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Sample records for endemic cedars juniperus

  1. Exposure to an environment containing the aromatic red cedar, Juniperus virginiana: procarcinogenic, enzyme-inducing and insecticidal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabine, J R

    1975-11-01

    (1) Shavings from the Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) were examined for three diverse biological properties, i.e. enzyme induction, procarcinogenicity and insecticidal activity. (2) The ability of a cedar environment to stimulate liver drug-metabolizing enzymes in mice was confirmed by lowered values for barbiturate sleeping time. (3) In susceptible strains of mice (C3H-Avy, C3H-AvyfB and CBA/J) the use of cedar shavings as bedding increased significantly the incidence of spontaneous tumors of the liver and mammary gland, and also reduced the average time at which tumors appeared. (4) Cedar and some of its derivatives (Oil of Cedarwood, cedrene, cedrol) disrupted the reproductive and developmental cycle of a number of insects, including the Peanut Trash Bug (Elasmolomus sordidus), the Indian Meal Moth (Plodia interpunctella) and the Forage Mite (Tyrophagus putrescentiae).

  2. Acute aquatic toxicity of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) foliage and Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) heartwood oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duringer, Jennifer M; Swan, Laurence R; Walker, Douglas B; Craig, A Morrie

    2010-11-01

    Recently, interest has developed for using essential oils from Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) foliage and Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) heartwood in commercial products such as pest repellents and cosmetics. In order to gauge the relative toxicological risk that these oils pose to freshwater and marine organisms, the acute aquatic toxicity of these oils was evaluated using OPPTS guidelines to the cladoceran Daphnia magna, the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum. For western juniper foliage oil, no toxicity was exhibited toward D. magna or O. mykiss, even at 5.0 mg/L (the highest concentration tested and limit of solubility). For toxicity to S. capricornutum using algal cell density, the 72 and 96 h EC50 value was 1.7 mg/L and the no observable effect concentration (NOEC) was 0.63 mg/L. For Port Orford cedar heartwood oil, no toxicity was exhibited toward O. mykiss or S. capricornutum, even at 5.0 mg/L (the highest concentration tested and limit of solubility). The 48-h D. magna EC50 value was 1.9 mg/L; the NOEC values for algal cell density were 1.25 mg/L (72 h) and 0.63 mg/L (96 h). In summary, this study shows that western juniper foliage and Port Orford cedar heartwood oils demonstrate little to no risk to aquatic organisms.

  3. Evaluating the Invasion of Red Cedar (Juniperus viriginiana) Downstream of Gavins Point Dam, Missouri National Recreational River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, S.; Knox, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Gavins Point Dam, the final dam on the main-stem Missouri River, alters downstream river form and function. Throughout a 59-mile downstream reach, the dam reduces overbank flooding and lowers the water surface by 1-3 meters. Under the dam-created hydro-geomorphic conditions, native cottonwood trees are unable to regenerate. The limited regeneration of native riparian cottonwoods, the lowered water surface, and the reduced overbank flooding creates a terrace environment within the riparian habitat. Consequently, red cedars, a native upland tree, are invading this new terrace-like riparian environment. To this end, we apply Bayesian statistical models to investigate patterns of red cedar riparian invasion and assess ecosystem function patterns along this flow-regulated reach. We set up plots within cottonwood stands along a 59-km reach downstream of Gavins Point Dam. Within each plot, we collected soil samples, litter samples, stem densities of trees, and collected cores of the largest cottonwood and largest red cedar in each plot. To assess influences of red cedar on soil indicators of ecosystem function and general patterns of ecosystem function within the study area, we measured organic carbon, nitrogen, pH, electrical conductivity, and hydrophobicity. To determine drivers and patterns of invasion and ecosystem function we conducted Bayesian linear regressions and means comparison tests. Red cedars existed along the floodplain prior to regulation. However, according to our tree age data and stem density data red cedars existed at a lower population than today. We found that 2 out of 565 red cedars established before the dam was completed. Also, we found no significant difference in soil properties between soils with established red cedar and soils with established cottonwood. By studying soil texture data, and interpreting fluvial geomorphic surfaces in the field and via aerial photography, we found soil texture generally reflects the type of fluvial surface

  4. Differential Consumption of Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) by Avian and Mammalian Guilds: Implications for Tree Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased abundance of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginianus), a native but invasive species in the Great Plains, has been associated with changes in ecosystem functioning and landscape cover. Knowledge of the main consumers and dispersal agents of eastern redcedar fruits is e...

  5. Skeleton decay in red cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Jessie A. Glaeser

    2013-01-01

    Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) is a common tree species throughout the eastern United States and the Great Plains. Although “cedar” is in the common name, the scientifc name shows a botanical kinship to the juniper species of the American southwest. Red cedar can survive and thrive within a broad range of soil conditions, seasonal...

  6. Analytical approaches to the determination of simple biophenols in forest trees such as Acer (maple), Betula (birch), Coniferus, Eucalyptus, Juniperus (cedar), Picea (spruce) and Quercus (oak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedgood, Danny R; Bishop, Andrea G; Prenzler, Paul D; Robards, Kevin

    2005-06-01

    Analytical methods are reviewed for the determination of simple biophenols in forest trees such as Acer (maple), Betula (birch), Coniferus, Eucalyptus, Juniperus (cedar), Picea (spruce) and Quercus (oak). Data are limited but nevertheless clearly establish the critical importance of sample preparation and pre-treatment in the analysis. For example, drying methods invariably reduce the recovery of biophenols and this is illustrated by data for birch leaves where flavonoid glycosides were determined as 12.3 +/- 0.44 mg g(-1) in fresh leaves but 9.7 +/- 0.35 mg g(-1) in air-dried samples (data expressed as dry weight). Diverse sample handling procedures have been employed for recovery of biophenols. The range of biophenols and diversity of sample types precludes general procedural recommendations. Caution is necessary in selecting appropriate procedures as the high reactivity of these compounds complicates their analysis. Moreover, our experience suggests that their reactivity is very dependent on the matrix. The actual measurement is less contentious and high performance separation methods particularly liquid chromatography dominate analyses whilst coupled techniques involving electrospray ionization are becoming routine particularly for qualitative applications. Quantitative data are still the exception and are summarized for representative species that dominate the forest canopy of various habitats. Reported concentrations for simple phenols range from trace level (<0.1 microg g(-1)) to in excess of 500 microg g(-1) depending on a range of factors. Plant tissue is one of these variables but various biotic and abiotic processes such as stress are also important considerations.

  7. Genetic variability and differentiation among populations of the Azorean endemic gymnosperm Juniperus brevifolia: baseline information for a conservation and restoration perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís; Elias, Rui B; Moura, Mónica; Meimberg, Harald; Dias, Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    The Azorean endemic gymnosperm Juniperus brevifolia (Seub.) Antoine is a top priority species for conservation in Macaronesia, based on its ecological significance in natural plant communities. To evaluate genetic variability and differentiation among J. brevifolia populations from the Azorean archipelago, we studied 15 ISSR and 15 RAPD markers in 178 individuals from 18 populations. The average number of polymorphic bands per population was 65 for both ISSR and RAPD. The majority of genetic variability was found within populations and among populations within islands, and this partitioning of variability was confirmed by AMOVA. The large majority of population pairwise F(ST) values were above 0.3 and below 0.6. The degree of population genetic differentiation in J. brevifolia was relatively high compared with other species, including Juniperus spp. The genetic differentiation among populations suggests that provenance should be considered when formulating augmentation or reintroduction strategies.

  8. Comparative characterization of extractives in Alaskan Yellow, Eastern Red, and Western Red Cedars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderquita K. Moore; Doreen Mann; Gabriel Epstein; Phoebe Wagner; Brett Hinkforth; Jun Hyunji

    2017-01-01

    Softwoods, more specifically Cedars, are a set of tree species known to have extractive components with many different biological activities. Research has shown that certain compounds in Cedars are able to resist various forms of attack (microbial, fungal, insect, etc.). Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red Cedar, Cupressus/Chamacyparis...

  9. Mountain cedar allergens found in nonpollen tree parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, D W; Goetz, M A; Whisman, B A

    1995-09-01

    Mountain cedar (Juniperus ashei) pollen is the principal aeroallergen in south central Texas from late December through February. The major mountain cedar allergen is a 40-kD glycoprotein, gp40. To identify allergens in mountain cedar wood, leaves, and berries and to detect mountain cedar allergen in smoke from burning male or female trees. SDS-PAGE plus mountain cedar human sIgE and monoclonal antibody immunoblots identified mountain cedar allergens within pollen and nonpollen tree part extracts. IgE immunoblots identified a single wood allergen at 36 kD and three berry allergens at 36, 26-27, and 21 kD, in addition to known pollen allergens. Mountain cedar monoclonal antibody bound an allergen epitope present not only on 40, 33, and 28-kD pollen allergens, but also on 36 and 32-kD wood allergens, and the 26-27-kD berry allergen. Immunoblot studies detected no mountain cedar allergen in leaves and no allergen in smoke from burning male and female trees. Allergens constituted a much smaller percentage of extractable protein in wood and berries than in pollen. Mountain cedar berry allergen content is too small to give credence to the ingestion of berries as a folk medicine treatment of mountain cedar pollinosis. In addition, while smoke from burning mountain cedar trees may be irritating, it contains no allergens that could cause allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

  10. Periodicity of growth rings in Juniperus procera from Ethiopia inferred from crossdating and radiocarbon dating.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wils, T.; Robertson, I.; Eshetu, Z.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Koprowski, M.

    2009-01-01

    African pencil cedar (Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endlicher 1847) is a tropical, irregularly growing species that can produce annual growth rings in response to an annual cycle of wet and dry seasons. In this paper, we assess the periodicity of growth-ring formation for 13 stem discs from a site in

  11. Critical fluid extraction of Juniperus virginiana L. and bioactivity of extracts against subterranean termites and wood-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. J. Eller; Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green; S.L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is an abundant renewable resource and represents a vast potential source of valuable natural products that may serve as natural biocides. Both the wood and needles from J. virginiana were extracted using liquid carbon dioxide (L-CO2) as well as ethanol (EtOH) and the yields determined.Woodblocks were...

  12. Development of wood decay in wound-initiated discolored wood of eastern red cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter C. Shortle; Kenneth R. Dudzik; Kevin T. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Logs of eastern red cedar, Juniperus virginiana L., with well-developed bands of light-colored wood ("included sapwood") within heartwood can be unsuitable for sawn wood products. This finding is in contrast to published information that the "included sapwood" is (1) a heartwood anomaly rather than sapwood and (2) its occurrence...

  13. Evidence of recovery of Juniperus virginiana trees from sulfur pollution after the Clean Air Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard B; Spal, Scott E; Smith, Kenneth R; Nippert, Jesse B

    2013-09-17

    Using dendroisotopic techniques, we show the recovery of Juniperus virginiana L. (eastern red cedar) trees in the Central Appalachian Mountains from decades of acidic pollution. Acid deposition over much of the 20th century reduced stomatal conductance of leaves, thereby increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency of the Juniperus trees. These data indicate that the stomata of Juniperus may be more sensitive to acid deposition than to increasing atmospheric CO2. A breakpoint in the 100-y δ(13)C tree ring chronology occurred around 1980, as the legacy of sulfur dioxide emissions declined following the enactment of the Clean Air Act in 1970, indicating a gradual increase in stomatal conductance (despite rising levels of atmospheric CO2) and a concurrent increase in photosynthesis related to decreasing acid deposition and increasing atmospheric CO2. Tree ring δ(34)S shows a synchronous change in the sources of sulfur used at the whole-tree level that indicates a reduced anthropogenic influence. The increase in growth and the δ(13)C and δ(34)S trends in the tree ring chronology of these Juniperus trees provide evidence for a distinct physiological response to changes in atmospheric SO2 emissions since ∼1980 and signify the positive impacts of landmark environmental legislation to facilitate recovery of forest ecosystems from acid deposition.

  14. Silvicultural guide for northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuelle Boulfroy; Eric Forget; Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Catherine Larouche; Guy Lessard; Jean-Martin Lussier; Fred Pinto; Jean-Claude Ruel; Aaron. Weiskittel

    2012-01-01

    Northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar; Thuja occidentalis L.) is an important tree species in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, occurring both in pure stands and as a minor species in mixed stands of hardwoods or other softwoods. Yet practitioners have little and often contradictory information about cedar ecology and...

  15. The CEDAR Project

    CERN Document Server

    Butterworth, J M; Waugh, B M; Stirling, W J; Whalley, M R

    2005-01-01

    We describe the plans and objectives of the CEDAR project (Combined e-Science Data Analysis Resource for High Energy Physics) newly funded by the PPARC e-Science programme in the UK. CEDAR will combine the strengths of the well established and widely used HEPDATA database of HEP data and the innovative JetWeb data/Monte Carlo comparison facility, built on the HZTOOL package, and will exploit developing grid technology. The current status and future plans of both of these individual sub-projects within the CEDAR framework are described, showing how they will cohesively provide (a) an extensive archive of Reaction Data, (b) validation and tuning of Monte Carlo programs against these reaction data sets, and (c) a validated code repository for a wide range of HEP code such as parton distribution functions and other calculation codes used by particle physicists. Once established it is envisaged CEDAR will become an important Grid tool used by LHC experimentalists in their analyses and may well serve as a model in ...

  16. The first CEDAR counter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The first differential Cerenkov counter with chromatic corrections (called CEDAR) successfully tested at the PS in July 75. These counters were used in the SPS hadronic beams for particle identification. Some of the eight photomultipliers can be seen: they receive the light reflected back through the annular diaphragm. René Maleyran stands on the left.

  17. Red Cedar Invasion Along the Missouri River, South Dakota: Cause and Consequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, S.; Knox, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    This research evaluates drivers of and ecosystem response to red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) invasion of riparian surfaces downstream of Gavin's Point Dam on the Missouri River. Gavin's Point Dam changed the downstream geomorphology and hydrology of the river and its floodplain by reducing scouring floods and flood-deposited sediment. The native cottonwood species (Populus deltoides) favors cleared surfaces with little to no competitors to establish. Now that there are infrequent erosive floods along the riparian surfaces to remove competitor seeds and seedlings, other vegetation is able to establish. Red cedar is invading the understory of established cottonwood stands and post-dam riparian surfaces. To assess reasons and spatial patterns for the recent invasion of red cedar, a stratified random sampling of soil, tree density and frequency by species, and tree age of 14 forest stands was undertaken along 59 river kilometers of riparian habitat. Soil particle size was determined using laser diffraction and tree ages were estimated from ring counts of tree cores. As an indicator of ecosystem response to invasion, we measured organic matter content in soil collected beneath red cedar and cottonwood trees at three different depths. Of 565 red cedars, only two trees were established before the dam was built. We applied a multiple regression model of red cedar density as a function of cottonwood density and percent sand (63-1000 microns in diameter) in StatPlus© statistical software. Cottonwood density and percent sand are strongly correlated with invasion of red cedar along various riparian surfaces (n = 59, R2 = 0.42, p-values cedar and cottonwood trees (p-value > 0.05 for all depths). These findings suggest that the dam's minimization of downstream high-stage flows opened up new habitat for red cedar to establish. Fluvial geomorphic surfaces reflect soil type and cottonwood density and, in turn, predict susceptibility of a surface to red cedar invasion. Nonetheless

  18. Regional climatic and North Atlantic Oscillation signatures in West Virginia red cedar over the past millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Buckley, Brendan; Cook, Ed; Wilson, Rob

    2012-03-01

    We describe a millennial length (~ 1500-yr) tree-ring chronology developed from West Virginia (WVA), USA red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) ring widths that is significantly correlated with local to regional temperature and precipitation for the region. Using ensemble methods of tree-ring standardization, above average ring widths are indicated for the period between ~ 1000 and 1300 CE, the approximate time of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), the most recent major warm episode prior to the modern era. The chronology then transitions to more negative overall growth persisting through much of the subsequent period known as the Little Ice Age (LIA). While WVA cedar growth levels during the MCA are broadly similar to the 20th century mean, the most positive values during the MCA are associated with RCS-standardized chronologies, which pseudoproxy tests reveal are likely biased artificially positive, warranting further investigation. This cedar record is significantly correlated with the NAO, due to the tendency for warmer, wetter conditions to occur in the eastern-central USA during the NAO's positive phase. These types of conditions are inferred for this cedar chronology during the MCA period, during which NAO reconstructions suggest a persistently-positive NAO state.

  19. Spanish-cedar : Cedrela spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. F. Kukachka

    1964-01-01

    From the earliest days of exploration and colonization in tropical America, Spanish-cedar has been one of the most important timber trees of the area. The wood became an article for the export trade during the 1800’s when the cigar industry demanded the use of Spanish-cedar for packing cigars. These fragrant boxes were commonplace before rising costs in the 1930’s...

  20. Crossdating Juniperus procera from North Gondar, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wils, T.; Robertson, I.; Eshetu, Z.; Touchan, R.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Koprowski, M.

    2011-01-01

    The application of dendrochronology in (sub)tropical regions has been limited by the difficulty in finding trees with distinct annual rings that can be crossdated. Here, we report successful crossdating of Juniperus procera trees from North Gondar, Ethiopia. The trees form annual rings in response

  1. Ulmus crassifolia Nutt. Cedar Elm

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Stransky; Sylvia M. Bierschenk

    1990-01-01

    Cedar elm (Ulmus cassifolia) grows rapidly to medium or large size in the Southern United States and northeastern Mexico, where it may sometimes be called basket elm, red elm, southern rock elm, or olmo (Spanish) It usually is found on moist, limestone soils along water courses with other bottomland trees, but it also paws on dry limestone hills. The...

  2. Biomass accumulation and radiation use efficiency of honey mesquite and eastern red cedar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiniry, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Rangeland models that simulate hydrology, soil erosion and nutrient balance can be used to select management systems which maximize profits for producers while they minimize adverse impacts on water quality. Values are needed for parameters that describe the growth of invading woody species in order to allow simulation of their competition with grasses. Three attributes useful for describing and quantifying plant growth are: the potential leaf area index (LAI) or ratio of leaf area divided by ground area; the light extinction coefficient (k) that is used to calculate the fraction of light intercepted by leaves, applying Beer’s law; and the radiation-use efficiency (RUE) or amount of dry biomass produced per unit of intercepted light. Objectives in this study were to measure LAI, k, and RUE for eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) and honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr. var. glandulosa), without competing plants, as a first step toward simulating their growth. Seedlings were planted in the field at Temple, Texas, USA in early 1992 and kept free of competition from herbaceous plants. During 1993, 1994 and 1995 data were collected on biomass, leaf area and intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for individual trees. Both tree species showed exponential biomass increases. At the end of the 1995 growing season, mean LAI values were 1.16 for cedar and 1.25 for mesquite. Mean k values were 0.34 for mesquite and 0.37 for cedar. Radiation use efficiency for aboveground biomass was 1.60±0.17 (mean±standard deviation) g per MJ of intercepted PAR for cedar and 1.61±0.26 for mesquite. The rapid growth in 1995 was accompanied by greater leaf area and thus greater summed intercepted PAR. These values are critical for quantifying growth of these two species. (author)

  3. Port-Orford-Cedar Root Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis F. Roth; Robert D. Jr. Harvey; John T. Kliejunas

    1987-01-01

    The most serious disease of Port-Orford-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murr.) Parl.) is a root disease caused by the fungus Phytophthora lateralis. Nursery stock, ornamentals, and timber trees are subject to attack. Other species of Chamaecyparis are less susceptible than Port-Orford-cedar, and trees of other genera are not affected.

  4. Aerobiology of Juniperus Pollen in Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levetin, Estelle; Bunderson, Landon; VandeWater, Pete; Luvall, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from members of the Cupressaceae are major aeroallergens in many parts of the world. In the south central and southwest United States, Juniperus pollen is the most important member of this family with J. ashei (JA) responsible for severe winter allergy symptoms in Texas and Oklahoma. In New Mexico, pollen from J. monosperma (JM) and other Juniperus species are important contributors to spring allergies, while J. pinchotii (JP) pollinates in the fall affecting sensitive individuals in west Texas, southwest Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico. Throughout this region, JA, JM, and JP occur in dense woodland populations. Generally monitoring for airborne allergens is conducted in urban areas, although the source for tree pollen may be forested areas distant from the sampling sites. Improved pollen forecasts require a better understanding of pollen production at the source. The current study was undertaken to examine the aerobiology of several Juniperus species at their source areas for the development of new pollen forecasting initiatives.

  5. Selected water-quality data from the Cedar River and Cedar Rapids well fields, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 2006-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, Gregory R.

    2012-01-01

    The Cedar River alluvial aquifer is the primary source of municipal water in the Cedar Rapids, Iowa area. Municipal wells are completed in the alluvial aquifer approximately 40 to 80 feet below land surface. The City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have been conducting a cooperative study of the groundwater-flow system and water quality of the aquifer since 1992. Cooperative reports between the City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have documented hydrologic and water-quality data, geochemistry, and groundwater models. Water-quality samples were collected for studies involving well field monitoring, trends, source-water protection, groundwater geochemistry, surface-water-groundwater interaction, and pesticides in groundwater and surface water. Water-quality analyses were conducted for major ions (boron, bromide, calcium, chloride, fluoride, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, silica, sodium, and sulfate), nutrients (ammonia as nitrogen, nitrite as nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, and orthophosphate as phosphorus), dissolved organic carbon, and selected pesticides including two degradates of the herbicide atrazine. Physical characteristics (alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance and water temperature) were measured in the field and recorded for each water sample collected. This report presents the results of routine water-quality data-collection activities from January 2006 through December 2010. Methods of data collection, quality-assurance, and water-quality analyses are presented. Data include the results of water-quality analyses from quarterly sampling from monitoring wells, municipal wells, and the Cedar River.

  6. Comparative analysis of essential oil contents of Juniperus excelsa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cones/berries of Juniperus excelsa from three provenances in Balochistan, Pakistan were collected and essential oil was extracted by solvent method. Oil contents were analyzed on gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). Identification and quantification was made by using Wiley and NIST spectral library and HP ...

  7. Antiparasitic, Nematicidal and Antifouling Constituents from Juniperus Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Juniperus procera berries yielded antiparasitic, nematicidal and antifouling constituents, including a wide range of known abietane, pimarane and labdane diterpenes. Among these, abieta-7,13-diene (1) demonstrated in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium f...

  8. Chemical and Antibacterial Polymorphism of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus and Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa (Cupressaceae Leaf Essential Oils from Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnène Medini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from Juniperus oxycedrus L. have been used since antiquity for fragrance, flavoring, medicinal, antimicrobial, insecticidal, and cosmetic purposes. Several works studied the chemical composition of the essential oils of Juniperus oxycedrus leaves. The aim of this study is to investigate the chemotaxonomic relationships and antibacterial activity of two Tunisian subspecies: Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus (L. K. Deb. and Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa (S. & m. Ball. In addition, and for the first time, we reported the antibacterial activities of Tunisian J. oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa and J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus against four bacteria. Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were analysed by GC and GC/MS. Fifty-five constituents were identified. Thirty four major compounds were retained for the study of the chemical variability, and α-pinene, sylvestrene, p-cymene, and 13-epi-manoyl oxide were the main ones. The chemical principal components analysis (PCA identified three chemotypes. The study of the antibacterial activity showed that Escherichia coli was found to be extremely resistant (zone diameter 0 mm to all the oils tested, while Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive strain (zone diameter 13.5 mm and MIC ranged from 600 to 650 μg/mL.

  9. Selected Water-Quality Data from the Cedar River and Cedar Rapids Well Fields, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 1999-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, Gregory R.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    The Cedar River alluvial aquifer is the primary source of municipal water in the Cedar Rapids, Iowa area. Municipal wells are completed in the alluvial aquifer at approximately 40 to 80 feet deep. The City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have been conducting a cooperative study of the groundwater-flow system and water quality near the well fields since 1992. Previous cooperative studies between the City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have documented hydrologic and water-quality data, geochemistry, and groundwater models. Water-quality samples were collected for studies involving well field monitoring, trends, source-water protection, groundwater geochemistry, evaluation of surface and ground-water interaction, assessment of pesticides in groundwater and surface water, and to evaluate water quality near a wetland area in the Seminole well field. Typical water-quality analyses included major ions (boron, bromide, calcium, chloride, fluoride, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, silica, sodium, and sulfate), nutrients (ammonia as nitrogen, nitrite as nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, and orthophosphate as phosphorus), dissolved organic carbon, and selected pesticides including two degradates of the herbicide atrazine. In addition, two synoptic samplings included analyses of additional pesticide degradates in water samples. Physical field parameters (alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance and water temperature) were recorded with each water sample collected. This report presents the results of water quality data-collection activities from January 1999 through December 2005. Methods of data collection, quality-assurance samples, water-quality analyses, and statistical summaries are presented. Data include the results of water-quality analyses from quarterly and synoptic sampling from monitoring wells, municipal wells, and the Cedar River.

  10. Increasing Juniperus virginiana L. pollen in the Tulsa atmosphere: long-term trends, variability, and influence of meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flonard, Michaela; Lo, Esther; Levetin, Estelle

    2018-02-01

    In the Tulsa area, the Cupressaceae is largely represented by eastern red cedar ( Juniperus virginiana L.). The encroachment of this species into the grasslands of Oklahoma has been well documented, and it is believed this trend will continue. The pollen is known to be allergenic and is a major component of the Tulsa atmosphere in February and March. This study examined airborne Cupressaceae pollen data from 1987 to 2016 to determine long-term trends, pollen seasonal variability, and influence of meteorological variables on airborne pollen concentrations. Pollen was collected through means of a Burkard sampler and analyzed with microscopy. Daily pollen concentrations and yearly pollen metrics showed a high degree of variability. In addition, there were significant increases over time in the seasonal pollen index and in peak concentrations. These increases parallel the increasing population of J. virginiana in the region. Pollen data were split into pre- and post-peak categories for statistical analyses, which revealed significant differences in correlations of the two datasets when analyzed with meteorological conditions. While temperature and dew point, among others were significant in both datasets, other factors, like relative humidity, were significant only in one dataset. Analyses using wind direction showed that southerly and southwestern winds contributed to increased pollen concentrations. This study confirms that J. virginiana pollen has become an increasing risk for individuals sensitive to this pollen and emphasizes the need for long-term aerobiological monitoring in other areas.

  11. Potential in using elemental concentrations in radial increments of old growth eastern red cedar to examine the chemical history of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyette, R.; McGinnes, E.A. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Research examines the potential of utilizing elemental concentrations in the wood of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) to make inferences about past changes in atmospheric and site chemistry. Crossdated growth increments from live trees and remnant wood are analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP Scan) for elements with potential environmental information. Radial heartwood ring series from 300 to 700 years in length are analyzed in 20 year increments for 37 different elements. Evidence for minimal radial translocation of elements in the heartwood is presented. The radial concentration of elements in the bole is found to be coincident with early smelting activities. 7 references, 4 figures

  12. Port-Orford-cedar—a poor risk for reforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Hunt; Edward J. Dimock

    1957-01-01

    Port-Orford-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murr.) Parl.) has been the most widely used introduced species in reforestation projects in western Washington and Oregon. However, as a result of two recent and unrelated occurrences, a severe early cold wave and a destructive root disease, the advisability of continued planting of Port-Orford-cedar...

  13. Silvical characteristics of Atlantic white-cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little

    1959-01-01

    Atlantic white-cedar ((Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P.) has been a highly prized species since Colonial times because of the durability and high quality of its wood. The wood has been used for many purposes: boat boards, shingles and lath, framing, house and boat finish, pails and tanks, cabin logs, posts, and poles. Good white-cedar has always...

  14. Influence of resource availability on Juniperus virginiana expansion in a forest–prairie ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite being native to the United States, Juniperus virginiana has rapidly expanded in prairie ecosystems bringing detrimental ecological effects and increased wildfire risk. We transplanted J. virginiana seedlings in three plant communities to investigate mechanisms driving J. ...

  15. Isotopes - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  16. Diet - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  17. 78 FR 44090 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... acceptance of full power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in May 2011, it... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Hossein Hashemzadeh...

  18. Cedar River Chinook genotypes - Estimate relative reproductive success of hatchery and wild fall Chinook salmon in the Cedar River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are using genetic pedigree information to estimate the reproductive success of hatchery and wild fall-run Chinook salmon spawning in the Cedar River, Washington....

  19. Hanford Reach - Control of Salt Cedar Plants in an Isolated Zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Target Invasive Species: salt cedar (Tamarix sp.; a Class “B” noxious weed in WA, “B” designated weed in OR) minimum of 32 acres within ~760 acres. Salt cedar...

  20. Consumer willingness to pay a price premium for standing-dead Alaska yellow-cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan

    2004-01-01

    Alaska yellow-cedar has declined in Southeast Alaska over the past 100 years, resulting in half a million acres of dead or dying trees. The natural decay resistance of Alaska yellow-cedar means that many of these trees are still merchantable. However, the topography of Southeast Alaska is such that selectively harvesting Alaska yellow-cedar may often require helicopter...

  1. 75 FR 13668 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cedar Rapids, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ...-0916; Airspace Docket No. 09-ACE-12] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cedar Rapids, IA AGENCY: Federal... Cedar Rapids, IA, to accommodate Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at The Eastern Iowa Airport, Cedar Rapids, IA. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety...

  2. 75 FR 68780 - Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RC11-1-000] Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing November 2, 2010. Take notice that on October 27, 2010, Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC (Cedar Creek) filed an appeal with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) of...

  3. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Juniperus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Juniperus 名詞 一般 * * * * ビャクシン属 ビャクシンゾク ビャクシンゾク Thesaurus2015 200906015282514781 C LS06 UNKNOWN_1 Juniperus

  4. Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of Juniperus thurifera L. leaf extracts growing in East of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merradi Manel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This work aimed to evaluate the biological activity of the leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera L., which is an Algerian endemic tree that belongs to the family of Cupressaceae. Materials and Methods: The plant leaves were extracted in solvents of increasing polarity to obtain different extracts such as methanol, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and aqueous extracts (MeE, PEE, ChlE, EtAE, and AqE. The antioxidant activity of four extracts (MeE, ChlE, EtAE, and AqE was assessed by trapping test of 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical. The evaluation of antibacterial activity of MeE, ChlE, EtAE, and PEE was done using the disk diffusion method on solid agar. Results: The three extracts of EtAE, AqE, and MeE showed high antiradical activity toward the DPPH radical (IC50=29.348 μg/mL, 37.538 μg/mL, and 52.573 μg/mL, respectively, while the lowest radical scavenging activity was expressed by the ChlE (IC50=70.096 μg/mL. These extracts were active only toward the Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC and methicillin-resistant S. aureus at different concentrations, and the highest activity was obtained with the ChlE with an inhibition diameter of 14 mm at the concentration of 1 g/mL. No inhibition was detected for all of these extracts against the Gram-negative tested strains (Escherichia coli ATCC, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC, and Enterobacter cloacae (extended spectrum β-lactamase. Conclusion: From this study, on the one hand, it was concluded that J. thurifera L. leaves extracts exhibited a very intense antioxidant potential toward the DPPH radical, and on the other hand, the antibacterial activity showed an action spectrum exclusively toward the Gram-positive bacteria.

  5. Pharmacognostic standardization of Homoeopathic drug: Juniperus virginiana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Padma Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Juniperus virginiana L., commonly known as ′red cedar′ in English is a well-known evergreen tree belonging to the family Cupressaceae. The leaves and young aerial shoots are used for preparation of medicine in Homoeopathy. Objective: Standardization is the quintessential aspect which ensures purity and quality of drugs. Hence, the pharmacognostic and physico-chemical studies are carried out to facilitate the use of authentic and correct species of raw drug plant material with established parametric standards for manufacturing the drug. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostic studies on leaves and young aerial parts of authentic samples of J. virginiana L. have been carried out; physico-chemical parameters of raw drug viz., extractive values, ash values, formulation, besides weight per mL, total solids, alcohol content along with High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC and ultraviolet visible studies have been worked out for mother tincture. Results: The leaves are needles, narrow and sharp at tips; stems are round with greyish white to brown bark possessing small lenticels and covered by imbricate leaves. Epidermal cells in the surface have polygonal linear sides with pitted walls containing crystals and starch. Stomata exclusively occur on the adaxial surface in linear rows. Hypodermis of leaf in T.S. is marked with 1-2 layered lignified sclerenchyma. 2-4 secretory canals are present with one conspicuously beneath midvein bundle. The young terminal axis is sheathed by two closely surrounding leaves while the mature stem possess four leaf bases attached. Vascular tissue of stem possesses predominant xylem surrounded by phloem containing sphaeraphides, prismatic crystals and starch grains. Uniseriate rays occur in the xylem. Mature stem possess shrivelled cork, followed by the cortex. Physicochemical properties and HPTLC values of the drug are standardized and presented. Conclusion: The powder microscopic features and

  6. Northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.): an annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Robert S. Seymour

    2007-01-01

    Northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) is arguably one of the least studied commercial tree species in United States and Canada. It is an important source of wildlife habitat and forage, as well as commodities such as fence posts, shingles and siding. Much of the research on this species comes from the Lake States and Canada; few studies have...

  7. CEDAR : The Dutch Historical Censuses as Linked Open Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Ashkpour, Ashkan; Guéret, Christophe; Schlobach, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Here, we describe the CEDAR dataset, a five-star Linked Open Data representation of the Dutch historical censuses. These were conducted in the Netherlands once every 10 years from 1795 to 1971. We produce a linked dataset from a digitized sample of 2,288 tables. It contains more than 6.8 million

  8. 78 FR 58470 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 13-182; RM-11701; DA 13-1882] Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...

  9. Screening and Testing Phytochemicals in Eastern Redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) for Development of Potential Entrepreneurial Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) is often considered a “trash or nuisance” tree. In some states, this species has been declared invasive and management strategies have been adopted to destroy it. However, value-added phytochemical products from eastern redcedar have the potential to create n...

  10. Combining dendrochronology and matrix modelling in demographic studies: An evaluation for Juniperus procera in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couralet, C.; Sass, U.G.W.; Sterck, F.J.; Zuidema, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Tree demography was analysed by applying dendrochronological techniques and matrix modelling on a static data set of Juniperus procera populations of Ethiopian dry highland forests. Six permanent sample plots were established for an inventory of diameters and 11 stem discs were collected for

  11. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY OF SHOOTS OF JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS L. FROM CUPRESSACEAE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. K. Serebryanaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted morphological and anatomical studies of Juniperus communis, revealed diagnostic indices of the stamina, stalk, and needle. The leaf is sessile, linear awe shaped, pointed. Stalk form at cross section is cylindrical. Needles are lanceolar with one whitish vertical stripe, with paracytic stomata. 

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community composition associated with Juniperus brevifolia in native Azorean forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drumonde Melo, C.; Luna, S.; Krüger, Claudia; Walker, C.; Mendonça, D.; Fonseca, H. M. A. C.; Jaizme-Vega, M.; da Camara Machado, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 79, FEB 2017 (2017), s. 48-61 ISSN 1146-609X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi * Juniperus bravifolia * native forests Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.652, year: 2016

  13. Effect of the Cedar River on the quality of the ground-water supply for Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulmeyer, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Surface Water Treatment Rule under the 1986 Amendment to the Safe Drinking Water Act requires that public-water supplies be evaluated for susceptibility to surface-water effects. The alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Cedar River is evaluated for biogenic material and monitored for selected water-quality properties and constituents to determine the effect of surface water on the water supply for the City of Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Results from monitoring of selected water-quality properties and constituents showed an inverse relation to river stage or discharge. Water-quality properties and constituents of the alluvial aquifer changed as water flowed from the river to the municipal well as a result of drawdown. The values of specific conductance, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen at observation well CRM-4 and municipal well Seminole 10 generally follow the trends of values for the Cedar River. Values at observation well CRM-3 and the municipal water-treatment plant showed very little correlation with values from the river. The traveltime of water through the aquifer could be an indication of the susceptibility of the alluvial aquifer to surface-water effects. Estimated traveltimes from the Cedar River to municipal well Seminole 10 ranged from 7 to 17 days.

  14. Seasonal differences in freezing tolerance of yellow-cedar and western hemlock trees at a site affected by yellow-cedar decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg; Paul E. Hennon; Amore, David V. D; Gary J. Hawley; Catherine H. Borer; Catherine H. Borer

    2005-01-01

    To assess whether inadequate cold hardiness could be a contributor to yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach) decline, we measured the freezing tolerance of foliage from yellow-cedar trees in closed-canopy (nondeclining) and open-canopy (declining at elevations below 130 m) stands at three sites along an elevational gradient in the heart of the decline...

  15. Enhanced growth of Juniperus thurifera under a warmer climate is explained by a positive carbon gain under cold and drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Teresa E; Camarero, J Julio; Granda, Elena; Pías, Beatriz; Valladares, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    Juniperus thurifera L. is an endemic conifer of the western Mediterranean Basin where it is subjected to a severe climatic stress characterized by low winter temperatures and summer drought. Given the trend of increased warming-induced drought stress in this area and the climatic sensitivity of this species, we expect a negative impact of climate change on growth and ecophysiological performance of J. thurifera in the harsh environments where it dominates. To evaluate this, we measured long- and short-term radial growth using dendrochronology, photosynthesis and water-use efficiency in males, females and juveniles in three sites in Central Spain. Climate was monitored and completed with historical records. Mean annual temperature has increased +0.2 °C per decade in the study area, and the main warming trends corresponded to spring (+0.2 °C per decade) and summer (+0.3 °C per decade). Radial growth and maximum photosynthesis peaked in spring and autumn. Positive photosynthetic rates were maintained all year long, albeit at reduced rates in winter and summer. Radial growth was enhanced by wet conditions in the previous autumn and by warm springs and high precipitation in summer of the year of tree-ring formation. Cloud cover during the summer increased growth, while cloudy winters led to impaired carbon gain and reduced growth in the long term. We argue that maintenance of carbon gain under harsh conditions (low winter temperatures and dry summer months) and plastic xylogenesis underlie J. thurifera's ability to profit from changing climatic conditions such as earlier spring onset and erratic summer rainfall. Our results highlight that not only the magnitude but also the sign of the impact of climate change on growth and persistence of Mediterranean trees is species specific.

  16. Soil microbial community profiles and functional diversity in limestone cedar glades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Dzantor, E. Kudjo; Momen, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Rock outcrop ecosystems, such as limestone cedar glades (LCGs), are known for their rare and endemic plant species adapted to high levels of abiotic stress. Soils in LCGs are thin (< 25 cm), soil-moisture conditions fluctuate seasonally between xeric and saturated, and summer soil temperatures commonly exceed 48 °C. The effects of these stressors on soil microbial communities (SMC) remain largely unstudied, despite the importance of SMC-plant interactions in regulating the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems. SMC profiles and functional diversity were characterized in LCGs using community level physiological profiling (CLPP) and plate-dilution frequency assays (PDFA). Most-probable number (MPN) estimates and microbial substrate-utilization diversity (H) were positively related to soil thickness, soil organic matter (OM), soil water content, and vegetation density, and were diminished in alkaline soil relative to circumneutral soil. Soil nitrate showed no relationship to SMCs, suggesting lack of N-limitation. Canonical correlation analysis indicated strong correlations between microbial CLPP patterns and several physical and chemical properties of soil, primarily temperature at the ground surface and at 4-cm depth, and secondarily soil-water content, enabling differentiation by season. Thus, it was demonstrated that several well-described abiotic determinants of plant community structure in this ecosystem are also reflected in SMC profiles.

  17. Mechanical properties of salvaged dead yellow-cedar in southeast Alaska : Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. A. McDonald; P. E. Hennon; J. H. Stevens; D. W. Green

    An intensive decline and mortality problem is affecting yellow-cedar trees in southeast Alaska. Yellow-cedar snags (dead trees) could be important to the economy in southeast Alaska, if some high-value uses for the snags could be established. Due to the high decay resistance of yellow-cedar, the rate of deterioration is so slow that snags may remain standing for a...

  18. Biomass carbon accumulation in aging Japanese cedar plantations in Xitou, central Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Hung, Chih-Yu; Chen, Chiou-Peng; Pei, Chuang-Wun

    2013-01-01

    Background Japanese cedar (Chrytomeria japonica D. Don) is an important plantation species in Taiwan and represents 10% of total plantation area. It was first introduced in 1910 and widely planted in the northern and central mountainous areas of Taiwan. However, a change in forest management from exotic species to native species in 1980 had resulted in few new Japanese cedar plantations being established. Most Japanese cedar plantations are now between 30 and 50 years old and reaching their r...

  19. Radical-Scavenging Activity and Ferric Reducing Ability of Juniperus thurifera (L.), J. oxycedrus (L.), J. phoenicea (L.) and Tetraclinis articulata (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    El Jemli, Meryem; Kamal, Rabie; Marmouzi, Ilias; Zerrouki, Asmae; Cherrah, Yahia; Alaoui, Katim

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this work is to study and compare the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of aqueous leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus Phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata from Morocco. Methods. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging ability, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Also the total phenolic ...

  20. Ecology, pathology, and management of Port-Orford-Cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald B. Zobel; Lewis F. Roth; Glenn M. Hawk

    1982-01-01

    Information about the biology, diseases, and management of Port-Orford- cedar was collected from the literature, from unpublished research data of the authors and the USDA Forest Service, conversations with personnel involved in all facets of Port-Orford-cedar management, and visits to stands throughout the range of the species. Information is summarized and presented...

  1. Growth comparison of northern white-cedar to balsam fir and red spruce by site class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Robert S. Seymour; John C. Brissette

    2006-01-01

    Though northern white-cedar is a common and economically important component of the Acadian Forest of Maine and adjacent Canada, there is little regional data about the growth and development of this species. Sixty sites in northern Maine were used to compare growth of cedar to that of red spruce and balsam fir along a range of site classes and light exposures. On...

  2. Atlantic white-cedar being eliminated by excessive animal damage in south Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little; H. A. Somes

    1965-01-01

    Atlantic white-cedar, which grows in the swamps of the New Jersey Pine Region, is a prized timber species. Most areas now growing white-cedar have been clearcut 4 or 5 times since 1700. In contrast, the associated swamp hardwoods-red maple, blackgum, and sweetbay-rarely produce wood that is valuable enough to harvest.

  3. Yellow-cedar decline in the North Coast Forest District of British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Hennon; David V. D' Amore; Stefan Zeglan; Mike. Grainger

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of a forest decline of yellow-cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis (D. Don) Örsted) has been documented in southeast Alaska, but its occurrence in British Columbia was previously unknown. We conducted an aerial survey in the Prince Rupert area in September 2004 to determine if yellow-cedar forests in the North Coast Forest District of...

  4. 75 FR 55477 - Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie & Sandusky Bay, Cedar Point, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie & Sandusky Bay, Cedar Point, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard... portions of the Lake Erie during the Revolution 3 Cedar Point Triathlon. The temporary safety zone is... 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have...

  5. Identification of Cha o 3 homolog Cry j 4 from Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar) pollen: Limitation of the present Japanese cedar-specific ASIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Yuki; Yamada, Akira; Sasaki, Eiji; Utsugi, Teruhiro

    2018-03-07

    About one-third of the Japanese population suffers from Japanese cedar pollinosis, which is frequently accompanied by Japanese cypress pollinosis. Recently, a novel major Japanese cypress pollen allergen, Cha o 3, was discovered. However, whether a Cha o 3 homolog is present in Japanese cedar pollen remains to be determined. Western blot analysis was performed using Cha o 3-specific antiserum. In addition, cloning of the gene encoding Cry j 4 was conducted using total cDNA from the male flower of Japanese cedar trees. Allergen potency and cross-reactivity were investigated using a T-cell proliferation assay, basophil activation test, and ImmunoCAP inhibition assay. A low amount of Cha o 3 homolog protein was detected in Japanese cedar pollen extract. The deduced amino acid sequence of Cry j 4 showed 84% identity to that of Cha o 3. Cross-reactivity between Cry j 4 and Cha o 3 was observed at the T cell and IgE levels. Cry j 4 was discovered as a counterpart allergen of Cha o 3 in Japanese cedar pollen, with a relationship similar to that between Cry j 1-Cha o 1 and Cry j 2-Cha o 2. Our findings also suggest that allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) using Japanese cedar pollen extract does not induce adequate immune tolerance to Cha o 3 due to the low amount of Cry j 4 in Japanese cedar pollen. Therefore, ASIT using Cha o 3 or cypress pollen extract coupled with Japanese cedar pollen extract is required in order to optimally control allergy symptoms during Japanese cypress pollen season. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing changes in biomass, productivity, and C and N stores following Juniperus virginiana forest expansion into tallgrass prairie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, M. D.; Blair, J. M.; Johnson, L. C. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States); McKane, R. B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Western Ecology Division, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2001-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess changes in plant productivity and above-ground plant biomass associated with red cedar forest expansion into areas formerly dominated by tallgrass prairie. Regionally appropriate allometric biomass regression equations were developed for the nondestructive estimation of red cedar biomass in eastern Kansas, followed by quantification of the carbon and nitrogen content of selected biomass components. The equations were applied, along with measurements of leaf litter production, to selected local stands of mature closed-canopy red cedars to estimate above-ground biomass, standing stocks of carbon and nitrogen and annual above-ground net primary productivity. Above-ground plant biomass for these red cedar-dominated sites ranged from 114,100 kg/ha for the youngest stand to 210,700 kg/ha for the oldest. Annual above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) ranged from 7,250 to 10,440 kg/ha/yr for the oldest and younger red cedar stands respectively. The ANPP in comparable tallgrass prairie sites in this region averages 3,690 k/ha/yr, indicating a large increase in carbon uptake and above-ground storage as a result of the change from prairie to red cedar forests. Comparing these results with similar published data from other sites led to the conclusion that the widespread change from tallgrass to red cedars across the woodland-prairie ecotone has important consequences for regional carbon storage.37 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. Brushy Basin drilling project, Cedar Mountain, Emergy County, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiloh, K.D.; McNeil, M.; Vizcaino, H.

    1980-03-01

    A 12-hole drilling program was conducted on the northwestern flank of the San Rafael swell of eastern Utah to obtain subsurface geologic data to evaluate the uranium resource potential of the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation (Jurassic). In the Cedar Mountain-Castle Valley area, the Brushy Basin Member consists primarily of tuffaceous and carbonaceous mudstones. Known uranium mineralization is thin, spotty, very low grade, and occurs in small lenticular pods. Four of the 12 drill holes penetrated thin intervals of intermediate-grade uranium mineralization in the Brushy Basin. The study confirmed that the unit does not contain significant deposits of intermediate-grade uranium

  8. Quantifying Effectiveness of Streambank Stabilization Practices on Cedar River, Nebraska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naisargi Dave

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Excessive sediment is a major pollutant to surface waters worldwide. In some watersheds, streambanks are a significant source of this sediment, leading to the expenditure of billions of dollars in stabilization projects. Although costly streambank stabilization projects have been implemented worldwide, long-term monitoring to quantify their success is lacking. There is a critical need to document the long-term success of streambank restoration projects. The objectives of this research were to (1 quantify streambank retreat before and after the stabilization of 18 streambanks on the Cedar River in North Central Nebraska, USA; (2 assess the impact of a large flood event; and (3 determine the most cost-efficient stabilization practice. The stabilized streambanks included jetties (10, rock-toe protection (1, slope reduction/gravel bank (1, a retaining wall (1, rock vanes (2, and tree revetments (3. Streambank retreat and accumulation were quantified using aerial images from 1993 to 2016. Though streambank retreat has been significant throughout the study period, a breached dam in 2010 caused major flooding and streambank erosion on the Cedar River. This large-scale flood enabled us to quantify the effect of one extreme event and evaluate the effectiveness of the stabilized streambanks. With a 70% success rate, jetties were the most cost-efficient practice and yielded the most deposition. If minimal risk is unacceptable, a more costly yet immobile practice such as a gravel bank or retaining wall is recommended.

  9. Increasing Drought Sensitivity and Decline of Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica in the Moroccan Middle Atlas Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Julio Camarero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the interactions between climate change and forest structure on tree growth are needed for decision making in forest conservation and management. In this paper, we investigated the relative contribution of tree features and stand structure on Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica radial growth in forests that have experienced heavy grazing and logging in the past. Dendrochronological methods were applied to quantify patterns in basal-area increment and drought sensitivity of Atlas cedar in the Middle Atlas, northern Morocco. We estimated the tree-to-tree competition intensity and quantified the structure in Atlas cedar stands with contrasting tree density, age, and decline symptoms. The relative contribution of tree age and size and stand structure to Atlas cedar growth decline was estimated by variance partitioning using partial-redundancy analyses. Recurrent drought events and temperature increases have been identified from local climate records since the 1970s. We detected consistent growth declines and increased drought sensitivity in Atlas cedar across all sites since the early 1980s. Specifically, we determined that previous growth rates and tree age were the strongest tree features, while Quercus rotundifolia basal area was the strongest stand structure measure related to Atlas cedar decline. As a result, we suggest that Atlas cedar forests that have experienced severe drought in combination with grazing and logging may be in the process of shifting dominance toward more drought-tolerant species such as Q. rotundifolia.

  10. Biomass carbon accumulation in aging Japanese cedar plantations in Xitou, central Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Hung, Chih-Yu; Chen, Chiou-Peng; Pei, Chuang-Wun

    2013-12-01

    Japanese cedar (Chrytomeria japonica D. Don) is an important plantation species in Taiwan and represents 10% of total plantation area. It was first introduced in 1910 and widely planted in the northern and central mountainous areas of Taiwan. However, a change in forest management from exotic species to native species in 1980 had resulted in few new Japanese cedar plantations being established. Most Japanese cedar plantations are now between 30 and 50 years old and reaching their rotation period. It is of interest to know whether these plantations could be viable for future carbon sequestration through the accumulations of stand carbon stocks. Twelve even-aged Japanese cedar stands along a stand age gradient from 37 to 93 years were selected in Xitou of central Taiwan. The study aims were to investigate the basic stand characteristics and biomass carbon stock in current Japanese cedar stands, and determine the relationships among stand characteristics, tree biomass carbon, and stand age. Our results indicate that existing Japanese cedar plantations are still developing and their live tree biomass carbon continues to accumulate. At stands with a stand age of 90 years, tree density, canopy height, mean diameter at breast height, basal area, and live tree biomass carbon stocks reach to nearly 430 tree ha -1 , 27 m, 48 cm, 82 m 2 ha -1 and 300 Mg C ha -1 , respectively. Therefore, with no harvesting, current Japanese cedar plantations provide a carbon sink by storing carbon in tree biomass.

  11. [Genetical control of the allozymes in juniper (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) of the Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Nikolaeva, A V

    2007-01-01

    Genetical control of nine enzyme systems has been studied in preserved juniper species (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) of the natural population of the mountain Crimea. Isozymes were extracted from the haploid seed endosperms and separated elecrophoretically. As a result 16 loci have been identified. Fourteen of them were polymorphic (14--Gdh, Got-1, Mdh-1, Mdh-2, Mdh-3, Acp-1, Acp-2, Acp-3, Lap-1, Dia-1, Fdh, Sod-1, Sod-2, Sod-3). Analysis of the allele segragation of the heterozygous trees confirmed their monogenic inheritance.

  12. The National Science Foundation's Coupling, Energetics and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) Student Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sox, L.; Duly, T.; Emery, B.

