker, Simon; Smith, David L; Moyeed, Rana A; Snow, Robert W

    2009-03-24

    Efficient allocation of resources to intervene against malaria requires a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of malaria risk. It is exactly 40 y since the last global map of malaria endemicity was published. This paper describes the generation of a new world map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity for the year 2007. A total of 8,938 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys were identified using a variety of exhaustive search strategies. Of these, 7,953 passed strict data fidelity tests for inclusion into a global database of PfPR data, age-standardized to 2-10 y for endemicity mapping. A model-based geostatistical procedure was used to create a continuous surface of malaria endemicity within previously defined stable spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission. These procedures were implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework so that the uncertainty of these predictions could be evaluated robustly. The uncertainty was expressed as the probability of predicting correctly one of three endemicity classes; previously stratified to be an informative guide for malaria control. Population at risk estimates, adjusted for the transmission modifying effects of urbanization in Africa, were then derived with reference to human population surfaces in 2007. Of the 1.38 billion people at risk of stable P. falciparum malaria, 0.69 billion were found in Central and South East Asia (CSE Asia), 0.66 billion in Africa, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia (Africa+), and 0.04 billion in the Americas. All those exposed to stable risk in the Americas were in the lowest endemicity class (PfPR2-10 5 to or = 40%) areas. High endemicity was widespread in the Africa+ region, where 0.35 billion people are at this level of risk. Most of the rest live at intermediate risk (0.20 billion), with a smaller number (0.11 billion) at low stable risk. High levels of P. falciparum malaria endemicity are common in Africa. Uniformly low endemic levels are found in the

  15. Diversity and endemism of Peruvian mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pacheco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an annotated list for all land, aquatic and marine mammals known to occur in Peru and their distribution by ecoregions. We also present species conservation status according to international organizations and the legal conservation status in Peru. At present, we record 508 species, in 13 orders, 50 families, and 218 genera, making Peru the third most diverse country with regards to mammals in the New World, after Brazil and Mexico, and the fifth most diverse country for mammals in the World. This diversity includes 40 didelphimorphs, 2 paucituberculates, 1 manatee, 6 cingulates, 7 pilosa, 39 primates, 162 rodents, 1 rabbit, 2 soricomorphs, 165 bats, 34 carnivores, 2 perissodactyls, and 47 cetartiodactyls. Bats and rodents (327 species represent almost two thirds of total diversity (64% for Peru. Five genera and 65 species (12.8% are endemics to Peru, with the majority of these being rodents (45 species, 69,2%. Most of the endemic species are restricted to the Yungas of the eastern slope of the Andes (39 species, 60% followed by Selva Baja (14 species, 21.5%. The taxonomic status of some species is commented on, when those depart from accepted taxonomy. The marsupial Marmosa phaea; the rodents Melanomys caliginosus, M. robustulus, and Echinoprocta rufescens; the shrew Cryptotis equatoris; the bats Anoura fistulata, Phyllostomus latifolius, Artibeus ravus, Cynomops greenhalli, Eumops maurus, and Rhogeessa velilla; and the carnivore Nasuella olivacea are first records of species occurrence in Peru. Finally, we also include a list of 15 non-native species.

  16. ANALYSIS OF ENDEMISM OF THE XEROPHILOUS FLORA IN THE RUSSIAN CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Taysumov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research is to study the endemics of the xerophilous flora of the Russian Caucasus in connection with the matter of knowing the genesis.Methods. The study is based on the field research expeditions.Findings. The presence of endemic species in flora is an indicator of its originality, and the degree of originality is determined by the extent of the endemic species. In general, according to our geographic analysis, the number of endemic species in xerophilous flora of the Russian Caucasus accounts for 32% (326 species, of which 25% of all endemic species have natural habitats within entire Caucasus, 66% are widespread in the Greater Caucasus, and 9% in the Pre-Caucasian region.Conclusion. Endemic species of xerophytes of the flora, in their overwhelming majority, are euxerophytes, and most steno-endemics also belong to this group of xerophytes. In a systematic aspect, the leading family, containing the largest number of endemic species, is Asteraceae (in percentage terms - Lamiaceae and Jurinea is a leading genus (in percentage terms - Psephellus. In relation to the substrate, calcixerophytes are the dominants and most saturated endemics in quantitative terms are the belt of mountain xerophytes. The predominant biomes are hemicryptophytes; as compared with the number of biomorphes, among chamaephytes there is the biggest quantity of endemics

  17. Endemic versus epidemic viral spreads display distinct patterns of HTLV-2b replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabet, Anne-Sophie; Moules, Vincent; Sibon, David; Nass, Catharie C.; Mortreux, Franck; Mauclere, Philippe; Gessain, Antoine; Murphy, Edward L.; Wattel, Eric

    2006-01-01

    As the replication pattern of leukemogenic PTLVs possesses a strong pathogenic impact, we investigated HTLV-2 replication in vivo in asymptomatic carriers belonging into 2 distinct populations infected by the same HTLV-2b subtype. They include epidemically infected American blood donors, in whom HTLV-2b has been present for only 30 years, and endemically infected Bakola Pygmies from Cameroon, characterized by a long viral endemicity (at least few generations). In blood donors, both the circulating proviral loads and the degree of infected cell proliferation were largely lower than those characterizing asymptomatic carriers infected with leukemogenic PTLVs (HTLV-1, STLV-1). This might contribute to explain the lack of known link between HTLV-2b infection and the development of malignancies in this population. In contrast, endemically infected individuals displayed high proviral loads resulting from the extensive proliferation of infected cells. The route and/or the duration of infection, viral genetic drift, host immune response, genetic background, co-infections or a combination thereof might have contributed to these differences between endemically and epidemically infected subjects. As the clonality pattern observed in endemically infected individuals is very reminiscent of that of leukemogenic PTLVs at the pre-leukemic stage, our results highlight the possible oncogenic effect of HTLV-2b infection in such population

  18. Vertebrate endemism in south-eastern Africa numerically redefines a biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Sandun J; ProcheŞ, Şerban; Ratnayake-Perera, Dayani; Ramdhani, Syd

    2018-02-20

    We use numerical methods to explore patterns of vertebrate endemism in south-eastern Africa, refining the boundaries of the intuitively-defined Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biodiversity hotspot, also proposing a zoogeographic regionalisation. An incidence matrix of 300 vertebrate species endemic to south-eastern Africa sensu lato in 37 operational geographic units were used in (a) phenetic cluster analysis (PCA) using the algorithm of unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (phenetic approach), and (b) parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE; parsimony approach), in order to numerically evaluate the bioregional delimitations. The analyses provide a valid biogeographical entity 37% larger than the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany hotspot, but substantially (131%) higher in vertebrate endemicity viz. the Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (GMPA) region of vertebrate endemism. South-east Africa is recognised as a dominion in the global zoogeographical area hierarchy, with subordinate units including the GMPA province. Various spatially-based measures of endemism were mapped for vertebrate species restricted to the dominion, i.e. endemic to south-eastern Africa sensu stricto. Areas and centres of endemism detected respectively from PAE and PCA, within the south-east Africa dominion also support the refined boundary of the GMPA region of endemism, which provides a better spatial conservation priority compared to the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany hotspot. Reptiles and amphibians are found to be the main drivers of the overall pattern of endemism, while the pattern in freshwater fish is the most distinctive. Our analyses also indicate a good congruence of the centres of endemism across different terrestrial vertebrate taxa.

  19. Elevational plant species richness patterns and their drivers across non-endemics, endemics and growth forms in the Eastern Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manish, Kumar; Pandit, Maharaj K; Telwala, Yasmeen; Nautiyal, Dinesh C; Koh, Lian Pin; Tiwari, Sudha

    2017-09-01

    Despite decades of research, ecologists continue to debate how spatial patterns of species richness arise across elevational gradients on the Earth. The equivocal results of these studies could emanate from variations in study design, sampling effort and data analysis. In this study, we demonstrate that the richness patterns of 2,781 (2,197 non-endemic and 584 endemic) angiosperm species along an elevational gradient of 300-5,300 m in the Eastern Himalaya are hump-shaped, spatial scale of extent (the proportion of elevational gradient studied) dependent and growth form specific. Endemics peaked at higher elevations than non-endemics across all growth forms (trees, shrubs, climbers, and herbs). Richness patterns were influenced by the proportional representation of the largest physiognomic group (herbs). We show that with increasing spatial scale of extent, the richness patterns change from a monotonic to a hump-shaped pattern and richness maxima shift toward higher elevations across all growth forms. Our investigations revealed that the combination of ambient energy (air temperature, solar radiation, and potential evapo-transpiration) and water availability (soil water content and precipitation) were the main drivers of elevational plant species richness patterns in the Himalaya. This study highlights the importance of factoring in endemism, growth forms, and spatial scale when investigating elevational gradients of plant species distributions and advances our understanding of how macroecological patterns arise.

  20. Endemic harvestmen and spiders of Austria (Arachnida: Opiliones, Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komposch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive overview of plant, fungus and animal species of Austria revealed a total of 748 endemic and subendemic species, including, 11 harvestman and 46 spider species. Altogether two endemic harvestmen (Nemastoma bidentatum relictum, Nemastoma schuelleri and 8 endemic spiders (Abacoproeces molestus, Collinsia (caliginosa nemenziana, Mughiphantes severus, Mughiphantes styriacus, Pelecopsis alpica, Scotophaeus nanus, Troglohyphantes novicordis, Troglohyphantes tauriscus, beside 9 subendemic harvestman and 38 subendemic spider species have been recorded from Austria. Hot-spots of endemism in the Eastern Alps are the north-eastern (Ennstaler Alps and southern Calcareous Alps (Karawanken, Karnische Alps and the Central Alps (Hohe Tauern, Gurktaler Alps, Ötztaler and Stubaier Alps. Most of the endemic arachnid species occur from the nival down to the montane zone. Important habitats are rocky areas, caves and woodlands. High absolute numbers and percentages of endemics can be found within the harvestman families Cladonychiidae, Ischyropsalididae and Nemastomatidae and in the spider genera Lepthyphantes s. l. and Troglohyphantes. The conservation status of these highly endangered taxa – 85 % of the spider species and 100 % of the harvestman taxa are endangered in Austria – is poor.

  1. Species conservation profiles of endemic spiders (Araneae) from Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Luís C; Silva, Isamberto; Borges, Paulo AV; Boieiro, Mário

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The North Atlantic archipelagos of Madeira and Selvagens present a unique biological diversity including, presently, 56 endemic spider species. Several recent projects provide valuable information on their distribution across most islands and habitats. To date, the only endemic spider assessed according to the IUCN Red List criteria is Hogna ingens. The objective of this paper is to assess all remaining endemic species and advise on possible future conservation actions critical for the survival of endangered species. New information Seven species were found to have a continuing decline in either range or population size. Their decline can be mostly attributed to habitat destruction or degradation, invasive plant species that reduce quality of habitat, forest fires at high mountain regions and possible competition for resources from invasive congeners. The tetragnathid M. barreti is considered as possibly extinct due to the suspected impact of a competing species. Although most endemic spiders from the Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos have relatively low extinction risk due to the good condition and protection of the laurisilva forests where many live, there are a number of species requiring urgent attention and protection measures. These include all cave and mountain-restricted species as well as those threatened by competing congeners or invasive plants. Extending current protected areas, restoring original habitats of threatened species and the control of invasive taxa should remain a priority for species survival. PMID:29104441

  2. Species conservation profiles of endemic spiders (Araneae) from Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Pedro; Crespo, Luís C; Silva, Isamberto; Borges, Paulo Av; Boieiro, Mário

    2017-01-01

    The North Atlantic archipelagos of Madeira and Selvagens present a unique biological diversity including, presently, 56 endemic spider species. Several recent projects provide valuable information on their distribution across most islands and habitats. To date, the only endemic spider assessed according to the IUCN Red List criteria is Hogna ingens. The objective of this paper is to assess all remaining endemic species and advise on possible future conservation actions critical for the survival of endangered species. Seven species were found to have a continuing decline in either range or population size. Their decline can be mostly attributed to habitat destruction or degradation, invasive plant species that reduce quality of habitat, forest fires at high mountain regions and possible competition for resources from invasive congeners. The tetragnathid M. barreti is considered as possibly extinct due to the suspected impact of a competing species. Although most endemic spiders from the Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos have relatively low extinction risk due to the good condition and protection of the laurisilva forests where many live, there are a number of species requiring urgent attention and protection measures. These include all cave and mountain-restricted species as well as those threatened by competing congeners or invasive plants. Extending current protected areas, restoring original habitats of threatened species and the control of invasive taxa should remain a priority for species survival.

  3. Prevalence of hand osteoarthritis and knee osteoarthritis in Kashin-Beck disease endemic areas and non Kashin-Beck disease endemic areas: A status survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, QuanQuan; Liu, Yun Qi; Sun, Li Yan; Deng, Qing; Wang, Shao Ping; Cao, Yan Hong; Zhang, Xue Ying; Jiang, Yuan Yuan; Lv, Hong Yan; Duan, Li Bin; Yu, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a considerable health problem worldwide, and the prevalence of OA varies in different regions. In this study, the prevalence of OA in Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) and non-KBD endemic areas was examined, respectively. According to monitoring data, 4 types of regions (including none, mild, moderate and high KBD endemic areas) in Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces were selected. All local residents were eligible for inclusion criteria have undergone X-ray images of hands and anteroposterior image of knees. A total of 1673 cases were collected, 1446 cases were analyzed after removing the KBD patients (227). The overall hand OA and knee OA detection rates were 33.3% (481/1446) and 56.6% (818/1446), respectively. After being standardized by age, the detection rate of hand OA in the KBD endemic areas was significantly higher than that in the non-endemic endemic areas. Differently, there was no significant difference in the detection rates of knee OA between the KBD endemic areas and the non-endemic area. The correlation coefficient between the severity of OA and the severity of knee OA was 0.358 and 0.197 in the KBD and non-KBD endemic areas, respectively. Where the KBD historical prevalence level was higher, the severity of the residents’ hand OA was more serious. The detection rates of hand OA and knee OA increased with age. The detection rate of knee OA increased with the increase in body mass index. The prevalence of hand OA was closely related to the pathogenic factors of Kashin-Beck disease, and the prevalence of knee OA had no significant correlation with KBD pathogenic factors. PMID:29320581

  4. GC–MS analysis of bioactive compounds present in different extracts of an endemic plant Broussonetia luzonica (Blanco) (Moraceae) leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Franelyne Pataueg Casuga; Agnes Llamasares Castillo; Mary Jho-Anne Tolentino Corpuz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and characterize the chemical composition of the different crude extracts from the leaves of Broussonetia luzonica (Blanco) (Moraceae) (B. luzonica), an endemic plant in the Philippines. Methods: The air dried leaves were powdered and subjected to selective sequential extraction using solvents of increasing polarity through percolation, namely, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol to obtain three different extracts. Then, each of the extracts was further subjected...

  5. Effects of fluorine on the human fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, H.; Cheng, Z.S.; Liu, W.Q. [Huaxi Medical University, Huaxi (China)

    2008-10-15

    In an endemic fluorosis area, 16 fetuses that were delivered during their sixth to eighth month of gestation by means of artificial abortion were collected and studied. The results (compared to 10 control fetuses from a non-endemic area) show that fluorine levels in tissues are obviously high, especially in brain, calvarium, and femur. The activity of alkaline phosphatase in femur and kidney was raised. By observation of the ultrastructure of samples, the number of mitochondria, rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, and free ribosome in neurons of cerebral cortex were reduced, and the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum was obviously dilated. These findings indicate that the neurons of the cerebral cortex in the developing brain may be one of the targets of fluorine.

  6. Endemic Nephropathy Around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Fiona J; Gifford, Robert M; Eddleston, Michael; Dhaun, Neeraj

    2017-03-01

    There have been several global epidemics of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKD u ). Some, such as Itai-Itai disease in Japan and Balkan endemic nephropathy, have been explained, whereas the etiology of others remains unclear. In countries such as Sri Lanka, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and India, CKD u is a major public health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Despite their geographical separation, however, there are striking similarities between these endemic nephropathies. Young male agricultural workers who perform strenuous labor in extreme conditions are the worst affected. Patients remain asymptomatic until end-stage renal failure. Biomarkers of tubular injury are raised, and kidney biopsy shows chronic interstitial nephritis with associated tubular atrophy. In many of these places access to dialysis and transplantation is limited, leaving few treatment options. In this review we briefly describe the major historic endemic nephropathies. We then summarize the epidemiology, clinical features, histology and clinical course of CKD u in Mesoamerica, Sri Lanka, India, Egypt, and Tunisia. We draw comparisons between the proposed etiologies and supporting research. Recognition of the similarities may reinforce the international drive to establish causality and to effect prevention.

  7. Endemic Nephropathy Around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona J. Gifford

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been several global epidemics of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu. Some, such as Itai-Itai disease in Japan and Balkan endemic nephropathy, have been explained, whereas the etiology of others remains unclear. In countries such as Sri Lanka, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and India, CKDu is a major public health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Despite their geographical separation, however, there are striking similarities between these endemic nephropathies. Young male agricultural workers who perform strenuous labor in extreme conditions are the worst affected. Patients remain asymptomatic until end-stage renal failure. Biomarkers of tubular injury are raised, and kidney biopsy shows chronic interstitial nephritis with associated tubular atrophy. In many of these places access to dialysis and transplantation is limited, leaving few treatment options. In this review we briefly describe the major historic endemic nephropathies. We then summarize the epidemiology, clinical features, histology and clinical course of CKDu in Mesoamerica, Sri Lanka, India, Egypt, and Tunisia. We draw comparisons between the proposed etiologies and supporting research. Recognition of the similarities may reinforce the international drive to establish causality and to effect prevention.

  8. Investigating The Travelling Wave Solution For an SIR Endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the travelling wave solution for an SIR endemic disease model with no disease related death when the spatial spread of the susceptible is not negligible. In this case the disease is driven by both the susceptible and the infective classes. The population is open since the disease is habitually prevalent in ...

  9. Faeco-histological Method of Studying Worm Endemicity with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worms are endemic in various parts of the world, the patterns varying from community to community, even in the same country. A rough index of those common among Nigerians of the Igbo ethnic group has been obtained using a histological study of the ova present in the luminal faeces of the vermiform appendix in 559 ...

  10. Exoemission of Ethiopian soils and the endemicity of non-filarial elephantiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, J.E. (Birmingham Univ. (UK). Dept. of Anatomy); Townsend, P.D. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK))

    1983-01-01

    Non-filarial elephantiasis is an endemic disease in the bare-footed population of Ethiopia. The distribution of this condition is linked with that of local red clay soil. Recently, thermoluminescence has been successfully used to distinguish between endemic and non-endemic soils. Instrinsic lattice defects, frozen in during cooling of volcanic material, are considered to be responsible for characteristic thermoluminescence signals. However, the biological reactivity of the absorbed soil particles will depend upon their surface properties. Exoemission has therefore been studied in samples from both endemic (5 samples) and non-endemic (4 samples) areas. All samples from endemic areas, on first heating, demonstrate an emission peak at 75/sup 0/C. Post-irradiation storage of samples in a moist atmosphere tends to decrease emissivity while wetting irreversibly reduces the response to irradiation. In an hydrated biological environment, this surface reactivity may be linked to the pathogenicity of the soil particles.

  11. Exoemission of Ethiopian soils and the endemicity of non-filarial elephantiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Non-filarial elephantiasis is an endemic disease in the bare-footed population of Ethiopia. The distribution of this condition is linked with that of local red clay soil. Recently, thermoluminescence has been successfully used to distinguish between endemic and non-endemic soils. Instrinsic lattice defects, frozen in during cooling of volcanic material, are considered to be responsible for characteristic thermoluminescence signals. However, the biological reactivity of the absorbed soil particles will depend upon their surface properties. Exoemission has therefore been studied in samples from both endemic (5 samples) and non-endemic (4 samples) areas. All samples from endemic areas, on first heating, demonstrate an emission peak at 75 0 C. Post-irradiation storage of samples in a moist atmosphere tends to decrease emissivity while wetting irreversibly reduces the response to irradiation. In an hydrated biological environement, this surface reactivity may be linked to the pathogenicity of the soil particles. (author)

  12. Vegetation stability and the habitat associations of the endemic taxa of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Gavin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Explanations for areas of endemism often involve relative climatic stability, or low climate velocity, over time scales ranging from the Pleistocene to the late Cenozoic. Given that many narrowly endemic taxa in forested landscapes display discrete habitat associations, habitat stability should be similarly important for endemic persistence. Furthermore, while past climate variability is exceedingly difficult to quantify on millennial time scales, past distributions of habitats may be robustly inferred from paleoecological records. The Olympic Peninsula, Washington, supports a biota with several insular features including 29 endemic plant and animal taxa. Here I present the geographic distribution and habitat of the endemic taxa, and then examine the vegetation stability of the past 14,300 years from five pollen records associated with discrete vegetation zones on the peninsula. I show that 11 endemics have distributions centered on dry alpine scree and rock in the northeastern quadrant of the peninsula, and nine occur in shaded riparian forests in the southwest. Vegetation turnover during the post-glacial period was smallest in these areas. However, another long pollen record from the western peninsula reveals existence of shrub tundra and greatly reduced forest cover, indicating southward displacement of shaded riparian habitats by perhaps as much as 100 km. Although this study supports an association of post-glacial vegetation stability with endemism, records spanning the glacial maximum indicate widespread tundra during long periods of the late Pleistocene and therefore suggest southern displacement of forest-associated endemics. While some of the alpine scree-associated endemics may have persisted in situ, many others likely arrived via a variety of dispersal trajectories. These histories include dispersal from southern refugia towards ocean barriers preventing further northward dispersal, contraction from more widespread distributions, and

  13. Features of Acquired Immunity in Malaria Endemic Areas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of Acquired Immunity in Malaria Endemic Areas. Adults (>15 years) do not suffer from the disease. Concomitant presence of low levels of P. falciparum in immune persons. This immunity is lost within 6-12 months if a person moves out of endemic area. Antibodies mediate protection for the asexual stages of P. falciparum.

  14. Population connectivity and the effectiveness of marine protected areas to protect vulnerable, exploited and endemic coral reef fishes at an endemic hotspot

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Meer, Martin H.; Berumen, Michael L.; Hobbs, Jean Paul Adrian; Van Herwerden, Lynne Van

    2014-01-01

    -replenishment, and the absence of MPAs at NI needs to be rectified to ensure the persistence of endemic species at this location. Other endemic fishes exhibit similar patterns of high self-replenishment across the four locations, indicating that a single spatial management

  15. Implementing a geographical information system to assess endemic fluoride areas in Lamphun, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theerawasttanasiri, Nonthaphat; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Pingchai, Wichain; Nimchareon, Yuwaree; Sriwichai, Sangworn

    2018-01-01

    Many studies have shown that fluoride can cross the placenta and that exposure to high fluoride during pregnancy may result in premature birth and/or a low birth weight. Lamphun is one of six provinces in Thailand where natural water fluoride (WF) concentrations >10.0 mg/L were found, and it was also found that >50% of households used water with high fluoride levels. Nevertheless, geographical information system (GIS) and maps of endemic fluoride areas are lacking. We aimed to measure the fluoride level of village water supplies to assess endemic fluoride areas and present GIS with maps in Google Maps. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from July 2016 to January 2017. Purpose sampling was used to identify villages of districts with WF >10.0 mg/L in the Mueang Lamphun, Pasang, and Ban Thi districts. Water samples were collected with the geolocation measured by Smart System Info. Fluoride was analyzed with an ion-selective electrode instrument using a total ionic strength adjustment buffer. WF >0.70 mg/L was used to identify unsafe drinking water and areas with high endemic fluoride levels. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the findings, and MS Excel was used to create the GIS database. Maps were created in Google Earth and presented in Google Maps. We found that WF concentrations ranged between 0.10-13.60 mg/L. Forty-four percent (n=439) of samples were at unsafe levels (>0.70 mg/L), and. 54% (n=303) of villages and 46% (n=79,807) of households used the unsafe drinking water. Fifty percent (n=26) of subdistricts were classified as being endemic fluoride areas. Five subdistricts were endemic fluoride areas, and in those, there were two subdistricts in which every household used unsafe drinking water. These findings show the distribution of endemic fluoride areas and unsafe drinking water in Lamphun. This is useful for health policy authorities, local governments, and villagers and enables collaboration to resolve these issues. The GIS data are

  16. A feasibility study for measuring fluorine in bone, in-vivo, using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, M.; McNeill, F.; Aslam; Byun, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Skeletal fluorosis is a bone disease which is a result of excessive fluoride ingestion and may cause osteosclerosis, osteoporosis and calcification of tendons and ligaments. Endemic levels of fluorosis are commonly reported in areas of the world with naturally high concentrations of fluoride in the drinking water. However, fluorosis is difficult to medically diagnose, and due to its prevalence, a non-invasive method for measuring the concentration of fluoride in bone is warranted. A feasibility study has been conducted to determine the possibility of measuring fluorine non-invasively in exposed populations using neutron activation analysis. Neutron activation analysis has been used successfully to measure the amount of fluoride in bone biopsy samples. However, measurement of fluorine is challenging, and has not, to our knowledge, previously been attempted in vivo, as the 20 F isotope has the very short half life of 11s. Transfer from activation counting must therefore be fast. For this study, plaster of Paris powder phantoms doped with varying fluoride concentrations were created to simulate a fist. They were irradiated using a low energy neutron beam at McMaster's Tandem Accelerator facility. The 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction was used as the source of neutrons; the Be target was irradiated with an incident proton energy of 2.15MeV. The fluorine was detected via the neutron capture reaction, 19 F(n,γ) 20 F, using two 20 cm x 5 cm NaI detectors. Fluorine emits a gamma ray at 1633 keV upon decay. A calibration curve of peak area versus phantom fluorine content was created and a detection limit of 1.8 mg F/g Ca, with a corresponding dose of approximately 12 mSv to the hand. This data will be presented and the feasibility of measurement discussed in the context of the delivered dose. In addition, results of the investigation of the competing reaction, 23 Na(n,α) 20 F, will be presented. Data illustrating the relative activation and count rates from fluorine

  17. Molecular typing of Brucella melitensis endemic strains and differentiation from the vaccine strain Rev-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutsios, Georgios T; Papi, Rigini M; Ekateriniadou, Loukia V; Minas, Anastasios; Kyriakidis, Dimitrios A

    2012-03-01

    In the present study forty-four Greek endemic strains of Br. melitensis and three reference strains were genotyped by Multi locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat (ML-VNTR) analysis based on an eight-base pair tandem repeat sequence that was revealed in eight loci of Br. melitensis genome. The forty-four strains were discriminated from the vaccine strain Rev-1 by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). The ML-VNTR analysis revealed that endemic, reference and vaccine strains are genetically closely related, while most of the loci tested (1, 2, 4, 5 and 7) are highly polymorphic with Hunter-Gaston Genetic Diversity Index (HGDI) values in the range of 0.939 to 0.775. Analysis of ML-VNTRs loci stability through in vitro passages proved that loci 1 and 5 are non stable. Therefore, vaccine strain can be discriminated from endemic strains by allele's clusters of loci 2, 4, 6 and 7. RFLP and DGGE were also employed to analyse omp2 gene and reveled different patterns among Rev-1 and endemic strains. In RFLP, Rev-1 revealed three fragments (282, 238 and 44 bp), while endemic strains two fragments (238 and 44 bp). As for DGGE, the electrophoretic mobility of Rev-1 is different from the endemic strains due to heterologous binding of DNA chains of omp2a and omp2b gene. Overall, our data show clearly that it is feasible to genotype endemic strains of Br. melitensis and differentiate them from vaccine strain Rev-1 with ML-VNTR, RFLP and DGGE techniques. These tools can be used for conventional investigations in brucellosis outbreaks.

  18. An outbreak of Leishmania major from an endemic to a non-endemic region posed a public health threat in Iraq from 2014-2017: Epidemiological, molecular and phylogenetic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariwan M M Al-Bajalan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a neglected worldwide, zoonotic, vector-borne, tropical disease that is a threat to public health. This threat may spread from endemic to non-endemic areas. Current research has exploited epidemiological, molecular and phylogenetical studies to determine the danger of an outbreak of CL in the borderline area between northern and central Iraq from 2014-2017.For the first time, using sequence analysis of the cytochrome b gene, the occurrence of CL in the borderline area between northern and central Iraq was confirmed to be due to Leishmania major. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that it was closely related to the L. major MRHO/IR/75/ER strain in Iran.In conclusion, the genotype confirmation of the L. major strain will improve our understanding of the epidemiology of the disease. This is important for facilitating control programs to prevent the further spread of CL. Furthermore, this area could be considered as a model for further research on the risk of global CL epidemics in other non-endemic countries where both reservoir hosts and sandfly vectors are present.

  19. An outbreak of Leishmania major from an endemic to a non-endemic region posed a public health threat in Iraq from 2014-2017: Epidemiological, molecular and phylogenetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bajalan, Mariwan M M; Al-Jaf, Sirwan M A; Niranji, Sherko S; Abdulkareem, Dler R; Al-Kayali, Khudhair K; Kato, Hirotomo

    2018-03-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected worldwide, zoonotic, vector-borne, tropical disease that is a threat to public health. This threat may spread from endemic to non-endemic areas. Current research has exploited epidemiological, molecular and phylogenetical studies to determine the danger of an outbreak of CL in the borderline area between northern and central Iraq from 2014-2017. For the first time, using sequence analysis of the cytochrome b gene, the occurrence of CL in the borderline area between northern and central Iraq was confirmed to be due to Leishmania major. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that it was closely related to the L. major MRHO/IR/75/ER strain in Iran. In conclusion, the genotype confirmation of the L. major strain will improve our understanding of the epidemiology of the disease. This is important for facilitating control programs to prevent the further spread of CL. Furthermore, this area could be considered as a model for further research on the risk of global CL epidemics in other non-endemic countries where both reservoir hosts and sandfly vectors are present.

  20. Clinical significance of neurocysticercosis in endemic villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, H.H.; Gilman, R.H.; Tsang, V.C.W.; Gonzalez, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral cysticercosis is the main cause of late-onset epilepsy in most developing countries. Data on the neuroepidemiology of cysticercosis in endemic populations is scarce. In an endemic village on the northern coast of Peru, 49 individuals with neurological symptomatology (41 epileptic and 8 non-epileptic) were screened for antibodies to Taenia solium, using a serum electroimmuno transfer blot assay. Fifteen subjects were seropositive, 14 (34%) of those with epilepsy but only one (13%) of those who were non-epileptic. A history of passing proglottides was associated with positive serology. Thirteen of the 15 seropositive individuals underwent cerebral computed tomography; only 7 (54%) were abnormal. A randomly selected sample of 20 pigs from the village was also tested, and 6 (30%) were seropositive. This study demonstrated the importance of cysticercosis in the aetiology of epilepsy in endemic villages and the close relationship between porcine and human infection

  1. Implementing a geographical information system to assess endemic fluoride areas in Lamphun, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theerawasttanasiri N

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonthaphat Theerawasttanasiri,1,2 Surasak Taneepanichskul,1 Wichain Pingchai,3 Yuwaree Nimchareon,4 Sangworn Sriwichai5 1College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Department of Health, Health Promotion Center Region 1, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 3Mueang Lamphun District Public Health Office, 4Pasang District Public Health Office, 5Ban Thi District Public Health Office, Lamphun, Thailand Introduction: Many studies have shown that fluoride can cross the placenta and that exposure to high fluoride during pregnancy may result in premature birth and/or a low birth weight. Lamphun is one of six provinces in Thailand where natural water fluoride (WF concentrations >10.0 mg/L were found, and it was also found that >50% of households used water with high fluoride levels. Nevertheless, geographical information system (GIS and maps of endemic fluoride areas are lacking. We aimed to measure the fluoride level of village water supplies to assess endemic fluoride areas and present GIS with maps in Google Maps.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from July 2016 to January 2017. Purpose sampling was used to identify villages of districts with WF >10.0 mg/L in the Mueang Lamphun, Pasang, and Ban Thi districts. Water samples were collected with the geolocation measured by Smart System Info. Fluoride was analyzed with an ion-selective electrode instrument using a total ionic strength adjustment buffer. WF >0.70 mg/L was used to identify unsafe drinking water and areas with high endemic fluoride levels. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the findings, and MS Excel was used to create the GIS database. Maps were created in Google Earth and presented in Google Maps.Results: We found that WF concentrations ranged between 0.10–13.60 mg/L. Forty-four percent (n=439 of samples were at unsafe levels (>0.70 mg/L, and. 54% (n=303 of villages and 46% (n=79,807 of households used the unsafe drinking water. Fifty percent

  2. Masking of Enamel Fluorosis Discolorations and Tooth Misalignment With a Combination of At-Home Whitening, Resin Infiltration, and Direct Composite Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigão, J; Lam, V Q; Burseth, B G; Real, C

    This clinical report illustrates a conservative technique to mask enamel discolorations in maxillary anterior teeth caused by hypomineralization associated with enamel fluorosis and subsequent direct resin composite to improve the anterior esthetics. The treatment consisted of at-home whitening with 10% carbamide peroxide gel with potassium nitrate and sodium fluoride in a custom-fitted tray to mask the brown-stained areas, followed by resin infiltration to mask the white spot areas. An existing resin composite restoration in the maxillary right central incisor was subsequently replaced after completion of the whitening and resin infiltration procedures, whereas the two misaligned and rotated maxillary lateral incisors were built up with direct resin composite restorations to provide the illusion of adequate arch alignment, as the patient was unable to use orthodontic therapy.

  3. [Thyroid proteins in endemic goitre and their relationship to the intrathyroidal thyroid hormone concentration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, S; Groebner, P; Hausen, A; Obendorf, L; Riccabona, G

    1980-02-01

    According to several reports we suspected that the pathogenesis of endemic goitre cannot be explained by iodine deficiency only, but that other--partially endogenous--goitrogenic factors must be present. We therefore studied 16 cases of "euthyroid" endemic goitre from the endemic goitre area of the province of Bolzano in Italy. After fractionation of tissue homogenates, T 4 and T 3 were measured by RIA and the I concentration was also termined. Thyroglobulin and its fractions were measured by ultracentrifuge procedures after assessment of the total protein concentration. Evaluation of the present results suggests that an insufficient synthesis of thyroglobulin in the examined goitres induces an inadequate adaptation of the organism to iodine deficiency, which, in turn, decreases the thyroid hormone concentration in thyroid tissue and enhances goitrogenesis. Considering the normal iodine content of the examined tissues, there obviously seems to be two intrathyroidal iodine pools, one of which supplies the body with thyroid hormones under pituitary stimulation even though its thyroglobulin pool is reduced, while a significant amount of the thyroidal iodine pool is bound in metabolically inert protein molecules and therefore increases the goitrogenic effect of iodine deficiency.

  4. A cross-sectional study to assess the intelligence quotient (IQ of school going children aged 10-12 years in villages of Mysore district, India with different fluoride levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibu Thomas Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Besides dental and skeletal fluorosis, excessive fluoride intake can also affect the central nervous system without first causing the physical deformities associated with skeletal fluorosis. With the existence of widespread endemic fluorosis in India, the possible adverse effect of elevated fluoride in drinking water on the Intelligence Quotient (IQ level of children is a potentially serious public health problem. Aims and Objectives: This study assessed the Intelligence Quotient (IQ of school going children aged 10-12 years in villages of Mysore district with different fluoride levels. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 405 school children aged 10-12 years were selected from three villages in Mysore district with normal fluoride (1.20 mg F/l, low fluoride (0.40 mg F/l and high fluoride (2.20 mg F/l in their water supplies. A pre designed questionnaire was used to collect the required data for the survey which included socio demographic details, oral hygiene practices, diet history, body mass index and dental fluorosis. Intelligence Quotient was assessed using Raven′s colored Progressive Matrices Test. Results: In bivariate analysis, significant relationships were found between water fluoride levels and Intelligence Quotient of school children (P < 0.05. In the high fluoride village, the proportion of children with IQ below 90, i.e. below average IQ was larger compared to normal and low fluoride village. Age, gender, parent education level and family income had no significant association with IQ. Conclusion: School children residing in area with higher than normal water fluoride level demonstrated more impaired development of intelligence when compared to school children residing in areas with normal and low water fluoride levels. Thus, children′s intelligence can be affected by high water fluoride levels.

  5. FOLIAR ANATOMY OF ENDEMICS SPECIES OF Cattleya (ORCHIDACEAE ENDEMIC FROM GUIANA SHIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciene Tomaz Carneiro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was characterize the leaf's anatomical aspects of Cattleya jenmanii Rolfe and e C. lawrenceana Rchb. f., describing its anatomical structures in order to increase the knowledge of this endemic species from the region of the Guiana Shield. Besides, it also intended to identify foliar characters to assist in the anatomical comparison of these species. For anatomical study, the material was fixed in FAA and to make the slides we used the usual cut freehand technique and stained with double staining from Safranin with Blue Astra (Safrablau. C. jenmanii and C. lawrenceana has fleshy leaves covered with a thick cuticle. The mesophyll presented dorsiventral with collateral vascular bundles. A large number of bundles of smaller caliber fibers are distributed in the mesophyll poles. Only the presence of a subepidermal layer of fibers differed C. lawrenceana from C. jenmanii. Keyword: Roraima; Guiana Shield; Cattleya; Amazon Basin.

  6. Brucella epididymo-orchitis: a consideration in endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella sp. and may affect many parts of the body. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This is a case report of Brucella epididymo-orchitis in a Saudi male patient. He presented with a unilateral swelling of the left testicle. He had fever, arthralgia and night sweats. Ultrasound examination revealed enlarged left epididymis and testicle. Brucella serology was positive and the patient responded to treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin. Thus, brucella infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with epididymo-orchitis from an endemic area.

  7. Comparative phylogeography of endemic Azorean arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmakelis, Aristeidis; Rigal, François; Mourikis, Thanos; Balanika, Katerina; Terzopoulou, Sofia; Rego, Carla; Amorim, Isabel R; Crespo, Luís; Pereira, Fernando; Triantis, Kostas A; Whittaker, Robert J; Borges, Paulo A V

    2015-11-11

    For a remote oceanic archipelago of up to 8 Myr age, the Azores have a comparatively low level of endemism. We present an analysis of phylogeographic patterns of endemic Azorean island arthropods aimed at testing patterns of diversification in relation to the ontogeny of the archipelago, in order to distinguish between alternative models of evolutionary dynamics on islands. We collected individuals of six species (representing Araneae, Hemiptera and Coleoptera) from 16 forest fragments from 7 islands. Using three mtDNA markers, we analysed the distribution of genetic diversity within and between islands, inferred the differentiation time-frames and investigated the inter-island migration routes and colonization patterns. Each species exhibited very low levels of mtDNA divergence, both within and between islands. The two oldest islands were not strongly involved in the diffusion of genetic diversity within the archipelago. The most haplotype-rich islands varied according to species but the younger, central islands contributed the most to haplotype diversity. Colonization events both in concordance with and in contradiction to an inter-island progression rule were inferred, while a non-intuitive pattern of colonization from western to eastern islands was also inferred. The geological development of the Azores has followed a less tidy progression compared to classic hotspot archipelagos, and this is reflected in our findings. The study species appear to have been differentiating within the Azores for <2 Myr, a fraction of the apparent life span of the archipelago, which may indicate that extinction events linked to active volcanism have played an important role. Assuming that after each extinction event, colonization was initiated from a nearby island hosting derived haplotypes, the apparent age of species diversification in the archipelago would be moved closer to the present after each extinction-recolonization cycle. Exploiting these ideas, we propose a general

  8. Endemic Sexual Violence and Abuse: Contexts and Dispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Nicole Rayment-McHugh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Endemic sexual violence and abuse has been observed in a number of specific circumstances, most notably conflict zones, remote and marginalised communities, and religious and state institutions. In this article we examine several documented examples and argue that a similar set of causal processes are at work in all of these otherwise apparently disparate circumstances. Rather than construing the problem as ‘organised’ sexual abuse, we present the problem in terms of the breakdown (or disorganisation of usual individual, situational and ecological constraints.