    2014-12-01

    The National Science Foundation sponsors Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) Workshops, which have been held every summer, for the past 29 years. CEDAR Workshops are on the order of a week long and at various locations with the goal of being close to university campuses where CEDAR type scientific research is done. Although there is no formal student group within the CEDAR community, the workshops are very student-focused. Roughly half the Workshop participants are students. There are two Student Representatives on the CEDAR Science Steering Committee (CSSC), the group of scientists who organize the CEDAR Workshops. Each Student Representative is nominated by his or her peers, chosen by the CSSC and then serves a two year term. Each year, one of the Student Representatives is responsible for organizing and moderating a day-long session targeted for students, made up of tutorial talks, which aim to prepare both undergraduate and graduate students for the topics that will be discussed in the main CEDAR Workshop. The theme of this session changes every year. Past themes have included: upper atmospheric instrumentation, numerical modeling, atmospheric waves and tides, magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, equatorial aeronomy and many others. Frequently, the Student Workshop has ended with a panel of post-docs, researchers and professors who discuss pressing questions from the students about the next steps they will take in their careers. As the present and past CSSC Student Representatives, we will recount a brief history of the CEDAR Workshops, our experiences serving on the CSSC and organizing the Student Workshop, a summary of the feedback we collected about the Student Workshops and what it's like to be student in the CEDAR community.

  13. Tamarisk (Salt Cedar) Infestations in Northwestern Nevada Mapped Using Landsat TM Imagery and GIS Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, D.; Geraci, C.; Kolkowitz, S.

    2004-12-01

    Tamarisk, also known as salt cedar (Tamarix sp.) is a prevalent invasive species that has infested many riparian areas in the southwestern United States. Mature salt cedar plants are resistant to high stress environments and fare well in drought conditions, mainly due to their extensive root systems that derive much of their sustenance from the water table rather than surface water and precipitation. The salt cedar root systems have altered hydrological patterns by tapping into underlying aquifers. This has decreased water available for recreational use, regional ecology and plant diversity. Many states have implemented salt cedar monitoring programs at the local level, but the problem of large-scale mapping of this invasive species has continued to be a challenge to land management agencies. Furthermore, inaccessible and unexplored areas continue to be absent in the mapping process. In August 2004, using field data consisting of large areas as training sets for classification of Landsat TM imagery, the DEVELOP student research team at NASA Ames Research Center generated a preliminary map of areas that that were susceptible to salt cedar growth for a region in northwestern Nevada. In addition to the remote sensing-based classification of satellite imagery, the team used the variables of elevation and estimated distance to the water table in conjunction with collected field data and knowledge of salt cedar growth habits to further refine the map. The team has further extended the mapping of key environmental factors of water availability for salt cedar, soil types and species distribution in regions infested by salt cedar. The investigation was carried out by 1) improving an existing GIS layer for water access using a suitable interpolation method, 2) including a GIS layer for soils associated with salt cedar growth and 3) completing field work to evaluate species distribution and regions of presence or absence of salt cedar. The outcome of this project served to

  14. Evaluation of fruit extracts of six Turkish Juniperus species for their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Mehmet; Tümen, İbrahim; Uğur, Aysel; Aydoğmuş-Öztürk, Fatma; Topçu, Gülaçtı

    2011-03-30

    Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae) species are mostly spread out in the Northern Hemisphere of the world, and some of them are used as folkloric medicines. The fruits of some species are eaten. Since oxidative stress is one of the reasons for neurodegeneration and is associated with the Alzheimer's disease (AD), the extracts prepared from the fruits of six Juniperus species were screened for their antioxidant activity. Therefore, the extracts were also evaluated against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), which are chief enzymes in the pathogenesis of AD. In addition, antimicrobial activity was also evaluated. In the β-carotene-linoleic acid assay, acetone extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. sabina and J. excelsa, and methanol extracts of J. phoenicea and J. sabina, effectively inhibited oxidation of linoleic acid. The hexane extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. foetidissima and J. phoenicea showed remarkable inhibitory effect against AChE and BChE. Because of their high antioxidant activity, J. excelsa, J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. sabina and J. phoenicia might be used in the food industry as preservative agents or extension of the shelf-life of raw and processed foods. Since the hexane extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. foetidissima demonstrated significant anticholinesterase activity they should be considered as a potential source for anticholinesterase agents. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Evaluation of Sebostatic Activity of Juniperus communis Fruit Oil and Pelargonium graveolens Oil Compared to Niacinamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Kozlowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As a facial skin condition, oily skin causes cosmetic problems, such as large pores, shiny appearance, and the feeling of greasiness and heaviness. Furthermore, extensive sebum production leads to common skin disorders such as acne vulgaris or seborrheic dermatitis. This study investigated the efficacy of sebum control tonics containing Juniperus communis fruit oil, Pelargonium graveolens oil, or niacinamide. The effects of Juniperus communis fruit oil, Pelargonium graveolens oil, and niacinamide on sebum excretion rates were investigated using Sebumeter®. Sebum measurements (Sebumeter® SM 815, Courage & Khazaka®, Köln, Germany were made on the skin surface in three places by applying the sebumeter probe to the forehead after 10, 60, and 120 min from application of the tonic. The results indicated that the application of the tonic maintained a lower sebum secretion 10 min and 60 min after the application of the cosmetic, compared to those before it. However, a visible sebum-reducing efficacy after 2 h was reported only for tonic containing 0.25% Pelargonium graveolens oil and for the tonic with the addition of 3% niacinamide. After 2 h, the values of sebum measurements were 44 ± 5.13 a.u. and 58 ± 9.07 a.u., respectively. Our results show that the tonic with the addition of 0.25% Pelargonium graveolens oil is the most effective in reducing sebum production.

  16. Radical-Scavenging Activity and Ferric Reducing Ability of Juniperus thurifera (L., J. oxycedrus (L., J. phoenicea (L. and Tetraclinis articulata (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem El Jemli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this work is to study and compare the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of aqueous leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus Phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata from Morocco. Methods. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging ability, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. Also the total phenolic and flavonoids contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. Results. All the extracts showed interesting antioxidant activities compared to the standard antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, quercetin, and Trolox. The aqueous extract of Juniperus oxycedrus showed the highest antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH, TEAC, and FRAP assays with IC50 values of 17.91±0.37 μg/mL, 19.80±0.55 μg/mL, and 24.23±0.07 μg/mL, respectively. The strong correlation observed between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds were a major contributor to antioxidant properties of these plants extracts. Conclusion. These results suggest that the aqueous extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata can constitute a promising new source of natural compounds with antioxidants ability.

  17. Radical-Scavenging Activity and Ferric Reducing Ability of Juniperus thurifera (L.), J. oxycedrus (L.), J. phoenicea (L.) and Tetraclinis articulata (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jemli, Meryem; Kamal, Rabie; Marmouzi, Ilias; Zerrouki, Asmae; Cherrah, Yahia; Alaoui, Katim

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this work is to study and compare the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of aqueous leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus Phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata from Morocco. Methods. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging ability, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Also the total phenolic and flavonoids contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. Results. All the extracts showed interesting antioxidant activities compared to the standard antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), quercetin, and Trolox). The aqueous extract of Juniperus oxycedrus showed the highest antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH, TEAC, and FRAP assays with IC50 values of 17.91 ± 0.37 μg/mL, 19.80 ± 0.55 μg/mL, and 24.23 ± 0.07 μg/mL, respectively. The strong correlation observed between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds were a major contributor to antioxidant properties of these plants extracts. Conclusion. These results suggest that the aqueous extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata can constitute a promising new source of natural compounds with antioxidants ability.

  18. Experimental streams - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  19. Embracing the River: Smart Growth Strategies for Assisting in Cedar Rapids' Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report from an EPA-FEMA technical assistance project with Cedar Rapids, IA, offers ideas to encourage infill development, make development more resilient to floods, and improve stormwater management.

  20. Fish abundance, composition, distribution - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  1. Effects of Pranlukast Hydrate on Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Non-Asthmatic Patients with Japanese Cedar Pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Sagara

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: The results indicate that pranlukast hydrate inhibits airway hyperresponsiveness in non-asthmatic patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. In turn, this suggests that cysteinyl leukotrienes have a role in increased airway responsiveness.

  2. Growth, movement and survival - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  3. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: Red Cedar Gathering Company - Arkansas Loop and Simpson Treating Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the response to public comments and the final synthetic minor NSR permit for the Red Cedar Gathering Company, Arkansas Loop and Simpson Treating Plants, located on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation in La Plata County, CO.

  4. Proposed Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: Red Cedar Gathering Company - Arkansas Loop and Simpson Treating Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proposed synthetic minor NSR permit, public notice bulletin, and administrative permit docket for the Red Cedar Gathering Company, Arkansas Loop and Simpson Treating Plants, located on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation in Colorado.

  5. Present state of Japanese cedar pollinosis: the national affliction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takechiyo; Saito, Hirohisa; Fujieda, Shigeharu

    2014-03-01

    Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) caused by Japanese cedar pollen (JCP; ie, sugi-pollinosis) is the most common disease in Japan and has been considered a national affliction. More than one third of all Japanese persons have sugi-pollinosis, and this number has significantly increased in the last 2 decades. In our opinion the reason why sugi-pollinosis became a common disease in the last half century is the increased number of cedar pollens, with global climate change and forest growth caused by the tree-planting program of the Japanese government after World War II playing substantial roles; dust storms containing small particulate matter from China might also contribute to the increased incidence of sugi-pollinosis. To help minimize their symptoms, many Japanese wear facemasks and eyeglasses at all times between February and April to prevent exposure to JCP and aerosol pollutants. Forecasts for JCP levels typically follow the weather forecast in mass media broadcasts, and real-time information regarding JCP levels is also available on the Internet. Because a large amount of JCP is produced over several months, it can induce severe symptoms. Japanese guidelines for allergic rhinitis recommend prophylactic treatment with antihistamines or antileukotrienes before the start of JCP dispersion. Additionally, sublingual immunotherapy will be supported by health insurance in the summer of 2014. However, many patients with sugi-pollinosis do not find satisfactory symptom relief with currently available therapies. Collaboration between scientists and pharmaceutical companies to produce new therapeutics for the control of sugi-pollinosis symptoms is necessary. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 77 FR 49401 - Safety Zones; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie, Sandusky Bay, Cedar Point, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... meeting would be beneficial. If we determine that one would aid this rulemaking, we will hold one at a..., Cedar Point, OH extending outward 100 yards on either side of a line running between 41-28'-38.59''N 082-41'-10.51''W and 41-28'-17.25''N 082-40'-54.09''W running adjacent to the Cedar Point Marina. These...

  7. Development of Northern White-Cedar Regeneration Following Partial Cutting, with and without Deer Browsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Larouche

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L. is an important commercial species with a high wildlife value, both as a food source and habitat for many bird and mammal species. Concerns have been expressed about its decreasing abundance across its range, and especially in mixedwood stands, where it has to compete with several other species and can suffer from heavy browsing. In this study, we quantified the development of natural northern white-cedar seedlings and saplings under various partial cutting regimes, with and without white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus Zimmerman browsing, in three selected sites in Quebec (Canada and in Maine (USA. Our data show that northern white-cedar regeneration was present in all studied stands, but that only a few stems were taller than 30 cm on the two sites with high densities of deer. In the absence of heavy browsing, stems reached a height of 30 cm in 11 years, and 130 cm in 28 years. Height growth of northern white-cedar regeneration increased with canopy light transmittance, while ground-level diameter increment increased after partial cutting. This suggests that partial cutting can be used in mixedwood stands to release natural northern white-cedar regeneration, but also that the recruitment of northern white-cedar seedlings to larger size classes constitutes a major challenge in stands subject to heavy deer browsing.

  8. Component composition of essential oils and ultrastructure of secretory cells of resin channel needles Juniperus communis (Cupressaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gerling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of determining the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil Juniperus communis, growing under the canopy of spruce blueberry sphagnum subzone middle taiga. Juniperus communis essential oil is liquid light yellow color. The content of essential oil was 0.46 % in shoots with needles. 37 substances of components identified. Mass fraction of components in the essential oil of Juniperus communis reached 89 %. The highest percentage of occupied fraction of monoterpenes (82.3 %, the proportion of sesquiterpenes less than 0.5 % of the total composition of essential oils, alcohols 3.5 and 0.7 % esters. In monoterpenes fraction predominant α-pinene (24.5–32.6 %, β-pinene (15–20.3 % and α-phellandrene (6.4–8.8 %. Essential oil of Juniperus communis is characterized by high content of monoterpenoids in contrast to other conifers of the taiga zone. All stages of biosynthesis essential oils occur in the epithelial cells of the resin channel (terpenoidogennyh cells. An oval shape have epithelial cells of the resin channel needles in transverse sections the Juniperus communis, which is situated vacuole in the center. Large number of lipid globules (up to 40 noted in the hyaloplasm of explored cells. Leucoplasts surrounded by membranes of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in cross sections of epithelial cells in resin channel of juniper. Endoplasmic reticulum is poorly developed in epithelial cells, which corresponds to the low content of sesquiterpenes in the needles during the study period. Development of large leucoplasts and large number of mitochondria associated with predominance of synthesis monoterpenoids the in the epithelium cells resin channel.

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community composition associated with Juniperus brevifolia in native Azorean forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Catarina Drumonde; Luna, Sara; Krüger, Claudia; Walker, Christopher; Mendonça, Duarte; Fonseca, Henrique M. A. C.; Jaizme-Vega, Maria; da Câmara Machado, Artur

    2017-02-01

    The communities of glomeromycotan fungi (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF) under native Juniperus brevifolia forest from two Azorean islands, Terceira and São Miguel, were compared, mainly by spore morphology, and when possible, by molecular analysis. Thirty-nine morphotypes were detected from 12 genera. Glomeromycotan fungal richness was similar in Terceira and São Miguel, but significantly different among the four fragments of native forest. Spore diversity and community composition differed significantly between the two islands. The less degraded island, Terceira, showed 10 exclusive morphotypes including more rare types, whereas the more disturbed forest on São Miguel showed 13 morphs, mostly of common types. Forests from Terceira were dominated by Acaulosporaceae and Glomeraceae. Whereas members of Acaulosporaceae, Glomeraceae and Ambisporaceae were most frequent and abundant in those from São Miguel. Spore abundance was greatest on Terceira, and correlated with soil chemical properties (pH), average monthly temperature and relative humidity.

  10. Isolation of deoxypodophyllotoxin and podophyllotoxin from Juniperus sabina by high speed counter current chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.; Yang, Y.; Chen, Q.; Kasimu, R.; Aisa, H.A.

    2016-11-01

    Deoxypodophyllotoxin and podophyllotoxin are known for their excellent anti-proliferative and anti-tumor activities, therefore large amount of pure compounds is urgently needed as authentic standards for various in vivo and in vitro studies. In this paper, an effective, rapid separation and purification method of deoxypodophyllotoxin and podophyllotoxin from the crude extract of Juniperus sabina was established using high speed counter current chromatography (HSCCC). HSCCC was performed with atwo phase solvent system comprising of n-hexane-ethylacetate-methanol-water (3:5:3:5, v/v) at the flow rate of 2mL/min at the speed of 850 rpm. 34.8 mg of deoxypodophyllotoxin and 7.9 mg of podophyllotoxin were obtained from 200 mg crude sample with a purity of 96.5% and 94.4%, respectively, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). (Author)

  11. The endemic flora of Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something or ...... have been mapped and it is already possible to recognize the hot-spots of biodiversity as these are linked to the centres of endemism. Determining the centres of diversity is an important and significant contribution to further conservation measures at the global level....

  12. Use of MODIS Satellite Images and an Atmospheric Dust Transport Model To Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology and Dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, Estelle; Huete, Alfredo; Nickovic, S.; Pejanovic, G. A.; Vukovic, A.; VandeWater, P. K.; Myers, O. B.; Budge, A. M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Nickovic et al. 2001) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and quantities of dust. We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. Pollen release will be estimated based on MODIS derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. Ground based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities will be used as verification. This information will be used to support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program and the State of New Mexico environmental public health decision support for asthma and allergies alerts.

  13. 76 FR 78641 - Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC, Milford Wind Corridor Phase I, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RC11-1-002; Docket No. RC11-2-002] Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC, Milford Wind Corridor Phase I, LLC; Notice of Filing Take...) June 16, 2011 Order.\\1\\ \\1\\ Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC and Milford Wind Corridor Phase I, LLC, 135...

  14. Geomorphic and hydrologic study of peak-flow management on the Cedar River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Marineau, Mathieu D.

    2012-01-01

    Assessing the linkages between high-flow events, geomorphic response, and effects on stream ecology is critical to river management. High flows on the gravel-bedded Cedar River in Washington are important to the geomorphic function of the river; however, high flows can deleteriously affect salmon embryos incubating in streambed gravels. A geomorphic analysis of the Cedar River showed evidence of historical changes in river form over time and quantified the effects of anthropogenic alterations to the river corridor. Field measurements with accelerometer scour monitors buried in the streambed provided insight into the depth and timing of streambed scour during high-flow events. Combined with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model, the recorded accelerometer disturbances allowed the prediction of streambed disturbance at the burial depth of Chinook and sockeye salmon egg pockets for different peak discharges. Insight gained from these analyses led to the development of suggested monitoring metrics for an ongoing geomorphic monitoring program on the Cedar River.

  15. The “anomalous cedar trees” of Lake Ashi, Hakone Volcano, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Y.

    1984-01-01

    On the bottom of Lake Ashi at Hakone, Japan, there stand great trees that, since ancient times, have been widely known as the "Anomalous Cedar Trees" of Ashi. It is not known why these trees grow on the bottom of the lake, and it remains one of the mysteries of Hakone. It was formerly thought that, at the time Lake Ashi was born, a great forest of cedar trees which was growing in the caldera of the volcano sank into the water. From radioactive carbon dating techniques, it is known that a steam explosion in the Kami Mountains created the caldera approximately 3,000 years ago. The age of the "Anomalous Cedars" is placed at approximately. 

  16. Cedar virus: a novel Henipavirus isolated from Australian bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn A Marsh

    Full Text Available The genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae contains two viruses, Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV for which pteropid bats act as the main natural reservoir. Each virus also causes serious and commonly lethal infection of people as well as various species of domestic animals, however little is known about the associated mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new paramyxovirus from pteropid bats, Cedar virus (CedPV, which shares significant features with the known henipaviruses. The genome size (18,162 nt and organization of CedPV is very similar to that of HeV and NiV; its nucleocapsid protein displays antigenic cross-reactivity with henipaviruses; and it uses the same receptor molecule (ephrin-B2 for entry during infection. Preliminary challenge studies with CedPV in ferrets and guinea pigs, both susceptible to infection and disease with known henipaviruses, confirmed virus replication and production of neutralizing antibodies although clinical disease was not observed. In this context, it is interesting to note that the major genetic difference between CedPV and HeV or NiV lies within the coding strategy of the P gene, which is known to play an important role in evading the host innate immune system. Unlike HeV, NiV, and almost all known paramyxoviruses, the CedPV P gene lacks both RNA editing and also the coding capacity for the highly conserved V protein. Preliminary study indicated that CedPV infection of human cells induces a more robust IFN-β response than HeV.

  17. Betriebseigenschaften der CEDARs für Likelihood-Teilchenidentifikation bei COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Gensler, Armin

    Die CEDAR Detektoren bei COMPASS können genutzt werden um Teilchen zu identifizieren. In dieser Arbeit wird eine Unregelmäßigkeit untersucht, die in den Daten der Photomultiplier der CEDARs auftritt. Insbesondere wird ermittelt, welche Daten davon betroffen sind und wie diese identifiziert und herausgefiltert werden können. Dabei zeigt sich, dass etwa 10% aller Events betroffen sind. Anschließend werden die Auswirkungen auf das in [4] beschriebene Likelihod-Identifikationsverfahren für Pionen und Kaonen analysiert, wobei sich heraus stellt, dass sich die Effizienz der Verfahrens dadurch deutlich verbessern lässt.

  18. Contact and Repellent Activities of the Essential Oil from Juniperus formosana against Two Stored Product Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Guo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil from Juniperus formosana leaves and its contact and repellent activities against Tribolium castaneum and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults were investigated. The essential oil of J. formosana leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 28 components were identified and the main compounds in the essential oil were α-pinene (21.66%, 4-terpineol (11.25%, limonene (11.00% and β-phellandrene (6.63%. The constituents α-pinene, 4-terpineol and d-limonene were isolated from the essential oil. It was found that the essential oil exhibited contact activity against T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila adults (LD50 = 29.14 μg/adult and 81.50 µg/cm2, respectively. The compound 4-terpineol exhibited the strongest contact activity (LD50 = 7.65 μg/adult. In addition, data showed that at 78.63 nL/cm2, the essential oil and the three isolated compounds strongly repelled T. castaneum adults. The compounds α-pinene and d-limonene reached the same level (Class V of repellency as DEET (p = 0.396 and 0.664 against L. bostrychophila at 63.17 nL/cm2 after 2 h treatment. The results indicate that the essential oil and the isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides and repellents to control insects in stored products.

  19. Antioxidant activity and chemical composition of Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos wood extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinihashemi, S K; Dadpour, A; Lashgari, A

    2017-03-01

    Extracts from the wood of Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos were analysed for their antioxidant activity using the DPPH method and compared with ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. The most active extracts were analysed for their chemical composition using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Acetone extract was found to be moderately active as an antioxidant agent at 58.38%, which was lower than the value of vitamin C (98.56%) at the concentration of 14.20 mg/mL. The major components identified in the acetone extract as trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives were pimaric acid TMS (24.56%), followed by α-d-glucopyranoside,1,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS)-β-d-fructofuranosyl 2,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS) (21.39%), triflouromethyl-bis-(TMS)methyl ketone (9.32%), and cedrol (0.72%). The dissolved water:methanol (1:1 v/v) partitioned from acetone extract afforded 12 fractions; among them, the F9 fraction was found to have good antioxidant activity (88.49%) at the concentration of 14.20 mg/mL. The major compounds identified in F9 fraction were α-d-glucopyranoside, 1,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS) (20.22%) and trifluoromethyl-bis-(TMS)methyl ketone (5.10%).

  20. [Suppressive Effects of Extract of Cedar Wood on Heat-induced Expression of Cellular Heat Shock Protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, Junji; Matsubara, Eri; Narita, Eijiro; Koyama, Shin; Shimizu, Yoko; Kawai, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

     In recent years, highly antimicrobial properties of cedar heartwood essential oil against the wood-rotting fungi and pathogenic fungi have been reported in several papers. Antimicrobial properties against oral bacteria by hinokitiol contained in Thujopsis have been also extensively studied. The relation of naturally derived components and human immune system has been studied in some previous papers. In the present study, we focused on Japanese cedar, which has the widest artificial afforestation site in the country among various tree species. Extract oil was obtained from mixture of sapwood and heartwood of about 40-year cedar grown in Oguni, Kumamoto, Japan. We examined the influence of extract components from Japanese cedar woods on the expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) during heating, and on the micronucleus formation induced by the treatment of bleomycin as a DNA damaging agent. Cell lines used in this study were human fetal glial cells (SVGp12) and human glioma cells (MO54). Remarkable suppression of the Hsp70 expression induced by heating at 43°C was detected by the treatment of cedar extract in both SVGp12 and MO54 cells. We also found that cedar extract had an inhibitory tendency to reduce the micronucleus formation induced by bleomycin. From these results, the extract components from Japanese cedar woods would have an inhibitory effect of the stress response as a suppression of the heat-induced Hsp70 expression, and might have a reductive effect on carcinogenicity.

  1. Ground verification of aerial for Port-Orford-cedar root disease in Southwest Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Kanaskie; M. McWilliams; D. Overhulser; J. Prukop; R. Christian; S. Malvitch

    2002-01-01

    Port-Orford-cedar (POC) (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) is limited in its natural range to southwest Oregon and northwest California. It is highly susceptible to the introduced root pathogen, Phytophthora lateralis, which causes a fatal root disease throughout most of its range. The disease is transmitted by movement of infested soil and water and is...

  2. An increase in pectin methyl esterase activity accompanies dormancy breakage and germination of yellow cedar seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, C; Kermode, A R

    2000-09-01

    Pectin methyl esterase (PME) (EC 3.1.1.11) catalyzes the hydrolysis of methylester groups of cell wall pectins. We investigated the role of this enzyme in dormancy termination and germination of yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis [D. Don] Spach) seeds. PME activity was not detected in dormant seeds of yellow cedar but was induced and gradually increased during moist chilling; high activity coincided with dormancy breakage and germination. PME activity was positively correlated to the degree of dormancy breakage of yellow cedar seeds. The enzyme produced in different seed parts and in seeds at different times during moist chilling, germination, and early post-germinative growth consisted of two isoforms, both basic with isoelectric points of 8.7 and 8.9 and the same molecular mass of 62 kD. The pH optimum for the enzyme was between 7.4 and 8.4. In intact yellow cedar seeds, activities of the two basic isoforms of PME that were induced in embryos and in megagametophytes following dormancy breakage were significantly suppressed by abscisic acid. Gibberellic acid had a stimulatory effect on the activities of these isoforms in embryos and megagametophytes of intact seeds at the germinative stage. We hypothesize that PME plays a role in weakening of the megagametophyte, allowing radicle emergence and the completion of germination.

  3. Cedar Pollen Aggravates Atopic Dermatitis in Childhood Monozygotic Twin Patients with Allergic Rhino Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukako Murakami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of 7-year-old monozygotic twin patients with atopic dermatitis. The HLA haplotypes were HLA A2, A11, B27, B61, DR1, and DR4. Both serum IgE levels and cedar pollen radioallergosorbent test (RAST scores were high in the twins (elder/younger sister: IgE: 5170/3980 IU/ml and Japansese cedar pollen: >100/64.0 in contrast to low mite and food RAST scores (Dermatophagoides Pterygonium; 0.59/0.4 and egg white 9.24/4.6. The patients showed positive immediate (20 min in both sisters and delayed (24 hours in elder sister, 24, 48, 72 hours in younger sister reactions to a scratch test with Japanese cedar pollen. Skin lesions on the face were aggravated and extended to the trunk and extremities during the Japanese cedar pollen season and gradually subsided in summer. Oral provocation with egg white or cow milk showed no exacerbations, and topical corticosteroid did not improve the eczema. In contrast, successful protection from severe scratching behaviors was achieved by use of topical anti-allergic eye drops and wearing nightgowns made by the mother.

  4. PERCHLORATE UPTAKE BY SALT CEDAR (TAMARIX RAMOSISSIMA) IN THE LAS VEGAS WASH RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchlorate ion (CIO4-) has been identified in samples of dormant salt cedar (Tamarix ramosissima) growing in the Las vegas Wash. Perchlorate is an oxidenat, but its reduction is kineticaly hindered. CXoncern over thyrpoid effects caused the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...

  5. Antioxidant activity of extracts from the wood and bark of Port OrFord cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng Gao; Todd F. Shupe; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Chung Y. Hse

    2007-01-01

    Heartwood, sapwood, and inner and outer bark of Port Orford cedar were extracted with methanol, and the extracts evaluated for antioxidant activity. The total phenol content (TPC) of the extracts was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as gallic acid equivalent (GAE). Butylated hydroxytoluene was used as a positive control in the free-radical-...

  6. Composition of the heartwood essential oil of incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens Torr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeba Veluthoor; Rick G. Kelsey; M.P. Gonzalez-Hernandez; Nicholas Panella; Marc Dolan; Joe. Karchesy

    2011-01-01

    Incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens) is a tree native to Oregon and California, perhaps best known for its aromatic wood and use in the manufacturing of pencils. The wood is also highly valued for its decorative appearance and durability in lumber, related sawmill products, and fence posts. Chemical investigations of heartwood extracts have shown...

  7. Natural decay resistance of heartwood from dead, standing yellow-cedar trees : laboratory evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney C. De Groot; Bessie Woodward; Paul E. Hennon

    2000-01-01

    Yellow-cedar trees have been mysteriously dying for more than a century in southeast Alaska. As these stems continue to stand for decades in the forest, foliage, twigs, and branches deteriorate. The sapwood in the stem degrades, leaving columns of essentially heartwood standing like ghosts in the forest until they eventually drop. To estimate the potential for...

  8. Methods for screening Port-Orford-cedar for resistance to Phytophthora lateralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett M. Hansen; Paul Reeser; Wendy Sutton; Richard A. Sniezko

    2012-01-01

    Port-Orford-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murray) Parl.) (POC) is an economically and ecologically valuable tree in the forests of southwest Oregon and northern California and in the horticultural trade worldwide. Phytophthora lateralis, the aggressive, invasive cause of POC root disease, was introduced to the native...

  9. 76 FR 55564 - Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie, Cedar Point, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie, Cedar Point, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard... Erie during the Revolution 3 Triathlon. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect participants..., between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  10. Valencene oxidase CYP706M1 from Alaska cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cankar, K.; Houwelingen, van A.M.M.L.; Goedbloed, M.A.; Renirie, R.; Jong, de R.M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Bosch, H.J.; Sonke, Th.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    (+)-Nootkatone is a natural sesquiterpene ketone used in grapefruit and citrus flavour compositions. It occurs in small amounts in grapefruit and is a major component of Alaska cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis) heartwood essential oil. Upon co-expression of candidate cytochrome P450 enzymes from

  11. Distribution of ^<90>Sr and ^<137>Cs in Annual Tree Rings of Japanese Cedar, Cryptomeria Japonica D.Don.

    OpenAIRE

    千木良, みどり; 斎藤, 裕子; 木村, 幹; MIDORI, CHIGIRA; YUKO, SAITO; KAN, KIMURA; 青山学院大学理工学部; 青山学院大学理工学部; 青山学院大学理工学部; Department of Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University; Department of Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University; Department of Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University

    1988-01-01

    The contents of ^Sr and ^Cs in two samples of Japanese cedar from Takao and Tsukui districts were determined in tree rings cut into segments representing steps of 5 years of growth. ^Sr in both cedar samples and ^Cs in the Tsukui cedar sample were determined after ashing and chemical isolation, while ^Cs in the Takao sample was directly determined from the sample ash. The distribution of ^Sr fallout in tree rings suggests that ^Sr had given a rather direct effect and showed no significant tra...

  12. Features of the rheological properties of dough with sunflower and cedar flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gaysina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Promising directions of development of assortment of flour confectionery products are currently creating new combinations, more extraordinary and interesting, the reduction in calories, increase the nutritional value, development of formulations of functional products. As enriching additives in the manufacture of pastry products can be used flour sunflower flour and cedar. Sunflower meal – one of the possible sources of increase of food value. The only raw material component of this product are sunflower seeds that have passed the purification from impurities and shell of the particles, with the subsequent removal of oil from them and grinding. In this torment, to the maximum extent maintained all the valuable biological active substances and vitamins. Sunflower flour is a complex product: it is good recommendation system of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, including fiber, vitamins, phospholipids and mineral substances. Cedar flour is characterized by high protein content (up to 48 % is well balanced in amino acids resultant composition contains b vitamins, food fibers, micro - and macroelements, necessary for life of the human body. Cedar flour has a good functional and technological properties In this paper we study the effect of cedar flour and sunflower meal on the rheological characteristics of dough. Effect of formulation components on the rheological properties of the test is evaluated in terms of water absorption of the flour, the duration of doughing, degree of its dilution and stability when mixing. It was found that the addition of 17% sunflower meal increases the viscosity of the dough and has a strengthening effect on the structure of the dough. Adding cedar flour in the amount of 20% caused the decrease in viscosity and getting more flexible dough.

  13. Minearl associated microbial communities from The Cedars, associate with specific geological features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, A. R.; Wanger, G. P.; Bhartia, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Cedars, an area of active serpentinization located in the Russian River area of Northern California, represents one of the few terrestrial areas on Earth undergoing active serpentinization. One of the products of the serpentinization reaction is the formation of hydroxyl radicals making the springs of the Cedars some of the most alkaline natural waters on Earth. These waters, with very high pH (pH>11), low EH and, low concentrations of electron acceptors are extremely inhospitible; however microbial life has found a way to thrive and a distinct microbial community is observed in the spring waters. Previous work with environmental samples and pure culture isolates [3] derived from The Cedars has suggested the importance of minearal association to these characteristic microbes. Here we show the results combined spectroscopic and molecular studies on aseries of mineral colonization experiemnts performed with a pure culture Cedar's isolate (Serpentenamonas str. A1) and in situ at CS spring. Centimeter scale, polished coupons of a variety of mminerals were prepared in the lab, spectroscopically characterized (Green Raman, DUV Raman, and DUV Fluorescence maps) and deployed into the springs for three months. The coupons were recovered and the distribution of the microbes on the minerals was mapped using a deep-UV native fluorescent mapping sustem that allows for non-destructive mapping of organics and microbes on surfaces. Subsequently the DNA from the minerals was extracted for community structure analysis. The MOSAIC (i.e. deep UV Fluorescence) showed extensicve colonization of the minerals and in some cases we were able to correlate microbial assemblages with specific geological features. In one example, organisms tended to associate strongly with carbonate features on Chromite mineral surfaces (Figure 1). The 16s rDNA revealed the microbial assemblages from each slide was dominated by active Cedars community memebers (i.e., Serpentinamonas and Silanimonas species

  14. Use of MODIS Satellite Images and an Atmospheric Dust Transport Model to Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Pejanovic, G. A.; Vukovic, A.; Van de Water, P. K.; Myers, O. B.; Budge, A. M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen, a significant aeroallergen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. Direct detection of pollen via satellite is not practical. A practical alternative combines modeling and phenological observations using ground based sampling and satellite data. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and quantities of dust (Nickovic et al. 2001). The use of satellite data products for studying phenology is well documented (White and Nemani 2006). In the current project MODIS data will provide critical input to the PREAM model providing pollen source location, timing of pollen release, and vegetation type. We are modifying the DREAM model (PREAM - Pollen REgional Atmospheric Model) to incorporate pollen transport. The linkages already exist with DREAM through PHAiRS (Public Health Applications in Remote Sensing) to the public health community. This linkage has the potential to fill this data gap so that the potential association of health effects of pollen can better be tracked for possible linkage with health outcome data which may be associated with asthma, respiratory effects, myocardial infarction, and lost workdays. Juniperus spp. pollen phenology may respond to a wide range of environmental factors such as day length, growing degree-days, precipitation patterns and soil moisture. Species differences are also important. These environmental factors vary over both time and spatial scales. Ground based networks such as the USA National Phenology Network have been established to provide national wide observations of vegetation phenology. However, the density of observers is not adequate to sufficiently document the phenology variability

  15. The anxiolytic effect of Juniperus virginiana L. essential oil and determination of its active constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Yao, Lei

    2018-05-15

    Essential oil from Juniperus virginiana L. (eastern red cedarwood essential oil, CWO) has been used to relax mind and enhance comfort for medical purposes. Few reports showed its effect on anxiety behaviors in animal models. The present study investigated the anxiolytic effect of CWO using two anxiety tests in mice, then determined the major active constituents, examined the change of neurotransmitters after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration. Analysis using GC/MS revealed that the CWO contained (-)-α-cedrene (28.11%), (+)-β-cedrene (7.81%), (-)-thujopsene (17.71%) and (+)-cedrol (24.58%). CWO at 400-800mg/kg increased the percentage of open arm entries and the percentage of the time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze (EPM), suggesting that the oil has anxiolytic effect. However, it didn't show anxiolytic effect in the light-dark box (LDB) test. Tests of the cedrene did not show anxiolytic effect in either test, but rather induced anxiety-related behaviors and inhibited the locomotor activity in EPM and LDB. Cedrol produced significant anxiolytic effect in both EPM and LDB tests at 400-1600mg/kg and 800-1600mg/kg, respectively. A more significant increase in locomotor activity was observed in cedrol at 200-1600mg/kg administration than CWO. CWO increased the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration at 800mg/kg, whereas it didn't affect the dopamine (DA) concentration. Cedrol significantly reduced the DA level at 100-200mg/kg and elevated the 5-HT level at 1200-1600mg/kg. Moreover, it changed the ratio of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/5-HT and 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid/DA at 1200-1600mg/kg. CWO and cedrol, in particular might act in an anxiolytic effect through the 5-HTnergic and DAnergic pathways. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of berries and leaves essential oils of Macedonian Juniperus foetidissima Willd. (Cupressaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floresha Sela

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of leaves and berries essential oils from Juniperus foetidissima Willd. (Cupressaceae grown in R. Macedonia (RM was investigated. GC/FID/MS analysis was carried out and 93 components were identified, representing 89.7-96.5% of the oils. The major components of the berries essential oil were α-pinene (19.2%, limonene (24.9% and cedrol (23.1%, followed by smaller amounts of b-funebrene, trans-caryophyllene, germacrene D and d-cadinene. The composition of the leaves essential oil was variable depending on the region of collection. Accordingly, samples originated from southeastern RM contained essential oil with α-pinene (67.6% and limonene (10.0%, from central part of RM with limonene (17.9-27.1% and cedrol (28.8-33.9%, while samples from southwestern RM contained oil with terpinen-4-ol (19.1%, cis-thujone (8.3%, germacrene D (11.0% and d-cadinene (6.3% as predominant components in the oil. Antimicrobial screening of the essential oils was made by disc diffusion and broth dilution method against 16 bacterial strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. The leaves essential oil showed stronger antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 125 ml/ml and moderate activity against Campylobacter jejuni (MIC > 500 ml/ml. Other investigated bacterial strains and Candida albicans were completely resistant to the antimicrobial activity of J. foetidissima essential oils.

  17. Photosynthetic performance of invasive Pinus ponderosa and Juniperus virginiana seedlings under gradual soil water depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihmidine, S; Bryan, N M; Payne, K R; Parde, M R; Okalebo, J A; Cooperstein, S E; Awada, T

    2010-07-01

    Changes in climate, land management and fire regime have contributed to woody species expansion into grasslands and savannas worldwide. In the USA, Pinus ponderosa P.&C. Lawson and Juniperus virginiana L. are expanding into semiarid grasslands of Nebraska and other regions of the Great Plains. We examined P. ponderosa and J. virginiana seedling response to soil water content, one of the most important limiting factors in semiarid grasslands, to provide insight into their success in the region. Photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII, maximum carboxylation velocity, maximum rate of electron transport, stomatal limitation to photosynthesis, water potential, root-to-shoot ratio, and needle nitrogen content were followed under gradual soil water depletion for 40 days. J. virginiana maintained lower L(s), higher A, g(s), and initial F(v)/F(m), and displayed a more gradual decline in V(cmax) and J(max) with increasing water deficit compared to P. ponderosa. J. virginiana also invested more in roots relative to shoots compared to P. ponderosa. F(v)/F(m) showed high PSII resistance to dehydration in both species. Photoinhibition was observed at approximately 30% of field capacity. Soil water content was a better predictor of A and g(s) than Psi, indicating that there are other growth factors controlling physiological processes under increased water stress. The two species followed different strategies to succeed in semiarid grasslands. P. ponderosa seedlings behaved like a drought-avoidant species with strong stomatal control, while J. virginiana was more of a drought-tolerant species, maintaining physiological activity at lower soil water content. Differences between the studied species and the ecological implications are discussed.

  18. Increased temperatures negatively affect Juniperus communis seeds: evidence from transplant experiments along a latitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruwez, R; De Frenne, P; Vander Mijnsbrugge, K; Vangansbeke, P; Verheyen, K

    2016-05-01

    With a distribution range that covers most of the Northern hemisphere, common juniper (Juniperus communis) has one of the largest ranges of all vascular plant species. In several regions in Europe, however, populations are decreasing in size and number due to failing recruitment. One of the main causes for this failure is low seed viability. Observational evidence suggests that this is partly induced by climate warming, but our mechanistic understanding of this effect remains incomplete. Here, we experimentally assess the influence of temperature on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, i.e. gametogenesis and fertilisation (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3). Along a latitudinal gradient from southern France to central Sweden, we installed a transplant experiment with shrubs originating from Belgium, a region with unusually low juniper seed viability. Seeds of both seed phases were sampled during three consecutive years, and seed viability assessed. Warming temperatures negatively affected the seed viability of both SP2 and SP3 seeds along the latitudinal gradient. Interestingly, the effect on embryo development (SP3) only occurred in the third year, i.e. when the gametogenesis and fertilisation also took place in warmer conditions. We found strong indications that this negative influence mostly acts via disrupting growth of the pollen tube, the development of the female gametophyte and fertilisation (SP2). This, in turn, can lead to failing embryo development, for example, due to nutritional problems. Our results confirm that climate warming can negatively affect seed viability of juniper. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Dual extraction of essential oil and podophyllotoxin from creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L Cantrell

    Full Text Available Juniperus horizontalis Moench (Family Cupressaceae, commonly called creeping juniper, is a widely distributed species in the United States and much of Canada. It is potentially a source for two important chemical products, the anticancer drug synthetic precursor, podophyllotoxin and essential oils. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the likelihood of utilizing J. horizontalis needles for the simultaneous production of both (--podophyllotoxin and essential oil components and to determine the optimum distillation time (DT needed for the production of essential oil containing a specific ratio of constituents. Eleven different distillation times were tested in this study: 20, 40, 80, 160, 180, 240, 480, 600, 720, 840, and 960 min. Total essential oil content increased with increasing distillation time from a minimum of 0.023% at 20 min to a maximum of 1.098% at 960 min. The major constituents present in the oil were alpha-pinene, sabinene, and limonene. The percent concentration of sabinene in the essential oil varied from a high of 46.6% at 80 min to a low of 30.2% at 960 min, that of limonene changed very little as a result of distillation time and remained near 30% for all distillation times, whereas the concentration of alpha-pinene was 9.6% at 20 min DT and decreased to 4.2% at 960 min. Post distillation analysis of needles revealed elevated amounts of (--podophyllotoxin remaining in the tissue varied in the amount of podophyllotoxin present, from a low of 0.281% to a high of 0.364% as compared to undistilled needles which gave 0.217% podophyllotoxin. As a result of this study, specific essential oil components can now be targeted in J. horizontalis by varying the distillation time. Furthermore, needles can be successfully utilized as a source of both essential oil and podophyllotoxin, consecutively.

  20. Mammal endemism In Italy: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Amori

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although there are various checklists of Italian mammals, there is not yet a synthesis of those mammals that are endemic to Italy. Therefore, we provide for the first time a detailed review on Italian mammal endemic species including endemic taxa deserving additional studies. This review is based on the most recent taxonomic revisions obtained using Scopus and Google Scholar databases. We also considered the age of endemic species. Some aspects of mammalian conservation are also provided and discussed.

  1. Endemic Images and the Desensitization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigh, Philip A.; Antoun, Fouad T.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the effects of endemic images on levels of anxiety and achievement of 48 high school students. Results suggested that a combination of endemic images and study skills training was as effective as desensitization plus study skills training. Includes the endemic image questionnaire. (JAC)

  2. Measurement of injected Sr in the stem of a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Y.; Aoki, T.; Ko, S.; Yoshida, K.

    1999-01-01

    Distribution profiles of Sr injected into the stem of a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) were determined using PIXE. The Sr injected into the middle of the sapwood of the cedar stem moved upwards easily along the grain. The Sr in the stem moved in a radial direction in the sapwood section (assumed to be through the ray) and there was almost no tangential movement. (author)

  3. Determining Accuracy of Thermal Dissipation Methods-based Sap Flux in Japanese Cedar Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Man-Ping; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Laplace, Sophie; Lin, Song-Jin; Kume, Tomonori

    2017-04-01

    Thermal dissipation method, one kind of sap flux measurement method that can estimate individual tree transpiration, have been widely used because of its low cost and uncomplicated operation. Although thermal dissipation method is widespread, the accuracy of this method is doubted recently because some tree species materials in previous studies were not suitable for its empirical formula from Granier due to difference of wood characteristics. In Taiwan, Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar) is one of the dominant species in mountainous area, quantifying the transpiration of Japanese cedar trees is indispensable to understand water cycling there. However, no one have tested the accuracy of thermal dissipation methods-based sap flux for Japanese cedar trees in Taiwan. Thus, in this study we conducted calibration experiment using twelve Japanese cedar stem segments from six trees to investigate the accuracy of thermal dissipation methods-based sap flux in Japanese cedar trees in Taiwan. By pumping water from segment bottom to top and inserting probes into segments to collect data simultaneously, we compared sap flux densities calculated from real water uptakes (Fd_actual) and empirical formula (Fd_Granier). Exact sapwood area and sapwood depth of each sample were obtained from dying segment with safranin stain solution. Our results showed that Fd_Granier underestimated 39 % of Fd_actual across sap flux densities ranging from 10 to 150 (cm3m-2s-1); while applying sapwood depth corrected formula from Clearwater, Fd_Granier became accurately that only underestimated 0.01 % of Fd_actual. However, when sap flux densities ranging from 10 to 50 (cm3m-2s-1)which is similar with the field data of Japanese cedar trees in a mountainous area of Taiwan, Fd_Granier underestimated 51 % of Fd_actual, and underestimated 26 % with applying Clearwater sapwood depth corrected formula. These results suggested sapwood depth significantly impacted on the accuracy of thermal dissipation

  4. Effects of Inhalation of Emissions from Cedar Timber on Psychological and Physiological Factors in an Indoor Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Azuma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Components extracted from cedar timber have been reported to have stress-reducing effects in humans. If the positive effects of cedar timber in indoor environments are scientifically proven, an indoor environment that utilizes cedar timber may contribute to the improvement or promotion of well-being in humans. In this study, we evaluated the effects of inhaling emissions of volatile constituents from cedar timber (Cryptomeria japonica on the psychological and physiological factors in indoor environments. A case-control study with a crossover design was conducted with 10 subjects occupying two rooms that were controlled for interior materials, indoor climate, and room size. Cedrol and β-eudesmol were specifically detected in the case room. However, no significant differences were observed in psychological and physiological factors. There was a significant loss in vigor in the control group from the time before entering the room to the time after leaving the room; however, this loss in vigor was not seen in the case group. Temperature conditions were higher than the indoor environmental standard in Japan but similar in the two groups. Our results showed a minor positive change in vigor among participants exposed to cedar timber for a short term. Inhalation of emissions of volatile constituents from cedar timber may have positive effects in humans; however, further research on their efficacy is needed.

  5. The cedar counters for particle identification in the SPS secondary beams: A description and an operation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovet, C.; Maleyran, R.; Piemontese, L.; Placci, A.; Placidi, M.

    1982-01-01

    The Cerenkov Differential counter with Achromatic Ring Focus (Cedar) has been designed and a number built at Cern for the identification (and selection) of particles in the secondary beams of a high-energy accelerator. Cedar-N can separate kaons from pions up to 300 GeV/c but can detect protons only down to 60 GeV/c; Cedar-W can flag protons of 12 GeV/c and separate kaons from pions up to 150 GeV/c. After a brief account of the relevant physics of the Cerenkov effect, this report describes Cedars with emphasis on those characteristics and construction features that are of interest to the user. Details are given of the high-precision optical system, the mechanical construction to achieve uniform temperature (0.1 K) and rigidity, and the gas handling and measurement. The layout of the Cedars in the secondary beams of the Cern Super Proton Synchrotron is described. The signals provided to the user are listed and explained, together with the programs for on-line control of the counters. Details are given of the performances attained, together with various hints and suggestions on the procedure to follow in order to set-up, tune, and operate a Cedar. The dependence of the performance on beam optics is stressed. (orig.)

  6. Endemic Nephropathy Around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Fiona J; Gifford, Robert M; Eddleston, Michael; Dhaun, Neeraj

    2017-03-01

    There have been several global epidemics of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKD u ). Some, such as Itai-Itai disease in Japan and Balkan endemic nephropathy, have been explained, whereas the etiology of others remains unclear. In countries such as Sri Lanka, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and India, CKD u is a major public health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Despite their geographical separation, however, there are striking similarities between these endemic nephropathies. Young male agricultural workers who perform strenuous labor in extreme conditions are the worst affected. Patients remain asymptomatic until end-stage renal failure. Biomarkers of tubular injury are raised, and kidney biopsy shows chronic interstitial nephritis with associated tubular atrophy. In many of these places access to dialysis and transplantation is limited, leaving few treatment options. In this review we briefly describe the major historic endemic nephropathies. We then summarize the epidemiology, clinical features, histology and clinical course of CKD u in Mesoamerica, Sri Lanka, India, Egypt, and Tunisia. We draw comparisons between the proposed etiologies and supporting research. Recognition of the similarities may reinforce the international drive to establish causality and to effect prevention.

  7. Endemic Nephropathy Around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona J. Gifford

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been several global epidemics of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu. Some, such as Itai-Itai disease in Japan and Balkan endemic nephropathy, have been explained, whereas the etiology of others remains unclear. In countries such as Sri Lanka, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and India, CKDu is a major public health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Despite their geographical separation, however, there are striking similarities between these endemic nephropathies. Young male agricultural workers who perform strenuous labor in extreme conditions are the worst affected. Patients remain asymptomatic until end-stage renal failure. Biomarkers of tubular injury are raised, and kidney biopsy shows chronic interstitial nephritis with associated tubular atrophy. In many of these places access to dialysis and transplantation is limited, leaving few treatment options. In this review we briefly describe the major historic endemic nephropathies. We then summarize the epidemiology, clinical features, histology and clinical course of CKDu in Mesoamerica, Sri Lanka, India, Egypt, and Tunisia. We draw comparisons between the proposed etiologies and supporting research. Recognition of the similarities may reinforce the international drive to establish causality and to effect prevention.

  8. Comparison of Organic Matter Dynamics in Soil between Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) Forest and Adjacent Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora) Forest Established on Flatland

    OpenAIRE

    Terumasa, Takahashi; Akiko, Minami; Yoshito, Asano; Tatsuaki, Kobayashi; Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba Universit; Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University:(Present)Hashikami town office; Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University; Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University

    1999-01-01

    In order to clarify the effects of tree species on organic matter dynamics in soil, we investigated the amount of forest floor material, leaf litter decomposition rate, soil chemical characteristics, soil respiration rate and cellulose decomposition rate in a Japanese cedar forest (cedar plot) and an adjacent Japanese red pine forest (pine plot) established on a flatland. The amount of forest floor material in the cedar plot was 34.5 Mg ha^ which was greater than that in the pine plot. Becaus...

  9. Produce of seedlings of cedar in function of types of container and fertilization sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Henrique de Castro Pias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of cedar seedlings according to the size of containers and nutrient sources. It was tested three types of containers (Root trainers, plastic bag and plastic vase, three sources of fertilization (Conventional, Kimcoat® and Osmocote® in seven evaluations. The cedar seedlings in root trainers, fertilized with source Osmocote® presented the greatest increments in height and stem diameter when compared to another sources of fertilization. The plastic bag and plastic vase containers promoted similar seedlings height growth. However the seedlings grown in plastic vase presented greatest growth in stem diameter when compared with the ones in plastic bag.

  10. Reconstructing Northeastern United States temperatures using Atlantic white cedar tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Jessie K.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Pederson, Neil; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.

    2017-11-01

    Our knowledge of climate variability in the densely populated Northeastern United States is limited to instrumental data of the last century. Most regional paleoclimate proxies reflect a mix of climate responses, which makes reconstructing historical climate a challenge. Here we analyze tree-ring chronologies from Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides) as a potential regional paleotemperature proxy. We evaluate our tree-ring network for spatiotemporal climate signal strength and reconstruction skill across New England. Atlantic white cedar sites in the northern section of the species’ range exhibit positive significant annual growth relationships with local and regional temperatures. Chronologies constructed from northern sites yield skillful reconstructions of temperature that reproduce centennial, multidecadal, and interannual variability in the instrumental record, providing a novel paleotemperature record for New England.