  9. The dynamics of endemic malaria in populations of varying size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngwa, G.A.

    2001-10-01

    A mathematical model for endemic malaria involving variable human and mosquito populations is analysed. A threshold parameter R 0 exists and the disease can persist if and only if R 0 exceeds 1. R 0 is seen to be a generalisation of the basic reproduction ratio associated with the Ross-Macdonald model for malaria transmission. The disease free equilibrium always exist and is globally stable when R 0 is below 1. A perturbation analysis is used to approximate the endemic equilibrium in the important case where the disease related death rate is nonzero. A diffusion approximation is used to approximate the quasi-stationary distribution of the associated stochastic model. Numerical simulations show that when R 0 is distinctly greater than 1, the endemic deterministic equilibrium is globally stable. Furthermore, in quasi-stationarity, the stochastic process undergoes oscillations about a mean population whose size can be approximated by the stable endemic deterministic equilibrium. (author)

  10. Diversity distribution patterns of Chinese endemic seed plant species and their implications for conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jihong; Huang, Jianhua; Lu, Xinghui; Ma, Keping

    2016-01-01

    Endemism is an important concept in biogeography and biodiversity conservation. China is one of the richest countries in biodiversity, with very high levels of plant endemism. In this study, we analysed the distribution patterns of diversity, the degree of differentiation, and the endemicity of Chinese endemic seed plants using the floristic unit as a basic spatial analysis unit and 11 indices. The analysis was based on distribution data of 24,951 native seed plant species (excluding subspecies and varieties) and 12,980 Chinese endemic seed plant species, which were sourced from both specimen records and published references. The distribution patterns of Chinese endemic flora were generally consistent but disproportionate across China for diversity, degree of differentiation and endemicity. The South Hengduan Mountains Subregion had the highest values for all indices. At the regional level, both the Hengduan Mountains and the Central China regions were highest in diversity and degrees of differentiation. However, both the rate of local endemic to native species and the rate of local to Chinese endemic species were highest in the Taiwan Region and the South Taiwan Region. The Hengduan Mountains Region and the Central China Region are two key conservation priority areas for Chinese endemic seed plants. PMID:27658845

  11. Nitrogen species in drinking water indicate potential exposure pathway for Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niagolova, Nedialka; McElmurry, Shawn P.; Voice, Thomas C.; Long, David T.; Petropoulos, Evangelos A.; Havezov, Ivan; Chou, Karen; Ganev, Varban

    2005-01-01

    This study explored two hypotheses relating elevated concentrations of nitrogen species in drinking water and the disease Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN). Drinking water samples were collected from a variety of water supplies in both endemic and non-endemic villages in the Vratza and Montana districts of Bulgaria. The majority of well water samples exceeded US drinking water standards for nitrate + nitrite. No statistically significant difference was observed for any of the nitrogen species between villages classified as endemic and non-endemic. Other constituents (sodium, potassium and chloride) known to be indicators of anthropogenic pollution were also found at elevated concentrations and all followed the order wells > springs > taps. This ordering coincides with the proximity of human influences to the water sources. Our results clearly establish an exposure pathway between anthropogenic activity and drinking water supplies, suggesting that the causative agent for BEN could result from surface contamination. - Water in villages affected and unaffected by Balkan Endemic Nephropathy had no significant differences in nitrogen compounds

  12. Haemolytic activity of soil from areas of varying podoconiosis endemicity in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Blond, Jennifer S.; Baxter, Peter J.; Bello, Dhimiter; Raftis, Jennifer; Molla, Yordanos B.; Cuadros, Javier; Davey, Gail

    2017-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis, non-filarial elephantiasis, is a non-infectious disease found in tropical regions such as Ethiopia, localized in highland areas with volcanic soils cultivated by barefoot subsistence farmers. It is thought that soil particles can pass through the soles of the feet and taken up by the lymphatic system, leading to the characteristic chronic oedema of the lower legs that becomes disfiguring and disabling over time. Methods The close association of the disease with volcanic soils led us to investigate the characteristics of soil samples in an endemic area in Ethiopia to identify the potential causal constituents. We used the in vitro haemolysis assay and compared haemolytic activity (HA) with soil samples collected in a non-endemic region of the same area in Ethiopia. We included soil samples that had been previously characterized, in addition we present other data describing the characteristics of the soil and include pure phase mineral standards as comparisons. Results The bulk chemical composition of the soils were statistically significantly different between the podoconiosis-endemic and non-endemic areas, with the exception of CaO and Cr. Likewise, the soil mineralogy was statistically significant for iron oxide, feldspars, mica and chlorite. Smectite and kaolinite clays were widely present and elicited a strong HA, as did quartz, in comparison to other mineral phases tested, although no strong difference was found in HA between soils from the two areas. The relationship was further investigated with principle component analysis (PCA), which showed that a combination of an increase in Y, Zr and Al2O3, and a concurrent increase Fe2O3, TiO2, MnO and Ba in the soils increased HA. Conclusion The mineralogy and chemistry of the soils influenced the HA, although the interplay between the components is complex. Further research should consider the variable biopersistance, hygroscopicity and hardness of the minerals and further characterize the

  13. Haemolytic activity of soil from areas of varying podoconiosis endemicity in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Le Blond

    Full Text Available Podoconiosis, non-filarial elephantiasis, is a non-infectious disease found in tropical regions such as Ethiopia, localized in highland areas with volcanic soils cultivated by barefoot subsistence farmers. It is thought that soil particles can pass through the soles of the feet and taken up by the lymphatic system, leading to the characteristic chronic oedema of the lower legs that becomes disfiguring and disabling over time.The close association of the disease with volcanic soils led us to investigate the characteristics of soil samples in an endemic area in Ethiopia to identify the potential causal constituents. We used the in vitro haemolysis assay and compared haemolytic activity (HA with soil samples collected in a non-endemic region of the same area in Ethiopia. We included soil samples that had been previously characterized, in addition we present other data describing the characteristics of the soil and include pure phase mineral standards as comparisons.The bulk chemical composition of the soils were statistically significantly different between the podoconiosis-endemic and non-endemic areas, with the exception of CaO and Cr. Likewise, the soil mineralogy was statistically significant for iron oxide, feldspars, mica and chlorite. Smectite and kaolinite clays were widely present and elicited a strong HA, as did quartz, in comparison to other mineral phases tested, although no strong difference was found in HA between soils from the two areas. The relationship was further investigated with principle component analysis (PCA, which showed that a combination of an increase in Y, Zr and Al2O3, and a concurrent increase Fe2O3, TiO2, MnO and Ba in the soils increased HA.The mineralogy and chemistry of the soils influenced the HA, although the interplay between the components is complex. Further research should consider the variable biopersistance, hygroscopicity and hardness of the minerals and further characterize the nano-scale particles.

  14. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckx, Vincent S F T; Hendriks, Kasper P; Beentjes, Kevin K; Mennes, Constantijn B; Becking, Leontine E; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; Afendy, Aqilah; Arumugam, Nivaarani; de Boer, Hugo; Biun, Alim; Buang, Matsain M; Chen, Ping-Ping; Chung, Arthur Y C; Dow, Rory; Feijen, Frida A A; Feijen, Hans; Feijen-van Soest, Cobi; Geml, József; Geurts, René; Gravendeel, Barbara; Hovenkamp, Peter; Imbun, Paul; Ipor, Isa; Janssens, Steven B; Jocqué, Merlijn; Kappes, Heike; Khoo, Eyen; Koomen, Peter; Lens, Frederic; Majapun, Richard J; Morgado, Luis N; Neupane, Suman; Nieser, Nico; Pereira, Joan T; Rahman, Homathevi; Sabran, Suzana; Sawang, Anati; Schwallier, Rachel M; Shim, Phyau-Soon; Smit, Harry; Sol, Nicolien; Spait, Maipul; Stech, Michael; Stokvis, Frank; Sugau, John B; Suleiman, Monica; Sumail, Sukaibin; Thomas, Daniel C; van Tol, Jan; Tuh, Fred Y Y; Yahya, Bakhtiar E; Nais, Jamili; Repin, Rimi; Lakim, Maklarin; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-08-20

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these communities. Also, it is debated whether mountain endemics mostly originate from local lowland taxa, or from lineages that reach the mountain by long-range dispersal from cool localities elsewhere. Here we investigate the evolutionary routes to endemism by sampling an entire tropical mountain biota on the 4,095-metre-high Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, East Malaysia. We discover that most of its unique biodiversity is younger than the mountain itself (6 million years), and comprises a mix of immigrant pre-adapted lineages and descendants from local lowland ancestors, although substantial shifts from lower to higher vegetation zones in this latter group were rare. These insights could improve forecasts of the likelihood of extinction and 'evolutionary rescue' in montane biodiversity hot spots under climate change scenarios.

  15. Patterns of genetic diversity in three plant lineages endemic to the Cape Verde Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiras, Maria M; Monteiro, Filipa; Duarte, M Cristina; Schaefer, Hanno; Carine, Mark

    2015-05-15

    Conservation of plant diversity on islands relies on a good knowledge of the taxonomy, distribution and genetic diversity of species. In recent decades, a combination of morphology- and DNA-based approaches has become the standard for investigating island plant lineages and this has led, in some cases, to the discovery of previously overlooked diversity, including 'cryptic species'. The flora of the Cape Verde archipelago in the North Atlantic is currently thought to comprise ∼740 vascular plant species, 92 of them endemics. Despite the fact that it is considered relatively well known, there has been a 12 % increase in the number of endemics in the last two decades. Relatively few of the Cape Verde plant lineages have been included in genetic studies so far and little is known about the patterns of diversification in the archipelago. Here we present an updated list for the endemic Cape Verde flora and analyse diversity patterns for three endemic plant lineages (Cynanchum, Globularia and Umbilicus) based on one nuclear (ITS) and four plastid DNA regions. In all three lineages, we find genetic variation. In Cynanchum, we find two distinct haplotypes with no clear geographical pattern, possibly reflecting different ploidy levels. In Globularia and Umbilicus, differentiation is evident between populations from northern and southern islands. Isolation and drift resulting from the small and fragmented distributions, coupled with the significant distances separating the northern and southern islands, could explain this pattern. Overall, our study suggests that the diversity in the endemic vascular flora of Cape Verde is higher than previously thought and further work is necessary to characterize the flora. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  16. A comprehensive checklist of vascular epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest reveals outstanding endemic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Leandro; Salino, Alexandre; Neto, Luiz Menini; Elias Almeida, Thaís; Mortara, Sara Ribeiro; Stehmann, João Renato; Amorim, André Marcio; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin; Coelho, Marcus Nadruz; Zanin, Ana; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the geographic distribution of plants is essential to underpin the understanding of global biodiversity patterns. Vascular epiphytes are important components of diversity and functionality of Neotropical forests but, unlike their terrestrial counterparts, they are under-represented in large-scale diversity and biogeographic analyses. This is the case for the Atlantic Forest - one of the most diverse and threatened biomes worldwide. We provide the first comprehensive species list of Atlantic Forest vascular epiphytes; their endemism patterns and threatened species occurrence have also been analyzed. A list with 2,256 species of (hemi-)epiphytes - distributed in 240 genera and 33 families - is presented based on the updated Brazilian Flora Checklist. This represents more than 15% of the total vascular plant richness in the Atlantic Forest. Moreover, 256 species are included on the Brazilian Red List. More than 93% of the overall richness is concentrated in ten families, with 73% represented by Orchidaceae and Bromeliaceae species alone. A total of 78% of epiphytic species are endemic to the Atlantic Forest, in contrast to overall vascular plant endemism in this biome estimated at 57%. Among the non-endemics, 13% of epiphytic species also occur either in the Amazon or in the Cerrado - the other two largest biomes of Brazil - and only 8% are found in two or more Brazilian biomes. This pattern of endemism, in addition to available dated phylogenies of some genera, indicate the dominance of recent radiations of epiphytic groups in the Atlantic Forest, showing that the majority of divergences dating from the Pliocene onwards are similar to those that were recently reported for other Neotropical plants.

  17. Bursting endemic bubbles in an adaptive network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherborne, N.; Blyuss, K. B.; Kiss, I. Z.

    2018-04-01

    The spread of an infectious disease is known to change people's behavior, which in turn affects the spread of disease. Adaptive network models that account for both epidemic and behavioral change have found oscillations, but in an extremely narrow region of the parameter space, which contrasts with intuition and available data. In this paper we propose a simple susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model on an adaptive network with time-delayed rewiring, and show that oscillatory solutions are now present in a wide region of the parameter space. Altering the transmission or rewiring rates reveals the presence of an endemic bubble—an enclosed region of the parameter space where oscillations are observed.

  18. Aligning conservation goals: are patterns of species richness and endemism concordant at regional scales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricketts, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation strategies commonly target areas of high species richness and/or high endemism. However, the correlation between richness and endemism at scales relevant to conservation is unclear; these two common goals of conservation plans may therefore be in conflict. Here the spatial concordance between richness and endemism is tested using five taxa in North America: butterflies, birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles. This concordance is also tested using overall indices of richness and endemism (incorporating all five taxa. For all taxa except birds, richness and endemism were significantly correlated, with amphibians, reptiles, and the overall indices showing the highest correlations (rs = 0.527-0.676. However, 'priority sets' of ecoregions (i.e., the top 10% of ecoregions based on richness generally overlapped poorly with those based on endemism (< 50% overlap for all but reptiles. These results offer only limited support for the idea that richness and endemism are correlated at broad scales and indicate that land managers will need to balance these dual, and often conflicting, goals of biodiversity conservation.

  19. Bird communities in three forest types in the Pernambuco Centre of Endemism, Alagoas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahert W. Lobo-Araújo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pernambuco Center of Endemism (PCE in northeastern Brazil is highly fragmented and degraded. Despite its potential conservation importance the bird fauna in this area is still relatively unknown and there are many remnant fragments that have not been systematically surveyed. Here, we report the results of bird surveys in five forest fragments (one pioneer, two ombrophilous and two seasonal. In total, 162 taxa were recorded, 12 of which are endemic to the PCE. The frequency of endangered species was lower than what has been reported in studies from the same area and most of the taxa considered to be at risk of extinction were sub-species of uncertain taxonomic validity. The comparatively low number of endemic/threatened species may be due to the small size of the fragments in the present study - a consequence of the high levels of habitat loss in this region. Analysis of species richness patterns indicates that ombrophilous forest fragments are acting as refuges for those bird species that are most sensitive to environmental degradation.

  20. Population connectivity and the effectiveness of marine protected areas to protect vulnerable, exploited and endemic coral reef fishes at an endemic hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, M. H.; Berumen, M. L.; Hobbs, J.-P. A.; van Herwerden, L.

    2015-06-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) aim to mitigate anthropogenic impacts by conserving biodiversity and preventing overfishing. The effectiveness of MPAs depends on population connectivity patterns between protected and non-protected areas. Remote islands are endemism hotspots for coral reef fishes and provide rare examples of coral reefs with limited fishing pressure. This study explored population genetic connectivity across a network of protected and non-protected areas for the endemic wrasse, Coris bulbifrons, which is listed as "vulnerable" by the IUCN due to its small, decreasing geographic range and declining abundance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA (msatDNA) markers were used to estimate historic and contemporary gene flow to determine the level of population self-replenishment and to measure genetic and genotypic diversity among all four locations in the species range (south-west Pacific Ocean)—Middleton Reef (MR), Elizabeth Reef (ER), Lord Howe Island (LHI) and Norfolk Island (NI). MPAs exist at MR and LHI and are limited or non-existent at ER and NI, respectively. There was no obvious differentiation in mtDNA among locations, however, msatDNA revealed differentiation between the most peripheral (NI) and all remaining locations (MR, ER and LHI). Despite high mtDNA connectivity ( M = 259-1,144), msatDNA connectivity was limited ( M = 3-9) with high self-replenishment (68-93 %) at all locations. NI is the least connected and heavily reliant on self-replenishment, and the absence of MPAs at NI needs to be rectified to ensure the persistence of endemic species at this location. Other endemic fishes exhibit similar patterns of high self-replenishment across the four locations, indicating that a single spatial management approach consisting of a MPA network protecting part of each location could provide reasonable protection for these species. Thus, the existing network of MPAs at this endemic hotspot appears adequate at some locations, but not

  1. Prevalence of HBV in pregnant women from areas of different endemicity in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, S.; Garcia, B.; Torres, R.; Larrabure, G.; Lucen, A.; Pernaz, G.; Gonzales, L.; Miranda, G.; Davalos, E.; Galarza, C.; Camasca, N.; Jara, R.

    1999-01-01

    The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HBV in pregnant women (mean age among groups 25,0 ± 6,9) who live in areas of different endemicity, and located in the Department of Lima, Junin, Apurimac, and Ayacucho in Peru. All studies were carried out using radioimmunological techniques. In the Instituto Materno Perinatal in Lima, located in a low endemic area, 2086 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 44 years old were evaluated (for laboratory tests) at their first prenatal examination. A prevalence of 0,38% (HBsAg+), 0,38% (Ratio), and 3,18% (HBsAg+, anti-HBsAg+) was found, corresponding to 107 HBsAg+ pregnant women whose treated newborn would prevent the HBV chronic infection of approximate 21 newborn each year. 63% HBsAg+ pregnant women were born in Departments other than Lima. In the Hospital de Apoyo La Merced, located in Chanchamayo, Junin, which is a medium endemic area, 217 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 48 years old were evaluated. T he prevalence found in this hospital was of 1,38% (HBsAg+), 1,2% (Ratio), and 17,*% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+). All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. The projection of results corresponded to a total of 9 HbsAg+ pregnant women and 2 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. In the Guillermo Diaz de la Vega Hospital in Abancay, Apurimac, located in a medium to high endemic area, 221 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 15 and 46 years old were evaluated. A prevalence of 1,36% (HBsAg+), 1,0% (Ratio), and 36.16% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) was found. All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. Projected results corresponded to a total of 37 HBsAg+ pregnant carriers and 7 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. The Hospital General de Huanta, in Ayacucho, located in a high endemicity area, presented a prevalence of 3,2% (HBsAg+), 1,9% (Ratio), and 76, 2% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) from 126 pregnant women evaluated with ages between 15 and 48 years old. These results gave a total

  2. Relationship between weathered coal deposits and the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feder, G.L.; Radovanovic, Z.; Finkelman, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    Field studies in epidemiology and environmental geochemistry in areas in Yugoslavia containing villages with a high incidence of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), indicate a possible relationship between the presence of low-rank coal deposits and the etiology of BEN. Preliminary results from qualitative chemical analyses of drinking water from shallow farm wells indicate the presence of soluble polar aromatic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. These compounds may be derived from weathering of low-rank coals occurring in the vicinity of the endemic villages. All of the endemic villages are in alluvial valleys of tributaries to the Danube River. All except one of the clusters of endemic villages are located in the vicinity of known Pliocene age coals. Detailed sampling of the drinking waters and the nearby coals are being undertaken to identify a possible etiologic factor

  3. Nocardial mycetoma: Diverse clinical presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Nand

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nocardia spp are gram-positive, aerobic, acid-fast bacteria which exist as saprophytes in nature. Invasive disseminated infections are particularly common in immunocompromised or debilitated hosts. Superficial infections with Nocardia spp occur as a result of local trauma and contamination of the wound. Clinically, it presents as acute infection (abscesses or cellulitis, mycetoma, or sporotrichoid infection. Differential diagnosis includes eumycetoma, chromomycosis, blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, sporotrichosis, tuberculosis, botryomycosis, syphilis, yaws, and neoplasia. Its diagnosis is confirmed by demonstrating the causative organism in exudates (as granules, tissue specimens, or cultures. Early diagnosis will obviate need for drastic surgical measures as early institution of chemotherapy is effective in most patients. However, its diagnosis is often delayed due to diverse clinical presentations and for want of clinical suspicion, particularly in non-endemic areas. This paper presents 4 clinical forms of this not so uncommon disease, emphasizing the importance of high index of clinical suspicion, especially in non-endemic regions; and the significance of repeated examination of exudates for Nocardia granules for an early diagnosis.

  4. Fate of over 480 million inhabitants living in arsenic and fluoride endemic Indian districts: Magnitude, health, socio-economic effects and mitigation approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Chatterjee, Amit; Das, Dipankar; Das, Bhaskar; Nayak, Biswajit; Pal, Arup; Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar; Ahmed, Sad; Biswas, Bhajan Kumar; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; Lodh, Dilip; Samanta, Gautam; Chakraborty, Sanjana; Roy, M M; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Saha, Khitish Chandra; Mukherjee, Subhas Chandra; Pati, Shyamapada; Kar, Probir Bijoy

    2016-12-01

    During our last 27 years of field survey in India, we have studied the magnitude of groundwater arsenic and fluoride contamination and its resulting health effects from numerous states. India is the worst groundwater fluoride and arsenic affected country in the world. Fluoride results the most prevalent groundwater related diseases in India. Out of a total 29 states in India, groundwater of 20 states is fluoride affected. Total population of fluoride endemic 201 districts of India is 411 million (40% of Indian population) and more than 66 million people are estimated to be suffering from fluorosis including 6 million children below 14 years of age. Fluoride may cause a crippling disease. In 6 states of the Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain (GB-Plain), 70.4 million people are potentially at risk from groundwater arsenic toxicity. Three additional states in the non GB-Plain are mildly arsenic affected. For arsenic with substantial cumulative exposure can aggravate the risk of cancers along with various other diseases. Clinical effects of fluoride includes abnormal tooth enamel in children; adults had joint pain and deformity of the limbs, spine etc. The affected population chronically exposed to arsenic and fluoride from groundwater is in danger and there is no available medicine for those suffering from the toxicity. Arsenic and fluoride safe water and nutritious food are suggested to prevent further aggravation of toxicity. The World Health Organization (WHO) points out that social problems arising from arsenic and fluoride toxicity eventually create pressure on the economy of the affected areas. In arsenic and fluoride affected areas in India, crisis is not always having too little safe water to satisfy our need, it is the crisis of managing the water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Trichomonad infection in endemic and introduced columbids in the Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunbury, N

    2011-07-01

    Island endemic avifaunas face many threats, including the now well-documented impacts of pathogens. The impacts of pathogens on the endemic Seychelles avifauna, however, have been little studied. The protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae has been shown to reduce survival and reproductive success of the endemic Pink Pigeon Columba mayeri on the nearby island of Mauritius. I investigated trichomonad infection prevalence and pathogenicity in endemic Seychelles Blue Pigeons, Alectroenas pulcherrima, and two introduced species of columbid, the Madagascar Turtle-dove, Streptopelia picturata, and the Barred Ground Dove, Geopelia striata, on the Seychelles island of Mahé during September-October 2007. I asked whether: 1) trichomonad infections occur in these species; 2) prevalence varies among species; and 3) birds show any signs of pathogenicity consistent with tricho-monosis. I use the results to assess the potential threat of this pathogen to A. pulcherrima. All three species were infected with trichomonads, and the overall prevalence was 27.5%. Alectroenas pulcherrima had higher prevalence (47.1%) than the two introduced species combined (24.3%). No infected individuals showed any signs of disease. These findings suggest that trichomonad parasites should be considered as a potential disease threat to the A. pulcherrima population.

  6. Therapy of endemic goiter and hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luft, D.

    1983-09-12

    Successful treatment of endemic goitre depends on the correct diagnosis and the comprehension of the pathophysiologic changes as well. Several criteria, e.g. anamnestic data, general clinical condition, local symptoms and signs, certainty of diagnosis, contraindications, rates of success, and side effects, determine the particular form of therapy (suppression with thyroid hormones, surgical resection, radio-iodine). The decision criteria are discussed. Prophylaxis of recurrent goitre with either thyroid hormones or iodine salts is necessary after successful treatment. Some endemic goitres behave like either hyper- or hypothyroidism. Treatment with thyroid hormones of patients with latent hyperthyroidism is senseless and dangerous, whereas other methods of treatment may be applied. An unequivocal indication for treatment exists in patients with latent hypothyroidism accompanied by goitre, but not in all patients without goitre. Hormonal replacement therapy of manifest hypothydroidism is simple, but long term success is not achieved in all patients.

  7. Therapy of endemic goiter and hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luft, D.

    1983-01-01

    Successful treatment of endemic goitre depends on the correct diagnosis and the comprehension of the pathophysiologic changes as well. Several criteria, e.g. anamnestic data, general clinical condition, local symptoms and signs, certainty of diagnosis, contraindications, rates of success, and side effects, determine the particular form of therapy (suppression with thyroid hormones, surgical resection, radio-iodine). The decision criteria are discussed. Prophylaxis of recurrent goitre with either thyroid hormones or iodine salts is necessary after successful treatment. Some endemic goitres behave like either hyper- or hypothyroidism. Treatment with thyroid hormones of patients with latent hyperthyroidism is senseless and dangerous, whereas other methods of treatment may be applied. An unequivocal indication for treatment exists in patients with laent hypothyroidism accompanied by goitre, but not in all patients without goitre. Hormonal replacement therapy of manifest hypothydroidism is simple, but long term success is not achieved in all patients. (orig.) [de

  8. Plant diversity on high elevation islands – drivers of species richness and endemism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severin D.H. Irl

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High elevation islands elicit fascination because of their large array of endemic species and strong environmental gradients. First, I define a high elevation island according to geographic and environmental characteristics. Then, within this high elevation island framework, I address local disturbance effects on plant distribution, drivers of diversity and endemism on the island scale, and global patterns of treeline elevation and climate change. Locally, introduced herbivores have strong negative effects on the summit scrub of my model island La Palma (Canary Islands, while roads have unexpected positive effects on endemics. On the island scale, topography and climate drive diversity and endemism. Hotspots of endemicity are found in summit regions – a general pattern on high elevation islands. The global pattern of treeline elevation behaves quite differently on islands than on the mainland. A thorough literature review and climate projections suggest that climate change will profoundly affect oceanic island floras.

  9. Conservation status of Dendrobium tenuicaule Hook. f. (Orchidaceae, a Middle Andaman Island endemic, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R.P. Rao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current distribution and threat assessment of Dendrobium tenuicaule Hook. f. (Orchidaceae, an endemic orchid of Middle Andaman Island is presented here. New data available from field surveys indicated the species is Critically Endangered as per the 2001 IUCN Red List Catagories and Criteria.

  10. Population connectivity and the effectiveness of marine protected areas to protect vulnerable, exploited and endemic coral reef fishes at an endemic hotspot

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Meer, Martin H.

    2014-12-23

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) aim to mitigate anthropogenic impacts by conserving biodiversity and preventing overfishing. The effectiveness of MPAs depends on population connectivity patterns between protected and non-protected areas. Remote islands are endemism hotspots for coral reef fishes and provide rare examples of coral reefs with limited fishing pressure. This study explored population genetic connectivity across a network of protected and non-protected areas for the endemic wrasse, Coris bulbifrons, which is listed as “vulnerable” by the IUCN due to its small, decreasing geographic range and declining abundance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA (msatDNA) markers were used to estimate historic and contemporary gene flow to determine the level of population self-replenishment and to measure genetic and genotypic diversity among all four locations in the species range (south-west Pacific Ocean)—Middleton Reef (MR), Elizabeth Reef (ER), Lord Howe Island (LHI) and Norfolk Island (NI). MPAs exist at MR and LHI and are limited or non-existent at ER and NI, respectively. There was no obvious differentiation in mtDNA among locations, however, msatDNA revealed differentiation between the most peripheral (NI) and all remaining locations (MR, ER and LHI). Despite high mtDNA connectivity (M = 259–1,144), msatDNA connectivity was limited (M = 3–9) with high self-replenishment (68–93 %) at all locations. NI is the least connected and heavily reliant on self-replenishment, and the absence of MPAs at NI needs to be rectified to ensure the persistence of endemic species at this location. Other endemic fishes exhibit similar patterns of high self-replenishment across the four locations, indicating that a single spatial management approach consisting of a MPA network protecting part of each location could provide reasonable protection for these species. Thus, the existing network of MPAs at this endemic hotspot appears adequate at some locations

  11. Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallahian F. MD- Internist

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The health of habitants, living in un-fluoridated drinking water areas, can be endangered"nthrough fluoride intake from food, beverages, tooth paste and dentistry products. Fluoride is used in"nmouthwash, toothpaste, juice fruits, conserved foods and Teflon dishes. Water exposure to fluoride"noccurs through fertilizers, aluminum industries, insecticides, pesticides, herbicides and fungicides used"nfor fruits and vegetables which ultimately lead to environmental fluoride pollution. Some side effects."ncaused by chronic fluoride intake are as follows: decrease of hemoglobin concentration, gastrointestinal"ndisorders, and tooth loss at young age, osteofluorosis, hip fracture among aged people, osteosclerosis,"nosteoporosis, special forms of arthritis and joint ankylosis, metaphysial osteomalacia, mottling and weak"nstructure of tooth, insulin secretion and glucose tolerance test disorders, decrease of urine concentration,"nimmune system disorders, genetic defects and cancer, learning disabilities and IQ(intelligence quotient"ndeficits and thyroid dysfunction The present article was to investigate the side effect of excessive"nfluoride intake and to discuss different preventive and diagnostic ways.

  12. Mitogenomic phylogeny of cone snails endemic to Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalde, Samuel; Tenorio, Manuel J; Afonso, Carlos M L; Zardoya, Rafael

    2017-07-01

    Cone snails attain in Senegal one of their highest peaks of species diversity throughout the continental coast of Western Africa. A total of 15 endemic species have been described, all placed in the genus Lautoconus. While there is ample data regarding the morphology of the shell and the radular tooth of these species, virtually nothing is known regarding the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of one of the most endangered groups of cones. In this work, we determined the complete or near-complete (only lacking the control region) mitochondrial (mt) genomes of 17 specimens representing 11 endemic species (Lautoconus belairensis, Lautoconus bruguieresi, Lautoconus cacao, Lautoconus cloveri, Lautoconus cf. echinophilus, Lautoconus guinaicus, Lautoconus hybridus, Lautoconus senegalensis, Lautoconus mercator, Lautoconus taslei, and Lautoconus unifasciatus). We also sequenced the complete mt genome of Lautoconus guanche from the Canary Islands, which has been related to the cones endemic to Senegal. All mt genomes share the same gene arrangement, which conforms to the consensus reported for Conidae, Neogastropoda and Caenogastropoda. Phylogenetic analyses using probabilistic methods recovered three major lineages, whose divergence coincided in time with sea level and ocean current changes as well as temperature fluctuations during the Messinian salinity crisis and the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Furthermore, the three lineages corresponded to distinct types of radular tooth (robust, small, and elongated), suggesting that dietary specialization could be an additional evolutionary driver in the diversification of the cones endemic to Senegal. The reconstructed phylogeny showed several cases of phenotypic convergence (cryptic species) and questions the validity of some species (ecotypes or phenotypic plasticity), both results having important taxonomic and conservation consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Biogeographical note on Antarctic microflorae: Endemism and cosmopolitanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqar Azeem Jadoon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the biogeography of Antarctic microflora (Antarctica acts as best model to study microbial biogeography such as cyanobacteria and selected halophiles with special emphasis on Halomonas variabilis and Bacillus licheniformis. Halophiles are known to be resistant not only to salt stress, but also to extreme temperature, pressure, and aridity and they are capable of surviving in harsh environments such as polar regions, deep-sea habitats, and deserts. Many microbes are known to be resistant to hostile environmental conditions, and are capable of surviving in harsh environments. Our group has isolated 444 strains belonging to 28 genera of halophiles from various environments around the world. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that many of the isolated strains from geographically distant habitats having different environmental conditions, were closely related to each other, with some strains possessing 100% identical sequences. Organisms possessing survival mechanism such as spore formation are usually ubiquitous. The genus Halomonas is represented by potentially endemic strains and the ubiquitous H. variabilis, while spore-forming B. licheniformis showed cosmopolitan distribution. One potentially endemic (moderate endemicity that is regional and/or continental distribution strain was reported from Syowa station, East Antarctica, and Mario Zucchelli station, West Antarctica, which are geographically separated by 3000 km. Moreover, 15 strains having 100% similarity with B. licheniformis were considered cosmopolitans. The results of this work provide support for the middle-ground model that some microbes have moderate endemicity and others have cosmopolitan distribution. These results will contribute to a greater understanding of microbial biogeography with special emphasis on Antarctica.

  14. Endemic pemphigus foliaceus in Venezuela: report of two children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Francisco; Sáenz, Ana Maria; Cirocco, Antonietta; Tacaronte, Inés Maria; Fajardo, Javier Enrique; Calebotta, Adriana

    2006-01-01

    Two native Yanomami children from the Venezuelan Amazonia with erythroderma were hospitalized on our service. Clinical, histologic, and immunofluorescence studies diagnosed endemic pemphigus foliaceous. Human leukocyte antigen class II showed DRB1*04 subtype *0411, which has not been previously associated with this disease. However, it shares a common epitope with all the human leukocyte antigen DRB1 alleles that have been involved in this disease among Brazilian populations. Although this condition is endemic in Brazil, our patients are the first two reported in Venezuela.

  15. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pina-Costa, Anielle; Brasil, Patrícia; Di Santi, Sílvia Maria; de Araujo, Mariana Pereira; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecilia; Santelli, Ana Carolina Faria e Silva; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu

    2014-08-01

    Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation's territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation's malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013). The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon) or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex). The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites that seem to be (or

  16. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anielle de Pina-Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation’s territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation’s malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013. The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex. The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites

  17. A new world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gething, Peter W; Patil, Anand P; Smith, David L; Guerra, Carlos A; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Johnston, Geoffrey L; Tatem, Andrew J; Hay, Simon I

    2011-12-20

    Transmission intensity affects almost all aspects of malaria epidemiology and the impact of malaria on human populations. Maps of transmission intensity are necessary to identify populations at different levels of risk and to evaluate objectively options for disease control. To remain relevant operationally, such maps must be updated frequently. Following the first global effort to map Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity in 2007, this paper describes the generation of a new world map for the year 2010. This analysis is extended to provide the first global estimates of two other metrics of transmission intensity for P. falciparum that underpin contemporary questions in malaria control: the entomological inoculation rate (PfEIR) and the basic reproductive number (PfR). Annual parasite incidence data for 13,449 administrative units in 43 endemic countries were sourced to define the spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission in 2010 and 22,212 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys were used in a model-based geostatistical (MBG) prediction to create a continuous contemporary surface of malaria endemicity within these limits. A suite of transmission models were developed that link PfPR to PfEIR and PfR and these were fitted to field data. These models were combined with the PfPR map to create new global predictions of PfEIR and PfR. All output maps included measured uncertainty. An estimated 1.13 and 1.44 billion people worldwide were at risk of unstable and stable P. falciparum malaria, respectively. The majority of the endemic world was predicted with a median PfEIR of less than one and a median PfRc of less than two. Values of either metric exceeding 10 were almost exclusive to Africa. The uncertainty described in both PfEIR and PfR was substantial in regions of intense transmission. The year 2010 has a particular significance as an evaluation milestone for malaria global health policy. The maps presented here contribute to a rational basis for control and

  18. A new world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gething Peter W

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmission intensity affects almost all aspects of malaria epidemiology and the impact of malaria on human populations. Maps of transmission intensity are necessary to identify populations at different levels of risk and to evaluate objectively options for disease control. To remain relevant operationally, such maps must be updated frequently. Following the first global effort to map Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity in 2007, this paper describes the generation of a new world map for the year 2010. This analysis is extended to provide the first global estimates of two other metrics of transmission intensity for P. falciparum that underpin contemporary questions in malaria control: the entomological inoculation rate (PfEIR and the basic reproductive number (PfR. Methods Annual parasite incidence data for 13,449 administrative units in 43 endemic countries were sourced to define the spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission in 2010 and 22,212 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR surveys were used in a model-based geostatistical (MBG prediction to create a continuous contemporary surface of malaria endemicity within these limits. A suite of transmission models were developed that link PfPR to PfEIR and PfR and these were fitted to field data. These models were combined with the PfPR map to create new global predictions of PfEIR and PfR. All output maps included measured uncertainty. Results An estimated 1.13 and 1.44 billion people worldwide were at risk of unstable and stable P. falciparum malaria, respectively. The majority of the endemic world was predicted with a median PfEIR of less than one and a median PfRc of less than two. Values of either metric exceeding 10 were almost exclusive to Africa. The uncertainty described in both PfEIR and PfR was substantial in regions of intense transmission. Conclusions The year 2010 has a particular significance as an evaluation milestone for malaria global health policy. The

  19. Taenia solium in Europe: Still endemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Allepuz, Alberto; Dermauw, Veronique; Johansen, Maria V; Laranjo-González, Minerva; Smit, G Suzanne A; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Trevisan, Chiara; Wardrop, Nicola A; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causes an important economic and health burden, mainly in rural or marginalized communities of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin-America. Although improved pig rearing conditions seem to have eliminated the parasite in most Western European countries, little is known about the true endemicity status of T. solium throughout Europe. Three recent reviews indicate that autochthonous human T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis may be possible in Europe, but that current peer-reviewed literature is biased towards Western Europe. Officially reported data on porcine cysticercosis are highly insufficient. Favourable conditions for local T. solium transmission still exist in eastern parts of Europe, although the ongoing integration of the European Union is speeding up modernisation and intensification of the pig sector. Further evidence is urgently needed to fill the gaps on the European T. solium endemicity map. We urge to make human cysticercosis notifiable and to improve the reporting of porcine cysticercosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic connectivity and self-replenishment of inshore and offshore populations of the endemic anemonefish, Amphiprion latezonatus

    KAUST Repository

    Steinberg, Rosemary; van der Meer, Martin; Walker, Emily; Berumen, Michael L.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; van Herwerden, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    and small distribution ranges (endemics). Marine endemics often exist as meta-populations distributed among few isolated locations. Determining genetic connectivity among these locations is essential to understanding the recovery potential of endemics after

  1. China's endemic vertebrates sheltering under the protective umbrella of the giant panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binbin V; Pimm, Stuart L

    2016-04-01

    The giant panda attracts disproportionate conservation resources. How well does this emphasis protect other endemic species? Detailed data on geographical ranges are not available for plants or invertebrates, so we restrict our analyses to 3 vertebrate taxa: birds, mammals, and amphibians. There are gaps in their protection, and we recommend practical actions to fill them. We identified patterns of species richness, then identified which species are endemic to China, and then which, like the panda, live in forests. After refining each species' range by its known elevational range and remaining forest habitats as determined from remote sensing, we identified the top 5% richest areas as the centers of endemism. Southern mountains, especially the eastern Hengduan Mountains, were centers for all 3 taxa. Over 96% of the panda habitat overlapped the endemic centers. Thus, investing in almost any panda habitat will benefit many other endemics. Existing panda national nature reserves cover all but one of the endemic species that overlap with the panda's distribution. Of particular interest are 14 mammal, 20 bird, and 82 amphibian species that are inadequately protected. Most of these species the International Union for Conservation of Nature currently deems threatened. But 7 mammal, 3 bird, and 20 amphibian species are currently nonthreatened, yet their geographical ranges are pandas are absent and where there are no national nature reserves. The others concentrate in Yunnan, Nan Mountains, and Hainan. Here, 10 prefectures might establish new protected areas or upgrade local nature reserves to national status. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Assessing malaria transmission in a low endemicity area of north-western Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Speybroeck, Niko

    2013-01-01

    Where malaria endemicity is low, control programmes need increasingly sensitive tools for monitoring malaria transmission intensity (MTI) and to better define health priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low endemicity area of the Peruvian north-western coast to assess the MTI u...

  3. Genetic analysis of Asian measles virus strains--new endemic genotype in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, A T; Mulders, M N; Gautam, D C; Ammerlaan, W; de Swart, R L; King, C C; Osterhaus, A D; Muller, C P

    2001-07-01

    In many parts of Asia measles virus (MV) continues to be endemic. However, little is known about the genetic characteristics of viruses circulating on this continent. This study reports the molecular epidemiological analysis based on the entire nucleocapsid (N) and hemagglutinin (H) genes of the first isolates from Nepal and Taiwan, as well as of recent MV strains from India, Indonesia, and China. Four isolates collected in various regions in Nepal during 1999 belonged to a new genotype, tentatively called D8. Another Nepalese isolate and one from India belonged to genotype D4. The diversity of the Nepalese strains indicated that measles continues to be endemic in this country. The isolate from Taiwan grouped with D3 viruses and one Chinese strain isolated in The Netherlands was assigned to the previously described clade H, known to be endemic in Mainland China. Molecular characterization emerges as an important tool for monitoring virus endemicity and vaccination efforts.

  4. The role of endemic plants in Mauritian traditional medicine - Potential therapeutic benefits or placebo effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummun, Nawraj; Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S; Pynee, Kersley B; Baider, Cláudia; Bahorun, Theeshan

    2018-03-01

    The Mauritian endemic flora has been recorded to be used as medicines for nearly 300 years. Despite acceptance of these endemic plants among the local population, proper documentation of their therapeutic uses is scarce. This review aims at summarising documented traditional uses of Mauritian endemic species with existing scientific data of their alleged bioactivities, in a view to appeal for more stringent validations for their ethnomedicinal uses. A comprehensive bibliographic investigation was carried out by analysing published books on ethnopharmacology and international peer-reviewed papers via scientific databases namely ScienceDirect and PubMed. The keywords "Mauritius endemic plants" and "Mauritius endemic medicinal plants" were used and articles published from 1980 to 2016 were considered. 675 works of which 12 articles were filtered which documented the ethnomedicinal uses and 22 articles reported the biological activities of Mauritian endemic plants. Only materials published in English or French language were included in the review. Available data on the usage of Mauritian endemic plants in traditional medicine and scientific investigation were related. We documented 87 taxa of Mauritian endemic plants for their medicinal value. Endemic plants are either used as part of complex herbal formulations or singly, and are prescribed by herbalists to mitigate a myriad of diseases from metabolic disorders, dermatological pathologies, arthritis to sexually transmissible diseases. However, these species have undergone a limited consistent evaluation to validate their purported ethnomedicinal claims. As the World Health Organization Traditional Medicine Strategy 2014-2023 emphasises on moving traditional medicine into mainstream medicine on an equally trusted footage, the re-evaluation and modernization of Mauritius cultural heritage become necessary. With a consumer-driven 'return to nature', scientific validation and valorization of the herbal remedies, including

  5. Hepatobiliary fascioliasis in non-endemic zones: a surprise diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ashish Kumar; Goenka, Mahesh Kumar; Goenka, Usha; Chakrabarti, Amrita

    2013-03-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Fasciola hepatica. Because of population migration and international food trade, human fascioliasis is being an increasingly recognised entity in nonendemic zones. In most parts of Asia, hepatobiliary fascioliasis is sporadic. Human hepatobiliary infection by this trematode has two distinct phases: an acute hepatic phase and a chronic biliary phase. Hepatobiliary infection is mostly associated with intense peripheral eosinophilia. In addition to classically defined hepatic phase and biliary phase fascioliasis, some cases may have an overlap of these two phases. Chronic liver abscess formation is a rare presentation. We describe a surprise case of hepatobiliary fascioliasis who presented to us with liver abscess without intense peripheral eosinophilia, a rare presentation of human fascioliasis especially in non-endemic zones. Copyright © 2013 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica – an updated checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres González, Daniel A.; Schulte, Katharina; Schmidt, Marco; Zizka, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica). 124 species (62.6%) grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8%) are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora), followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2%) and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%). PMID:24399894

  7. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica – an updated checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Caceres Gonzalez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica. 124 species (62.6% grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8% are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora, followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2% and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%.

  8. Reconsidering contact precautions for endemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Daniel J; Murthy, Rekha; Munoz-Price, L Silvia; Barnden, Marsha; Camins, Bernard C; Johnston, B Lynn; Rubin, Zachary; Sullivan, Kaede V; Shane, Andi L; Dellinger, E Patchen; Rupp, Mark E; Bearman, Gonzalo

    2015-10-01

    Whether contact precautions (CP) are required to control the endemic transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) in acute care hospitals is controversial in light of improvements in hand hygiene, MRSA decolonization, environmental cleaning and disinfection, fomite elimination, and chlorhexidine bathing. To provide a framework for decision making around use of CP for endemic MRSA and VRE based on a summary of evidence related to use of CP, including impact on patients and patient care processes, and current practices in use of CP for MRSA and VRE in US hospitals. A literature review, a survey of Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America Research Network members on use of CP, and a detailed examination of the experience of a convenience sample of hospitals not using CP for MRSA or VRE. Hospital epidemiologists and infection prevention experts. No high quality data support or reject use of CP for endemic MRSA or VRE. Our survey found more than 90% of responding hospitals currently use CP for MRSA and VRE, but approximately 60% are interested in using CP in a different manner. More than 30 US hospitals do not use CP for control of endemic MRSA or VRE. Higher quality research on the benefits and harms of CP in the control of endemic MRSA and VRE is needed. Until more definitive data are available, the use of CP for endemic MRSA or VRE in acute care hospitals should be guided by local needs and resources.

  9. Effect of fluoride exposure on the intelligence of school children in Madhya Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanshu Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the relationship between exposure to different drinking water fluoride levels and children′s intelligence in Madhya Pradesh state, India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 12-year-old school children of Madhya Pradesh state, India. The children were selected from low (0.05. However, a statistically significant difference was observed in the urinary fluoride levels (P 0.000. Reduction in intelligence was observed with an increased water fluoride level (P 0.000. The urinary fluoride level was a significant predictor for intelligence (P 0.000. Conclusion: Children in endemic areas of fluorosis are at risk for impaired development of intelligence.

  10. Climate vs. topography – spatial patterns of plant species diversity and endemism on a high-elevation island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irl, Severin David Howard; Harter, David E. V.; Steinbauer, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    the independent contribution of climatic and topographic variables to spatial diversity patterns. We constructed a presence/absence matrix of perennial endemic and native vascular plant species (including subspecies) in 890 plots on the environmentally very heterogeneous island of La Palma, Canary Islands......Climate and topography are among the most fundamental drivers of plant diversity. Here, we assessed the importance of climate and topography in explaining diversity patterns of species richness, endemic richness and endemicity on the landscape scale of an oceanic island and evaluated...... to ecological speciation and specialization to local conditions. We highlight the importance of incorporating climatic variability into future studies of plant species diversity and endemism. The spatial incongruence in hot spots of species richness, endemic richness and endemicity emphasizes the need...

  11. How Far do Ciliate Flagships Sail? A Proposed Gondawanaland Endemic Species at Anchor in Idaho Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourland, William

    2017-07-01

    In terms of protist biogeography, "flagship species" (Foissner 2005) have been defined as those so remarkable or "showy" that they are unlikely to be overlooked when present in a given habitat. On this basis, flagship species have been suggested as an ideal or ultimate test for the existence of protist endemism. One example of a flagship ciliate is the terrestrial lepidosome-bearing trachelophyllid, Luporinophrys micelae, previously thought to be a Gondwanan endemic. This report comprises a morphologic description of two populations of L. micelae from Laurentian soils (Idaho, Northwest USA). The flagship concept is briefly reviewed and ciliate biogeography is discussed in light of these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Bell palsy in lyme disease-endemic regions of canada: a cautionary case of occult bilateral peripheral facial nerve palsy due to Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Karen; Melanson, Michel; Desai, Jamsheed A

    2012-09-01

    Lyme disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is a multisystem disorder characterized by three clinical stages: dermatologic, neurologic, and rheumatologic. The number of known Lyme disease-endemic areas in Canada is increasing as the range of the vector Ixodes scapularis expands into the eastern and central provinces. Southern Ontario, Nova Scotia, southern Manitoba, New Brunswick, and southern Quebec are now considered Lyme disease-endemic regions in Canada. The use of field surveillance to map risk and endemic regions suggests that these geographic areas are growing, in part due to the effects of climate warming. Peripheral facial nerve palsy is the most common neurologic abnormality in the second stage of Lyme borreliosis, with up to 25% of Bell palsy (idiopathic peripheral facial nerve palsy) occurring due to Lyme disease. Here we present a case of occult bilateral facial nerve palsy due to Lyme disease initially diagnosed as Bell palsy. In Lyme disease-endemic regions of Canada, patients presenting with unilateral or bilateral peripheral facial nerve palsy should be evaluated for Lyme disease with serologic testing to avoid misdiagnosis. Serologic testing should not delay initiation of appropriate treatment for presumed Bell palsy.

  13. Endemic plants harbour specific Trichoderma communities with an exceptional potential for biocontrol of phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachow, Christin; Berg, Christian; Müller, Henry; Monk, Jana; Berg, Gabriele

    2016-10-10

    Trichoderma strains exhibit enormous potential for applications in biotechnology, in particular as biocontrol agents against pathogens. However, little is known about the diversity of plant-associated Trichoderma communities at a global scale and their antagonistic spectrum. In order to gather information about structure and function, we compared Trichoderma biomes of endemic (Aeonium, Diospyros, Hebe, Rhododendron) and cosmopolitan plants (Zea mays) in a global study encompassing the area Northwest Africa to New Zealand via the European Alps and Madagascar. At the quantitative level we found no differences between cosmopolitan and endemic plants. Statistically significant differences were detected at the qualitative level: Trichoderma populations of endemic plants were highly specific and diverse with hot spots appearing in Madagascar and New Zealand. By contrast, maize plants from all sites shared the majority of Trichoderma species (65.5%). Interestingly, the high above ground biodiversity in ecosystems containing endemic plants was confirmed by a high below ground Trichoderma diversity. Despite the differences, we found a global Trichoderma core community shared by all analysed plants, which was dominated by T. koningii and T. koningiopsis. Amplicon-based network analyses revealed a high similarity between maize Trichoderma grown world-wide and distinct populations of endemic plants. Furthermore, Trichoderma strains from endemic plants showed a higher antagonistic activity against fungal pathogens compared to maize-associated strains. Our results showed that endemic plants are associated with a specific Trichoderma microbiome which possesses a high antagonistic activity indicating that it has potential to be used for biocontrol purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Disseminated neurocysticercosis presenting as affective mood disorder with chronic tension type headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnarpan Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a common parasitic infection in India presenting usually with seizues, headache, focal neurological deficits. Neurocysticercosis presenting as a psychiatric illness is rare. Disseminated cysticercosis with involvement of central nervous system and head and neck muscles is rare even in endemic areas. We present a case of disseminated cysticercosis, which presented with chronic tension type headache and affective mood disorder. Treatment with cysticidal drugs led to complete remission of psychiatric complaints. In endemic areas history suggestive of mood disorder should not be used as supportive evidence of a primary headache syndome like tension type headche without ruling out secondary causes. Making an early diagnosis can prevent morbidity.

  15. Range extension of Lyriothemis defonsekai van der Poorten, 2009 (Anisoptera: Libellulidae, an endemic odonate in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila P. Sumanapala

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lyriothemis defonsekai van der Poorten, 2009 is a nationally Critically Endangered odonate species in Sri Lanka.  It is endemic to the country and was known only from the type locality, Kudawa, Sinharaja Forest Reserve and its vicinity thus it was considered to be a point endemic.  We report the first ever record of the species outside Sinharaja extending the known range of the species.  The present observations were recorded from Yagirala Forest Reserve where an immature male and one or two mature females of the species were observed.  We also discuss the observations on its habitat and distribution range.  

  16. Endemic pemphigus in the Peruvian Amazon: epidemiology and risk factors for the development of complications during treatment*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Willy; Chacon, Gina Rocio; Galarza, Carlos; Gutierrez, Ericson Leonardo; Smith, Maria Eugenia; Ortega-Loayza, Alex Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pemphigus is an autoimmune blistering disease. According to a report, in areas of endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) in Peru there are cases of pemphigus vulgaris with epidemiologic, clinical and histopathologic characteristics similar to those of "endemic pemphigus vulgaris" (EPV) in Brazil. OBJECTIVES To determine the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of endemic pemphigus and the risk factors of patients for developing complications during treatment. METHODS A study was carried out from July 2003 to March 2008. The study population was 60 patients with EPF and 7 patients with EPV evaluated in hospitals and clinics in the Peruvian Amazon and Lima. A multivariate analysis was carried out using binary logistic regression. RESULTS The average age of EPF patients was 31.4 years; 55% were men; 60% presented the generalized clinical variant. Non-compliance with the treatment was seen in 57.1% of the patients. Thirty-five percent presented complications (e.g. pyodermitis and pyelonephritis) during treatment. The risk factors for developing complications during treatment were non-compliance with the treatment and having the generalized clinical form. In the EPV group, the average age was 21.7 years; 71.4% were men. All patients presented with the mucocutaneous clinical variant and the initial presentation consisted of oral mucosa lesions; 71.4% presented complications during treatment, pyodermitis being the most frequent. CONCLUSIONS Non-compliance with the treatment and the generalized clinical form are risk factors for the development of complications during treatment of patients with EPF. Peru indeed has EPV cases with epidemiologic characteristics similar to EPF. Living in a rural area may represent a risk factor for the development of complications during treatment of patients with EPV. PMID:23197201

  17. Species Diversity Distribution Patterns of Chinese Endemic Seed Plants Based on Geographical Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jihong; Ma, Keping; Huang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Based on a great number of literatures, we established the database about the Chinese endemic seed plants and analyzed the compositions, growth form, distribution and angiosperm original families of them within three big natural areas and seven natural regions. The results indicate that the above characters of Chinese endemic plants take on relative rule at the different geographical scales. Among the three big natural areas, Eastern Monsoon area has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas Northwest Dryness area is the lowest. For life forms, herbs dominate. In contrast, the proportion of herbs of Eastern Monsoon area is remarkable under other two areas. Correspondingly the proportions of trees and shrubs are substantially higher than other two. For angiosperm original families, the number is the highest in Eastern Monsoon area, and lowest in Northwest Dryness area. On the other hand, among the seven natural regions, the humid and subtropical zone in Central and Southern China has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas the humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China has the lowest. For life forms, the proportion of herbs tends to decrease from humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China to humid and tropical zone in Southern China. Comparably, trees, shrubs and vines or lianas increase with the same directions. This fully represents these characters of Chinese endemic plants vary with latitudinal gradients. Furthermore, as to the number of endemic plants belonging to angiosperm original families, the number is the most in humid and subtropical zone in Center and Southern China, and tropical zone in Southern China in the next place. In contrast, the endemic plant of these two regions relatively is richer than that of The Qinghai-Tibet alpine and cold region. All above results sufficiently reflect that the Chinese endemic plants mainly distribute in Eastern Monsoon area, especially humid and subtropical zone in Center

  18. A comparison of urinary tract pathology and morbidity in adult populations from endemic and non-endemic zones for urinary schistosomiasis on Unguja Island, Zanzibar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamis Simba

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal tract involvement is implicated in both early and late schistosomiasis leading to increased disease burden. Despite there being good estimates of disease burden due to renal tract disease secondary to schistosomiasis at the global level, it is often difficult to translate these estimates into local communities. The aim of this study was to assess the burden of urinary tract pathology and morbidity due to schistosomiasis in Zanzibar and identify reliable clinical predictors of schistosomiasis associated renal disease. Methods A cross-sectional comparison of Ungujan men and women living within either high or low endemic areas for urinary schistosomiasis was conducted. Using urine analysis with reagent strips, parasitological egg counts, portable ultrasonography and a qualitative case-history questionnaire. Data analysis used single and multiple predictor variable logistic regression. Results One hundred and sixty people were examined in the high endemic area (63% women and 37% men, and 101 people in the low endemic area (61% women and 39% men. In the high endemic area, egg-patent schistosomiasis and urinary tract pathology were much more common (p = 1 × 10-3, 8 × 10-6, respectively in comparison with the low endemic area. Self-reported frothy urine, self-reported haematuria, dysuria and urgency to urinate were associated with urinary tract pathology (p = 1.8 × 10-2, p = 1.1 × 10-4, p = 1.3 × 10-6, p = 1.1 × 10-7, respectively as assessed by ultrasonography. In a multi-variable logistic regression model, self-reporting of schistosomiasis in the past year, self-reporting of urgency to urinate and having an egg-positive urine sample were all independently associated with detectable urinary tract abnormality, consistent with schistosomiasis-specific disease. Having two or more of these features was moderately sensitive (70% as a predictor for urinary tract abnormality with high specificity (92%. Conclusion Having two

  19. Echinococcus granulosus genotypes circulating in alpacas (Lama pacos and pigs (Sus scrofa from an endemic region in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus present in livestock and wild animals within regions endemic for cystic echinococcosis (CE is epidemiologically important. Individual strains display different biological characteristics that contribute to outbreaks of CE and that must be taken into account in the design of intervention programs. In this study, samples of hydatid cysts due to E. granulosus were collected from alpacas (4 in Puno and pigs (8 in Ayacucho in Peru, an endemic region for CE. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing of specific regions of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes confirmed the presence of a strain common to sheep, the G1 genotype, in alpacas. Two different strains of E. granulosus were identified in pigs: the G1 and the G7 genotypes. This is the first report of the G1 genotype of E. granulosus in alpacas in endemic regions of CE in Peru.

  20. Diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis in a non-endemic area: Inference of the probable geographic area of an infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Ramón; Arenas, Roberto; Duarte-Escalante, Esperanza; Frías-De León, María Guadalupe; Vega Memige, María Elisa; Acosta Altamirano, Gustavo; Reyes-Montes, María Del Rocío

    Coccidioidomycosis is one of the most important endemic mycoses in Northern Mexico. However, diagnosing this disease can be challenging, particularly in patients who do not reside in endemic areas. The case of a Mexican HIV+ patient who developed fever, general malaise, a severe cough, and dyspnea during a stay in Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico, is presented. Since various diseases are endemic to the state of Guerrero, the doctors originally suspected that the patient had contracted influenza A (H1N1), Q fever, or tuberculosis. All the diagnostic tests for those diseases were negative. The patient had received numerous mosquito bites while staying in Acapulco, and a nodule had appeared on his right cheek. Therefore, malaria, cryptococcosis, and histoplasmosis were also suspected, but those infections were also ruled out through diagnostic tests. A direct microscopic examination was performed using KOH on a sample taken from the cheek nodule. The observation of spherules suggested the presence of a species of Coccidioides. The fungus was isolated, and its identity was confirmed by phenotypic and molecular methods. The geographic area in which the infection was likely acquired was identified by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The results suggested a probable endogenous reactivation. This clinical case illustrates the difficulties associated with diagnosing coccidioidomycosis in non-endemic areas. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  1. Distribution pattern, ecology and endemism of family crassulaceae in Pakistan and Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, G.R.; Qaiser, M.

    2012-01-01

    Distribution pattern, ecology and endemism of family Crassul aceae have been studied in Pakistan and Kashmir. Out of 31 taxa, 15 are Irano-Turanian elements, 16 are Sino-Japanese elements and only one is Mediterranean element. Twenty nine taxa are classified as uniregional, while one is biregional element. Only one taxon is considered as pluriregional element. Rhodiola saxifragoides, Rosularia adenotricha subsp. chitralica and Hylotelephium pakistanicum are endemic taxa. While Rhodiola pachyclados and Rosularia sedoides are partim endemic. The former species is confined to (Kurrum valley) Pakistan and Afghanistan whereas the latter species distributed in Kashmir and N India. Rhodiola coccinea subsp. scabrida is subendemic to the peripheral belt of Irano-Turanian and Sino-Japanese regions. (author)

  2. Among-species differences in pollen quality and quantity limitation: implications for endemics in biodiverse hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Conchita; Navarro-Fernández, Carmen M; Arceo-Gómez, Gerardo; Meindl, George A; Parra-Tabla, Víctor; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2013-11-01

    Insufficient pollination is a function of quantity and quality of pollen receipt, and the relative contribution of each to pollen limitation may vary with intrinsic plant traits and extrinsic ecological properties. Community-level studies are essential to evaluate variation across species in quality limitation under common ecological conditions. This study examined whether endemic species are more limited by pollen quantity or quality than non-endemic co-flowering species in three endemic-rich plant communities located in biodiversity hotspots of different continents (Andalusia, California and Yucatan). Natural variations in pollen receipt and pollen tube formation were analysed for 20 insect-pollinated plants. Endemic and non-endemic species that co-flowered were paired in order to estimate and compare the quantity and quality components of pre-zygotic pollination success, obtained through piecewise regression analysis of the relationship between pollen grains and pollen tubes of naturally pollinated wilted flowers. Pollen tubes did not frequently exceed the number of ovules per flower. Only the combination of abundant and good quality pollen and a low number of ovules per flower conferred relief from pre-zygotic pollen limitation in the three stochastic pollination environments studied. Quality of pollen receipt was found to be as variable as quantity among study species. The relative pollination success of endemic and non-endemic species, and its quantity and quality components, was community dependent. Assessing both quality and quantity of pollen receipt is key to determining the ovule fertilization potential of both endemic and widespread plants in biodiverse hotspot regions. Large natural variation among flowers of the same species in the two components and pollen tube formation deserves further analysis in order to estimate the environmental, phenotypic and intraindividual sources of variation that may affect how plants evolve to overcome this limitation in

  3. Plasmid profiles as indicators of the source of contamination of Staphylococcus aureus endemic within poultry processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C E; Chaffey, B J; Waites, W M

    1988-06-01

    A total of 530 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from the defeathering machinery of a chicken processing plant and from neck skin samples of carcasses at different stages of processing in two visits 4 weeks apart. Eleven different plasmid profiles were detected in the isolates, eight being common to both visits. The plasmid profiles of the strains forming the majority of the population on the freshly slaughtered birds were rarely present in the strains isolated from the pluckers (except at the entry to the first plucker) and were present in only a small proportion of the strains isolated from carcasses after plucking. However, the profiles from the strains isolated from the pluckers on both visits were different from those forming the majority of the population on the incoming birds but formed the major part of the carcass flora after plucking, suggesting that such strains were endemic. These strains were found as a small proportion of the isolates made from the incoming birds, suggesting that this was the route by which the endemic strains were introduced into the plant. Such endemic strains exhibited a clumping growth, even in liquid shake culture, which may have made it easier for them to become established on the pluckers and to resist cleaning and disinfection. This clumping phenotype was correlated with the presence of a 7.5-megadalton plasmid.

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis serovars of endemic trachoma had been ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... The serovars that we identified from Japanese infants and pregnant women ... Once Japan was thought to be belong to an endemic area of trachoma as other Asian countries.

  5. The endemic medicinal plants of Northern Balochistan, Pakistan and their uses in traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Tahira; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Mohammad Tareen, Niaz; Jabeen, Rukhsana; Sultana, Shazia; Zafar, Muhammad; Zain-ul-Abidin, Sheikh

    2015-09-15

    The highlands of Northern Balochistan are the hot spots of medicinal and endemic plant in Pakistan. These plants are still commonly used for medicinal purposes by local people in their daily lives. This study first documented the information about the medicinal uses of endemic species of Balochistan-province Pakistan. A survey was performed using open ended questionnaires, free listening and personal observations with 152 informants (54% female, 46% male). In addition, the use value (MUV), use report (UR), fidelity level (FL), frequency citation (FC), relative frequency citation (RFC), family importance value (FIV) of species were determined and the informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. A total of 24 endemic plants belonging to 19 genera and 14 families were used by the local inhabitants to treat 12 categories of various diseases. The most common families of endemic plant species as depicted by its number of species (6 species) and FIV (9.9) was Fabaceae as the dominant family. The endemic plant species comprised perennial herbs (30%), annual herbs (25%), shrubs (29%) and under shrubs (16% each), no endemic tree species was reported in the study area. The highest number of species were used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases (12 species). The main route of administration is oral injection (62%) while the most frequently used form of external administration of herbal medicine was paste (5.4%) and the most commonly applied methods of preparation are powder (48.2%). Highest use report were calculated for Allium baluchistanicum and Viola makranica, (8 UR each), and least use report were calculated for two species Heliotropium remotiflorum and Tetracme stocksii (1 UR for each). Use values of the recorded plant species have been calculated which showed a highest use value of (0.73) for A. baluchistanicum and (0.56) for Berberis baluchistanica while the lowest UVs were attained for T. stocksii (0

  6. Measuring elimination of podoconiosis, endemicity classifications, case definition and targets: an international Delphi exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deribe, Kebede; Wanji, Samuel; Shafi, Oumer; Muheki Tukahebwa, Edridah; Umulisa, Irenee; Davey, Gail

    2015-09-01

    Podoconiosis is one of the major causes of lymphoedema in the tropics. Nonetheless, currently there are no endemicity classifications or elimination targets to monitor the effects of interventions. This study aimed at establishing case definitions and indicators that can be used to assess endemicity, elimination and clinical outcomes of podoconiosis. This paper describes the result of a Delphi technique used among 28 experts. A questionnaire outlining possible case definitions, endemicity classifications, elimination targets and clinical outcomes was developed. The questionnaire was distributed to experts working on podoconiosis and other neglected tropical diseases in two rounds. The experts rated the importance of case definitions, endemic classifications, elimination targets and the clinical outcome measures. Median and mode were used to describe the central tendency of expert responses. The coefficient of variation was used to describe the dispersals of expert responses. Consensus on definitions and indicators for assessing endemicity, elimination and clinical outcomes of podoconiosis directed at policy makers and health workers was achieved following the two rounds of Delphi approach among the experts. Based on the two Delphi rounds we discuss potential indicators and endemicity classification of this disabling disease, and the ongoing challenges to its elimination in countries with the highest prevalence. Consensus will help to increase effectiveness of podoconiosis elimination efforts and ensure comparability of outcome data. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. Cytological studies in Four Endemic Genera of Apiaceae from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vinod C. Gosavi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The family Apiaceae comprises 428 genera worldwide, of which 68 are represented in India. Karnataka P.K. Mukh. & Constance, Pinda P.K. Mukh. & Constance, Polyzygus Dalzell, Sivadasania N. Mohanan & Pimenov and Vanasushava P.K. Mukh. & Constance are endemic genera to the country. The present communication is an attempt to provide chromosome counts and basic karyomorphology of Karnataka, Pinda, Polyzygus and Vanasushava. Somatic chromosome counts 2n = 22 and meiotic chromosome counts n = 11 are reported for the first time in Karnataka and Pinda while in Polyzygus 2n = 36 and in Vanasushava 2n = 44 are reported as new cytotypes in present investigation. Karyomophologically Pinda and Vanasushava showed affinities with Heracleum L. while Polyzygus showed advanced karyotype symmetry.

  8. Ontogenetic foraging activity and feeding selectivity of the Brazilian endemic parrotfish Scarus zelindae

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Pedro H.C.; Santos, Marcus; Lippi, Daniel L.; Silva, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Parrotfish are fundamental species in controlling algal phase-shifts and ensuring the resilience of coral reefs. Nevertheless, little is known on their ecological role in the south-western Atlantic Ocean. The present study analysed the ontogenetic foraging activity and feeding selectivity of the Brazilian endemic parrotfish Scarus zelindae using behavioural observation and benthic composition analyses. We found a significant negative relationship between fish size and feeding rates for S. zel...

  9. Co-endemicity of Cysticercosis and Schistosomiasis in Africa - how many people are at risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal

    The World Health Organisation (WHO) is aiming for elimination of schistosomiasis by 2020 through mass drug administration (MDA). However, the drug used for this, praziquantel, has been reported to cause dramatic side effects, even death, among people suffering from neurocysticercosis (NCC). Both...... countries were identified. The co-endemicity dataset was then combined with modelled data on population density for 2015 derived from the WorldPop database (http://www.worldpop.org). We used the open source GIS software QGIS and GRASS to overlay the two datasets and identified the number of people living...... in co-endemic districts. Over 135 million people live in co-endemic areas. Of these, almost 44 million live in high prevalence areas for schistosomiasis where WHO recommend MDA for the entire population. In co-endemic areas resources need to be allocated for evaluating the extent of adverse effects...

  10. On extinction time of a generalized endemic chain-binomial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogmus, Ozgur

    2016-09-01

    We considered a chain-binomial epidemic model not conferring immunity after infection. Mean field dynamics of the model has been analyzed and conditions for the existence of a stable endemic equilibrium are determined. The behavior of the chain-binomial process is probabilistically linked to the mean field equation. As a result of this link, we were able to show that the mean extinction time of the epidemic increases at least exponentially as the population size grows. We also present simulation results for the process to validate our analytical findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Diversity, rarity and the evolution and conservation of the Canary Islands endemic flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes-Betancort, J. Alfredo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The endemic vascular flora of the Canary Islands comprises over 680, taxa collectively accounting for more than 50% of the total native flora. To investigate geographical patterns of diversity within the endemic flora, distribution data from published sources together with other field observation and herbarium data were used to compile a data matrix comprising the distributions of ca. 90% of endemic taxa scored on a 10 × 10km UTM grid. WORLDMAP was then used to investigate patterns of endemic diversity, range size rarity (a measure of endemicity, phylogenetic diversity and threatened taxon richness. Endemic taxon richness was found to be highly heterogeneous across the archipelago, with cells containing between one and 139 taxa each (0.05-22.82% of endemic diversity. Patterns of variation in range size rarity and phylogenetic diversity were found to be largely congruent with endemic diversity, although some cells exhibited markedly higher range size rarity scores than would be predicted by their endemic diversity scores. In contrast, the pattern of endangered taxon richness across the archipelago differed markedly from endemic taxon richness. Many cells in Lanzarote, Fuerteventura and Gran Canaria exhibit higher endangered taxon richness scores than would be predicted from their endemic richness scores whereas in Tenerife, El Hierro, La Palma and La Gomera, the converse is generally true. The implications of the results both for understanding the evolution of Canary Island endemic diversity and for the conservation of the region’s unique and vulnerable flora are considered.La flora vascular endémica de las Islas Canarias comprende unos 680 táxones, lo que viene a representar más del 50% de la flora nativa. Con objeto de investigar patrones geográficos de diversidad en la flora endémica, se recopilaron los datos publicados que, junto con otras observaciones de campo y datos de herbario, sirvieron para completar una matriz de datos

  12. Advances in the diagnosis of endemic treponematoses: yaws, bejel, and pinta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Mitjà

    Full Text Available Improved understanding of the differential diagnosis of endemic treponematoses is needed to inform clinical practice and to ensure the best outcome for a new global initiative for the eradication of yaws, bejel, and pinta. Traditionally, the human treponematoses have been differentiated based upon their clinical manifestations and epidemiologic characteristics because the etiologic agents are indistinguishable in the laboratory. Serological tests are still considered standard laboratory methods for the diagnosis of endemic treponematoses and new rapid point-of-care treponemal tests have become available which are extremely useful in low-resource settings. In the past ten years, there has been an increasing effort to apply polymerase chain reaction to treponematoses and whole genome fingerprinting techniques have identified genetic signatures that can differentiate the existing treponemal strains; however, definitive diagnosis is also hampered by widespread unavailability of molecular diagnostics. We review the dilemmas in the diagnosis of endemic treponematoses, and advances in the discovery of new diagnostic tools.

  13. Geographic isolation and elevational gradients promote diversification in an endemic shrew on Sulawesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Ryan A; Achmadi, Anang S; Giarla, Thomas C; Rowe, Kevin C; Esselstyn, Jacob A

    2018-01-01

    Phylogeographic research on endemic primates and amphibians inhabiting the Indonesian island of Sulawesi revealed the existence of seven areas of endemism (AoEs). Here, we use phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of one mitochondrial gene and 15 nuclear loci to assess geographic patterns of genetic partitioning in a shrew (Crocidura elongata) that is endemic to Sulawesi, but occurs across the island. We uncover substantial genetic diversity in this species both between and within AoEs, but we also identify close relationships between populations residing in different AoEs. One of the earliest divergences within C. elongata distinguishes a high-elevation clade from low-elevation clades. In addition, on one mountain, we observe three distinct genetic groups from low, middle, and high elevations, suggesting divergence along a single elevational gradient. In general, our results show that C. elongata, like several other Sulawesi endemic taxa, harbors extensive genetic diversity. This diversity is structured in part by known AoE boundaries, but also by elevational gradients and geographic isolation within AoEs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A review of contemporary patterns of endemism for shallow water reef fauna in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph

    2015-11-03

    Aim The Red Sea is characterised by a unique fauna and historical periods of desiccation, hypersalinity and intermittent isolation. The origin and contemporary composition of reef-associated taxa in this region can illuminate biogeographical principles about vicariance and the establishment (or local extirpation) of existing species. Here we aim to: (1) outline the distribution of shallow water fauna between the Red Sea and adjacent regions, (2) explore mechanisms for maintaining these distributions and (3) propose hypotheses to test these mechanisms. Location Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, Arabian Gulf and Indian Ocean. Methods Updated checklists for scleractinian corals, fishes and non-coral invertebrates were used to determine species richness in the Red Sea and the rest of the Arabian Peninsula and assess levels of endemism. Fine-scale diversity and abundance of reef fishes within the Red Sea were explored using ecological survey data. Results Within the Red Sea, we recorded 346 zooxanthellate and azooxanthellate scleractinian coral species of which 19 are endemic (5.5%). Currently 635 species of polychaetes, 211 echinoderms and 79 ascidians have been documented, with endemism rates of 12.6%, 8.1% and 16.5% respectively. A preliminary compilation of 231 species of crustaceans and 137 species of molluscs include 10.0% and 6.6% endemism respectively. We documented 1071 shallow fish species, with 12.9% endemic in the entire Red Sea and 14.1% endemic in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. Based on ecological survey data of endemic fishes, there were no major changes in species richness or abundance across 1100 km of Saudi Arabian coastline. Main conclusions The Red Sea biota appears resilient to major environmental fluctuations and is characterized by high rates of endemism with variable degrees of incursion into the Gulf of Aden. The nearby Omani and Arabian Gulfs also have variable environments and high levels of endemism, but these are not consistently distinct

  15. isoenzyme analysis of five endemic and one widespread kniphofia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ISOENZYME ANALYSIS OF FIVE ENDEMIC AND ONE WIDESPREAD ... plants. The over all mean inbreeding coefficient (F) was positive indicating slight deficiency in the number of ...... populations, indicates rather recent speciation.

  16. Cellular and Molecular Defects Underlying Invasive Fungal Infections—Revelations from Endemic Mycoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela P. Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of fungal diseases has been increasing, as a result of the expanding number of susceptible individuals including people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hematopoietic stem cell or organ transplant recipients, patients with malignancies or immunological conditions receiving immunosuppressive treatment, premature neonates, and the elderly. Opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Rhizopus, and Pneumocystis jiroveci are distributed worldwide and constitute the majority of invasive fungal infections (IFIs. Dimorphic fungi such as Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides spp., Paracoccidioides spp., Blastomyces dermatiditis, Sporothrix schenckii, Talaromyces (Penicillium marneffei, and Emmonsia spp. are geographically restricted to their respective habitats and cause endemic mycoses. Disseminated histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and T. marneffei infection are recognized as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS-defining conditions, while the rest also cause high rate of morbidities and mortalities in patients with HIV infection and other immunocompromised conditions. In the past decade, a growing number of monogenic immunodeficiency disorders causing increased susceptibility to fungal infections have been discovered. In particular, defects of the IL-12/IFN-γ pathway and T-helper 17-mediated response are associated with increased susceptibility to endemic mycoses. In this review, we put together the various forms of endemic mycoses on the map and take a journey around the world to examine how cellular and molecular defects of the immune system predispose to invasive endemic fungal infections, including primary immunodeficiencies, individuals with autoantibodies against interferon-γ, and those receiving biologic response modifiers. Though rare, these conditions provide importance insights to host defense mechanisms against endemic fungi, which can only be appreciated in unique

  17. High Prevalence of Asymptomatic Neurocysticercosis in an Endemic Rural Community in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, Luz M; O'Neal, Seth E; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Gamboa, Ricardo; Vilchez, Percy; Rodriguez, Silvia; Reistetter, Joe; Tsang, Victor C W; Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Garcia, Hector H

    2016-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a common helminthic infection of the central nervous system and an important cause of adult-onset epilepsy in endemic countries. However, few studies have examined associations between neurologic symptoms, serology and radiographic findings on a community-level. We conducted a population-based study of resident's ≥2 years old in a highly endemic village in Peru (pop. 454). We applied a 14 -question neurologic screening tool and evaluated serum for antibodies against Taenia solium cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (LLGP-EITB). We invited all residents ≥18 years old to have non-contrast computerized tomography (CT) of the head. Of the 385 residents who provided serum samples, 142 (36.9%) were seropositive. Of the 256 residents who underwent CT scan, 48 (18.8%) had brain calcifications consistent with NCC; 8/48 (17.0%) reported a history of headache and/or seizures. Exposure to T. solium is very common in this endemic community where 1 out of 5 residents had brain calcifications. However, the vast majority of people with calcifications were asymptomatic. This study reports a high prevalence of NCC infection in an endemic community in Peru and confirms that a large proportion of apparently asymptomatic residents have brain calcifications that could provoke seizures in the future.

  18. Electrocardiographic findings in Mexican chagasic subjects living in high and low endemic regions of Trypanosoma cruzi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Sosa-Jurado

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In México the first human chronic chagasic case was recognized in 1940. In spite of an increasing number of cases detected since that time, Chagas disease in México has been poorly documented. In the present work we studied 617 volunteers subjects living in high and low endemic regions of Trypanosoma cruzi infection with seroprevalence of 22% and 4% respectively. Hemoculture performed in those seropositive subjects failed to demonstrate circulating parasites, however polymerase chain reaction identified up to 60% of them as positives. A higher level of anti-T. cruzi antibodies was observed in seropositive residents in high endemic region, in spite of similar parasite persistence (p < 0.05. On standard 12 leads electrocardiogram (ECG 20% to 22% seropositive individuals from either region showed right bundle branch block or ventricular extrasystoles which were more prevalent in seropositive than in seronegative individuals (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the frequency or type of ECG abnormality was influenced by serologic status but not by endemicity or parasite persistence. Furthermore, Mexican indeterminate patients have a similar ECG pattern to those reported in South America.