  11. Aqueous leachate from western red cedar: effects on some aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, G B; Dawson, H J; Hrutfiord, B F; Whitney, R R

    1976-01-01

    Water-soluble extractives from western red cedar heartwood, bark, and foliage were investigated for their toxicity to aquatic organisms. The heartwood lignins and bark extractives were found to be moderately toxic, but the foliage terpenes and heartwood tropolones were more toxic, causing 50% mortality to coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) fry at 0.33 and 2.7 mg/liter, respectively. Tropolones were significantly less toxic to invertebrates than to free-swimming stages of the fish tested. Fry were found to be the stage of development of coho salmon (O. kisutch) most sensitive to the tropolones, and eyed eggs the least sensitive. Sensitivity of the coho fry to tropolones was moderated by previous sublethal exposure or the presence of a chelatable cation. Results from field studies and a leaching study indicate that directly releasing cedar leachate from landfills or allowing logging debris to enter streams should be avoided. 13 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Feeding Behavior-Related Toxicity due to Nandina domestica in Cedar Waxwings (Bombycilla cedrorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moges Woldemeskel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dozens of Cedar Waxwings were found dead in Thomas County, Georgia, USA, in April 2009. Five of these were examined grossly and microscopically. Grossly, all the examined birds had pulmonary, mediastinal, and tracheal hemorrhages. Microscopically, several tissues and organs were diffusely congested and hemorrhagic. Congestion and hemorrhage were marked in the lungs. Intact and partly digested berries of Nandina domestica Thunb. were the only ingesta found in the gastrointestinal tract of these birds. Due to their voracious feeding behavior, the birds had eaten toxic doses of N. domestica berries. N. domestica contains cyanide and is one of the few berries readily available at this time of the year in the region. The gross and microscopic findings are consistent with lesions associated with cyanide toxicity. This paper for the first time documents toxicity associated with N. domestica in Cedar Waxwings.

  13. Valencene oxidase CYP706M1 from Alaska cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Katarina; van Houwelingen, Adèle; Goedbloed, Miriam; Renirie, Rokus; de Jong, René M; Bouwmeester, Harro; Bosch, Dirk; Sonke, Theo; Beekwilder, Jules

    2014-03-18

    (+)-Nootkatone is a natural sesquiterpene ketone used in grapefruit and citrus flavour compositions. It occurs in small amounts in grapefruit and is a major component of Alaska cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis) heartwood essential oil. Upon co-expression of candidate cytochrome P450 enzymes from Alaska cedar in yeast with a valencene synthase, a C. nootkatensis valencene oxidase (CnVO) was identified to produce trans-nootkatol and (+)-nootkatone. Formation of (+)-nootkatone was detected at 144±10μg/L yeast culture. CnVO belongs to a new subfamily of the CYP706 family of cytochrome P450 oxidases. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determining Minimal Clinically Important Differences in Japanese Cedar/Cypress Pollinosis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Takaya Higaki; Mitsuhiro Okano; Shin Kariya; Tazuko Fujiwara; Takenori Haruna; Haruka Hirai; Aya Murai; Minoru Gotoh; Kimihiro Okubo; Shuji Yonekura; Yoshitaka Okamoto; Kazunori Nishizaki

    2013-01-01

    Background: Statistically significant results of medical intervention trials are not always clinically meaningful. We sought to estimate the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) (the smallest change in a given endpoint that is meaningful to a patient) during seasonal alteration of Japanese cedar/cypress pollinosis (JCCP). Methods: Results of a double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of JCCP patients conducted between 2008 and 2010 were analyzed using an anchor-based method in wh...

  15. Atlantic white cedar: ecology, restoration, and management: Proceedings of the Arlington Echo symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip Sheridan

    2005-01-01

    A symposium was held on the globally threatened and coastally restricted tree species, Atlantic white-cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides (L) B.S.P.) at the Arlington Echo Outdoor Education Center, Millersville, MD, in June 2003. The theme of the symposium was “Uniting Forces for Action,” and participants in the symposium came from throughout the range of this species, from...

  16. Forests in decline: yellow-cedar research yields prototype for climate change adaptation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Oliver; Paul Hennon; David D' Amore

    2013-01-01

    Yellow-cedar has been dying across 600 miles of North Pacific coastal rain forest—from Alaska to British Columbia—since about 1880. Thirty years ago, a small group of pathologists began investigating possible biotic causes of the decline. When no biotic cause could be found, the scope broadened into a research program that eventually encompassed the fields of ecology,...

  17. Cedar Grove: An Interdisciplinary Investigation of a Late Caddo Farmstead in the Red River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-31

    render all rimless Natchitoches Engraved body sherds (Figure 1 l-48h). These could be from an unrecorded variety unsortable to type. This is a good...Aloerta, Alford and Arlis. At Cedar Grove the only types mnat renders these 17 Dewey rims unsertaoie to type. Two that use these patterns are Foster...i’auconte) ) 0-H) extent of .ts distribution before contact. It was used in California (Ross 1940; Heizer and Treganza 1944). It aiso occurred in

  18. Moessbauer spectroscopic study of iron in Japanese cedar bark (Paper No. HF-02)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, T.B.; Ichikuni, M.

    1990-02-01

    The bark samples of Japanese cedar collected from mountainous and urban areas were characterised by Moessbauer spectroscopy. The Moessbauer spectra showed that iron in the bark samples was distributed among paramagnetic Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ and magnetic iron and their relative abundance changed appreciably from one area to other. Further, low Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ ratio and high magnetic iron in urban samples indicated an influence of human activities. (author). 1 tab., 1 fig

  19. Increasing Drought Sensitivity and Decline of Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica) in the Moroccan Middle Atlas Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Linares, Juan C.; Taïqui, Lahcen; Camarero, Jesús Julio

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of the interactions between climate change and forest structure on tree growth are needed for decision making in forest conservation and management. In this paper, we investigated the relative contribution of tree features and stand structure on Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica) radial growth in forests that have experienced heavy grazing and logging in the past. Dendrochronological methods were applied to quantify patterns in basal-area increment and drought sensitivity of Atla...

  20. Water quality of Cedar Creek reservoir in northeast Texas, 1977 to 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibbrand, Norman F.; Gibbons, Willard J.

    1987-01-01

    Water in Cedar Creek Reservoir in northeast Texas had volume-weighted average concentrations of less than 140 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids, less than 30 milligrams per liter of dissolved sulfate, and less than 25 milligrams per liter of chloride between vh nuary 1977 and August 1984. The water was soft to moderately hard; the total hardness concentrations ranged from 55 to 75 milligrams per liter as calcium carbonate.

  1. Biologically Important Eremophilane Sesquiterpenes from Alaska Cedar Heartwood Essential Oil and Their Semi-Synthetic Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Khasawneh, Mohammad A.; Xiong, Yeping; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Karchesy, Joe J.

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil of Alaska cedar heartwood is known to contain compounds which contribute to the remarkable durability of this species. While previous research has identified several compounds, a complete description of this oil has not been undertaken. In this research a profile of the oil is given in which the major components are identified by GC, isolation and spectroscopic techniques. The major components of the steam distilled essential oil were identified as nootkatin, nootkatone, val...

  2. Antibiofilm and Antihyphal Activities of Cedar Leaf Essential Oil, Camphor, and Fenchone Derivatives against Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Jintae

    2017-01-01

    Candida albicans can form biofilms composed of yeast, hyphal, and pseudohyphal elements, and C. albicans cells in the hyphal stage could be a virulence factor. The present study describes the chemical composition, antibiofilm, and antihyphal activities of cedar leaf essential oil (CLEO), which was found to possess remarkable antibiofilm activity against C. albicans but not to affect its planktonic cell growth. Nineteen components were identified in CLEO by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry...

  3. Status and trends of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) in the central United States: Analyses and observations based on Forest Inventory and Analysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Greg C. Liknes

    2015-01-01

    Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) (ERC) is a conifer native to North America that has been used for a variety of wood products, and its planting has been encouraged to help stabilize soil, reforest abandoned farmland, and provide cover for wildlife. However, ERC tends to expand rapidly and take over certain areas primarily because it can grow...

  4. Twentieth-century warming and the dendroclimatology of declining yellow-cedar forests in southeastern Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beier, C.M. [Alaska Fairbanks Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Biology and Wildlife; Sink, S.E.; Juday, G.P. [Alaska Fairbanks Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). School of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences; Hennon, P.E.; D' Amore, D.V. [United States Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Juneau, AK (United States). Pacific Northwest Research Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory

    2008-06-15

    The decline of yellow cedar in temperate rainforests in southeastern Alaska was investigated. Dieback of the species has been observed as early as 1909. The dehardening process for the species is highly temperature-dependent. Declining stands have been found in open-canopy forests on poorly drained sites. Historical climate data sets were compiled suing extensive tree-ring chronologies. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that a specific suite of microclimatic conditions that occur during late winter involving early dehardening, reduced snowpack, and freezing injury are responsible. The assumption was tested by examining regional climatic trends and growth responses of declining cedar populations. Results of the study showed increasing winter temperatures in the region which have resulted in the frequent occurrence of severe thaw-freeze events. Late winter weather was the best predictor of annual growth for surviving trees. Results of the study also verified the impact of elevational gradients of temperature and snow cover on the exposure of the trees to climatic stressors. It was concluded that yellow cedars may continue to decline with continued climatic warming. 36 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs.

  5. Breeding for a low pollen variety of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Teiji

    1998-01-01

    The number of sufferers of Japanese cedar pollinosis has been increasing recently and this type of pollinosis is a serious allergic disease in Japan, where one of ten persons is suffering it to some extent. Breeding of Japanese cedar trees was attempted to produce less pollen and set fewer male flowers. Because the degree of male flower setting was varied among plus trees, it was thought possible to select the plus trees that set fewer than normal male flowers for use as low pollen varieties. The degree of male flower setting was evaluated under natural conditions and the conditions of gibberellic acid treatment. Since a spontaneous male sterile mutant was previously identified, it was thought possible to induce such mutation. Therefore, the cedars cultivars growing in the γ-field of Institute of Radiation Breeding were examined in respect of male fertility and some abnormal male flowers were obtained. The changes after transplanting these varieties from the γ-field remain to be resolved. Further, it is necessary to monitor the volume and the number of male flowers, and also the allergen content. (M.N.)

  6. Essential Oil of Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) Wood Increases Salivary Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Levels after Monotonous Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Eri; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Ohira, Tatsuro; Sugiyama, Masaki

    2017-01-21

    Employee problems arising from mental illnesses have steadily increased and become a serious social problem in recent years. Wood is a widely available plant material, and knowledge of the psychophysiological effects of inhalation of woody volatile compounds has grown considerably. In this study, we established an experimental method to evaluate the effects of Japanese cedar wood essential oil on subjects performing monotonous work. Two experiment conditions, one with and another without diffusion of the essential oil were prepared. Salivary stress markers were determined during and after a calculation task followed by distribution of questionnaires to achieve subjective odor assessment. We found that inhalation of air containing the volatile compounds of Japanese cedar wood essential oil increased the secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s). Slight differences in the subjective assessment of the odor of the experiment rooms were observed. The results of the present study indicate that the volatile compounds of Japanese cedar wood essential oil affect the endocrine regulatory mechanism to facilitate stress responses. Thus, we suggest that this essential oil can improve employees' mental health.

  7. Estimation of lead sources in a Japanese cedar ecosystem using stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yuko; Noguchi, Kyotaro; Takahashi, Masamichi; Okamoto, Toru; Yoshinaga, Shuichiro

    2007-01-01

    Anthropogenic Pb affects the environment worldwide. To understand its effect on forest ecosystem, Pb isotope ratios were determined in precipitation, various components of vegetation, the forest floor, soil and parent material in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) forest stand. The average 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio in bulk precipitation was 1.14 ± 0.01 (mean ± SD), whereas that in the subsoil (20-130 cm) was 1.18 ± 0.01. Intermediate ratios ranging from 1.15 to 1.16 were observed in the vegetation, the forest floor, and the surface soil (0-10 cm). Using the 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios, the contribution of anthropogenic sources to Pb accumulated in the forest were estimated by the simple binary mixing model. Sixty-two percent of the Pb in the forest floor, 71% in the vegetation, and 55% in the surface soil (0-10 cm) originated from anthropogenic sources, but only 16% in the sub-surface soil (10-20 cm) was anthropogenic. These results suggest that internal Pb cycling occurs mainly between surface soil and vegetation in a Japanese cedar ecosystem, and that anthropogenic Pb strongly influences Pb cycling. Although the Japanese cedar ecosystem has a shallow forest floor, very little atmospherically derived Pb migrated downward over 10 cm in depth

  8. Efficacy of cryotherapy plus topical Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb cream versus cryotherapy plus placebo in the treatment of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis: A triple-blind randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvizi, Mohammad Mahdi; Handjani, Farhad; Moein, Mahmoodreza; Hatam, Gholamreza; Nimrouzi, Majid; Hassanzadeh, Jafar; Hamidizadeh, Nasrin; Khorrami, Hamid Reza; Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi

    2017-10-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the highly prevalent endemic diseases in the Middle East and North Africa. Many treatment modalities have been recommended for this condition but success rates remain limited. Herbal remedies have also been used for treatment but evidence-based clinical trials with these products are sparse. In-vitro and in-vivo studies have shown the anti-leishmanial and curative effects of extract of fruits and leaves of Juniperus excelsa (J. excelsa). The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of topical J. excelsa M. Bieb extract as an adjuvant to cryotherapy for the treatment of human CL. This study was designed as a two-arm triple-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial using a parallel design. Seventy-two patients with clinical diagnosis of CL confirmed by leishmania smears were allocated to receive either a topical formulation of leaf of J. excelsa extract (group A) or placebo (group B) for 3 months. Both groups received cryotherapy as baseline standard treatment. Patients were evaluated before and weekly after the intervention was initiated until complete cure. Overall, 82% of patients in group A, experienced complete cure and 9% of them had partial cure. On the other hand, 34% in group B reported complete cure, while 14% of them had partial cure at the end of treatment protocol with a significant difference between the two groups (Pcryotherapy for accelerating the time to cure in addition to increasing the complete cure rate in CL. ClinicalTrials.gov IRCT2015082523753N1.

  9. Antihyperglycemic effect ofJuniperus phoenicea L. on alloxan-induced diabetic rats and diterpenoids isolated from the fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salma Ahmed El-Sawi; Hemaia Mohamed Motawae; Abdel-Rahman Omar El-Shabrawy; Mohamed Aboul-Fotouh Sleem; Amani Ameen Sleem; Maii Abdel Naby Ismail Maamoun

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the traditional use ofJuniperus phoenicea L. (J. phoenicea) growing in Egypt as antidiabetic herb. Methods: The antihyperglycemic activities of the crude 80% ethanol and successive extracts of leaves and fruits of the plant were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats after collecting blood samples through retro-orbital puncture technique. As a consequence of the biological results, phytochemical investigation of the chloroform fraction of fruits was carried out by column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. Results: Results revealed the reduction in blood glucose levels in rats, which were significantly different from control at 4 and 8 weeks (P Conclusions: It has become clear that leaves and fruits of the EgyptianJ. phoenicea provide effective antihyperglycemic action in diabetic rats as was reported in folk medicine. The high contents of terpenoids in the non-polar fractions may attribute to the antidiabetic effect of the plant.

  10. Composition of the essential oils from Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum), Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), and White Sage (Salvia apiana).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochrein, James Michael; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus III

    2003-09-01

    The essential oils of Juniperus scopulorum, Artemisia tridentata, and Salvia apiana obtained by steam extraction were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. For J. scopulorum, twenty-five compounds were identified which accounts for 92.43% of the oil. The primary constituents were sabinene (49.91%), {alpha}-terpinene (9.95%), and 4-terpineol (6.79%). For A. tridentata, twenty compounds were identified which accounts for 84.32% of the oil. The primary constituents were camphor (28.63%), camphene (16.88%), and 1,8-cineole (13.23%). For S. apiana, fourteen compounds were identified which accounts for 96.76% of the oil. The primary component was 1,8-cineole (60.65%).

  11. Encroachment Dynamics of Juniperus virginiana L. and Mesic Hardwood Species into Cross Timbers Forests of North-Central Oklahoma, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Hoff

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross Timbers forests, typically dominated by Quercus stellata Wangenh. and Q. marilandica Muenchh., are the transition zone between eastern deciduous forest and prairie in the southern Great Plains. Fire exclusion beginning in the mid-1900s has led to increasing stand density and encroachment of fire-intolerant Juniperus virginiana L. and mesic hardwood. We measured current forest structure and tree ages of 25 stands (130 plots in north-central Oklahoma to characterize the extent and dynamics of encroachment. The respective basal area and stand density of the overstory (diameter at breast height; dbh > 10 cm were 19.0 m2 ha−1 and 407 trees ha−1 with Q. stellata comprising 43% of basal area and 42% of stand density. Quercus marilandica represented only 3% of basal area and 4% of overstory density. Juniperus virginiana represented 7% of basal area and 14% of stand density while mesic hardwoods, e.g., Celtis spp., Ulmus spp., Carya spp., 33% of basal area and stand density. The sapling layer was dominated by mesic hardwoods (68% and J. virginiana (25% while the seedling layer was dominated by mesic hardwoods (74%. The majority of Quercus recruited into the overstory between 1910–1970, while recruitment of J. virginiana and mesic hardwoods began more recently (post 1950s. Growth rate, based on the relationship between age and dbh, was faster for mesic hardwoods than for J. virginiana and Q. stellata. These results indicate that removal of recurrent surface fire as a disturbance agent has significantly altered forest composition in the Cross Timbers region by allowing encroachment of J. virginiana and fire-intolerant, mesic hardwoods. This increases wildfire risk because J. virginiana is very flammable and will alter how these forests respond to future drought and other disturbance events.

  12. Study of the thermohygrometric conditions of Juniperus turbinata habitat in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; López-Bustins, Joan Albert; Padrón-Padrón, Perdro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2015-04-01

    The biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands is located in the island of El Hierro. The current extent of juniper woodlands is very small compared with the potential distribution due to heavy exploitation for centuries. Nowadays, the recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe; however, an improved understanding of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Under the JUNITUR project the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro are being studied, which are subjected to highly different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to NE trade winds. The main objective of this study is to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands, located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro, which present different recovery rates. We are currently using air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. For this preliminary approach, we analyse daily data of two annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2014). Our first results show similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas. The largest differences are detected in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) and south (to leeward) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate shows the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. This last juniper woodland is located leeward to trade winds at 996 m a.s.l. In general terms, the results of this research project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in the westernmost of the Canary Islands. Key words: bioclimatology, El Hierro, habitat, Juniperus turbinata, protected species

  13. Effect of root strength and soil saturation on hillslope stability in forests with natural cedar decline in headwater regions of SE Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelaide C. Johnson; Peter. Wilcock

    1998-01-01

    A natural decline in the population of yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis) is occurring in pristine southeast Alaska forests and may be the most significant forest decline in the western United States. The frequency of landslides in cedar decline areas is three times larger than in areas of healthy forest. Three regions are investigated in...

  14. Adaptation to exploit nitrate in surface soils predisposes yellow-cedar to climate-induced decline while enhancing the survival of western redcedar: a new hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    David V. D' Amore; Paul E. Hennon; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley

    2009-01-01

    Yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach) and western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn), two valuable tree species of Pacific Northwest forests, are competitive in low productivity forests on wet, nearly saturated soils with low nitrogen (N) availability and turnover. We propose a mechanism where cedar trees survive in...

  15. Evaluation of soil saturation, soil chemistry, and early spring soil and air temperatures as risk factors in yellow-cedar decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.V. D' Amore; P.E. Hennon

    2006-01-01

    Yellow-cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis (D. Don) Oerst.) is a valuable tree species that is experiencing a widespread decline and mortality in southeast Alaska. This study evaluated the relative importance of several potential risk factors associated with yellow-cedar decline: soil saturation, soil aluminum (Al) toxicity or calcium (Ca) deficiency...

  16. Early results from genetic trials on the growth of Spanish cedar and itssusceptibility to the shoot borer moth in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheila E. Ward; Kevyn E. Wightman; Bartolo. Rodriguez Santiago

    2008-01-01

    Cedrela odorata (Spanish cedar) is a neotropical broadleaf tree species that is in high demand for furniture and interior fittings. In 1998, seed collections were made from Spanish cedar in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, for genetic conservation and tree improvement projects. Progeny from these collections were established in genetic trials at Bacalar, Noh Bec, and Zoh...

  17. Soil ecology of a rock outcrop ecosystem: Abiotic stresses, soil respiration, and microbial community profiles in limestone cedar glades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Advised by Dzantor, E. Kudjo

    2015-01-01

    Limestone cedar glades are a type of rock outcrop ecosystem characterized by shallow soil and extreme hydrologic conditions—seasonally ranging from xeric to saturated—that support a number of plant species of conservation concern. Although a rich botanical literature exists on cedar glades, soil biochemical processes and the ecology of soil microbial communities in limestone cedar glades have largely been ignored. This investigation documents the abiotic stress regime of this ecosystem (shallow soil, extreme hydrologic fluctuations and seasonally high soil surface temperatures) as well as soil physical and chemical characteristics, and relates both types of information to ecological structures and functions including vegetation, soil respiration, and soil microbial community metabolic profiles and diversity. Methods used in this investigation include field observations and measurements of soil physical and chemical properties and processes, laboratory analyses, and microbiological assays of soil samples.

  18. Distribution of 90Sr and 137Cs in annual tree rings of Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria Japonica D. Don

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chigira, Midori; Saito, Yuko; Kimura, Kan

    1988-01-01

    The contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in two samples of Japanese cedar from Takao and Tsukui districts were determined in tree rings cut into segments representing steps of 5 years of growth. 90 Sr in both cedar samples and 137 Cs in the Tsukui cedar sample were determined after ashing and chemical isolation, while 137 Cs in the Takao sample was directly determined from the sample ash. The distribution of 90 Sr fallout in tree rings suggests that 90 Sr had given a rather direct effect and showed no significant translocation from sapwood to heartwood, whereas 137 Cs tends to concentrate in heartwood irrespective of the effect of the fallout. Average contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs were 22 and 9.4 pCi/kg in the Takao sample (9.61 kg air dried) and were 23 and 12 in the Tsukui (4.71 kg air dried) in 1982. (author)

  19. The Influence of Salmon Recolonization on Riparian Communities in the Cedar River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravek, J.; Clipp, H.; Kiffney, P.

    2016-02-01

    Salmon are a valuable resource throughout the Pacific Northwest, but increasing human activity is degrading coastal ecosystems and threatening local salmon populations. Salmon conservation efforts often focus on habitat restoration, including the re-colonization of salmon into historically obstructed areas such as the Cedar River in Washington, USA. However, to assess the long term implications of salmon re-colonization on a landscape scale, it is critical to consider not only the river ecosystem but also the surrounding riparian habitat. Although prior studies suggest that salmon alter riparian food web dynamics, the riparian community on the Cedar River has not yet been characterized. To investigate possible connections between salmon and the riparian habitat after 12 years of re-colonization, we surveyed riparian spider communities along a gradient of salmon inputs (g/m2). In 10-m transects along the banks of the river, we identified spiders and spider webs, collected prey from webs, and characterized nearby aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. We found that the density of aquatic macroinvertebrates, as well as the density of spider prey, both had significant positive relationships with salmon inputs, supporting the hypothesis that salmon provide energy and nutrients for both aquatic and riparian food webs. We also found that spider diversity significantly decreased with salmon inputs, potentially due to confounding factors such as stream gradient or vegetation structure. Although additional information is needed to fully understand this relationship, the significant connection between salmon inputs and spider diversity is compelling motivation for further studies regarding the link between aquatic and riparian systems on the Cedar River. Understanding the connections between salmon and the riparian community is critical to characterizing the long term, landscape-scale implications of sustainable salmon management in the Pacific Northwest.

  20. Spatial distribution of chlordanes and PCB congeners in soil in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Andres; Erdman, Nicholas R.; Rodenburg, Zachary L.; Eastling, Paul M.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2012-01-01

    Residential soils from Cedar Rapids, Iowa, USA were collected and analyzed for chlordanes and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This study is one of the very few urban soil investigations in the USA. The chlordanes concentrations ranged from 0 to 7500 ng g −1 dry weight (d.w.), with a mean and standard deviation of 130 ± 920 ng g −1 d.w., which is about 1000 times larger than background levels. ΣPCB concentrations ranged from 3 to 1200 ng g −1 d.w., with a mean and standard deviation of 56 ± 160 ng g −1 d.w. and are about 10 times higher than world-wide background levels. Both groups exhibit considerable variability in chemical patterns and site-to-site concentrations. Although no measurements of dioxins were carried out, the potential toxicity due to the 12 dioxin-like PCBs found in the soil is in the same order of magnitude of the provisional threshold recommended by USEPA to perform soil remediation. - Graphical Abstract: Spatial location and measured concentrations of ΣPCB (left, 64 sites) and chlordanes (right, 66 sites) (ng g −1 d.w.) in soil from Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Samples were collected in August 2008. Estimated flood area was obtained from the Linn County Auditor's Office. Highlights: ► Chlordanes and PCBs congeners were measured in surficial soil from Cedar Rapids, Iowa. ► Measured values for both chemical groups are similar to other urban/industrial site around the world. ► This is one of the few urban soil studies in the USA. ► TEQs values are in the same order of magnitude of the provisional threshold recommended by USEPA to perform soil remediation. - Chlordane compounds (trans-, cis- and trans-nonachlor) and PCBs (164 peaks for 209 congeners) were measured in the soils of a small medium-sized American city.

  1. ABOVE AND BELOW GROUND INTERACTIONS IN THE AGROFORESTAL ASSOCIATION 'RED CEDAR-PERSIAN LIME-CHAYA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Mao Estanislao Aguilar-Luna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Above and below ground interactions were analyzed in the agroforestal association 'red cedar-Persian lime-chaya', to know the initial optimum planting density (PD, in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Red cedar and Persian lime were placed in a 'Nelder' circle of 3154 m2 which consisted of 20 concentric circles alternating red cedars and Persian limes to 1.50 m apart and 10 plants per circle; chaya rectangular frame was set at 1.50 x 3.00 m, superimposed on the 'Nelder' circle. Defined eight PD 2602 to 3772 pl·ha-1 with 10 repetitions, to evaluate the length of main root (LMR, radical exploration range (RER, below ground interaction (BGI, plant height (PH, crown diameter (CD, above ground interaction (AGI and soil fertility (SF. The growth intraspecific he present statistical difference (P≤0.05 when moving from one PD to another PD, while the growth interespecific manifested different growth habit. The agroforestal association propitious in soil decreased phosphorous ±2 %, and increases organic matter ±14 % and nitrogen ±10 % on all PD. The BGI was increased in direct relation with the PD, reaching its highest value (64±5.8 % to 3772 pl·ha-1; the AGI also increased in direct relation with the PD, its highest value (52±3.1 % went to 3772 pl·ha-1; therefore, to higher PD increased BGI and AGI, at 20 months after planting.

  2. Effect of Preservative Treatment on Fungal Colonization of Teak, Redwood, and Western Red Cedar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrera Orozco, Yohanna; Freitag, F.; Morrell, Jeffrey J.

    Fungal flora present in preservative treated samples or non-treated samples from sapwood and heartwood of teak, western red cedar, redwood, and southern yellow pine was assessed after 6 to 18 months of exposure near Hilo, Hawaii. The objectives were to compare fungal composition and diversity...... between treated and non-treated samples, and to examine the use of molecular techniques for assessing fungal community structure in a ground-proximity-test located in Hilo, Hawaii. Fungi were recovered in culture after 6, 12, or 18 months, yielding 178 unique DNA sequences that represented 85 taxa...

  3. Flood-inundation maps for Cedar Creek at 18th Street at Auburn, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2018-02-27

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 1.9-mile reach of Cedar Creek at Auburn, Indiana (Ind.), from the First Street bridge, downstream to the streamgage at 18th Street, then ending approximately 1,100 feet (ft) downstream of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science web site at https://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on Cedar Creek at 18th Street at Auburn, Ind. (station number 04179520). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at https://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, although forecasts of flood hydrographs are not available at this site (ABBI3).Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation at the Cedar Creek at 18th Street at Auburn, Ind. streamgage and the documented high-water marks from the flood of March 11, 2009. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to compute seven water-surface profiles for flood stages referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 7 ft, or near bankfull, to 13 ft, in 1-foot increments. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging [lidar] data having a 0.98-ft vertical accuracy and 4.9-ft horizontal resolution) to delineate the area flooded at each water level.The availability of these maps, along with internet information regarding current stage from the USGS streamgage at Cedar Creek

  4. Carbon, cesium and iodine isotopes in Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Sheng; Cook, Gordon T.; Cresswell, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima were analyzed for carbon, cesium and iodine isotopic compositions before and after the 2011 nuclear accident. The Δ14C values reflect ambient atmospheric 14C concentrations during the year the leaves were sampled/defoliated, and also previous year......(s). The elevated 129I and 134,137Cs concentrations are attributed to direct exposure to the radioactive fallout for the pre-fallout-expended leaves and to internal translocation from older parts of the tree for post-fallout-expended leaves. 134Cs/137Cs and 129I/137Cs activity ratios suggest insignificant isotopic...

  5. Transfer of 7Be, 210Pb and 210Po in a forest canopy of Japanese cedar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, S.; Tagawa, Y.; Sugihara, S.; Maeda, Y.; Inokura, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The concentrations of 7 Be, 210 Pb and 210 Po of ca. 60 parts of a whole tree of Japanese cedar and of underlying litter and soil samples were determined for studying their transfer in a forest canopy. The results suggest that the mean residence times of 7 Be and 210 Pb in the forest canopy were ca. 20 and 900 days, respectively, and the dry deposition rate of 7 Be on the forest canopy was about a half of the total deposition rate. (author)

  6. Xylophage complex associated with the decline of the Atlas cedar Belezma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamina, T.; Taril, B.R.

    2015-01-01

    The study of insects associated with the decline of Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica Manetti) in the massif of Belezma (Algeria), resulted in the determination of18 species of xylophagous beetles. Their majority (85%) are represented by the subfamily of Scolytinae. The most dominant were Scolytus amygdali Guerin, 1847 andCryphalus numidicus Eichhoff, 1878.The Buprestidae occupy second place with 14.24% from the total of inventoried xylophagouswith 6 species, whereas the most common was Melanophila marmottani (Fairmaire, 1868). The knowledge of bioecology and outbreaks mechanisms of these species is necessary in order to develop efficient protection strategy against them. (author)

  7. Throughfall and stemflow dynamics in a riparian cedar swamp: possible ecohydrological feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, T. P.

    2012-12-01

    Partitioning of rainfall through forest canopies as throughfall and stemflow have deservedly been the subject of much research in the past; however, very little is known about the fluxes of water and solutes through forested wetland communities. Temperate swamps are characterized by intermittent canopy coverage, with areas that are denser than upland forests of similar species, but also contain canopy gaps of meadow and marsh communities,. Understanding the role of vegetation on the distribution of precipitation in these ecosystems is necessary to effectively constrain water balance estimates and predict possible community responses to shifting climate regimes. This study examines throughfall, stemflow, and interception dynamics in a riparian cedar swamp in Alliston, Ontario, Canada over the 2012 growing season. Throughfall averaged 76 % of above-canopy rainfall; however, there were spatial-magnitude interaction variations within the swamp. For events less than 20 mm, between 17 and 75 % of the measured swamp floor received greater depth of rain than above the canopy, whereas for events greater than 20 mm only between 2 and 23 % of the sampled swamp floor received more water than the actual event. The observed spatial variability in throughfall was not related to leaf area index, suggesting remote sensing modelling efforts may not be an accurate method for quantification of wetland precipitation dynamics. Stemflow along the predominantly cedar trees averaged 5 %; therefore, net precipitation on a seasonal basis in this cedar swamp was 81 % of above canopy rainfall. Throughfall DOC and total nitrogen concentrations averaged 31 and 2.2 mg/L, respectively, with stemflow DOC and TN concentrations averaging 109 and 6.5 mg/L, respectively. These values are much higher than reported for upland forest species. In general, throughfall magnitudes increased and solute concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the existing forest boles. The delivery of high

  8. Radiocarbon dating for tree rings of dendro-chronologically dated Japan cedars buried in the paddy field at Fukui

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, S.; Kawano, E.; Kimura, K.; Mine, T.; Harada, M.

    1999-01-01

    14 C dating of 6 Japan cedars having the relative growing ages were made. On the basis of correlation analysis of our data to a 14 C age data set, INTCAL of CALIB (Stuiver), the growing ages of these Japan cedars were estimated (BC 1090-2375). The atmospheric 14 C concentration (Δ 14 C) at their growing ages were obtained from the 14 C age data. The variation of Δ 14 C shows basically the same pattern with that of Europe or America (r=0.783). (author)

  9. [Effects of quantity of Japanese cedar pollen, air pollution and urbanization on allergic rhinitis morbidity in Ibaraki prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunling, Wu; Tamura, Kenji; Matsumoto, Yukio; Endo, Tomohiko; Watari, Chisato; Arai, Takashi; Murakami, Masataka

    2002-07-01

    It has been reported that morbidity from allergic rhinitis in the National Health Insurance records in Ibaraki Prefecture for May correlated with the quantity of Japan cedar pollen scattered in each year. The purpose of the present investigation was to clarify the Japanese cedar pollinosis contribution to morbidity, and also clarifying the influence of air pollution and medical resources on the crisis and symptoms of allergic rhinitis. The charts in four otolaryngology facilities were used for analyzing the Japan cedar pollinosis content with reference to the allergic rhinitis during the pollen season. The age-adjusted morbidity of allergic rhinitis was annually compared employing data of National Health Insurance records for medical examinations made in May during the period between 1988 and 1996 in Ibaraki Prefecture. The quantity of Japanese cedar pollen was measured at seven area points in Ibaraki Prefecture during the three-year period from 1994 to 1996, and was compared with the degree of Japan cedar wood occupation in each municipality. Traffic volume according to municipalities in Ibaraki Prefecture was taken as a surrogate indicator of air pollution. The area otolaryngology facilities and doctors were taken as medical resources. Values were thus compared with allergic rhinitis morbidity. Sixty to eighty percent of the allergic rhinitis patients examined in May were found to be suffering from pollinosis. The quantities of Japanese cedar pollen scatter at the seven points in Ibaraki Prefecture varied in concert every year, the quantities correlating well with the area of Japanese cedar woods stands in each municipality in some but not in other years. The morbidity in the records of allergic rhinitis according to municipalities correlated negatively with the proportion of the population occupied in farming (r = -0.38) and with the area of Japanese cedar woods in each municipality (r = -0.40). The traffic volume calculated according to municipalities in

  10. Use of MODIS Satellite Data to Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology to Support a Pollen Dispersal Model, PREAM, to Support Public Health Allergy Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Prasad, A.; Pejanovic, G. A.; Vukovic, A.; VandeWater, P. K.; Budge, A. M.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and concentrations of dust. We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. Pollen emission is based on MODIS-derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. Ground-based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities will be used as model verification. This information will be used to support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention s National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program and the State of New Mexico environmental public health decision support for asthma and allergies alerts

  11. Use of MODIS Satellite Data to Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology to Support a Pollen Dispersal Model, PREAM, to Support Public Health Allergy Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A. R.; Nickovic, S.; Prasad, A. K.; Pejanovic, G.; Vukovic, A.; Van De Water, P. K.; Budge, A.; Hudspeth, W. B.; Krapfl, H.; Toth, B.; Zelicoff, A.; Myers, O.; Bunderson, L.; Ponce-Campos, G.; Menache, M.; Crimmins, T. M.; Vujadinovic, M.

    2012-12-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Nickovic et al. 2001) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and concentrations of dust. We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. Pollen emission is based on MODIS-derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. Ground-based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities will be used as model verification. This information will be used to support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program and the State of New Mexico environmental public health decision support for asthma and allergies alerts.

  12. Delimiting areas of endemism through kernel interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ubirajara; Brescovit, Antonio D; Santos, Adalberto J

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach for identification of areas of endemism, the Geographical Interpolation of Endemism (GIE), based on kernel spatial interpolation. This method differs from others in being independent of grid cells. This new approach is based on estimating the overlap between the distribution of species through a kernel interpolation of centroids of species distribution and areas of influence defined from the distance between the centroid and the farthest point of occurrence of each species. We used this method to delimit areas of endemism of spiders from Brazil. To assess the effectiveness of GIE, we analyzed the same data using Parsimony Analysis of Endemism and NDM and compared the areas identified through each method. The analyses using GIE identified 101 areas of endemism of spiders in Brazil GIE demonstrated to be effective in identifying areas of endemism in multiple scales, with fuzzy edges and supported by more synendemic species than in the other methods. The areas of endemism identified with GIE were generally congruent with those identified for other taxonomic groups, suggesting that common processes can be responsible for the origin and maintenance of these biogeographic units.

  13. Delimiting areas of endemism through kernel interpolation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara Oliveira

    Full Text Available We propose a new approach for identification of areas of endemism, the Geographical Interpolation of Endemism (GIE, based on kernel spatial interpolation. This method differs from others in being independent of grid cells. This new approach is based on estimating the overlap between the distribution of species through a kernel interpolation of centroids of species distribution and areas of influence defined from the distance between the centroid and the farthest point of occurrence of each species. We used this method to delimit areas of endemism of spiders from Brazil. To assess the effectiveness of GIE, we analyzed the same data using Parsimony Analysis of Endemism and NDM and compared the areas identified through each method. The analyses using GIE identified 101 areas of endemism of spiders in Brazil GIE demonstrated to be effective in identifying areas of endemism in multiple scales, with fuzzy edges and supported by more synendemic species than in the other methods. The areas of endemism identified with GIE were generally congruent with those identified for other taxonomic groups, suggesting that common processes can be responsible for the origin and maintenance of these biogeographic units.

  14. Environmental Monitoring of Endemic Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElNemr, W.; Jutla, A. S.; Constantin de Magny, G.; Hasan, N. A.; Islam, M.; Sack, R.; Huq, A.; Hashem, F.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat. Since Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease, is autochthonous to riverine, estuarine, and coastal waters, it is unlikely the bacteria can be eradicated from its natural habitat. Prediction of disease, in conjunction with preventive vaccination can reduce the prevalence rate of a disease. Understanding the influence of environmental parameters on growth and proliferation of bacteria is an essential first step in developing prediction methods for outbreaks. Large scale geophysical variables, such as SST and coastal chlorophyll, are often associated with conditions favoring growth of V. cholerae. However, local environmental factors, meaning biological activity in ponds from where the bulk of populations in endemic regions derive water for daily usage, are either neglected or oversimplified. Using data collected from several sites in two geographically distinct locations in South Asia, we have identified critical local environmental factors associated with cholera outbreak. Of 18 environmental variables monitored for water sources in Mathbaria (a coastal site near the Bay of Bengal) and Bakergonj (an inland site) of Bangladesh, water depth and chlorophyll were found to be important factors associated with initiation of cholera outbreaks. Cholera in coastal regions appears to be related to intrusion. However, monsoonal flooding creates conditions for cholera epidemics in inland regions. This may be one of the first attempts to relate in-situ environmental observations with cholera. We anticipate that it will be useful for further development of prediction models in the resource constrained regions.

  15. Microbial diversity in The Cedars, an ultrabasic, ultrareducing, and low salinity serpentinizing ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shino; Ishii, Shun'ichi; Wu, Angela; Cheung, Andrea; Tenney, Aaron; Wanger, Greg; Kuenen, J Gijs; Nealson, Kenneth H

    2013-09-17

    The Cedars, in coastal northern California, is an active site of peridotite serpentinization. The spring waters that emerge from this system feature very high pH, low redox potential, and low ionic concentrations, making it an exceptionally challenging environment for life. We report a multiyear, culture-independent geomicrobiological study of three springs at The Cedars that differ with respect to the nature of the groundwater feeding them. Within each spring, both geochemical properties and microbial diversity in all three domains of life remained stable over a 3-y period, with multiple samples each year. Between the three springs, however, the microbial communities showed considerable differences that were strongly correlated with the source of the serpentinizing groundwater. In the spring fed solely by deep groundwater, phylum Chloroflexi, class Clostridia, and candidate division OD1 were the major taxa with one phylotype in Euryarchaeota. Less-abundant phylotypes include several minor members from other candidate divisions and one phylotype that was an outlier of candidate division OP3. In the springs fed by the mixture of deep and shallow groundwater, organisms close to the Hydrogenophaga within Betaproteobacteria dominated and coexisted with the deep groundwater community members. The shallow groundwater community thus appears to be similar to those described in other terrestrial serpentinizing sites, whereas the deep community is distinctly different from any other previously described terrestrial serpentinizing community. These unique communities have the potential to yield important insights into the development and survival of life in these early-earth analog environments.

  16. Flood-inundation maps for Grand River, Red Cedar River, and Sycamore Creek near Lansing, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Matthew; Ostheimer, Chad J.

    2015-08-26

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a total of 19.7 miles of the Grand River, the Red Cedar River, and Sycamore Creek were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Lansing, Michigan, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, show estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at three USGS streamgages: Grand River at Lansing, MI (04113000), Red Cedar River at East Lansing, MI (04112500), and Sycamore Creek at Holt Road near Holt, MI (04112850). Near-real-time stages at these streamgages can be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at all of these sites.

  17. Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of the Condensed Tannins from Alaska Cedar Inner Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Rosales-Castro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure and antioxidant activity of condensed tannins isolated from Alaska Cedar inner bark have been investigated. Oligomers of flavan-3-ol were purified by column chromatography (Sephadex LH-20 and analyzed by 13CNMR and MALDI-TOF MS spectrometries. Their antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1’-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS free radicals scavenging, ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP, and β-carotene-linoleic acid model system (β-CLAMS assays. Results showed that the condensed tannins consents of both homogeneous and heterogeneous oligomers of procyanidins (catechin/epicatechin and prodelphinidins (gallocatechin/ epigallocatechin flavan-3-ol units; and oligomers from trimmers to heptamers with dominant interflavan linkages B-type as it is most common in proanthocyanidins. Condensed tannins showed significant ntioxidant activity as the median inhibition capacity IC 50 is comparable to the catechin control response. Alaska Cedar inner bark oligomers show high antioxidant capacity, evaluated by both methods based on electron transfer mechanisms and hydrogen atom transfer reactions. This bark may be considered as a new source of natural antioxidants for nutraceutical ingredients.

  18. Cleaning oil refining drainage waters out of emulsified oil products with thermic treated cedar nut shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatanova, P. A.; Adeeva, L. N.

    2017-08-01

    It was elaborated the ability of the sorbent produced by thermic treatment of cedar nut shell to destruct model and real first kind (direct) emulsions in static and dynamic conditions. In static conditions optimal ratio sorbent-emulsion with the original concentration of oil products 800 mg/l was in the range of 2.0 g per 100 ml of emulsion which corresponds to the level of treatment 94.9%. The time of emulsion destruction was 40 minutes. This sorbent is highly active in dynamic processes of oil-contaminated water treatment, the level of treatment 96.0% is being achieved. Full dynamic sorptive capacity of the sorbent is 0.85 g/g. Sorbent based on the thermic treated cedar nut shell can be elaborated as sorptive filter element of local treatment facilities of oil refining and petrochemical processes. After the treatment with this sorbent of drainage waters of oil refinery in dynamic conditions the concentration of oil products became less than mpc on oil products for waste waters coming to biological treatment.

  19. Detection of wood discoloration in a canker fungus-inoculated Japanese cedar by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T.; Aoki, Y.; Yamato, M.; Komatsu, M.; Kusumoto, D.; Suzuki, K.; Nakanishi, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    Neutron radiography (NRG) was applied to trace the development of discolored tissue in the wood of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) after being infected with a canker fungus. Japanese cedar seedlings were wound inoculated with a virulent and avirulent isolate of a canker fungus, Guignardia cryptomeriae. Three, 7, 13 and 22 days after the inoculation, the seedlings were irradiated with thermal neutrons. The image on the X-ray film showed that the whiteness in the image corresponded to the water content in the sample. Discolored tissue and surrounding dry zones induced by the fungal inoculation were detected as dark areas, indicating water deficiency with a high resolution. Through image analysis, the dry zones were detected as early as 3 days after inoculation. Neutron images also showed the difference in the size of water deficient parts due to the tissue damage among the treatments. The neutron beam dose used in this experiment had no effect on the growth rate of the fungus on a medium, showing that NRG is an effective method for pathological research of trees. (author)

  20. Estimation of Throughfall and Stemflow Bacterial Flux in a Subtropical Oak-Cedar Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, Thais B.; Pound, Preston; Whitetree, Ansley; Moore, L. Dean; Van Stan, John T.

    2018-02-01

    Transport pathways of microbes between ecosystem spheres (atmosphere, phyllosphere, and pedosphere) represent major fluxes in nutrient cycles and have the potential to affect microbially mediated biogeochemical processes. Novel data on bacterial fluxes from the phyllosphere to the pedosphere during rainfall via throughfall (rain dripping from/through the canopy) and stemflow (rain funneled down tree stems) are reported. Bacterial concentrations were quantified using flow cytometry and validated with quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays in rainfall samples from an oak-cedar forest in coastal Georgia (southeastern U.S.). Bacteria concentrations (cells mL-1) and storm-normalized fluxes (cells m-2 h-1, cells m-2 mm-1) were greater for cedar versus oak. Total bacterial flux was 1.5 × 1016 cells ha-1 yr-1. These previously unexamined bacterial fluxes are interpreted in the context of major elemental pools and fluxes in forests and could represent inoculum-level sources of bacteria (if alive), and organic matter and inorganic solute inputs (if lysed) to soils.

  1. Yellow-Cedar, Callitropsis (Chamaecyparis) nootkatensis, Secondary Metabolites, Biological Activities, and Chemical Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchesy, Joseph J; Kelsey, Rick G; González-Hernández, M P

    2018-05-01

    Yellow-cedar, Callitropsis nootkatensis, is prevalent in coastal forests of southeast Alaska, western Canada, and inland forests along the Cascades to northern California, USA. These trees have few microbial or animal pests, attributable in part to the distinct groups of biologically active secondary metabolites their tissues store for chemical defense. Here we summarize the new yellow-cedar compounds identified and their biological activities, plus new or expanded activities for tissues, extracts, essential oils and previously known compounds since the last review more than 40 years ago. Monoterpene hydrocarbons are the most abundant compounds in foliage, while heartwood contains substantial quantities of oxygenated monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes, with one or more tropolones. Diterpenes occur in foliage and bark, whereas condensed tannins have been isolated from inner bark. Biological activities expressed by one or more compounds in these groups include fungicide, bactericide, sporicide, acaricide, insecticide, general cytotoxicity, antioxidant and human anticancer. The diversity of organisms impacted by whole tissues, essential oils, extracts, or individual compounds now encompasses ticks, fleas, termites, ants, mosquitoes, bacteria, a water mold, fungi and browsing animals. Nootkatone, is a heartwood component with sufficient activity against arthropods to warrant research focused toward potential development as a commercial repellent and biopesticide for ticks, mosquitoes and possibly other arthropods that vector human and animal pathogens.

  2. Growth and quality of australian cedar saplings originated from different multiclonal minigarden systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian Peixoto Soares da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forestry researchers often evaluate minicutting vegetative propagation of Australian cedar (Toona ciliata as a viable technique for this species. However, the adoption of minigarden systems for commercial propagation still requires viability and quality testing of saplings produced after multiple harvests. In the present work, we evaluate survival, growth, and quality of Australian cedar saplings grown from minicuttings originating from multiple harvests of ministumps planted in gutter or tube systems. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse using a completely randomized design with a 2 × 4 factorial treatment structure (two minigarden systems and four minicutting harvests. For the gutter system, six minicutting harvests were performed 50, 86, 115, 149, 177 and 212 days after planting ministumps, whereas for the tube system, four harvests were performed 115, 149, 177 and 212 days after planting ministumps. At the end of each sapling production cycle (105 days after each minicutting harvest, saplings were evaluated for survival, foliar area, dry mass of aerial parts, number and length of adventitious roots, dry mass of the root system, height to diameter ratio, ratio between the dry mass of aerial parts and dry mass of root system, and Dickson’s Quality Index. Sapling survival was not affected by minigarden system, except for a reduction observed in fourth cycle saplings from the tube system. Sapling quality was also similar between systems. However, sapling growth potential decreased with production cycle, indicating that ministumps lose vigor with multiple harvests.

  3. Biologically Important Eremophilane Sesquiterpenes from Alaska Cedar Heartwood Essential Oil and Their Semi-Synthetic Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe J. Karchesy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Alaska cedar heartwood is known to contain compounds which contribute to the remarkable durability of this species. While previous research has identified several compounds, a complete description of this oil has not been undertaken. In this research a profile of the oil is given in which the major components are identified by GC, isolation and spectroscopic techniques. The major components of the steam distilled essential oil were identified as nootkatin, nootkatone, valencene, nootaktene, carvacrol, methyl carvacrol, nootkatol (2, and eremophil-1(10,11-dien-13-ol (3. The last two compounds were isolated for the first time from Alaska cedar in this research. The absolute stereochemistry at C-2 of nootkatol was shown to have the (S configuration using the Mosher ester method. Assignment of stereochemistry for valencene-13-ol (3 was established by synthesis from valencene (6. Finally, two related sesquiterpenoids were synthesized from nootkatone and valencene. These sesquiterpenoids were nootkatone-1,10-11,12-diepoxide (5 and valencene-13-aldehyde (4, respectively.

  4. Biologically important eremophilane sesquiterpenes from alaska cedar heartwood essential oil and their semi-synthetic derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasawneh, Mohammad A; Xiong, Yeping; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Karchesy, Joe J

    2011-06-08

    The essential oil of Alaska cedar heartwood is known to contain compounds which contribute to the remarkable durability of this species. While previous research has identified several compounds, a complete description of this oil has not been undertaken. In this research a profile of the oil is given in which the major components are identified by GC, isolation and spectroscopic techniques. The major components of the steam distilled essential oil were identified as nootkatin, nootkatone, valencene, nootaktene, carvacrol, methyl carvacrol, nootkatol (2), and eremophil-1(10),11-dien-13-ol (3). The last two compounds were isolated for the first time from Alaska cedar in this research. The absolute stereochemistry at C-2 of nootkatol was shown to have the (S) configuration using the Mosher ester method. Assignment of stereochemistry for valencene-13-ol (3) was established by synthesis from valencene (6). Finally, two related sesquiterpenoids were synthesized from nootkatone and valencene. These sesquiterpenoids were nootkatone-1,10-11,12-diepoxide (5) and valencene-13-aldehyde (4), respectively.

  5. The value of Web-based library services at Cedars-Sinai Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halub, L P

    1999-07-01

    Cedars-Sinai Medical Library/Information Center has maintained Web-based services since 1995 on the Cedars-Sinai Health System network. In that time, the librarians have found the provision of Web-based services to be a very worthwhile endeavor. Library users value the services that they access from their desktops because the services save time. They also appreciate being able to access services at their convenience, without restriction by the library's hours of operation. The library values its Web site because it brings increased visibility within the health system, and it enables library staff to expand services when budget restrictions have forced reduced hours of operation. In creating and maintaining the information center Web site, the librarians have learned the following lessons: consider the design carefully; offer what services you can, but weigh the advantages of providing the services against the time required to maintain them; make the content as accessible as possible; promote your Web site; and make friends in other departments, especially information services.