  19. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckx, Vincent S F T; Hendriks, Kasper P; Beentjes, Kevin K; Mennes, Constantijn B; Becking, Leontine E; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; Afendy, Aqilah; Arumugam, Nivaarani; de Boer, Hugo; Biun, Alim; Buang, Matsain M; Chen, Ping-Ping; Chung, Arthur Y C; Dow, Rory; Feijen, Frida A A; Feijen, Hans; Feijen-van Soest, Cobi; Geml, József; Geurts, René; Gravendeel, Barbara; Hovenkamp, Peter; Imbun, Paul; Ipor, Isa; Janssens, Steven B; Jocqué, Merlijn; Kappes, Heike; Khoo, Eyen; Koomen, Peter; Lens, Frederic; Majapun, Richard J; Morgado, Luis N; Neupane, Suman; Nieser, Nico; Pereira, Joan T; Rahman, Homathevi; Sabran, Suzana; Sawang, Anati; Schwallier, Rachel M; Shim, Phyau-Soon; Smit, Harry; Sol, Nicolien; Spait, Maipul; Stech, Michael; Stokvis, Frank; Sugau, John B; Suleiman, Monica; Sumail, Sukaibin; Thomas, Daniel C; van Tol, Jan; Tuh, Fred Y Y; Yahya, Bakhtiar E; Nais, Jamili; Repin, Rimi; Lakim, Maklarin; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these

  20. Divergent profile of emerging cutaneous leishmaniasis in subtropical Brazil: new endemic areas in the southern frontier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariel Asbury Marlow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although known to be highly endemic in the Amazon regions of Brazil, the presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in the subtropical southern part of the country has largely been ignored. This study was conducted to demonstrate CL is emerging in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, as well as to characterize the epidemiological profile and Leishmania species involved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For this cross-sectional study, data from all CL cases from Santa Catarina, Brazil, reported to the Brazilian National Notifiable Diseases Information System from 2001 to 2009 were investigated. Amplification of the kDNA minicircle conserved region followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP was conducted to screen for Leishmania species present in patient biopsy. Overall, 542 CL cases were reported, with majority resulting from autochthonous transmission (n = 401, 73.99% and occurring in urban zones (n = 422, 77.86%. Age, gender, zone of residence, origin of case, clinical form and case outcome were found to differ significantly by region. Imported cases were over seven times more likely to relapse (95% CI 2.56-21.09. Mapping of cases revealed new endemic areas in northeastern Santa Catarina with two species present. With the exception of three L. (Leishmania amazonensis cases (1.20%, majority of PCR positive samples were found to be L. (Viannia braziliensis (n = 248, 98.80%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CL is now endemic in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, with case profiles varying significantly by region. L. (V. braziliensis has been identified as the predominant species in the region.

  1. Responses to TRH in patients with endemic goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Laureano; Watanabe, Tomas; El Tamer, Elias; Varela, Amalia; Moran, Dardo; Rinaudo, Antonio; Staneloni, Luis; Degrossi, O.J.

    1978-12-01

    The response to TRH was studied in 32 patients from an endemic goiter area, 20 of them had been previously treated with iodized oil. Blood samples were taken at 0, 20, 40 and 120 minutes after de i.v. administration of 400μg of TRH, and serum levels of TSH, T3 and T4 were measured. The results obtained show that in endemic goiter area there is a modification in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism, with increased reserve of pituitary TSH and changes in T4 and T3 secretion. The injection of TRH gave exaggerated and delayed responses in the secretion of TSH and T3. Iodized oil used as a prophylatic method produced a disminution of pituitary TSH reserve, and of serum levels of TSH and T3, as a result of the return tonormality of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism. (author) [es

  2. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: An emerging infection in a non-endemic area and a brief update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastogi V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the emergence of a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL due to Leishmania tropica (L. tropica in the Ajmer city of Rajasthan, India, a previously non-endemic area. Between January-February 2006, 13 new indigenously acquired cases of CL were diagnosed among the patients attending the Skin and STD department, JLN Hospital, Ajmer. The diagnosis was based on clinical presentation, demonstration of amastigotes (LT bodies in Giemsa stained smear of the lesion and response to intralesional / local anti-leishmanial drug therapy. In addition, culture of the promastigote forms of L. tropica from the lesion was successfully attempted in four of the smear negatives cases. By retrospective analysis, 23 new indigenous cases of CL have been diagnosed in the same setting during the period January 2004 - December 2005, based on clinical and therapeutic response alone. There was no clear-cut history of sandfly bite and travel outside the district or state to endemic area in any of the cases. However, all of them came from a common residential area (famous dargah of Ajmer and the peak incidence was seen in January, four months after the famous Urs fair of Ajmer, the location was urban and the lesions were characteristic of L. tropica. Therefore, the disease is suspected to be anthroponotic. These features are suggestive of a common mode of transmission, source and/or vector signalling introduction of this infection into a non-endemic area.

  3. Cohort study of the seasonal effect on nasal carriage and the presence of Mycobacterium leprae in an endemic area in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavania, M; Turankar, R P; Karri, S; Chaitanya, V S; Sengupta, U; Jadhav, R S

    2013-10-01

    Leprosy continues to be a significant health problem in certain pockets in developing countries. Better understanding of the transmission and source of the infection would help to decipher the transmission link, leading to control of the spread of the disease. The nose is considered to be a portal of entry, suggesting an aerial route for transmission through droplet infection. The evidence suggests that many individuals from endemic countries carry Mycobacterium leprae in their nasal cavities without having obvious symptoms of leprosy. The objective of the present study was to assess the presence of M. leprae on the nasal mucosa in the general population from a leprosy-endemic pocket. M. leprae detection was carried out using PCR targeting RLEP. Four hundred subjects from an area highly endemic for leprosy were included in the study and followed up during three different seasons--winter, summer, and monsoon--for evidence of nasal exposure to M. leprae. PCR positivity for M. leprae was observed in 29%, 21% and 31% of the samples collected in winter, summer and the monsoon season, respectively. Twenty-six individuals from the cohort showed amplification for M. leprae for all seasons. Our results are consistent with reports in the literature showing widespread exposure to M. leprae in the endemic community. The results also suggest possible association of the environmental conditions (climate) with the transmission pattern and levels of exposure to M. leprae. However, the present study indicated that the population from highly endemic pockets will have exposure to M. leprae irrespective of season. © 2012 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  4. New phytotoxic diterpenoids from Vellozia gigantea (Velloziaceae), an endemic neotropical plant living in the endangered Brazilian biome Rupestrian grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellozia gigantea is a rare, ancient and endemic neotropical plant present in the Brazilian Rupestrian grasslands. The dichloromethane extract of V. gigantea adventitious roots was phytotoxic against Lactuca sativa, Agrostis stolonifera and Lemna paucicostata, and showed larvicidal activity against ...

  5. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckx, V.S.F.T.; Hendriks, K.P.; Beentjes, K.K.; Mennes, C.B.; Becking, L.E.; Peijnenburg, K.T.C.A.; Afendy, A.; Arumugam, N.; de Boer, H.; Biun, A.; Buang, M.M.; Chen, P.P.; Chung, A.Y.C.; Dow, R..; Feijen, F.A.A.; Feijen, H.; Feijen-van Soest, C.; Geml, J.; Geurts, R.; Gravendeel, B.; Hovenkamp, P.; Imbun, P.; Ipor, I.; Janssens, S.B.; Jocqué, M.; Kappes, H.; Khoo, E.; Koomen, P.; Lens, F.; Majapun, R.J.; Morgado, L.N.; Neupane, S.; Nieser, N.; Pereira, J.T.; Rahman, H.; Sabran, S.; Sawang, A.; Schwallier, R.M.; Shim, P.S.; Smit, H.; Sol, N.; Spait, M.; Stech, M.; Stokvis, F.; Sugau, J.B.; Suleiman, M.; Sumail, S.; Thomas, D.C.; van Tol, J.; Tuh, F.Y.Y.; Yahya, B.E.; Nais, J.; Repin, R.; Lakim, M.; Schilthuizen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism1, 2, 3, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood4. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of

  6. Unusual presentation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis: a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case study highlights an unusual manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in a person living with HIV, namely mammary TB. Clinicians practising in settings where HIV and TB are endemic need to be aware of the clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of mammary TB.

  7. Speciation and the Latitudinal Diversity Gradient: Insights from the Global Distribution of Endemic Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Patrick J; Mittelbach, Gary G; Schemske, Douglas W

    2017-06-01

    The nearly universal pattern that species richness increases from the poles to the equator (the latitudinal diversity gradient [LDG]) has been of intense interest since its discovery by early natural-history explorers. Among the many hypotheses proposed to explain the LDG, latitudinal variation in (1) productivity, (2) time and area available for diversification, and (3) speciation and/or extinction rates have recently received the most attention. Because tropical regions are older and were formerly more widespread, these factors are often intertwined, hampering efforts to distinguish their relative contributions to the LDG. Here we examine the global distribution of endemic lake fishes to determine how lake age, area, and latitude each affect the probability of speciation and the extent of diversification occurring within a lake. We analyzed the distribution of endemic fishes worldwide (1,933 species and subspecies from 47 families in 2,746 lakes) and find that the probability of a lake containing an endemic species and the total number of endemics per lake increase with lake age and area and decrease with latitude. Moreover, the geographic locations of endemics in 34 of 41 families are found at lower latitudes than those of nonendemics. We propose that the greater diversification of fish at low latitudes may be driven in part by ecological opportunities promoted by tropical climates and by the coevolution of species interactions.

  8. Composition, Endemism and Phytogeographical Affinities of the Taiwan Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Fu Hsieh

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Taiwan vascular flora is exceptionally interesting not only because it is rich and diversified, but because it is of great phytogeographic significance owing to its geographic location. The flora of Taiwan, including naturalized plants, comprises 233 families and 1389 genera with 4216 species. In terms of major growth forms, there are 588 trees, 426 shrubs, 249 lianas, 177 vines, and 2776 herbs or ferns. Approximately 234 species are exotics typically associated with pastures, road clearings and other human disturbances. An extremely large percentage of these naturalized plants are of tropical New World origin. Among the native flora, the Orchidaceae (331 species, Gramineae (249, Compositae (194, Leguminosae (176, Cyperaceae (174, Rosaceae (105, Rubiaceae (93 and Euphorbiaceae (76 rank highest in numbers of species. Clearly, the greatest part of Taiwan's floristics richness comes from a wealth of species in primarily lowland (0–600 m asl. taxa. A total of 2571 species were recorded in the lowlands, whereas only about 251 species occur between 3100-3950 m. Endemic genera are extremely scarce in Taiwan, with only four, namely Sinopanax (Araliaceae, Hayatella (Rubiaceae, Kudoacanthus (Acanthaceae, and Haraella (Orchidaceae. In contrast to the low percentage of generic endemism, there is a remarkably higher specific endemism. About 1041 species (26.1% of indigenous plants are known only from Taiwan. A detailed examination of these species shows that there is a distinct trend of increasing endemism with increasing altitude (r² = 0.99. A survey of indigenous non-endemic species on the basis of their geographical distribution outside Taiwan shows that they can be classified into 6 major categories: 1. pantropical and palaeotropical species (1029 species; 2. species distributed in eastern Asia, from Himalayas through southern & eastern China to Taiwan, with some extending to the Ryukyus and Japan (1075 species; 3. widespread species extending

  9. Ecological effects of the invasive giant madagascar day gecko on endemic mauritian geckos: applications of binomial-mixture and species distribution models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Steeves; Cole, Nik C; Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Jesús; Gallagher, Laura E; Henshaw, Sion M; Besnard, Aurélien; Tucker, Rachel M; Bachraz, Vishnu; Ruhomaun, Kevin; Harris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The invasion of the giant Madagascar day gecko Phelsuma grandis has increased the threats to the four endemic Mauritian day geckos (Phelsuma spp.) that have survived on mainland Mauritius. We had two main aims: (i) to predict the spatial distribution and overlap of P. grandis and the endemic geckos at a landscape level; and (ii) to investigate the effects of P. grandis on the abundance and risks of extinction of the endemic geckos at a local scale. An ensemble forecasting approach was used to predict the spatial distribution and overlap of P. grandis and the endemic geckos. We used hierarchical binomial mixture models and repeated visual estimate surveys to calculate the abundance of the endemic geckos in sites with and without P. grandis. The predicted range of each species varied from 85 km2 to 376 km2. Sixty percent of the predicted range of P. grandis overlapped with the combined predicted ranges of the four endemic geckos; 15% of the combined predicted ranges of the four endemic geckos overlapped with P. grandis. Levin's niche breadth varied from 0.140 to 0.652 between P. grandis and the four endemic geckos. The abundance of endemic geckos was 89% lower in sites with P. grandis compared to sites without P. grandis, and the endemic geckos had been extirpated at four of ten sites we surveyed with P. grandis. Species Distribution Modelling, together with the breadth metrics, predicted that P. grandis can partly share the equivalent niche with endemic species and survive in a range of environmental conditions. We provide strong evidence that smaller endemic geckos are unlikely to survive in sympatry with P. grandis. This is a cause of concern in both Mauritius and other countries with endemic species of Phelsuma.

  10. Ecological effects of the invasive giant madagascar day gecko on endemic mauritian geckos: applications of binomial-mixture and species distribution models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steeves Buckland

    Full Text Available The invasion of the giant Madagascar day gecko Phelsuma grandis has increased the threats to the four endemic Mauritian day geckos (Phelsuma spp. that have survived on mainland Mauritius. We had two main aims: (i to predict the spatial distribution and overlap of P. grandis and the endemic geckos at a landscape level; and (ii to investigate the effects of P. grandis on the abundance and risks of extinction of the endemic geckos at a local scale. An ensemble forecasting approach was used to predict the spatial distribution and overlap of P. grandis and the endemic geckos. We used hierarchical binomial mixture models and repeated visual estimate surveys to calculate the abundance of the endemic geckos in sites with and without P. grandis. The predicted range of each species varied from 85 km2 to 376 km2. Sixty percent of the predicted range of P. grandis overlapped with the combined predicted ranges of the four endemic geckos; 15% of the combined predicted ranges of the four endemic geckos overlapped with P. grandis. Levin's niche breadth varied from 0.140 to 0.652 between P. grandis and the four endemic geckos. The abundance of endemic geckos was 89% lower in sites with P. grandis compared to sites without P. grandis, and the endemic geckos had been extirpated at four of ten sites we surveyed with P. grandis. Species Distribution Modelling, together with the breadth metrics, predicted that P. grandis can partly share the equivalent niche with endemic species and survive in a range of environmental conditions. We provide strong evidence that smaller endemic geckos are unlikely to survive in sympatry with P. grandis. This is a cause of concern in both Mauritius and other countries with endemic species of Phelsuma.

  11. [Human and animal fascioliasis in Peru: impact in the economy of endemic zones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, José R; Terashima, Angélica; Herrera-Velit, Patricia; Marcos, Luis A

    2010-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is the causative agent of fasciolosis in Peru; the disease is an important public health problem by the high prevalence of the human infection affecting mainly children and a major veterinary problem by the high rates of infected livestock. The human disease is endemic in the Sierra and the Coast but sporadic in the Amazonia, and reported in 18 Departments, while the animal infection in 21 of 24 Departments of Peru. Transmission occurs in Andean rural populations engaged in agriculture, but recently an increasing number of people became infected in the cities. The epidemiological situation in Peru includes i) Departments with non-autochtonous cases, where infection occurs by consumption of contaminated vegetables brought from endemic areas or infection is acquired by visit to endemic areas; ii) Departments with hypoendemic and mesoendemic villages, where transmission occurs by ingest of contaminated vegetables and prevalence ≤10%; and iii) Departments with hyper-endemic villages with human prevalence >10 %, with an intense transmission by consumption of contaminated vegetables. The disease affects bovine, sheep, goat, swine, equine, South American camelids, rabbits and guinea pigs. The negative impact of fasciolosis in the livestock economy is not lesser than US$ 50 million per year, estimation based on the prevalence and the number of condemned livers in the abattoirs. It is difficult to estimate the economic impact of this infection in the human health due to its status of neglected disease, but fasciolosis is hyper-endemic in the poorest Andean areas of Peru where the situation has to be recognized as a public health emergency.

  12. Reduction in malaria prevalence and increase in malaria awareness in endemic districts of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Kabir, Mohammad Moktadir; Hossain, Mohammad Sharif; Naher, Shamsun; Ferdous, Nur E Naznin; Khan, Wasif Ali; Mondal, Dinesh; Karim, Jahirul; Shamsuzzaman, A K M; Ahmed, Be-Nazir; Islam, Akramul; Haque, Rashidul

    2016-11-11

    Malaria is endemic in 13 districts of Bangladesh. A baseline malaria prevalence survey across the endemic districts of Bangladesh was conducted in 2007, when the prevalence was reported around 39.7 per 1000 population. After two rounds of Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM)-funded intervention by the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) and a BRAC-led NGO consortium, a follow-up survey was conducted across the malaria-endemic districts of Bangladesh to measure the change in prevalence rate and in people's knowledge of malaria. The survey was carried out from August to November 2013 in 70 upazilas (sub-districts) of 13 malaria-endemic districts of Bangladesh, following the same multi-stage cluster sampling design and the same number of households enrolled during the baseline prevalence survey in 2007, to collect 9750 randomly selected blood samples. For on-the-spot diagnosis of malaria, a rapid diagnostic test was used. The household head or eldest person available was interviewed using a pre-coded structured questionnaire to collect data on the knowledge and awareness of malaria in the household. Based on a weighted calculation, the overall malaria prevalence was found to be 1.41 per 1000 population. The proportion of Plasmodium falciparum mono-infection was 77.78% while both Plasmodium vivax mono-infection and mixed infection of the two species were found to be 11.11%. Bandarban had the highest prevalence (6.67 per 1000 population). Knowledge of malaria signs, symptoms and mode of transmission were higher in the follow-up survey (97.26%) than the baseline survey. Use of bed nets for prevention of malaria was found to be high (90.15%) at respondent level. People's knowledge of selected parameters increased significantly during the follow-up survey compared to the baseline survey conducted in 2007. A reduced prevalence rate of malaria and increased level of knowledge were observed in the present malaria prevalence survey in Bangladesh.

  13. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckx, V.; Hendriks, K.; Beentjes, K.; Mennes, C.B.; Becking, L.E.; Geurts, R.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism1–3, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood4. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these

  14. Endemic infrared divergences in QED3 at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Pok Man; Swanson, Eric S.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that massless QED in three dimensions contains endemic infrared divergences. It is argued that these divergences do not affect observables; furthermore, it is possible to choose a gauge that renders the theory finite.

  15. Thyroid status and urinary iodine levels in women of endemic goiter area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, S.; Shabbir, I.; Hussain, R.; Islam, M.U.; Aasim, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To determine the thyroid function tests and urinary iodine levels in women belonging to goiter endemic area. Study type and settings: Descriptive study conducted in women of goiter endemic area in Saggian Lahore. Subjects and Methods: Saggian Lahore is a goiter endemic area. A total of 293 women between the ages of 18-45 years residing in the area were clinically screened for goiter. Of them 73 women having goiter were recruited for the study. Information regarding demographic profile clinical presentation and physical examination of the goiter was recorded on a questionnaire. The goiter size was graded according to WHO, UNICEF and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorder. About 5ml of blood sample was drawn from each women and run for thyroid function tests i.e. T3 T4 and TSH using Elisa kits (Human scientific Co. Germany). Urinary iodine was checked by chemical method. Results: Mean age of 73 women was 28.5 years. Marital status showed that 48(65.7%) were married and 25(34.3%) were unmarried. Visible diffuse goiter was seen in 56(77%) cases. Pressure symptoms as cough and shortness of breath was seen in 30(41%) and 31(42.5%) women respectively. Among the 73 women 24.6% (18 cases) took treatment for goiter. Adverse pregnancy outcome secondary to goiter was seen in 58% (28 cases) out of 48 married women. Thyroid function tests result showed that 72% (53 cases) were euthyroid, 18% (13 cases) were hypothyroid, and 10% (7 cases) were hyperthyroid. Urinary iodine levels showed that 99% women were iodine deficient. Conclusions: Thyroid functions do not indicate iodine deficiency in all cases of goiter, therefore, Urinary iodine levels need be estimated while investigating goiter cases. Policy message: Iodine deficiency should be diagnosed and treated on priority basis. (author)

  16. Diversification of an emerging pathogen in a biodiversity hotspot: Leptospira in endemic small mammals of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Muriel; Wilkinson, David A; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Goodman, Steven M; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

    2014-06-01

    Biodiversity hotspots and associated endemism are ideal systems for the study of parasite diversity within host communities. Here, we investigated the ecological and evolutionary forces acting on the diversification of an emerging bacterial pathogen, Leptospira spp., in communities of endemic Malagasy small mammals. We determined the infection rate with pathogenic Leptospira in 20 species of sympatric rodents (subfamily Nesomyinae) and tenrecids (family Tenrecidae) at two eastern humid forest localities. A multilocus genotyping analysis allowed the characterization of bacterial diversity within small mammals and gave insights into their genetic relationships with Leptospira infecting endemic Malagasy bats (family Miniopteridae and Vespertilionidae). We report for the first time the presence of pathogenic Leptospira in Malagasy endemic small mammals, with an overall prevalence of 13%. In addition, these hosts harbour species of Leptospira (L. kirschneri, L. borgpetersenii and L. borgpetersenii group B) which are different from those reported in introduced rats (L. interrogans) on Madagascar. The diversification of Leptospira on Madagascar can be traced millions of years into evolutionary history, resulting in the divergence of endemic lineages and strong host specificity. These observations are discussed in relation to the relative roles of endemic vs. introduced mammal species in the evolution and epidemiology of Leptospira on Madagascar, specifically how biodiversity and biogeographical processes can shape community ecology of an emerging pathogen and lead to its diversification within native animal communities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The phylogenetic relationships of endemic Australasian trichostrongylin families (Nematoda: Strongylida) parasitic in marsupials and monotremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Neil B; Huby-Chilton, Florence; Koehler, Anson V; Gasser, Robin B; Beveridge, Ian

    2015-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the endemic (or largely endemic) Australasian trichostrongylin nematode families Herpetostrongylidae, Mackerrastrongylidae and Nicollinidae as well as endemic trichostrongylin nematodes currently placed in the families Trichostrongylidae and Molineidae were examined using the complete large subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA gene. The Herpetostrongylinae proved to be monophyletic. However, representatives of the Nicollinidae nested with the Herpetostrongylinae. The Mackerrastrongylidae was also a monophyletic group and included Peramelistrongylus, currently classified within the Trichostrongylidae. The Globocephaloidinae, currently considered to be a subfamily of the Herpetostrongylidae, was excluded from the family in the current analysis. Ollulanus and Libyostrongylus, included for the first time in a molecular phylogenetic analysis, were placed within the Trichostrongylidae. This study provided strong support for the Herpetostrongylidae (including within it the Nicollinidae, but excluding the Globocephaloidinae) and the Mackerrastrongylidae as monophyletic assemblages. Additional studies are required to resolve the relationships of the remaining endemic Australasian trichostrongylin genera.

  18. 4-phenylbutyrate Mitigates Fluoride-Induced Cytotoxicity in ALC Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Maiko; Everett, Eric T.; Whitford, Gary M.; Bartlett, John D.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic fluoride over-exposure during pre-eruptive enamel development can cause dental fluorosis. Severe dental fluorosis is characterized by porous, soft enamel that is vulnerable to erosion and decay. The prevalence of dental fluorosis among the population in the USA, India and China is increasing. Other than avoiding excessive intake, treatments to prevent dental fluorosis remain unknown. We previously reported that high-dose fluoride induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative...

  19. Marine Biodiversity in Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands, Chile: Global Endemism Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Alan M; Ballesteros, Enric; Caselle, Jennifer E; Gaymer, Carlos F; Palma, Alvaro T; Petit, Ignacio; Varas, Eduardo; Muñoz Wilson, Alex; Sala, Enric

    2016-01-01

    The Juan Fernández and Desventuradas islands are among the few oceanic islands belonging to Chile. They possess a unique mix of tropical, subtropical, and temperate marine species, and although close to continental South America, elements of the biota have greater affinities with the central and south Pacific owing to the Humboldt Current, which creates a strong biogeographic barrier between these islands and the continent. The Juan Fernández Archipelago has ~700 people, with the major industry being the fishery for the endemic lobster, Jasus frontalis. The Desventuradas Islands are uninhabited except for a small Chilean military garrison on San Félix Island. We compared the marine biodiversity of these islands across multiple taxonomic groups. At San Ambrosio Island (SA), in Desventuradas, the laminarian kelp (Eisenia cokeri), which is limited to Desventuradas in Chile, accounted for >50% of the benthic cover at wave exposed areas, while more sheltered sites were dominated by sea urchin barrens. The benthos at Robinson Crusoe Island (RC), in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, comprised a diverse mix of macroalgae and invertebrates, a number of which are endemic to the region. The biomass of commercially targeted fishes was >2 times higher in remote sites around RC compared to sheltered locations closest to port, and overall biomass was 35% higher around SA compared to RC, likely reflecting fishing effects around RC. The number of endemic fish species was extremely high at both islands, with 87.5% of the species surveyed at RC and 72% at SA consisting of regional endemics. Remarkably, endemics accounted for 99% of the numerical abundance of fishes surveyed at RC and 96% at SA, which is the highest assemblage-level endemism known for any individual marine ecosystem on earth. Our results highlight the uniqueness and global significance of these biodiversity hotspots exposed to very different fishing pressures.

  20. Marine Biodiversity in Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands, Chile: Global Endemism Hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Alan M.; Ballesteros, Enric; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Gaymer, Carlos F.; Palma, Alvaro T.; Petit, Ignacio; Varas, Eduardo; Muñoz Wilson, Alex; Sala, Enric

    2016-01-01

    The Juan Fernández and Desventuradas islands are among the few oceanic islands belonging to Chile. They possess a unique mix of tropical, subtropical, and temperate marine species, and although close to continental South America, elements of the biota have greater affinities with the central and south Pacific owing to the Humboldt Current, which creates a strong biogeographic barrier between these islands and the continent. The Juan Fernández Archipelago has ~700 people, with the major industry being the fishery for the endemic lobster, Jasus frontalis. The Desventuradas Islands are uninhabited except for a small Chilean military garrison on San Félix Island. We compared the marine biodiversity of these islands across multiple taxonomic groups. At San Ambrosio Island (SA), in Desventuradas, the laminarian kelp (Eisenia cokeri), which is limited to Desventuradas in Chile, accounted for >50% of the benthic cover at wave exposed areas, while more sheltered sites were dominated by sea urchin barrens. The benthos at Robinson Crusoe Island (RC), in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, comprised a diverse mix of macroalgae and invertebrates, a number of which are endemic to the region. The biomass of commercially targeted fishes was >2 times higher in remote sites around RC compared to sheltered locations closest to port, and overall biomass was 35% higher around SA compared to RC, likely reflecting fishing effects around RC. The number of endemic fish species was extremely high at both islands, with 87.5% of the species surveyed at RC and 72% at SA consisting of regional endemics. Remarkably, endemics accounted for 99% of the numerical abundance of fishes surveyed at RC and 96% at SA, which is the highest assemblage-level endemism known for any individual marine ecosystem on earth. Our results highlight the uniqueness and global significance of these biodiversity hotspots exposed to very different fishing pressures. PMID:26734732

  1. Floristic richness and endemism in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the distribution of species richness and endemism on the floristic regions that have been used for the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea; the article is based on a previously published and more comprehensive study of the flora of the entire Horn of Africa.......An analysis of the distribution of species richness and endemism on the floristic regions that have been used for the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea; the article is based on a previously published and more comprehensive study of the flora of the entire Horn of Africa....

  2. The endemicity of dracunculiasis, transmission pattern and ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the endemicity of dracunculiasis, it's transmission pattern and ecology of cyclopoid copepods in Ezza North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State Nigeria were carried out between January and December 2001. Of the 2226 persons examined in eight communities, 426 (19.1%) were infected. This included 24 ...

  3. Recovery of endemic dragonflies after removal of invasive alien trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samways, Michael J; Sharratt, Norma J

    2010-02-01

    Because dragonflies are very sensitive to alien trees, we assessed their response to large-scale restoration of riparian corridors. We compared three types of disturbance regime--alien invaded, cleared of alien vegetation, and natural vegetation (control)--and recorded data on 22 environmental variables. The most significant variables in determining dragonfly assemblages were percentage of bank cover and tree canopy cover, which indicates the importance of vegetation architecture for these dragonflies. This finding suggests that it is important to restore appropriate marginal vegetation and sunlight conditions. Recovery of dragonfly assemblages after the clearing of alien trees was substantial. Species richness and abundance at restored sites matched those at control sites. Dragonfly assemblage patterns reflected vegetation succession. Thus, initially eurytopic, widespread species were the main beneficiaries of the removal of alien trees, and stenotopic, endemic species appeared after indigenous vegetation recovered over time. Important indicator species were the two national endemics (Allocnemis leucosticta and Pseudagrion furcigerum), which, along with vegetation type, can be used to monitor return of overall integrity of riparian ecology and to make management decisions. Endemic species as a whole responded positively to restoration, which suggests that indigenous vegetation recovery has major benefits for irreplaceable and widespread generalist species.

  4. Comparison of Dental Esthetic Perceptions of Young Adolescents and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavand, Golnaz; Broffitt, Barbara; Levy, Steven M.; Warren, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare dental esthetic perceptions of adolescents at age 13 with those of parents and to assess associations with dental fluorosis. Methods As part of the Iowa Fluoride Study, 550 adolescents aged 13 underwent dental examinations for fluorosis on maxillary anterior teeth using the Fluorosis Risk Index. Adolescents and parents completed questionnaires concerning satisfaction with the adolescents’ dental appearance. McNemar and Bowker tests of symmetry were used for comparisons of esthetics ratings between parents and adolescents. Comparison of satisfaction between fluorosis and non-fluorosis subjects was made using Cochran-Armitage Trend and Fisher’s Exact tests. Results Excluding subjects with orthodontic treatment, 376 adolescents were included and 26% of them had definitive fluorosis, mostly at a mild level. Fifteen percent of adolescents were dissatisfied with dental appearance, and concerns were mainly about the tooth color (45%) and alignment (35%). Adolescents were less satisfied with overall dental appearance (P0.05). Parents of subjects with fluorosis were more dissatisfied with dental appearance (P=0.014) and color (P<0.001) than other parents. The number of maxillary anterior zones exhibiting fluorosis was negatively associated with both adolescent (P=0.03) and parent (P=0.002) satisfaction. Conclusion Adolescents generally had less satisfaction with dental appearance and color and they were more concerned with tooth shape than parents. For both parents and adolescents, decreased satisfaction was associated with the number of zones with definitive fluorosis. PMID:22364682

  5. Distribution of Thelastomatoid Nematodes (Nematoda: Oxyurida) in Endemic and Introduced Cockroaches on the Galápagos Island Archipelago, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Devinn; Carreno, Ramon A; Herrera, Henri

    2015-08-01

    The thelastomatoid pinworm fauna (Nematoda: Oxyurida: Thelastomatoidea) was surveyed in 3 endemic species and 6 introduced species of cockroach hosts (Insecta: Blattaria) in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. A total of 658 host specimens were examined from preserved collections that had been collected between 1966 and 2003 from 7 islands in the archipelago. Eight species of pinworms were identified from these cockroach hosts, including the dominant species Cephalobellus ovumglutinosus and a Severianoia sp. as well as Leidynema appendiculata, Hammerschmidtiella diesingi, an unidentified Cephalobellus species resembling Cephalobellus magalhaesi, an unidentified Protrellus species closely resembling Protrellus shamimi, and an undescribed Blattophila sp. Five new host records are identified for C. ovumglutinosus including the endemic Galápagos cockroaches Chorisoneura carpenteri, Ischnoptera snodgrassii, and Ischnoptera santacruzensis. These endemics were also infected with an undescribed Blatticola sp. Other species recorded resemble known pinworms from other hosts around the world. Prevalence between islands and between host species was variable, but total prevalence for individual pinworm species was consistently low (<10%). A single host specimen examined was infected with more than 1 pinworm species; otherwise only a single species was observed in each infected host. At least 1 introduced pinworm species carried to the islands via invasive cockroach hosts was present in endemic host species, but several globally widespread introduced pinworm species were absent from endemic cockroaches. Santa Cruz was inhabited by the greatest number of pinworm species, likely due to a higher rate of invasive host introduction. This survey, the first from this region, showed that the distribution and transmission of pinworms in the Galápagos Islands is complex and may provide future models of invertebrate dispersal and speciation in an ecosystem already rich with examples of

  6. Finding malaria hot-spots in northern Angola: the role of individual, household and environmental factors within a meso-endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Ricardo J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying and targeting hyper-endemic communities within meso-endemic areas constitutes an important challenge in malaria control in endemic countries such like Angola. Recent national and global predictive maps of malaria allow the identification and quantification of the population at risk of malaria infection in Angola, but their small-scale accuracy is surrounded by large uncertainties. To observe the need to develop higher resolution malaria endemicity maps a predictive risk map of malaria infection for the municipality of Dande (a malaria endemic area in Northern Angola was developed and compared to existing national and global maps, the role of individual, household and environmental risk factors for malaria endemicity was quantified and the spatial variation in the number of children at-risk of malaria was estimated. Methods Bayesian geostatistical models were developed to predict small-scale spatial variation using data collected during a parasitological survey conducted from May to August 2010. Maps of the posterior distributions of predicted prevalence were constructed in a geographical information system. Results Malaria infection was significantly associated with maternal malaria awareness, households with canvas roofing, distance to health care centre and distance to rivers. The predictive map showed remarkable spatial heterogeneity in malaria risk across the Dande municipality in contrast to previous national and global spatial risk models; large high-risk areas of malaria infection (prevalence >50% were found in the northern and most eastern areas of the municipality, in line with the observed prevalence. Conclusions There is remarkable spatial heterogeneity of malaria burden which previous national and global spatial modelling studies failed to identify suggesting that the identification of malaria hot-spots within seemingly mesoendemic areas may require the generation of high resolution malaria maps

  7. Finding malaria hot-spots in northern Angola: the role of individual, household and environmental factors within a meso-endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Ricardo J Soares; Langa, Antonio; Sousa-Figueiredo, José Carlos; Clements, Archie C A; Nery, Susana Vaz

    2012-11-22

    Identifying and targeting hyper-endemic communities within meso-endemic areas constitutes an important challenge in malaria control in endemic countries such like Angola. Recent national and global predictive maps of malaria allow the identification and quantification of the population at risk of malaria infection in Angola, but their small-scale accuracy is surrounded by large uncertainties. To observe the need to develop higher resolution malaria endemicity maps a predictive risk map of malaria infection for the municipality of Dande (a malaria endemic area in Northern Angola) was developed and compared to existing national and global maps, the role of individual, household and environmental risk factors for malaria endemicity was quantified and the spatial variation in the number of children at-risk of malaria was estimated. Bayesian geostatistical models were developed to predict small-scale spatial variation using data collected during a parasitological survey conducted from May to August 2010. Maps of the posterior distributions of predicted prevalence were constructed in a geographical information system. Malaria infection was significantly associated with maternal malaria awareness, households with canvas roofing, distance to health care centre and distance to rivers. The predictive map showed remarkable spatial heterogeneity in malaria risk across the Dande municipality in contrast to previous national and global spatial risk models; large high-risk areas of malaria infection (prevalence >50%) were found in the northern and most eastern areas of the municipality, in line with the observed prevalence. There is remarkable spatial heterogeneity of malaria burden which previous national and global spatial modelling studies failed to identify suggesting that the identification of malaria hot-spots within seemingly mesoendemic areas may require the generation of high resolution malaria maps. Individual, household and hydrological factors play an important role

  8. Fasciolopsiasis: Endemic focus of a neglected parasitic disease in Bihar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Achra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe a newly discovered, previously unreported endemic focus of fasciolopsiasis in the Phulwaria village, under tehsil Sugauli, East Champaran, Bihar. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted at village Phulwaria, following diagnosis of fasciolopsiasis in three children from the village. A total of 120 individuals, including all the children and adults who gave history of recent passage of red fleshy masses in their stool, were included in the study. The cases of fasciolopsiasis were treated with Praziquantel 25 mg/kg, three doses a day. Risk factors for the transmission of the parasite in the village were also studied. Results: Questionnaire revealed majority of the population suffering from abdominal discomfort and passage of red fleshy masses in stool. These fleshy masses were identified as Fasciolopsis buski. One hundred and eighteen individuals were presumably considered as cases of the parasitic infection. After treatment with Praziquantel, all of them passed the parasite in their stool for the next 2-3 days. On investigating, it was observed that all the conditions required for effective continuation of the life cycle of the parasite were present in this village. Conclusion: This study draws attention to a new endemic focus of fasciolopsiasis in Bihar, with a very high prevalence due to poverty, the lack of awareness about the parasite in villagers as well as ignorance among local medical practitioners. There is an urgent need for mass campaign around the region for its effective control.

  9. TUMORS OF THE KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT IN ENDEMIC AREA OF VILLAGE BRESTOVAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Cukuranovic

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available During the twenty- five-year period the incidence of urothelial tumors was followed in the endemic village Brestovac. Thirty patients (3 of which with confirmed endemic nephropathy and 15 persons with suspected nephropathy were investigated. Our retrograde study showed that there is a relationship between endemic nephropathy and urothelial cancer, and this association persisted with marked tendency to rise. Tumors were more common among males, aged from 50 to 70 years, with upper urinary tract urothelial cancer, papillary or trancellular forms, predominantly. Clinical feature showed classic triad of hematuria, flank pain and, rarely, flank mass, accompanied with non-specific symptomatology. Normal renal function was observed in 25 patients, but chronic renal failure was proven in five. Ten patients were treated by surgery, while 20 patients were treated by conservative therapy. There are no marked risk factors.

  10. On the origin of endemic species in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph; Howard Choat, J.; Gaither, Michelle R.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Lozano-Corté s, Diego; Myers, Robert F.; Paulay, Gustav; Rocha, Luiz A.; Toonen, Robert J.; Westneat, Mark W.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    High endemism observed in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden appears to have multiple origins. A cold, nutrient-rich water barrier separates the Gulf of Aden from the rest of the Arabian Sea, whereas a narrow strait separates the Red Sea from the Gulf of Aden, each providing potential isolating barriers. Additional barriers may arise from environmental gradients, circulation patterns and the constriction at the mouth of the Gulf of Aqaba. Endemics that evolved within the Red Sea basin had to survive glacial cycles in relatively low salinity refugia. It therefore appears that the unique conditions in the Red Sea, in addition to those characteristics of the Arabian Peninsula region as a whole, drive the divergence of populations via a combination of isolation and selection.

  11. Distribution and protection of endemic or threatened rodents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    highest in the south-western parts of the country, and hotspots of endemism cOincide with those of species rich- ness. However, Red ... species richness hotspot in the Succulent Karoo contains no existing reserves, whereas all Red Data Book spe- ... conserve all aspects of biodiversity, but of historical ad hoc decisions ...

  12. Distribution and protection of endemic or threatened rodents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species richness of the target species is highest in the south-western parts of the country, and hotspots of endemism coincide with those of species richness. However, Red Data Book species hotspots are confined to the north-eastern parts of the country. One species richness hotspol in the Succulent Karoo contains no ...