  6. Shifts in species interactions due to the evolution of functional differences between endemics and non-endemics: an endemic syndrome hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney E Gorman

    Full Text Available Species ranges have been shifting since the Pleistocene, whereby fragmentation, isolation, and the subsequent reduction in gene flow have resulted in local adaptation of novel genotypes and the repeated evolution of endemic species. While there is a wide body of literature focused on understanding endemic species, very few studies empirically test whether or not the evolution of endemics results in unique function or ecological differences relative to their widespread congeners; in particular while controlling for environmental variation. Using a common garden composed of 15 Eucalyptus species within the subgenus Symphyomyrtus (9 endemic to Tasmania, 6 non-endemic, here we hypothesize and show that endemic species are functionally and ecologically different from non-endemics. Compared to non-endemics, endemic Eucalyptus species have a unique suite of functional plant traits that have extended effects on herbivores. We found that while endemics occupy many diverse habitats, they share similar functional traits potentially resulting in an endemic syndrome of traits. This study provides one of the first empirical datasets analyzing the functional differences between endemics and non-endemics in a common garden setting, and establishes a foundation for additional studies of endemic/non-endemic dynamics that will be essential for understanding global biodiversity in the midst of rapid species extinctions and range shifts as a consequence of global change.

  7. The role of windstorm exposure and yellow cedar decline on landslide susceptibility in southeast Alaskan temperate rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Buma; Adelaide C. Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between ecological disturbances have the potential to alter other disturbances and their associated regimes, such as the likelihood, severity, and extent of events. The influence of exposure to wind and yellow cedar decline on the landslide regime of Alaskan temperate rainforests was explored using presence-only modeling techniques. The wind regime was...

  8. Shifting climate, altered niche, and a dynamic conservation strategy for yellow-cedar in the North Pacific coastal rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Hennon; David V. D' Amore; Paul G. Schaberg; Dustin T. Wittwer; Colin S. Shanley

    2012-01-01

    The extensive mortality of yellow-cedar along more than 1000 kilometers of the northern Pacific coast of North America serves as a leading example of climate effects on a forest tree species. In this article, we document our approaches to resolving the causes of tree death, which we explain as a cascade of interacting topographic, forest-structure, and microclimate...

  9. 75 FR 53321 - Prospective Grant of a Co-Exclusive License: Natural Plant Extracts From Incense Cedar as Pest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Grant of a Co-Exclusive License: Natural Plant Extracts From Incense Cedar as Pest Control Agents and...,629,387, ``Compounds for Pest Control and Methods for Their Use,'' issued December 8, 2009; and U.S. Pat. No. 7,129,271, ``Compounds for Pest Control and Methods for Their Use,'' issued October 31, 2006...

  10. "Cedar Rapids Community School District v. Garret F.": School Districts Must Pay for Nursing Services under the IDEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Charles J.

    1999-01-01

    In "Cedar Rapids Community School District v. Garrett F." (1999), the U.S. Supreme Court decided that continuous nursing constitutes a "related service" under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The case involved a 16-year-old who has been paralyzed since early childhood. Cost per student could be $20,000 to…

  11. Oral Administration of Heat-Killed Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2809 Reduces Cedar Pollen Antigen-Induced Peritoneal Eosinophilia in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Sashihara

    2008-01-01

    Conclusions: We demonstrated that the oral administration of heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809 suppresses eosinophilia via the modulation of Th1/Th2 balance. These observations suggested that heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809 might potentially ameliorate the increased number of eosinophils in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis.

  12. A simple method to estimate radiation interception by nursery stock conifers: a case study of eastern white cedar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.A.; Goudriaan, J.; Stilma, E.S.C.; Challa, H.

    2003-01-01

    A simple method was developed to estimate the fraction radiation intercepted by small eastern white cedar plants (Thuja occidentalis 'Brabant'). The method, which describes the crop canopy as rows of cuboids, was compared with methods used for estimating radiation interception by crops with

  13. 75 FR 55344 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Cedar City Field Office, Utah, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of intent. SUMMARY... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Cedar City Field Office. This notice announces the beginning of the...-Beaver-Garfield-Antimony RMP (1986) and Pinyon Management Framework Plan (1983). DATES: This notice...

  14. Biometric-based estimation of net ecosystem production in a mature Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation beneath a flux tower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiro, Yuichiro; Lee, Na-Yeon M; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki; Shizu, Yoko; Saitoh, Taku M; Koizumi, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Quantification of carbon budgets and cycling in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) plantations is essential for understanding forest functions in Japan because these plantations occupy about 20% of the total forested area. We conducted a biometric estimate of net ecosystem production (NEP) in a mature Japanese cedar plantation beneath a flux tower over a 4-year period. Net primary production (NPP) was 7.9 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) and consisted mainly of tree biomass increment and aboveground litter production. Respiration was calculated as 6.8 (soil) and 3.3 (root) Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). Thus, NEP in the plantation was 4.3 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). In agreement with the tower-based flux findings, this result suggests that the Japanese cedar plantation was a strong carbon sink. The biometric-based NEP was higher among most other types of Japanese forests studied. Carbon sequestration in the mature plantation was characterized by a larger increment in tree biomass and lower mortality than in natural forests. Land-use change from natural forest to Japanese cedar plantation might, therefore, stimulate carbon sequestration and change the carbon allocation of NPP from an increment in coarse woody debris to an increase in tree biomass.

  15. Naturally occurrence of Sr and Ca in the stem of a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Y.; Aoki, T.; Ko, S.; Yoshida, K.

    2000-01-01

    Distribution profiles of Sr and Ca occurring naturally in the stem of a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) were determined using PIXE. The average concentration of Sr was around 7.5 ppm and the average Ca concentration was about 540 ppm. (author)

  16. Influence of soil site class on growth and decay of northern white-cedar and two associates in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.V. Hofmeyer; R.S. Seymour; L.S. Kenefic

    2009-01-01

    Basal area growth of outwardly sound northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) was compared with that of balsam fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) across site and light exposure class gradients on 60 sites throughout northern Maine. Once adjusted for sapwood area,...

  17. Distribution of 90Sr in the tree rings of a Japanese cedar exposed to the black rain from the Nagasaki atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Y.; Nagai, M.; Aoki, T.; Nagatomo, T.; Okada, N.

    2006-01-01

    Cedar sample was collected at the black rain area in Nagasaki city. A clear peak of 90 Sr/Sr was observed in the 1924-1925 rings. To investigate the mobility of Sr in a cedar tree stem, strontium chloride solution was injected into a living tree, and the distribution profiles of Sr in the stem at 8 months later were determined. The strontium moves radially through the sapwood of a cedar stem but that it almost stops at the heartwood. It was concluded that the peak in the 1924-1925 rings was due to the black rain from the Nagasaki atomic bomb. (author)

  18. Non-endemic cases of lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert T

    2014-11-01

    Several cases of lymphatic filariasis (LF) have been reported in non-endemic countries due to travellers, military personnel and expatriates spending time in and returning from endemic areas, as well as immigrants coming from these regions. These cases are reviewed to assess the scale and context of non-endemic presentations and to consider the biological factors underlying their relative paucity. Cases reported in the English, French, Spanish and Portuguese literature during the last 30 years were examined through a search of the PubMed, ProMED-mail and TropNet resources. The literature research revealed 11 cases of lymphatic filariasis being reported in non-endemic areas. The extent of further infections in recent migrants to non-endemic countries was also revealed through the published literature. The life-cycle requirements of Wuchereria and Brugia species limit the extent of transmission of LF outside of tropical regions. However, until elimination, programmes are successful in managing the disease, there remains a possibility of low rates of infection being reported in non-endemic areas, and increased international travel can only contribute to this phenomenon. Physicians need to be aware of the signs and symptoms of lymphatic filariasis, and infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of people with a relevant travel history. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Chemical Composition of Juniperus communis L. Cone Essential Oil and Its Variability among Wild Populations in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nebija, Dashnor; Miftari, Elheme; Quave, Cassandra L; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Ripe cones of Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae) were collected from five wild populations in Kosovo, with the aim of investigating the chemical composition and natural variation of essential oils between and within wild populations. Ripe cones were collected, air dried, crushed, and the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation. The essential-oil constituents were identified by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The yield of essential oil differed depending on the population origins and ranged from 0.4 to 3.8% (v/w, based on the dry weight). In total, 42 compounds were identified in the essential oils of all populations. The principal components of the cone-essential oils were α-pinene, followed by β-myrcene, sabinene, and D-limonene. Taking into consideration the yield and chemical composition, the essential oil originating from various collection sites in Kosovo fulfilled the minimum requirements for J. communis essential oils of the European Pharmacopoeia. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to determine the influence of the geographical variations on the essential-oil composition. These statistical analyses suggested that the clustering of populations was not related to their geographic location, but rather appeared to be linked to local selective forces acting on the chemotype diversity. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  20. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of berry essential oil of Juniperus oxycedrus L. (Cupressaceae grown wild in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floresha Sela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil isolated from berries from 2 different samples of Juniperus oxycedrus L. (Cupressaceae, growing wild in Republic of Macedonia was investigated. Performing GC/FID/MS analysis, one hundred components were identified, representing 96.0-98.95% of the oil. The major components were α-pinene (22.54- 27.12%, myrcene (11.26- 15.13% and limonene (2.78-18.06%. Antimicrobial screening of the J. oxycedrus essential oils was made by disc diffusion and broth dilution method against 16 bacterial isolates of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. The most sensitive bacteria was Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 125 ml/ml. The essential oils showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium spp., Escherichia coli and Campilobacter jejuni (MIC > 500 ml/ml and no activity against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Acinetobacter spp., Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella flexnery, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus and Proteus mirabilis.

  1. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils and Methanol Extracts of Different Parts from Juniperus rigida Siebold & Zucc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaoxiao; Li, Dengwu; Wang, Wei; Wang, Dongmei; Meng, Xiaxia; Wang, Yongtao

    2016-09-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils and MeOH extracts of stems, needles, and berries from Juniperus rigida were studied. The results indicated that the yield of essential oil from stems (2.5%) was higher than from needles (0.8%) and berries (1.0%). The gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) analysis indicated that 21, 17, and 14 compounds were identified from stems, needles, and berries essential oils, respectively. Caryophyllene, α-caryophyllene, and caryophyllene oxide were primary compounds in both stems and needles essential oils. However, α-pinene and β-myrcene mainly existed in berries essential oils and α-ionone only in needles essential oils. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that the phenolic profiles of three parts exhibited significant differences. Needles extracts had the highest content of chlorogenic acid, catechin, podophyllotoxin, and amentoflavone, and for berries extracts, the content of those compounds was the lowest. Meanwhile, three in vitro methods (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP) were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. Stems essential oil and needles extracts exhibited the powerful antioxidant activity than other parts. This is the first comprehensive study on the different parts of J. rigida. The results suggested that stems and needles of J. rigida are useful supplements for healthy products as new resources. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  2. Site properties for Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa) in semi-natural forests of south western Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Kürsad; Gulsoy, Serkan; Aerts, Raf; Muys, Bart

    2010-01-01

    We explored the semi-natural forests in south western Anatolia along a gradient between Mediterranean and continental climates to determine the site requirements of Juniperus excelsa in Turkey. We hypothesized that environmental variables and indicator species can be used to predict differences in occurrence and cover of J. excelsa and can therefore support decision making in reforestation management planning. Plant species composition and environmental variables were assessed in 153 plots. Association between J. excelsa and other plant species and environmental variables were analyzed using Fisher exact probability tests and stepwise discriminant analysis. High altitude (> 1000 m) as a proxy for an Oromediterranean climate, and high surface stoniness as a proxy for low competition by other tree species, are positive site properties for J. excelsa. The tree species avoids Eumediterranean and Supramediterranean plant communities. Twelve plant species, including the herbs Dianthus zonatus, Ajuga chamaepitys and Paronchia carica and the shrub Cotoneaster nummularia may be used as site indicators for J. excelsa restoration. Platanus orientalis, with similar site requirements but at present negatively associated to J. excelsa due to competitive effects, may be considered an additional indicator if stand conversion (harvesting and replacing P. orientalis) is part of the management plan.

  3. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of leaves essential oil of Juniperus communis (Cupressaceae grown in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floresha Sela

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils isolated from leaves of three different samples of wild growing Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae from R. Macedonia was investigated. Essential oil yield ranged from 7.3 to 9.0 ml/kg. Performing GC/ FID/MS analysis, ninety components were identified, representing 86.07-93.31% of the oil. The major components of the leaves essential oil (LEO were α-pinene (21.37-28.68% and sabinene (2.29-16.27%, followed by limonene, terpinen-4-ol, β-elemene, trans-(E-caryophyllene, germacrene D and δ-cadinene. Antimicrobial screening of the LEO was made by disc diffusion and broth dilution method against 16 bacterial isolates of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. Two bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes were sensitive to antimicrobial activity of LEO (MIC = 125 µl/ml. Additionally, LEO showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus agalactiae, Haemophilus influnzae, Corynebacterium spp. and Campylobacter jejuni (MIC > 500 µl/ml. Candida albicans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Acinetobacter spp., Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis were completely resistant to the antimicrobial effects of this.

  4. Comparative Studies on the Phytochemistry of Essential Oil from Needles and Berries of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadir, M.

    2013-01-01

    The study provides a comparison on the essential oil composition of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. Essential oil extracted separately from berries (yield 0.11%) and needles (yield 0.13%) were subjected to GC-MS and GC-FID techniques for the identification and quantification of the constituents. A total of 26 compounds; 21 from berries and 20 from needles were identified. Of these major constituents in berries were beta-pinene (43.4%), beta-pinene (32.3%), limonene (9.6%), and sabinene (2.7%) while in needles were beta-pinene (36.0%), beta-pinene (30.2%), limonene (12.6%), and beta-phellandrene (3.9%). 3 identified compounds (guaiol, beta-elemene and epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene) were not reported yet from any essential oil of J. excelsa, beta-guaiene is also reported for the first time from needles. A comparative discussion on the chemical composition of the essential oil from two different parts of plants in the current study with those available in literature is also included. The findings confirmed that the Pakistan origin plant belongs to alpha-pinene chemotype, alpha-pinene rich oils are used as local antiseptic. (author)

  5. Geochemistry and geobiology of a present-day serpentinization site in California: The Cedars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Penny L.; Kuenen, J. Gijs; Johnson, Orion J.; Suzuki, Shino; Rietze, Amanda; Sessions, Alex L.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Nealson, Kenneth H.

    2013-05-01

    Ultra-basic (pH 11-12) reducing (-656 to -585 mV) groundwater springs discharging from serpentinized peridotite of The Cedars, CA, were investigated for their geochemistry and geobiology. The spring waters investigated were of meteoric origin; however, geochemical modeling suggests that there were two sources of groundwater, a shallow source with sufficient contact with The Cedars' peridotite body to be altered geochemically by serpentinization, and a deeper groundwater source that not only flows through the peridotite body but was also in contact with the marine sediments of the Franciscan Subduction Complex (FSC) below the peridotite body. We propose that the groundwater discharging from lower elevations (GPS1 and CS1) reflect the geochemistry of the deeper groundwater in contact with FSC, while groundwaters discharging from springs at higher elevations (NS1 and BSC) were a mixture of the shallow peridotite-only groundwater and the deeper groundwater that has been in contact with the FSC. Cell densities of suspended microbes within these waters were extremely low. In the NS1 and BSC spring fluids, cell densities ranged from 102 to 103 cells/ml, while suspended cells at GPS were lower than 10 cells/mL. However, glass slides incubated in the BSC and GPS1 springs for 2-3 weeks were colonized by cells with densities ranging from 106 to 107 cells/cm2 attached to their surfaces. All of the springs were very low (⩽1 μM) in several essential elements and electron acceptors (e.g. nitrate/ammonium, sulfate, and phosphate) required for (microbial) growth, which is not uncommon at sites of continental serpentinization. Gases rich in N2, H2, and CH4 were exsolving from the springs. The stable carbon isotope value (δ13CCH4 = -68 ± 0.6‰) and the CH4/C2+ (>103) of methane and other gaseous hydrocarbons exsolving from NS1 were typical of microbially sourced methane, whereas the isotope values and the CH4/C2+ of BSC and CS1 springs were more enriched in 13C and had CH4/C2

  6. Fine root dynamics in moso bamboo and Japanese cedar forest by scanner method in central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Wei; Lin, Po-Hsuan; Kume, Tomonori

    2017-04-01

    is to characterize the temporal and spatial variation of fine root dynamics in moso bamboo forests in central Taiwan by using scanner method with 6 acrylic boxes. Other the other hand, this study compared the result with those of adjacent Japanese cedar forests with 8 acrylic boxes. Consequently, we found the fine root production rate and decomposition rate of the bamboo forest are higher than cedar forest. Also, the timing of first observation of new roots was earlier in bamboo forest than cedar forest. This study also examined differences of temporal patterns among measurement locations based on long-term data after box installation.

  7. Carbon, cesium and iodine isotopes in Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sheng; Cook, Gordon T; Cresswell, Alan J; Dunbar, Elaine; Freeman, Stewart P H T; Hou, Xiaolin; Kinch, Helen; Naysmith, Philip; Sanderson, David W C; Zhang, Luyuan

    2016-01-01

    Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima were analyzed for carbon, cesium and iodine isotopic compositions before and after the 2011 nuclear accident. The Δ 14 C values reflect ambient atmospheric 14 C concentrations during the year the leaves were sampled/defoliated, and also previous year(s). The elevated 129 I and 134,137 Cs concentrations are attributed to direct exposure to the radioactive fallout for the pre-fallout-expended leaves and to internal translocation from older parts of the tree for post-fallout-expended leaves. 134 Cs/ 137 Cs and 129 I/ 137 Cs activity ratios suggest insignificant isotopic and elemental fractionation during translocation. However, fractionation between radioiodine and radiocesium is significant during transportation from the source.

  8. Carbon, cesium and iodine isotopes in Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Xu; Cresswell, A.J.; Cook, G.T.; Dunbar, Elaine; Freeman, S.P.H.T.; Kinch, Helen; Naysmith, Philip; Sanderson, D.W.C.; Xiaolin Hou; Luyuan Zhang; Xi'an AMS Center, SKLLQG, CAS, Xi'an

    2016-01-01

    Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima were analyzed for carbon, cesium and iodine isotopic compositions before and after the 2011 nuclear accident. The Δ 14 C values reflect ambient atmospheric 14 C concentrations during the year the leaves were sampled/defoliated, and also previous year(s). The elevated 129 I and 134,137 Cs concentrations are attributed to direct exposure to the radioactive fallout for the pre-fallout-expended leaves and to internal translocation from older parts of the tree for post-fallout-expended leaves. 134 Cs/ 137 Cs and 129 I/ 137 Cs activity ratios suggest insignificant isotopic and elemental fractionation during translocation. However, fractionation between radioiodine and radiocesium is significant during transportation from the source. (author)

  9. Dinosaur tracks from the Cedar Mountain Formation (Lower Cretaceous), Arches National Park, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Martin G.; White, Diane K.; Kirkland, James I.; Santucci, Vincent L.

    2004-01-01

    The seventh and largest known dinosaur tracksite from the Cedar Mountain Formation is reported from two important stratigraphic levels in the Ruby Ranch Member within the boundaries of Arches National Park. Previous reports of sites with a few isolated tracks are of limited utility in indicating the fauna represented by track makers. The Arches site reveals evidence of several theropod morphotypes, including a possible match for the coelurosaur Nedcolbertia and an apparently didactyl Utahraptor-like dromeosaurid. Sauropod tracks indicate a wide-gauge morphotype (cf. Brontopodus). Ornithischian tracks suggest the presence of an iguandontid-like ornithopod and a large ankylosaur. Dinosaur track diversity is high in comparison with other early Cretaceous vertebrate ichnofaunas, and it correlates well with faunal lists derived from skeletal remains, thus providing a convincing census of the known fauna.

  10. Spatial and temporal variations in sap flux density in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) trees, central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Han; Chiu, Chen-Wei; Wey, Tsong-Huei; Kume, Tomonori

    2013-04-01

    Sap flow measurement method is a technique widely used for measuring forest transpiration. However, variations in sap flow distribution can make accurately estimating individual tree-scale transpiration difficult. Significant spatial variations in sap flow across the sapwood within tree have been reported in many studies. In contrast, few studies have discussed azimuthal variations in sap flow, and even fewer have examined their seasonal change characteristics. This study was undertaken to clarify within-tree special and temporal variations in sap flow, and to propose an appropriate design for individual-tree scale transpiration estimates for Japanese cedar trees. The measurement was conducted in a Japanese cedar plantation located in Central Taiwan. Spatial distribution of sap flux density through the sapwood cross-section was measured using Granier's thermal dissipation technique. Sensors were installed at 1.3 m high on the east, west, north and south sides of the stem at 0-2 cm in 8 trees, and at 2-4 cm in the 6 larger trees. We found, in radial profile analysis, that sap flux densities measured at the depth of 2-4 cm were 50 % in average of those measured at depth of 0-2 cm. In azimuthal profile analysis, we found significant azimuthal variations in sap flux density. In one individual tree, the ratio of sap flux density on one aspect to another could be approximately 40-190 %, with no dependency on directions. Both radial and azimuthal profiles in most sample trees were fairly consistent throughout the measurement period. We concluded that radial and azimuthal variations in sap flow across sapwood might introduce significant errors in individual tree-scale transpiration estimations based on single point sap flow measurement, and seasonal change of within-tree spatial variations in sap flow could have insignificant impacts on accuracy of long-term individual tree-scale transpiration estimates. Keywords: transpiration, sap flow measurement, scaling up, sap flow

  11. Individual taper models for natural cedar and Taurus fir mixed stands of Bucak Region, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Özçelik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we assessed the performance of different types of taper equations for predicting tree diameters at specific heights and total stem volumes for mixed stands of Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich. and Taurus fir (Abies cilicica Carr.. We used data from mixed stands containing a total of 131 cedar and 124 Taurus fir trees. We evaluated six commonly used and well-known forestry taper functions developed by a variety of researchers (Biging (1984, Zakrzewski (1999, Muhairwe (1999, Fang et al. (2000, Kozak (2004, and Sharma and Zhang (2004. To address problems related to autocorrelation and multicollinearity in the hierarchical data associated with the construction of taper models, we used appropriate statistical procedures for the model fitting. We compared model performances based on the analysis of three goodness-of-fit statistics and found the compatible segmented model of Fang et al. (2000 to be superior in describing the stem profile and stem volume of both tree species in mixed stands. The equation used by Zakrzewski (1999 exhibited the poorest fitting results of the three taper equations. In general, we found segmented taper equations to provide more accurate predictions than variable-form models for both tree species. Results from the non-linear extra sum of squares method indicate that stem tapers differ among tree species in mixed stands. Therefore, a different taper function should be used for each tree species in mixed stands in the Bucak district. Using individual-specific taper equations yields more robust estimations and, therefore, will enhance the prediction accuracy of diameters at different heights and volumes in mixed stands.

  12. Somatic Embryogenesis in Juniperus Procera using Juniperus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ecologically important and endangered forest species in Ethiopia. The aim for this particular research was initially an adaptation of optimum half strength lithium ... culture. But as other conifer species it was difficult to stop proliferation of ...

  13. Somatic Embryogenesis in Juniperus Procera using Juniperus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim for this particular research was initially an adaptation of optimum half strength lithium chloride-sodium propionate (LP) medium protocol for growth and proliferation of embryogenic ... Additional study on the effect of seed extraction to the growing embryogenic culture showed no effect on mature somatic embryos.

  14. Clinical significance of neurocysticercosis in endemic villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, H.H.; Gilman, R.H.; Tsang, V.C.W.; Gonzalez, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral cysticercosis is the main cause of late-onset epilepsy in most developing countries. Data on the neuroepidemiology of cysticercosis in endemic populations is scarce. In an endemic village on the northern coast of Peru, 49 individuals with neurological symptomatology (41 epileptic and 8 non-epileptic) were screened for antibodies to Taenia solium, using a serum electroimmuno transfer blot assay. Fifteen subjects were seropositive, 14 (34%) of those with epilepsy but only one (13%) of those who were non-epileptic. A history of passing proglottides was associated with positive serology. Thirteen of the 15 seropositive individuals underwent cerebral computed tomography; only 7 (54%) were abnormal. A randomly selected sample of 20 pigs from the village was also tested, and 6 (30%) were seropositive. This study demonstrated the importance of cysticercosis in the aetiology of epilepsy in endemic villages and the close relationship between porcine and human infection

  15. Cone and seed traits of two Juniperus species influence roles of frugivores and scatter-hoarding rodents as seed dispersal agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitri, Lindsay A.; Longland, William S.; Vander Wall, Stephen B.

    2017-11-01

    Seed dispersal in Juniperus is generally attributed to frugivores that consume the berry-like female cones. Some juniper cones are fleshy and resinous such as those of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis), while others are dry and leathery such as those of Utah juniper (J. osteosperma). Rodents have been recorded harvesting Juniperus seeds and cones but are mostly considered seed predators. Our study sought to determine if rodents play a role in dispersal of western and Utah juniper seeds. We documented rodent harvest of cones and seeds of the locally-occurring juniper species and the alternate (non-local) juniper species in removal experiments at a western juniper site in northeastern California and a Utah juniper site in western Nevada. Characteristics of western and Utah juniper cones appeared to influence removal, as cones from the local juniper species were preferred at both sites. Conversely, removal of local and non-local seeds was similar. Piñon mice (Peromyscus truei) were responsible for most removal of cones and seeds at both sites. We used radioactively labeled seeds to follow seed fate and found many of these seeds in scattered caches (western juniper: 415 seeds in 82 caches, 63.0% of seeds found; Utah juniper: 458 seeds in 127 caches, 39.5% of seeds found) most of which were attributed to piñon mice. We found little evidence of frugivores dispersing Utah juniper seeds, thus scatter-hoarding rodents appear to be the main dispersal agents. Western juniper cones were eaten by frugivores, and scatter-hoarding is a complimentary or secondary form of seed dispersal. Our results support the notion that Utah juniper has adapted to xeric environments by conserving water through the loss of fleshy fruits that attract frugivores and instead relies on scatter-hoarding rodents as effective dispersal agents.

  16. Use of MODIS Satellite Data to Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology to Support a Pollen Dispersal Model, PREAM, to Support Public Health Allergy Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Pejanovic, G. A.; Vukovic, A.; VandeWater, P.; Budge, A.; Hudspeth, W.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Juniperus spp. pollen is a significant aeroallergen that can be transported 200-600 km from the source. Local observations of Juniperus spp. phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. Methods: The Dust REgional Atmospheric Model (DREAM)is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and quantities of dust. We successfully modified the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport (PREAM) and used MODIS satellite images to develop Juniperus ashei pollen input source masks. The Pollen Release Potential Source Map, also referred to as a source mask in model applications, may use different satellite platforms and sensors and a variety of data sets other than the USGS GAP data we used to map J. ashei cover type. MODIS derived percent tree cover is obtained from MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF) product (collection 3 and 4, MOD44B, 500 and 250 m grid resolution). We use updated 2010 values to calculate pollen concentration at source (J. ashei ). The original MODIS derived values are converted from native approx. 250 m to 990m (approx. 1 km) for the calculation of a mask to fit the model (PREAM) resolution. Results: The simulation period is chosen following the information that in the last 2 weeks of December 2010. The PREAM modeled near-surface concentrations (Nm-3) shows the transport patterns of J. ashei pollen over a 5 day period (Fig. 2). Typical scales of the simulated transport process are regional.

  17. Vitamin, Trace Element, and Fatty Acid Levels of Vitex agnus-castus L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., and Papaver somniferum L. Plant Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ozkaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of fat-soluble vitamin, trace element and fatty acid of Vitex agnus-castus L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., and Papaver somniferum L. seeds in Turkey were determined by using HPLC, ICP-OES, and GC, respectively. In the Vitex agnus-castus L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., and Papaver somniferum L. seeds, linoleic acid (18 : 2 was determined with the highest level rates (%54.11, %28.03, and %72.14, resp.. In the Vitex agnus-castus L. seeds, R-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, and K1 levels were determined as 9.70 μg/g, 18.20 μg/g, and 24.79 μg/g, respectively; In the Juniperus oxycedrus L. seeds, R-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, and K1 were determined as 18.50 μg/g, 0.84 μg/g, and 5.00 μg/g, respectively, and in the Papaver somniferum L. seeds, R-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, K1, and D2 levels were determined as 43.25 μg/g, 122.05 μg/g, 12.01 μg/g, and 0.62 μg/g, respectively. In the Vitex agnus-castus L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., and Papaver somniferum L. seeds, nickel (Ni, zinc (Zn, and iron (Fe were determined with the trace element level rates (4.42 mg/kg, 10.43 mg/kg, 3.71 mg/kg for Ni, 7.00 mg/kg, 7.70 mg/kg, and 24 mg/kg for Zn and 93.73 mg/kg, 187.95 mg/kg, and 149.64 mg/kg for Fe, resp.. These parameters in seeds are very important for human life.

  18. Colonization of abandoned land by Juniperus thurifera is mediated by the interaction of a diverse dispersal assemblage and environmental heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Escribano-Avila

    Full Text Available Land abandonment is one of the most powerful global change drivers in developed countries where recent rural exodus has been the norm. Abandonment of traditional land use practices has permitted the colonization of these areas by shrub and tree species. For fleshy fruited species the colonization of new areas is determined by the dispersal assemblage composition and abundance. In this study we showed how the relative contribution to the dispersal process by each animal species is modulated by the environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure. This complex interaction caused differential patterns on the seed dispersal in both, landscape patches in which the process of colonization is acting nowadays and mature woodlands of Juniperus thurifera, a relict tree distributed in the western Mediterranean Basin. Thrushes (Turdus spp and carnivores (red fox and stone marten dispersed a high amount of seeds while rabbits and sheeps only a tiny fraction. Thrushes dispersed a significant amount of seeds in new colonization areas, however they were limited by the presence of high perches with big crop size. While carnivores dispersed seeds to all studied habitats, even in those patches where no trees of J. thurifera were present, turning out to be critical for primary colonization. The presence of Pinus and Quercus was related to a reduced consumption of J. thurifera seeds while the presence of fleshy fruited shrubs was related with higher content of J. thurifera seeds in dispersers' faeces. Therefore environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure had a great influence on dispersers feeding behaviour, and should be considered in order to accurately describe the role of seed dispersal in ecological process, such as regeneration and colonization. J. thurifera expansion is not seed limited thanks to its diverse dispersal community, hence the conservation of all dispersers in an ecosystem enhance ecosystems services and resilience.

  19. Is precipitation a trigger for the onset of xylogenesis in Juniperus przewalskii on the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ping; Rossi, Sergio; Gricar, Jozica; Liang, Eryuan; Cufar, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims A series of studies have shown that temperature triggers the onset of xylogenesis of trees after winter dormancy. However, little is known about whether and how moisture availability influences xylogenesis in spring in drought-prone areas. Methods Xylogenesis was monitored in five mature Qilian junipers (Juniperus przewalskii) by microcore sampling from 2009 to 2011 in a semi-arid area of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau. A simple physical model of xylem cell production was developed and its sensitivity was analysed. The relationship between climate and growth was then evaluated, using weekly wood production data and climatic data from the study site. Key Results Delayed onset of xylogenesis in 2010 corresponded to a negative standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) value and a continuous period without rainfall in early May. The main period of wood formation was in June and July, and drier conditions from May to July led to a smaller number of xylem cells. Dry conditions in July could cause early cessation of xylem differentiation. The final number of xylem cells was mainly determined by the average production rate rather than the duration of new cell production. Xylem growth showed a positive and significant response to precipitation, but not to temperature. Conclusions Precipitation in late spring and summer can play a critical role in the onset of xylogenesis and xylem cell production. The delay in the initiation of xylogenesis under extremely dry conditions seems to be a stress-avoidance strategy against hydraulic failure. These findings could thus demonstrate an evolutionary adaptation of Qilian juniper to the extremely dry conditions of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau. PMID:25725006

  20. Colonization of abandoned land by Juniperus thurifera is mediated by the interaction of a diverse dispersal assemblage and environmental heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Avila, Gema; Sanz-Pérez, Virginia; Pías, Beatriz; Virgós, Emilio; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Land abandonment is one of the most powerful global change drivers in developed countries where recent rural exodus has been the norm. Abandonment of traditional land use practices has permitted the colonization of these areas by shrub and tree species. For fleshy fruited species the colonization of new areas is determined by the dispersal assemblage composition and abundance. In this study we showed how the relative contribution to the dispersal process by each animal species is modulated by the environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure. This complex interaction caused differential patterns on the seed dispersal in both, landscape patches in which the process of colonization is acting nowadays and mature woodlands of Juniperus thurifera, a relict tree distributed in the western Mediterranean Basin. Thrushes (Turdus spp) and carnivores (red fox and stone marten) dispersed a high amount of seeds while rabbits and sheeps only a tiny fraction. Thrushes dispersed a significant amount of seeds in new colonization areas, however they were limited by the presence of high perches with big crop size. While carnivores dispersed seeds to all studied habitats, even in those patches where no trees of J. thurifera were present, turning out to be critical for primary colonization. The presence of Pinus and Quercus was related to a reduced consumption of J. thurifera seeds while the presence of fleshy fruited shrubs was related with higher content of J. thurifera seeds in dispersers' faeces. Therefore environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure had a great influence on dispersers feeding behaviour, and should be considered in order to accurately describe the role of seed dispersal in ecological process, such as regeneration and colonization. J. thurifera expansion is not seed limited thanks to its diverse dispersal community, hence the conservation of all dispersers in an ecosystem enhance ecosystems services and resilience.

  1. Chemical characterization and radical scavenging activity of leaves of Juniperus foetidisima, J. excelsa and J. communis from Macedonian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Karapandzova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical characterization of three Juniperus species: J. foetidisima (JF, J. excelsa (JE and J. communis (JC from Macedonian flora enclosed determination of yield and essential oil composition of the oils obtained by hydro-distillation of dried leaves and determination of the content of total phenols and total flavonoids in dried plant material. GC/FID/MS analysis showed mainly monoterpene profile of the JC oil and combined monoterpene/sesquiterpene profile of JF and JE oils. Sesquiterpene cedrol was found as an important constituent of the JF and JE, thus the JF oil was characterized by three main components (a-pinene, limonene and cedrol, in amount up to 67.63%, 27.11% and 33.91%, respectively and JE oil by four components (a-pinene, sabinene, cis-thujone and cedrol, in amount up to 33.83%, 29.49%, 26.20% and 24.44%, respectively. The JC oil was free of cedrol, but contained relatively large sesquiterpene fraction (sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygen containing sesquiterpenes in amounts up to 28.64% and 13.57%, respectively. The JC oil was characterized by three monoterpene components (a-pinene, sabinene and terpinen-4-ol, presented up to 28.68%, 16.27% and 12.16%, respectively. The content of total phenols determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method ranged from 96.18-122.91 mg GAE/g dw (water extraction while the content of total flavonoids ranged from 2.05-11.91 mg CE/g dw (ethanol extraction. Both water and ethanol extracts possessed radical scavenging activity against DPPH radical. Water extracts were more powerful with % of inhibition of DPPH ranging up to 64.52%, 67.40% and 78.23% for water extract (10 mg/ml of JF, JE and JC, respectively. Obtained results showed correlation with the content of total phenols.

  2. Variation of radiocesium concentrations in cedar pollen in the Okutama area since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruoka, H.; Inoue, K.; Sakano, Y.; Hamada, M.; Shimizu, H.; Fukushi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Due to releases of radionuclides in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) has been incorporated into large varieties of plant species and soil types. There is a possibility that radiocesium taken into plants is being diffused by pollen. Radiocesium concentrations in cedar pollen have been measured in Ome City, located in the Okutama area of metropolitan Tokyo, for the past 3 y. In this research, the variation of radiocesium concentrations was analysed by comparing data from 2011 to 2014. Air dose rates at 1 m above the ground surface in Ome City from 2011 to 2014 showed no significant difference. Concentration of 137 Cs contained in the cedar pollen in 2012 was about half that in 2011. Between 2012 and 2014, the concentration decreased by approximately one-fifth, which was similar to the result of a press release distributed by the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. (authors)

  3. Yellow-cedar in vitro clonal production and evaluation of propagules for reforestation. FRDA research memo No. 211

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Technical note describing a project that was part of an ongoing effort to develop micropropagation techniques on an operation scale and to investigate their possible use in producing genetically improved stock for planting. The project developed a commercially viable process that uses organogenic micropropagation to produce yellow-cedar stock for operational reforestation; evaluated the techniques for developing genetically improved clones; and established demonstration plots of mircopropagules.

  4. Molecular cloning and immunochemical characterization of a novel major Japanese cedar pollen allergen belonging to the aspartic protease family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Ragaa Nour; Kawamoto, Seiji; Aki, Tsunehiro; Shimada, Yayoi; Rikimaru, Satoshi; Onishi, Nobukazu; Babiker, Elfadil Elfadl; Oiso, Isao; Hashimoto, Kunihiko; Hayashi, Takaharu; Ono, Kazuhisa

    2010-01-01

    Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen is a major cause of seasonal pollinosis in Japan. Protease activity in the pollen grains may trigger pro-allergic responses but no such proteases have yet been identified as pollen allergens. We report the molecular cloning and immunochemical characterization of a novel C. japonica pollen allergen belonging to the aspartic protease family. We focused on the C. japonica pollen allergen spot No. 63 (CPA63, 47.5% IgE binding frequency) on our 2-dimensional IgE immunoblot map. The internal amino acid sequences were determined using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Full-length cpa63 cDNA was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR. Recombinant CPA63 (r-CPA63) was expressed using the baculovirus-insect cell culture system and its IgE binding capacity was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The proteolytic activity of r-CPA63 was also assessed using a putative mature enzyme produced upon autolysis. cpa63 cDNA encoded a 472 amino acid polypeptide showing about 40% sequence identity to members of the plant atypical aspartic protease family. ELISA showed that r-CPA63 was recognized by IgE antibodies in the serum of 58% (18/31) of Japanese cedar pollinosis patients. We also demonstrated an aspartic protease-like enzyme activity of the putative mature r-CPA63. We have identified the first plant aspartic protease allergen from Japanese cedar pollen. The availability of the CPA63 sequence and its recombinant allergen production system are useful not only for pharmaceutical applications but also for further examination of the role of protease activity in the pathogenesis of cedar pollinosis. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Stable carbon isotope fractionation in pollen of Atlas cedar: first steps towards a new palaeoecological proxy for Northwest Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Benjamin; Fletcher, William; Ryan, Peter; Grant, Helen; Ilmen, Rachid

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of stable carbon isotopes can provide information on climate and the environmental conditions at different growth stages of the plant, both past and present. Carbon isotope discrimination in plant tissue is already well understood, and can be used as a drought stress indicator for semi-arid regions. Stable carbon isotope ratios measured directly on pollen provides the potential for the development of long-term environmental proxies (spanning thousands of years), as pollen is well preserved in the environment. Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica Endl. Manetti ex Carrière), is an ideal test case to develop a pollen stable carbon isotope proxy. The tree grows across a wide altitudinal and climatic range and is extremely sensitive to moisture availability. The pollen is abundant, and easily identifiable to the species level in pollen analysis because different cedar species are geographically confined to different regions of the world. In 2015 we sampled 76 individual cedar trees across latitudinal, altitudinal and environmental gradients, highly focused on the Middle Atlas region of Morocco, with 25 additional samples from botanical gardens across Europe and the US to extend these gradients. Here, we report new stable carbon isotope data from pollen, leaf and stem wood from these samples with a view to assessing and quantifying species-specific fractionation effects associated with pollen production. The isotopic response of individual trees at local and wider geographical scales to altitude and climatic conditions is presented. This research forms part of an ongoing PhD project working to develop and calibrate a modern carbon isotope proxy in Atlas cedar pollen, which can ultimately be applied to fossil sequences and complement existing multi-proxy records (e.g. pollen analysis in lake sediments, tree-rings).

  6. Test Excavations at the Cedar Grove Site (3LA97): A Late Caddo Farmstead on the Red River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    trees around Maya Lake, just eastward of the Cedar Grove site (Figure 3). There appears to be some lcorrelation in this region between floodplain prairies...Press, New York. Davis, E. Mott 1970 Archaeological and historical assessment of the Red River Basin in Texas. In Archeological and historical... Archaeological Conference, Atlanta. 113 4 -- - - - - .. .. .- .. - . . . Webb, Clarence B. 1945 A second historic Caddo site at Natchitoches, Louisiana

  7. Comparison of the evapotranspiration and its components before and after thinning in Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi, Makiko; Xiang, Yang; Matsuda, Hiroki; Saito, Takami; Sun, Haotian; Otsuki, Kyoichi; Kasahara, Tamao; Onda, Yuichi

    2014-05-01

    Water source area of Japan is often covered by forest, and 40 % of forest cover is coniferous plantation. Thinning has become a major tool in the management of plantation in recent years, but its effects on water cycle and its components are yet to be evaluated well. In this study, we investigated the changes in evapotranspiration and its components, including stand transpiration and canopy interception loss, after thinning in 50 years old Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress plantation at Yayama experimental catchment in Fukuoka, Japan. We established study plot in each Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress stand. Sap flow measurement was conducted for evaluating stand transpiration in each plot. Through fall and stem flow were also monitored to estimate canopy interception loss. The experiments were conducted over two years. During the measurements, 50 % of trees were thinned randomly in entire catchment, which has an area of 2.98 ha. Stem density was changed from 3945 to 1977 trees per ha after thinning. The reduction of daily stand transpiration in the studied Japanese cedar and cypress stands after thinning were 31.6 % and 48.2 % under the same condition of microclimate, respectively. These values were comparable to the changes in total sapwood area, 34.2 % and 44.5 %, and sap flow density did not change after thinning. It implies that sapwood area is a primary determinant of stand transpiration. Canopy interception ratios were 27 % and 26 % for Japanese cedar and cypress before thinning, and the ratios decreased to 24 % and 21 % after thinning, respectively. Thus, we obtained the changes in annual evapotranspiration and its components at catchment scale by using observation and models. The changes in partitioning of evapotranspiration is also discussed. The evapotranspiration before and after thinning were also compared to water balance data in this study site.

  8. Spectrum of allergens for Japanese cedar pollinosis and impact of component-resolved diagnosis on allergen-specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Fujimura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of Japanese cedar pollinosis in Japan is associated with a negative impact on the quality of life of patients, as well as significant loss of productivity among the workforce in early spring, thus representing a serious social problem. Furthermore, the prevalence is increasing, and has risen by more than 10% in this decade. Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 were identified as the major allergens in Japanese cedar pollen (JCP, and in 2004, the existence of other major and minor allergens were revealed by a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis. Allergenome analysis identified a chitinase, a lipid transfer protein, a serine protease, and an aspartic protease as novel IgE-reactive allergens in patients with JCP allergy. Thaumatin-like protein (Cry j 3 was shown to be homologous to Jun a 3, a major allergen from mountain cedar pollen. Isoflavone reductase-like protein was also characterized in a study of a JCP cDNA library. The characterization of component allergens is required to clarify the sensitizer or cross-reactive elicitor allergens for component-resolved diagnosis (CRD. Increasing evidence from numerous clinical trials indicates that CRD can be used to design effective allergen-specific immunotherapy. In this review, we summarize the eight characterized JCP allergens and discuss the impact of CRD and characterization of novel allergens on allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  9. Endemism in the moss flora of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Benjamin E; Shaw, Blanka; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Identifying regions of high endemism is a critical step toward understanding the mechanisms underlying diversification and establishing conservation priorities. Here, we identified regions of high moss endemism across North America. We also identified lineages that contribute disproportionately to endemism and document the progress of efforts to inventory the endemic flora. To understand the documentation of endemic moss diversity in North America, we tabulated species publication dates to document the progress of species discovery across the continent. We analyzed herbarium specimen data and distribution data from the Flora of North America project to delineate major regions of moss endemism. Finally, we surveyed the literature to assess the importance of intercontinental vs. within-continent diversification for generating endemic species. Three primary regions of endemism were identified and two of these were further divided into a total of nine subregions. Overall endemic richness has two peaks, one in northern California and the Pacific Northwest, and the other in the southern Appalachians. Description of new endemic species has risen steeply over the last few decades, especially in western North America. Among the few studies documenting sister species relationships of endemics, recent diversification appears to have played a larger role in western North America, than in the east. Our understanding of bryophyte endemism continues to grow rapidly. Large continent-wide data sets confirm early views on hotspots of endemic bryophyte richness and indicate a high rate of ongoing species discovery in North America. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  10. Coupling legacy geomorphic surface facies to riparian vegetation: Assessing red cedar invasion along the Missouri River downstream of Gavins Point dam, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Samantha L.; Knox, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Floods increase fluvial complexity by eroding established surfaces and creating new alluvial surfaces. As dams regulate channel flow, fluvial complexity often decreases and the hydro-eco-geomorphology of the riparian habitat changes. Along the Missouri River, flow regulation resulted in channel incision of 1-3 m within the study area and disconnected the pre-dam floodplain from the channel. Evidence of fluvial complexity along the pre-dam Missouri River floodplain can be observed through the diverse depositional environments represented by areas of varying soil texture. This study evaluates the role of flow regulation and depositional environment along the Missouri River in the riparian invasion of red cedar downstream of Gavins Point dam, the final dam on the Missouri River. We determine whether invasion began before or after flow regulation, determine patterns of invasion using Bayesian t-tests, and construct a Bayesian multivariate linear model of invaded surfaces. We surveyed 59 plots from 14 riparian cottonwood stands for tree age, plot composition, plot stem density, and soil texture. Red cedars existed along the floodplain prior to regulation, but at a much lower density than today. We found 2 out of 565 red cedars established prior to regulation. Our interpretation of depositional environments shows that the coarser, sandy soils reflect higher energy depositional pre-dam surfaces that were geomorphically active islands and point bars prior to flow regulation and channel incision. The finer, clayey soils represent lower energy depositional pre-dam surfaces, such as swales or oxbow depressions. When determining patterns of invasion for use in a predictive statistical model, we found that red cedar primarily establishes on the higher energy depositional pre-dam surfaces. In addition, as cottonwood age and density decrease, red cedar density tends to increase. Our findings indicate that flow regulation caused hydrogeomorphic changes within the study area that

  11. Uptake and translocation of radiocesium in cedar leaves following the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikiori, Tatsuhiro; Watanabe, Mirai; Koshikawa, Masami K.; Takamatsu, Takejiro; Ishii, Yumiko; Ito, Shoko; Takenaka, Akio; Watanabe, Keiji; Hayashi, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Cryptomeria japonica trees in the area surrounding Fukushima, Japan, intercepted 137 Cs present in atmospheric deposits soon after the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011. To study the uptake and translocation of 137 Cs in C. japonica leaves, we analyzed activity concentrations of 137 Cs and the concentration ratios of 137 Cs to 133 Cs ( 137 Cs/ 133 Cs) in old and new leaves of C. japonica collected from a forest on Mount Tsukuba between 9 and 15 months after the accident. Both isotopes were also analyzed in throughfall, bulk precipitation and soil extracts. Water of atmospheric and soil origin were used as proxies for deciphering the absorption from leaf surfaces and root systems, respectively. Results indicate that 20–40% of foliar 137 Cs existed inside the leaf, while 60–80% adhered to the leaf surface. The 137 Cs/ 133 Cs ratios inside leaves that had sprouted before the accident were considerably higher than that of the soil extract and lower than that of throughfall and bulk precipitation. Additionally, more than 80% of 137 Cs in throughfall and bulk precipitation was present in the dissolved form, which is available for foliar uptake, indicating that a portion of the 137 Cs inside old leaves was presumably absorbed from the leaf surface. New leaves that sprouted after the accident had similar 137 Cs/ 133 Cs ratios to that of the old leaves, suggesting that internal 137 Cs was translocated from old to new leaves. For 17 species of woody plants other than C. japonica, new leaves that sprouted after the accident also contained 137 Cs, and their 137 Cs/ 133 Cs ratios were equal to or higher than that of the soil extract. These results suggested that foliar uptake and further translocation of 137 Cs is an important vector of contamination in various tree species during or just after radioactive fallout. - Highlights: • 137 Cs was absorbed into cedar leaves from the leaf surface. • 137 Cs in new leaves of cedar trees was mainly supplied by

  12. Uptake and translocation of radiocesium in cedar leaves following the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikiori, Tatsuhiro [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Watanabe, Mirai, E-mail: watanabe.mirai@nies.go.jp [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Koshikawa, Masami K.; Takamatsu, Takejiro; Ishii, Yumiko; Ito, Shoko [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Takenaka, Akio [Center for Environmental Biology and Ecosystem Studies, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Watanabe, Keiji [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, 914 Kamitanadare, Kazo, Saitama 347-0115 (Japan); Hayashi, Seiji [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    Cryptomeria japonica trees in the area surrounding Fukushima, Japan, intercepted {sup 137}Cs present in atmospheric deposits soon after the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011. To study the uptake and translocation of {sup 137}Cs in C. japonica leaves, we analyzed activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and the concentration ratios of {sup 137}Cs to {sup 133}Cs ({sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs) in old and new leaves of C. japonica collected from a forest on Mount Tsukuba between 9 and 15 months after the accident. Both isotopes were also analyzed in throughfall, bulk precipitation and soil extracts. Water of atmospheric and soil origin were used as proxies for deciphering the absorption from leaf surfaces and root systems, respectively. Results indicate that 20–40% of foliar {sup 137}Cs existed inside the leaf, while 60–80% adhered to the leaf surface. The {sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs ratios inside leaves that had sprouted before the accident were considerably higher than that of the soil extract and lower than that of throughfall and bulk precipitation. Additionally, more than 80% of {sup 137}Cs in throughfall and bulk precipitation was present in the dissolved form, which is available for foliar uptake, indicating that a portion of the {sup 137}Cs inside old leaves was presumably absorbed from the leaf surface. New leaves that sprouted after the accident had similar {sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs ratios to that of the old leaves, suggesting that internal {sup 137}Cs was translocated from old to new leaves. For 17 species of woody plants other than C. japonica, new leaves that sprouted after the accident also contained {sup 137}Cs, and their {sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs ratios were equal to or higher than that of the soil extract. These results suggested that foliar uptake and further translocation of {sup 137}Cs is an important vector of contamination in various tree species during or just after radioactive fallout. - Highlights: • {sup 137}Cs was absorbed into cedar leaves

  13. Modeling the kinetics of essential oil hydrodistillation from juniper berries (Juniperus communis L. using non-linear regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Dragana B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents kinetics modeling of essential oil hydrodistillation from juniper berries (Juniperus communis L. by using a non-linear regression methodology. The proposed model has the polynomial-logarithmic form. The initial equation of the proposed non-linear model is q = q∞•(a•(logt2 + b•logt + c and by substituting a1=q∞•a, b1 = q∞•b and c1 = q∞•c, the final equation is obtained as q = a1•(logt2 + b1•logt + c1. In this equation q is the quantity of the obtained oil at time t, while a1, b1 and c1 are parameters to be determined for each sample. From the final equation it can be seen that the key parameter q∞, which presents the maximal oil quantity obtained after infinite time, is already included in parameters a1, b1 and c1. In this way, experimental determination of this parameter is avoided. Using the proposed model with parameters obtained by regression, the values of oil hydrodistillation in time are calculated for each sample and compared to the experimental values. In addition, two kinetic models previously proposed in literature were applied to the same experimental results. The developed model provided better agreements with the experimental values than the two, generally accepted kinetic models of this process. The average values of error measures (RSS, RSE, AIC and MRPD obtained for our model (0.005; 0.017; –84.33; 1.65 were generally lower than the corresponding values of the other two models (0.025; 0.041; –53.20; 3.89 and (0.0035; 0.015; –86.83; 1.59. Also, parameter estimation for the proposed model was significantly simpler (maximum 2 iterations per sample using the non-linear regression than that for the existing models (maximum 9 iterations per sample. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-35026

  14. Rapid assessment of endemic bird areas in Michoacan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberto Chavez-Leon; Deborah M. Finch

    1999-01-01

    Non-sustainable land use practices in the state of Michoacan, Mexico, have perturbed endemic bird h~bitats for several decades. Endemic birds have a restricted geographic and ecological distribution. This feature makes them suitable to be used as indicators of biological diversity and environmental perturbation. Forty-one Mexican endemic species have been recorded in...