  13. Reevaluation and whole distribution areas of endemic plants of Kütahya (Turkey according to new IUCN danger categoriesSpread Areas on Kütahya (Turkey of Some Endemic Plants and Reevaluation According to New IUCN Danger Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is carried to determine the localities of endemic taxa of Kütahya, in the inner Western part of Anatolia, and later to delineate their spread in other parts of Turkey and to reevaluate IUCN categories in light of these data. According to this, there are 291 endemic taxa and 4 rare taxa belonging to 39 families are determined in the boundaries of Kütahya. Only, 16 taxa were spread on city of Kütahya. 45 taxa were spread on Aegean region; other taxa were spread on outside of Aegean region. Most families contain more taxa are Asteraceae (43 taxa, Fabaceae (35 taxa, Scrophulariaceae (29 taxa, Lamiaceae (27 taxa and Brassicaceae (18 taxa. The endemic taxa numbers (114 taxa of endemic taxa on the Murat Mountain (the highest altitude of Kütahya are more than other localities. The phytogeographic elements of endemic plants of Kütahya are represented as follows: Irano-Turanian 93 taxa, Mediterranean 72 taxa and Europe-Siberian region 10 taxa. The threatened catagories of these endemics taxa were reevaluated and certain danger categories are updated by using literature. According to the new IUCN danger categories as follows; 2 taxa in CR (critically endangered category, 17 taxa in EN (endangered category, 30 taxa in VU (vulnerable, 28 taxa in the cd (conservation sub-category of LR (lower risk, 23 taxa in the nt (near threatened sub-cetagory of LR, 190 taxa in lc (least concern sub-category of LR and one takson in DD (data deficient categories were determined.

  14. Impact of Schistosoma haematobium infection on urinary tract pathology, nutritional status and anaemia in school-aged children in two different endemic areas of the Niger River Basin, Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacko, Moussa; Magnussen, Pascal; Keita, Adama D.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to contribute to define urinary schistosomiasis-related morbidity indicators and to understand the relationship between infection intensity and disease burden among school-aged children in different endemic areas of Mali. A cross sectional study was undertaken in ...... this study are of importance for planning intervention as for monitoring and evaluation of control in different endemic settings in Mali....

  15. Brief communication: Extended chronology of the Cordón Caulle volcanic eruption beyond 2011 reveals toxic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueck, Werner T.

    2016-11-01

    Aside of immediate impacts, the 2011 Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcano (PCC) eruption also caused persisting chemical impacts. By 2012, toxicity resulted in overt dental fluorosis in deer, with bone fluoride increasing > 38-fold to 5175 ppm. Sheep, horses and cattle also succumbed to fluorosis. Due to eolian redeposition of tephra, exposure of ruminants continued, bone fluoride reached 10 396 ppm, and by 2014 skeletal fluorosis was found. Nonskeletal fluorosis resulted in reduced wool growth and major losses among periparturient cattle. Peculiarities of digestive processes make ruminants susceptible to fluoride-containing tephra, which averaged 548 ppm from PCC. Moreover, recent volcanic eruptions causing fluorosis could be aggravated by local iodine deficiency, which increases the incidence and harshness of fluorosis, and deficiency of selenium, which, among other things, also results in secondary deficiency of iodine. Notwithstanding, several measures are available to livestock producers to minimize chemical impacts of fluoride.

  16. Characterization of the Brazilian endemic clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA from hospitals throughout Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo A. Oliveira

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize patterns of the Brazilian endemic clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA from hospitals throughout Brazil. We studied 83 MRSA strains isolated from patients hospitalized in 27 public and private hospitals in 19 cities located in 14 Brazilian states from September, 1995, to June, 1997. The MRSA strains were typed using antibiograms, bacteriophage typing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The analysis of genomic DNA by PFGE showed that 65 isolates presented the same PFGE pattern. This pattern was present in all of the hospitals studied indicating the presence of an endemic MRSA clone widely disseminated throughout Brazilian hospitals (BEC. All isolates belonging to the BEC proved to be resistant to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, lincomycin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, and tetracycline. Variable susceptibility to these drugs was found only in isolates belonging to clones other than the BEC. The results show that, among MRSA, the BEC is common in Brazil. The best method for mapping changes in the frequency of this clone among MRSA is pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Use of molecular mapping is an important tool for monitoring the spread of potentially dangerous microbes.

  17. A treasure of endemic fauna of Mauritius and Rodrigues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winters, Ria

    2011-01-01

    This publication deals with the endemic species of the Indian ocean islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues. The author describes the extinct and extant birds and animals in word and art. The book is illustrated with the authors drawings and paintings. Full colour.

  18. Unusual presentation of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahiry Anup Kumar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leis hmaniasis is endemic in some regions of Saudi Arabia. A case with uncommon hyperkeratotic type of lesion was seen. Being an endemic zone, a slit- skin smear was done and stained with Giemsa′s stain. Smears howed Leishman Donovan bodies within and outside the macrophages. Significant improvement, followed by complete resolution of the lesion was seen with ketoconazole treatment.

  19. Schistosomiasis: Two cases with unusual presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buddhavarapu, S.; Szmigielski, W.

    2008-01-01

    Schistosoma live in bowel lumen and their eggs migrate through mesenteric and portal veins where they cause granulomatous response, fibrosis and various complications. Two cases of schistosomiasis with hepatic and intestinal manifestations are presented. One of them presented as colonic malignancy and the second masquerading as appendicitis. Plain x-ray, Ultrasound and CT findings are discussed. Established cases of schistosomiasis may be seen far from endemic areas due to migration of populations across the globe. It is therefore important to recognize the radiological findings and its possible associations. (authors)

  20. Trends in spatio-temporal dynamics of visceral leishmaniasis cases in a highly-endemic focus of Bihar, India: an investigation based on GIS tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Rakesh; Kesari, Shreekant; Kumar, Vijay; Das, Pradeep

    2018-04-02

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Bihar State (India) continues to be endemic, despite the existence of effective treatment and a vector control program to control disease morbidity. A clear understanding of spatio-temporal distribution of VL may improve surveillance and control implementation. This study explored the trends in spatio-temporal dynamics of VL endemicity at a meso-scale level in Vaishali District, based on geographical information systems (GIS) tools and spatial statistical analysis. A GIS database was used to integrate the VL case data from the study area between 2009 and 2014. All cases were spatially linked at a meso-scale level. Geospatial techniques, such as GIS-layer overlaying and mapping, were employed to visualize and detect the spatio-temporal patterns of a VL endemic outbreak across the district. The spatial statistic Moran's I Index (Moran's I) was used to simultaneously evaluate spatial-correlation between endemic villages and the spatial distribution patterns based on both the village location and the case incidence rate (CIR). Descriptive statistics such as mean, standard error, confidence intervals and percentages were used to summarize the VL case data. There were 624 endemic villages with 2719 (average 906 cases/year) VL cases during 2012-2014. The Moran's I revealed a cluster pattern (P < 0.05) of CIR distribution at the meso-scale level. On average, 68 villages were newly-endemic each year. Of which 93.1% of villages' endemicity were found to have occurred on the peripheries of the previous year endemic villages. The mean CIR of the endemic villages that were peripheral to the following year newly-endemic villages, compared to all endemic villages of the same year, was higher (P < 0.05). The results show that the VL endemicity of new villages tends to occur on the periphery of villages endemic in the previous year. High-CIR plays a major role in the spatial dispersion of the VL cases between non-endemic and endemic villages

  1. Эффективность профилактического комплекса сопровождения ортодонтического лечения детей с флюорозом зубов = The effectiveness of preventive complex support orthodontic treatment of children with dental fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Gorohivsky

    2015-02-01

                  Реферат Показано, что комплексные патогенетически обоснованные профилактика и лечение основных стоматологических заболеваний при ортодонтическом лечении зубо-челюстных аномалий у детей с флюорозом зубов улучшает показатели твердых тканей зубов, тканей пародонта, уровня гигиены полости рта, нормализует функциональные реакции, ответственные за гомеостаз ротовой жидкости, улучшает барьерную защиту десны от проникновения красителей и, следовательно, микроорганизмов.     Ключевые слова: флюороз зубов, ортодонтическое лечение, лечебно-профилактический комплекс.   Abstract Orthodontic movement of teeth in children living in areas of endemic fluorosis requires the development of specific pathogenetically grounded complexes preventive maintenance of orthodontic treatment. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of the integrated prevention and treatment of major dental diseases in children with dental fluorosis in orthodontic treatment of dento-alveolar anomalies. Materials and methods. Clinical trials involved 47 children with dental fluorosis age 12-14 years. In the comparison group performed sanitation and professional hygiene. Children of the main group additionally received prophylactic complex, which included detoxicant, adaptogenic, antioxidant and other drugs. Results. Conclusions. It is shown that the complex pathogenetically-based prevention and treatment of major dental diseases in orthodontic treatment of dento-alveolar anomalies in

  2. Filarial-specific antibody response in East African bancroftian filariasis: effects of host infection, clinical disease, and filarial endemicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaoko, Walter G; Simonsen, Paul E; Meyrowitsch, Dan W

    2006-01-01

    bancrofti endemicity. In the high endemicity community, intensities of the measured antibodies were significantly associated with infection status. IgG1, IgG2, and IgE were negatively associated with microfilaria (MF) status, IgG3 was negatively associated with circulating filarial antigen (CFA) status......, and IgG4 was positively associated with CFA status. None of the associations were significantly influenced by chronic lymphatic disease status. In contrast, IgG1, IgG2, and IgG4 responses were less vigorous in the low endemicity community and, except for IgG4, did not show any significant associations...... with MF or CFA status. The IgG3 responses were considerably more vigorous in the low endemicity community than in the high endemicity one. Only IgG4 responses exhibited a rather similar pattern in the two communities, being significantly positively associated with CFA status in both communities. The IgG4...

  3. Effects of high fluoride intake on child mental work capacity: preliminary investigation into the mechanisms involved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Li, X.J.; Wei, S.Q. [Child & Adolescent Hygiene Teaching Research Station, Chengdu (China)

    2008-10-15

    A study was carried out on 157 children, age 12-13, from a coal-burning fluorosis endemic area together with an experiment looking into the effect of high fluoride intake in animals. The results showed that early, prolonged high fluoride intake causes a decrease in a child's mental work capacity and that prolonged high uptake of fluoride causes a child's levels of hair zinc to drop. A multifactoral correlative analysis demonstrated a direct correlation between hair zinc and mental work capacity. The decrease of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and the increase of norepinephrine in animal brains exposed to high levels of fluoride suggest a possible mechanism for mental work capacity deficits in children. However, further research is necessary.

  4. Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette K Howard

    Full Text Available The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe, created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939 are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6% of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%. The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to

  5. Patterns of endemicity and range restriction among southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patterns of endemicity and range restriction among southern African coastal marine invertebrates. RJ Scott, CL Griffiths, TB Robinson. Abstract. Southern Africa supports a rich marine biota of 12 734 currently described marine species. Although the distribution and overall species-richness patterns of several component ...

  6. Number of endemic and native plant species in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Hansen, Anders J.; Nielsen, Kirstine Klitgaard

    2002-01-01

    By simple and multiple regression analyses we investigate updated species numbers of endemic and native vascular plants and seed plants in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters. We find that the best models to describe species numbers are regression models with log......-transformed species numbers as dependent and log-transformed modified area (i.e. area not covered with barren lava) as an independent variable. This holds both for total species number, for native species number, for endemic species number and for total number of seed plants as well as number of endemic seed plants...

  7. Meeting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Presidential address on the organization of higher nervous systems ... research". Dental and skeletal fluorosis is a serious health problem in most states in the country, the ... skeletal fluorosiS, the clinical manifestations begin .... when an International Conference on Raman ..... Among the earlier special issues of the journals.

  8. Brief communication: Extended chronology of the Cordón Caulle volcanic eruption beyond 2011 reveals toxic impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. T. Flueck

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aside of immediate impacts, the 2011 Puyehue–Cordón Caulle volcano (PCC eruption also caused persisting chemical impacts. By 2012, toxicity resulted in overt dental fluorosis in deer, with bone fluoride increasing > 38-fold to 5175 ppm. Sheep, horses and cattle also succumbed to fluorosis. Due to eolian redeposition of tephra, exposure of ruminants continued, bone fluoride reached 10 396 ppm, and by 2014 skeletal fluorosis was found. Nonskeletal fluorosis resulted in reduced wool growth and major losses among periparturient cattle. Peculiarities of digestive processes make ruminants susceptible to fluoride-containing tephra, which averaged 548 ppm from PCC. Moreover, recent volcanic eruptions causing fluorosis could be aggravated by local iodine deficiency, which increases the incidence and harshness of fluorosis, and deficiency of selenium, which, among other things, also results in secondary deficiency of iodine. Notwithstanding, several measures are available to livestock producers to minimize chemical impacts of fluoride.

  9. The cone snails of Cape Verde: Marine endemism at a terrestrial scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Peters

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cape Verde in the Eastern Atlantic is typical of many island groups in supporting a wealth of endemic species both terrestrial and marine. Marine gastropod molluscs of the genus Conus, commonly known as cone snails, occur in coastal tropical waters throughout the globe, but in Cape Verde their endemism reaches its apogee with 53 out of 56 species occurring nowhere else, the majority of which are restricted to single islands and frequently to single bays. However, Cape Verde is rapidly moving to a tourism-based economy with a projected boom in infrastructure development often coincidental with the shallow-water habitat of many range-restricted Conus. The conservation assessment of Conus to standards of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List of Endangered Species, found that 45.3% of 53 species assessed from Cape Verde are threatened or near-threatened with extinction compared to 7.4% of 579 species in the rest of the world. The only three Conus species globally assessed as Critically Endangered and on the cusp of extinction are all endemic to Cape Verde. Our analysis of Conus species distribution, together with spatial data of coastal protected areas and tourism development zones, identify important areas for future research and new marine protection. Our findings show that endemism with its associated risks for Conus in Cape Verde has worldwide parallels with many non-marine taxa, while our proposed strategy for Conus conservation extends beyond the confines of the country and this taxonomic group.

  10. Comparing the two Greek archipelagos plant species diversity and endemism patterns highlight the importance of isolation and precipitation as biodiversity drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadou, Eleni; Kallimanis, Athanasios S; Dimopoulos, Panayotis; Panitsa, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Greece has two island archipelagos, the Aegean and the Ionian, which host a rich array of plants and wildlife, particularly endemic and threatened plant species. Despite the long history of island biogeographic studies in the Aegean, similar studies in the Ionian remain limited, with the two island archipelagos rarely being compared. The Aegean and Ionian archipelagos share many features, especially regarding total plant diversity, but exhibit different patterns of endemism. For instance, when considering similarly sized islands, those in the Ionian host as many as, if not more, species compared to the Aegean. In contrast, the Ionian Islands are poor in endemics (particularly narrow range endemics, such as single island or regional endemics) and threatened taxa, compared to the Aegean Islands. In the Ionian, endemics only persist on the largest islands, and form a very small proportion of the species pool, compared to the Aegean archipelago. The lack of endemism might be attributed to the more recent separation of the Ionian Islands from the mainland and the shorter distance separating them from the mainland. In addition, the Ionian Islands receive higher levels of precipitation and are typically covered by denser and higher vegetation than the Aegean Islands. These conditions favour greater total species richness, but tend to lead to higher numbers of common species compared to threatened and endemic taxa. This study demonstrates that both isolation and precipitation serve as biodiversity drivers, influencing plant species diversity and endemism patterns, of the two Greek archipelagos.

  11. The Endemic Plant Taxa of the Köprülü Kanyon National Park and Its Surroundings (Antalya-Isparta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan ÖZÇELİK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study has been conducted in 2003-2004 in order to identify the endemic plants of the Köprülü Kanyon National Park (Antalya-Isparta and its surroundings. A total of 230 endemic taxa belonging to 29 families were determined in the national park and its surroundings. There are 229 taxa belonging to Angiospermae subdivision and 1 taxon belonging to Gymnospermae subdivision in these collected and identified endemic taxa from the research area. There is no endemic taxon in the Bryophyta and Pteridophyta divisions of the park. 218 of the 229 taxa belonging to the Angiospermae subdivision are in the Magnoliopsida (Dicotyledoneae class and other 11 are in the Liliopsida (Monocotyledoneae class. 18 taxa of the vascular plants are specific to the research area. 44 of endemic taxa are included in the endangered category. The number of priority conservation requiring taxa is 21. Endemic taxon number is almost 25% of total flora of the area. The top five families with the highest number of taxa in the study area are Lamiaceae (38, Caryophyllaceae (37, Asteraceae (26, Scrophulariaceae (20, Fabaceae (16 (Table 2. The 10 largest genera with the highest number of taxa are as follows: Silene (15, Astragalus (9, Sideritis (8, Verbascum (7, Centaurea (7, Stachys (6, Helichrysum (6, Alkanna (6, Veronica (5 and Minuartia (5. The distributions according to the phytogeographical regions of the endemic plants identified from the area is as follows: 59.565% Mediterranean elements (137 taxa, 23.478% Irano-Turanian elements (54 taxa, 0.304% Euro-Siberian elements (7 taxa and 13.913% with unknown phytogeographical region (32 taxa. The distributions of these taxa according to the conservation status is as follows: CR (Critically Endangered: 3, EN (Endangered: 22, VU (Vulnerable: 34, LR (Low Risk: 164, (cd (Conservation Dependent: 29, (lc (Least Concern: 106, (nt (Near Threatened: 29. In this study, menacing factors on the flora and vegetation of the area and

  12. Interpreting the process behind endemism in China by integrating the phylogeography and ecological niche models of the Stachyridopsis ruficeps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huatao Liu

    Full Text Available An area of endemism (AOE is a complex expression of the ecological and evolutionary history of a species. Here we aim to address the principal drivers of avian diversification in shaping patterns of endemism in China by integrating genetic, ecological, and distributional data on the Red-headed Tree Babbler (Stachyridopsis ruficeps, which is distributed across the eastern Himalayas and south China. We sequenced two mtDNA markers from 182 individuals representing all three of the primary AOEs in China. Phylogenetic inferences were used to reconstruct intraspecific phylogenetic relationships. Divergence time and population demography were estimated to gain insight into the evolutionary history of the species. We used Ecological niche modeling to predict species' distributions during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM and in the present. Finally, we also used two quantitative tests, an identity test and background test to assess the similarity of ecological niche preferences between adjacent lineages. We found five primary reciprocally monophyletic clades, typically separated approximately 0.2-2.27 MYA, of which three were deeply isolated endemic lineages located in the three AOEs. All phylogroups were detected to have undergone population expansion during the past 0.3 MY. Niche models showed discontinuous habitats, and there were three barriers of less suitable habitat during the LGM and in modern times. Ecoclimatic niches may diverge significantly even over recent timescales, as each phylogroup had a unique distribution, and unique niche characteristics. Vicariant events associated with geographical and ecological barriers, glacial refuges and ecological differentiation may be the main drivers forming the pattern of endemism in China.

  13. An Investigation on the antimicrobial activity of some endemic plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-04

    Jan 4, 2008 ... Key words: Antimicrobial activity, endemic plants, plant extract. INTRODUCTION ..... The essential oil of A. balsamea was found to be inactive against E. ... Origanum solymicum and Origanum bilgeri from Turkey. Afr. J. Trad.

  14. Dispersing towards Madagascar: Biogeography and evolution of the Madagascan endemics of the Spermacoceae tribe (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Steven B; Groeninckx, Inge; De Block, Petra J; Verstraete, Brecht; Smets, Erik F; Dessein, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Despite the close proximity of the African mainland, dispersal of plant lineages towards Madagascar remains intriguing. The composition of the Madagascan flora is rather mixed and shows besides African representatives, also floral elements of India, Southeast Asia, Australia, and the Neotropics. Due to its proportionally large number of Madagascan endemics, the taxonomically troublesome Spermacoceae tribe is an interesting group to investigate the origin and evolution of the herbaceous Rubiaceae endemic to Madagascar. The phylogenetic position of these endemics were inferred using four plastid gene markers. Age estimates were obtained by expanding the Spermacoceae dataset with representatives of all Rubiaceae tribes. This allowed incorporation of multiple fossil-based calibration points from the Rubiaceae fossil record. Despite the high morphological diversity of the endemic herbaceous Spermacoceae on Madagascar, only two colonization events gave rise to their current diversity. The first clade contains Lathraeocarpa, Phylohydrax and Gomphocalyx, whereas the second Madagascan clade includes the endemic genera Astiella, Phialiphora, Thamnoldenlandia and Amphistemon. The tribe Spermacoceae is estimated to have a Late Eocene origin, and diversified during Oligocene and Miocene. The two Madagascan clades of the tribe originated in the Oligocene and radiated in the Miocene. The origin of the Madagascan Spermacoceae cannot be explained by Gondwanan vicariance but only by means of Cenozoic long distance dispersal events. Interestingly, not only colonization from Africa occurred but also long distance dispersal from the Neotropics shaped the current diversity of the Spermacoceae tribe on Madagascar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Possible control of introduced giant African land snails (Achatina spp. by the reintroduced endemic skink Leiolopisma telfairii, Ile aux Aigrettes, Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie A. COPSEY

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The giant African land snail (Achatina fulica is one of the world’s worst invasive species, out‐competing endemic snails, consuming native vegetation and potentially altering nutrient cycles. Attempts to eradicate the snail from islands have only been successful with incipient populations. We present correlative evidence that native island predators may act as an effective control agent for the snail. In 2000 a population of between 37,300 and 45,100 African land snails was estimated on the 26ha nature reserve island of Ile aux Aigrette, Mauritius. Between 2006 and 2007, 260 endemic Telfair’s skink Leiolopisma telfairii were reintroduced to the reserve. Snail population surveys in 2008 and 2009 showed that the introduced snail population had declined to 5,569 (± 3,630 and 6,871 (±5,379, respectively. Previous studies showed that the introduced snails were selective over other invertebrate prey items. We suggest that predation by the endemic skink has been an important causal factor behind the snail population decline.

  16. Impacts of Tropical Forest Disturbance Upon Avifauna on a Small Island with High Endemism: Implications for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are rapidly being lost across Southeast Asia and this is predicted to have severe implications for many of the region′s bird species. However, relationships between forest disturbance and avifaunal assemblages remain poorly understood, particularly on small island ecosystems such as those found in the biodiversity ′hotspot′ of Wallacea. This study examines how avifaunal richness varies across a disturbance gradient in a forest reserve on Buton Island, southeast Sulawesi. Particular emphasis is placed upon examining responses in endemic and red-listed species with high conservation importance. Results indicate that overall avian richness increases between primary and 30-year-old regenerating secondary forest and then decreases through disturbed secondary forest, but is highest in cleared farmland. However, high species richness in farmland does not signify high species distinctiveness; bird community composition here differs significantly from that found in forest sites, and is poor in supporting forest specialists and endemic species. Certain large-bodied endemics such as the Knobbed Hornbill (Rhyticeros cassidix appear to be sensitive to moderate disturbance, with populations occurring at greatest density within primary forest. However, overall endemic species richness, as well as that of endemic frugivores and insectivores, is similar in primary and secondary forest types. Results indicate that well-established secondary forest in particular has an important role in supporting species with high conservational importance, possessing community composition similar to that found in primary forest and supporting an equally high richness of endemic species.

  17. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JU

    2006-07-02

    Jul 2, 2006 ... cause dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis and crippling skeletal fluorosis. Depending on the concentration of fluoride taken and length of time of exposure. ... 0.5 inches (MHMF2) for adsorption of physical and biological impurities. Filter operation: To protect the top layer filter skin (schmuzdecke) from erosion.

  18. Climate change effects on an endemic-rich edaphic flora: resurveying Robert H. Whittaker's Siskiyou sites (Oregon, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damschen, Ellen Ingman; Harrison, Susan; Grace, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Species with relatively narrow niches, such as plants restricted (endemic) to particular soils, may be especially vulnerable to extinction under a changing climate due to the enhanced difficulty they face in migrating to suitable new sites. To test for community-level effects of climate change, and to compare such effects in a highly endemic-rich flora on unproductive serpentine soils vs. the flora of normal (diorite) soils, in 2007 we resampled as closely as possible 108 sites originally studied by ecologist Robert H. Whittaker from 1949 to 1951 in the Siskiyou Mountains of southern Oregon, USA. We found sharp declines in herb cover and richness on both serpentine and diorite soils. Declines were strongest in species of northern biogeographic affinity, species endemic to the region (in serpentine communities only), and species endemic to serpentine soils. Consistent with climatic warming, herb communities have shifted from 1949-1951 to 2007 to more closely resemble communities found on xeric (warm, dry) south-facing slopes. The changes found in the Siskiyou herb flora suggest that biotas rich in narrowly distributed endemics may be particularly susceptible to the effects of a warming climate.

  19. Evaluating Hypotheses of Plant Species Invasions on Mediterranean Islands: Inverse Patterns between Alien and Endemic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bjarnason

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species cause major changes to ecosystem functioning and patterns of biodiversity, and the main factors involved in invasion success remain contested. Using the Mediterranean island of Crete, Greece as a case study, we suggest a framework for analyzing spatial data of alien species distributions, based on environmental predictors, aiming to gain an understanding of their spatial patterns and spread. Mediterranean islands are under strong ecological pressure from invading species due to their restricted size and increased human impact. Four hypotheses of invasibility, the “propagule pressure hypothesis” (H1, “biotic resistance hypothesis vs. acceptance hypothesis” (H2, “disturbance-mediated hypothesis” (H3, and “environmental heterogeneity hypothesis” (H4 were tested. Using data from alien, native, and endemic vascular plant species, the propagule pressure, biotic resistance vs. acceptance, disturbance-mediated, and environmental heterogeneity hypotheses were tested with Generalized Additive Modeling (GAM of 39 models. Based on model selection, the optimal model includes the positive covariates of native species richness, the negative covariates of endemic species richness, and land area. Variance partitioning between the four hypotheses indicated that the biotic resistance vs. acceptance hypothesis explained the vast majority of the total variance. These results show that areas of high species richness have greater invasibility and support the acceptance hypothesis and “rich-get-richer” distribution of alien species. The negative correlation between alien and endemic species appears to be predominantly driven by altitude, with fewer alien and more endemic species at greater altitudes, and habitat richness. The negative relationship between alien and endemic species richness provides potential for understanding patterns of endemic and alien species on islands, contributing to more effective conservation

  20. Autochthonous case of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in a non-endemic area in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Teixeira de Faria

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Visceral Leishmaniasis by Leishmania infantum chagasi is an endemic zoonosis present in many areas of Brazil. This parasite needs reservoirs for maintenance of the infection and the presence of dogs in urban areas is a key factor for the spread of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL. The aim of this study was to report the first autochthonous case of CVL in the municipality of Iguatama, in west central region of Minas Gerais State. Dog infection by Leishmania infantum chagasi was confirmed in the municipality, previously considered as non-endemic area to CVL. The canine infection by Leishmania was confirmed by three immunological tests for antibodies: indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA, rapid Dual Path Platform (DPP® CVL immunochromatographic test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and microscopic demonstration of Leishmania amastigotes in imprints of spleen and bone marrow stained by Giemsa. The species Leishmania infantum chagasi was confirmed by molecular diagnosis (PCR. Studies are being carried out, aiming to describe the importance and the prevalence of this disease in the region and factors associated with its transmission.

  1. Inbreeding depression in the partially self-incompatible endemic plant species Scalesia affinis (Asteraceae) from Galápagos islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.R.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Hansen, T.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract  A previous study showed that some individuals of the tetraploid Galápagos endemic Scalesia affinis were able to produce offspring after selfing. The present study compares the fitness of self-pollinated offspring with the fitness of cross-pollinated offspring. Germination success, seedl...

  2. Life forms of endemic carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae in the forest eco-systems of gorgany mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Pushkar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the forest ecosystems of Gorgany Mountains 11 endemic carabids are found. It is about 12.2 % of all ground-beetles fauna of the investigated region. As a result of the morphometric analysis the life forms of endemic carabids are determined. The system of ground beetles’ life forms developed by I. Sharova (1981 is supplemented. All endemics we have rated among 1 class (Zoophages, 2 subclasses (Epigeobionts, Stratobionts and 5 life forms. The analysis of the carabid beetles’ life form spectrum in the forest ecosystems of Gorgany mountains attests to their broad settlement of ecological niches in the investigated region.

  3. Factors Affecting Agroforestry Sustainability in Bee Endemic Parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts, in an exploratory manner, to identify the various ways in which bad beekeeping and honey hunting practices result in the loss of important multi-purpose agro-forestry tree species in bee endemic parts of South Eastern Nigeria. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches (Participatory Rural Appraisal ...

  4. Rediscovery of Curcuma sumatrana (Zingiberaceae) endemic to West Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardiyani, M.; Anggara, A.; Leong-Škorničková, J.

    2011-01-01

    A recent exploration of Sumatra resulted in the re-collection of Curcuma sumatrana, an endemic Zingiberaceae species of unclear identity that was first described by Miquel nearly 150 years ago. The history of this species is discussed, a detailed description with a colour plate is provided and a

  5. Evidence for endemic chikungunya virus infections in Bandung, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Kosasih

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is known to cause sporadic or explosive outbreaks. However, little is known about the endemic transmission of CHIKV. To ascertain the endemic occurrence of CHIKV transmission, we tested blood samples from patients with a non-dengue febrile illness who participated in a prospective cohort study of factory workers in Bandung, Indonesia. From August 2000 to June 2004, and September 2006 to April 2008, 1901 febrile episodes occurred and 231 (12.2% dengue cases were identified. The remaining febrile cases were evaluated for possible CHIKV infection by measuring anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG antibodies in acute and convalescent samples. Acute samples of serologically positive cases were subsequently tested for the presence of CHIKV RNA by RT-PCR and/or virus isolation. A total of 135 (7.1% CHIKV infections were identified, providing an incidence rate of 10.1/1,000 person years. CHIKV infections were identified all year round and tended to increase during the rainy season (January to March. Severe illness was not found and severe arthralgia was not a prominently reported symptom. Serial post-illness samples from nine cases were tested to obtain a kinetic picture of IgM and IgG anti-CHIKV antibodies. Anti-CHIKV IgM antibodies were persistently detected in high titers for approximately one year. Three patients demonstrated evidence of possible sequential CHIKV infections. The high incidence rate and continuous chikungunya cases in this adult cohort suggests that CHIKV is endemically transmitted in Bandung. Further characterization of the circulating strains and surveillance in larger areas are needed to better understand CHIKV epidemiology in Indonesia.

  6. Mediastinal mass: an unusual presentation of coccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Umer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic fungal disease, found mainly in the southwesternUnited States, northwestern Mexico, and some areas of Brazil and Argentina. Clinicalmanifestations vary depending upon both the extent of infection and the immune statusof the host. Pneumonia is the most common clinical presentation, and it rarely involvesthe central nervous system, skin, and bones. Patients with coccidioidomycosis usuallyrespond well to therapy if diagnosed and treated promptly. Here we report a rare caseof coccidioidomycosis infection in an immunocompromised host who presented with amediastinal mass.

  7. Distribution of endemic and introduced tick species in Free State Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan G. Horak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The distributions of endemic tick vector species as well as the presence of species not endemic to Free State Province, South Africa, were determined during surveys or opportunistic collections from livestock, wildlife and vegetation. Amongst endemic ticks, the presence of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was confirmed in the north of the province, whilst Rhipicephalus decoloratus was collected at 31 localities mostly in the centre and east, and Ixodes rubicundus at 11 localities in the south, south-west and centre of the province. Amongst the non-endemic species adult Amblyomma hebraeum were collected from white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum on four privately owned farms, whilst the adults of Rhipicephalus microplus were collected from cattle and a larva from vegetation at four localities in the east of the province. The collection of Rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus from a sheep in the west of the province is the second record of its presence in the Free State, whereas the presence of Haemaphysalis silacea on helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris and vegetation in the centre of the province represents a first record for this species in the Free State. The first collection of the argasid tick, Ornithodoros savignyi, in the Free State was made from a domestic cow and from soil in the west of the province. The localities at which the ticks were collected have been plotted and the ticks’ role in the transmission or cause of disease in domestic livestock and wildlife is discussed.

  8. Status assessment of the Saddlepeak Dewflower (Murdannia saddlepeakensis Ramana & Nandikar: Commelinaceae: an endemic spiderwort plant of Andaman Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johny Kumar Tagore

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current distribution and threat assessment of Murdannia saddlepeakensis Ramana & Nandikar (Commelinaceae, an endemic plant of Saddle Peak National Park, northern Andaman is presented here.  The data available from field surveys indicate that this species is Critically Endangered according to the 2011 IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. 

  9. Molecular resemblance of an AIDS-associated lymphoma and endemic Burkitt lymphomas: Implications for their pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluska, F.G.; Russo, G.; Croce, C.M.; Kant, J.; Andreef, M.

    1989-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a common feature of AIDS. Approximately 30-40% of these tumors exhibit clinical features suggestive of endemic Burkitt lymphoma: they are aggressive malignancies that occur in association with Epstein-Barr virus infection, they arise in the setting of immunosuppression, and they carry t(8;14) translocations without detectable rearrangement of the MYC oncogene. To understand the molecular basis of these parallels, the authors analyzed a case of Epstein-Barr-positive AIDS-associated undifferentiated lymphoma. Southern blots show that the tumor exhibits immunoglobulin joining segment rearrangement but no rearrangement of the MYC oncogene. Cloning of the rearranged joining segment allowed the isolation of recombinant clones encompassing the translocation breakpoint, and sequencing of the translocation junction disclosed that the breakpoint is situated 7 base pairs from the chromosome 14 site involved in a previously described endemic Burkitt lymphoma translocation. Furthermore, the breakpoint is situated far from MYC on chromosome 8, a constant finding in endemic Burkitt lymphomas. That the molecular architecture of the translocation in this case is strikingly similar to previously analyzed translocations from endemic Burkitt lymphomas strongly suggests that common molecular mechanisms must be operative in the pathogenesis of these tumors

  10. Population genetic structure of Plasmodium falciparum across a region of diverse endemicity in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobegi Victor A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria parasite population genetic structure varies among areas of differing endemicity, but this has not been systematically studied across Plasmodium falciparum populations in Africa where most infections occur. Methods Ten polymorphic P. falciparum microsatellite loci were genotyped in 268 infections from eight locations in four West African countries (Republic of Guinea, Guinea Bissau, The Gambia and Senegal, spanning a highly endemic forested region in the south to a low endemic Sahelian region in the north. Analysis was performed on proportions of mixed genotype infections, genotypic diversity among isolates, multilocus standardized index of association, and inter-population differentiation. Results Each location had similar levels of pairwise genotypic diversity among isolates, although there were many more mixed parasite genotype infections in the south. Apart from a few isolates that were virtually identical, the multilocus index of association was not significant in any population. Genetic differentiation between populations was low (most pairwise FST values  Conclusions Although proportions of mixed genotype infections varied with endemicity as expected, population genetic structure was similar across the diverse sites. Very substantial reduction in transmission would be needed to cause fragmented or epidemic sub-structure in this region.

  11. Endemic characteristics of infantile visceral leishmaniasis in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing; Li, Shi-Zhu; Wu, Wei-Ping; Hou, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Song; Feng, Yu; Zhang, Li-Ping; Tang, Lin-Hua

    2013-05-17

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was once a severe parasitic disease in China. Thanks to the great efforts of integrated control, VL was eliminated in most epidemic areas, except for certain western provinces (autonomous region) at the end of 1950s. From then on, VL gained less attention and has seemed to spread, especially in the last 15 years. Infants are the most important population threatened by VL. However, there have been few studies on the endemic characteristics of infantile VL in China. Infantile VL cases were collected from the online National Infectious Diseases Reporting System (NIDRS). Statistical description and inference was used to reveal the endemic characteristics in gender, age group, time and regionalism. Spatial analysis was carried out to explore the high risk area for infantile VL in China. A total of 1093 infantile VL cases were reported from 2006 to 2012. There was no statistically significant difference in gender over time. The minimum, maximum and mean age of these cases was 1.1, 35.9 and 13.8 months, respectively. Among them 86.92% were under 2 years of age, and there was a statistically significant difference among age groups over time. An incidence peak appeared in 2008-2009, most cases were distributed in the months September to December, and there was a tail-raising effect in the coming two months of the next year. More than 98% of cases were reported in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Gansu Province and Sichuan Province, accounting for 61.02%, 32.75% and 4.57%, respectively. A total of 56 counties reported infantile VL cases, with the cumulative incidence ranging from 0.02 to 24.57%. There were two main zones of high endemicity for infantile VL in China. The monthly incidence clearly coincides with the number of towns where infantile VL cases were reported. Three fatalities were reported during the study period, the case fatality rate was 2.75‰. The endemic situation of infantile VL is serious, and there are several active foci of

  12. Elevated levels of plasma uric acid and its relation to hypertension in arsenic-endemic human individuals in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huda, Nazmul [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Department of Medicine, Rajshahi Medical College, Rajshahi 6000 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Shakhawoat; Rahman, Mashiur [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Karim, Md. Rezaul [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia 7003 (Bangladesh); Islam, Khairul [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Santosh, Tangail 1902 (Bangladesh); Mamun, Abdullah Al; Hossain, Md. Imam; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Alam, Shahnur; Aktar, Sharmin; Arefin, Afroza; Ali, Nurshad; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Aziz, Abdul; Saud, Zahangir Alam [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770-8514 (Japan); Hossain, Khaled, E-mail: khossainbio@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh)

    2014-11-15

    Blood uric acid has been recognized as a putative marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). CVDs are the major causes of arsenic-related morbidity and mortality. However, the association of arsenic exposure with plasma uric acid (PUA) levels in relation to CVDs has not yet been explored. This study for the first time demonstrated the associations of arsenic exposure with PUA levels and its relationship with hypertension. A total of 483 subjects, 322 from arsenic-endemic and 161 from non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited as study subjects. Arsenic concentrations in the drinking water, hair and nails of the study subjects were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. PUA levels were measured using a colorimetric method. We found that PUA levels were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas than those in non-endemic area. Arsenic exposure (water, hair and nail arsenic) levels showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. In multiple regression analyses, arsenic exposure levels were found to be the most significant contributors on PUA levels among the other variables that included age, body mass index, blood urea nitrogen, and smoking. There were dose–response relationships between arsenic exposure and PUA levels. Furthermore, diastolic and systolic blood pressure showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. Finally, the average PUA levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than those in the normotensive group in both males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas. These results suggest that arsenic exposure-related elevation of PUA levels may be implicated in arsenic-induced CVDs. - Highlights: • PUA levels were higher in arsenic-endemic subjects than in non-endemic subjects. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed significant associations with PUA levels. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed dose–response relationships with

  13. Elevated levels of plasma uric acid and its relation to hypertension in arsenic-endemic human individuals in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, Nazmul; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Rahman, Mashiur; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Islam, Khairul; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Hossain, Md. Imam; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Alam, Shahnur; Aktar, Sharmin; Arefin, Afroza; Ali, Nurshad; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Aziz, Abdul; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Blood uric acid has been recognized as a putative marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). CVDs are the major causes of arsenic-related morbidity and mortality. However, the association of arsenic exposure with plasma uric acid (PUA) levels in relation to CVDs has not yet been explored. This study for the first time demonstrated the associations of arsenic exposure with PUA levels and its relationship with hypertension. A total of 483 subjects, 322 from arsenic-endemic and 161 from non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited as study subjects. Arsenic concentrations in the drinking water, hair and nails of the study subjects were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. PUA levels were measured using a colorimetric method. We found that PUA levels were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas than those in non-endemic area. Arsenic exposure (water, hair and nail arsenic) levels showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. In multiple regression analyses, arsenic exposure levels were found to be the most significant contributors on PUA levels among the other variables that included age, body mass index, blood urea nitrogen, and smoking. There were dose–response relationships between arsenic exposure and PUA levels. Furthermore, diastolic and systolic blood pressure showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. Finally, the average PUA levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than those in the normotensive group in both males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas. These results suggest that arsenic exposure-related elevation of PUA levels may be implicated in arsenic-induced CVDs. - Highlights: • PUA levels were higher in arsenic-endemic subjects than in non-endemic subjects. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed significant associations with PUA levels. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed dose–response relationships with

  14. Cotrimoxazole for childhood febrile illness in Malaria-endemic regions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ren younger than 5 years of age was evaluated in. Malawi. ... limitations in diagnostic technology and personnel, disease-specific clinical ... In practice, the World. Health Organisation (WHO) recommends that in highly endemic areas all young children with fever should be treated for malaria, because of the likeli- hood of ...