  15. Endemicity of cholera in Nigeria: A mathematical model to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focal point is to investigate the persistent endemic nature of cholera in Nigeria using mathematical model. We found that, there can be no backward bifurcation because there existed only one positive endemic equilibrium. In other words, it is not possible for multiple endemic equilibria to exist if the reproduction number ...

  16. Patterns of distribution and protection status of the endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-06-02

    Jun 2, 1995 ... South Africa contains the majority of southern Africa's endemic mammals and hence is an important ... example of an archaic fauna that has undergone local radia- ... Indeed, only six of South Africa's endemic. R eprodu ced by Sabin et G atew ..... of the endemic flora of this region is renowned (Cowling,.

  17. Unusual metabolic diversity of hyperalkaliphilic microbial communities associated with subterranean serpentinization at The Cedars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shino; Ishii, Shun'ichi; Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Rietze, Amanda; Tenney, Aaron; Morrill, Penny L; Inagaki, Fumio; Kuenen, J Gijs; Nealson, Kenneth H

    2017-11-01

    Water from The Cedars springs that discharge from serpentinized ultramafic rocks feature highly basic (pH=~12), highly reducing (E h serpentinizing system, was dominated by several bacterial taxa from the phyla OD1 ('Parcubacteria') and Chloroflexi. Members of the GPS1 community had, for the most part, the smallest genomes reported for their respective taxa, and encoded only archaeal (A-type) ATP synthases or no ATP synthases at all. Furthermore, none of the members encoded respiration-related genes and some of the members also did not encode key biosynthesis-related genes. In contrast, BS5, fed by shallow water, appears to have a community driven by hydrogen metabolism and was dominated by a diverse group of Proteobacteria similar to those seen in many terrestrial serpentinization sites. Our findings indicated that the harsh ultrabasic geological setting supported unexpectedly diverse microbial metabolic strategies and that the deep-water-fed springs supported a community that was remarkable in its unusual metagenomic and genomic constitution.

  18. Fertility variation in two populations of taurus cedar (cedrus libani rich.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozel, H.B.; Bilir, N.

    2016-01-01

    Fertility variation, measured as half-sib family coefficient, based on number of one, two and three years cones were investigated in plantation population (PP), and a natural population (NP) of Taurus Cedar (Cedrus libani Rich.) sampled from southern part of Turkey. Fertility variation was higher in PP than NP for one, two and three years. It was the highest in PP for one year cones (2.34), while it was lowest in NP for three years cones (1.73) as shown in Table 2. The effective number of parents were 21.8 (38.4% of census number) for one year cones, 25.7 (47.9% of census number) for two years cones and 29.8 (52.6% of census number) for three cones in PP. On the other hand the effective number of parents were 28.3 (43.4% of census number) for one year cones, 32.8 (51.6% of census number) for two years cones and 36.4 (58.9% of census number) for three years cones in NP. Diameter at breast height and tree crown area had positive and significant (p<0.05) effective on cone production, while effects of tree height and tree age were not significant (NS) on that (Table 3). There were also positive and significant (p<0.05) correlation between years in cone production. (author)

  19. Microbial nitrification in throughfall of a Japanese cedar associated with archaea from the tree canopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Keiji; Kohzu, Ayato; Suda, Wataru; Yamamura, Shigeki; Takamatsu, Takejiro; Takenaka, Akio; Koshikawa, Masami Kanao; Hayashi, Seiji; Watanabe, Mirai

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the nitrification potential of phyllospheric microbes, we incubated throughfall samples collected under the canopies of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and analyzed the transformation of inorganic nitrogen in the samples. Nitrate concentration increased in the unfiltered throughfall after 4 weeks of incubation, but remained nearly constant in the filtered samples (pore size: 0.2 and 0.4 µm). In the unfiltered samples, δ(18)O and δ(15)N values of nitrate decreased during incubation. In addition, archaeal ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) genes, which participate in the oxidation of ammonia, were found in the throughfall samples, although betaproteobacterial amoA genes were not detected. The amoA genes recovered from the leaf surface of C. japonica were also from archaea. Conversely, nitrate production, decreased isotope ratios of nitrate, and the presence of amoA genes was not observed in rainfall samples collected from an open area. Thus, the microbial nitrification that occurred in the incubated throughfall is likely due to ammonia-oxidizing archaea that were washed off the tree canopy by precipitation.

  20. Growth response of Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani) plantations to thinning intensity in Western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carus, Serdar; Catal, Yilmaz

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents the growth response of 25 yr old Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) plantation to thinnings of different intensities in Isparta in western Turkey. The thinning intensity was measured by using the residual basal area (%) as parameter. In spring of 2005, three treatments were tested; light, moderate and heavy thinning with respectively 10, 25 and 35% of basal area removed. The statistical design of the experiment was a randomized incomplete block with two blocks and three treatments. Variables such as diameter at breast height (diameter) and height were measured. Growth rate ratios of diameter in moderately thinned and heavily thinned stands were 1.02 and 1.03, respectively. Basal area growth rates in moderately thinned and heavily thinned plots were 0.93 and 1.05, respectively. The largest values for the mean tree were observed with the heaviest thinning treatment. Absolute diameter increment was positively correlated with initial diameter in all plots. Relative diameter growth was negatively correlated with initial diameter. Growth rate interpretations were supported by analysis of variance using Duncan's test of range multiple. The results obtained show significant differences between treatments for tree height growth, for the two inventories carried out (2005, 2008). However diameter basal area and volume were no found between treatments for tree.

  1. Antibiofilm and Antihyphal Activities of Cedar Leaf Essential Oil, Camphor, and Fenchone Derivatives against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Kumar Manoharan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans can form biofilms composed of yeast, hyphal, and pseudohyphal elements, and C. albicans cells in the hyphal stage could be a virulence factor. The present study describes the chemical composition, antibiofilm, and antihyphal activities of cedar leaf essential oil (CLEO, which was found to possess remarkable antibiofilm activity against C. albicans but not to affect its planktonic cell growth. Nineteen components were identified in CLEO by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and phenolics were the main constituents. Of these, camphor, fenchone, fenchyl alcohol, α-thujone, and borneol significantly reduced C. albicans biofilm formation. Notably, treatments with CLEO, camphor, or fenchyl alcohol at 0.01% clearly inhibited hyphal formation, and this inhibition appeared to be largely responsible for their antibiofilm effects. Transcriptomic analyses indicated that camphor and fenchyl alcohol downregulated some hypha-specific and biofilm related genes (ECE1, ECE2, RBT1, and EED1. Furthermore, camphor and fenchyl alcohol reduced C. albicans virulence in a Caenorhabditis elegans nematode model. These results demonstrate CLEO, camphor, and fenchyl alcohol might be useful for controlling C. albicans infections.

  2. Endemics and Pseudo-Endemics in Relation to the Distribution Patterns of Indian Pteridophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Fraser-Jenkins

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Of c. 530 Pteridophytes reported as endemic to the India in recent decades (about half the total number of c. 950-1000 known Indian species, the great bulk are mistaken, particularly those from the Indo-Himalaya. Only 47 endemic Indian ferns, less than 10% of those reported previously, are accepted here. But this figure includes several that are rather doubtfully endemic, mainly due to unresolved taxonomic doubt, or because they may be expected to occur in adjacent Countries. Thus 8 are taxonomically dubious, requiring further study, and a further 7, all from N.E. India, may possibly be expected elsewhere outside India. The c. 483 mistaken pseudo-endemics arose mainly due to naming of erroneous 'new species' thought to be endemic, or due to not knowing the range of species outside political India, combined with insufficient investigative taxonomic research. In the present paper previous reports of endemics are listed and their status is reappraised along with a new list of accepted endemics. Quite opposite to previous conclusions, the great majority of endemic Indian Pteridophytes are peninsular-Indian to south-Indian ferns (27, plus 5 more taxonomically dubious, with far fewer being N.E. Indian (7, all of which may possibly be expected elsewhere outside India and W. Himalayan (2, plus 1 taxonomically dubious; the floristically Malesian Nicobar Islands have (3, plus 2 more taxonomically dubious. These numbers are only to be expected as N.E. India is an intimate part of the Sino-Himalayan and S.E. Asian flora, connected without barriers to Tibet and China or to Myanmar by two mountain chains, while S. India is more isolated geographically since more ancient times and has a partly Malesian fern-flora. Some details of Indian endemics in relation to phytogeographical elements are given. Endemic species: Huperzia - 1, Selaginella - 9, Isoetes - 1, Osmunda - 1, Arthromeris - 1, Phymatosorus - 1, Oreogrammitis - 2, Trichomanes - 1, Pteris - 1, Cyathea

  3. Growth Response of Northern White-Cedar (Thuja occidentalis to Natural Disturbances and Partial Cuts in Mixedwood Stands of Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Ruel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis is a species of high commercial and ecological value, the abundance of which has been declining since the middle of the 19th century. Very little information regarding its silviculture in mixedwood stands is currently available, even though a significant portion of wood resources comes from these stands. The present study is a retrospective analysis of white-cedar growth in partially harvested mixedwood stands of western Quebec, Canada. Eight stands distributed across two regions were analyzed. Dendrochronological approaches examined long-term diameter growth for sample white-cedar trees and stems of associated species. These approaches were used to reconstruct stand characteristics at the time of harvesting, together with local harvesting intensity. The study demonstrated white-cedar’s capacity to maintain good growth for long periods of time and at large tree sizes. Accession to the upper canopy positions occurs through repeated episodes of suppression/release, most of which seem to be associated with spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana outbreaks. White-cedar response to partial harvesting varies with tree size, residual basal area and species composition. Growth response was generally stronger for small trees, even though large trees still maintained the best diameter growth. Growth of white-cedar was negatively affected by an increase in softwood proportion in basal area. Growth responses to harvesting could be sustained for a period of 20 years.

  4. Therapy of endemic goiter and hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luft, D.

    1983-09-12

    Successful treatment of endemic goitre depends on the correct diagnosis and the comprehension of the pathophysiologic changes as well. Several criteria, e.g. anamnestic data, general clinical condition, local symptoms and signs, certainty of diagnosis, contraindications, rates of success, and side effects, determine the particular form of therapy (suppression with thyroid hormones, surgical resection, radio-iodine). The decision criteria are discussed. Prophylaxis of recurrent goitre with either thyroid hormones or iodine salts is necessary after successful treatment. Some endemic goitres behave like either hyper- or hypothyroidism. Treatment with thyroid hormones of patients with latent hyperthyroidism is senseless and dangerous, whereas other methods of treatment may be applied. An unequivocal indication for treatment exists in patients with latent hypothyroidism accompanied by goitre, but not in all patients without goitre. Hormonal replacement therapy of manifest hypothydroidism is simple, but long term success is not achieved in all patients.

  5. Therapy of endemic goiter and hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luft, D.

    1983-01-01

    Successful treatment of endemic goitre depends on the correct diagnosis and the comprehension of the pathophysiologic changes as well. Several criteria, e.g. anamnestic data, general clinical condition, local symptoms and signs, certainty of diagnosis, contraindications, rates of success, and side effects, determine the particular form of therapy (suppression with thyroid hormones, surgical resection, radio-iodine). The decision criteria are discussed. Prophylaxis of recurrent goitre with either thyroid hormones or iodine salts is necessary after successful treatment. Some endemic goitres behave like either hyper- or hypothyroidism. Treatment with thyroid hormones of patients with latent hyperthyroidism is senseless and dangerous, whereas other methods of treatment may be applied. An unequivocal indication for treatment exists in patients with laent hypothyroidism accompanied by goitre, but not in all patients without goitre. Hormonal replacement therapy of manifest hypothydroidism is simple, but long term success is not achieved in all patients. (orig.) [de

  6. Contact allergy to finished woods in furniture and furnishings: a small allergic contact dermatitis epidemic to western red cedar in sauna interior decoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huilaja, L; Kubin, M E; Riekki, R

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by wood dust remains uncommon and most cases are occupational. Contact allergy to finished wooden products is even more rare and only few cases of contact dermatitis to wooden furnishings and furniture are described. During 2012-2014 surprisingly many patients with dermatitis associated to sauna baths were referred to our clinic. We report three novel cases with allergic contact dermatitis to western red cedar due to exposure during sauna baths. Three cases of non-occupational contact dermatitis to western red cedar were confirmed by patch testing. Allergic contact dermatitis to interior decoration or furniture is a rarity, but can be induced by novel exposures, like western red cedar in sauna interior decoration. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  7. Oral administration of heat-killed Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2809 reduces cedar pollen antigen-induced peritoneal eosinophilia in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashihara, Toshihiro; Ikegami, Shuji; Sueki, Natsuko; Yamaji, Taketo; Kino, Kohsuke; Taketomo, Naoki; Gotoh, Minoru; Okubo, Kimihiro

    2008-12-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2809 strongly stimulates the production of interleukin (IL)-12 (p70) by innate immune cells. Thus, it is expected to ameliorate allergic diseases. We investigated whether the oral administration of heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809 suppressed eosinophilia in cedar pollen antigen-challenged mice. BALB/c mice sensitized with Japanese cedar pollen extract were intraperitoneally challenged with the same extract. The mice were orally given heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809 at doses of 0.5, 1, or 2mg/day throughout the experimental period (21 d). After 24 hours of the challenge, the eosinophil number and cytokine levels in the peritoneal lavage fluid and the serum antigen-specific IgG levels were determined. On administering varying amounts of heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809, the number of eosinophils among the total number of cells was significantly reduced in all groups. In addition, the eosinophil number significantly decreased, and the eosinophil-suppression rate significantly increased by 44% in the 2-mg group. Although the serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G2a and IgG1 levels were not affected, the IgG2a/IgG1 ratio increased significantly in the 2-mg group compared with that of the control group. Furthermore, the administration of heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809 resulted in the induction of IL-2 and reduction in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels in peritoneal lavage fluid. We demonstrated that the oral administration of heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809 suppresses eosinophilia via the modulation of Th1/Th2 balance. These observations suggested that heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809 might potentially ameliorate the increased number of eosinophils in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis.

  8. Identification of novel putative causative genes and genetic marker for male sterility in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D.Don).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Kentaro; Hirao, Tomonori; Tsubomura, Miyoko; Tamura, Miho; Kurita, Manabu; Nose, Mine; Hanaoka, So; Takahashi, Makoto; Watanabe, Atsushi

    2018-04-23

    Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) is an important tree for Japanese forestry. Male-sterile marker development in Japanese cedar would facilitate selection of male-sterile plus trees, addressing the widespread social problem of pollinosis and facilitating the identification of heterozygotes, which are useful for breeding. This study used next-generation sequencing for single-nucleotide polymorphism discovery in libraries constructed from several organs, including male-sterile and male-fertile strobili. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms obtained were used to construct a high-density linkage map, which enabled identification of a locus on linkage group 9 strongly correlated with male-sterile trait. Expressed sequence tags corresponding to 11 marker loci from 5 isotigs were associated with this locus within 33.4-34.5 cM. These marker loci explained 100% of the phenotypic variation. Several homologs of these sequences are associated with male sterility in rice or Arabidopsis, including a pre-mRNA splicing factor, a DEAD-box protein, a glycosyl hydrolase, and a galactosyltransferase. These proteins are thus candidates for the causal male-sterile gene at the ms-1 locus. After we used a SNaPshot assay to develop markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS), we tested F 2 progeny between male-sterile and wild-type plus trees to validate the markers and extrapolated the testing to a larger plus-tree population. We found that two developed from one of the candidates for the causal gene were suitable for MAS. More than half of the ESTs and SNPs we collected were new, enlarging the genomic basis for genetic research on Japanese cedar. We developed two SNP markers aimed at MAS that distinguished individuals carrying the male-sterile trait with 100% accuracy, as well as individuals heterozygous at the male-sterile locus, even outside the mapping population. These markers should enable practical MAS for conifer breeding.

  9. Developing Dynamic Field Theory Architectures for Embodied Cognitive Systems with cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomp, Oliver; Richter, Mathis; Zibner, Stephan K U; Schöner, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Embodied artificial cognitive systems, such as autonomous robots or intelligent observers, connect cognitive processes to sensory and effector systems in real time. Prime candidates for such embodied intelligence are neurally inspired architectures. While components such as forward neural networks are well established, designing pervasively autonomous neural architectures remains a challenge. This includes the problem of tuning the parameters of such architectures so that they deliver specified functionality under variable environmental conditions and retain these functions as the architectures are expanded. The scaling and autonomy problems are solved, in part, by dynamic field theory (DFT), a theoretical framework for the neural grounding of sensorimotor and cognitive processes. In this paper, we address how to efficiently build DFT architectures that control embodied agents and how to tune their parameters so that the desired cognitive functions emerge while such agents are situated in real environments. In DFT architectures, dynamic neural fields or nodes are assigned dynamic regimes, that is, attractor states and their instabilities, from which cognitive function emerges. Tuning thus amounts to determining values of the dynamic parameters for which the components of a DFT architecture are in the specified dynamic regime under the appropriate environmental conditions. The process of tuning is facilitated by the software framework cedar , which provides a graphical interface to build and execute DFT architectures. It enables to change dynamic parameters online and visualize the activation states of any component while the agent is receiving sensory inputs in real time. Using a simple example, we take the reader through the workflow of conceiving of DFT architectures, implementing them on embodied agents, tuning their parameters, and assessing performance while the system is coupled to real sensory inputs.

  10. Space weather effects on radio propagation: study of the CEDAR, GEM and ISTP storm events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Blagoveshchensky

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of 14 geomagnetic storms from a list of CEDAR, GEM and ISTP storms, that occurred during 1997–1999, on radio propagation conditions has been investigated. The propagation conditions were estimated through variations of the MOF and LOF (the maximum and lowest operation frequencies on three high-latitude HF radio paths in north-west Russia. Geophysical data of Dst, Bz, AE as well as some riometer data from Sodankyla observatory, Finland, were used for the analysis. It was shown that the storm impact on the ionosphere and radio propagation for each storm has an individual character. Nevertheless, there are common patterns in variation of the propagation parameters for all storms. Thus, the frequency range Δ=MOF−LOF increases several hours before a storm, then it narrows sharply during the storm, and expands again several hours after the end of the storm. This regular behaviour should be useful for the HF radio propagation predictions and frequency management at high latitudes. On the trans-auroral radio path, the time interval when the signal is lost through a storm (tdes depends on the local time. For the day-time storms an average value tdes is 6 h, but for night storms tdes is only 2 h. The ionization increase in the F2 layer before storm onset is 3.5 h during the day-time and 2.4 h at night. Mechanisms to explain the observed variations are discussed including some novel possibilities involving energy input through the cusp.

  11. Space weather effects on radio propagation: study of the CEDAR, GEM and ISTP storm events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Blagoveshchensky

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of 14 geomagnetic storms from a list of CEDAR, GEM and ISTP storms, that occurred during 1997–1999, on radio propagation conditions has been investigated. The propagation conditions were estimated through variations of the MOF and LOF (the maximum and lowest operation frequencies on three high-latitude HF radio paths in north-west Russia. Geophysical data of Dst, Bz, AE as well as some riometer data from Sodankyla observatory, Finland, were used for the analysis. It was shown that the storm impact on the ionosphere and radio propagation for each storm has an individual character. Nevertheless, there are common patterns in variation of the propagation parameters for all storms. Thus, the frequency range Δ=MOF−LOF increases several hours before a storm, then it narrows sharply during the storm, and expands again several hours after the end of the storm. This regular behaviour should be useful for the HF radio propagation predictions and frequency management at high latitudes. On the trans-auroral radio path, the time interval when the signal is lost through a storm (tdes depends on the local time. For the day-time storms an average value tdes is 6 h, but for night storms tdes is only 2 h. The ionization increase in the F2 layer before storm onset is 3.5 h during the day-time and 2.4 h at night. Mechanisms to explain the observed variations are discussed including some novel possibilities involving energy input through the cusp.

  12. Adsorption of Acid Red 18 by Activated Carbon Prepared from Cedar Tree: Kinetic and Equilibrium Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Samarghandi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Textile effluents are one of the main environmental pollution sources and contain toxic compounds which threat the environment. For that reason, the activated carbon prepared from Cedar Tree was used for removal of Acid Red 18 as an Azo Dye. Material and Methods: Activated carbon was prepared by chemical activation and was used in batch system for dye removal. Effect of various experimental parameters such as pH (3 to11, initial dye concentration (50, 75 and 100 mg/L, contact time (1 to 120 min and adsorbent dosage (2 to 10 g/L were investigated. Equilibrium data was fitted onto Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model. In addition, pseudo first order and pseudo second order models were used to investigate the kinetic of adsorption process. Results: Results shows that dye removal was increase with increase in adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial dye concentration. In addition, higher removal efficiency was observed in low pH (pH=3. At 120 min contact time, pH=3, 6 g/L adsorbent dosage and 100 mg/L of initial dye concentration, more than 95% of dye was removed. Equilibrium data was best fitted onto Freundlich isotherm model. According to Langmuir constant, maximum sorption capacity was observed to be 51/28 mg/L. in addition pseudo second order model best describe the kinetic of adsorption of Acid Red 18 onto present adsorbent. Conclusion: The results of present work well demonstrate that prepare activated carbon from Pine Tree has higher adsorption capacity toward Acid Red 18 Azo dye and can be used for removal of dyes from textile effluents.

  13. Radioactive and stable cesium isotope distributions and dynamics in Japanese cedar forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoschenko, Vasyl; Takase, Tsugiko; Hinton, Thomas G; Nanba, Kenji; Onda, Yuichi; Konoplev, Alexei; Goto, Azusa; Yokoyama, Aya; Keitoku, Koji

    2018-06-01

    Dynamics of the Fukushima-derived radiocesium and distribution of the natural stable isotope 133 Cs in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) forest ecosystems were studied during 2014-2016. For the experimental site in Yamakiya, Fukushima Prefecture, we present the redistribution of radiocesium among ecosystem compartments during the entire observation period, while the results obtained at another two experimental site were used to demonstrate similarity of the main trends in the Japanese forest ecosystems. Our observations at the Yamakiya site revealed significant redistribution of radiocesium between the ecosystem compartments during 2014-2016. During this same period radionuclide inventories in the aboveground tree biomass were relatively stable, however, radiocesium in forest litter decreased from 20 ± 11% of the total deposition in 2014 to 4.6 ± 2.7% in 2016. Radiocesium in the soil profile accumulated in the 5-cm topsoil layers. In 2016, more than 80% of the total radionuclide deposition in the ecosystem resided in the 5-cm topsoil layer. The radiocesium distribution between the aboveground biomass compartments at Yamakiya during 2014-2016 was gradually approaching a quasi-equilibrium distribution with stable cesium. Strong correlations of radioactive and stable cesium isotope concentrations in all compartments of the ecosystem have not been reached yet. However, in some compartments the correlation is already strong. An increase of radiocesium concentrations in young foliage in 2016, compared to 2015, and an increase in 2015-2016 of the 137 Cs/ 133 Cs concentration ratio in the biomass compartments with strong correlations indicate an increase in root uptake of radiocesium from the soil profile. Mass balance of the radionuclide inventories, and accounting for radiocesium fluxes in litterfall, throughfall and stemflow, enabled a rough estimate of the annual radiocesium root uptake flux as 2 ± 1% of the total inventory in the ecosystem

  14. Hydrologic and atrazine simulation of the Cedar Creek Watershed using the SWAT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larose, M; Heathman, G C; Norton, L D; Engel, B

    2007-01-01

    One of the major factors contributing to surface water contamination in agricultural areas is the use of pesticides. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a hydrologic model capable of simulating the fate and transport of pesticides in an agricultural watershed. The SWAT model was used in this study to estimate stream flow and atrazine (2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine) losses to surface water in the Cedar Creek Watershed (CCW) within the St. Joseph River Basin in northeastern Indiana. Model calibration and validation periods consisted of five and two year periods, respectively. The National Agricultural Statistics Survey (NASS) 2001 land cover classification and the Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database were used as model input data layers. Data from the St. Joseph River Watershed Initiative and the Soil and Water Conservation Districts of Allen, Dekalb, and Noble counties were used to represent agricultural practices in the watershed which included the type of crops grown, tillage practices, fertilizer, and pesticide application rates. Model results were evaluated based on efficiency coefficient values, standard statistical measures, and visual inspection of the measured and simulated hydrographs. The Nash and Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients (E(NS)) for monthly and daily stream flow calibration and validation ranged from 0.51 to 0.66. The E(NS) values for atrazine calibration and validation ranged from 0.43 to 0.59. All E(NS) values were within the range of acceptable model performance standards. The results of this study indicate that the model is an effective tool in capturing the dynamics of stream flow and atrazine concentrations on a large-scale agricultural watershed in the midwestern USA.

  15. Developing dynamic field theory architectures for embodied cognitive systems with cedar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Lomp

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Embodied artificial cognitive systems such as autonomous robots or intelligent observers connect cognitive processes to sensory and effector systems in real time. Prime candidates for such embodied intelligence are neurally inspired architectures. While components such as forward neural networks are well established, designing pervasively autonomous neural architectures remains a challenge. This includes the problem of tuning the parameters of such architectures so that they deliver specified functionality under variable environmental conditions and retain these functions as the architectures are expanded. The scaling and autonomy problems are solved, in part, by dynamic field theory (DFT, a theoretical framework for the neural grounding of sensorimotor and cognitive processes. In this paper, we address how to efficiently build DFT architectures that control embodied agents and how to tune their parameters so that the desired cognitive functions emerge while such agents are situated in real environments. In DFT architectures, dynamic neural fields or nodes are assigned dynamic regimes, that is, attractor states and their instabilities, from which cognitive function emerges. Tuning thus amounts to determining values of the dynamic parameters for which the components of a DFT architecture are in the specified dynamic regime under the appropriate environmental conditions. The process of tuning is facilitated by the software framework cedar, which provides a graphical interface to build and execute DFT architectures. It enables to change dynamic parameters online and visualize the activation states of any component while the agent is receiving sensory inputs in real-time. Using a simple example, we take the reader through the workflow of conceiving of DFT architectures, implementing them on embodied agents, tuning their parameters, and assessing performance while the system is coupled to real sensory inputs.

  16. Recreational Boat Harbor, Cedar River, Michigan. Revisions to General Design Memorandum Number 1 and Environmental Impact Statement. Supplement Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    26, Tuesday, February 6, 1979. 16. Personal communication with Jim Harter, J.W. Wells State Park Director. 17. Fassett, N.C.; A Manual of Acuatic ...Harbor, Cedar River, Michigan. Pgs. G-37 - q-54. i~ A- A measure of a .h- calact’ a tion to neutrajz hrc-ge, .ons navinc a p. of more than 7. Acuatic ...and ship navigation. Navi- gation aids are often placed on the outermost end of Corps breakwaters and piers. Nekton - Swimming aquatic insects and fish

  17. Efficacy and mode of action of an immunomodulator herbal preparation containing Echinacea, wild indigo, and white cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüstenberg, P; Henneicke-von Zepelin, H H; Köhler, G; Stammwitz, U

    1999-01-01

    Using the example of an allopathic herbal combined preparation containing Echinacea root, wild indigo root, and white cedar leaf tips (Echinaceae radix + Baptisiae tinctoriae radix + Thujae occidentalis herba = Esberitox N), the efficacy and mode of action of a phytoimmunomodulator, or immune system enhancer, is described. Efficacy of the immunomodulator has been demonstrated in studies of acute viral respiratory tract infections and infections requiring antibiotic therapy. In a recent study compliant to GCP, the therapeutic superiority of the herbal immunomodulator over placebo was confirmed as statistically significant and clinically relevant. The present overview describes a model of the antigen-independent mode of action of phytoimmunomodulation ("immunobalancing").

  18. CARACTERIZACIÓN TECNOLÓGICA DE LA MADERA DE Juniperus flaccida VAR. POBLANA MARTÍNEZ

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    A. Borja de la Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó con la finalidad de conocer las características y propiedades tecnológicas de la madera de Juniperus flaccida var. poblana Martínez, para lo cual se utilizó la metodología del Laboratorio de Anatomía y Tecnología de la Madera de la División de Ciencias Forestales de la Universidad Autónoma Chapingo. Las propiedades físicas se determinaron según la norma NOM-EE-167-83 y las mecánicas de acuerdo a las normas ASTM 143-83 en el Campo Experimental San Martinito, del Instituto de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP. Los resultados con relación a las características anatómicas fueron los siguientes: la madera presenta un color castaño claro en el duramen y amarillo pálido en la albura, brillo medio, veteado suave, textura fina, hilo recto, sabor característico y olor aromático. Las traqueidas son largas, de diámetro tangencial mediano y paredes delgadas; presentan una hilera de puntuaciones areoladas seriadas, las puntuaciones de los campos de cruzamiento son tipo cupresoide y el parénquima axial es escaso. Los rayos de tipo uniseriados numerosos, muy bajos y muy angostos; los rayos y las células parenquimatosas axiales presentan aceites. La proporción de elementos fue 92 % de traqueidas, 7.72 de parénquima de rayo y 0.18 % de parénquima axial. La densidad básica fue de 0.50 g·cm-3, las contracciones totales fueron: volumétrica de 8.42 %, tangencial de 4.26 % y radial de 3.02 %; y los hinchamientos totales: volumétrico de 9.17 %, tangencial de 4.45 % y radial de 3.12 %. El punto de saturación de la fibra fue de 33 %; el coeficiente de hinchamiento 0.278 %, y la relación de anisotropía de 1.41. Los valores promedio de las propiedades mecánicas al 12 % de contenido de humedad (CH y en condición verde, se clasificaron de medios a bajos en ambas condiciones de contenido de humedad. Considerando las características anatómicas y los valores de las propiedades f

  19. El patrimonio vegetal en los Arribes del Duero zamoranos: las formaciones de enebral Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. badia (H. Gay Debeaux

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    José Luis Marino Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el patrimonio vegetal de los Arribes del Duero zamoranos, en concreto, las diferentes formaciones que componen el tapiz vegetal, empleando una metodología que combina el trabajo de campo (inventarios de vegetación, encuestas, localización y delimitación vía GPS y cartografía in situ , la fotointerpretación y la implementación de un Sistema de Información Geográfica. De todas las comunidades del paisaje vegetal sobresalen, por su singularidad, los enebrales de Juni - perus oxycedrus L. subsp. badia (H. Gay Debeaux, por cuanto que configuran inusuales masas muy densas y de porte arbóreo. Se trata, en efecto, de verdaderas manchas boscosas situadas en Cozcurrita y Mámoles (municipio de Fariza, que ocupan una superficie de 42,9 ha acompañadas de masas arborescentes en clara expansión colonizadora (252 ha, merced a la tendencia xerotér - mica del clima y el abandono de las actividades agrosilvopastoriles tradicionales. En definitiva, los Arribes del Duero zamoranos disponen de un rico patrimonio vegetal que se concreta en 4 hábitats forestales de interés comunitario que abarcan una extensión de 1.795 ha, la cual repre- senta el 30,1% del territorio. De esta categoría quedan fuera los enebrales de Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. badia , incluidos, sin embargo, en el tipo 5210 de matorrales arborescentes de Juniperus spp., pese a tratarse de bosques de alto valor natural y cultural.

  20. On the detection of thermohygrometric differences of Juniperus turbinata habitat between north and south faces in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.; Padrón-Padrón, Pedro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2016-04-01

    The current extent of Juniperus turbinata in the island of El Hierro is very small due to heavy exploitation for centuries. The recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe. The study of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Our research project (JUNITUR) studied the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro from different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to north-easterly trade winds. The main objective of this study was to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands: La Dehesa (north-west face at 528 m a.s.l.), El Julan (south face at 996 m a.s.l.) and Sabinosa (north face at 258 m a.s.l.). They are located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro and present different recovery rates. We used air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. We analysed daily data of three annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2015). Similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas were observed. We detected the largest differences in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) (Sabinosa and La Dehesa) and south (to leeward) (El Julan) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate (El Julan) showed the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. The results of this project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in El Hierro, where there is the biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands.

  1. Genetic structure and seed-mediated dispersal rates of an endangered shrub in a fragmented landscape: a case study for Juniperus communis in northwestern Europe

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    Adriaenssens Sandy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population extinction risk in a fragmented landscape is related to the differential ability of the species to spread its genes across the landscape. The impact of landscape fragmentation on plant population dynamics will therefore vary across different spatial scales. We quantified successful seed-mediated dispersal of the dioecious shrub Juniperus communis in a fragmented landscape across northwestern Europe by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP markers. Furthermore we investigated the genetic diversity and structure on two spatial scales: across northwestern Europe and across Flanders (northern Belgium. We also studied whether seed viability and populations size were correlated with genetic diversity. Results Unexpectedly, estimated seed-mediated dispersal rates were quite high and ranged between 3% and 14%. No population differentiation and no spatial genetic structure were detected on the local, Flemish scale. A significant low to moderate genetic differentiation between populations was detected at the regional, northwest European scale (PhiPT = 0.10. In general, geographically nearby populations were also genetically related. High levels of within-population genetic diversity were detected but no correlation was found between any genetic diversity parameter and population size or seed viability. Conclusions In northwestern Europe, landscape fragmentation has lead to a weak isolation-by-distance pattern but not to genetic impoverishment of common juniper. Substantial rates of successful migration by seed-mediated gene flow indicate a high dispersal ability which could enable Juniperus communis to naturally colonize suitable habitats. However, it is not clear whether the observed levels of migration will suffice to counterbalance the effects of genetic drift in small populations on the long run.

  2. Optimising Regionalisation Techniques: Identifying Centres of Endemism in the Extraordinarily Endemic-Rich Cape Floristic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Peter L.; Colville, Jonathan F.; Linder, H. Peter

    2015-01-01

    We used a very large dataset (>40% of all species) from the endemic-rich Cape Floristic Region (CFR) to explore the impact of different weighting techniques, coefficients to calculate similarity among the cells, and clustering approaches on biogeographical regionalisation. The results were used to revise the biogeographical subdivision of the CFR. We show that weighted data (down-weighting widespread species), similarity calculated using Kulczinsky’s second measure, and clustering using UPGMA resulted in the optimal classification. This maximized the number of endemic species, the number of centres recognized, and operational geographic units assigned to centres of endemism (CoEs). We developed a dendrogram branch order cut-off (BOC) method to locate the optimal cut-off points on the dendrogram to define candidate clusters. Kulczinsky’s second measure dendrograms were combined using consensus, identifying areas of conflict which could be due to biotic element overlap or transitional areas. Post-clustering GIS manipulation substantially enhanced the endemic composition and geographic size of candidate CoEs. Although there was broad spatial congruence with previous phytogeographic studies, our techniques allowed for the recovery of additional phytogeographic detail not previously described for the CFR. PMID:26147438

  3. Taenia solium in Europe: Still endemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Allepuz, Alberto; Dermauw, Veronique; Johansen, Maria V; Laranjo-González, Minerva; Smit, G Suzanne A; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Trevisan, Chiara; Wardrop, Nicola A; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causes an important economic and health burden, mainly in rural or marginalized communities of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin-America. Although improved pig rearing conditions seem to have eliminated the parasite in most Western European countries, little is known about the true endemicity status of T. solium throughout Europe. Three recent reviews indicate that autochthonous human T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis may be possible in Europe, but that current peer-reviewed literature is biased towards Western Europe. Officially reported data on porcine cysticercosis are highly insufficient. Favourable conditions for local T. solium transmission still exist in eastern parts of Europe, although the ongoing integration of the European Union is speeding up modernisation and intensification of the pig sector. Further evidence is urgently needed to fill the gaps on the European T. solium endemicity map. We urge to make human cysticercosis notifiable and to improve the reporting of porcine cysticercosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Diversity and endemism of Peruvian mammals

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    Víctor Pacheco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an annotated list for all land, aquatic and marine mammals known to occur in Peru and their distribution by ecoregions. We also present species conservation status according to international organizations and the legal conservation status in Peru. At present, we record 508 species, in 13 orders, 50 families, and 218 genera, making Peru the third most diverse country with regards to mammals in the New World, after Brazil and Mexico, and the fifth most diverse country for mammals in the World. This diversity includes 40 didelphimorphs, 2 paucituberculates, 1 manatee, 6 cingulates, 7 pilosa, 39 primates, 162 rodents, 1 rabbit, 2 soricomorphs, 165 bats, 34 carnivores, 2 perissodactyls, and 47 cetartiodactyls. Bats and rodents (327 species represent almost two thirds of total diversity (64% for Peru. Five genera and 65 species (12.8% are endemics to Peru, with the majority of these being rodents (45 species, 69,2%. Most of the endemic species are restricted to the Yungas of the eastern slope of the Andes (39 species, 60% followed by Selva Baja (14 species, 21.5%. The taxonomic status of some species is commented on, when those depart from accepted taxonomy. The marsupial Marmosa phaea; the rodents Melanomys caliginosus, M. robustulus, and Echinoprocta rufescens; the shrew Cryptotis equatoris; the bats Anoura fistulata, Phyllostomus latifolius, Artibeus ravus, Cynomops greenhalli, Eumops maurus, and Rhogeessa velilla; and the carnivore Nasuella olivacea are first records of species occurrence in Peru. Finally, we also include a list of 15 non-native species.

  5. Hydroclimatological Controls of Endemic and Non-endemic Cholera of the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, A. S.; Whitcombe, E.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat for the developing countries. Since the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae, is autochthonous to aquatic environment, it is not possible to eradicate the agent of the disease. Hydroclimatology based prediction and prevention strategies can be implemented in disease susceptible regions for reducing incidence rates. However, the precise role of hydrological and climatological processes, which will further aid in development of suitable prediction models, in creating spatial and temporal environmental conditions favorable for disease outbreak has not been adequately quantified. Here, we show distinction between seasonality and occurrence of cholera in epidemic and non-endemic regions. Using historical cholera mortality data, from the late 1800s for 27 locations in the Indian subcontinent, we show that non-endemic regions are generally located close to regional river systems but away from the coasts and are characterized by single sporadic outbreak in a given year. Increase in air temperature during the low river flow season increases evaporation, leading to an optimal salinity and pH required for bacterial growth. Thereafter, monsoonal rainfall, leads to interactions of contaminated river waters via human activity resulting in cholera epidemics. Endemic regions are located close to coasts where cholera outbreak occurs twice (spring and fall) in a year. Spring outbreak is generally associated with intrusion of bacterial seawater to inland whereas the fall peak is correlated with widespread flooding and cross-contamination of water resources via increased precipitation. This may be one of the first studies to hydroclimatologically quantitatively the seasonality of cholera in both endemic and non-endemic regions. Our results prompt the need of region and cause-specific prediction models for cholera, employing appropriate environmental determinants.

  6. Comparison of immune responses to a killed bivalent whole cell oral cholera vaccine between endemic and less endemic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sachin N; Akalu, Zenebe; Teferi, Mekonnen; Manna, Byomkesh; Teshome, Samuel; Park, Ju Yeon; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Deok Ryun; Kanungo, Suman; Digilio, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Studies on safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the killed, bivalent whole cell oral cholera vaccine (Shanchol) have been conducted in historically endemic settings of Asia. Recent cholera vaccination campaigns in Haiti and Guinea have also demonstrated favourable immunogenicity and effectiveness in nonendemic outbreak settings. We performed a secondary analysis, comparing immune responses of Shanchol from two randomised controlled trials performed in an endemic and a less endemic area (Addis Ababa) during a nonoutbreak setting. While Shanchol may offer some degree of immediate protection in primed populations living in cholera endemic areas, as well as being highly immunogenic in less endemic settings, understanding the characteristics of immune responses in each of these areas is vital in determining ideal dosing strategies that offer the greatest public health impact to populations from areas with varying degrees of cholera endemicity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) Pollinosis in Jeju, Korea: Is It Increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaechun; Lee, Keun Hwa; Lee, Hye Sook; Hong, Sung Chul; Kim, Jeong Hong

    2015-05-01

    Jeju is an island in South Korea located in a temperate climate zone. The Japanese cedar tree (JC) has become the dominant tree species while used widely to provide a windbreak for the tangerine orchard industry. An increase in pollen counts precedes atopic sensitization to pollen and pollinosis, but JC pollinosis in Jeju has never been studied. We investigated JC pollen counts, sensitization to JC pollen, and JC pollinosis. Participants were recruited among schoolchildren residing in Jeju City, the northern region (NR) and Seogwipo City, the southern region (SR) of the island. The JC pollen counts were monitored. Sensitization rates to common aeroallergens were evaluated by skin prick tests. Symptoms of pollinosis were surveyed. Among 1,225 schoolchildren (49.6% boys, median age 13 years), 566 (46.2%) were atopic. The rate of sensitization to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (35.8%) was highest, followed by D. farinae (26.2%), and JC pollen (17.6%). In the SR, 156 children (23.8%) were sensitized to JC pollen; this rate was significantly higher than that in the NR (59 children, 10.4%, P<0.001). A significant increment in the sensitization rate for JC pollen with increasing school level was observed only in the SR. JC pollen season in the SR started earlier and lasted longer than that in the NR. JC pollen season in Jeju was defined as extending from late January to mid-April. The prevalence of JC pollinosis was estimated to be 8.5%. The prevalence differed significantly between the NR and SR (5.3% vs 11.3%, P<0.001), mainly due to the difference in sensitization rates. JC pollen is the major outdoor allergen for early spring pollinosis in Jeju. JC pollen season is from late January to mid-April. Warmer weather during the flowering season scatters more JC pollen in the atmosphere, resulting in a higher sensitization rate in atopic individuals and, consequently, making JC pollinosis more prevalent.

  8. EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION OF TOOTHPASTE BASED ON THE CEDAR ESSENTIAL OIL FOR PREVENTING TRUE ORAL PATHOLOGIC HALITOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Ulitovsky

    2017-01-01

    to the index determination of the deodorant effect by Ulitovsky S. B. By the end of the study, the indicators in the main group were higher than in control group almost in 2 times. With the aim of identifying the most effective means of hygiene for the prevention of halitosis, we evaluated the antimicrobial effect of the prophylactic toothpaste with Cedar essential oil, silver ions, aminoftorid, Savory oil and leaves of the Saro tree. It showed the most pronounced activity against such test cultures as Ps. aeruginosa, B. cereus and C. albicans. The finding indicates high antiglycation effect and deodorant qualities of the examined prophylactic toothpaste.

  9. Evaluating elevated levels of crown dieback among northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) trees in Maine and Michigan: a summary of evaluation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaDonna Randolph; William A. Bechtold; Randall S. Morin; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of crown condition data for the 2006 national technical report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, exposed clusters of phase 3 plots (by the Forest Inventory and Analysis [FIA] Program of the Forest Service) with northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) crown dieback...

  10. LEBANON AFTER THE CEDAR REVOLUTION/ARE KNUDSEN AND MICHAEL KERR (eds; LEBANON: A HISTORY, 600--2011/by WILLIAM HARRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Salameh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available LEBANON AFTER THE CEDAR REVOLUTION, ARE KNUDSEN AND MICHAEL KERR (eds; London: C. Hurst & Company, 2012. 323 pp. $29.95. LEBANON: A HISTORY, 600--2011, WILLIAM HARRIS; Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. 360 pp. $34.95.

  11. Identifying core habitat and connectivity for focal species in the interior cedar-hemlock forest of North America to complete a conservation area design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance Craighead; Baden Cross

    2007-01-01

    To identify the remaining areas of the Interior Cedar- Hemlock Forest of North America and prioritize them for conservation planning, the Craighead Environmental Research Institute has developed a 2-scale method for mapping critical habitat utilizing 1) a broad-scale model to identify important regional locations as the basis for a Conservation Area Design (CAD), and 2...

  12. A New Species of Megastigmus Dalman (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) Reared from Seeds of Atlantic White Cedar (Cupressaceae), with Notes on Infestation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.J. Turgeon; K. Kamijo; G. DeBarr

    1997-01-01

    A new species, Megastigmus thyoides Kamijo (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), which emerged from seeds of Atlantic white cedar, Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P., collected in eastern United States is described and illustrated. This is the first record of this genus exploiting seeds of Cupressaceae in the Nearctic region. An average of 7% of the seeds collected from five sites...

  13. Effectiveness of Cedar Oil Products for Preventing Host Use by Ips avulsus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in a Modified Small-Bolt Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. L. Strom; L. M. Roton

    2011-01-01

    Insecticide products based on cedar oil are readily available, but evaluations against pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are lacking. In the southeastern U.S., the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm, is the major bark beetle pest for which tree protectants are applied. However, Ips avulsus (Eichhoff) are more consistently...

  14. Tree ring proxies show physiological responses of eastern red cedar to increased CO2 and SO4 concentrations over the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. B.; Spal, S.; Maxwell, S.; Nippert, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    We examined the relationships between tree growth during the past century and the ratio of internal carbon dioxide concentration to atmospheric CO2 concentration (ci/ca) and instantaneous water-use efficiency (iWUE) by analyzing δ13C in tree rings of Juniperus virginiana growing on a limestone outcrop in West Virginia, US. Tree rings from years 1909 to 2008 from five Juniperus virginiana trees that ranged from 116 years to over 300 years in age were measured for basal area growth and used for isotopic analysis. Instantaneous WUE increased from approximately 75 to 112μmol mmol-1 over the past century, representing a 49% increase. In addition, we found a positive relationship between iWUE and the basal area increase over this time period, suggesting the increase in WUE translated into greater growth of the Juniperus trees. Typically, we might expect that increased growth of these trees reflects increased photosynthetic rates and decreased stomatal conductance rates resulting from increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, this area of the central Appalachian Mountains has historically received some of the highest rates of acid deposition in the nation resulting from being downwind from an abundance of coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River valley. Our results show that ci/ca declined 14% between 1909 and 1980, but increased 9.6% between 1980 and 2009. We hypothesize that the directional change in ci/ca that occurred around 1980 was due to a reduction in sulfur emissions imposed by the Clean Air Act, environmental legislation enacted in 1970 and amended in 1990. Sulfur deposition measured by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) in West Virginia near our Juniperus site shows a 53% decline between 1979 and 2009 and these NADP data show a highly significant negative correlation with ci/ca of Juniperus over this time period. Previously, experimental studies have shown that acidic sulfur mist leaches calcium from leaves causing a reduction in

  15. Endemic human fasciolosis in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, M; O'Neill, S M; Dalton, J P

    2007-05-01

    Fasciolosis, caused by trematodes of the genus Fasciola, is an emerging disease of humans. One of the highest levels of human fasciolosis hepatica is found amongst the indigenous Aymaran people of the Northern Bolivian Altiplano. A meta-analysis of epidemiological surveys from 38 communities in the region demonstrates that fasciolosis has been endemic in the region since at least 1984 and is a zoonosis of rural communities. Human and bovine fasciolosis is associated with the communities lying in the plain from Lake Titicaca to La Paz, predominantly in the Los Andes province. In Los Andes incidences of up to 67% of population cohorts were found, and prevalence is age-related with the highest infection rate in children aged 8-11 years.

  16. Bursting endemic bubbles in an adaptive network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherborne, N.; Blyuss, K. B.; Kiss, I. Z.

    2018-04-01

    The spread of an infectious disease is known to change people's behavior, which in turn affects the spread of disease. Adaptive network models that account for both epidemic and behavioral change have found oscillations, but in an extremely narrow region of the parameter space, which contrasts with intuition and available data. In this paper we propose a simple susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model on an adaptive network with time-delayed rewiring, and show that oscillatory solutions are now present in a wide region of the parameter space. Altering the transmission or rewiring rates reveals the presence of an endemic bubble—an enclosed region of the parameter space where oscillations are observed.

  17. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling to quantify effects of peak-flow management on channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat in the Cedar River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Christiana; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Magirl, Christopher S.

    2010-01-01

    The Cedar River in Washington State originates on the western slope of the Cascade Range and provides the City of Seattle with most of its drinking water, while also supporting a productive salmon habitat. Water-resource managers require detailed information on how best to manage high-flow releases from Chester Morse Lake, a large reservoir on the Cedar River, during periods of heavy precipitation to minimize flooding, while mitigating negative effects on fish populations. Instream flow-management practices include provisions for adaptive management to promote and maintain healthy aquatic habitat in the river system. The current study is designed to understand the linkages between peak flow characteristics, geomorphic processes, riverine habitat, and biological responses. Specifically, two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling is used to simulate and quantify the effects of the peak-flow magnitude, duration, and frequency on the channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat. Two study reaches, representative of the typical geomorphic and ecologic characteristics of the Cedar River, were selected for the modeling. Detailed bathymetric data, collected with a real-time kinematic global positioning system and an acoustic Doppler current profiler, were combined with a LiDAR-derived digital elevation model in the overbank area to develop a computational mesh. The model is used to simulate water velocity, benthic shear stress, flood inundation, and morphologic changes in the gravel-bedded river under the current and alternative flood-release strategies. Simulations of morphologic change and salmon-redd scour by floods of differing magnitude and duration enable water-resource managers to incorporate model simulation results into adaptive management of peak flows in the Cedar River. PDF version of a presentation on hydrodynamic modelling in the Cedar River in Washington state. Presented at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2010.

  18. ANTIGENAEMIA AS AN INDICATOR OF FILARIAL ENDEMICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Partono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of 1 -year evaluation of chemotherapeutic intervention in an area of Indonesia endemic for lymphatic filariasis. Control measures were initiated in 1977 by parasite control, informal health educa­tion, and community participation at the village level, well in accord with the WHO-concept of health for all. Diethylcarbamazine (DEC was mass distributed in 1977 and 1988, and selectively distributed in 1978, 1979, 1981, and 1982 to those who were micro-filaraemic prior to DEC treatments, those with a history of adenoly mphangitis over the previous one year period, and to all new comers. In addition, each villager with acute symptoms of adenolymphangitis was immediately treated with a single course of 300 mg DEC for 10 days. No intervention measures were taken between 1982 to 1988, and no attempt was taken to control the vector or to restrict movement between controlled and uncontrolled areas during the whole studies. With these measures, the microfilaria (mf rate decreased from 30% to 0%, the adenolymphangitis rate from 46% to 11%, and the elephantiasis rate from 35% to 3%. The abatement of acute and chronic filarial symptoms over the study period and the disappearance of microfilaremia in the community are pointing towards the possibility of eradicating the partasite from the community. To test this hypothesis, serum samples were tested for circulating filarial antigen by a two-site antigen capture assay employing anti-phosphorylcholine monoclonal antibodies. There was a sharp fall in circulating antigenaemia, demonstrating that infection has either been eliminated from nearly all villagers, or that intensity of infection is now undetectably low. We feel that antigenaemia can be used as an indicator of filarial endemicity.