  15. Spontaneous pneumothorax in paracoccidioidomycosis patients from an endemic area in Midwestern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Lucas G G; Santos, Aline F; Andrade, Ursulla V; Guedes, Carlos Ivan A; Oliveira, Sandra M V L; Chang, Marilene R; Mendes, Rinaldo P; Paniago, Anamaria M M

    2017-02-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most important systemic mycosis in Latin America. About 80% of PCM patients are present with its chronic form. The lungs are affected in most patients with the chronic form; however, pleural involvement has rarely been reported. We describe nine cases of PCM that presented with lung involvement and spontaneous pneumothorax. All patients, except one whose condition was not investigated, were smokers. PCM was diagnosed during the pneumothorax episode in three patients, and from 3 to 16 years before the pneumothorax episode in six patients. A total of six patients underwent chest drainage and one died as a direct result of the pneumothorax. We suggest that pneumothorax, although rare, should be considered in PCM patients who present with suddenly worsening dyspnoea. PCM should also be investigated in cases of pneumothorax in adult men from mycosis-endemic areas. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Plant endemism in the Sierras of Córdoba and San Luis (Argentina): understanding links between phylogeny and regional biogeographical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapella, Jorge O; Demaio, Pablo H

    2015-01-01

    We compiled a checklist with all known endemic plants occurring in the Sierras of Córdoba and San Luis, an isolated mountainous range located in central Argentina. In order to obtain a better understanding of the evolutionary history, relationships and age of the regional flora, we gathered basic information on the biogeographical and floristic affinities of the endemics, and documented the inclusion of each taxon in molecular phylogenies. We listed 89 taxa (including 69 species and 20 infraspecific taxa) belonging to 53 genera and 29 families. The endemics are not distributed evenly, being more abundant in the lower than in the middle and upper vegetation belts. Thirty-two genera (60.3%) have been included in phylogenetic analyses, but only ten (18.8%) included local endemic taxa. A total of 28 endemic taxa of the Sierras CSL have a clear relationship with a widespread species of the same genus, or with one found close to the area. Available phylogenies for some taxa show divergence times between 7.0 - 1.8 Ma; all endemic taxa are most probably neoendemics sensu Stebbins and Major. Our analysis was specifically aimed at a particular geographic area, but the approach of analyzing phylogenetic patterns together with floristic or biogeographical relationships of the endemic taxa of an area, delimited by clear geomorphological features, could reveal evolutionary trends shaping the area.

  17. A Clinical Study of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Associated Penicillium Marneffei Infection from a Non-Endemic Area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinding; Gui, Xien; Cao, Qian; Yang, Rongrong; Yan, Yajun; Deng, Liping; Lio, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of penicilliosis among the patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in non-endemic areas of China, and then to discuss its incubation period and the diagnostic performance of serum galactomannan test for penicilliosis. Medical records and travel histories of penicilliosis patients in Zhongnan hospital from January 2006 to December 2013, and the interval from when the patients left the endemic area to the onset of the disease was analyzed. Serum galactomannan levels of penicilliosis patients and AIDS patients with fever were measured by the Platelia Aspergillus Enzyme Immunoassay Kit. A total of 47 AIDS-associated penicilliosis were confirmed by fungal culture, which accounted for 4.8% of 981 AIDS-related admissions. The sensitivity and specificity of serum galactomannan test for penicilliosis were 95.8% (23/24) and 90.9% (30/33), respectively, (cutoff index = 1.0). Two independent predictors for early mortality (death within 12 weeks) of the patients (21.3%, 10/47) were a delayed diagnosis and no treatment with antifungal therapy. Among 14 patients who became ill after leaving endemic areas, ten patients presented with the onset symptoms within 12 months (from 11 days to 360 days). We found a patient living with asymptomatic P. marneffei fungemia who had not received any antifungal therapy until 18 months' follow up. The co-infection of P. marneffei and HIV was not uncommon in the non-endemic areas of penicilliosis in China. There exists a latent form of infection for P. marneffei. The incubation period of penicilliosis may be quite different from one patient to another. In AIDS patients, the serum galactomannan test has utility for the diagnosis of penicilliosis. When patients with penicilliosis/AIDS were diagnosed early and treated with standardized antifungal therapy and combined antiretroviral therapy, their prognosis improved.

  18. Consolidation in a child from tuberculosis endemic area - thinking apart from tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is endemic in South East Asian regions and hence a disease commonly over diagnosed in these parts of the country. Patients presenting with chest x ray shadows and vague symptoms are often started on Anti Tuberculosis Treatment - smear negative. However caution should be administered in prescribing ATT to patients who do not improve symptomatically, even after intensive phase. Congenital abnormalities such as sequestrated lung at times can also be rare causes of abnormal skiagram chest, especially in paediatric patients. A careful systematic approach with non invasive imaging such as CECT chest will often help to clinch the diagnosis in most cases.

  19. Patterns of distribution and protection status of the endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of these endemics are small mammals and many are listed in the Red Data Book, especially those restricted to the Nama-and Succulent Karoo. This is of concern, as both areas are inadequately protected by the existing protected areas. The coastal forests also contain many Red Data Book species, particularly ...

  20. The molecular phylogeny of Matthiola R. Br. (Brassicaceae) inferred from ITS sequences, with special emphasis on the Macaronesian endemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén-Molina, Ruth; Caujapé-Castells, Juli; Reyes-Betancort, Jorge Alfredo; Akhani, Hossein; Fernández-Palacios, Olga; de Paz, Julia Pérez; Febles-Hernández, Rosa; Marrero-Rodríguez, Aguedo

    2009-12-01

    Matthiola (Brassicaceae) is a genus that is widespread in the Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian regions and includes two species that are endemic to the archipelagos of Madeira and the Canaries in Macaronesia, which is an insular oceanic hotspot of biodiversity harboring many radiating endemic plant lineages. Sequence analyses of the nuclear ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions in a comprehensive geographical sample of Matthiola, encompassing all the endemic Macaronesian populations known to date, suggest independent Mediterranean and NW African origins of the taxa in Madeira and the Canaries, respectively. These molecular data reveal a complex evolutionary landscape that converges with morphological analyses in the recognition of two new Madeiran species. The data also suggest that the Canarian infra-specific endemic taxa described thus far have high (but non-diagnostic) levels of morphological and genetic diversity, and should be included in the single endemic Matthiola bolleana. In agreement with earlier investigations that revealed a high genetic differentiation between the populations of Matthiola in Fuerteventura and Lanzarote, our phylogeny supports independent founder events from the same mainland congener to either island. The consistently derived position of the Moroccan populations within a mostly Canarian clade suggests a further back-colonization of the continent. Notably, the ITS sequence resolution offered by Matthiola is higher than that found in many of the radiating Canarian endemic lineages for which molecular phylogenetic studies abound. Hence, our research discovers largely unexplored pathways to understand plant diversification in this oceanic insular hotspot through the investigation of non-speciose endemics.

  1. Unusual Presentation of Hydatidosis - Neck Lump Causing Costo-Vertebral Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mehtab; Hasan, Syed-Abrar; Hashmi, Shahab-Farkhund

    2016-09-01

    Hydatid disease caused by larval stage of Echinococcus has been recognized endemically in many countries. Liver and lungs are the most commonly affected organs. Involvement of the head and neck region is rare and bony erosion due to hydatidosis is even rarer. We report a case of a 17-year-old girl from a poor socio-economic background who presented with a right sided supraclavicular lump, which after surgical excision and histopathological examination was diagnosed as hydatid cyst of neck. Because of its rarity in the neck region, primary diagnosis of hydatid cyst is overlooked and usually not included in the differential diagnosis of cystic neck swellings. A high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose hydatid disease in an unusual location even in endemic areas.

  2. Mediastinal mass: an unusual presentation of coccidioidomycosis

    OpenAIRE

    Imran Umer; Yasir Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic fungal disease, found mainly in the southwesternUnited States, northwestern Mexico, and some areas of Brazil and Argentina. Clinicalmanifestations vary depending upon both the extent of infection and the immune statusof the host. Pneumonia is the most common clinical presentation, and it rarely involvesthe central nervous system, skin, and bones. Patients with coccidioidomycosis usuallyrespond well to therapy if diagnosed and treated promptly. Here we report a...

  3. Selective activation of TCR-G¿ cells in endemic Burkitt's lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Futagbi, Godfred; Welbeck, Jennifer E; Tetteh, John Kweku A

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The overlap in geographical distribution of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and endemic Burkitt's lymphoma (eBL)--an aggressive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B-cell tumour occurring almost exclusively in the tropics--strongly suggests a link between the two diseases. It is suspect...

  4. Hydrogeochemistry and statistical analysis applied to understand fluoride provenance in the Guarani Aquifer System, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimon, Maria Paula C; Roisenberg, Ari; Suhogusoff, Alexandra V; Viero, Antonio Pedro

    2013-06-01

    High fluoride concentrations (up to 11 mg/L) have been reported in the groundwater of the Guarani Aquifer System (Santa Maria Formation) in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. In this area, dental fluorosis is an endemic disease. This paper presents the geochemical data and the combination of statistical analysis (Principal components and cluster analyses) and geochemical modeling to achieve the hydrogeochemistry of the groundwater and discusses the possible fluoride origin. The groundwater from the Santa Maria Formation is comprised of four different geochemical groups. The first group corresponds to a sodium chloride groundwater which evolves to sodium bicarbonate, the second one, both containing fluoride anomalies. The third group is represented by calcium bicarbonate groundwater, and in the fourth, magnesium is the distinctive parameter. The statistical and geochemical analyses supported by isotopic measurements indicated that groundwater may have originated from mixtures of deeper aquifers and the fluoride concentrations could be derived from rock/water interactions (e.g., desorption from clay minerals).

  5. Control and management of congenital Chagas disease in Europe and other non-endemic countries: current policies and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Arandes, Antoni; Angheben, Andrea; Serre-Delcor, Nuria; Treviño-Maruri, Begoña; Gómez I Prat, Jordi; Jackson, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Identifying pregnant women infected with Trypanosoma cruzi is one of the major challenges for preventing and controlling Chagas disease (CD) in non-endemic countries. The aim of this paper was to perform a policy evaluation of the current practices of congenital Chagas disease (CCD) control in non-endemic countries and to propose specific targets for enhanced interventions to tackle this emerging health problem outside the endemic areas of Latin America. We conducted a mixed method review of CCD policy strategies by searching the literature in the PubMed, Google Scholar and the World Health Organization (WHO) databases using the key terms 'CCD', 'paediatric Chagas disease' and 'non-endemic countries'; as free text and combined as one phrase to increase the search sensitivity. Reviews, recommendations, guidelines and control/surveillance programme reports were included. Of 427 CCD papers identified in non-endemic countries, 44 matched the inclusion. Although local programmes were launched in different countries with large numbers of Latin American immigrants, there were considerable disparities in terms of the programmes' distribution, delivery, integration and appropriated CCD control strategies. Moreover, Catalonia, Spain is the only region/country with an established systematic monitoring of CCD in pregnant women from Latin American countries. Given the worldwide dissemination of CD, the nature of its vertical transmission, and the gaps of the current strategies in non-endemic countries, there is an urgent need to standardise, expand and reinforce the control measures against CCD transmission. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Clostridium difficile infection in an endemic setting in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensgens, M. P. M.; Goorhuis, A.; van Kinschot, C. M. J.; Crobach, M. J. T.; Harmanus, C.; Kuijper, E. J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in an endemic setting. In a 34-month prospective case-control study, we compared the risk factors and clinical characteristics of all consecutively diagnosed hospitalised CDI patients (n = 93) with

  7. Canine antibody response to Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Luís Fábio da Silva; Matta, Vânia Lúcia Ribeiro da; Tomokane, Thaise Yumie; Pacheco, Acácio Duarte; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; Rossi, Claudio Nazaretian; Marcondes, Mary; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra

    2016-01-01

    Canine exposure to Lutzomyia longipalpis bites and the potential of Leishmania infantum transmissibility for the vector were evaluated. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-Lu longipalpis saliva and -L. infantum, and blood parasite load were determined in dogs from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis. Blood parasitism was similar between symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. IgG anti-L. infantum was higher in symptomatic dogs, but IgG anti-Lu. longipalpis saliva was mostly observed in higher titers in asymptomatic dogs, indicating vector preference for feeding on asymptomatic dogs. Our data suggest a pivotal role of asymptomatic dogs in L. infantum transmission in endemic areas.

  8. Emergence of tick-borne encephalitis in new endemic areas in Austria: 42 years of surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, F X; Stiasny, K; Holzmann, H; Kundi, M; Sixl, W; Wenk, M; Kainz, W; Essl, A; Kunz, C

    2015-04-02

    Human infections with tick-borne encephalitis (TBE)virus are a public health concern in certain regions of Europe, central and eastern Asia. Expansions of endemic areas and increased incidences have been associated with different factors including ecological changes supporting tick reproduction, socioeconomic changes increasing human outdoor activities and climatic changes favouring virus circulation in natural foci. Austria is among the most strongly affected countries in Central Europe, but the annual number of cases has strongly declined due to vaccination. Here,we have analysed changes of the incidence of TBE in the unvaccinated population of all federal states of Austria over a period of 42 years. The overall incidence in Austria has remained constant, but new strongly affected endemic regions have emerged in alpine valleys in the west of Austria. In parallel, the incidence in low-land regions in the north-east of the country is decreasing. There is no evidence for a shift to higher altitudes of infection sites in the traditional TBE zones,but the average altitudes of some newly established endemic areas in the west are significantly higher. Our analyses underscore the focal nature of TBE endemic areas and the potential of TBE virus to emerge in previously unaffected regions.

  9. Challenges and solutions for a rational vaccine design for TB-endemic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowthaman, Uthaman; Mushtaq, Khurram; Tan, Amabel C; Rai, Pradeep K; Jackson, David C; Agrewala, Javed N

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines have been successful for global eradication or control of dreaded diseases such as smallpox, diphtheria, tetanus, yellow fever, whooping cough, polio, and measles. Unfortunately, this success has not been achieved for controlling tuberculosis (TB) worldwide. Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) is the only available vaccine against TB. Paradoxically, BCG has deciphered success in the Western world but has failed in TB-endemic areas. In this article, we highlight and discuss the aspects of immunity responsible for controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and factors responsible for the failure of BCG in TB-endemic countries. In addition, we also suggest strategies that contribute toward the development of successful vaccine in protecting populations where BCG has failed.

  10. Determinants of bird species richness, endemism, and island network roles in Wallacea and the West Indies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Carstensen, Daniel Wisbech; Fjeldså, Jon

    2014-01-01

    , and network roles indicates that historical climate had little effects on extinction-immigration dynamics. This is in contrast to the strong effect of historical climate observed on the mainland, possibly because surrounding oceans buffer against strong climate oscillations and because geography is a strong....... Here, we evaluate the potential additional effects of historical climate on breeding land bird richness and endemism in Wallacea and the West Indies. Furthermore, on the basis of species distributions, we identify island biogeographical network roles and examine their association with geography......, current and historical climate, and bird richness/endemism. We found that island geography, especially island area but also isolation and elevation, largely explained the variation in island species richness and endemism. Current and historical climate only added marginally to our understanding...

  11. Analysis of pituitary-thyroid functional condition in neurotic type of endemic cretinism in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Peiqin; Yuan Shenyuan; Wang Ruihua; Xiao Feng

    1992-01-01

    The authors reported 57 patients with endemic cretinism from 1981 to 1984, 41 of which were proved to be nervous endemic cretinism. The severe mental disorders were the main manifestations. But thyroid gland function was mostly normal. Tg-Ab was negative. The location size, shape of thyroid and distribution of radioactive 131 I in thyroid gland were normal. The main cause of this disease is deficiency of thyroxine and iodine during embryo period, resulting in irreversible damages in proliferation, differentiation and maturation of nervous system

  12. Transborder cooperation on the protection, surveillance and control of endemic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encho, S.; Doganov, B.; Kamenov, G.; Anelov, K.; Kalvachev, Z.; Rusev, A.; Dimova, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discuss some concern and challenges regards the Bulgarian-Greek transborder cooperation with respect the protection, surveillance and control of some endemic for this transborder region diseases like: Q-fever, Brucellosis, Lyme disease, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and Marseilles fever. The study examines transborder activities, including a background for the infection diseases state for the period 2004-2007, the problems of training and equipment of the specialists for sampling and identification of these diseases, development of strategy and conception for control of spreading of the infectious agents in 4 bulgarian regions / Blagoevgrad, Haskovo, Smoljan and Kardjeli/ and in the corresponding regions in Greece - Seres, Drama, Ksanti and Evro. Additionally, there is presented the role of local governmental representatives to manage these transnational border issues.(author)

  13. Species delimitation and conservation genetics of the Canarian endemic Bethencourtia (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Priscila; Pérez de Paz, Pedro Luis; Sosa, Pedro A

    2018-04-01

    Bethencourtia Choisy ex Link is an endemic genus of the Canary Islands and comprises three species. Bethencourtia hermosae and Bethencourtia rupicola are restricted to La Gomera, while Bethencourtia palmensis is present in Tenerife and La Palma. Despite the morphological differences previously found between the species, there are still taxonomic incongruities in the group, with evident consequences for its monitoring and conservation. The objectives of this study were to define the species differentiation, perform population genetic analysis and propose conservation strategies for Bethencourtia. To achieve these objectives, we characterized 10 polymorphic SSR markers. Eleven natural populations (276 individuals) were analyzed (three for B. hermosae, five for B. rupicola and three for B. palmensis). The results obtained by AMOVA, PCoA and Bayesian analysis on STRUCTURE confirmed the evidence of well-structured groups corresponding to the three species. At the intra-specific level, B. hermosae and B. rupicola did not show a clear population structure, while B. palmensis was aggregated according to island of origin. This is consistent with self-incompatibility in the group and high gene flow within species. Overall, the genetic diversity of the three species was low, with expected heterozygosity values of 0.302 (B. hermosae), 0.382 (B. rupicola) and 0.454 (B. palmensis). Recent bottleneck events and a low number of individuals per population are probably the causes of the low genetic diversity. We consider that they are naturally rare species associated with specific habitats. The results given in this article will provide useful information to assist in conservation genetics programs for this endemic genus.

  14. Hydatid disease presenting as multiple cystic swelling in the right supraclavicular region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manab Nandy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease (Echinococcus granulosus is endemic in the Middle East as well as other parts of the world including India. Even though hydatid cysts can occur in any organ, infestation by hydatid disease in humans most commonly occurs in the liver because it acts as the first filter followed by the lung, which forms a second filter. The two organs can be affected simultaneously. After entering the systemic circulation it may be distributed in various organs including brain, orbit, parotid gland, vertebrae, bones and even palm and sole. Some other organs may also be rarely affected, but presentation as lymph node swelling in the supraclavicular region is very rare. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the fact that supra clavicular lymph node swelling may be a presenting feature of hydatid disease, especially in endemic areas of the world.

  15. Distribution and health risk assessment of natural fluoride of drinking groundwater resources of Isfahan, Iran, using GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghapour, Saba; Bina, Bijan; Tarrahi, Mohammad Javad; Amiri, Fahimeh; Ebrahimi, Afshin

    2018-02-13

    Fluoride (F) contamination in groundwater can be problematic to human health. This study evaluated the concentration of fluoride in groundwater resources of Isfahan Province, the central plateau of Iran, and its related health issues to the inhabitant populations. For this purpose, 573 drinking groundwater samples were analyzed in 2016 by using the spectrophotometric method. Non-carcinogenic health risks due to F exposure through consumption of drinking water were assessed using the US EPA method. In addition, the associated zoning maps of the obtained results were presented using geographic information system (GIS). The results indicated that F content in drinking water ranged from 0.02 to 2.8 mg/L. The F contents were less than 0.50 mg/L in 63% of the drinking groundwater samples, 0.51-1.5 mg/L in 33.15%, and higher than 1.5 mg/L in 3.85% (Iran and World Health Organization guidelines) of the drinking groundwater samples. The F levels in the west and the south groundwater resources of the study areas were lower than 0.5 mg/L, which is within the recommended values for controlling dental caries (0.50-1.0 mg/L). Therefore, these places require more attention and more research is needed to increase F intake for health benefit. The HQ index for children, teens and male and female adults had health hazards (HQ > 1) in 51, 17, 28, and 18 of samples, respectively. Groundwater resources having a risk of more than one were located in the counties of Nayin, Natanz, and Ardestan. So, in these areas, there are potential risks of dental fluorosis. The most vulnerable groups were children. The F levels must be reduced in this region to decrease endemic fluorosis.

  16. Bayesian geostatistical modelling of malaria and lymphatic filariasis infections in Uganda: predictors of risk and geographical patterns of co-endemicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Erling M

    2011-10-01

    -infection was 1.1%, and the two infections overlap geographically with an estimated number of 212,975 children aged 5 - 9 years living in hyper-co-endemic transmission areas. Conclusions The empirical map of malaria parasitaemia risk for Uganda presented in this paper is the first based on coherent, national survey data, and can serve as a baseline to guide and evaluate the continuous implementation of control activities. Furthermore, geographical areas of overlap with hyper-endemic W. bancrofti transmission have been identified to help provide a better informed platform for integrated control.

  17. Plant endemism in the Sierras of Córdoba and San Luis (Argentina): understanding links between phylogeny and regional biogeographical patterns1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapella, Jorge O.; Demaio, Pablo H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We compiled a checklist with all known endemic plants occurring in the Sierras of Córdoba and San Luis, an isolated mountainous range located in central Argentina. In order to obtain a better understanding of the evolutionary history, relationships and age of the regional flora, we gathered basic information on the biogeographical and floristic affinities of the endemics, and documented the inclusion of each taxon in molecular phylogenies. We listed 89 taxa (including 69 species and 20 infraspecific taxa) belonging to 53 genera and 29 families. The endemics are not distributed evenly, being more abundant in the lower than in the middle and upper vegetation belts. Thirty-two genera (60.3%) have been included in phylogenetic analyses, but only ten (18.8%) included local endemic taxa. A total of 28 endemic taxa of the Sierras CSL have a clear relationship with a widespread species of the same genus, or with one found close to the area. Available phylogenies for some taxa show divergence times between 7.0 – 1.8 Ma; all endemic taxa are most probably neoendemics sensu Stebbins and Major. Our analysis was specifically aimed at a particular geographic area, but the approach of analyzing phylogenetic patterns together with floristic or biogeographical relationships of the endemic taxa of an area, delimited by clear geomorphological features, could reveal evolutionary trends shaping the area. PMID:25878555

  18. Mus musculus bone fluoride concentration as a useful biomarker for risk assessment of skeletal fluorosis in volcanic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhares, Diana; Camarinho, Ricardo; Garcia, Patrícia Ventura; Rodrigues, Armindo Dos Santos

    2018-08-01

    Fluoride is often found in elevated concentrations in volcanic areas due to the release of magmatic fluorine as hydrogen fluorine through volcanic degassing. The exposure to high levels of fluoride can affect the processes of bone formation and resorption causing skeletal fluorosis, a pathology that can easily be mistaken for other skeletal diseases. In this study, we aimed to determine if fluoride concentration in the femoral bone of wild populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus) is a good biomarker of exposure to active volcanic environments naturally enriched in fluoride, allowing their use in biomonitoring programs. The fluoride concentration of the whole femoral bone of 9 mice from Furnas (5 males and 4 females) and 33 mice from Rabo de Peixe (16 males and 17 females) was measured by the potentiometric method with a fluoride ion selective electrode. Fluoride in bones was significantly higher in the mice from Furnas when compared with the mice from Rabo de Peixe (616.5 ± 129.3 μg F/g vs. 253.8 ± 10.5 μg F/g). Accumulation rates were also significantly higher in the mice collected in Furnas when compared with Rabo de Peixe individuals (3.84 ± 0.52 μg F/day vs. 1.22 ± 0.06 μg F/day). The results demonstrate a significant association between exposure to fluoride in the active volcanic environment and fluoride content in bone, revealing that bone fluoride concentration is a suitable biomarker of chronic environmental exposure to fluoride. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of hospital disinfection as a means of controlling endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of hospital environment disinfection as a means of controlling endemic nosocomial pathogens in a University Teaching Hospital in Nigeria was evaluated. Disinfectant used in the Hospital was collected from the Infection Control unit and prepared in different concentrations. The isolated bacterial species from the ...

  20. Biological Invasion and Loss of Endemic Biodiversity in the Thar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 3. Nature Watch - Biological Invasion and Loss of Endemic Biodiversity in the Thar Desert. Ishwar Prakash. Feature Article Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 76-85. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. Antimycobacterial and antimalarial activities of endophytic fungi associated with the ancient and narrowly endemic neotropical plant Vellozia gigantea from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mariana C; Cantrell, Charles L; Wedge, David E; Gonçalves, Vívian N; Jacob, Melissa R; Khan, Shabana; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2017-10-01

    Endophytic fungi, present mainly in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla, are associated with different plants and represent important producers of bioactive natural products. Brazil has a rich biodiversity of plant species, including those reported as being endemic. Among the endemic Brazilian plant species, Vellozia gigantea (Velloziaceae) is threatened by extinction and is a promising target to recover endophytic fungi. The present study focused on bioprospecting of bioactive compounds of the endophytic fungi associated with V. gigantea, an endemic, ancient, and endangered plant species that occurs only in the rupestrian grasslands of Brazil. The capability of 285 fungal isolates to produce antimicrobial and antimalarial activities was examined. Fungi were grown at solid-state fermentation to recover their crude extracts in dichloromethane. Bioactive extracts were analysed by chromatographic fractionation and NMR and displayed compounds with antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, and antimalarial activities. Five fungi produced antimicrobial and antimalarial compounds. Extracts of Diaporthe miriciae showed antifungal, antibacterial, and antimalarial activities; Trichoderma effusum displayed selective antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium intracellulare; and three Penicillium species showed antibacterial activity. D. miriciae extract contained highly functionalised secondary metabolites, yielding the compound epoxycytochalasin H with high antimalarial activity against the chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum, with an IC50 approximately 3.5-fold lower than that with chloroquine. Our results indicate that V. gigantea may represent a microhabitat repository hotspot of potential fungi producers of bioactive compounds and suggest that endophytic fungal communities might be an important biological component contributing to the fitness of the plants living in the rupestrian grassland.

  2. Genetic connectivity and self-replenishment of inshore and offshore populations of the endemic anemonefish, Amphiprion latezonatus

    KAUST Repository

    Steinberg, Rosemary

    2016-02-19

    Globally, marine species are under increasing pressure from human activities, including ocean warming, acidification, pollution, and overfishing. Species most vulnerable to these pressures tend to be ecological specialists that have low abundance and small distribution ranges (endemics). Marine endemics often exist as meta-populations distributed among few isolated locations. Determining genetic connectivity among these locations is essential to understanding the recovery potential of endemics after local extinction events. This study examined connectivity in the endemic anemonefish, Amphiprion latezonatus, a habitat specialist with low abundance at most locations. Evolutionary and contemporary migration, genetic diversity, and self-replenishment among the four main locations (Sunshine Coast, North Solitary Island, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island) that comprise the entire A. latezonatus geographic range were assessed using mtDNA and microsatellite markers. Though historical gene flow inferred from mtDNA appeared high, population genetic differentiation was evident and contemporary gene flow inferred from microsatellites was limited, alongside very high (≥89 %) self-replenishment at all locations. Together, these data suggest prolonged recovery times following severe population decline (or extirpation) and indicate a need to protect this species at all locations, particularly Norfolk Island and Sunshine Coast where marine protected areas are lacking.

  3. Detection of Leishmania spp. in Bats from an Area of Brazil Endemic for Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, M B; Herrera, H M; Carvalho, C M E; Carvalho Anjos, E A; Ramos, C A N; de Araújo, F R; Torres, J M; de Oliveira, C E

    2017-12-01

    The multihost parasites Leishmania spp. infect a broad range of wild mammalian species including bats. Several species of bats have adapted to a variety of food resources and shelters in urban areas. This study aimed to detect Leishmania spp. DNA in bats present in forest fragments located in metropolitan areas endemic for leishmaniasis in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. Blood samples were obtained from 80 individuals, including eight species of Phyllostomidae and one species of Vespertilionidae. Thirty of the 80 bats were positive for Leishmania spp. using conventional PCR, all belonging to the family Phyllostomidae. Eighteen samples tested by real-time PCR (qPCR) using specific primers for the kDNA of Leishmania infantum were positive. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report detecting Leishmania spp. in Platyrrhinus incarum in addition to being the first reported detection of L. infantum in the bat species Phyllostomus discolor, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Artibeus planirostris and Artibeus lituratus. Our results show that bats can host Leishmania spp. in areas endemic for leishmaniasis, which must be taken into account in disease control operations by public health authorities. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Human-induced hybridization among congeneric endemic plants on Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hengstum, T.; Lachmuth, S.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; den Nijs, J.C.M.; Meirmans, P.G.; van Tienderen, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    Endemic genera on oceanic islands often evolved striking morphological and ecological differences among species, with weak postzygotic reproductive isolation. Human activities can lead to increased connectivity and can thereby promote secondary contact and hybridization between previously isolated

  5. Portunoid crabs as indicators of the Red Sea fauna history and endemism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridonov, Vassily; Türkay, Michael; Brösing, Andreas; Al-Aidaroos, Ali

    2013-04-01

    Peculiar environmental conditions and "turbulent" geological history make the Red Sea a laboratory of evolution and a significant area for understanding adaptation processes. To interpret the results of this basin-scale evolutionary experiment revised inventories of taxonomic diversity of particular groups of marine biota are essential. As one of the first results of the Red Sea Biodiversity Survey (RSBS) in the years 2011 - 2012 along the coast of Saudi Arabia (http://www.redseabiodiversity.org/) and examination of earlier collections and literature a revised species list is provided for the portunoid (swimming) crabs (Crustacea Decapoda Portunoidea). This superfamily is one of the most species rich and has one of the broadest habitat scopes among Brachyura in the global scale. The present assessment results in 54 shallow water species (including 2 recorded for the first time in the Red Sea during RSBS), 2 deep water species and 1 semipelagic species Charybdis smithii. Doubtful literature records of another 7 shallow water species remain unconfirmed. Among reliably recorded shallow water species 58 % belong to widespread Indo-West-Pacific (IWP) species, 13% are the species restricted to the western Indian Ocean, 11 % are endemics of the Arabian region (occurring also either in the western Gulf of Aden or along the eastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, or in both areas) which are usually vicariant to the widespread IWP species, 11% are taxa that are similar to the species occurring elsewhere in the IWP but have morphological peculiarities and probably deserve a specific or subspecific status. Finally 4% of species (Thalamita murinae and Liocarcinus subcorrugatus) appear to be endemic for the Red Sea and show remarkable disjunctions from most closely related species. Carcinus sp. (probably C. aestuarii) is an introduced (but not established) species in the northern Red Sea. The deep water fauna of the Red Sea is unique because it lives in the warm (20.5-21.5 ° C

  6. Isolation of human fungi from soil and identification of two endemic areas of Cryptococcus neoformans and Coccidioides immitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rubinstein

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in two different areas of Province of Cordoba, Argentina, where there was a suspicious of endemic mycosis. The previous data were the presence of a clinical case of pulmonary cryptococcosis in one area (Alta Gracia and the previous findings of a high incidence of coccidioidin and cryptococcin reactors in the population of the second one (Villa Dolores. In both areas soil samples for fungi were studied and Cryptococcus neoformans was found in 2/25 samples from Alta Gracia. In Villa Dolores Coccidioides immitis was isolated in 2/40 samples, and C. neoformans in 1/40 samples. Delayed hypersensitivity test with cryptococcin was determined in the population from Alta Gracia and it was found to be 5.3%. Positive cutaneous tests with coccidioidin (33.8% and cryptococcin (31.9% in Villa Dolores were obtained. With these findings two endemic areas of systemic mycoses in Cordoba, Argentina were delimited.

  7. Endemic characteristics of infantile visceral leishmaniasis in the People’s Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was once a severe parasitic disease in China. Thanks to the great efforts of integrated control, VL was eliminated in most epidemic areas, except for certain western provinces (autonomous region) at the end of 1950s. From then on, VL gained less attention and has seemed to spread, especially in the last 15 years. Infants are the most important population threatened by VL. However, there have been few studies on the endemic characteristics of infantile VL in China. Methods Infantile VL cases were collected from the online National Infectious Diseases Reporting System (NIDRS). Statistical description and inference was used to reveal the endemic characteristics in gender, age group, time and regionalism. Spatial analysis was carried out to explore the high risk area for infantile VL in China. Results A total of 1093 infantile VL cases were reported from 2006 to 2012. There was no statistically significant difference in gender over time. The minimum, maximum and mean age of these cases was 1.1, 35.9 and 13.8 months, respectively. Among them 86.92% were under 2 years of age, and there was a statistically significant difference among age groups over time. An incidence peak appeared in 2008-2009, most cases were distributed in the months September to December, and there was a tail-raising effect in the coming two months of the next year. More than 98% of cases were reported in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Gansu Province and Sichuan Province, accounting for 61.02%, 32.75% and 4.57%, respectively. A total of 56 counties reported infantile VL cases, with the cumulative incidence ranging from 0.02 to 24.57%. There were two main zones of high endemicity for infantile VL in China. The monthly incidence clearly coincides with the number of towns where infantile VL cases were reported. Three fatalities were reported during the study period, the case fatality rate was 2.75‰. Conclusions The endemic situation of infantile VL is

  8. Phylogenetic relationships of cone snails endemic to Cabo Verde based on mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalde, Samuel; Tenorio, Manuel J; Afonso, Carlos M L; Uribe, Juan E; Echeverry, Ana M; Zardoya, Rafael

    2017-11-25

    Due to their great species and ecological diversity as well as their capacity to produce hundreds of different toxins, cone snails are of interest to evolutionary biologists, pharmacologists and amateur naturalists alike. Taxonomic identification of cone snails still relies mostly on the shape, color, and banding patterns of the shell. However, these phenotypic traits are prone to homoplasy. Therefore, the consistent use of genetic data for species delimitation and phylogenetic inference in this apparently hyperdiverse group is largely wanting. Here, we reconstruct the phylogeny of the cones endemic to Cabo Verde archipelago, a well-known radiation of the group, using mitochondrial (mt) genomes. The reconstructed phylogeny grouped the analyzed species into two main clades, one including Kalloconus from West Africa sister to Trovaoconus from Cabo Verde and the other with a paraphyletic Lautoconus due to the sister group relationship of Africonus from Cabo Verde and Lautoconus ventricosus from Mediterranean Sea and neighboring Atlantic Ocean to the exclusion of Lautoconus endemic to Senegal (plus Lautoconus guanche from Mauritania, Morocco, and Canary Islands). Within Trovaoconus, up to three main lineages could be distinguished. The clade of Africonus included four main lineages (named I to IV), each further subdivided into two monophyletic groups. The reconstructed phylogeny allowed inferring the evolution of the radula in the studied lineages as well as biogeographic patterns. The number of cone species endemic to Cabo Verde was revised under the light of sequence divergence data and the inferred phylogenetic relationships. The sequence divergence between continental members of the genus Kalloconus and island endemics ascribed to the genus Trovaoconus is low, prompting for synonymization of the latter. The genus Lautoconus is paraphyletic. Lautoconus ventricosus is the closest living sister group of genus Africonus. Diversification of Africonus was in allopatry

  9. Genetic variability in the population of the endemic bee Anthophora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic diversity and spatial genetic population structure of the solitary bee Anthophora pauperata Walker 1871, a species endemic to St Katherine Protectorate, were studied by RAPD markers in seven wadis in the St Katherine Protectorate, South Sinai, Egypt. High levels of genetic diversity were found, mostly within ...

  10. Grass survey of the Itremo Massif records endemic central highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty species are endemic to the central highlands, and a further 1 4 species are restricted to Madagascar. Five ecological groups of grasses were identified in the Itremo Massif: shade species in gallery forests, open wet area species, fire grasses, anthropogenic disturbance associated grasses and rock-dwelling grasses.

  11. Modelling the spatial distribution of endemic Caesalpinioideae in Central Africa, a contribution to the evaluation of actual protected areas in the region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndayishimiye, Joël; Greve, Michelle; Stoffelen, P.

    2012-01-01

    of the Caesalpinioideae that are endemic in Central Africa (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi and Rwanda). The objectives of this study were to identify the environmental factors that constrain their distribution, to determine the potential areas where each species could be present, to assess the current...

  12. Bullous pemphigoid associated with chronic hepatitis C virus infection in a hepatitis B virus endemic area: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyunil; Jin, Young-Joo; Yoon, Chang Hwi; Kim, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Lucia

    2018-04-01

    Bullous pemphigoid is a type of acute or chronic autoimmune disease that involves subepidermal skin lesions with bulla formation. Although viral infections, such as, human herpes virus (HHV), human immunodeficiency virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, HHV-6, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV), are known factors of bullous pemphigoid, HCV infection has only been rarely associated factor, especially in HBV endemic area. A 78-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to erythematous bulla of onset 3 months before presentation affecting his entire body. Pathologic findings, that is, subepidermal bullae containing eosinophils and neutrophils with superficial perivascular lymphocytic and eosinophilic infiltration, were consistent with bullous pemphigoid. Anti-HCV was positive and HCV quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was 1.25 x 10 IU/mL. HCV genotype was 2a. After a diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid associated with chronic HCV infection was reached, he was treated with oral methylprednisolone for bullous pemphigoid, and his skin lesions improved. Oral direct-acting antiviral agents (sofosbuvir plus ribavirin) were prescribed for chronic hepatitis C, and sustained viral response was achieved. The authors report a rare case of bullous pemphigoid associated with chronic HCV infection in a HBV endemic area and advise that HCV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of factors precipitating bullous pemphigoid, even in HBV endemic areas.

  13. The endemic gastropod fauna of Lake Titicaca: correlation between molecular evolution and hydrographic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Oliver; Hershler, Robert; Albrecht, Christian; Terrazas, Edmundo M; Apaza, Roberto; Fuentealba, Carmen; Wolff, Christian; Wilke, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Lake Titicaca, situated in the Altiplano high plateau, is the only ancient lake in South America. This 2- to 3-My-old (where My is million years) water body has had a complex history that included at least five major hydrological phases during the Pleistocene. It is generally assumed that these physical events helped shape the evolutionary history of the lake's biota. Herein, we study an endemic species assemblage in Lake Titicaca, composed of members of the microgastropod genus Heleobia, to determine whether the lake has functioned as a reservoir of relic species or the site of local diversification, to evaluate congruence of the regional paleohydrology and the evolutionary history of this assemblage, and to assess whether the geographic distributions of endemic lineages are hierarchical. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that the Titicaca/Altiplano Heleobia fauna (together with few extralimital taxa) forms a species flock. A molecular clock analysis suggests that the most recent common ancestor (MRCAs) of the Altiplano taxa evolved 0.53 (0.28-0.80) My ago and the MRCAs of the Altiplano taxa and their extralimital sister group 0.92 (0.46-1.52) My ago. The endemic species of Lake Titicaca are younger than the lake itself, implying primarily intralacustrine speciation. Moreover, the timing of evolutionary branching events and the ages of two precursors of Lake Titicaca, lakes Cabana and Ballivián, is congruent. Although Lake Titicaca appears to have been the principal site of speciation for the regional Heleobia fauna, the contemporary spatial patterns of endemism have been masked by immigration and/or emigration events of local riverine taxa, which we attribute to the unstable hydrographic history of the Altiplano. Thus, a hierarchical distribution of endemism is not evident, but instead there is a single genetic break between two regional clades. We also discuss our findings in relation to studies of other regional biota and suggest that salinity tolerance was

  14. Accumulation of iodine-123 in thyroid and urinary excretion of iodine in an area of endemic goiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, R; Leb, G; Passath, A; Knapp, G

    1983-06-20

    The thyroid radioiodine uptakes decreased from 52.4% (1982, 24-hours, /sup 131/I) to 30.5% (1981, /sup 123/I). The severity of scintigraphic findings decreased as well, although the incidence of nodules remains definitely high. The excretion of iodine was found to be 53.28 ..mu..g/g creatine and is low compared with the present uptakes. It characterizes an area of endemic goitre degree I, borderline to degree II.