  19. Comparative phylogeography of endemic Azorean arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmakelis, Aristeidis; Rigal, François; Mourikis, Thanos; Balanika, Katerina; Terzopoulou, Sofia; Rego, Carla; Amorim, Isabel R; Crespo, Luís; Pereira, Fernando; Triantis, Kostas A; Whittaker, Robert J; Borges, Paulo A V

    2015-11-11

    For a remote oceanic archipelago of up to 8 Myr age, the Azores have a comparatively low level of endemism. We present an analysis of phylogeographic patterns of endemic Azorean island arthropods aimed at testing patterns of diversification in relation to the ontogeny of the archipelago, in order to distinguish between alternative models of evolutionary dynamics on islands. We collected individuals of six species (representing Araneae, Hemiptera and Coleoptera) from 16 forest fragments from 7 islands. Using three mtDNA markers, we analysed the distribution of genetic diversity within and between islands, inferred the differentiation time-frames and investigated the inter-island migration routes and colonization patterns. Each species exhibited very low levels of mtDNA divergence, both within and between islands. The two oldest islands were not strongly involved in the diffusion of genetic diversity within the archipelago. The most haplotype-rich islands varied according to species but the younger, central islands contributed the most to haplotype diversity. Colonization events both in concordance with and in contradiction to an inter-island progression rule were inferred, while a non-intuitive pattern of colonization from western to eastern islands was also inferred. The geological development of the Azores has followed a less tidy progression compared to classic hotspot archipelagos, and this is reflected in our findings. The study species appear to have been differentiating within the Azores for <2 Myr, a fraction of the apparent life span of the archipelago, which may indicate that extinction events linked to active volcanism have played an important role. Assuming that after each extinction event, colonization was initiated from a nearby island hosting derived haplotypes, the apparent age of species diversification in the archipelago would be moved closer to the present after each extinction-recolonization cycle. Exploiting these ideas, we propose a general

  20. Features of Acquired Immunity in Malaria Endemic Areas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of Acquired Immunity in Malaria Endemic Areas. Adults (>15 years) do not suffer from the disease. Concomitant presence of low levels of P. falciparum in immune persons. This immunity is lost within 6-12 months if a person moves out of endemic area. Antibodies mediate protection for the asexual stages of P. falciparum.

  1. Endemic earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) of the Balkan Peninsula: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakić, Tanja; Valchovski, Hristo; Stojanović, Mirjana

    2016-11-10

    A list of the endemic earthworms of the Balkan Peninsula is presented. Comprehensive information on the ecology, distribution on the Balkan Peninsula and zoogeographical type of all endemics is given. The list comprises 90 species and subspecies, belonging to 11 genera of the family Lumbricidae. The largest number of the Balkan endemic earthworms belongs to a narrow range group (63.3%). Broad range endemic species take part with 36.7%. Our study shows that the degree of endemism on the Balkan Peninsula is extremely high (about 40%) suggesting an important process of autochthonous speciation on the Balkan Peninsula. This appearance is attributable to relative isolation of the mountains compared to the lowlands within the context of paleoenvironmental changes.

  2. Endemism hotspots are linked to stable climatic refugia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Susan; Noss, Reed

    2017-01-01

    Centres of endemism have received much attention from evolutionists, biogeographers, ecologists and conservationists. Climatic stability is often cited as a major reason for the occurrences of these geographic concentrations of species which are not found anywhere else. The proposed linkage between endemism and climatic stability raises unanswered questions about the persistence of biodiversity during the present era of rapidly changing climate. The current status of evidence linking geographic centres of endemism to climatic stability over evolutionary time was examined. The following questions were asked. Do macroecological analyses support such an endemism-stability linkage? Do comparative studies find that endemic species display traits reflecting evolution in stable climates? Will centres of endemism in microrefugia or macrorefugia remain relatively stable and capable of supporting high biological diversity into the future? What are the implications of the endemism-stability linkage for conservation? Recent work using the concept of climate change velocity supports the classic idea that centres of endemism occur where past climatic fluctuations have been mild and where mountainous topography or favourable ocean currents contribute to creating refugia. Our knowledge of trait differences between narrow endemics and more widely distributed species remains highly incomplete. Current knowledge suggests that centres of endemism will remain relatively climatically buffered in the future, with the important caveat that absolute levels of climatic change and species losses in these regions may still be large. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. New basal iguanodonts from the Cedar Mountain formation of Utah and the evolution of thumb-spiked dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T McDonald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Basal iguanodontian dinosaurs were extremely successful animals, found in great abundance and diversity almost worldwide during the Early Cretaceous. In contrast to Europe and Asia, the North American record of Early Cretaceous basal iguanodonts has until recently been limited largely to skulls and skeletons of Tenontosaurus tilletti. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein we describe two new basal iguanodonts from the Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation of eastern Utah, each known from a partial skull and skeleton. Iguanacolossus fortis gen. et sp. nov. and Hippodraco scutodens gen. et sp. nov. are each diagnosed by a single autapomorphy and a unique combination of characters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Iguanacolossus and Hippodraco add greatly to our knowledge of North American basal iguanodonts and prompt a new comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of basal iguanodont relationships. This analysis indicates that North American Early Cretaceous basal iguanodonts are more basal than their contemporaries in Europe and Asia.

  4. New Basal Iguanodonts from the Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah and the Evolution of Thumb-Spiked Dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Andrew T.; Kirkland, James I.; DeBlieux, Donald D.; Madsen, Scott K.; Cavin, Jennifer; Milner, Andrew R. C.; Panzarin, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    Background Basal iguanodontian dinosaurs were extremely successful animals, found in great abundance and diversity almost worldwide during the Early Cretaceous. In contrast to Europe and Asia, the North American record of Early Cretaceous basal iguanodonts has until recently been limited largely to skulls and skeletons of Tenontosaurus tilletti. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein we describe two new basal iguanodonts from the Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation of eastern Utah, each known from a partial skull and skeleton. Iguanacolossus fortis gen. et sp. nov. and Hippodraco scutodens gen. et sp. nov. are each diagnosed by a single autapomorphy and a unique combination of characters. Conclusions/Significance Iguanacolossus and Hippodraco add greatly to our knowledge of North American basal iguanodonts and prompt a new comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of basal iguanodont relationships. This analysis indicates that North American Early Cretaceous basal iguanodonts are more basal than their contemporaries in Europe and Asia. PMID:21124919

  5. Paleoclimate Signals and Temperature Reconstructions for the Northeastern United States using Atlantic White Cedar Tree-Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, J. K.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; Pederson, N.; Donnelly, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    High-resolution paleoclimate records of the Common Era are essential for improving detection and attribution of internal and forced climate system responses. The densely populated northeastern United States is at risk from impending climate shifts as well as sea level rise. Here we present a new network of annually resolved proxy data from Atlantic white cedar trees throughout the northeastern United States. Ring width variability reflects winter through summer temperatures at inland sites north of New Jersey. Climate signals embedded in the full network are evaluated for their potential to provide reconstructions of both temperature and drought variability. We demonstrate skillful climate reconstructions for the last several centuries and the potential to use subfossil samples to extend these records over the Common Era. Our tree-ring network provides the long-term context at multidecadal and centennial time scales for the large-scale ocean-atmospheric processes that influence the climate of the region.

  6. Urinary iodine excretion in relation to goiter prevalence in households of goiter endemic and non endemic regions of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuye, Chernet; Hailemariam, Bantiyrgu; Neka Tibeb, Hanna; Urga, Kelbesa; Woldegebriel, Zewidie

    1995-01-01

    A Survey of goiter prevalence, among population of five endemic and four non endemic regions of Ethiopia was carried out prior to the distribution of iodate d salt. urine samples were collected from 327 subjects selected by systematic random sampling from endemic and 276 taken as non endemic. The lowest mean urinary iodine excretion (UIE) value was recorded in Bure (22 micro gl/day) and the highest in Alemmaya (148 micro gl/day). The highest goiter rate ( percent TGR) was recorded in Sawla 55.6 %) and the lowest (0.6 %) in Yabello. Iodine content of drinking was in the range of 0.4 - 48.5 micro gl. Iodine content of water source was correlated positively ( r0.8399) with the mean of UIE and TGR, however, indicates that sites considered as non endemic seem to be affected by iodine deficiency. The study results urge the need for intervention in controlling Iodine Deficiency Disorders. 3 tab

  7. Water-soluble low-molecular-weight -(1, 3–1, 6 D-Glucan inhibit cedar pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Jippo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, asthma, and food allergies has increased in several countries. Mast cells have critical roles in various biologic processes related to allergic diseases. Mast cells express the high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin (Ig E on their surface. The interaction of multivalent antigens with surface-bound IgE causes the secretion of granule-stored mediators, as well as the de novosynthesis of cytokines. Those mediators and cytokines proceed the allergic diseases. We investigated the effects of water-soluble, low-molecular-weight -(1, 3–1, 6 D-glucan isolated from Aureobasidium pullulans 1A1 strain black yeast (LMW--glucan on mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions. We reported that LMW--glucan dose-dependently inhibited the degranulation of mast cells. Furthermore, we found that orally administered LMW--glucan inhibited the IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA reaction in mice. Here, we examined if LMW--glucan had effects on Japanese cedar pollinosis. Findings: In a clinical study, a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study in 65 subjects (aged 2262 was performed. This study was undertaken 3 weeks before and until the end of the cedar pollen season. During the study, all subjects consumed one bottle of placebo or LMW--glucan daily and all subjects were required to record allergic symptoms in a diary. The LMW--glucan group had a significantly lower prevalence of sneezing, nose-blowing, tears, and hindrance to the activities of daily living than the placebo group. Conclusions: These results suggested that LMW--glucan could be an effective treatment for allergic diseases

  8. Costs of Illness Due to Endemic Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, C.; Riewpaiboon, A.; Stewart, J.F.; Clemens, J.; Guh, S.; Agtini, M.; Sur, D.; Islam, Z.; Lucas, M.; Whittington, D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Economic analyses of cholera immunization programmes require estimates of the costs of cholera. The Diseases of the Most Impoverished programme measured the public, provider, and patient costs of culture-confirmed cholera in four study sites with endemic cholera using a combination of hospital- and community-based studies. Families with culture-proven cases were surveyed at home 7 and 14 days after confirmation of illness. Public costs were measured at local health facilities using a micro-costing methodology. Hospital-based studies found that the costs of severe cholera were USD 32 and 47 in Matlab and Beira. Community-based studies in North Jakarta and Kolkata found that cholera cases cost between USD 28 and USD 206, depending on hospitalization. Patient costs of illness as a percentage of average monthly income were 21% and 65% for hospitalized cases in Kolkata and North Jakarta, respectively. This burden on families is not captured by studies that adopt a provider perspective. PMID:21554781

  9. Endemic pemphigus over a century: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abréu-Vélez, Ana María; Roselino, Ana Maria; Howard, Michael S; Reason, Iara J de Messias

    2010-03-01

    Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) is an autoimmune disease, classically occurring in a restricted geographic area. Foci of EPF have been described in several Central and South American countries, often affecting young people and Amerindians, with some female predilection. Although most American EPF cases have been documented in Brazil, cases have been reported in Peru, Paraguay, El Salvador and Venezuela. An additional variant of EPF has been described in El Bagre, Colombia, (El Bagre-EPF) affecting older men and a few post-menopausal females. Finally, one additional type of EPF has been described in nomadic tribes affecting females of child bearing age in Tunisia, Africa. The main aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about autoantigens, and immunologic and genetic studies in EPF. We utilized a retrospective review of the literature, aiming to compile and compare the multiple geographic foci of EPF. The primary autoantigens in EPF are still considered to be desmogleins in the case of the Tunisian and all American cases, in contradistinction to plakins and desmogleins in El Bagre-EPF. Although several autoantigens are been suggested, their biochemical nature needs further elucidation. Current knowledge still supports the concept that an antibody mediated immune response represents the principal pathophysiology in all variants of EPF. A strong genetic susceptibility appears to contribute to disease development in several people affected by these diseases; however, no specific genes have been confirmed at present. We conclude that further investigation is necessary to define these disorders immunologically and genetically.

  10. Updated Global Burden of Cholera in Endemic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Nelson, Allyson R.; Lopez, Anna Lena; Sack, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The global burden of cholera is largely unknown because the majority of cases are not reported. The low reporting can be attributed to limited capacity of epidemiological surveillance and laboratories, as well as social, political, and economic disincentives for reporting. We previously estimated 2.8 million cases and 91,000 deaths annually due to cholera in 51 endemic countries. A major limitation in our previous estimate was that the endemic and non-endemic countries were defined based on the countries’ reported cholera cases. We overcame the limitation with the use of a spatial modelling technique in defining endemic countries, and accordingly updated the estimates of the global burden of cholera. Methods/Principal Findings Countries were classified as cholera endemic, cholera non-endemic, or cholera-free based on whether a spatial regression model predicted an incidence rate over a certain threshold in at least three of five years (2008-2012). The at-risk populations were calculated for each country based on the percent of the country without sustainable access to improved sanitation facilities. Incidence rates from population-based published studies were used to calculate the estimated annual number of cases in endemic countries. The number of annual cholera deaths was calculated using inverse variance-weighted average case-fatality rate (CFRs) from literature-based CFR estimates. We found that approximately 1.3 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.86 million cholera cases (uncertainty range: 1.3m-4.0m) occur annually in endemic countries. Among these cases, there are an estimated 95,000 deaths (uncertainty range: 21,000-143,000). Conclusion/Significance The global burden of cholera remains high. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for the majority of this burden. Our findings can inform programmatic decision-making for cholera control. PMID:26043000

  11. Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius, an endophytic fungus from Juniperus communis L. Horstmann as a novel source of the anticancer pro-drug deoxypodophyllotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusari, S; Lamshöft, M; Spiteller, M

    2009-09-01

    Isolation, identification and characterization of an endophytic fungus from Juniperus communis L. Horstmann, as a novel producer of deoxypodophyllotoxin and its in vitro antimicrobial assay. The methodology for the isolation, identification and characterization of a novel endophytic fungus from the twigs of the J. communis L. Horstmann plant, which specifically and consistently produces deoxypodophyllotoxin, was unequivocally established. The fungus was identified as Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius by molecular, morphological and physiological methods. Deoxypodophyllotoxin was identified and quantified by high-resolution LC-MS, LC-MS(2) and LC-MS(3). The antimicrobial efficacy of the fungal deoxypodophyllotoxin against a panel of pathogenic bacteria was established. The production of deoxypodophyllotoxin (found in the host) by the cultured endophyte is an enigmatic observation. It demonstrates the transfer of gene(s) for such accumulation by horizontal means from the host plant to its endophytic counterpart. It would be interesting to further study the deoxypodophyllotoxin production and regulation by the cultured endophyte in J. communis and in axenic cultures. This endophyte is a potential handle for scientific and commercial exploitation. Although the current accumulation of deoxypodophyllotoxin by the endophyte is not very high, it could be scaled-up to provide adequate production to satisfy new drug development and clinical needs. However, further refined precursor-feeding and mass-balance studies are required to result in the consistent and dependable production.

  12. Detection of Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata and Juniperus procera in the dry Afromontane forest of northern Ethiopia using subpixel analysis of Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishe, Hadgu; Giday, Kidane; Neka, Mulugeta; Soromessa, Teshome; Van Orshoven, Jos; Muys, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive and less costly forest inventory approaches are required to monitor the spatiotemporal dynamics of key species in forest ecosystems. Subpixel analysis using the earth resources data analysis system imagine subpixel classification procedure was tested to extract Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata and Juniperus procera canopies from Landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper plus imagery. Control points with various canopy area fractions of the target species were collected to develop signatures for each of the species. With these signatures, the imagine subpixel classification procedure was run for each species independently. The subpixel process enabled the detection of O. europaea subsp. cuspidata and J. procera trees in pure and mixed pixels. Total of 100 pixels each were field verified for both species. An overall accuracy of 85% was achieved for O. europaea subsp. cuspidata and 89% for J. procera. A high overall accuracy level of detecting species at a natural forest was achieved, which encourages using the algorithm for future species monitoring activities. We recommend that the algorithm has to be validated in similar environment to enrich the knowledge on its capability to ensure its wider usage.

  13. [Safety threshold of fluorine in endemic fluorosis regions in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghua; Wang, Wuyi; Hou, Shaofan

    2002-07-01

    Four endemic fluorosis regions in China and their environmental epidemiological characteristics were summarized in this paper. It shows that the epidemiology of endemic fluorosis is closely related to geochemical parameters of local environment. The food-web and dose-effect relationship of fluoride from environment to human body in different types of endemic fluorosis regions were studied. And the safety threshold of fluoride in different regions was determined. The results have provided a scientific basis for environmental risk assessment of fluoride in China.

  14. The salt glands of Tamarix usneoides E. Mey. ex Bunge (South African Salt Cedar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hayden; Mycock, David; Weiersbye, Isabel M

    2017-06-03

    Tamarix usneoides is a halophyte tree endemic to south-western Africa. This species is known to excrete a range of ions from specialized glandular structures on its leaves. To understand the mechanisms involved in the transport, sequestration and excretion of ions by the glands, a study was performed on salt gland distribution and ultrastructure. The glands are vesiculated trichomes, comprised of eight cells viz. two basal collecting cells and six excretory cells, partially bounded by a secondary cell wall that could serve as an impermeable barrier, forcing excess ions to move from the apoplast of the surrounding tissue into the cytoplasm of the basal excretory cells. It was hypothesized that the ions are moved across the excretory cells in endocytotic vesicles that fuse with the plasmalemma or form junctional complexes, allowing ion movement from one excretory cell to the next. In the apical cell, the vesicles fuse with the plasmalemma, releasing the ions into the network of cell wall ingrowths which channel the ions to the outside surface of the cell. This study shows that there are distinct structural adaptations for the processing of ions for excretion, although the mechanism by which ions enter the cells still needs to be determined.

  15. Endemic infrared divergences in QED3 at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Pok Man; Swanson, Eric S.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that massless QED in three dimensions contains endemic infrared divergences. It is argued that these divergences do not affect observables; furthermore, it is possible to choose a gauge that renders the theory finite.

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis serovars of endemic trachoma had been ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... The serovars that we identified from Japanese infants and pregnant women ... Once Japan was thought to be belong to an endemic area of trachoma as other Asian countries.

  17. The dynamics of endemic malaria in populations of varying size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngwa, G.A.

    2001-10-01

    A mathematical model for endemic malaria involving variable human and mosquito populations is analysed. A threshold parameter R 0 exists and the disease can persist if and only if R 0 exceeds 1. R 0 is seen to be a generalisation of the basic reproduction ratio associated with the Ross-Macdonald model for malaria transmission. The disease free equilibrium always exist and is globally stable when R 0 is below 1. A perturbation analysis is used to approximate the endemic equilibrium in the important case where the disease related death rate is nonzero. A diffusion approximation is used to approximate the quasi-stationary distribution of the associated stochastic model. Numerical simulations show that when R 0 is distinctly greater than 1, the endemic deterministic equilibrium is globally stable. Furthermore, in quasi-stationarity, the stochastic process undergoes oscillations about a mean population whose size can be approximated by the stable endemic deterministic equilibrium. (author)

  18. Spatial distribution of Madeira Island Laurisilva endemic spiders (Arachnida: Araneae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Madeira island presents a unique spider diversity with a high number of endemic species, many of which are still poorly known. A recent biodiversity survey on the terrestrial arthropods of the native forest, Laurisilva, provided a large set of standardized samples from various patches throughout the island. Out of the fifty two species recorded, approximately 33.3% are Madeiran endemics, many of which had not been collected since their original description. Two new species to science are reported – Ceratinopsis n. sp. and Theridion n. sp. – and the first records of Poeciloneta variegata (Blackwall, 1841) and Tetragnatha intermedia Kulczynski, 1891 are reported for the first time for Madeira island. Considerations on species richness and abundance from different Laurisilva locations are presented, together with distribution maps for endemic species. These results contribute to a better understanding of spider diversity patterns and endemic species distribution in the native forest of Madeira island. PMID:24855443

  19. An Investigation on the antimicrobial activity of some endemic plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-04

    Jan 4, 2008 ... Key words: Antimicrobial activity, endemic plants, plant extract. INTRODUCTION ..... The essential oil of A. balsamea was found to be inactive against E. ... Origanum solymicum and Origanum bilgeri from Turkey. Afr. J. Trad.

  20. isoenzyme analysis of five endemic and one widespread kniphofia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ISOENZYME ANALYSIS OF FIVE ENDEMIC AND ONE WIDESPREAD ... plants. The over all mean inbreeding coefficient (F) was positive indicating slight deficiency in the number of ...... populations, indicates rather recent speciation.

  1. A world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon I Hay

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient allocation of resources to intervene against malaria requires a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of malaria risk. It is exactly 40 y since the last global map of malaria endemicity was published. This paper describes the generation of a new world map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity for the year 2007.A total of 8,938 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR surveys were identified using a variety of exhaustive search strategies. Of these, 7,953 passed strict data fidelity tests for inclusion into a global database of PfPR data, age-standardized to 2-10 y for endemicity mapping. A model-based geostatistical procedure was used to create a continuous surface of malaria endemicity within previously defined stable spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission. These procedures were implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework so that the uncertainty of these predictions could be evaluated robustly. The uncertainty was expressed as the probability of predicting correctly one of three endemicity classes; previously stratified to be an informative guide for malaria control. Population at risk estimates, adjusted for the transmission modifying effects of urbanization in Africa, were then derived with reference to human population surfaces in 2007. Of the 1.38 billion people at risk of stable P. falciparum malaria, 0.69 billion were found in Central and South East Asia (CSE Asia, 0.66 billion in Africa, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia (Africa+, and 0.04 billion in the Americas. All those exposed to stable risk in the Americas were in the lowest endemicity class (PfPR2-10 5 to or = 40% areas. High endemicity was widespread in the Africa+ region, where 0.35 billion people are at this level of risk. Most of the rest live at intermediate risk (0.20 billion, with a smaller number (0.11 billion at low stable risk.High levels of P. falciparum malaria endemicity are common in Africa. Uniformly low endemic levels are

  2. A world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Simon I; Guerra, Carlos A; Gething, Peter W; Patil, Anand P; Tatem, Andrew J; Noor, Abdisalan M; Kabaria, Caroline W; Manh, Bui H; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Brooker, Simon; Smith, David L; Moyeed, Rana A; Snow, Robert W

    2009-03-24

    Efficient allocation of resources to intervene against malaria requires a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of malaria risk. It is exactly 40 y since the last global map of malaria endemicity was published. This paper describes the generation of a new world map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity for the year 2007. A total of 8,938 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys were identified using a variety of exhaustive search strategies. Of these, 7,953 passed strict data fidelity tests for inclusion into a global database of PfPR data, age-standardized to 2-10 y for endemicity mapping. A model-based geostatistical procedure was used to create a continuous surface of malaria endemicity within previously defined stable spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission. These procedures were implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework so that the uncertainty of these predictions could be evaluated robustly. The uncertainty was expressed as the probability of predicting correctly one of three endemicity classes; previously stratified to be an informative guide for malaria control. Population at risk estimates, adjusted for the transmission modifying effects of urbanization in Africa, were then derived with reference to human population surfaces in 2007. Of the 1.38 billion people at risk of stable P. falciparum malaria, 0.69 billion were found in Central and South East Asia (CSE Asia), 0.66 billion in Africa, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia (Africa+), and 0.04 billion in the Americas. All those exposed to stable risk in the Americas were in the lowest endemicity class (PfPR2-10 5 to or = 40%) areas. High endemicity was widespread in the Africa+ region, where 0.35 billion people are at this level of risk. Most of the rest live at intermediate risk (0.20 billion), with a smaller number (0.11 billion) at low stable risk. High levels of P. falciparum malaria endemicity are common in Africa. Uniformly low endemic levels are found in the

  3. Endangered, rare and endemic medicinal plants of the Kopetdag

    OpenAIRE

    AKMURADOV ALLAMURAD; SHAIYMOV BABAGULY; HALMEDOV BAZAR; YAKUBOV ATABEG; HALLIYEVA GULYAIYM

    2016-01-01

    The article presents some information of the place of growing of the endangered, rare and endemic medicinal plants of the Kopetdag. A monitoring has been carried out and the bioecological peculiarities, resource characteristics and modern state of the natural population of the most important species have been studied. Some scientifically based ways of protection and introduction into culture have been worked out to preserve the endangered, rare and endemic medicinal plants of the region.

  4. Current cat ownership may be associated with the lower prevalence of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and Japanese cedar pollinosis in schoolchildren in Himeji, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaka, Fumitake; Nakatani, Yuji; Terada, Tadayuki; Tanaka, Akira; Ikeuchi, Haruki; Hayakawa, Akira; Konohana, Atsuo; Oota, Kenji; Nishio, Hisahide

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify the relationship between current pet ownership, passive smoking, and allergic diseases among the Japanese children. From 1995 to 2001, we distributed the Japanese edition of the questionnaire of the American Thoracic Society and the Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD) to survey allergic diseases among 35,552 6-yr-old children at primary school in the city of Himeji, Japan. We analyzed the data by multiple logistic regression and calculated adjusted odds ratios for environmental factors, including passive smoking and pet (dog and/or cat) ownership. There were no significant relationships between the prevalence of asthma and current pet ownership and passive smoking. However, current cat ownership was related to a significantly lower prevalence of atopic dermatitis [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67-0.93], allergic rhinitis (aOR: 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.89) and Japanese cedar pollinosis (aOR 0.57, 95% CI 0.44-0.75). Strikingly, passive smoking was also related to a significantly lower prevalence of allergic rhinitis (aOR 0.83, 95% CI 0.77-0.89) and Japanese cedar pollinosis (aOR 0.81, 95% CI 0.74-0.88). Current cat ownership was associated with a lower prevalence of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and Japanese cedar pollinosis. In addition, passive smoking was also associated with a lower prevalence of allergic rhinitis and Japanese cedar pollinosis.

  5. Endemic harvestmen and spiders of Austria (Arachnida: Opiliones, Araneae

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    Komposch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive overview of plant, fungus and animal species of Austria revealed a total of 748 endemic and subendemic species, including, 11 harvestman and 46 spider species. Altogether two endemic harvestmen (Nemastoma bidentatum relictum, Nemastoma schuelleri and 8 endemic spiders (Abacoproeces molestus, Collinsia (caliginosa nemenziana, Mughiphantes severus, Mughiphantes styriacus, Pelecopsis alpica, Scotophaeus nanus, Troglohyphantes novicordis, Troglohyphantes tauriscus, beside 9 subendemic harvestman and 38 subendemic spider species have been recorded from Austria. Hot-spots of endemism in the Eastern Alps are the north-eastern (Ennstaler Alps and southern Calcareous Alps (Karawanken, Karnische Alps and the Central Alps (Hohe Tauern, Gurktaler Alps, Ötztaler and Stubaier Alps. Most of the endemic arachnid species occur from the nival down to the montane zone. Important habitats are rocky areas, caves and woodlands. High absolute numbers and percentages of endemics can be found within the harvestman families Cladonychiidae, Ischyropsalididae and Nemastomatidae and in the spider genera Lepthyphantes s. l. and Troglohyphantes. The conservation status of these highly endangered taxa – 85 % of the spider species and 100 % of the harvestman taxa are endangered in Austria – is poor.

  6. The tropical cedar tree (Cedrela fissilis Vell., Meliaceae) homolog of the Arabidopsis LEAFY gene is expressed in reproductive tissues and can complement Arabidopsis leafy mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier; Rodriguez, Adriana Pinheiro Martinelli

    2006-01-01

    A homolog of FLORICAULA/LEAFY, CfLFY (for Cedrela fissilis LFY), was isolated from tropical cedar. The main stages of the reproductive development in C. fissilis were documented by scanning electron microscopy and the expression patterns of CfLFY were studied during the differentiation of the floral meristems. Furthermore, the biological role of the CfLFY gene was assessed using transgenic Arabidopsis plants. CfLFY showed a high degree of similarity to other plant homologs of FLO/LFY. Southern analysis showed that CfLFY is a single-copy gene in the tropical cedar genome. Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization results showed that CfLFY was expressed in the reproductive buds during the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth, as well as in floral meristems and floral organs but was excluded from the vegetative apex and leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis lfy26 mutant lines expressing the CfLFY coding region, under the control of the LFY promoter, showed restored wild-type phenotype. Taken together, our results suggest that CfLFY is a FLO/LFY homolog probably involved in the control of tropical cedar reproductive development.

  7. The Standardized Extract of Juniperus communis Alleviates Hyperpigmentation in Vivo HRM-2 Hairless Mice and in Vitro Murine B16 Melanoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegal, Jonghwan; Chung, Ki Wung; Chung, Hae Young; Jeong, Eun Ju; Yang, Min Hye

    2017-01-01

    In European folk medicine, the fruits of Juniperus communis are used in the treatment of skin-related disorders such as skin infection, itching, and psoriasis. Previously, we reported that the EtOAc fraction of J. communis (EAJC) contained tyrosinase inhibition properties in vitro non-cellular experiment. The aim of this study was to evaluate anti-melanogenic effect of standardized EAJC on a hyperpigmentation animal model. Therapeutic effects of EAJC toward skin hyperpigmentation were confirmed by both in vivo experiment and in vitro cell-based assay. Skin depigmenting effect was detected by topical treatment of EAJC for 11 d to HRM-2 melanin-possessing hairless mice. Histologic findings including significantly decreased melanin depositions could be observed in dorsal skin samples of EAJC-treated group. In addition, the EAJC (50 µg/mL) attenuated melanin production through down-regulation of tyrosinase activity and protein expression in B16 murine melanoma cells. According to the phytochemical analysis, EAJC was found to contain hypolaetin-7-O-β-D-xylopyranoside and isoscutellarein-7-O-β-D-xylopyranoside as main components. Hypolaetin-7-O-β-D-xylopyranoside was responsible for the skin-lightening effect of EAJC by reducing the number of melanocytes in dorsal skins of HRM-2 mice. The present study provided direct experimental evidence for skin-lightening effect of EAJC in UV-irradiated hairless mouse model. Therapeutic attempts with the J. communis might be useful in the management of skin pigmentation-related diseases.

  8. You'd better walk alone: Changes in forest composition affect pollination efficiency and pre-dispersal cone damage in Iberian Juniperus thurifera forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, E; Mezquida, E T; Olano, J M

    2017-11-01

    Changes in land-use patterns are a major driver of global environmental change. Cessation of traditional land-use practices has led to forest expansion and shifts in forest composition. Consequently, former monospecific forests maintained by traditional management are progressing towards mixed forests. However, knowledge is scarce on how the presence of other tree species will affect reproduction of formerly dominant species. We explored this question in the wind-pollinated tree Juniperus thurifera. We hypothesised that the presence of heterospecific trees would have a negative effect on cone production and on the proportion of cones attacked by specialised predators. We assessed the relative importance of forest composition on cone production, seed development and pre-dispersal cone damage on nine paired pure and mixed J. thurifera forests in three regions across the Iberian Peninsula. The effects of forest composition on crop size, cone and seed characteristics, as well as damage by pre-dispersal arthropods were tested using mixed models. Cone production was lower and seed abortion higher in mixed forests, suggesting higher pollination failure. In contrast, cone damage by arthropods was higher in pure forests, supporting the hypothesis that presence of non-host plants reduces damage rates. However, the response of each arthropod to forest composition was species-specific and the relative rates of cone damage varied depending on individual tree crops. Larger crop sizes in pure forests compensated for the higher cone damage rates, leading to a higher net production of sound seeds compared to mixed forests. This study indicates that ongoing changes in forest composition after land abandonment may impact tree reproduction. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. ANALYSIS OF DWARF MISTLETOE ARCEUTHOBIUM OXYCEDRI (DC. M. BIEB. AND ITS PRINCIPAL HOST EASTERN PRICKLY JUNIPER JUNIPERUS DELTOIDES R. P. ADAMS DISTRIBUTION IN CRIMEA USING GIS TECHOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kukushkin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study highlights the distribution pattern of juniper dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium oxycedri, a semi-parasite of the Eastern prickly juniper (Juniperus deltoides, in Crimea. A. oxycedri has considerably narrower range in Crimea as compared to its principal host and its ubiquitous distribution is rather sporadic. Nature observations characterize A. oxycedri as a thermophilic and mezo-хerophytic species confined to the low-mountain terrains with mild sub-Mediterranean climate. Significant sites of permanent infection have been discovered at the Crimean coast and in the warmest southwestern part of the Crimean Mountains to the south from the Belbek River valley. Greek juniper (J. excelsa is a codominant species growing side by side with J. deltoids in the majority of localities examined that have the high infection rate. Generally, J. excelsa is an insusceptible species in relation to the parasite; nevertheless, it is affected by A. oxycedri at several sites. Birds feeding habit to consume J. excelsa and J. deltoides fleshy berry-like cones helps to maintain the high infection rate and to disseminate mistletoe seeds at the distance of approximately 4 km. Modeling ecological niche and creating maps of potential range of the parasite and its principal host using MaxEnt 3.3.3k software have demonstrated that A. oxycedri distribution in Crimea at present may be wider than it has been currently observed. It is noteworthy that while modeling such bioclimatic indicators as the minimum winter temperatures and the elevation above sea level were irrelevant for establishing the distribution range of the parasite. Presumably the limited distribution of A. oxycedri can be attributed to the history of forming J. deltoides range in the late Pleistocene – Holocene, alongside with a low speed of the parasite dissemination from Quaternary refugia in the southernmost part of the Crimean Peninsula.

  10. The Review of Certain In Vivo Antioxidant Effects on Essential Oils of Origanum Minutiflorum O Schwarz-Ph Davis, Juniperus Excelsa Bieb.subsp. Excelsa and Histopathologic Changes

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    I Göze

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Essential oil of plants called Juniperus excelsa Bieb. (JE, Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz and P.H. Davis (OM were used in this study. In order to determine experimental doses, LD50 values of essential oils were determined on mice. Taking into consideration the LD30 range, the experimental toxic doses were calculated for each rat (rat/kg. The toxic dosages thus determined were adapted to rats for active substances (rat/kg. Using commercially available pure virgin olive oil (VOO as the solvent and diluting agent, OM oil (n=10, JE fruitoil (n=10, carvacrol (CRV (n=10, VOO (n=10 and normal saline SF (n=8 were administered on the basis of 12 days into intraperitoneal (IP. Enzyme activities of Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, Glutathione-S-transferase (GST, Adenosine-deaminase (ADA and Catalase were studied in isolates of kidney, brain and liver tissues. The data was statistically analyzed through Kruskal Wallis variance analysis. Elevated levels of GST and catalase have been found statistically important, as have both essential oil activities of OM and JE in the kidney tissue (p<0.005. All of the enzymes except the levels of ADA and SOD led to a statistically significant change in the brain and liver. There was sinusoidal hyperemia and capsular adhesion in the liver as histopathological were found to be statistically significant (p<0.005. It did not observe any important changes in the other organs. Findings were scored and analyzed by using x2(chi-square test and Fisher’s definite variance analysis.

  11. Simulation of daily streamflows at gaged and ungaged locations within the Cedar River Basin, Iowa, using a Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Daniel E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, conducted a study to examine techniques for estimation of daily streamflows using hydrological models and statistical methods. This report focuses on the use of a hydrologic model, the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, to estimate daily streamflows at gaged and ungaged locations. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System is a modular, physically based, distributed-parameter modeling system developed to evaluate the impacts of various combinations of precipitation, climate, and land use on surface-water runoff and general basin hydrology. The Cedar River Basin was selected to construct a Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model that simulates the period from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2010. The calibration period was from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2004, and the validation periods were from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2010 and January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010. A Geographic Information System tool was used to delineate the Cedar River Basin and subbasins for the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model and to derive parameters based on the physical geographical features. Calibration of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model was completed using a U.S. Geological Survey calibration software tool. The main objective of the calibration was to match the daily streamflow simulated by the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model with streamflow measured at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gages. The Cedar River Basin daily streamflow model performed with a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency ranged from 0.82 to 0.33 during the calibration period, and a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency ranged from 0.77 to -0.04 during the validation period. The Cedar River Basin model is meeting the criteria of greater than 0.50 Nash-Sutcliffe and is a good fit for streamflow conditions for the calibration period at all but one location, Austin, Minnesota

  12. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer - eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS) is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. Results We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m) of that observed in the core populations (15 m). Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, σg = 135 m) than in core (Sp = 0.014, σg = 109 m) populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82) than in the peripheral (Nb = 48) populations. Conclusion Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short distances. Peripheral

  13. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer - eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.

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    Pandey Madhav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. Results We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m of that observed in the core populations (15 m. Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, σg = 135 m than in core (Sp = 0.014, σg = 109 m populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82 than in the peripheral (Nb = 48 populations. Conclusion Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short

  14. FOLIAR ANATOMY OF ENDEMICS SPECIES OF Cattleya (ORCHIDACEAE ENDEMIC FROM GUIANA SHIELD

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    Graciene Tomaz Carneiro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was characterize the leaf's anatomical aspects of Cattleya jenmanii Rolfe and e C. lawrenceana Rchb. f., describing its anatomical structures in order to increase the knowledge of this endemic species from the region of the Guiana Shield. Besides, it also intended to identify foliar characters to assist in the anatomical comparison of these species. For anatomical study, the material was fixed in FAA and to make the slides we used the usual cut freehand technique and stained with double staining from Safranin with Blue Astra (Safrablau. C. jenmanii and C. lawrenceana has fleshy leaves covered with a thick cuticle. The mesophyll presented dorsiventral with collateral vascular bundles. A large number of bundles of smaller caliber fibers are distributed in the mesophyll poles. Only the presence of a subepidermal layer of fibers differed C. lawrenceana from C. jenmanii. Keyword: Roraima; Guiana Shield; Cattleya; Amazon Basin.

  15. The endemic plants of Micronesia: a geographical checklist and commentary

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    Lorence, D.H.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Micronesia-Polynesia bioregion is recognized as a global biodiversity hotspot. However, until now estimates regarding the number of endemic plant species for the region were not supported by any comprehensive published work for the region. The results of this study indicate that Micronesia has the world’s highest percentage of plant endemism per square kilometer out of all globally recognized insular biodiversity hotspots. A checklist of all endemic plant species for Micronesia is presented here with their corresponding geographical limits within the region. A summary of previous work and estimates is also provided noting the degree of taxonomic progress in the past several decades. A total of 364 vascular plant species are considered endemic to Micronesia, most of them being restricted to the Caroline Islands with a large percentage restricted to Palau. The checklist includes seven new combinations, one new name, and two unverified names that require additional study to verify endemic status. Overviews of each respective botanical family represented in the list are given including additional information on the Micronesian taxa. Recommendations for future work and potential projects are alluded to throughout the text highlighting major data gaps and very poorly known taxa. The following new combinations and names are made: Cyclosorus carolinensis (Hosokawa Lorence, comb. nov. , Cyclosorusgretheri (W. H. Wagner Lorence, comb. nov., Cyclosorusguamensis (Holttum Lorence, comb. nov., Cyclosorus palauensis (Hosokawa Lorence, comb. nov. , Cyclosorus rupiinsularis (Fosberg Lorence, comb. nov., Dalbergia hosokawae (Hosokawa Costion nom. nov., Syzygium trukensis (Hosokawa Costion & E. Lucas comb. nov.

  16. Seasonal variation in the atmospheric deposition of inorganic constituents and canopy interactions in a Japanese cedar forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sase, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Akiomi; Sato, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Hiroyasu; Nakata, Makoto; Totsuka, Tsumugu

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal changes in throughfall (TF) and stemflow (SF) chemistry and the canopy interactions of K + and N compounds were studied in a Japanese cedar forest near the Sea of Japan. The fluxes of most ions, including non-sea-salt SO 4 2- , from TF, SF, and rainfall showed distinct seasonal trends, increasing from autumn to winter, owing to the seasonal west wind, while the fluxes of NH 4 + and K + ions from TF + SF might have a large effect of canopy interactions. The contact angle (CA) of water droplets on leaves decreased with leaf aging, suggesting that surface wettability increases with leaf age. The K + concentration in TF was negatively correlated with the CA of 1-year-old leaves, while the NH 4 + concentration was positively correlated with the CA. The net fluxes of NH 4 + and NO 3 - from TF were positively correlated with the CA. The increase in wettability may accelerate leaching of K + or uptake of NH 4 + . - Leaf surface properties may contribute to the ion transport process of the forest canopy

  17. EVALUATION OF COLOR OF THE JUVENILE AND MATURE CEDAR WOOD BY MEANS OF CIEL*a*b* METHOD

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    Rafael de Avila Delucis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to characterize the radial profile of cedar wood (Cedrela fissilis by the colorimetric technique. Three different trees of approximately 100 years old were selected in Canguçu, Rio Grande do Sul. From each felled tree, discs were removed at breast height (1,3 m with a thickness of 20 cm and subsequently samples were segmented in centimeter lengths from pith to bark. The samples were conditioned at equilibrium moisture content of 12%, to carry out the colour evaluation with a portable colorimeter Konica Minolta brand in accordance with the CIEL*a*b* method. To determine the segregation of juvenile and mature woods position was employed the apparent specific gravity to 12% (ρa12% as a parameter. With colorimetric analysis, it was found that the lightness, the green-red coordinate and hue angle presented intimate relation with the transition from juvenile and adult logs. Has a result of blueyellow coordinate and chromaticity showed approximately a linear trend in pith-bark direction.

  18. A simple method to estimate radiation interception by nursery stock conifers: a case study of eastern white cedar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronk, A.A.; Goudriaan, J.; Stilma, E.; Challa, H.

    2003-01-01

    A simple method was developed to estimate the fraction radiation intercepted by small eastern white cedar plants (Thuja occidentalis ‘Brabant’). The method, which describes the crop canopy as rows of cuboids, was compared with methods used for estimating radiation interception by crops with homogeneous canopies and crops grown in rows. The extinction coefficient k was determined at different plant arrangements and an average k-value of 0.48 ± 0.03 (R 2 = 0.89) was used in the calculations. Effects of changing plant characteristics and inter- and intra-row plant distances were explored. The fraction radiation intercepted that was estimated with the method for rows of cuboids was up to 20% and for row crops up to 8% lower than estimated with the method for homogeneous canopies at low plant densities and a LAI of 1. The fraction radiation intercepted by small plants of Thuja occidentalis ‘Brabant’ was best estimated by the simple method described in this paper

  19. [Prediction of the total Japanese cedar pollen counts based on male flower-setting conditions of standard trees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuta, Atsushi; Ukai, Kotaro; Sakakura, Yasuo; Tani, Hideshi; Matsuda, Fukiko; Yang, Tian-qun; Majima, Yuichi

    2002-07-01

    We made a prediction of the Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen counts at Tsu city based on male flower-setting conditions of standard trees. The 69 standard trees from 23 kinds of clones, planted at Mie Prefecture Science and Technology Promotion Center (Hakusan, Mie) in 1964, were selected. Male flower-setting conditions for 276 faces (69 trees x 4 points of the compass) were scored from 0 to 3. The average of scores and total pollen counts from 1988 to 2000 was analyzed. As the results, the average scores from standard trees and total pollen counts except two mass pollen-scattered years in 1995 and 2000 had a positive correlation (r = 0.914) by linear function. On the mass pollen-scattered years, pollen counts were influenced from the previous year. Therefore, the score of the present year minus that of the previous year were used for analysis. The average scores from male flower-setting conditions and pollen counts had a strong positive correlation (r = 0.994) when positive scores by taking account of the previous year were analyzed. We conclude that prediction of pollen counts are possible based on the male flower-setting conditions of standard trees.

  20. Changes in the distribution of radiocesium in the wood of Japanese cedar trees from 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hideki; Hirano, Yurika; Igei, Shigemitsu; Yokota, Kahori; Arai, Shio; Ito, Hirohisa; Kumata, Atsushi; Yoshida, Hirohisa

    2016-09-01

    The changes in the distribution of (137)Cs in the wood of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) trunks within three years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNP) accident in 2011 were investigated. Thirteen trees were felled to collect samples at 6 forests in 2 regions of the Fukushima prefecture. The radial distribution of (137)Cs in the wood was measured at different heights. Profiles of (137)Cs distribution in the wood changed considerably from 2011 to 2013, and the process of (137)Cs distribution change in the wood was clarified. From 2011 to 2012, the active transportation from sapwood to heartwood and the radial diffusion in heartwood proceeded quickly, and the radial (137)Cs distribution differed according to the vertical positon of trees. From 2012 to 2013, the vertical diffusion of (137)Cs from the treetop to the ground, probably caused by the gradient of (137)Cs concentration in the trunk, was observed. Eventually, the radial (137)Cs distributions were nearly identical at any vertical positions in 2013. Our results suggested that the active transportation from sapwood to heartwood and the vertical and radial diffusion in heartwood proceeded according to the vertical position of the tree and (137)Cs distribution in the wood approached the equilibrium state within three years after the accident. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Elevational plant species richness patterns and their drivers across non-endemics, endemics and growth forms in the Eastern Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manish, Kumar; Pandit, Maharaj K; Telwala, Yasmeen; Nautiyal, Dinesh C; Koh, Lian Pin; Tiwari, Sudha

    2017-09-01

    Despite decades of research, ecologists continue to debate how spatial patterns of species richness arise across elevational gradients on the Earth. The equivocal results of these studies could emanate from variations in study design, sampling effort and data analysis. In this study, we demonstrate that the richness patterns of 2,781 (2,197 non-endemic and 584 endemic) angiosperm species along an elevational gradient of 300-5,300 m in the Eastern Himalaya are hump-shaped, spatial scale of extent (the proportion of elevational gradient studied) dependent and growth form specific. Endemics peaked at higher elevations than non-endemics across all growth forms (trees, shrubs, climbers, and herbs). Richness patterns were influenced by the proportional representation of the largest physiognomic group (herbs). We show that with increasing spatial scale of extent, the richness patterns change from a monotonic to a hump-shaped pattern and richness maxima shift toward higher elevations across all growth forms. Our investigations revealed that the combination of ambient energy (air temperature, solar radiation, and potential evapo-transpiration) and water availability (soil water content and precipitation) were the main drivers of elevational plant species richness patterns in the Himalaya. This study highlights the importance of factoring in endemism, growth forms, and spatial scale when investigating elevational gradients of plant species distributions and advances our understanding of how macroecological patterns arise.

  2. Endemic pemphigus foliaceus in Venezuela: report of two children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Francisco; Sáenz, Ana Maria; Cirocco, Antonietta; Tacaronte, Inés Maria; Fajardo, Javier Enrique; Calebotta, Adriana

    2006-01-01

    Two native Yanomami children from the Venezuelan Amazonia with erythroderma were hospitalized on our service. Clinical, histologic, and immunofluorescence studies diagnosed endemic pemphigus foliaceous. Human leukocyte antigen class II showed DRB1*04 subtype *0411, which has not been previously associated with this disease. However, it shares a common epitope with all the human leukocyte antigen DRB1 alleles that have been involved in this disease among Brazilian populations. Although this condition is endemic in Brazil, our patients are the first two reported in Venezuela.

  3. Chemical composition, antibacterial activity and related mechanism of the essential oil from the leaves of Juniperus rigida Sieb. et Zucc against Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiaxia; Li, Dengwu; Zhou, Dan; Wang, Dongmei; Liu, Qiaoxiao; Fan, Sufang

    2016-12-24

    Juniperus rigida is used as Tibetan and Mongolian medicine in China for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, nephritis, brucellosis and other various inflammatory diseases. To evaluate antibacterial potential of essential oils from J. rigida leaves against Klebsiella pneumoniae and to examine its possible related mechanisms. The study was undertaken in order to scientifically validate the traditional use of J. rigida. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of J. rigida by supercritical CO 2 fluid extraction technology. Chemical composition of essential oils was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity was evaluated against 10 bacteria by the paper disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of the essential oil were estimated by agar dilution method. The antibacterial mechanism was evaluated by growth curve, the integrity of cell membrane, the SDS-PAGE of protein patterns and scanning electron microscope (SEM). 61 components were identified from the essential oil. Caryophyllene (13.11%) and α-Caryophyllene (11.72%) were found to be the major components. The antibacterial activities of the essential oil were screened and compared against 10 bacteria. The essential oil showed good antibacterial activity against K. pneumoniae, with the biggest diameters of inhibition zones (DIZ) (16.00±0.25mm) and the lowest MIC and MBC values of 3.125mg/mL. The increase in proteins, 260nm absorbing materials of bacterial cells suspension indicated that the cytoplasmic membranes were broken by the essential oil. The SDS-PAGE of bacterial proteins demonstrated that the essential oil could damage bacterial cells through the destruction of cellular proteins. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the essential oil damaged the morphology of cell wall and membrane. The essential oil of J. rigida has potential antibacterial activities against K

  4. Seasonal changes in depth of water uptake for encroaching trees Juniperus virginiana and Pinus ponderosa and two dominant C4 grasses in a semiarid grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggemeyer, Kathleen D; Awada, Tala; Harvey, F Edwin; Wedin, David A; Zhou, Xinhua; Zanner, C William

    2009-02-01

    We used the natural abundance of stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen in soil (0.05-3 m depth), plant xylem and precipitation to determine the seasonal changes in sources of soil water uptake by two native encroaching woody species (Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson, Juniperus virginiana L.), and two C(4) grasses (Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Panicum virgatum L.), in the semiarid Sandhills grasslands of Nebraska. Grass species extracted most of their water from the upper soil profile (0.05-0.5 m). Soil water uptake from below 0.5 m depth increased under drought, but appeared to be minimal in relation to the total water use of these species. The grasses senesced in late August in response to drought conditions. In contrast to grasses, P. ponderosa and J. virginiana trees exhibited significant plasticity in sources of water uptake. In winter, tree species extracted a large fraction of their soil water from below 0.9 m depth. In spring when shallow soil water was available, tree species used water from the upper soil profile (0.05-0.5 m) and relied little on water from below 0.5 m depth. During the growing season (May-August) significant differences between the patterns of tree species water uptake emerged. Pinus ponderosa acquired a large fraction of its water from the 0.05-0.5 and 0.5-0.9 m soil profiles. Compared with P. ponderosa, J. virginiana acquired water from the 0.05-0.5 m profile during the early growing season but the amount extracted from this profile progressively declined between May and August and was mirrored by a progressive increase in the fraction taken up from 0.5-0.9 m depth, showing plasticity in tracking the general increase in soil water content within the 0.5-0.9 m profile, and being less responsive to growing season precipitation events. In September, soil water content declined to its minimum, and both tree species shifted soil water uptake to below 0.9 m. Tree transpiration rates (E) and water potentials (Psi) indicated

  5. Anti-tumor effect of hot aqueous extracts from Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L. and Juniperus sabina L - Two traditional medicinal plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyan, Ting; Li, Qi; Wang, Yi-Lin; Li, Jing; Zhang, Jian-Yang; Liu, Ya-Xiong; Shahid, Muhammad Riaz; Yang, Hui; Li, Huan-Qing

    2016-06-05

    Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L (SO) and Juniperus sabina L (JS) are traditional medicinal plants in China. And the aqueous extracts of them have been used to treat tumor, inflammatory diseases, infection and so on in Chinese folk culture. However, the underlying mechanisms of their anti-tumor activities have not been illustrated yet. This study aims to evaluate the inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts from SO and JS on tumor cells. The prepared aqueous extracts of SO and JS were used to treat HepG-2 and K562 tumor cells, while the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were set as normal control. The viabilities, cell cycle and apoptosis of tumor cells after extracts treatment were assessed, in addition the expression of apoptosis-related genes (FasL, caspase 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10) were analyzed. Meanwhile, the adherence and migration of HepG-2 were tested, and the expression levels of MMPs and ICAM-1 were analyzed. On top of that, the pSTAT in the two cells were also analyzed and suggested the related signaling pathway that the extracts acted on with in these tumor cells. Results showed that aqueous extracts of SO and JS have inhibitory effects on HepG-2 and K562 cells by decreasing cell viability and inducing apoptosis via up-regulation of the expression of the apoptosis-related genes FasL, caspase 3 and caspase 9. The extracts had different IC50 on tumor cells and PBMCs, which could block the tumor cell cycle at the G(0)/G(1) stage and significantly inhibit the adherence of HepG-2 cells. The extracts inhibited migration of these cells by inhibiting the expression of ICAM-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9. Further study indicated that the inhibition of pSTAT1 and 3 might be responsible for the inhibitory effects of the extracts on tumor cells. The results of this study indicated that SO and JS extracts had the anti-tumor effects, which may be developed as novel anti-tumor drugs and used in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy of oral immunotherapy with a rice-based edible vaccine containing hypoallergenic Japanese cedar pollen allergens for treatment of established allergic conjunctivitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Ken; Ishida, Waka; Harada, Yosuke; Wakasa, Yuhya; Takagi, Hidenori; Takaiwa, Fumio; Fukushima, Atsuki

    2018-01-01

    We have previously shown that prophylactic oral administration of transgenic rice seeds expressing hypoallergenic modified antigens suppressed the development of allergic conjunctivitis induced by Japanese cedar pollen. We have now investigated the efficacy of oral immunotherapy with such transgenic rice for established allergic conjunctivitis in mice. BALB/c mice were sensitized with two intraperitoneal injections of Japanese cedar pollen in alum, challenged with pollen in eyedrops, and then fed for 16 days with transgenic rice seeds expressing modified Japanese cedar pollen allergens Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 or with nontransgenic rice seeds as a control. They were then challenged twice with pollen in eyedrops, with clinical signs being evaluated at 15 min after the first challenge and the eyes, blood, spleen, and lymph nodes being isolated at 24 h after the second challenge. The number of eosinophils in the conjunctiva and the clinical score for conjunctivitis were both significantly lower in mice fed the transgenic rice than in those fed nontransgenic rice. Oral vaccination with transgenic rice seeds also resulted in a significant increase in the production of IFN-γ by splenocytes, whereas it had no effect on the number of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells in the spleen or submandibular or mesenteric lymph nodes. Oral administration of transgenic rice seeds expressing hypoallergenic allergens ameliorated allergic conjunctivitis in the established setting. Such a rice-based edible vaccine is potentially both safe and effective for oral immunotherapy in individuals with allergic conjunctivitis. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A treasure of endemic fauna of Mauritius and Rodrigues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winters, Ria

    2011-01-01

    This publication deals with the endemic species of the Indian ocean islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues. The author describes the extinct and extant birds and animals in word and art. The book is illustrated with the authors drawings and paintings. Full colour.

  8. Trichomonad infection in endemic and introduced columbids in the Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunbury, N

    2011-07-01

    Island endemic avifaunas face many threats, including the now well-documented impacts of pathogens. The impacts of pathogens on the endemic Seychelles avifauna, however, have been little studied. The protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae has been shown to reduce survival and reproductive success of the endemic Pink Pigeon Columba mayeri on the nearby island of Mauritius. I investigated trichomonad infection prevalence and pathogenicity in endemic Seychelles Blue Pigeons, Alectroenas pulcherrima, and two introduced species of columbid, the Madagascar Turtle-dove, Streptopelia picturata, and the Barred Ground Dove, Geopelia striata, on the Seychelles island of Mahé during September-October 2007. I asked whether: 1) trichomonad infections occur in these species; 2) prevalence varies among species; and 3) birds show any signs of pathogenicity consistent with tricho-monosis. I use the results to assess the potential threat of this pathogen to A. pulcherrima. All three species were infected with trichomonads, and the overall prevalence was 27.5%. Alectroenas pulcherrima had higher prevalence (47.1%) than the two introduced species combined (24.3%). No infected individuals showed any signs of disease. These findings suggest that trichomonad parasites should be considered as a potential disease threat to the A. pulcherrima population.

  9. Distribution and protection of endemic or threatened rodents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    highest in the south-western parts of the country, and hotspots of endemism cOincide with those of species rich- ness. However, Red ... species richness hotspot in the Succulent Karoo contains no existing reserves, whereas all Red Data Book spe- ... conserve all aspects of biodiversity, but of historical ad hoc decisions ...

  10. Small mammals distribution and diversity in a plague endemic area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small mammals play a role in plague transmission as hosts in all plague endemic areas. Information on distribution and diversity of small mammals is therefore important for plague surveillance and control in such areas. The objective of this study was to investigate small mammals' diversity and their distribution in plague ...

  11. Patterns of distribution and protection status of the endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of these endemics are small mammals and many are listed in the Red Data Book, especially those restricted to the Nama-and Succulent Karoo. This is of concern, as both areas are inadequately protected by the existing protected areas. The coastal forests also contain many Red Data Book species, particularly ...

  12. Biological Invasion and Loss of Endemic Biodiversity in the Thar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 3. Nature Watch - Biological Invasion and Loss of Endemic Biodiversity in the Thar Desert. Ishwar Prakash. Feature Article Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 76-85. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Allozyme diversity in Macbridea alba (Lamiaceae), an endemic Florida mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.J.W. Godt; Joan L. Walker; J.L. Hamrick

    2004-01-01

    Macbridea alba is a herbaceous perennial mint endemic to the panhandle region of Florida. We used starch gel electrophoresis to describe allozyme diversity and genetic structure in this federally threatened plant. Ten populations were analyzed, with an average sample size of 47 plants (range 41-48 plants) per population. Of the 22 loci analyzed, 11 (...

  14. Patterns of endemicity and range restriction among southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patterns of endemicity and range restriction among southern African coastal marine invertebrates. RJ Scott, CL Griffiths, TB Robinson. Abstract. Southern Africa supports a rich marine biota of 12 734 currently described marine species. Although the distribution and overall species-richness patterns of several component ...

  15. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckx, V.; Hendriks, K.; Beentjes, K.; Mennes, C.B.; Becking, L.E.; Geurts, R.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism1–3, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood4. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these

  16. The endemicity of dracunculiasis, transmission pattern and ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the endemicity of dracunculiasis, it's transmission pattern and ecology of cyclopoid copepods in Ezza North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State Nigeria were carried out between January and December 2001. Of the 2226 persons examined in eight communities, 426 (19.1%) were infected. This included 24 ...

  17. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckx, Vincent S F T; Hendriks, Kasper P; Beentjes, Kevin K; Mennes, Constantijn B; Becking, Leontine E; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; Afendy, Aqilah; Arumugam, Nivaarani; de Boer, Hugo; Biun, Alim; Buang, Matsain M; Chen, Ping-Ping; Chung, Arthur Y C; Dow, Rory; Feijen, Frida A A; Feijen, Hans; Feijen-van Soest, Cobi; Geml, József; Geurts, René; Gravendeel, Barbara; Hovenkamp, Peter; Imbun, Paul; Ipor, Isa; Janssens, Steven B; Jocqué, Merlijn; Kappes, Heike; Khoo, Eyen; Koomen, Peter; Lens, Frederic; Majapun, Richard J; Morgado, Luis N; Neupane, Suman; Nieser, Nico; Pereira, Joan T; Rahman, Homathevi; Sabran, Suzana; Sawang, Anati; Schwallier, Rachel M; Shim, Phyau-Soon; Smit, Harry; Sol, Nicolien; Spait, Maipul; Stech, Michael; Stokvis, Frank; Sugau, John B; Suleiman, Monica; Sumail, Sukaibin; Thomas, Daniel C; van Tol, Jan; Tuh, Fred Y Y; Yahya, Bakhtiar E; Nais, Jamili; Repin, Rimi; Lakim, Maklarin; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these

  18. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckx, V.S.F.T.; Hendriks, K.P.; Beentjes, K.K.; Mennes, C.B.; Becking, L.E.; Peijnenburg, K.T.C.A.; Afendy, A.; Arumugam, N.; de Boer, H.; Biun, A.; Buang, M.M.; Chen, P.P.; Chung, A.Y.C.; Dow, R..; Feijen, F.A.A.; Feijen, H.; Feijen-van Soest, C.; Geml, J.; Geurts, R.; Gravendeel, B.; Hovenkamp, P.; Imbun, P.; Ipor, I.; Janssens, S.B.; Jocqué, M.; Kappes, H.; Khoo, E.; Koomen, P.; Lens, F.; Majapun, R.J.; Morgado, L.N.; Neupane, S.; Nieser, N.; Pereira, J.T.; Rahman, H.; Sabran, S.; Sawang, A.; Schwallier, R.M.; Shim, P.S.; Smit, H.; Sol, N.; Spait, M.; Stech, M.; Stokvis, F.; Sugau, J.B.; Suleiman, M.; Sumail, S.; Thomas, D.C.; van Tol, J.; Tuh, F.Y.Y.; Yahya, B.E.; Nais, J.; Repin, R.; Lakim, M.; Schilthuizen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism1, 2, 3, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood4. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of

  19. Genetic variability in the population of the endemic bee Anthophora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic diversity and spatial genetic population structure of the solitary bee Anthophora pauperata Walker 1871, a species endemic to St Katherine Protectorate, were studied by RAPD markers in seven wadis in the St Katherine Protectorate, South Sinai, Egypt. High levels of genetic diversity were found, mostly within ...

  20. Factors Affecting Agroforestry Sustainability in Bee Endemic Parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts, in an exploratory manner, to identify the various ways in which bad beekeeping and honey hunting practices result in the loss of important multi-purpose agro-forestry tree species in bee endemic parts of South Eastern Nigeria. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches (Participatory Rural Appraisal ...

  1. Distribution and protection of endemic or threatened rodents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species richness of the target species is highest in the south-western parts of the country, and hotspots of endemism coincide with those of species richness. However, Red Data Book species hotspots are confined to the north-eastern parts of the country. One species richness hotspol in the Succulent Karoo contains no ...

  2. Evaluation of hospital disinfection as a means of controlling endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of hospital environment disinfection as a means of controlling endemic nosocomial pathogens in a University Teaching Hospital in Nigeria was evaluated. Disinfectant used in the Hospital was collected from the Infection Control unit and prepared in different concentrations. The isolated bacterial species from the ...

  3. Historic forests and endemic mountain pine beetle and dwarf mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Negron

    2012-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle has always been a significant disturbance agent in ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests in Colorado. Most studies have examined the impacts to forest structure associated with epidemic populations of a single disturbance agent. In this paper we address the role of endemic populations of mountain pine and their interactions with dwarf mistletoe...

  4. Cotrimoxazole for childhood febrile illness in Malaria-endemic regions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ren younger than 5 years of age was evaluated in. Malawi. ... limitations in diagnostic technology and personnel, disease-specific clinical ... In practice, the World. Health Organisation (WHO) recommends that in highly endemic areas all young children with fever should be treated for malaria, because of the likeli- hood of ...

  5. Investigating The Travelling Wave Solution For an SIR Endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the travelling wave solution for an SIR endemic disease model with no disease related death when the spatial spread of the susceptible is not negligible. In this case the disease is driven by both the susceptible and the infective classes. The population is open since the disease is habitually prevalent in ...

  6. An Investigation on the antimicrobial activity of some endemic plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study performed on six endemic plant species, antimicrobial activity was observed in Campanula lyrata subsp.lyrata and Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmuelleriana plants. The minimum inhibitory concentration of C. lyrata subsp. lyrata (leaf and flower) extract was found to be 29 mg/ml for Baccillus subtilis and 14.5 ...

  7. Rediscovery of Curcuma sumatrana (Zingiberaceae) endemic to West Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardiyani, M.; Anggara, A.; Leong-Škorničková, J.

    2011-01-01

    A recent exploration of Sumatra resulted in the re-collection of Curcuma sumatrana, an endemic Zingiberaceae species of unclear identity that was first described by Miquel nearly 150 years ago. The history of this species is discussed, a detailed description with a colour plate is provided and a

  8. Clostridium difficile infection in an endemic setting in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensgens, M. P. M.; Goorhuis, A.; van Kinschot, C. M. J.; Crobach, M. J. T.; Harmanus, C.; Kuijper, E. J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in an endemic setting. In a 34-month prospective case-control study, we compared the risk factors and clinical characteristics of all consecutively diagnosed hospitalised CDI patients (n = 93) with

  9. Conservation assessment of the endemic plants from Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millaku Fadil

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen endemic plant taxa were selected from Kosovo, according to the IUCN standards and for each taxon the risk assessment and threat category has been assigned. The taxa were compared with their previous status from fifteen years ago. From sixteen plant taxa, which were included in this work, four are Balkan endemics, whereas, eight of them are local endemics and four of the taxa are stenoendemics. Six of the taxa are grown exclusively on serpentine soils, five of them on limestone substrate, four of them in carbonate substrate, yet only one in silicate substrate. The work has been done based on the standard working methodologies of the IUCN (Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria – Version 8.1. The most threatened plant taxa is Solenanthus krasniqii – which after its observance has only 20 mature individuals. As a result of the wild collection of the medicinal and aromatic plants, from the local population, Sideritis scardica is about to be completely go extinct. The aim of this study was to assess the state of endemics in the threats possessed to them during the previous times, present and predicting the trends for the upcoming years.

  10. Grass survey of the Itremo Massif records endemic central highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty species are endemic to the central highlands, and a further 1 4 species are restricted to Madagascar. Five ecological groups of grasses were identified in the Itremo Massif: shade species in gallery forests, open wet area species, fire grasses, anthropogenic disturbance associated grasses and rock-dwelling grasses.

  11. Faeco-histological Method of Studying Worm Endemicity with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worms are endemic in various parts of the world, the patterns varying from community to community, even in the same country. A rough index of those common among Nigerians of the Igbo ethnic group has been obtained using a histological study of the ova present in the luminal faeces of the vermiform appendix in 559 ...

  12. Projecting the land cover change and its environmental impacts in the Cedar River Basin in the Midwestern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yiping; Liu Shuguang; Sohl, Terry L; Young, Claudia J

    2013-01-01

    The physical surface of the Earth is in constant change due to climate forcing and human activities. In the Midwestern United States, urban area, farmland, and dedicated energy crop (e.g., switchgrass) cultivation are predicted to expand in the coming decades, which will lead to changes in hydrological processes. This study is designed to (1) project the land use and land cover (LULC) by mid-century using the FORecasting SCEnarios of future land-use (FORE-SCE) model under the A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario (future condition) and (2) assess its potential impacts on the water cycle and water quality against the 2001 baseline condition in the Cedar River Basin using the physically based soil and water assessment tool (SWAT). We compared the baseline LULC (National Land Cover data 2001) and 2050 projection, indicating substantial expansions of urban area and pastureland (including the cultivation of bioenergy crops) and a decrease in rangeland. We then used the above two LULC maps as the input data to drive the SWAT model, keeping other input data (e.g., climate) unchanged to isolate the LULC change impacts. The modeling results indicate that quick-response surface runoff would increase significantly (about 10.5%) due to the projected urban expansion (i.e., increase in impervious areas), and the baseflow would decrease substantially (about 7.3%) because of the reduced infiltration. Although the net effect may cause an increase in water yield, the increased variability may impede its use for public supply. Additionally, the cultivation of bioenergy crops such as switchgrass in the newly added pasture lands may further reduce the soil water content and lead to an increase in nitrogen loading (about 2.5% increase) due to intensified fertilizer application. These study results will be informative to decision makers for sustainable water resource management when facing LULC change and an increasing demand for biofuel production in this area. (letter)

  13. HLA class II association with Type I allergy to house dust mite and Japanese cedar pollen in Japanese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuaki Sadanaga

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the incidence of the association of HLA class II phenotype and specific IgE responsiveness against house dust mite (HDM and/or Japanese cedar pollen (Jc in 176 patients with allergic rhinitis, with or without bronchial asthma, and 107 nonallergic subjects. Specific IgE antibody titration against the purified allergens Der f1 and Der f2 from HDM, and against Cry J1 and Cry J2 from Jc, was performed by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and radioimmunoassay (RIA in sera from all subjects. HLA class II oligotyping was performed by the polymerase chain reaction sequence specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO method on the DRB1*, DQA1*, DQB1* and DPB1* alleles using peripheral blood cells. The high IgE responders ≥ class 4 to the purified allergens were identified by using the IgE antibody reference concentration obtained by ELISA, RIA and routine IgE CAP RAST. Compared to the controls, the patients with both rhinitis and asthma showed significantly higher frequencies of DRB1* 0901, DQB1* 0303, and DPB1* 0401 alleles. High IgE responsiveness to HDM was associated with DRB1* 1101, 0901, DQB1* 0303, and DPB1*0401 alleles. The patients with anti-Der f1 IgE antibody concentration exceeding 72.2 ng/mL showed significantly elevated frequencies for DQB1*0401 and DPB1*0401 alleles, and those with anti Der f2 IgE antibody concentration exceeding 46.2 ng/mL showed significantly elevated frequencies for DPB1*0401 and 0901 alleles. High IgE responsiveness to Jc with Cry j1 and Cryj2was associated with the DRB1* 1201 alleles.

  14. Projecting the land cover change and its environmental impacts in the Cedar River Basin in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Sohl, Terry L.; Young, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The physical surface of the Earth is in constant change due to climate forcing and human activities. In the Midwestern United States, urban area, farmland, and dedicated energy crop (e.g., switchgrass) cultivation are predicted to expand in the coming decades, which will lead to changes in hydrological processes. This study is designed to (1) project the land use and land cover (LULC) by mid-century using the FORecasting SCEnarios of future land-use (FORE-SCE) model under the A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario (future condition) and (2) assess its potential impacts on the water cycle and water quality against the 2001 baseline condition in the Cedar River Basin using the physically based soil and water assessment tool (SWAT). We compared the baseline LULC (National Land Cover data 2001) and 2050 projection, indicating substantial expansions of urban area and pastureland (including the cultivation of bioenergy crops) and a decrease in rangeland. We then used the above two LULC maps as the input data to drive the SWAT model, keeping other input data (e.g., climate) unchanged to isolate the LULC change impacts. The modeling results indicate that quick-response surface runoff would increase significantly (about 10.5%) due to the projected urban expansion (i.e., increase in impervious areas), and the baseflow would decrease substantially (about 7.3%) because of the reduced infiltration. Although the net effect may cause an increase in water yield, the increased variability may impede its use for public supply. Additionally, the cultivation of bioenergy crops such as switchgrass in the newly added pasture lands may further reduce the soil water content and lead to an increase in nitrogen loading (about 2.5% increase) due to intensified fertilizer application. These study results will be informative to decision makers for sustainable water resource management when facing LULC change and an increasing demand for biofuel production in this area.

  15. The importance of delineating networks by activity type in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Cedar Key, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, Stefanie; Iyer, Swami; Killingback, Timothy; Connor, Richard; Brault, Solange

    2015-03-01

    Network analysis has proved to be a valuable tool for studying the behavioural patterns of complex social animals. Often such studies either do not distinguish between different behavioural states of the organisms or simply focus attention on a single behavioural state to the exclusion of all others. In either of these approaches it is impossible to ascertain how the behavioural patterns of individuals depend on the type of activity they are engaged in. Here we report on a network-based analysis of the behavioural associations in a population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Cedar Key, Florida. We consider three distinct behavioural states-socializing, travelling and foraging-and analyse the association networks corresponding to each activity. Moreover, in constructing the different activity networks we do not simply record a spatial association between two individuals as being either present or absent, but rather quantify the degree of any association, thus allowing us to construct weighted networks describing each activity. The results of these weighted activity networks indicate that networks can reveal detailed patterns of bottlenose dolphins at the population level; dolphins socialize in large groups with preferential associations; travel in small groups with preferential associates; and spread out to forage in very small, weakly connected groups. There is some overlap in the socialize and travel networks but little overlap between the forage and other networks. This indicates that the social bonds maintained in other activities are less important as they forage on dispersed, solitary prey. The overall network, not sorted by activity, does not accurately represent any of these patterns.

  16. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwas Sudhir Chitale

    Full Text Available India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single

  17. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitale, Vishwas Sudhir; Behera, Mukund Dev; Roy, Partha Sarthi

    2014-01-01

    India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a) regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b) mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single variable based

  18. Moderate and high endemicity of schistosomiasis is a predictor of the endemicity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis - Systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, A.; Gabrielli, A. F.; Montresor, A.; Engels, D.

    2017-01-01

    The authors conducted a systematic literature review with the following aims: (i) to investigate how frequently soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) infections are endemic where schistosomiasis is present; and (ii) to assess the correlation between the risk level of schistosomiasis and that of STH. Among 155 sites on which data were collected and analyzed, schistosomiasis was present in 130 sites, all of which were also co-endemic for STH, whereas 25 sites were endemic only for STH. Out of 83 sites where at least one biannual round of preventive chemotherapy (PC) for schistosomiasis is recommended, 94% were also eligible for at least a yearly round of PC against STH. And among 21 sites where PC for schistosomiasis is recommended once a year, 81% were also eligible for at least a yearly round of PC for STH. This fact provides managers of control programmes with the operationally important indication that use of available information on endemicity of schistosomiasis is a valid tool to predict the presence of STH in the same geographical area as well as to estimate the need of PC for STH. The implementation of this tool is expected to save financial and human resources and help accelerate the scale-up of PC throughout the world. PMID:21215979

  19. Moderate and high endemicity of schistosomiasis is a predictor of the endemicity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, A; Gabrielli, A F; Montresor, A; Engels, D

    2011-02-01

    The authors conducted a systematic literature review with the following aims: to investigate how frequently soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) infections are endemic where schistosomiasis is present; and to assess the correlation between the risk level of schistosomiasis and that of STH. Among 155 sites on which data were collected and analyzed, schistosomiasis was present in 130, all of which were also co-endemic for STH, whereas 25 sites were endemic only for STH. Ninety percent (117 out of 130) of the areas eligible for preventive chemotherapy (PC) against schistosomiasis are also eligible for PC against STH. This fact provides managers of control programmes with the operationally important indication that use of available information on endemicity of schistosomiasis is a valid tool to predict the presence of STH in the same geographical area and to estimate the need of PC for STH. The implementation of this tool is expected to save financial and human resources and help accelerate the scale-up of PC throughout the world. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic connectivity and self-replenishment of inshore and offshore populations of the endemic anemonefish, Amphiprion latezonatus

    KAUST Repository

    Steinberg, Rosemary; van der Meer, Martin; Walker, Emily; Berumen, Michael L.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; van Herwerden, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    and small distribution ranges (endemics). Marine endemics often exist as meta-populations distributed among few isolated locations. Determining genetic connectivity among these locations is essential to understanding the recovery potential of endemics after

  1. Effects of natural phenomena and human activity on the species richness of endemic and non-endemic Heteroptera in the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas, J. M.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The geographical patterns of Heteroptera species diversity in the Canary Islands were analysed, and endemic and non–endemic species were studied both together and separately. Causal processes most likely controlling these patterns, as well as the theory of island biogeography, hypotheses about evolutionary time, habitat heterogeneity, climatic stability, intermediate disturbances, energy, environmental favourableness–severity, productivity and human influence were investigated. The combination of habitat heterogeneity and human influence accounted for the total number of species. However, when endemic and non–endemic species were analysed separately, habitat heterogeneity and favourableness–severity explained the richness of endemic species, whereas habitat heterogeneity and human influence explained that of non–endemic species.

  2. Use of novel compounds for pest control: insecticidal and acaricidal activity of essential oil components from heartwood of Alaska yellow cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panella, Nicholas A; Dolan, Marc C; Karchesy, Joseph J; Xiong, Yeping; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Montenieri, John A; Maupin, Gary O

    2005-05-01

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the activity of 15 natural products isolated from essential oil components extracted from the heartwood of Alaska yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach., against Ixodes scapularis Say nymphs, Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothchild), and Aedes aegypti (L.) adults. Four of the compounds from the essential oil have been identified as monoterpenes, five as eremophilane sesquiterpenes, five as eremophilane sesquiterpene derivatives from valencene and nootkatone, and one as a sesquiterpene outside the eremophilane parent group. Carvacrol was the only monoterpene that demonstrated biocidal activity against ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes with LC50 values after 24 h of 0.0068, 0.0059, and 0.0051% (wt:vol), respectively. Nootkatone from Alaska yellow cedar was the most effective of the eremophilane sesquiterpenes against ticks (LC50 = 0.0029%), whereas the nootkatone grapefruit extract exhibited the greatest biocidal activity against fleas (LC50 = 0.0029%). Mosquitoes were most susceptible to one of the derivatives of valencene, valencene-13-aldehyde (LC50 = 0.0024%), after 24 h. Bioassays to determine residual activity of the most effective products were conducted at 1, 2, 4, and 6 wk after initial treatment. Residual LC50 values for nootkatone did not differ significantly at 4 wk posttreatment from the observations made at the initial 24-h treatment. The ability of these natural products to kill arthropods at relatively low concentrations represents an alternative to the use of synthetic pesticides for control of disease vectors.

  3. On the origin of endemic species in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph; Howard Choat, J.; Gaither, Michelle R.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Lozano-Corté s, Diego; Myers, Robert F.; Paulay, Gustav; Rocha, Luiz A.; Toonen, Robert J.; Westneat, Mark W.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    High endemism observed in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden appears to have multiple origins. A cold, nutrient-rich water barrier separates the Gulf of Aden from the rest of the Arabian Sea, whereas a narrow strait separates the Red Sea from the Gulf of Aden, each providing potential isolating barriers. Additional barriers may arise from environmental gradients, circulation patterns and the constriction at the mouth of the Gulf of Aqaba. Endemics that evolved within the Red Sea basin had to survive glacial cycles in relatively low salinity refugia. It therefore appears that the unique conditions in the Red Sea, in addition to those characteristics of the Arabian Peninsula region as a whole, drive the divergence of populations via a combination of isolation and selection.

  4. Responses to TRH in patients with endemic goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Laureano; Watanabe, Tomas; El Tamer, Elias; Varela, Amalia; Moran, Dardo; Rinaudo, Antonio; Staneloni, Luis; Degrossi, O.J.

    1978-12-01

    The response to TRH was studied in 32 patients from an endemic goiter area, 20 of them had been previously treated with iodized oil. Blood samples were taken at 0, 20, 40 and 120 minutes after de i.v. administration of 400μg of TRH, and serum levels of TSH, T3 and T4 were measured. The results obtained show that in endemic goiter area there is a modification in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism, with increased reserve of pituitary TSH and changes in T4 and T3 secretion. The injection of TRH gave exaggerated and delayed responses in the secretion of TSH and T3. Iodized oil used as a prophylatic method produced a disminution of pituitary TSH reserve, and of serum levels of TSH and T3, as a result of the return tonormality of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism. (author) [es

  5. Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette K Howard

    Full Text Available The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe, created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939 are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6% of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%. The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to

  6. Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, Hans; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    "Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle" provides the key elements that should be addressed in the establishment of bovine disease control and eradication programmes. The book aims to reach a broad group of readers, including: students; professionals in veterinary practice...... "disease profiling", which is governed by the characteristics of the agent and its interaction with the host and environment. This profile, along with due consideration of the socioeconomic circumstances, can be used to determine how best to address the problem....

  7. Mitogenomic phylogeny of cone snails endemic to Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalde, Samuel; Tenorio, Manuel J; Afonso, Carlos M L; Zardoya, Rafael

    2017-07-01

    Cone snails attain in Senegal one of their highest peaks of species diversity throughout the continental coast of Western Africa. A total of 15 endemic species have been described, all placed in the genus Lautoconus. While there is ample data regarding the morphology of the shell and the radular tooth of these species, virtually nothing is known regarding the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of one of the most endangered groups of cones. In this work, we determined the complete or near-complete (only lacking the control region) mitochondrial (mt) genomes of 17 specimens representing 11 endemic species (Lautoconus belairensis, Lautoconus bruguieresi, Lautoconus cacao, Lautoconus cloveri, Lautoconus cf. echinophilus, Lautoconus guinaicus, Lautoconus hybridus, Lautoconus senegalensis, Lautoconus mercator, Lautoconus taslei, and Lautoconus unifasciatus). We also sequenced the complete mt genome of Lautoconus guanche from the Canary Islands, which has been related to the cones endemic to Senegal. All mt genomes share the same gene arrangement, which conforms to the consensus reported for Conidae, Neogastropoda and Caenogastropoda. Phylogenetic analyses using probabilistic methods recovered three major lineages, whose divergence coincided in time with sea level and ocean current changes as well as temperature fluctuations during the Messinian salinity crisis and the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Furthermore, the three lineages corresponded to distinct types of radular tooth (robust, small, and elongated), suggesting that dietary specialization could be an additional evolutionary driver in the diversification of the cones endemic to Senegal. The reconstructed phylogeny showed several cases of phenotypic convergence (cryptic species) and questions the validity of some species (ecotypes or phenotypic plasticity), both results having important taxonomic and conservation consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Biogeographical note on Antarctic microflorae: Endemism and cosmopolitanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqar Azeem Jadoon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the biogeography of Antarctic microflora (Antarctica acts as best model to study microbial biogeography such as cyanobacteria and selected halophiles with special emphasis on Halomonas variabilis and Bacillus licheniformis. Halophiles are known to be resistant not only to salt stress, but also to extreme temperature, pressure, and aridity and they are capable of surviving in harsh environments such as polar regions, deep-sea habitats, and deserts. Many microbes are known to be resistant to hostile environmental conditions, and are capable of surviving in harsh environments. Our group has isolated 444 strains belonging to 28 genera of halophiles from various environments around the world. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that many of the isolated strains from geographically distant habitats having different environmental conditions, were closely related to each other, with some strains possessing 100% identical sequences. Organisms possessing survival mechanism such as spore formation are usually ubiquitous. The genus Halomonas is represented by potentially endemic strains and the ubiquitous H. variabilis, while spore-forming B. licheniformis showed cosmopolitan distribution. One potentially endemic (moderate endemicity that is regional and/or continental distribution strain was reported from Syowa station, East Antarctica, and Mario Zucchelli station, West Antarctica, which are geographically separated by 3000 km. Moreover, 15 strains having 100% similarity with B. licheniformis were considered cosmopolitans. The results of this work provide support for the middle-ground model that some microbes have moderate endemicity and others have cosmopolitan distribution. These results will contribute to a greater understanding of microbial biogeography with special emphasis on Antarctica.

  9. [Endemic situation and control progress of taeniasis in western China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Chang-Ping; Qian, Ying-Jun; Li, Tiao-Ying; Fu, Qing; Wang, Qiang; Xiao, Ning

    2014-06-01

    Taeniasis, caused by Taenia species, is one of the common zoonoses in China, particularly in the western region of China. Up to now, not enough attention has been given in the high prevalence and high burden of the diseases. In order to study the endemic patterns and control strategies of taeniasis, a series of epidemiological investigations, molecular researches and pilot control activities have been conducted in recent years. This paper reviews the relevant publications in taeniasis research over the last 10 years.

  10. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckx, Vincent S F T; Hendriks, Kasper P; Beentjes, Kevin K; Mennes, Constantijn B; Becking, Leontine E; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; Afendy, Aqilah; Arumugam, Nivaarani; de Boer, Hugo; Biun, Alim; Buang, Matsain M; Chen, Ping-Ping; Chung, Arthur Y C; Dow, Rory; Feijen, Frida A A; Feijen, Hans; Feijen-van Soest, Cobi; Geml, József; Geurts, René; Gravendeel, Barbara; Hovenkamp, Peter; Imbun, Paul; Ipor, Isa; Janssens, Steven B; Jocqué, Merlijn; Kappes, Heike; Khoo, Eyen; Koomen, Peter; Lens, Frederic; Majapun, Richard J; Morgado, Luis N; Neupane, Suman; Nieser, Nico; Pereira, Joan T; Rahman, Homathevi; Sabran, Suzana; Sawang, Anati; Schwallier, Rachel M; Shim, Phyau-Soon; Smit, Harry; Sol, Nicolien; Spait, Maipul; Stech, Michael; Stokvis, Frank; Sugau, John B; Suleiman, Monica; Sumail, Sukaibin; Thomas, Daniel C; van Tol, Jan; Tuh, Fred Y Y; Yahya, Bakhtiar E; Nais, Jamili; Repin, Rimi; Lakim, Maklarin; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-08-20

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these communities. Also, it is debated whether mountain endemics mostly originate from local lowland taxa, or from lineages that reach the mountain by long-range dispersal from cool localities elsewhere. Here we investigate the evolutionary routes to endemism by sampling an entire tropical mountain biota on the 4,095-metre-high Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, East Malaysia. We discover that most of its unique biodiversity is younger than the mountain itself (6 million years), and comprises a mix of immigrant pre-adapted lineages and descendants from local lowland ancestors, although substantial shifts from lower to higher vegetation zones in this latter group were rare. These insights could improve forecasts of the likelihood of extinction and 'evolutionary rescue' in montane biodiversity hot spots under climate change scenarios.

  11. Recovery of endemic dragonflies after removal of invasive alien trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samways, Michael J; Sharratt, Norma J

    2010-02-01

    Because dragonflies are very sensitive to alien trees, we assessed their response to large-scale restoration of riparian corridors. We compared three types of disturbance regime--alien invaded, cleared of alien vegetation, and natural vegetation (control)--and recorded data on 22 environmental variables. The most significant variables in determining dragonfly assemblages were percentage of bank cover and tree canopy cover, which indicates the importance of vegetation architecture for these dragonflies. This finding suggests that it is important to restore appropriate marginal vegetation and sunlight conditions. Recovery of dragonfly assemblages after the clearing of alien trees was substantial. Species richness and abundance at restored sites matched those at control sites. Dragonfly assemblage patterns reflected vegetation succession. Thus, initially eurytopic, widespread species were the main beneficiaries of the removal of alien trees, and stenotopic, endemic species appeared after indigenous vegetation recovered over time. Important indicator species were the two national endemics (Allocnemis leucosticta and Pseudagrion furcigerum), which, along with vegetation type, can be used to monitor return of overall integrity of riparian ecology and to make management decisions. Endemic species as a whole responded positively to restoration, which suggests that indigenous vegetation recovery has major benefits for irreplaceable and widespread generalist species.

  12. Composition, Endemism and Phytogeographical Affinities of the Taiwan Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Fu Hsieh

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Taiwan vascular flora is exceptionally interesting not only because it is rich and diversified, but because it is of great phytogeographic significance owing to its geographic location. The flora of Taiwan, including naturalized plants, comprises 233 families and 1389 genera with 4216 species. In terms of major growth forms, there are 588 trees, 426 shrubs, 249 lianas, 177 vines, and 2776 herbs or ferns. Approximately 234 species are exotics typically associated with pastures, road clearings and other human disturbances. An extremely large percentage of these naturalized plants are of tropical New World origin. Among the native flora, the Orchidaceae (331 species, Gramineae (249, Compositae (194, Leguminosae (176, Cyperaceae (174, Rosaceae (105, Rubiaceae (93 and Euphorbiaceae (76 rank highest in numbers of species. Clearly, the greatest part of Taiwan's floristics richness comes from a wealth of species in primarily lowland (0–600 m asl. taxa. A total of 2571 species were recorded in the lowlands, whereas only about 251 species occur between 3100-3950 m. Endemic genera are extremely scarce in Taiwan, with only four, namely Sinopanax (Araliaceae, Hayatella (Rubiaceae, Kudoacanthus (Acanthaceae, and Haraella (Orchidaceae. In contrast to the low percentage of generic endemism, there is a remarkably higher specific endemism. About 1041 species (26.1% of indigenous plants are known only from Taiwan. A detailed examination of these species shows that there is a distinct trend of increasing endemism with increasing altitude (r² = 0.99. A survey of indigenous non-endemic species on the basis of their geographical distribution outside Taiwan shows that they can be classified into 6 major categories: 1. pantropical and palaeotropical species (1029 species; 2. species distributed in eastern Asia, from Himalayas through southern & eastern China to Taiwan, with some extending to the Ryukyus and Japan (1075 species; 3. widespread species extending

  13. Population connectivity and the effectiveness of marine protected areas to protect vulnerable, exploited and endemic coral reef fishes at an endemic hotspot

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Meer, Martin H.; Berumen, Michael L.; Hobbs, Jean Paul Adrian; Van Herwerden, Lynne Van

    2014-01-01

    -replenishment, and the absence of MPAs at NI needs to be rectified to ensure the persistence of endemic species at this location. Other endemic fishes exhibit similar patterns of high self-replenishment across the four locations, indicating that a single spatial management

  14. Diversity distribution patterns of Chinese endemic seed plant species and their implications for conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jihong; Huang, Jianhua; Lu, Xinghui; Ma, Keping

    2016-01-01

    Endemism is an important concept in biogeography and biodiversity conservation. China is one of the richest countries in biodiversity, with very high levels of plant endemism. In this study, we analysed the distribution patterns of diversity, the degree of differentiation, and the endemicity of Chinese endemic seed plants using the floristic unit as a basic spatial analysis unit and 11 indices. The analysis was based on distribution data of 24,951 native seed plant species (excluding subspecies and varieties) and 12,980 Chinese endemic seed plant species, which were sourced from both specimen records and published references. The distribution patterns of Chinese endemic flora were generally consistent but disproportionate across China for diversity, degree of differentiation and endemicity. The South Hengduan Mountains Subregion had the highest values for all indices. At the regional level, both the Hengduan Mountains and the Central China regions were highest in diversity and degrees of differentiation. However, both the rate of local endemic to native species and the rate of local to Chinese endemic species were highest in the Taiwan Region and the South Taiwan Region. The Hengduan Mountains Region and the Central China Region are two key conservation priority areas for Chinese endemic seed plants. PMID:27658845

  15. ANALYSIS OF ENDEMISM OF THE XEROPHILOUS FLORA IN THE RUSSIAN CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Taysumov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research is to study the endemics of the xerophilous flora of the Russian Caucasus in connection with the matter of knowing the genesis.Methods. The study is based on the field research expeditions.Findings. The presence of endemic species in flora is an indicator of its originality, and the degree of originality is determined by the extent of the endemic species. In general, according to our geographic analysis, the number of endemic species in xerophilous flora of the Russian Caucasus accounts for 32% (326 species, of which 25% of all endemic species have natural habitats within entire Caucasus, 66% are widespread in the Greater Caucasus, and 9% in the Pre-Caucasian region.Conclusion. Endemic species of xerophytes of the flora, in their overwhelming majority, are euxerophytes, and most steno-endemics also belong to this group of xerophytes. In a systematic aspect, the leading family, containing the largest number of endemic species, is Asteraceae (in percentage terms - Lamiaceae and Jurinea is a leading genus (in percentage terms - Psephellus. In relation to the substrate, calcixerophytes are the dominants and most saturated endemics in quantitative terms are the belt of mountain xerophytes. The predominant biomes are hemicryptophytes; as compared with the number of biomorphes, among chamaephytes there is the biggest quantity of endemics

  16. Evidence for endemic chikungunya virus infections in Bandung, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Kosasih

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is known to cause sporadic or explosive outbreaks. However, little is known about the endemic transmission of CHIKV. To ascertain the endemic occurrence of CHIKV transmission, we tested blood samples from patients with a non-dengue febrile illness who participated in a prospective cohort study of factory workers in Bandung, Indonesia. From August 2000 to June 2004, and September 2006 to April 2008, 1901 febrile episodes occurred and 231 (12.2% dengue cases were identified. The remaining febrile cases were evaluated for possible CHIKV infection by measuring anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG antibodies in acute and convalescent samples. Acute samples of serologically positive cases were subsequently tested for the presence of CHIKV RNA by RT-PCR and/or virus isolation. A total of 135 (7.1% CHIKV infections were identified, providing an incidence rate of 10.1/1,000 person years. CHIKV infections were identified all year round and tended to increase during the rainy season (January to March. Severe illness was not found and severe arthralgia was not a prominently reported symptom. Serial post-illness samples from nine cases were tested to obtain a kinetic picture of IgM and IgG anti-CHIKV antibodies. Anti-CHIKV IgM antibodies were persistently detected in high titers for approximately one year. Three patients demonstrated evidence of possible sequential CHIKV infections. The high incidence rate and continuous chikungunya cases in this adult cohort suggests that CHIKV is endemically transmitted in Bandung. Further characterization of the circulating strains and surveillance in larger areas are needed to better understand CHIKV epidemiology in Indonesia.

  17. CEDAR counter (internal part)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    Here on the mounting bench. The counter is a differential Cerenkov, corrected for chromaticity, able to differentiate pions from kaons up to 350 GeV. Counters of this type were used in all SPS hadron beams.

  18. Cedar Hill Tower Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A meteorological data system was designed, assembled, and installed to obtain, on a continuous basis, wind and temperature information at 12 levels on a television...

  19. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eds. Auerbach's Wilderness Medicine . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 45. Graeme KA. Toxic plant ingestions. ... eds. Auerbach's Wilderness Medicine . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 65. Meehan TJ. Approach to the ...

  20. 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopic study of Japanese cedar bark - the variation in chemical states of iron due to influence of human activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Motoyuki; Kobayashi, Takaaki; Singh, T.B.; Tsurumi, Makoto; Ichikuni, Masami

    1992-01-01

    Chemical states of iron have been investigated by 57 Fe Moessbauer technique for the barks of Japanese cedar collected from urban and mountainous area of Japan. The Moessbauer spectra of all outer bark samples show two overlapping doublets and one sextet ascribable to paramagnetic ferrous, paramagnetic ferric and magnetic iron, respectively, whereas an inner bark sample consists only of the two doublets. The bark sample from urban area shows the higher relative amount of magnetic component and the smaller ferrous to ferric ratio. These features of iron species in the bark sample indicate that the bark sample can supply a more effective indicator of human activities than airborne particles collected directly by evaluation with an air sampler. (orig.)

  1. Is the endemic Maltese Top-shell Gibbula nivosa extinct?

    OpenAIRE

    Schembri, Patrick J.; Borg, Joseph A.; Deidun, Alan; Knittweis, Leyla; Mellado Lopez, T.

    2007-01-01

    The trochid gastropod Gibbula nivosa, endemic to the Maltese Islands, has recently only been found in two Maltese bays, where it occurred on seagrass leaves and under stones at depths of 1-4m. Intensive sampling of Cymodocea nodosa and Posidonia oceanica meadows, sediment and pebbles at depths of 2-12m, carried out in 2000 and 2002, resulted only in empty shells but no live animals, suggesting that the species is extinct from these localities where previously good populations were found. Howe...

  2. Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-30

    Bol. Inst. Bacteriol. Chile 1976; 18:33-37. 30. Escaff, M, Urbina, A, Mary, J. Contaminacion de repollos regados con aguas servidas. Agricultura...Tecnica 1979; 39:59-62. - 31. Lobos, H, Greive, R, Quijada, M, Brandt, H. Pesquisa del genero Vibrio en aguas servidas. Bol. Inst. Bact. Chile 1974; 16:40...REPORT #2 0") STUDIES TO CONTROL ENDEMIC TYPHOID N FEVER IN CHILE 0) ANNUAL REPORT U’ Contract Period 1/1/82-12/31/82 • I REPORT PREPARED BY: L

  3. Endemic Sexual Violence and Abuse: Contexts and Dispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Nicole Rayment-McHugh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Endemic sexual violence and abuse has been observed in a number of specific circumstances, most notably conflict zones, remote and marginalised communities, and religious and state institutions. In this article we examine several documented examples and argue that a similar set of causal processes are at work in all of these otherwise apparently disparate circumstances. Rather than construing the problem as ‘organised’ sexual abuse, we present the problem in terms of the breakdown (or disorganisation of usual individual, situational and ecological constraints.

  4. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pina-Costa, Anielle; Brasil, Patrícia; Di Santi, Sílvia Maria; de Araujo, Mariana Pereira; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecilia; Santelli, Ana Carolina Faria e Silva; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu

    2014-08-01

    Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation's territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation's malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013). The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon) or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex). The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites that seem to be (or

  5. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anielle de Pina-Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation’s territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation’s malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013. The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex. The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites

  6. A new world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gething, Peter W; Patil, Anand P; Smith, David L; Guerra, Carlos A; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Johnston, Geoffrey L; Tatem, Andrew J; Hay, Simon I

    2011-12-20

    Transmission intensity affects almost all aspects of malaria epidemiology and the impact of malaria on human populations. Maps of transmission intensity are necessary to identify populations at different levels of risk and to evaluate objectively options for disease control. To remain relevant operationally, such maps must be updated frequently. Following the first global effort to map Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity in 2007, this paper describes the generation of a new world map for the year 2010. This analysis is extended to provide the first global estimates of two other metrics of transmission intensity for P. falciparum that underpin contemporary questions in malaria control: the entomological inoculation rate (PfEIR) and the basic reproductive number (PfR). Annual parasite incidence data for 13,449 administrative units in 43 endemic countries were sourced to define the spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission in 2010 and 22,212 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys were used in a model-based geostatistical (MBG) prediction to create a continuous contemporary surface of malaria endemicity within these limits. A suite of transmission models were developed that link PfPR to PfEIR and PfR and these were fitted to field data. These models were combined with the PfPR map to create new global predictions of PfEIR and PfR. All output maps included measured uncertainty. An estimated 1.13 and 1.44 billion people worldwide were at risk of unstable and stable P. falciparum malaria, respectively. The majority of the endemic world was predicted with a median PfEIR of less than one and a median PfRc of less than two. Values of either metric exceeding 10 were almost exclusive to Africa. The uncertainty described in both PfEIR and PfR was substantial in regions of intense transmission. The year 2010 has a particular significance as an evaluation milestone for malaria global health policy. The maps presented here contribute to a rational basis for control and

  7. A new world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gething Peter W

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmission intensity affects almost all aspects of malaria epidemiology and the impact of malaria on human populations. Maps of transmission intensity are necessary to identify populations at different levels of risk and to evaluate objectively options for disease control. To remain relevant operationally, such maps must be updated frequently. Following the first global effort to map Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity in 2007, this paper describes the generation of a new world map for the year 2010. This analysis is extended to provide the first global estimates of two other metrics of transmission intensity for P. falciparum that underpin contemporary questions in malaria control: the entomological inoculation rate (PfEIR and the basic reproductive number (PfR. Methods Annual parasite incidence data for 13,449 administrative units in 43 endemic countries were sourced to define the spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission in 2010 and 22,212 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR surveys were used in a model-based geostatistical (MBG prediction to create a continuous contemporary surface of malaria endemicity within these limits. A suite of transmission models were developed that link PfPR to PfEIR and PfR and these were fitted to field data. These models were combined with the PfPR map to create new global predictions of PfEIR and PfR. All output maps included measured uncertainty. Results An estimated 1.13 and 1.44 billion people worldwide were at risk of unstable and stable P. falciparum malaria, respectively. The majority of the endemic world was predicted with a median PfEIR of less than one and a median PfRc of less than two. Values of either metric exceeding 10 were almost exclusive to Africa. The uncertainty described in both PfEIR and PfR was substantial in regions of intense transmission. Conclusions The year 2010 has a particular significance as an evaluation milestone for malaria global health policy. The

  8. Brucella epididymo-orchitis: a consideration in endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella sp. and may affect many parts of the body. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This is a case report of Brucella epididymo-orchitis in a Saudi male patient. He presented with a unilateral swelling of the left testicle. He had fever, arthralgia and night sweats. Ultrasound examination revealed enlarged left epididymis and testicle. Brucella serology was positive and the patient responded to treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin. Thus, brucella infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with epididymo-orchitis from an endemic area.

  9. Genetic consequences of fragmentation in "arbor vitae," eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.), toward the northern limit of its distribution range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huaitong; Tremblay, Francine; Bergeron, Yves; Paul, Véronique; Chen, Cungen

    2012-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that marginal fragmented populations of eastern white cedar (EWC) are genetically isolated due to reduced pollen and gene flow. In accordance with the central-marginal model, we predicted a decrease in population genetic diversity and an increase in differentiation along the latitudinal gradient from the boreal mixed-wood to northern coniferous forest. A total of 24 eastern white cedar populations were sampled along the north-south latitudinal gradient for microsatellite genotyping analysis. Positive F(is) values and heterozygote deficiency were observed in populations from the marginal (F(is) = 0.244; P(HW) = 0.0042) and discontinuous zones (F(is) = 0.166; P(HW) = 0.0042). However, populations from the continuous zone were in HW equilibrium (F(is) = -0.007; P(HW) = 0.3625). There were no significant latitudinal effects on gene diversity (H(s)), allelic richness (AR), or population differentiation (F(st)). Bayesian and NJT (neighbor-joining tree) analyses demonstrated the presence of a population structure that was partly consistent with the geographic origins of the populations. The impact of population fragmentation on the genetic structure of EWC is to create a positive inbreeding coefficient, which was two to three times higher on average than that of a population from the continuous zone. This result indicated a higher occurrence of selfing within fragmented EWC populations coupled with a higher degree of gene exchange among near-neighbor relatives, thereby leading to significant inbreeding. Increased population isolation was apparently not correlated with a detectable effect on genetic diversity. Overall, the fragmented populations of EWC appear well-buffered against effects of inbreeding on genetic erosion.

  10. Changes in heartwood chemistry of dead yellow-cedar trees that remain standing for 80 years or more in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Rick G; Hennon, Paul E; Huso, Manuela; Karchesy, Joseph J

    2005-11-01

    We measured the concentrations of extractable bioactive compounds in heartwood of live yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis) trees and five classes of standing snags (1-5, averaging 4, 14, 26, 51, and 81 years-since-death, respectively) to determine how the concentrations changed in the slowly deteriorating snags. Three individuals from each of these six condition classes were sampled at four sites spanning a 260-km distance across southeast Alaska, and the influence of geographic location on heartwood chemistry was evaluated. Cores of heartwood were collected at breast height and cut into consecutive 5-cm segments starting at the pith. Each segment was extracted with ethyl acetate and analyzed by gas chromatography. Concentrations of carvacrol, nootkatene, nootkatol, nootkatone, nootkatin, and total extractives (a sum of 16 compounds) for the inner (0-5 cm from pith), middle (5-10 cm from pith), and surface (outer 1.1-6.0 cm of heartwood) segments from each core were compared within each tree condition class and within segments across condition classes. Heartwood of class 1 and 2 snags had the same chemical composition as live trees. The first concentration changes begin to appear in class 3 snags, which coincides with greater heartwood exposure to the external environment as decaying sapwood sloughs away, after losing the protective outer bark. Within core segments, the concentrations of all compounds, except nootkatene, decrease between snag classes 2 and 5, resulting in the heartwood of class 5 snags having the lowest quantities of bioactive compounds, although not different from the amounts in class 4 snags. This decline in chemical defense is consistent with heartwood of class 5 snags being less decay-resistant than heartwood of live trees, as observed by others. The unique heartwood chemistry of yellow cedar and the slow way it is altered after death allow dead trees to remain standing for up to a century with a profound impact on the ecology of forests

  11. Safety and long-term immunological effects of CryJ2-LAMP plasmid vaccine in Japanese red cedar atopic subjects: A phase I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Romeu-Bonilla, Eliezer; Anagnostou, Athanasia; Fitz-Patrick, David; Hearl, William; Heiland, Teri

    2017-12-02

    Japanese Red Cedar (JRC) pollen induced allergy affects one third of Japanese and the development of effective therapies remains an unachieved challenge. We designed a DNA vaccine encoding CryJ2 allergen from the JRC pollen and Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 1 (LAMP-1) to treat JRC allergy. These Phase IA and IB trials assessed safety and immunological effects of the investigational CryJ2-LAMP DNA vaccine in both non-sensitive and sensitive Japanese expatriates living in Honolulu, Hawaii. In the Phase IA trial, 6 JRC non-sensitive subjects and 9 JRC and/or Mountain Cedar (MC) sensitive subjects were given 4 vaccine doses (each 4mg/1ml) intramuscularly (IM) at 14-day intervals. Nine JRC and/or MC sensitive subjects were given 4 doses (2 mg/0.5 ml) IM at 14-day intervals. The safety and functional biomarkers were followed for 132 d. Following this, 17 of 24 subjects were recruited into the IB trial and received one booster dose (2 mg/0.5 ml) IM approximately 300 d after the first vaccination dose to which they were randomized in the first phase of the trial. All safety endpoints were met and all subjects tolerated CryJ2-LAMP vaccinations well. At the end of the IA trial, 10 out of 12 JRC sensitive and 6 out of 11 MC sensitive subjects experienced skin test negative conversion, possibly related to the CryJ2-LAMP vaccinations. Collectively, these data suggested that the CryJ2-LAMP DNA vaccine is safe and may be immunologically effective in treating JRC induced allergy.