  15. Egg predators of an endemic Italian salamander, Salamandrina perspicillata (Savi, 1821

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romano

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We report new aquatic predators feeding on Northern spectacled salamander eggs, Salamandrina perspicillata, an endemic Italian species. Eggs were preyed upon by the leech, Trocheta bykowskii, and the trichopteran larvae of Potamophylax cingulatus and Halesus appenninus.

  16. Phylogeography of the endemic grasshopper genus Betiscoides (Lentulidae) in the South African Cape Floristic Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matenaar, Daniela; Fingerle, Marcus; Heym, Eva; Wirtz, Sarah; Hochkirch, Axel

    2018-01-01

    Vicariance and dispersal are two important processes shaping biodiversity patterns. The South African Cape Floristic Region (CFR) is known for its high biotic diversity and endemism. However, studies on the phylogeography of endemic invertebrates in this biodiversity hotspot are still scarce. Here, we present a phylogenetic study of the flightless grasshopper genus Betiscoides, which is endemic to the CFR and strongly associated with restio plants (Restionaceae). We hypothesized that the genus originated in the southwestern part of the CFR, that differentiation within the genus is mainly an effect of vicariance and that the three known species only represent a minor fraction of the real genetic diversity of the genus. We inferred the phylogeny based on sequences of three mitochondrial and two nuclear genes from 99 Betiscoides specimens collected across the CFR. Furthermore, we conducted a SDIVA analysis to detect distributions of ancestral nodes and the possible spatial origin of these lineages. Strong differentiation among genetic lineages was shown. The ancestor of this genus was most likely distributed in the southwestern CFR. Five major lineages were detected, three of which were ancestrally distributed in the southwestern CFR. The ancestors of the two other lineages were distributed in the northern and eastern margins of the CFR. A total of 24 divergent evolutionary lineages were found, reflecting the geographical isolation of restio-dominated fynbos habitats. Dispersal played a more prominent role than expected in differentiation of Betiscoides. While the five main lineages were separated during a first phase via dispersal, differentiation occurred later and on smaller spatial scale, predominantly driven by isolation in montane refugia (i.e. vicariance). Our study also suggests that flightless insect taxa likely show high levels of differentiation in biodiversity hotspots with their taxonomy often being incomplete. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. The fate of endemic insects of the Andean region under the effect of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Sara I; Melo, María Cecilia; Scattolini, María Celeste; Pocco, Martina E; Del Río, María Guadalupe; Dellapé, Gimena; Scheibler, Erica E; Roig, Sergio A; Cazorla, Carla G; Dellapé, Pablo M

    2017-01-01

    Three independent but complementary lines of research have provided evidence for the recognition of refugia: paleontology, phylogeography and species distributional modelling (SDM). SDM assesses the ecological requirements of a species based on its known occurrences and enables its distribution to be projected on past climatological reconstructions. One advantage over the other two approaches is that it provides an explicit link to environment and geography, thereby enabling the analysis of a large number of taxa in the search for more general refugia patterns. We propose a methodology for using SDM to recognize biogeographical patterns of endemic insects from Southern South America. We built species distributional models for 59 insect species using Maxent. The species analyzed in the study have narrow niche breadth and were classified into four assemblages according to the ecoregion they inhabit. Models were built for the Late Pleistocene, Mid-Holocene and Present. Through the procedure developed for this study we used the models to recognize: Late Pleistocene refugia; areas with high species richness during all three periods; climatically constant areas (in situ refugia); consistent patterns among in situ refugia, Pleistocene refugia and current distribution of endemic species. We recognized two adjacent Pleistocene refugia with distinct climates; four in situ refugia, some of which are undergoing a process of fragmentation and retraction or enlargement. Interestingly, we found a congruent pattern among in situ refugia, Pleistocene refugia and endemic species. Our results seem to be consistent with the idea that long-term climate stability is known to have a key role in promoting persistence of biodiversity in an area. Our Pleistocene and in situ refugia are consistent with refugia identified in studies focusing on different taxa and applying other methodologies, showing that the method developed can be used to identify such areas and prove their importance for

  18. Leishmaniasis and textbook: how are endemic diseases addressed in public education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Batista Reis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Visceral Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonosis, considered a public health problem in Brazil, because of their magnitude, geographic expansion and lethality. The disease is the etiologic agent trypanosamatid Leishmania infantum, is transmitted by the bite of Lutzomyia longipalpis, an insect of the order Diptera that has hematophagous habits. Typically considered rural, the disease emerged in the urban scene in Teresina, Piauí state, in the 80´s, reaching the other urban producing several epidemiological outbreaks. Control of the disease, based on the slaughter of seropositive dogs, chemical vector control and treatment of human patients as strategies recommended by the Ministry of Health, do not have satisfactory results, it is imperative to integrate these strategies to the actions of health education. Considering the role of the school in the dissemination of knowledge and the promotion of health education actions and, above all, the importance of the textbook as an important educational tool for the teaching-learning process, this study aimed to analyze the books as they are atopted by public schools of the city of Floriano, Piauí state, address endemic diseases, particularly leishmaniasis. Physical criteria, as aspects of the brochure and binding aspects and the contents were used in the analyzes. The selection of books was made by teachers and managers of schools based on the National Textbook Program (PNLD tab and then were approved in the pedagogical evaluation of the Ministry of Education. Copies of each level of education (primary and secondary were analyzed according to conceptual and physical aspects. The analysis of conceptual and methodological aspects was based on the literature and a thorough observation of the images that complement the content. The physical aspects were evaluated according to the type of binding, size, font size and spacing employ, didactic presentation order of the content and illustrations. It was found

  19. Intestinal parasitoses in a tertiary-care hospital located in a non-endemic setting during 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderaro, Adriana; Montecchini, Sara; Rossi, Sabina; Gorrini, Chiara; De Conto, Flora; Medici, Maria Cristina; Chezzi, Carlo; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina

    2014-05-16

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of intestinal parasitoses during a 5-year period in patients attending a tertiary-care hospital in a non-endemic setting. In the period 2006-2010, 15,752 samples from 8,886 patients with clinically suspected parasitosis were subjected to macroscopic and microscopic examination, to parasitic antigen detection assays, and to cultures for protozoa and nematodes. Real-time PCR assays for the differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar and for the detection of Dientamoeba fragilis were also used.A statistical analysis evaluating the demographic data of the patients with intestinal parasitic infections was performed. Intestinal parasitic infections were diagnosed in 1,477 patients (16.6% prevalence), mainly adults and immigrants from endemic areas for faecal-oral infections; protozoa were detected in 93.4% and helminths in 6.6% of the cases, the latter especially in immigrants. Blastocystis hominis was the most common intestinal protozoan, and G. intestinalis was the most frequently detected among pathogenic protozoa, prevalent in immigrants, males, and pediatric patients. Both single (77.9%) and mixed (22.1%) parasitic infections were observed, the latter prevalent in immigrants. Despite the importance of the knowledge about the epidemiology of intestinal parasitoses in order to adopt appropriate control measures and adequate patient care all over the world, data regarding industrialized countries are rarely reported in the literature. The data presented in this study indicate that intestinal parasitic infections are frequently diagnosed in our laboratory and could make a contribution to stimulate the attention by physicians working in non-endemic areas on the importance of suspecting intestinal parasitoses.

  20. Small mammals distribution and diversity in a plague endemic area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small mammals play a role in plague transmission as hosts in all plague endemic areas. Information on distribution and diversity of small mammals is therefore important for plague surveillance and control in such areas. The objective of this study was to investigate small mammals' diversity and their distribution in plague ...

  1. An Investigation on the antimicrobial activity of some endemic plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study performed on six endemic plant species, antimicrobial activity was observed in Campanula lyrata subsp.lyrata and Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmuelleriana plants. The minimum inhibitory concentration of C. lyrata subsp. lyrata (leaf and flower) extract was found to be 29 mg/ml for Baccillus subtilis and 14.5 ...

  2. Enhancement of Saharan groundwater quality by reducing its fluoride concentration using different materials

    KAUST Repository

    Ramdani, Amina

    2014-04-15

    According to the environmental protection regulations, fluoride concentration is considered as a substance of priority for assessment of drinking water quality to determine their impacts on the environment and public health. Saharan groundwater (Algeria) contains an excess of fluoride ions. Regular consumption of this water by the population of the region may cause endemic fluorosis. To solve this problem, we propose to treat this water by adsorption on different materials, such as activated alumina (AA), sodium clay (SC), and hydroxyapatite (HAP) in order to enhance its quality by reducing its fluoride concentration. The maximum adsorption is achieved with an adsorption capacity of the order of 0.9, 0.667, and 0.370 mg/g and with a percentage of 90, 83.4, and 73.95% for AA, HAP, and SC, respectively. Indeed, the acidity and alkalinity of the medium significantly affect the adsorption of fluoride ions. Results deduced from the curves of adsorption isotherms of fluoride ions showed that the retention is predictable from these isotherms in agreement with the Langmuir model. The low removal of fluoride ions was observed in presence of (Formula presented.), (Formula presented.), and (Formula presented.) ions. Finally, AA material proved to be the best adsorbent for fluoride ions removal. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  3. Collembola of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) with descriptions of five endemic cave-restricted species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Ernest C; Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Wynne, J Judson

    2015-04-24

    Eight species of Collembola are reported from recent collections made in caves on the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island). Five of these species are new to science and apparently endemic to the island: Coecobrya aitorererere n. sp., Cyphoderus manuneru n. sp., Entomobrya manuhoko n. sp., Pseudosinella hahoteana n. sp. and Seira manukio n. sp. The Hawaiian species Lepidocyrtus olena Christiansen & Bellinger and the cosmopolitan species Folsomia candida Willem also were collected from one or more caves. Coecobrya kennethi Jordana & Baquero, recently described from Rapa Nui and identified as endemic, was collected in sympatric association with C. aitorererere n.sp. With the exception of F. candida, all species are endemic to Rapa Nui or greater Polynesia and appear to be restricted to the cave environment on Rapa Nui. A key is provided to separate Collembola species reported from Rapa Nui. We provide recommendations to aid in the conservation and management of these new Collembola, as well as the other presumed cave-restricted arthropods.

  4. Small mammals as indicators of cryptic plant species diversity in the central Chilean plant endemicity hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Root-Bernstein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Indicator species could help to compensate for a shortfall of knowledge about the diversity and distributions of undersampled and cryptic species. This paper provides background knowledge about the ecological interactions that affect and are affected by herbaceous diversity in central Chile, as part of the indicator species selection process. We focus on the ecosystem engineering role of small mammals, primarily the degu Octodon degus. We also consider the interacting effects of shrubs, trees, avian activity, livestock, slope, and soil quality on herbaceous communities in central Chile. We sampled herbaceous diversity on a private landholding characterized by a mosaic of savanna, grassland and matorral, across a range of degu disturbance intensities. We find that the strongest factors affecting endemic herbaceous diversity are density of degu runways, shrub cover and avian activity. Our results show that the degu, a charismatic and easily identifiable and countable species, could be used as an indicator species to aid potential conservation actions such as private protected area uptake. We map areas in central Chile where degus may indicate endemic plant diversity. This area is larger than expected, and suggests that significant areas of endemic plant communities may still exist, and should be identified and protected. Keywords: Cryptic species, Diversity, Endemic, Indicator species, Octodon degus, Plant

  5. Response of endemic Clarias species' life-history biometrics to land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Mpologoma River wetland is highly negatively impacted by rice growing and yet it provides habitat to endemic Clarias species that are important to the wetland fishery. Variations in life-history biometrics of small Clarias species at various wetland sites in relation to land-use changes within the wetland were studied in ...

  6. Elaboración de corredores o canales endémicos mediante planillas de cálculo Establishing endemic levels or ranges with computer spreadsheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bortman

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Las epidemias o brotes pueden ser definidos como un exceso en el número de casos de un problema de salud dado, en una población, un período y un lugar en particular. Sin embargo, determinar lo que constituye un exceso implica conocer lo que es normal o de esperar. La elaboración de canales o corredores endémicos permite definir los valores de casos esperados y de esta forma evidenciar de forma gráfica la aparición de un nú mero mayor de casos. En el presente trabajo se describe una nueva metodología para la realización de estos canales endémicos, en la que se utilizan las planillas de cálculo Qpro y Excel, mediante la determinación de la media geométrica de lastasas históricas y su in tervalo de confianza. Se presenta también un corredor endémico acumulativo que facilita la vigilancia de sucesos endémicos de baja incidencia.Epidemics or disease out breaks can be defined as an excess in the number of cases of a given health problem, in a particular population, period, and place. However, to determine what constitutes an excess implies knowing what is normal or to be expected. Establishing endemic levels or ranges makes it possible to determine figures for the number of expected cases and to show in graphic form the appearance of a higher number of cases. In this work a new methodology is described to develop these endemic ranges, in which the Quattro Pro (Qpro and Excel software programs are used to calculate the geometric mean of historical rates and their confidence intervals. Also presented is a procedure for cumulative endemic ranges that facilitates surveillance of endemic events with a low incidence.

  7. Circulating epstein-barr virus in children living in malaria-endemic areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasti, N; Falk, K I; Donati, D

    2005-01-01

    Children living in malaria-endemic regions have high incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), the aetiology of which involves Plasmodium falciparum malaria and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections. Acute malarial infection impairs the EBV-specific immune responses with the consequent increase in the ...

  8. Selenium and iodine in soil, rice and drinking water in relation to endemic goitre in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fordyce, F.M.; Johnson, C.C.; Appleton, J.D.; Navaratna, U.R.B.; Dissanayake, C.B.

    2000-01-01

    Endemic goitre has been reported in the climatic wet zone of south-west Sri Lanka for the past 50 years, but rarely occurs in the northern dry zone. Despite government-sponsored iodised salt programmes, endemic goitre is still prevalent. In recent years, it has been suggested that Se deficiency may be an important factor in the onset of goitre and other iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Prior to the present study, environmental concentrations of Se in Sri Lanka and the possible relationships between Se deficiency and endemic goitre had not been investigated. During the present study, chemical differences in the environment (measured in soil, rice and drinking water) and the Se-status of the human population (demonstrated by hair samples from women) were determined for 15 villages. The villages were characterised by low ( 25%) goitre incidence (NIDD, MIDD and HIDD, respectively). Results show that concentrations of soil total Se and iodine are highest in the HIDD villages, however, the soil clay and organic matter content appear to inhibit the bioavailability of these elements. Concentrations of iodine in rice are low (≤58 ng/g) and rice does not provide a significant source of iodine in the Sri Lankan diet. High concentrations of iodine (up to 84 μg/l) in drinking water in the dry zone may, in part, explain why goitre is uncommon in this area. This study has shown for the first time that significant proportions of the Sri Lankan female population may be Se deficient (24, 24 and 40% in the NIDD, MIDD and HIDD villages, respectively). Although Se deficiency is not restricted to areas where goitre is prevalent, a combination of iodine and Se deficiency could be involved in the pathogenesis of goitre in Sri Lanka. The distribution of red rice cultivation in Sri Lanka is coincident with the HIDD villages. Varieties of red rice grown in other countries contain anthocyanins and procyanidins, compounds which in other foodstuffs are known goitrogens. The potential

  9. Medical geology of endemic goiter in Kalutara, Sri Lanka; distribution and possible causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, G W A R; Liyanage, P L C L; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Vithanage, Meththika

    2017-12-01

    This study assesses the distribution of goiter in the Kalutara District, Sri Lanka in order to find causative factors for the occurrence of goiter even after the salt iodization. A questionnaire survey was conducted at the household level and at the same time iodine and selenium levels of the water sources were analyzed. Questionnaire survey results indicated the highest numbers of goiter patients in the northern part where the lowest were found in the southern sector which may be due to the presence of acid sulfate soils. Females were more susceptible and it even showed a transmittance between generations. Average iodine concentrations in subsurface water of goiter endemic regions are 28.25 ± 15.47 μg/L whereas non-goiter regions show identical values at 24.74 ± 18.29 μg/L. Surface water exhibited relatively high values at 30.87 ± 16.13 μg/L. Endemic goiter was reported in some isolated patches where iodine and selenium concentrations low, latter was <10 μg/L. The formation of acid sulfate soils in the marshy lands in Kalutara district may lead to transformation of biological available iodine oxidation into volatile iodine by humic substances, at the same time organic matter rich peaty soil may have strong held of iodine and selenium which again induced by low pH and high temperature were suggested as the instrumental factors in the endemic goiter in Kalutara district. Hence, geochemical features such as soil pH, organic matter and thick lateritic cap in the Kalutara goiter endemic area play a role in controlling the available selenium and iodine for food chain through plant uptake and in water.

  10. Analysis of occupational risk and antirrabies prophylactic treatment in health and endemic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Tenório Ferrer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Ferrer M.T., de Melo S.R., Pimentel J. de L., Pinheiro Junior J.W. & Brandespim D.F. [Analysis of occupational risk and antirrabies prophylactic treatment in health and endemic agents.] Análise do risco ocupacional e do tratamento profilático antirrábico em agentes de endemia e de saúde. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:307-311, 2014. Curso de Medicina Veterinária, Unidade Acadêmica de Garanhuns, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Av. Bom Pastor, s/n°, Boa Vista, Garanhuns, PE 55292-270, Brasil. E-mail: moises.vet@hotmail.com This paper aimed to assess the risk of exposure and conduct of prophylactic antirrabies treatment established by health care providers and the endemics Municipality of Garanhuns, PE during their professional activities. We conducted a descriptive epidemiological study of retrospective type, from data collection through the application of a semi-structured questionnaire containing open and closed questions, to 192 professionals, 168 health agents and 24 agents of the municipality of endemics Garanhuns -PE. Of the 192 interviewed agents, 14.1% (27/165 had been attacked by animals during their occupation activities. On the post-exposure prophylactic treatment, it was found that 44.5% (12/27 received-vaccination serum, 37% (10/27 did not undergo any treatment, while only 18.5% (5/27 had the wound washed with soap and water. Was concluded that there is a lack of basic information regarding both the pre-exposure or post-exposure prophylaxis of rabies in professionals like agents that act with both health and / or endemic diseases and it is suggested both the improvement of their professional skills as the preexposure immunization as prophylactic measure to minimize the occupational risk in function of their field activities.

  11. A review of contemporary patterns of endemism for shallow water reef fauna in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph; Roberts, May B.; Bouwmeester, Jessica; Bowen, Brian W.; Coker, Darren James; Lozano-Corté s, Diego; Howard Choat, J.; Gaither, Michelle R.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Khalil, Maha T.; Kochzius, Marc; Myers, Robert F.; Paulay, Gustav; Robitzch, Vanessa S.N.; Saenz Agudelo, Pablo; Salas, Eva; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane; Toonen, Robert J.; Westneat, Mark W.; Williams, Suzanne T.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    The Red Sea biota appears resilient to major environmental fluctuations and is characterized by high rates of endemism with variable degrees of incursion into the Gulf of Aden. The nearby Omani and Arabian Gulfs also have variable environments and high levels of endemism, but these are not consistently distinct across taxa. The presence of physical barriers does not appear to explain species distributions, which are more likely determined by ecological plasticity and genetic diversity.

  12. Allozyme diversity in Macbridea alba (Lamiaceae), an endemic Florida mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.J.W. Godt; Joan L. Walker; J.L. Hamrick

    2004-01-01

    Macbridea alba is a herbaceous perennial mint endemic to the panhandle region of Florida. We used starch gel electrophoresis to describe allozyme diversity and genetic structure in this federally threatened plant. Ten populations were analyzed, with an average sample size of 47 plants (range 41-48 plants) per population. Of the 22 loci analyzed, 11 (...

  13. Historic forests and endemic mountain pine beetle and dwarf mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Negron

    2012-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle has always been a significant disturbance agent in ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests in Colorado. Most studies have examined the impacts to forest structure associated with epidemic populations of a single disturbance agent. In this paper we address the role of endemic populations of mountain pine and their interactions with dwarf mistletoe...

  14. The Taxonomic Status of Mazama bricenii and the Significance of the Táchira Depression for Mammalian Endemism in the Cordillera de Mérida, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E.; Maldonado, Jesús E.; Radosavljevic, Aleksandar; Molinari, Jesús; Patterson, Bruce D.; Martínez-C., Juan M.; Rutter, Amy R.; Hawkins, Melissa T. R.; Garcia, Franger J.; Helgen, Kristofer M.

    2015-01-01

    We studied the taxonomy and biogeography of Mazama bricenii, a brocket deer classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN, drawing on qualitative and quantitative morphology and sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene. We used Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM) to evaluate the hypothesis that M. bricenii of the Venezuelan Cordillera de Mérida (CM) might have become isolated from populations of its putative sister species, Mazama rufina, in the Colombian Cordillera Oriental (CO). This hypothesis assumes that warm, dry climatic conditions in the Táchira Depression were unsuitable for the species. Our analyses did not reveal morphological differences between specimens geographically attributable to M. bricenii and M. rufina, and phylogenetic analyses of molecular data recovered M. bricenii nested within the diversity of M. rufina. These results indicate that M. bricenii should be regarded as a junior synonym of M. rufina. ENM analyses revealed the existence of suitable climatic conditions for M. rufina in the Táchira Depression during the last glacial maximum and even at present, suggesting that gene flow between populations in the CO and CM may have occurred until at least the beginning of the current interglacial period and may continue today. Because this pattern might characterize other mammals currently considered endemic to the CM, we examined which of these species match two criteria that we propose herein to estimate if they can be regarded as endemic to the CM with confidence: (1) that morphological or molecular evidence exists indicating that the putative endemic taxon is distinctive from congeneric populations in the CO; and (2) that the putative endemic taxon is restricted to either cloud forest or páramo, or both. Only Aepeomys reigi, Cryptotis meridensis, and Nasuella meridensis matched both criteria; hence, additional research is necessary to assess the true taxonomic status and distribution of the remaining species thought to be CM endemics. PMID

  15. Optimization of seed germination in an Iranian serpentine endemic, Fortuynia garcinii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salehi Eskandari, Behrooz; Ghaderian, Seyed Majid; Ghasemi, Rasoul; Schat, Henk

    2017-01-01

    Fortuynia garcinii (Brassicaceae) is endemic to serpentine soils in central Iran. It has indehiscent silicles. The effects of its fruit pericarp on seed imbibition and germination were determined. The effects of moist chilling (15 days) and gibberellic acid (GA3, four levels), both alone and

  16. Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-30

    Bol. Inst. Bacteriol. Chile 1976; 18:33-37. 30. Escaff, M, Urbina, A, Mary, J. Contaminacion de repollos regados con aguas servidas. Agricultura...Tecnica 1979; 39:59-62. - 31. Lobos, H, Greive, R, Quijada, M, Brandt, H. Pesquisa del genero Vibrio en aguas servidas. Bol. Inst. Bact. Chile 1974; 16:40...REPORT #2 0") STUDIES TO CONTROL ENDEMIC TYPHOID N FEVER IN CHILE 0) ANNUAL REPORT U’ Contract Period 1/1/82-12/31/82 • I REPORT PREPARED BY: L

  17. Endemic shrubs in temperate arid and semiarid regions of northern China and their potentials for rangeland restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jianmin; Yang, Hongxiao; Lu, Qi; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-06-03

    Some endemic shrubs in arid and semiarid ecosystems are in danger of extinction, and yet they can play useful roles in maintaining or restoring these ecosystems, thus practical efforts are needed to conserve them. The shrubs Amygdalus pedunculata Pall., Amygdalus mongolica (Maxim.) Ricker and Ammopiptanthus mongolicus (Maxim. ex Kom.) Cheng f. are endemic species in arid and semiarid regions of northern China, where rangeland desertification is pronounced due to chronic overgrazing. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that these endemic shrubs have developed adaptations to arid and semiarid environments and could play critical roles as nurse species to initiate the process of rangeland recovery. Based on careful vegetation surveys, we analysed the niches of these species in relation to precipitation, temperature and habitats. All sampling plots were categorized by these endemics and sorted by the non-metric multidimensional scaling method. Species ratios of each life form and species co-occurrence rates with the endemics were also evaluated. Annual average temperature and annual precipitation were found to be the key factors determining vegetation diversity and distributions. Amygdalus pedunculata prefers low hills and sandy land in temperate semiarid regions. Amygdalus mongolica prefers gravel deserts of temperate semiarid regions. Ammopiptanthus mongolicus prefers sandy land of temperate arid regions. Communities of A. pedunculata have the highest diversity and the largest ratios of long-lived grass species, whereas those of A. mongolicus have the lowest diversity but the largest ratios of shrub species. Communities of A. mongolica are a transition between the first two community types. These findings demonstrate that our focal endemic shrubs have evolved adaptations to arid and semiarid conditions, thus they can be nurse plants to stabilize sand ground for vegetation restoration. We suggest that land managers begin using these shrub species to restore

  18. Two new giant pill-millipede species of the genus Zoosphaerium endemic to the Bemanevika area in northern Madagascar (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida, Arthrosphaeridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagorny, Christina; Wesener, Thomas

    2017-05-09

    Madagascar is one of the world's most important hotspots of biodiversity and a center for localized endemism. Among the highly endemic faunal elements are the giant pill-millipedes, order Sphaerotheriida, which are severely understudied in Madagascar. Here we provide descriptions of two new species of endemic giant-pill millipedes of the genus Zoosphaerium Pocock, 1895: Zoosphaerium bemanevika n. sp. and Zoosphaerium minutus n. sp.. Zoosphaerium bemanevika n. sp. belongs to the Z. coquerelianum species-group, while Z. minutus n. sp. is not assignable to a species-group. An updated key to the 19 species of the Z. coquerelianum group is provided. Zoosphaerium minutus n. sp. has a body length of Madagascar, an only recently protected area that represents a Malagasy center of endemism.

  19. Differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus from freshly slaughtered poultry and strains 'endemic' to processing plants by biochemical and physiological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, G C; Norris, A P; Bratchell, N

    1989-02-01

    A comparison was made of 27 'endemic' strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 35 strains from freshly slaughtered birds, isolated at five commercial slaughterhouses processing chickens or turkeys. Of 112 biochemical and physiological tests used, 74 gave results which differed among the strains. Cluster analysis revealed several distinct groupings which were influenced by strain type, processing plant and bird origin; these included a single group at the 72% level of similarity containing most of the 'endemic' strains. In comparison with strains from freshly slaughtered birds, a higher proportion of 'endemic' strains produced fibrinolysin, alpha-glucosidase and urease and were beta-haemolytic on sheep-blood agar. The 'endemic' type also showed a greater tendency to coagulate human but not bovine plasma, and to produce mucoid growth and clumping. The last two properties, relevant to colonization of processing equipment, were less evident in heart infusion broth than in richer media or process water collected during defeathering of the birds.

  20. Mid Arm Swelling- A Rare Presentation of Filariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Haren Oza; Jignasa Bhalodia; Ami Shah; Palak Modi

    2014-01-01

    Bancroftian Filariasis is a tropical and subtropical disease caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and transmitted by the Culex mosquitoes. The diagnosis of it is conventionally made by demonstrating microfilariae in the peripheral blood smear. Microfilaria and adult filarial worm have been incidentally detected in fine needle aspirates of various lesions. We here report a rare case presentation of Bancroftian filariasis in 20 years old asymptomatic male coming from an endemic area with swelling in ...

  1. Ontogenetic foraging activity and feeding selectivity of the Brazilian endemic parrotfish Scarus zelindae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro H.C. Pereira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Parrotfish are fundamental species in controlling algal phase-shifts and ensuring the resilience of coral reefs. Nevertheless, little is known on their ecological role in the south-western Atlantic Ocean. The present study analysed the ontogenetic foraging activity and feeding selectivity of the Brazilian endemic parrotfish Scarus zelindae using behavioural observation and benthic composition analyses. We found a significant negative relationship between fish size and feeding rates for S. zelindae individuals. Thus, terminal phase individuals forage with lower feeding rates compared to juveniles and initial phase individuals. The highest relative foraging frequency of S. zelindae was on epilithic algae matrix (EAM with similar values for juveniles (86.6%, initial phase (88.1% and terminal phase (88.6% individuals. The second preferred benthos for juveniles was sponge (11.6% compared with initial (4.5% and terminal life phases (1.3%. Different life phases of S. zelindae foraged on different benthos according to their availability. Based on Ivlev’s electivity index, juveniles selected EAM and sponge, while initial phase and terminal phase individuals only selected EAM. Our findings demonstrate that the foraging frequency of the endemic parrotfish S. zelindae is reduced according to body size and that there is a slight ontogenetic change in feeding selectivity. Therefore, ecological knowledge of ontogenetic variations on resource use is critical for the remaining parrotfish populations which have been dramatically reduced in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean.

  2. A Complex System of Glacial Sub-Refugia Drives Endemic Freshwater Biodiversity on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewing, Catharina; Albrecht, Christian; Wilke, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Although only relatively few freshwater invertebrate families are reported from the Tibetan Plateau, the degree of endemism may be high. Many endemic lineages occur within permafrost areas, raising questions about the existence of isolated intra-plateau glacial refugia. Moreover, if such refugia existed, it might be instructive to learn whether they were associated with lakes or with more dynamic ecosystems such as ponds, wetlands, or springs. To study these hypotheses, we used pulmonate snails of the plateau-wide distributed genus Radix as model group and the Lake Donggi Cona drainage system, located in the north-eastern part of the plateau, as model site. First, we performed plateau-wide phylogenetic analyses using mtDNA data to assess the overall relationships of Radix populations inhabiting the Lake Donggi Cona system for revealing refugial lineages. We then conducted regional phylogeographical analyses applying a combination of mtDNA and nuclear AFLP markers to infer the local structure and demographic history of the most abundant endemic Radix clade for identifying location and type of (sub-)refugia within the drainage system. Our phylogenetic analysis showed a high diversity of Radix lineages in the Lake Donggi Cona system. Subsequent phylogeographical analyses of the most abundant endemic clade indicated a habitat-related clustering of genotypes and several Late Pleistocene spatial/demographic expansion events. The most parsimonious explanation for these patterns would be a scenario of an intra-plateau glacial refugium in the Lake Donggi Cona drainage system, which might have consisted of isolated sub-refugia. Though the underlying processes remain unknown, an initial separation of lake and watershed populations could have been triggered by lake-level fluctuations before and during the Last Glacial Maximum. This study inferred the first intra-plateau refugium for freshwater animals on the Tibetan Plateau. It thus sheds new light on the evolutionary history

  3. Optimal allocation of the limited oral cholera vaccine supply between endemic and epidemic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sean M; Lessler, Justin

    2015-10-06

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently established a global stockpile of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) to be preferentially used in epidemic response (reactive campaigns) with any vaccine remaining after 1 year allocated to endemic settings. Hence, the number of cholera cases or deaths prevented in an endemic setting represents the minimum utility of these doses, and the optimal risk-averse response to any reactive vaccination request (i.e. the minimax strategy) is one that allocates the remaining doses between the requested epidemic response and endemic use in order to ensure that at least this minimum utility is achieved. Using mathematical models, we find that the best minimax strategy is to allocate the majority of doses to reactive campaigns, unless the request came late in the targeted epidemic. As vaccine supplies dwindle, the case for reactive use of the remaining doses grows stronger. Our analysis provides a lower bound for the amount of OCV to keep in reserve when responding to any request. These results provide a strategic context for the fulfilment of requests to the stockpile, and define allocation strategies that minimize the number of OCV doses that are allocated to suboptimal situations. © 2015 The Authors.

  4. Intestinal parasitoses in a tertiary-care hospital located in a non-endemic setting during 2006–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of intestinal parasitoses during a 5-year period in patients attending a tertiary-care hospital in a non-endemic setting. Methods In the period 2006–2010, 15,752 samples from 8,886 patients with clinically suspected parasitosis were subjected to macroscopic and microscopic examination, to parasitic antigen detection assays, and to cultures for protozoa and nematodes. Real-time PCR assays for the differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar and for the detection of Dientamoeba fragilis were also used. A statistical analysis evaluating the demographic data of the patients with intestinal parasitic infections was performed. Results Intestinal parasitic infections were diagnosed in 1,477 patients (16.6% prevalence), mainly adults and immigrants from endemic areas for faecal-oral infections; protozoa were detected in 93.4% and helminths in 6.6% of the cases, the latter especially in immigrants. Blastocystis hominis was the most common intestinal protozoan, and G. intestinalis was the most frequently detected among pathogenic protozoa, prevalent in immigrants, males, and pediatric patients. Both single (77.9%) and mixed (22.1%) parasitic infections were observed, the latter prevalent in immigrants. Conclusions Despite the importance of the knowledge about the epidemiology of intestinal parasitoses in order to adopt appropriate control measures and adequate patient care all over the world, data regarding industrialized countries are rarely reported in the literature. The data presented in this study indicate that intestinal parasitic infections are frequently diagnosed in our laboratory and could make a contribution to stimulate the attention by physicians working in non-endemic areas on the importance of suspecting intestinal parasitoses. PMID:24886502

  5. The malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum in the endemic avifauna of eastern Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Letícia; Marra, Peter; Gray, Lindsey; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2017-12-01

    Island populations are vulnerable to introduced pathogens, as evidenced by extinction or population decline of several endemic Hawaiian birds caused by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium relictum (order Haemosporida). We analyzed blood samples from 363 birds caught near Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, for the presence of haemosporidian infections. We characterized parasite lineages by determining nucleotide variation of the parasite's mitochondrial cyt b gene. Fifty-nine individuals were infected, and we identified 7 lineages of haemosporidian parasites. Fifty individuals were infected by 6 Haemoproteus sp. lineages, including a newly characterized lineage of Haem. (Parahaemoproteus) sp. CUH01. Nine individuals carried the P. relictum lineage GRW4, including 5 endemic Cuban Grassquits (Tiaris canorus) and 1 migratory Cape May Warbler (Setophaga tigrina). A sequence of the merozoite surface protein gene from one Cuban Grassquit infected with GRW4 matched that of the Hawaiian haplotype Pr9. Our results indicate that resident and migratory Cuban birds are infected with a malaria lineage that has severely affected populations of several endemic Hawaiian birds. We suggest GRW4 may be associated with the lack of several bird species on Cuba that are ubiquitous elsewhere in the West Indies. From the standpoint of avian conservation in the Caribbean Basin, it will be important to determine the distribution of haemosporidian parasites, especially P. relictum GRW4, in Cuba as well as the pathogenicity of this lineage in species that occur and are absent from Cuba. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PATIENTS ON MAINTENANCE HEMODIALYSIS WITH BALKAN (ENDEMIC NEPHROPATHY

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    Miomir Stojanovic

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to ascertain the nutritional status of patients with Balkan (Endemic Nephropathy (BEN on maintenance hemodialysis (HD. The specimen of examines included 14 patients with BEN and 178 patients with another diagnosis on hemodialysis in Institute of Nephrology and Hemodialysis, Clinical Center Nis in 2002. Body mass index (BMI of male patients with BEN was 25.7±5.0 kg/m2; normal body weight was present in 66.7% of cases and obese in 33.3% of cases. BMI of female patients with BEN was 24.5±4.3 kg/m2; malnutrition was present in 12.5% of cases, normal body weight in 50.0% and obese in 37.5% of cases. Anthropometric indexes (BMI, lean body mass, body height, relative body weight, biceps, triceps, sub-scapular and iliac skinfold thickness, as well as, percent of body fat, mid-arm circumference and mid-arm muscle circumference of another HD patients was slight lower then HD patients with BEN, but differences was not statistically significant.

  7. Considerations about the physical rehabilitation and physiotherapy on kinesiologic and functional alterations in a case of Endemic Pemphigus foliaceus - doi:10.5020/18061230.2007.p124

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hermano da Justa Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pemphigus foliaceus is a very common skin disease in the Center-West region of Brazil and is named endemic due to its incidence in some regions of the country, South America and Latin America. In Northeast Brazil, the pemphigus foliaceus is considered a rare disease. The bearers of endemic pemphigus foliaceus show an intense healing process associated with metabolic alterations that affect the skeletal muscle and can compromise in different ways the kinesiology of the locomotor apparatus. The aim of this study was to describe a pemphigus foliaceus case in Ceara state, focusing on the postural and functional aspects of the locomotor apparatus in the clinical evolution of the disease. Case report: A pediatric patient bearer of endemic pemphigus foliaceus, resident at a mountain region of Ceará, with clinical data consisting of erythematous lesions, crusts, few visible vesicle-blister lesions, intense itch, cutaneous adhesions, postural deformities and alterations in the flexor tonus of the limbs, compromising movement extent. The physiotherapeutic protocol prescribed consisted of active exercises, inhibition of flexor tonus, passive elongation and walk training. After 3 weeks, the patient was already strolling and showed improvement in muscular and joint function. The physiotherapy when precociously done can prevent the formation of cutaneous adhesions and muscular weakness, preserving the range of motion present in diseases with an intense healing process such as endemic pemphigus foliaceus.

  8. Iodine deficiency and endemic goitre in the Langkloof area of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    available at the local grocery stores but only small percentages of households ..... dietary factor or factors, did, however, improve the situation in this area during the .... guarantee success in eradicating iodine deficiency and endemic goitre. ... lB, ads. The Prevenrion and Control of lod;ne Deficiency Disorders. Amsterdam: ...

  9. Endemic infectious diseases and biological warfare during the Gulf War: a decade of analysis and final concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyams, K C; Riddle, J; Trump, D H; Graham, J T

    2001-11-01

    Infectious diseases were one of the first health threats confronted by Coalition troops deployed to the Arabian desert in August 1990. On the basis of experiences in World War II, the major endemic infectious disease risks were thought to be sandfly fever, cutaneous leishmaniasis, diarrheal disease, and malaria. Although there was active surveillance, no case of sandfly fever and few other endemic infectious diseases were identified among over 500,000 U.S., British, and Canadian ground troops. In addition, there was no diagnosis of biological warfare (BW) exposure, and BW agents were not detected in clinical, environmental, or veterinary samples. The most common infectious disease problems were those associated with crowding (acute upper respiratory infections) and reduced levels of sanitation (travelers-type diarrhea). Only one endemic infectious disease has been confirmed as causing chronic health problems: visceral Leishmania tropica infection (viscerotropic leishmaniasis). However, this protozoan infection was diagnosed in only 12 U.S. veterans, and no new cases have been identified during the last 8 years. Infectious diseases were not a serious problem for Gulf War troops because of extensive preventive medicine efforts and favorable weather and geographic factors. Moreover, it is unlikely that an endemic infectious disease or a BW agent could cause chronic health problems and remain undetected over a 10-year period.

  10. Susheela, Prof. Andezhath Kumaran

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    .D. (Baroda), FAMS. Date of birth: 31 March 1937. Specialization: Fluorosis Disease Management & Research Address: Executive Director, Fluorosis Research & Rural Development Foundation, B-1, Saransh, 34, Indraprastha Extension, Delhi ...

  11. ANTIGENAEMIA AS AN INDICATOR OF FILARIAL ENDEMICITY

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    F. Partono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of 1 -year evaluation of chemotherapeutic intervention in an area of Indonesia endemic for lymphatic filariasis. Control measures were initiated in 1977 by parasite control, informal health educa­tion, and community participation at the village level, well in accord with the WHO-concept of health for all. Diethylcarbamazine (DEC was mass distributed in 1977 and 1988, and selectively distributed in 1978, 1979, 1981, and 1982 to those who were micro-filaraemic prior to DEC treatments, those with a history of adenoly mphangitis over the previous one year period, and to all new comers. In addition, each villager with acute symptoms of adenolymphangitis was immediately treated with a single course of 300 mg DEC for 10 days. No intervention measures were taken between 1982 to 1988, and no attempt was taken to control the vector or to restrict movement between controlled and uncontrolled areas during the whole studies. With these measures, the microfilaria (mf rate decreased from 30% to 0%, the adenolymphangitis rate from 46% to 11%, and the elephantiasis rate from 35% to 3%. The abatement of acute and chronic filarial symptoms over the study period and the disappearance of microfilaremia in the community are pointing towards the possibility of eradicating the partasite from the community. To test this hypothesis, serum samples were tested for circulating filarial antigen by a two-site antigen capture assay employing anti-phosphorylcholine monoclonal antibodies. There was a sharp fall in circulating antigenaemia, demonstrating that infection has either been eliminated from nearly all villagers, or that intensity of infection is now undetectably low. We feel that antigenaemia can be used as an indicator of filarial endemicity.

  12. Drinking water pollution with respective of fluoride in the semi-arid region of Basara, Nirmal district, Telangana State, India

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    Adimalla Narsimha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride is an essential microelement for human health. Statistically, smaller quantities (1.5 mg/L to fluoride can give rise to a number of adverse effects, including dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis, increased rate of bone fractures, decreased birth rates, increased rate of urolithiasis (kidney stones, impaired thyroid function, and impaired development of intelligence in children [1–5]. The data suggested that the north-eastern part of the Basara region having high fluoride concentration, which is unsuitable for drinking purposes. Hence, this unsuitable drinking water cause fluorosis in this Basara and surrounding villages, and especially based on the findings suggests, where the fluoride levels are in below maximum permissible limits that water ingests to the people to avoid further fluorosis.

  13. Status and conservation of old-growth forests and endemic birds in the pine-oak zone of the Sierra Madre occidental Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Lammertink, J.M.; Rojas-Tome, J.A.; Casillas-Orona, F.M.; Otto, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The pine-oak forests of the Sierra Madre Occidental, a mountain range in NW Mexico, have recently been recognized as an area of high endemism and biodiversity. Selective logging threatens three bird species endemic to this habitat, who depend on standing dead trees (snags). This report is based on an 11 month field survey that aimed to locate oldgrowth remnants and to assess the status of the endemic birds. Old-growth is defined here as a forest that has never been logged mechanically. Old-gr...

  14. Ecological Effects of the Invasive Giant Madagascar Day Gecko on Endemic Mauritian Geckos: Applications of Binomial-Mixture and Species Distribution Models

    OpenAIRE

    Buckland, S.; Cole, N.C.; Aguirre-Gutiérrez, J.; Gallagher, L.E.; Henshaw, S.M.; Besnard, A.; Tucker, R.M.; Bachraz, V.; Ruhomaun, K.; Harris, S.

    2014-01-01

    The invasion of the giant Madagascar day gecko Phelsuma grandis has increased the threats to the four endemic Mauritian day geckos (Phelsuma spp.) that have survived on mainland Mauritius. We had two main aims: (i) to predict the spatial distribution and overlap of P. grandis and the endemic geckos at a landscape level; and (ii) to investigate the effects of P. grandis on the abundance and risks of extinction of the endemic geckos at a local scale. An ensemble forecasting approach was used to...

  15. Floristic similarity, diversity and endemism as indicators of refugia characteristics and needs in the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanson, George P.; Zimmerman, Dale L.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    The floras of mountain ranges, and their similarity, beta diversity and endemism, are indicative of processes of community assembly; they are also the initial conditions for coming disassembly and reassembly in response to climate change. As such, these characteristics can inform thinking on refugia. The published floras or approximations for 42 mountain ranges in the three major mountain systems (Sierra-Cascades, Rocky Mountains and Great Basin ranges) across the western USA and southwestern Canada were analysed. The similarity is higher among the ranges of the Rockies while equally low among the ranges of the Sierra-Cascades and Great Basin. Mantel correlations of similarity with geographic distance are also higher for the Rocky Mountains. Endemism is relatively high, but is highest in the Sierra-Cascades (due to the Sierra Nevada as the single largest range) and lowest in the Great Basin, where assemblages are allochthonous. These differences indicate that the geologic substrates of the Cascade volcanoes, which are much younger than any others, play a role in addition to geographic isolation in community assembly. The pattern of similarity and endemism indicates that the ranges of the Cascades will not function well as stepping stones and the endemic species that they harbor may need more protection than those of the Rocky Mountains. The geometry of the ranges is complemented by geology in setting the stage for similarity and the potential for refugia across the West. Understanding the geographic template as initial conditions for the future can guide the forecast of refugia and related monitoring or protection efforts.

  16. Risk Factors for Leprosy Reactions in Three Endemic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollard, David M.; Martelli, Celina M. T.; Stefani, Mariane M. A.; Maroja, Maria de Fatima; Villahermosa, Laarni; Pardillo, Fe; Tamang, Krishna B.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain risk factors for complications (reactions or neuritis) in leprosy patients at the time of diagnosis in three leprosy-endemic countries. Newly diagnosed patients were enrolled in Brazil, the Philippines, and Nepal, and risk factors for reactions and neuritis were assessed using a case-control approach: “cases” were patients with these complications, and controls were patients without complications. Of 1,972 patients enrolled in this study, 22% had complications before treatment. Type 1 reaction was diagnosed in 13.7% of patients, neuritis alone in 6.9.%, and type 2 reaction in 1.4%. The frequency of these complications was higher in Nepal, in lepromatous patients, in males, and in adults versus children. Reactions and neuritis were seen in patients at diagnosis, before treatment was started. Reactions were seen in adults and children, even in patients with only a single lesion. Neuritis was often present without other signs of reaction. Reactions and neuritis were more likely to occur in lepromatous patients, and were more likely to be seen in adults than in children. PMID:25448239

  17. New Pesticidal Diterpenoids from Vellozia gigantea (Velloziaceae, an Endemic Neotropical Plant Living in the Endangered Brazilian Biome Rupestrian Grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana C. Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vellozia gigantea is a rare, ancient, and endemic neotropical plant present in the Brazilian Rupestrian grasslands. The dichloromethane extract of V. gigantea adventitious roots was phytotoxic against Lactuca sativa, Agrostis stolonifera, and Lemna paucicostata, and showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Phytotoxicity bioassay-directed fractionation of the extract revealed one new isopimaradiene, 8(9,15-isopimaradien-1,3,7,11-tetraone, and three new cleistanthane diterpenoids, 7-oxo-8,11,13-cleistanthatrien-3-ol, 3,20-epoxy-7-oxo-8,11,13-cleistanthatrien-3-ol, and 20-nor-3,7-dioxo-1,8,11,13-cleistanthatetraen-10-ol. These new structures are proposed based on interpretation of 1H, 13C, COSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC NMR data. 8(9,15-isopimaradien-1,3,7,11-tetraone was especially phytotoxic with an IC50 value (30 μM comparable to those of commercial herbicides clomazone, EPTC, and naptalam. In addition, 7-oxo-8,11,13-cleistanthatrien-3-ol provided 100% mortality at a concentration of 125 ppm against one-day-old Ae. aegypti larvae. Our results show that ancient and unique plants, like the endangered narrowly endemic neotropical species V. gigantea present in the Rupestrian grasslands, should also be protected because they can be sources of new bioactive compounds.

  18. Defining critical habitats of threatened and endemic reef fishes with a multivariate approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Steven W; Clarke, K Robert; Rushworth, Kelvin; Dalton, Steven J

    2014-12-01

    Understanding critical habitats of threatened and endemic animals is essential for mitigating extinction risks, developing recovery plans, and siting reserves, but assessment methods are generally lacking. We evaluated critical habitats of 8 threatened or endemic fish species on coral and rocky reefs of subtropical eastern Australia, by measuring physical and substratum-type variables of habitats at fish sightings. We used nonmetric and metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS, mMDS), Analysis of similarities (ANOSIM), similarity percentages analysis (SIMPER), permutational analysis of multivariate dispersions (PERMDISP), and other multivariate tools to distinguish critical habitats. Niche breadth was widest for 2 endemic wrasses, and reef inclination was important for several species, often found in relatively deep microhabitats. Critical habitats of mainland reef species included small caves or habitat-forming hosts such as gorgonian corals and black coral trees. Hard corals appeared important for reef fishes at Lord Howe Island, and red algae for mainland reef fishes. A wide range of habitat variables are required to assess critical habitats owing to varied affinities of species to different habitat features. We advocate assessments of critical habitats matched to the spatial scale used by the animals and a combination of multivariate methods. Our multivariate approach furnishes a general template for assessing the critical habitats of species, understanding how these vary among species, and determining differences in the degree of habitat specificity. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Acronymolpus, a new genus of Eumolpinae, endemic to New Caledonia (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, G Allan

    2015-01-01

    The genus Acronymolpus is proposed as new. It is represented by four new species, all of which are endemic to New Caledonia. Proposed are: Acronymolpus joliveti sp. n. (type species), Acronymolpus gressitti sp. n., Acronymolpus meteorus sp. n., and Acronymolpus turbo sp. n.

  20. Malaria is associated with poor school performance in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitor-Silva, Sheila; Reyes-Lecca, Roberto C; Pinheiro, Tamam RA; Lacerda, Marcus VG

    2009-01-01

    Background Approximately 40% of the world's population is at risk for malaria. In highly endemic tropical areas, malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality during infancy. There is a complex interrelationship between malaria, malnutrition and intestinal helminths, and this may impair cognitive development in children. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between malaria and school performance in children living in an endemic area where Plasmodium vivax is the species responsible for most of the cases. Methods The study was conducted in the Municipality of Careiro, Amazonas, Brazil, with five to14 year-old children, studying the first eight grades of public school, during the year 2008. After an initial active case detection, during nine months of follow-up, passive malaria cases detection was instituted, through a thick blood smear performed in every child with fever. School performance was evaluated by the final notes in Mathematics and Portuguese Language. Performance was considered poor when either of the final notes in these disciplines was below the 50th percentile for the respective class and grade. Results The total number of students followed-up in the cohort was 198. Malarial attacks were reported in 70 (35.4%) of these students, with no cases of severe disease. Plasmodium vivax was detected in 69.2% of the attacks, Plasmodium falciparum in 25.5% and both species in 5.3%. In the multivariate analysis, adjusting for age, mother's education, time living in the study area and school absenteeism, presenting with at least one episode of malaria independently predicted a poor performance at school [OR = 1.91 (1.04-3.54); p = 0.039]. Conclusion Non-severe malaria compromises the school performance of children even during a nine-month follow-up, potentially contributing to the maintenance of underdevelopment in countries endemic for malaria. This is the first evidence of such impact in Latin America, where P. vivax is responsible for

  1. Malaria is associated with poor school performance in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacerda Marcus VG

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 40% of the world's population is at risk for malaria. In highly endemic tropical areas, malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality during infancy. There is a complex interrelationship between malaria, malnutrition and intestinal helminths, and this may impair cognitive development in children. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between malaria and school performance in children living in an endemic area where Plasmodium vivax is the species responsible for most of the cases. Methods The study was conducted in the Municipality of Careiro, Amazonas, Brazil, with five to14 year-old children, studying the first eight grades of public school, during the year 2008. After an initial active case detection, during nine months of follow-up, passive malaria cases detection was instituted, through a thick blood smear performed in every child with fever. School performance was evaluated by the final notes in Mathematics and Portuguese Language. Performance was considered poor when either of the final notes in these disciplines was below the 50th percentile for the respective class and grade. Results The total number of students followed-up in the cohort was 198. Malarial attacks were reported in 70 (35.4% of these students, with no cases of severe disease. Plasmodium vivax was detected in 69.2% of the attacks, Plasmodium falciparum in 25.5% and both species in 5.3%. In the multivariate analysis, adjusting for age, mother's education, time living in the study area and school absenteeism, presenting with at least one episode of malaria independently predicted a poor performance at school [OR = 1.91 (1.04-3.54; p = 0.039]. Conclusion Non-severe malaria compromises the school performance of children even during a nine-month follow-up, potentially contributing to the maintenance of underdevelopment in countries endemic for malaria. This is the first evidence of such impact in Latin America, where P

  2. Polymorphism in the protein of the thoracic muscle of an endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic variability of the solitary bee Anthophora pauperata, endemic to the St Katherine Protectorate, was assessed within and between seven wadis in South Sinai, Egypt. Low levels of variation were found, with most diversity within rather than between sites. There were a total of 34 bands, of which only seven were ...

  3. Cytogenetic analyses of two endemic fish species from the São Francisco River basin: Conorhynchus conirostris and Lophiosilurus alexandri (Siluriformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilza Barbosa de Almeida Marques

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two Siluriformes species endemic to the São Francisco River basin were characterized by conventional and differential cytogenetic analyses involving C-banding, Ag-nucleolar organizer region (NOR and chromomycin A3 (CMA3 staining, and FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization with 18S and 5S rDNA probes. Conorhynchus conirostris presents a higher diploid number (2n = 60 than those detected in Pimelodidae representatives, whereas Lophiosilurus alexandri, with a karyotype of 2n = 54 chromosomes, presents a chromosomal constitution similar to that found in the family Pseudopimelodidae. Plesiomorphic characteristics such as single NORs at terminal positions are found in both species, as revealed by CMA3 and silver nitrate staining, and FISH with a 18S rDNA probe. C-banding evidenced centromeric and telomeric heterochromatic blocks distributed over most of the chromosomes with a conspicuous heterochromatin segment in a pair of submetacentric chromosomes in L. alexandri. Such karyotype data, if compared to the cytogenetic pattern of other Siluriformes species, can be partially related to their degree of endemism, favorable to the occurrence and fixation of chromosomal rearrangements. The present study in representatives from these two Siluriformes families from the São Francisco River contributes to a better understanding of the karyotype evolution in species of this important order of Neotropical fishes.

  4. Liver Proteome of Mice with Distinct Genetic Susceptibilities to Fluorosis Treated with Different Concentrations of F in the Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zohaib Nisar; Sabino, Isabela Tomazini; de Souza Melo, Carina Guimarães; Martini, Tatiana; da Silva Pereira, Heloísa Aparecida Barbosa; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2018-04-29

    Appropriate doses of fluoride (F) have therapeutic action against dental caries, but higher levels can cause disturbances in soft and mineralized tissues. Interestingly, the susceptibility to the toxic effects of F is genetically determined. This study evaluated the effects of F on the liver proteome of mice susceptible (A/J) or resistant (129P3/J) to the effects of F. Weanling male A/J (n = 12) and 129P3/J (n = 12) mice were housed in pairs and assigned to two groups given low-F food and drinking water containing 15 or 50 ppm F for 6 weeks. Liver proteome profiles were examined using nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. Difference in expression among the groups was determined using the PLGS software. Treatment with the lower F concentration provoked more pronounced alterations in fold change in liver proteins in comparison to the treatment with the higher F concentration. Interestingly, most of the proteins with fold change upon treatment with 15 ppm F were increased in the A/J mice compared with their 129P3/J counterparts, suggesting an attempt of the former to fight the deleterious effects of F. However, upon treatment with 50 ppm F, most proteins with fold change were decreased in the A/J mice compared with their 129P3/J counterparts, especially proteins related to oxidative stress and protein folding, which might be related to the higher susceptibility of the A/J animals to the deleterious effects of F. Our findings add light into the mechanisms underlying genetic susceptibility to fluorosis.

  5. Role of phytoplankton in maintaining endemicity and seasonality of cholera in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Sirajul; Islam, M Shafiqul; Mahmud, Zahid H; Cairncross, Sandy; Clemens, John D; Collins, Andrew E

    2015-09-01

    In Bangladesh, cholera is endemic and maintains a regular seasonal pattern. The role of phytoplankton in maintaining endemicity and seasonality of cholera was monitored in Matlab, Bangladesh. Phytoplankton and water samples were collected from two ponds bi-weekly for 1 year. The association of Vibrio cholerae O1 with phytoplankton was studied by culture and direct fluorescent antibody techniques. The bio-physicochemical parameters of water were measured and data for cases of cholera were collected from the records of Matlab hospital. The correlation of cholera cases with levels of phytoplankton, V. cholerae and bio-physicochemical parameters of water was carried out using Pearson's correlation coefficients. V. cholerae O1 survived for 48 days in association with Anabaena variabilis in a culturable state, but survived for a year in a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state. V. cholerae survived for 12 and 32 days in a culturable state in control water (without algae) and water with algae, respectively. There was a significant correlation between changing levels of cholera cases in the community and the blue green algae and total phytoplankton in the aquatic environment. A significant correlation was also found between the cholera cases and chlorophyll-a and VBNC V. cholerae O1 in the aquatic environment. This study demonstrated the role of phytoplankton in maintaining endemicity and seasonality of cholera in Bangladesh. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Travel vaccination recommendations and endemic infection risks in solid organ transplantation recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubiano, Jason A; Johnson, Douglas; Sohail, Asma; Torresi, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are often heavily immunosuppressed and consequently at risk of serious illness from vaccine preventable viral and bacterial infections or with endemic fungal and parasitic infections. We review the literature to provide guidance regarding the timing and appropriateness of vaccination and pathogen avoidance related to the immunological status of SOT recipients. A PUBMED search ([Vaccination OR vaccine] AND/OR ["specific vaccine"] AND/OR [immunology OR immune response OR cytokine OR T lymphocyte] AND transplant was performed. A review of the literature was performed in order to develop recommendations on vaccination for SOT recipients travelling to high-risk destinations. Whilst immunological failure of vaccination in SOT is primarily the result of impaired B-cell responses, the role of T-cells in vaccine failure and success remains unknown. Vaccination should be initiated at least 4 weeks prior to SOT or more than 6 months post-SOT. Avoidance of live vaccination is generally recommended, although some live vaccines may be considered in the specific situations (e.g. yellow fever). The practicing physician requires a detailed understanding of region-specific endemic pathogen risks. We provide a vaccination and endemic pathogen guide for physicians and travel clinics involved in the care of SOT recipients. In addition, recommendations based on timing of anticipated immunological recovery and available evidence regarding vaccine immunogenicity in SOT recipients are provided to help guide pre-travel consultations. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Phylogeography of Partamona rustica (Hymenoptera, Apidae), an Endemic Stingless Bee from the Neotropical Dry Forest Diagonal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Elder Assis; Batalha-Filho, Henrique; Congrains, Carlos; Carvalho, Antônio Freire; Ferreira, Kátia Maria; Del Lama, Marco Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The South America encompasses the highest levels of biodiversity found anywhere in the world and its rich biota is distributed among many different biogeographical regions. However, many regions of South America are still poorly studied, including its xeric environments, such as the threatened Caatinga and Cerrado phytogeographical domains. In particular, the effects of Quaternary climatic events on the demography of endemic species from xeric habitats are poorly understood. The present study uses an integrative approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of Partamona rustica, an endemic stingless bee from dry forest diagonal in Brazil, in a spatial-temporal framework. In this sense, we sequenced four mitochondrial genes and genotyped eight microsatellite loci. Our results identified two population groups: one to the west and the other to the east of the São Francisco River Valley (SFRV). These groups split in the late Pleistocene, and the Approximate Bayesian Computation approach and phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that P. rustica originated in the west of the SFRV, subsequently colonising eastern region. Our tests of migration detected reduced gene flow between these groups. Finally, our results also indicated that the inferences both from the genetic data analyses and from the spatial distribution modelling are compatible with historical demographic stability.

  8. Phylogeography of Partamona rustica (Hymenoptera, Apidae, an Endemic Stingless Bee from the Neotropical Dry Forest Diagonal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Assis Miranda

    Full Text Available The South America encompasses the highest levels of biodiversity found anywhere in the world and its rich biota is distributed among many different biogeographical regions. However, many regions of South America are still poorly studied, including its xeric environments, such as the threatened Caatinga and Cerrado phytogeographical domains. In particular, the effects of Quaternary climatic events on the demography of endemic species from xeric habitats are poorly understood. The present study uses an integrative approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of Partamona rustica, an endemic stingless bee from dry forest diagonal in Brazil, in a spatial-temporal framework. In this sense, we sequenced four mitochondrial genes and genotyped eight microsatellite loci. Our results identified two population groups: one to the west and the other to the east of the São Francisco River Valley (SFRV. These groups split in the late Pleistocene, and the Approximate Bayesian Computation approach and phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that P. rustica originated in the west of the SFRV, subsequently colonising eastern region. Our tests of migration detected reduced gene flow between these groups. Finally, our results also indicated that the inferences both from the genetic data analyses and from the spatial distribution modelling are compatible with historical demographic stability.

  9. The role of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase and organic substances from coal in the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy: A new hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, N.M.; Orem, W.H.; Tatu, C.A.; Lerch, H.E.; Bunnell, J.E.; Feder, G.L.; Kostic, E.N.; Ordodi, V.L.

    2008-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) occurs in Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Croatia. BEN has been characterized as a chronic, slowly progressive renal disease of unknown etiology. In this study, we examined the influence of soluble organic compounds in drinking water leached from Pliocene lignite from BEN-endemic areas on plasma lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity. We found that changes for all samples were the most prominent for the dilution category containing 90% plasma and 10% of diluting media. Water samples from BEN villages from Serbia and Romania showed higher LCAT inhibiting activity (p = 0.02) and (p = 0.003), respectively, compared to deionised water and non-endemic water. A secondary LCAT deficiency could result from this inhibitory effect of the organic compounds found in endemic water supplies and provide an ethiopathogenic basis for the development of BEN in the susceptible population. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Tubex TF (Inhibition Magnetic Binding Immunoassay) for Typhoid Fever in Endemic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Ashish; Khanna, Menka; Gill, Karamjit Singh

    2015-11-01

    Typhoid fever remains a significant health problem in endemic countries like India. Various serological tests for the diagnosis of typhoid fever are available commercially. We assessed the usefulness of rapid test based on magnetic particle separation to detect Immunoglobulin against Salmonella typhi O9 lipopolysaccharide. Aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of widal test, typhidot and tubex TF test for the diagnosis of typhoid fever in an endemic country like India. Serum samples collected from 50 patients of typhoid fever, 50 patients of non typhoid fever and 100 normal healthy individuals residing in Amritsar were subjected to widal test, typhidot test and tubex TF test as per manufacturer's instructions. Data collected was assessed to find sensitivity and specificity of these tests in an endemic area. Significant widal test results were found positive in 68% of patients of typhoid fever and only 4% of non typhoid fever patients. Typhidot (IgM or IgG) was positive in 72% of typhoid fever patients and 10% and 6% in non typhoid fever and normal healthy individuals respectively. Tubex TF showed higher sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 96-99% which was higher than typhidot and comparable to widal test. This was the first evaluation of rapid tubex TF test in northern India. In countries which can afford high cost of test, tubex TF should be recommended for the diagnosis in acute stage of the disease in clinical setting. However, there is urgent need for a highly specific and sensitive test for the diagnosis of typhoid fever in clinical settings in endemic areas.

  11. Pediatric Neurocysticercosis: Three Cases Presented in the Netherlands with Divergent Clinical Presentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, L.A.; van Doeveren, T.E.M.; van der Kuip, M.; Wolf, N.I.; Vermeulen, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis is a helminthic disease that affects the central nervous system by the larvae of the Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm. Because of the growing number of immigrants from endemic areas, its incidence is increasing in Western Europe. Cases We describe three children, aged

  12. Are Iberian endemics Iberian? A case-study using water beetles of family Dytiscidae (Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribera, Ignacio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic relationships and the geographical origin of 27 of the 34 species and of 3 of the 9 subspecies of Iberian endemic Dytiscidae are studied, based on species level phylogenies constructed with two mitochondrial gene fragments (16S rRNA and Cytochrome Oxidase I. All Iberian endemic species for which more than one specimen was included were monophyletic with the exception of the complex Deronectes aubei sanfilippoi Fery & Brancucci, 1997-D. delarouzei (Jac. Du Val, 1857. The genus Stictotarsus as presently defined is polyphyletic, containing three different lineages: the S. duodecimpustulatus group —including the Iberian endemic S. bertrandi (Legros, 1956—, Trichonectes otini (Guignot, 1941 (new combination and the S. griseostriatus and S. roffii groups, which are in need of a new generic name. The genus Oreodytes is found to be paraphyletic, although with low bootstrap support. The species Nebrioporus (Nebrioporus martinii (Fairmaire, 1858 (new combination is transferred from the subgenus Zimmermannius to Nebrioporus. The Iberian populations of Stictotarsus griseostriatus (De Geer, 1774 and the endemic subspecies Oreodytes davisii rhianae Carr, 2001, O. sanmarkii alienus (Sharp, 1872 and Hydroporus normandi normandi Régimbart, 1903 do not form well characterised lineages, as measured with the mitochondrial markers used in this study. The Iberian endemic species of Dytiscidae are divided in three groups according to the type of vicariant origin: 1 within-Iberian species, when the sister species (or clade of the Iberian endemic is also and Iberian endemic; 2 Iberian/European, when the sister occurs in Europe north of the Pyrenees; and 3 Iberian/North African, when the sister occurs in North Africa. Within-Iberian endemics are found to be on average older than Iberian/European and Iberian/North African species, they have

  13. Discovery of an endemic area of Gnathostoma turgidum infection among opossums, Didelphis virginiana, in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Camacho, Sylvia Páz; Willms, Kaethe; Rendón-Maldonado, José Guadalupe; de la Cruz-Otero, María del Carmen; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco; Robert, Lilia; Antuna, Silvia; León-Règagnon, Virginia; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2009-06-01

    Gnathostomosis, caused by Gnathostoma binucleatum, is a serious public health issue in Mexico. Although 2 other Gnathostoma spp., G. turgidum and G. lamothei, have been found in wild animals, their natural life cycle or their relation to human disease remains unclear. While we were conducting an epidemiological survey on Gnathostoma spp. in Sinaloa State, Mexico, we found an endemic area for G. turgidum in common opossums, Didelphis virginiana, located in Tecualilla, Sinaloa. The species identification was carried out by morphological and molecular biological methods. This is the first record of an endemic area for G. turgidum infection in opossums, D. virginiana, in the Americas.

  14. The role of peripheral endemism in species diversification: evidence from the coral reef fish genus Anampses (Family: Labridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Jennifer R; Read, Charmaine I; van Herwerden, Lynne; Bellwood, David R

    2012-02-01

    We examined how peripherally isolated endemic species may have contributed to the biodiversity of the Indo-Australian Archipelago biodiversity hotspot by reconstructing the evolutionary history of the wrasse genus Anampses. We identified three alternate models of diversification: the vicariance-based 'successive division' model, and the dispersal-based 'successive colonisation' and 'peripheral budding' models. The genus was well suited for this study given its relatively high proportion (42%) of endemic species, its reasonably low diversity (12 species), which permitted complete taxon sampling, and its widespread tropical Indo-Pacific distribution. Monophyly of the genus was strongly supported by three phylogenetic analyses: maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference based on mitochondrial CO1 and 12S rRNA and nuclear S7 sequences. Estimates of species divergence times from fossil-calibrated Bayesian inference suggest that Anampses arose in the mid-Eocene and subsequently diversified throughout the Miocene. Evolutionary relationships within the genus, combined with limited spatial and temporal concordance among endemics, offer support for all three alternate models of diversification. Our findings emphasise the importance of peripherally isolated locations in creating and maintaining endemic species and their contribution to the biodiversity of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reliability of CKD-EPI predictive equation in estimating chronic kidney disease prevalence in the Croatian endemic nephropathy area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuček, Mirjana; Dika, Živka; Karanović, Sandra; Vuković Brinar, Ivana; Premužić, Vedran; Kos, Jelena; Cvitković, Ante; Mišić, Maja; Samardžić, Josip; Rogić, Dunja; Jelaković, Bojan

    2018-02-15

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant public health problem and it is not possible to precisely predict its progression to terminal renal failure. According to current guidelines, CKD stages are classified based on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria. Aims of this study were to determine the reliability of predictive equation in estimation of CKD prevalence in Croatian areas with endemic nephropathy (EN), compare the results with non-endemic areas, and to determine if the prevalence of CKD stages 3-5 was increased in subjects with EN. A total of 1573 inhabitants of the Croatian Posavina rural area from 6 endemic and 3 non-endemic villages were enrolled. Participants were classified according to the modified criteria of the World Health Organization for EN. Estimated GFR was calculated using Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation (CKD-EPI). The results showed a very high CKD prevalence in the Croatian rural area (19%). CKD prevalence was significantly higher in EN then in non EN villages with the lowest eGFR value in diseased subgroup. eGFR correlated significantly with the diagnosis of EN. Kidney function assessment using CKD-EPI predictive equation proved to be a good marker in differentiating the study subgroups, remained as one of the diagnostic criteria for EN.

  16. Antibody reactivities to glutamate-rich peptides of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in humans from areas of different malaria endemicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Theander, T G; Hviid, L

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic P. falciparum peptides were evaluated as tools in epidemiological investigations of malaria. Plasma IgM and IgG antibody reactivities against synthetic peptides covering sequences of glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) and acidic-basic repeat antigen (ABRA) were measured by ELISA...... in individuals from malaria-endemic areas of Sudan, Indonesia and The Gambia to study antibody responses to these peptides in donors living in areas of different malaria endemicity. IgG and IgM reactivities to the peptides increased with malaria endemicity, although there were no differences in reactivities...... tested were shortlived in most patients. In Gambian children with malaria, IgM reactivities but not IgG antibody reactivities against the ABRA peptide were higher in those with mild malaria than in those with severe malaria. The peptides may be useful in future epidemiological studies, especially...

  17. Is the endemic Maltese Top-shell Gibbula nivosa extinct?

    OpenAIRE

    Schembri, Patrick J.; Borg, Joseph A.; Deidun, Alan; Knittweis, Leyla; Mellado Lopez, T.

    2007-01-01

    The trochid gastropod Gibbula nivosa, endemic to the Maltese Islands, has recently only been found in two Maltese bays, where it occurred on seagrass leaves and under stones at depths of 1-4m. Intensive sampling of Cymodocea nodosa and Posidonia oceanica meadows, sediment and pebbles at depths of 2-12m, carried out in 2000 and 2002, resulted only in empty shells but no live animals, suggesting that the species is extinct from these localities where previously good populations were found. Howe...

  18. Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, Hans; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    "Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle" provides the key elements that should be addressed in the establishment of bovine disease control and eradication programmes. The book aims to reach a broad group of readers, including: students; professionals in veterinary practice...... "disease profiling", which is governed by the characteristics of the agent and its interaction with the host and environment. This profile, along with due consideration of the socioeconomic circumstances, can be used to determine how best to address the problem....

  19. Knowledge and practices related to plague in an endemic area of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiersten J. Kugeler

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plague is a virulent zoonosis reported most commonly from Sub-Saharan Africa. Early treatment with antibiotics is important to prevent mortality. Understanding knowledge gaps and common behaviors informs the development of educational efforts to reduce plague mortality. Methods: A multi-stage cluster-sampled survey of 420 households was conducted in the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda to assess knowledge of symptoms and causes of plague and health care-seeking practices. Results: Most (84% respondents were able to correctly describe plague symptoms; approximately 75% linked plague with fleas and dead rats. Most respondents indicated that they would seek health care at a clinic for possible plague; however plague-like symptoms were reportedly common, and in practice, persons sought care for those symptoms at a health clinic infrequently. Conclusions: Persons in the plague-endemic region of Uganda have a high level of understanding of plague, yet topics for targeted educational messages are apparent. Keywords: Plague, Yersinia pestis, Knowledge, Practices, Behaviors, Africa

  20. Knowledge and practices related to plague in an endemic area of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugeler, Kiersten J; Apangu, Titus; Forrester, Joseph D; Griffith, Kevin S; Candini, Gordian; Abaru, Janet; Okoth, Jimmy F; Apio, Harriet; Ezama, Geoffrey; Okello, Robert; Brett, Meghan; Mead, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Plague is a virulent zoonosis reported most commonly from Sub-Saharan Africa. Early treatment with antibiotics is important to prevent mortality. Understanding knowledge gaps and common behaviors informs the development of educational efforts to reduce plague mortality. A multi-stage cluster-sampled survey of 420 households was conducted in the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda to assess knowledge of symptoms and causes of plague and health care-seeking practices. Most (84%) respondents were able to correctly describe plague symptoms; approximately 75% linked plague with fleas and dead rats. Most respondents indicated that they would seek health care at a clinic for possible plague; however plague-like symptoms were reportedly common, and in practice, persons sought care for those symptoms at a health clinic infrequently. Persons in the plague-endemic region of Uganda have a high level of understanding of plague, yet topics for targeted educational messages are apparent. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Intersectional gene flow between insular endemics of Ilex (Aquifoliaceae) on the Bonin Islands and the Ryukyu Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setoguchi, H; Watanabe, I

    2000-06-01

    Hybridization and introgression play important roles in plant evolution, and their occurrence on the oceanic islands provides good examples of plant speciation and diversification. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and trnL (UAA) 3'exon-trnF (GAA) intergenic spacer (IGS) sequences of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA), and the sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA were examined to investigate the occurrence of gene transfer in Ilex species on the Bonin Islands and the Ryukyu Islands in Japan. A gene phylogeny for the plastid genome is in agreement with the morphologically based taxonomy, whereas the nuclear genome phylogeny clusters putatively unrelated endemics both on the Bonin and the Ryukyu Islands. Intersectional hybridization and nuclear gene flow were independently observed in insular endemics of Ilex on both sets of islands without evidence of plastid introgression. Gene flow observed in these island systems can be explained by ecological features of insular endemics, i.e., limits of distribution range or sympatric distribution in a small land area.

  2. Groundwater fluoride contamination and its possible health implications in Indi taluk of Vijayapura District (Karnataka State), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugran, Vidyavati; Desai, Naveen N; Chakraborti, Dipankar; Masali, Kallappa A; Mantur, Prakash; Kulkarni, Shreepad; Deshmukh, Niranjan; Chadchan, Kailash S; Das, Swastika N; Tanksali, Anuradha S; Arwikar, Asha S; Guggarigoudar, Suresh P; Vallabha, Tejaswini; Patil, Shailaja S; Das, Kusal K

    2017-10-01

    Groundwater fluoride concentration and fluoride-related health problems were studied in twenty-two villages of Indi taluk of Vijayapura district, Karnataka, India. Present study (2015) was also used to compare groundwater fluoride concentration in same 22 villages with previous government report (2000). Groundwater fluoride concentrations of 62 bore wells of 22 villages were analyzed by using an ion-sensitive electrode. A total of 660 adults and 600 children were screened for fluorosis symptoms and signs. Sixty clinically suspected fluorosis patients' urine samples were further analyzed for fluoride. The mean value (1.22 ± 0.75 mg/L) of fluoride concentration of 62 bore wells and 54.83 % bore wells with ≥1.0 mg/L of fluoride concentrations in Indi taluk indicates higher than the permissible limit of drinking water fluoride concentration recommended for India. Clinical symptoms like arthritis, joint pains, gastrointestinal discomfort and lower limb deformities with high urinary fluoride concentrations in some subjects suggest fluorosis. Results also showed an increase in groundwater fluoride concentration of the same 22 villages between previous and present study. Preliminary arthritis symptom of the villagers could be due to drinking fluoride-contaminated water. Increase in fluoride concentration with time to the bore wells definitely indicates future danger.

  3. Status and conservation of old-growth forests and endemic birds in the pine-oak zone of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammertink, J.M.; Rojas-Tomé, J.A.; Casillas-Orona, F.M.; Otto, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The pine-oak forests of the Sierra Madre Occidental, a mountain range in NW Mexico, have recently been recognized as an area of high endemism and biodiversity. Selective logging threatens three bird species endemic to this habitat, who depend on standing dead trees (snags). This report is based on

  4. Ecological Effects of the Invasive Giant Madagascar Day Gecko on Endemic Mauritian Geckos: Applications of Binomial-Mixture and Species Distribution Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buckland, S.; Cole, N.C.; Aguirre-Gutiérrez, J.; Gallagher, L.E.; Henshaw, S.M.; Besnard, A.; Tucker, R.M.; Bachraz, V.; Ruhomaun, K.; Harris, S.

    2014-01-01

    The invasion of the giant Madagascar day gecko Phelsuma grandis has increased the threats to the four endemic Mauritian day geckos (Phelsuma spp.) that have survived on mainland Mauritius. We had two main aims: (i) to predict the spatial distribution and overlap of P. grandis and the endemic geckos

  5. Investigating a hyper-endemic focus of Taenia solium in northern Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna; Ash, Amanda; Keokhamphet, Chattouphone; Hobbs, Emma; Khamlome, Boualam; Dorny, Pierre; Thomas, Lian; Allen, John

    2014-03-28

    The Taenia solium cysticercosis-taeniasis complex is a Neglected Tropical Disease of significant public health importance in many impoverished communities worldwide. The parasite is suspected to be endemic in Lao PDR as a result of widespread risk factors including open human defecation, free ranging pigs and weak systems for meat inspection and carcass condemnation. Reported prevalences of human taeniasis throughout the country have ranged from 0-14%, although few of these have definitively diagnosed T. solium, grossly indistinguishable from Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Taenia asiatica. This short communication details the suspicion of a hyper endemic "hotspot" of T. solium in a remote Tai Dam village in northern Lao PDR. Initial antibody serosurveillance of four provinces in Lao PDR in 2011 indicated human taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalences of 46.7% and 66.7% respectively, in the village of Om Phalong in the north of the country. Subsequent copro-antigen ELISA on 92 human faecal samples from this same village, representing a total 27.9% of the target community, indicated a taeniasis prevalence of 26.1% (95% CI?=?18.2-35.9). Subsequent PCR and sequencing of samples (n?=?5) all identified as T. solium; the other human tapeworms T. saginata and T. asiatica were not detected in any of the samples genotyped. This is potentially one of the highest documented prevalences of T. solium taeniasis to date in Lao PDR, if not the Southeast Asia region. This result raises suspicion that other "hotspots" of T. solium hyper endemicity may exist in the region, particularly in communities where the consumption of raw pork is commonplace as a result of cultural practices.

  6. Molecular diagnostics and lack of clinical allergy in helminth-endemic areas in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamid, Firdaus; Versteeg, Serge A.; Wiria, Aprilianto E.; Wammes, Linda J.; Wahyuni, Sitti; Supali, Taniawati; Sartono, Erliyani; van Ree, Ronald; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Allergen microarray characterization of sensitization to common allergen sources in a helminth-endemic area of Indonesia shows that helminth induced cross-reactivity to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD), and not primary sensitization to their major allergens, is the dominant feature

  7. An Ancient Divide in a Contiguous Rainforest: Endemic Earthworms in the Australian Wet Tropics.