  12. Exoemission of Ethiopian soils and the endemicity of non-filarial elephantiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, J.E. (Birmingham Univ. (UK). Dept. of Anatomy); Townsend, P.D. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK))

    1983-01-01

    Non-filarial elephantiasis is an endemic disease in the bare-footed population of Ethiopia. The distribution of this condition is linked with that of local red clay soil. Recently, thermoluminescence has been successfully used to distinguish between endemic and non-endemic soils. Instrinsic lattice defects, frozen in during cooling of volcanic material, are considered to be responsible for characteristic thermoluminescence signals. However, the biological reactivity of the absorbed soil particles will depend upon their surface properties. Exoemission has therefore been studied in samples from both endemic (5 samples) and non-endemic (4 samples) areas. All samples from endemic areas, on first heating, demonstrate an emission peak at 75/sup 0/C. Post-irradiation storage of samples in a moist atmosphere tends to decrease emissivity while wetting irreversibly reduces the response to irradiation. In an hydrated biological environment, this surface reactivity may be linked to the pathogenicity of the soil particles.

  13. Exoemission of Ethiopian soils and the endemicity of non-filarial elephantiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Non-filarial elephantiasis is an endemic disease in the bare-footed population of Ethiopia. The distribution of this condition is linked with that of local red clay soil. Recently, thermoluminescence has been successfully used to distinguish between endemic and non-endemic soils. Instrinsic lattice defects, frozen in during cooling of volcanic material, are considered to be responsible for characteristic thermoluminescence signals. However, the biological reactivity of the absorbed soil particles will depend upon their surface properties. Exoemission has therefore been studied in samples from both endemic (5 samples) and non-endemic (4 samples) areas. All samples from endemic areas, on first heating, demonstrate an emission peak at 75 0 C. Post-irradiation storage of samples in a moist atmosphere tends to decrease emissivity while wetting irreversibly reduces the response to irradiation. In an hydrated biological environement, this surface reactivity may be linked to the pathogenicity of the soil particles. (author)

  14. Global warming and extinctions of endemic species from biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Jay R; Liu, Canran; Neilson, Ronald P; Hansen, Lara; Hannah, Lee

    2006-04-01

    Global warming is a key threat to biodiversity, but few researchers have assessed the magnitude of this threat at the global scale. We used major vegetation types (biomes) as proxies for natural habitats and, based on projected future biome distributions under doubled-CO2 climates, calculated changes in habitat areas and associated extinctions of endemic plant and vertebrate species in biodiversity hotspots. Because of numerous uncertainties in this approach, we undertook a sensitivity analysis of multiple factors that included (1) two global vegetation models, (2) different numbers of biome classes in our biome classification schemes, (3) different assumptions about whether species distributions were biome specific or not, and (4) different migration capabilities. Extinctions were calculated using both species-area and endemic-area relationships. In addition, average required migration rates were calculated for each hotspot assuming a doubled-CO2 climate in 100 years. Projected percent extinctions ranged from hotspots were the Cape Floristic Region, Caribbean, Indo-Burma, Mediterranean Basin, Southwest Australia, and Tropical Andes, where plant extinctions per hotspot sometimes exceeded 2000 species. Under the assumption that projected habitat changes were attained in 100 years, estimated global-warming-induced rates of species extinctions in tropical hotspots in some cases exceeded those due to deforestation, supporting suggestions that global warming is one of the most serious threats to the planet's biodiversity.

  15. Fasciolopsiasis: Endemic focus of a neglected parasitic disease in Bihar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Achra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe a newly discovered, previously unreported endemic focus of fasciolopsiasis in the Phulwaria village, under tehsil Sugauli, East Champaran, Bihar. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted at village Phulwaria, following diagnosis of fasciolopsiasis in three children from the village. A total of 120 individuals, including all the children and adults who gave history of recent passage of red fleshy masses in their stool, were included in the study. The cases of fasciolopsiasis were treated with Praziquantel 25 mg/kg, three doses a day. Risk factors for the transmission of the parasite in the village were also studied. Results: Questionnaire revealed majority of the population suffering from abdominal discomfort and passage of red fleshy masses in stool. These fleshy masses were identified as Fasciolopsis buski. One hundred and eighteen individuals were presumably considered as cases of the parasitic infection. After treatment with Praziquantel, all of them passed the parasite in their stool for the next 2-3 days. On investigating, it was observed that all the conditions required for effective continuation of the life cycle of the parasite were present in this village. Conclusion: This study draws attention to a new endemic focus of fasciolopsiasis in Bihar, with a very high prevalence due to poverty, the lack of awareness about the parasite in villagers as well as ignorance among local medical practitioners. There is an urgent need for mass campaign around the region for its effective control.

  16. Temporal Dynamics in the Concentration, Flux, and Optical Properties of Tree-derived Dissolved Organic Matter (Tree-DOM) in an Epiphyte-laden Oak-cedar Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitetree, A.; Van Stan, J. T., II; Wagner, S.; Guillemette, F.; Lewis, J.; Silva, L.; Stubbins, A.

    2017-12-01

    Studies on the fate and transport of dissolved organic matter (DOM) along the rainfall-to-discharge flow pathway typically begin in streams or soils, neglecting the initial enrichment of rainfall with DOM during contact with plant canopies. However, rain water can gather significant amounts of tree-derived DOM (tree-DOM) when it drains from the canopy, as throughfall, and down the stem, as stemflow. We examined the temporal variability of event-scale tree-DOM concentrations, yield, and optical (light absorbance and fluorescence) characteristics from an epiphyte-laden Quercus virginiana-Juniperus virginiana forest on Skidaway Island, Savannah, Georgia (USA). All tree-DOM fluxes were highly enriched compared to rainfall and epiphytes further increased concentrations. Stemflow DOC concentrations were greater than throughfall across study species, yet larger throughfall water yields produced greater DOC yields versus stemflow. Tree-DOM optical characteristics indicate it is aromatic-rich with FDOM dominated by humic-like fluorescence, containing 10-20% protein-like (tryptophan-like) fluorescence. Storm size was the only storm condition that strongly correlated with tree-DOM concentration and flux; however, throughfall and stemflow optical characteristics varied little across a wide range of storm conditions (from low magnitude events to intense tropical storms). Annual tree-DOM yields from the study forest (0.8-46 g-C m-2 yr-1) compared well to other yields along the rainfall-to- discharge flow pathway, exceeding DOM yields from some river watersheds.

  17. Some heavy metals levels in drinking water and social characteristics in buruli ulcer endemic and non-endemic communities in the Amansie West district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odeh-Agbozo, Francis

    2009-06-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a skin disease caused by mycobacterium ulcerans(MU). It is often associated with slow flowing or stagnant water and increase in the incidence of disease is also associated with the ecological transformation. Several risk factors have been identified and a number of transmission mechanisms suggested. However, the exact mechanism of transmission and development of Buruli ulcer through water related human activities are unknown. A study was carried out to compare concentrations of cadmium, lead and aluminium in drinking water samples and some social characteristics from endemic and non-endemic communities in the Amansie- West District of Ghana. Ninety-six drinking water sources were sampled from boreholes and hand-dug wells in the study area. The analysis of the samples showed that the average concentration of cadmium was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) in endemic communities than in non-endemic communities even though all the values were below the WHO guideline values of 0.003mg/L. The average concentration of Lead and Aluminium were lower in endemic communities than in non-endemic communities, but the differences between the average concentrations were not statistically significant ( p≥ 0.95 for Lead, p≥ 0.30 for Aluminium). Aluminium concentrations in all the samples were however lower than the WHO recommended guideline value of 0.1mg/L, whilst the concentration of lead was higher than the recommended guideline value of several communities. It was therefore concluded that Cadmium, Lead and Aluminium may not contribute to the occurrence and transmission of BU. In relation to the social characteristics, the educational level was generally poorer in endemic areas than in the non-endemic areas. The endemic communities used poorer source of water which include streams and hand-dug wells, unlike non-endemic communities which had better sources of water- boreholes and pipe-borne water only. Field observation showed that people in the endemic

  18. Comparative study of fluoride concentration in human serum and drinking water in fluorinated endemic and non endemic areas of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qayyum, M.; Ahmad, B.; Ahmad, M.

    2013-01-01

    For comparing the human blood serum and drinking water fluoride levels of subjects with dental fluorosis and bony deformities, this study is carried out with individuals ranging 8-17 age group fluorinated Sham Ki Bhatiyan, Punjab (endemic) and Queens Road, Lahore, Punjab (non-endemic) areas. Fluoride concentrations were determined using ion selective electrode methodology and statistically compared. Both the groups showed a significant difference (p < 0.05). Subjects from fluorotic area showed high concentration of fluoride in water and blood serum samples (mean value: 135.587+-77.435 and 2.765+-0.469 micro molL/sup -1/ in water and blood serum samples respectively) as compared to controls (mean value: 19.509+-2.432 and 2.364+- 0.667 micro molL -1). These findings indicate that serum and water fluoride concentrations have a significant positive dose response relationship with the prevalence of dental fluorosis in an area associated with high fluoride level in drinking water. (author)

  19. On the origin of endemic species in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph

    2015-10-19

    Aim The geological and palaeo-climatic forces that produced the unique biodiversity in the Red Sea are a subject of vigorous debate. Here, we review evidence for and against the hypotheses that: (1) Red Sea fauna was extirpated during glacial cycles of the Pleistocene and (2) coral reef fauna found refuge within or just outside the Red Sea during low sea level stands when conditions were inhospitable. Location Red Sea and Western Indian Ocean. Methods We review the literature on palaeontological, geological, biological and genetic evidence that allow us to explore competing hypotheses on the origins and maintenance of shallow-water reef fauna in the Red Sea. Results Palaeontological (microfossil) evidence indicates that some areas of the central Red Sea were devoid of most plankton during low sea level stands due to hypersaline conditions caused by almost complete isolation from the Indian Ocean. However, two areas may have retained conditions adequate for survival: the Gulf of Aqaba and the southern Red Sea. In addition to isolation within the Red Sea, which separated the northern and southern faunas, a strong barrier may also operate in the region: the cold, nutrient-rich water upwelling at the boundary of the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea. Biological data are either inconclusive or support these putative barriers and refugia, but no data set, that we know of rejects them. Genetic evidence suggests that many endemic lineages diverged from their Indian Ocean counterparts long before the most recent glaciations and/or are restricted to narrow areas, especially in the northern Red Sea. Main conclusions High endemism observed in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden appears to have multiple origins. A cold, nutrient-rich water barrier separates the Gulf of Aden from the rest of the Arabian Sea, whereas a narrow strait separates the Red Sea from the Gulf of Aden, each providing potential isolating barriers. Additional barriers may arise from environmental gradients

  20. Vertebrate endemism in south-eastern Africa numerically redefines a biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Sandun J; ProcheŞ, Şerban; Ratnayake-Perera, Dayani; Ramdhani, Syd

    2018-02-20

    We use numerical methods to explore patterns of vertebrate endemism in south-eastern Africa, refining the boundaries of the intuitively-defined Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biodiversity hotspot, also proposing a zoogeographic regionalisation. An incidence matrix of 300 vertebrate species endemic to south-eastern Africa sensu lato in 37 operational geographic units were used in (a) phenetic cluster analysis (PCA) using the algorithm of unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (phenetic approach), and (b) parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE; parsimony approach), in order to numerically evaluate the bioregional delimitations. The analyses provide a valid biogeographical entity 37% larger than the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany hotspot, but substantially (131%) higher in vertebrate endemicity viz. the Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (GMPA) region of vertebrate endemism. South-east Africa is recognised as a dominion in the global zoogeographical area hierarchy, with subordinate units including the GMPA province. Various spatially-based measures of endemism were mapped for vertebrate species restricted to the dominion, i.e. endemic to south-eastern Africa sensu stricto. Areas and centres of endemism detected respectively from PAE and PCA, within the south-east Africa dominion also support the refined boundary of the GMPA region of endemism, which provides a better spatial conservation priority compared to the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany hotspot. Reptiles and amphibians are found to be the main drivers of the overall pattern of endemism, while the pattern in freshwater fish is the most distinctive. Our analyses also indicate a good congruence of the centres of endemism across different terrestrial vertebrate taxa.

  1. Cytological studies in Four Endemic Genera of Apiaceae from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vinod C. Gosavi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The family Apiaceae comprises 428 genera worldwide, of which 68 are represented in India. Karnataka P.K. Mukh. & Constance, Pinda P.K. Mukh. & Constance, Polyzygus Dalzell, Sivadasania N. Mohanan & Pimenov and Vanasushava P.K. Mukh. & Constance are endemic genera to the country. The present communication is an attempt to provide chromosome counts and basic karyomorphology of Karnataka, Pinda, Polyzygus and Vanasushava. Somatic chromosome counts 2n = 22 and meiotic chromosome counts n = 11 are reported for the first time in Karnataka and Pinda while in Polyzygus 2n = 36 and in Vanasushava 2n = 44 are reported as new cytotypes in present investigation. Karyomophologically Pinda and Vanasushava showed affinities with Heracleum L. while Polyzygus showed advanced karyotype symmetry.

  2. Endemic malaria in four villages in Attapeu Province, Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phetsouvanh, R; Vythilingam, I; Sivadong, B; Hakim, S Lokman; Chan, S T; Phompida, S

    2004-09-01

    A study was conducted in four villages in Attapeu Province, Lao PDR in 2002 to determine malaria endemicity. The study villages were Mixay, Beng Phoukham, Phou Vong and Pier Geo. Mass blood surveys were conducted in May, August, and October. Finger prick blood was collected for thick and thin blood film as well as for dipstick. The slide positivity rate was highest in Phou Hom in October (41.7%). Plasmodium falciparum was the dominant species comprising more than 80% of the cases. As a whole, the distribution of malaria was similar among males and females. Children below 15 years accounted for a large percentage of the cases. The sensitivity of the optimal dipstick was 62.36 and the specificity was 61.7. Microscopy was taken as the gold standard. Anopheles dirus was found to be the main vector and the vectorial capacity correlated well with the cases.

  3. Zika virus: Endemic and epidemic ranges of Aedes mosquito transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Attaway

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: As evidence linking Zika virus with serious health complications strengthens, public health officials and clinicians worldwide need to know which locations are likely to be at risk for autochthonous Zika infections. We created risk maps for epidemic and endemic Aedes-borne Zika virus infections globally using a predictive analysis method that draws on temperature, precipitation, elevation, land cover, and population density variables to identify locations suitable for mosquito activity seasonally or year-round. Aedes mosquitoes capable of transmitting Zika and other viruses are likely to live year-round across many tropical areas in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Our map provides an enhanced global projection of where vector control initiatives may be most valuable for reducing the risk of Zika virus and other Aedes-borne infections. Keywords: Geographic information systems, Geographic information science, Risk mapping, Zika, Aedes modeling

  4. Zika virus: Endemic and epidemic ranges of Aedes mosquito transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaway, David F; Waters, Nigel M; Geraghty, Estella M; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    As evidence linking Zika virus with serious health complications strengthens, public health officials and clinicians worldwide need to know which locations are likely to be at risk for autochthonous Zika infections. We created risk maps for epidemic and endemic Aedes-borne Zika virus infections globally using a predictive analysis method that draws on temperature, precipitation, elevation, land cover, and population density variables to identify locations suitable for mosquito activity seasonally or year-round. Aedes mosquitoes capable of transmitting Zika and other viruses are likely to live year-round across many tropical areas in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Our map provides an enhanced global projection of where vector control initiatives may be most valuable for reducing the risk of Zika virus and other Aedes-borne infections. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hepatobiliary fascioliasis in non-endemic zones: a surprise diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ashish Kumar; Goenka, Mahesh Kumar; Goenka, Usha; Chakrabarti, Amrita

    2013-03-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Fasciola hepatica. Because of population migration and international food trade, human fascioliasis is being an increasingly recognised entity in nonendemic zones. In most parts of Asia, hepatobiliary fascioliasis is sporadic. Human hepatobiliary infection by this trematode has two distinct phases: an acute hepatic phase and a chronic biliary phase. Hepatobiliary infection is mostly associated with intense peripheral eosinophilia. In addition to classically defined hepatic phase and biliary phase fascioliasis, some cases may have an overlap of these two phases. Chronic liver abscess formation is a rare presentation. We describe a surprise case of hepatobiliary fascioliasis who presented to us with liver abscess without intense peripheral eosinophilia, a rare presentation of human fascioliasis especially in non-endemic zones. Copyright © 2013 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamic generalized linear models for monitoring endemic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina; Jensen, Dan; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to use a Dynamic Generalized Linear Model (DGLM) based on abinomial distribution with a linear trend, for monitoring the PRRS (Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome sero-prevalence in Danish swine herds. The DGLM was described and its performance for monitoring control...... and eradication programmes based on changes in PRRS sero-prevalence was explored. Results showed a declining trend in PRRS sero-prevalence between 2007 and 2014 suggesting that Danish herds are slowly eradicating PRRS. The simulation study demonstrated the flexibility of DGLMs in adapting to changes intrends...... in sero-prevalence. Based on this, it was possible to detect variations in the growth model component. This study is a proof-of-concept, demonstrating the use of DGLMs for monitoring endemic diseases. In addition, the principles stated might be useful in general research on monitoring and surveillance...

  7. Prevalence of hand osteoarthritis and knee osteoarthritis in Kashin-Beck disease endemic areas and non Kashin-Beck disease endemic areas: A status survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, QuanQuan; Liu, Yun Qi; Sun, Li Yan; Deng, Qing; Wang, Shao Ping; Cao, Yan Hong; Zhang, Xue Ying; Jiang, Yuan Yuan; Lv, Hong Yan; Duan, Li Bin; Yu, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a considerable health problem worldwide, and the prevalence of OA varies in different regions. In this study, the prevalence of OA in Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) and non-KBD endemic areas was examined, respectively. According to monitoring data, 4 types of regions (including none, mild, moderate and high KBD endemic areas) in Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces were selected. All local residents were eligible for inclusion criteria have undergone X-ray images of hands and anteroposterior image of knees. A total of 1673 cases were collected, 1446 cases were analyzed after removing the KBD patients (227). The overall hand OA and knee OA detection rates were 33.3% (481/1446) and 56.6% (818/1446), respectively. After being standardized by age, the detection rate of hand OA in the KBD endemic areas was significantly higher than that in the non-endemic endemic areas. Differently, there was no significant difference in the detection rates of knee OA between the KBD endemic areas and the non-endemic area. The correlation coefficient between the severity of OA and the severity of knee OA was 0.358 and 0.197 in the KBD and non-KBD endemic areas, respectively. Where the KBD historical prevalence level was higher, the severity of the residents’ hand OA was more serious. The detection rates of hand OA and knee OA increased with age. The detection rate of knee OA increased with the increase in body mass index. The prevalence of hand OA was closely related to the pathogenic factors of Kashin-Beck disease, and the prevalence of knee OA had no significant correlation with KBD pathogenic factors. PMID:29320581

  8. Etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy: A multifactorial disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncheva, Draga; Dimitrov, Tzvetan; Stojanova, Stiliana

    1998-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is of great clinical importance in the restricted areas of Bulgaria, Rumania, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina. So far, studies on the etiological factors for BEN have not discovered any single environmental causative agent of this puzzling disease. These data reject the possibility of a purely environmental causation of BEN. The pattern of BEN transmission in the risk families is not typical for single gene disorders. Extensive epidemiological and genetic studies disclose characteristics of multifactorial (polygenic) inheritance of BEN. The evidences of 'familial tendency', variation of the risk for BEN depending on the number of sick parents and the degree of relatedness; the development of BEN in individuals from at-risk families who were born in non-endemic areas; the data that disease is not found in the gypsy population and the expressions of 3q25 cytogenetic marker suggest that the genetic factors play an important role as causative factors in BEN development. The possible impact of environmental triggers on individuals genetically predisposed to BEN could be supposed by the following data: the cytogenetic results of the increased frequency of folate sensitive Fra sites, spontaneous or radiation-induced aberrations in several bands in BEN patients, the data from the detailed analysis of breaks in BEN patients and controls that generate structural chromosome aberrations; the occurrence of BEN in immigrants. Genetical epidemiological approaches to etiology and prevention of BEN are proposed. The predisposing genes for BEN could be genes localized in a region between 3q25-3q26; transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), genetic heterogeneity of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes; defects in the host's immune system. The predisposing genes for BEN patients with urinary tract tumors could be germline mutations in tumor suppressor genes and acquired somatic mutations in oncogenes

  9. [Factors contributing to endemic cholera in Douala, Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guévart, E; Noeske, J; Solle, J; Essomba, J M; Edjenguele, Mbonji; Bita, A; Mouangue, A; Manga, B

    2006-06-01

    Cholera has been endemic in Douala, Cameroon since 1971. A number of environmental factors favourize the survival of the Vibrio in Douala including location at the mouth of Wouri delta on the Atlantic Ocean, sandy clay soil, shallow dirty polluted foul-smelling groundwater, presence of vast expanses of swamp, streams/drainage ditches infested with algae, and high temperatures with low rainfall and drought during certain periods of the year. Most outbreaks have started in Bepanda, a slum area built on a garbage dump in a swampy zone fed by drainage ditches carrying the faecal pollution from neighbouring upstream districts. It is a densely overcrowded area of uncontrolled urbanization generated by the influx of poor city new-comers who live without adequate access to clean water or basic sanitary facilities. The most affected areas are those resulting from recent unregulated urban sprawl in polluted swamp zones or garbage dumps. Since access to the public water system is inadequate with only 65000 persons connected for 3 million inhabitants, dwellers in most areas must take water from the 70000 urban wells (estimated in 2004) that are often not more than 1.5 m deep. Sewage facilities are insufficient to provide complete evacuation of solid and liquid waste. The network of rivers, streams and man-made ditches waste are poorly maintained and often overflow during the rainy season. The contents of latrines are often discharged directly into the environment. Social factors such as the reformation of urban tribes and persistence of traditional attitudes toward waste disposal and water use have not only led to high-risk behaviour but also created barriers to sanitation and hygiene education. With an inadequate sanitation inspection system, a large but purely accessible public health system and a highly disorganized private health sector exists, effective preventive measures are difficult to implement. The combination of these factors probably account for the endemicity of

  10. Stability analysis of the endemic equilibrium state of an infection age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work we present an infection-age-structured mathematical model of AIDS disease dynamics and examine the endemic equilibrium state for stability. An explicit formula for the basic reproduction number R0 was obtained in terms of the demographic and epidemiological parameters of the model. The endemic ...

  11. Assessing malaria transmission in a low endemicity area of north-western Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Speybroeck, Niko

    2013-01-01

    Where malaria endemicity is low, control programmes need increasingly sensitive tools for monitoring malaria transmission intensity (MTI) and to better define health priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low endemicity area of the Peruvian north-western coast to assess the MTI u...

  12. Plant diversity on high elevation islands – drivers of species richness and endemism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severin D.H. Irl

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High elevation islands elicit fascination because of their large array of endemic species and strong environmental gradients. First, I define a high elevation island according to geographic and environmental characteristics. Then, within this high elevation island framework, I address local disturbance effects on plant distribution, drivers of diversity and endemism on the island scale, and global patterns of treeline elevation and climate change. Locally, introduced herbivores have strong negative effects on the summit scrub of my model island La Palma (Canary Islands, while roads have unexpected positive effects on endemics. On the island scale, topography and climate drive diversity and endemism. Hotspots of endemicity are found in summit regions – a general pattern on high elevation islands. The global pattern of treeline elevation behaves quite differently on islands than on the mainland. A thorough literature review and climate projections suggest that climate change will profoundly affect oceanic island floras.

  13. The Cedar Project: Historical trauma, sexual abuse and HIV risk among young Aboriginal people who use injection and non-injection drugs in two Canadian cities☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the Cedar Project Partnership; Pearce, Margo E.; Christian, Wayne M.; Patterson, Katharina; Norris, Kat; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Craib, Kevin J.P.; Schechter, Martin T.; Spittal, Patricia M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent Indigenist scholarship has situated high rates of traumatic life experiences, including sexual abuse, among Indigenous peoples of North America within the larger context of their status as colonized peoples. Sexual abuse has been linked to many negative health outcomes including mental, sexual and drug-related vulnerabilities. There is a paucity of research in Canada addressing the relationship between antecedent sexual abuse and negative health outcomes among Aboriginal people including elevated risk of HIV infection. The primary objectives of this study were to determine factors associated with sexual abuse among participants of the Cedar Project, a cohort of young Aboriginal people between the ages of 14 and 30 years who use injection and non-injection drugs in two urban centres in British Columbia, Canada; and to locate findings through a lens of historical and intergenerational trauma. We utilized post-colonial perspectives in research design, problem formulation and the interpretation of results. Multivariate modeling was used to determine the extent to which a history of sexual abuse was predictive of negative health outcomes and vulnerability to HIV infection. Of the 543 eligible participants, 48% reported ever having experienced sexual abuse; 69% of sexually abused participants were female. The median age of first sexual abuse was 6 years for both female and male participants. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables and factors of historical trauma, sexually abused participants were more likely to have ever been on the streets for more than three nights, to have ever self-harmed, to have suicide ideation, to have attempted suicide, to have a diagnosis of mental illness, to have been in the emergency department within the previous 6 months, to have had over 20 lifetime sexual partners, to have ever been paid for sex and to have ever overdosed. The prevalence and consequences of sexual abuse among Cedar Project participants are of grave concern

  14. Reconstruction of paleo-inlet dynamics using sedimentologic analyses, geomorphic features, and benthic foraminiferal assemblages: former ephemeral inlets of Cedar Island, Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, R.; Wood, E. T.

    2017-12-01

    Cedar Island, VA is a low-profile, washover-dominated barrier island that has breached at least three times in the past sixty years. Cedar Island Inlet, a former wave-dominated tidal inlet, was open for the following time periods: 1) 1956-1962, 2) 1992-1997, and 3) 1998-2007. Air photos, satellite imagery, and geomorphic features (i.e., relict flood tidal deltas, recurved-spit ridges) record the spatial and temporal extent of the three ephemeral inlets. Based on three sediment vibracores, benthic foraminiferal and sedimentologic analyses offer high resolution insights of inlet dynamics and lifecycle evolution. Four foraminiferal biofacies are completely dominated by Elphidium excavatum (54-100%) and contain unique assemblages of accessory species based on cluster analyses: tidal inlet floor (low abundance estuarine and shelf species; 23% Haynesina germanica); flood tidal delta/inlet fill (high abundance estuarine and shelf species; 2% Buccella frigida, 2% Ammonia parkinsoniana, and 2% Haynesina germanica); high-energy inlet fill (low abundance, low diversity shelf species; 9% Elphidium gunteri); and washover/beach/aeolian (low abundance, predominantly shelf species; 3% Buccella frigida and 3% Ammonia parkinsoniana). The estuarine biofacies is barren of all foraminifera. Grain size trends indicate a first order coarsening-upward succession with second order coarsening- and fining-upwards packages in inlet throat deposits, while a first order fining-upward succession is observed in flood tidal delta deposits with two second order coarsening-upward packages in the proximal flood tidal delta. Contrary to typical wave-dominated tidal inlets that open, migrate laterally in the direction of net longshore transport, and close, the 1998-2007 tidal inlet, and possibly the 1956-1962 inlet, migrated laterally and rotated, whereas the 1992-1997 inlet remained stationary and did not rotate. In the vicinity of the vibracores, preserved deposits are attributed to the 1956-1962 and

  15. Molecular and optical properties of tree-derived dissolved organic matter in throughfall and stemflow from live oaks and eastern red cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbins, Aron; Silva, Leticia M.; Dittmar, Thorsten; Van Stan, John T.

    2017-03-01

    Studies of dissolved organic matter (DOM) transport through terrestrial aquatic systems usually start at the stream. However, the interception of rainwater by vegetation marks the beginning of the terrestrial hydrological cycle making trees the headwaters of aquatic carbon cycling. Rainwater interacts with trees picking up tree-DOM, which is then exported from the tree in stemflow and throughfall. Stemflow denotes water flowing down the tree trunk, while throughfall is the water that drips through the leaves of the canopy. We report the concentrations, optical properties (light absorbance) and molecular signatures (ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry) of tree-DOM in throughfall and stemflow from two tree species (live oak and eastern red cedar) with varying epiphyte cover on Skidaway Island, Savannah, Georgia, USA. Both stemflow and throughfall were enriched in DOM compared to rainwater, indicating trees were a significant source of DOM. The optical and molecular properties of tree-DOM were broadly consistent with those of DOM in other aquatic ecosystems. Stemflow was enriched in highly colored DOM compared to throughfall. Elemental formulas identified clustered the samples into three groups: oak stemflow, oak throughfall and cedar. The molecular properties of each cluster are consistent with an autochthonous aromatic-rich source associated with the trees, their epiphytes and the microhabitats they support. Elemental formulas enriched in oak stemflow were more diverse, enriched in aromatic formulas, and of higher molecular mass than for other tree-DOM classes, suggesting greater contributions from fresh and partially modified plant-derived organics. Oak throughfall was enriched in lower molecular weight, aliphatic and sugar formulas, suggesting greater contributions from foliar surfaces. While the optical properties and the majority of the elemental formulas within tree-DOM were consistent with vascular plant-derived organics, condensed aromatic formulas were

  16. The Cedar Project: high incidence of HCV infections in a longitudinal study of young Aboriginal people who use drugs in two Canadian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spittal Patricia M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors associated with HCV incidence among young Aboriginal people in Canada are still not well understood. We sought to estimate time to HCV infection and the relative hazard of risk factors associated HCV infection among young Aboriginal people who use injection drugs in two Canadian cities. Methods The Cedar Project is a prospective cohort study involving young Aboriginal people in Vancouver and Prince George, British Columbia, who use illicit drugs. Participants’ venous blood samples were drawn and tested for HCV antibodies. Analysis was restricted to participants who use used injection drugs at enrolment or any of follow up visit. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify independent predictors of time to HCV seroconversion. Results In total, 45 out of 148 participants seroconverted over the study period. Incidence of HCV infection was 26.3 per 100 person-years (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 16.3, 46.1 among participants who reported using injection drugs for two years or less, 14.4 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 7.7, 28.9 among participants who had been using injection drugs for between two and five years, and 5.1 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 2.6,10.9 among participants who had been using injection drugs for over five years. Independent associations with HCV seroconversion were involvement in sex work in the last six months (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.42 compared to no involvement, having been using injection drugs for less than two years (AHR: 4.14; 95% CI: 1.91, 8.94 and for between two and five years (AHR: 2.12; 95%CI: 0.94, 4.77 compared to over five years, daily cocaine injection in the last six months (AHR: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.51, 4.05 compared to less than daily, and sharing intravenous needles in the last six months (AHR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.47, 4.49 compared to not sharing. Conclusions This study contributes to the limited body of research addressing HCV infection among

  17. Vegetation stability and the habitat associations of the endemic taxa of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Gavin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Explanations for areas of endemism often involve relative climatic stability, or low climate velocity, over time scales ranging from the Pleistocene to the late Cenozoic. Given that many narrowly endemic taxa in forested landscapes display discrete habitat associations, habitat stability should be similarly important for endemic persistence. Furthermore, while past climate variability is exceedingly difficult to quantify on millennial time scales, past distributions of habitats may be robustly inferred from paleoecological records. The Olympic Peninsula, Washington, supports a biota with several insular features including 29 endemic plant and animal taxa. Here I present the geographic distribution and habitat of the endemic taxa, and then examine the vegetation stability of the past 14,300 years from five pollen records associated with discrete vegetation zones on the peninsula. I show that 11 endemics have distributions centered on dry alpine scree and rock in the northeastern quadrant of the peninsula, and nine occur in shaded riparian forests in the southwest. Vegetation turnover during the post-glacial period was smallest in these areas. However, another long pollen record from the western peninsula reveals existence of shrub tundra and greatly reduced forest cover, indicating southward displacement of shaded riparian habitats by perhaps as much as 100 km. Although this study supports an association of post-glacial vegetation stability with endemism, records spanning the glacial maximum indicate widespread tundra during long periods of the late Pleistocene and therefore suggest southern displacement of forest-associated endemics. While some of the alpine scree-associated endemics may have persisted in situ, many others likely arrived via a variety of dispersal trajectories. These histories include dispersal from southern refugia towards ocean barriers preventing further northward dispersal, contraction from more widespread distributions, and

  18. Inferring the biogeographic origins of inter-continental disjunct endemics using a Bayes-DIVA approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AJ HARRIS; Jun WEN; Qiu-Yun (Jenny) XIANG

    2013-01-01

    The arcto-Tertiary relictual flora is comprised of many genera that occur non-contiguously in the temperate zones of eastern Asia,Europe,eastern North America,and westem North America.Within each distributional area,species are typically endemic and may thus be widely separated from closely related species within the other areas.It is widely accepted that this common pattern of distribution resulted from of the fragmentation of a once morecontinuous arcto-Tertiary forest.The historical biogeographic events leading to the present-day disjunction have often been investigated using a phylogenetic approach.Limitations to these previous studies have included phylogenetic uncertainty and uncertainty in ancestral range reconstructions.However,the recently described Bayes-DIVA method handles both types of uncertainty.Thus,we used Bayes-DIVA analysis to reconstruct the stem lineage distributions for 185 endemic lineages from 23 disjunct genera representing 17 vascular plant families.In particular,we asked whether endemic lineages within each of the four distributional areas more often evolved from (1) widespread ancestors,(2) ancestors dispersed from other areas,or (3) endemic ancestors.We also considered which of these three biogeographic mechanisms may best explain the origins of arcto-Tertiary disjunct endemics in the neotropics.Our results show that eastern Asian endemics more often evolved from endemic ancestors compared to endemics in Europe and eastern and western North America.Present-day endemic lineages in the latter areas more often arose from widespread ancestors.Our results also provide anecdotal evidence for the importance of dispersal in the biogeographic origins of arcto-Tertiary species endemic in the neotropics.

  19. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer--eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Madhav; Rajora, Om P

    2012-04-05

    Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS) is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m) of that observed in the core populations (15 m). Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, σg = 135 m) than in core (Sp = 0.014, σg = 109 m) populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82) than in the peripheral (Nb = 48) populations. Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short distances. Peripheral populations have several

  20. Temporal Dynamics in the Concentration, Flux, and Optical Properties of Tree-Derived Dissolved Organic Matter in an Epiphyte-Laden Oak-Cedar Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, John T.; Wagner, Sasha; Guillemette, François; Whitetree, Ansley; Lewis, Julius; Silva, Leticia; Stubbins, Aron

    2017-11-01

    Studies on the fate and transport of dissolved organic matter (DOM) along the rainfall-to-discharge flow pathway typically begin in streams or soils, neglecting the initial enrichment of rainfall with DOM during contact with plant canopies. However, rain water can gather significant amounts of tree-derived DOM (tree-DOM) when it drains from the canopy, as throughfall, and down the stem, as stemflow. We examined the temporal variability of event-scale tree-DOM concentrations, yield, and optical (light absorbance and fluorescence) characteristics from an epiphyte-laden Quercus virginiana-Juniperus virginiana forest on Skidaway Island, Savannah, Georgia (USA). All tree-DOM fluxes were highly enriched in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compared to rainfall, and epiphytes further increased concentrations. Stemflow DOC concentrations were greater than throughfall across study species, yet larger throughfall water yields produced greater DOC yields versus stemflow. Tree-DOM optical characteristics indicate it is aromatic-rich with fluorescent DOM dominated by humic-like fluorescence, containing 10-20% protein-like (tryptophan-like) fluorescence. Storm size was the only storm condition that strongly correlated with tree-DOM concentration and flux; however, throughfall and stemflow optical characteristics varied little across a wide range of storm conditions (from low magnitude events to intense tropical storms). Annual tree-DOM yields from the study forest (0.8-46 g C m-2 yr-1) were similar to other yields from discrete down-gradient fluxes (litter leachates, soil leachates, and stream discharge) along the rainfall-to-discharge flow path.

  1. Conservation status and recovery strategies for endemic Hawaiian birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.; David, Reginald E.; Jacobi, James D.; Banko, Winston E.

    2001-01-01

    Populations of endemic Hawaiian birds declined catastrophically following the colonization of the islands by Polynesians and later cultures. Extinction is still occurring, and recovery programs are urgently needed to prevent the disappearance of many other species. Programs to recover the endemic avifauna incorporate a variety of conceptual and practical approaches that are constrained by biological, financial, social, and legal factors. Avian recovery is difficult to implement in Hawai‘i because a variety of challenging biological factors limit bird populations. Hawaiian birds are threatened by alien predatory mammals, introduced mosquitoes that transmit diseases, alien invertebrate parasites and predators that reduce invertebrate food resources, and alien animals and plants that destroy and alter habitats. Life in the remote Hawaiian Archipelago has imposed other biological constraints to avian recovery, including limited geographical distributions and small population sizes. Recovery of the endemic avifauna is also challenging because resources are insufficient to mitigate the many complex, interacting factors that limit populations. Decisions must be made for allocating limited resources to species teetering on the brink of extinction and those in decline. If funds are spent primarily on saving the rarest species, more abundant species will decline and become more difficult to recover. However, critically rare species will disappear if efforts are directed mainly towards restoring species that are declining but not in immediate danger of becoming extinct. Determining priorities is difficult also because management is needed both to supplement bird populations and to restore habitats of many species. Rare species cannot respond quickly to management efforts intended only to improve habitat and reduce limiting factors. Recovery is slow, if it occurs at all, because years or decades are generally required for habitat rehabilitation and because small populations

  2. COMPARATIVE SPERM ULTRASTRUCTURE OF BAIKALIAN ENDEMIC PROSOBRANCH GASTROPODS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropstorf, PETER; Healy, JOHN M.; Riedel, FRANK; Sitnikova, TATIANA Y.

    2002-05-01

    Mature euspermatozoan ultrastructure is described for seven species of the rissooidean family Baicaliidae (endemic to Lake Baikal, Russia)-Liobaicalia stiedae, Teratobaikalia ciliata, T. macrostoma, Baicalia carinata, Pseudobaikalia pulla, Maackia bythiniopsis, M. variesculpta, and M. herderiana. For comparison with these species and previously investigated Rissooidea, two species of the Lake Baikal endemic genus Benedictia (B. cf. fragilis and B. baicalensis; Hydrobiidae: Benedictiinae of some authors, Benedictiidae of other authors) in addition to Lithoglyphus naticoides (Hydrobiidae: Lithoglyphinae) and Bythinella austriaca (Hydrobiidae: Bythinellinae) were also investigated. Paraspermatozoa were not observed in any of the species examined, supporting the view that these cells are probably absent in the Rissooidea. In general, the euspermatozoa of all species examined resemble those of many other caenogastropods (basally invaginated acrosomal vesicle, mid-piece with 7-13 helical mitochondria, an annulus, glycogen piece with nine peri-axonemal tracts of granules). However, the presence of a completely flattened acrosomal vesicle and a specialized peri-axonemal membranous sheath (a scroll-like arrangement of 4-6 double membranes) at the termination of the mid-piece, clearly indicates a close relationship between the Baicaliidae and other rissooidean families possessing these features (Bithyniidae, Hydrobiidae, Pyrgulidae, and Stenothyridae). Euspermatozoa of Benedictia, Lithoglyphus, Bythinella, and Pyrgula all have a solid nucleus, which exhibits a short, posterior invagination (housing the centriolar complex and proximal portion of the axoneme). Among the Rissooidea, this form of nucleus is known to occur in the Bithyniidae, Hydrobiidae, Truncatellidae, Pyrgulidae, Iravadiidae, Pomatiopsidae, and Stenothyridae. In contrast, the euspermatozoa of the Baicaliidae all have a long, tubular nucleus, housing not only the centriolar derivative, but also a substantial

  3. Concentrated Protein Body Product Derived from Rice Endosperm as an Oral Tolerogen for Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy—A New Mucosal Vaccine Formulation against Japanese Cedar Pollen Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakasa, Yuhya; Takagi, Hidenori; Watanabe, Nobumasa; Kitamura, Noriko; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Ogo, Yuko; Hayashi, Shimpei; Yang, Lijun; Ohta, Masaru; Thet Tin, Wai Wai; Sekikawa, Kenji; Takano, Makoto; Ozawa, Kenjirou; Hiroi, Takachika; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum-derived type-I protein body (PB-I) from rice endosperm cells is an ideal candidate formulation for the oral delivery of bioencapsulated peptides as tolerogens for allergen-specific immunotherapy. In the present study, PBs containing the deconstructed Japanese cedar pollen allergens Cryptomeria japonica 1 (Cry j 1) and Cry j 2 were concentrated by treatment with thermostable α-amylase at 90°C to remove the starch from milled rice powder, which resulted in a 12.5-fold reduction of dry weight compared to the starting material. The modified Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 antigens in this concentrated PB product were more resistant to enzymatic digestion than those in the milled seed powder despite the absence of intact cell wall and starch, and remained stable for at least 10 months at room temperature without detectable loss or degradation. The high resistance of these allergens could be attributed to changes in protein physicochemical properties induced by the high temperature concentration process, as suggested by the decreased solubility of the antigens and seed proteins in PBs in step-wise-extraction experiments. Confocal microscopy showed that the morphology of antigen-containing PB-Is was preserved in the concentrated PB product. The concentrated PB product induced specific immune tolerance against Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 in mice when orally administered, supporting its potential use as a novel oral tolerogen formulation. PMID:25774686

  4. Census Cities experiment in urban change detection. [mapping of land use changes in San Francisco, Washington D.C., Phoenix, Tucson, Boston, New Haven, Cedar Rapids, and Pontiac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, J. R. (Principal Investigator); Milazzo, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Mapping of 1970 and 1972 land use from high-flight photography has been completed for all test sites: San Francisco, Washington, Phoenix, Tucson, Boston, New Haven, Cedar Rapids, and Pontiac. Area analysis of 1970 and 1972 land use has been completed for each of the mandatory urban areas. All 44 sections of the 1970 land use maps of the San Francisco test site have been officially released through USGS Open File at 1:62,500. Five thousand copies of the Washington one-sheet color 1970 land use map, census tract map, and point line identification map are being printed by USGS Publication Division. ERTS-1 imagery for each of the eight test sites is being received and analyzed. Color infrared photo enlargements at 1:100,000 of ERTS-1 MSS images of Phoenix taken on October 16, 1972 and May 2, 1973 are being analyzed to determine to what level land use and land use changes can be identified and to what extent the ERTS-1 imagery can be used in updating the 1970 aircraft photo-derived land use data base. Work is proceeding on the analysis of ERTS-1 imagery by computer manipulation of ERTS-1 MSS data in digital format. ERTS-1 CCT maps at 1:24,000 are being analyzed for two dates over Washington and Phoenix. Anniversary tape sets have been received at Purdue LARS for some additional urban test sites.

  5. Yaku-cedar tells cosmic outbursts in ancient times. Anomalies of cosmic ray intensity in AD 774-775 and AD 993-994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Fusa; Masuda, Kimiaki

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of cosmogenic nuclides, which are radioisotopes produced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere, provide important information regarding extraterrestrial high-energy events. We present 14 C measurements in annual rings of Japanese cedar trees with 1- and 2-year resolutions, and a finding of two sudden increases of 14 C content by significant amount from AD 774 to 775 and AD 993 to 994. The short-term increases of radioactive nuclide production were also found in tree rings of Europe and Antarctic ice core. This strongly indicates that the anomalies were not due to local terrestrial events, but triggered by cosmic outbursts that affected the whole planet. Several conjectures have been made upon the origin of the events, e.g. nearby supernovae (∼200 pc), Galactic short gamma-ray bursts, and violent solar mass ejections like SPEs (solar proton events) or super flares. We investigated energetics and the frequencies of occurrence of the phenomena, and demonstrate that SPE is likely to be the origin of the two 14 C increase events. Astrophysical significances and impact to modern human society are also discussed. (author)

  6. Characterization of sulfur deposition over the period of industrialization in Japan using sulfur isotope ratio in Japanese cedar tree rings taken from stumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takuya; Tayasu, Ichiro; Takenaka, Chisato

    2015-07-01

    We characterized the sulfur deposition history over the period of industrialization in Japan based on the sulfur isotope ratio (δ(34)S) in tree rings of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) stumps. We analyzed and compared δ(34)S values in the rings from two types of disk samples from 170-year-old stumps that had been cut 5 years earlier (older forest stand) and from 40-year-old living trees (younger forest stand) in order to confirm the validity of using stump disks for δ(34)S analysis. No differences in δ(34)S values by age were found between the sample types, indicating that stump disks can be used for δ(34)S analysis. The δ(34)S profile in tree rings was significantly correlated with anthropogenic SO2 emissions in Japan (r = -0.76, p tree rings serve as a record of anthropogenic sulfur emissions. In addition, the values did not change largely from pre-industrialization to the 1940s (+4.2 to +6.1‰). The values before the 1940s are expected to reflect the background sulfur conditions in Japan and, thus, disks containing rings formed before the 1940s contain information about the natural environmental sulfur, which is useful for biogeochemical studies.

  7. Concentrated protein body product derived from rice endosperm as an oral tolerogen for allergen-specific immunotherapy--a new mucosal vaccine formulation against Japanese cedar pollen allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhya Wakasa

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum-derived type-I protein body (PB-I from rice endosperm cells is an ideal candidate formulation for the oral delivery of bioencapsulated peptides as tolerogens for allergen-specific immunotherapy. In the present study, PBs containing the deconstructed Japanese cedar pollen allergens Cryptomeria japonica 1 (Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 were concentrated by treatment with thermostable α-amylase at 90°C to remove the starch from milled rice powder, which resulted in a 12.5-fold reduction of dry weight compared to the starting material. The modified Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 antigens in this concentrated PB product were more resistant to enzymatic digestion than those in the milled seed powder despite the absence of intact cell wall and starch, and remained stable for at least 10 months at room temperature without detectable loss or degradation. The high resistance of these allergens could be attributed to changes in protein physicochemical properties induced by the high temperature concentration process, as suggested by the decreased solubility of the antigens and seed proteins in PBs in step-wise-extraction experiments. Confocal microscopy showed that the morphology of antigen-containing PB-Is was preserved in the concentrated PB product. The concentrated PB product induced specific immune tolerance against Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 in mice when orally administered, supporting its potential use as a novel oral tolerogen formulation.

  8. Aligning conservation goals: are patterns of species richness and endemism concordant at regional scales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricketts, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation strategies commonly target areas of high species richness and/or high endemism. However, the correlation between richness and endemism at scales relevant to conservation is unclear; these two common goals of conservation plans may therefore be in conflict. Here the spatial concordance between richness and endemism is tested using five taxa in North America: butterflies, birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles. This concordance is also tested using overall indices of richness and endemism (incorporating all five taxa. For all taxa except birds, richness and endemism were significantly correlated, with amphibians, reptiles, and the overall indices showing the highest correlations (rs = 0.527-0.676. However, 'priority sets' of ecoregions (i.e., the top 10% of ecoregions based on richness generally overlapped poorly with those based on endemism (< 50% overlap for all but reptiles. These results offer only limited support for the idea that richness and endemism are correlated at broad scales and indicate that land managers will need to balance these dual, and often conflicting, goals of biodiversity conservation.

  9. Endemic Acinetobacter baumannii in a New York hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Weisenberg

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is an increasingly multidrug-resistant (MDR cause of hospital-acquired infections, often associated with limited therapeutic options. We investigated A. baumannii isolates at a New York hospital to characterize genetic relatedness.Thirty A. baumannii isolates from geographically-dispersed nursing units within the hospital were studied. Isolate relatedness was assessed by repetitive sequence polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR. The presence and characteristics of integrons were assessed by PCR. Metabolomic profiles of a subset of a prevalent strain isolates and sporadic isolates were characterized and compared.We detected a hospital-wide group of closely related carbapenem resistant MDR A. baumannii isolates. Compared with sporadic isolates, the prevalent strain isolates were more likely to be MDR (p = 0.001. Isolates from the prevalent strain carried a novel Class I integron sequence. Metabolomic profiles of selected prevalent strain isolates and sporadic isolates were similar.The A. baumannii population at our hospital represents a prevalent strain of related MDR isolates that contain a novel integron cassette. Prevalent strain and sporadic isolates did not segregate by metabolomic profiles. Further study of environmental, host, and bacterial factors associated with the persistence of prevalent endemic A. baumannii strains is needed to develop effective prevention strategies.

  10. Distinct Viral and Mutational Spectrum of Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Abate

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL is primarily found in children in equatorial regions and represents the first historical example of a virus-associated human malignancy. Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection and MYC translocations are hallmarks of the disease, it is unclear whether other factors may contribute to its development. We performed RNA-Seq on 20 eBL cases from Uganda and showed that the mutational and viral landscape of eBL is more complex than previously reported. First, we found the presence of other herpesviridae family members in 8 cases (40%, in particular human herpesvirus 5 and human herpesvirus 8 and confirmed their presence by immunohistochemistry in the adjacent non-neoplastic tissue. Second, we identified a distinct latency program in EBV involving lytic genes in association with TCF3 activity. Third, by comparing the eBL mutational landscape with published data on sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL, we detected lower frequencies of mutations in MYC, ID3, TCF3 and TP53, and a higher frequency of mutation in ARID1A in eBL samples. Recurrent mutations in two genes not previously associated with eBL were identified in 20% of tumors: RHOA and cyclin F (CCNF. We also observed that polyviral samples showed lower numbers of somatic mutations in common altered genes in comparison to sBL specimens, suggesting dual mechanisms of transformation, mutation versus virus driven in sBL and eBL respectively.

  11. The genome of the Antarctic-endemic copepod, Tigriopus kingsejongensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seunghyun; Ahn, Do-Hwan; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Lee, Sung Gu; Shin, Seung Chul; Lee, Jungeun; Min, Gi-Sik; Lee, Hyoungseok; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Sanghee; Park, Hyun

    2017-01-01

    The Antarctic intertidal zone is continuously subjected to extremely fluctuating biotic and abiotic stressors. The West Antarctic Peninsula is the most rapidly warming region on Earth. Organisms living in Antarctic intertidal pools are therefore interesting for research into evolutionary adaptation to extreme environments and the effects of climate change. We report the whole genome sequence of the Antarctic-endemic harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus kingsejongensi . The 37 Gb raw DNA sequence was generated using the Illumina Miseq platform. Libraries were prepared with 65-fold coverage and a total length of 295 Mb. The final assembly consists of 48 368 contigs with an N50 contig length of 17.5 kb, and 27 823 scaffolds with an N50 contig length of 159.2 kb. A total of 12 772 coding genes were inferred using the MAKER annotation pipeline. Comparative genome analysis revealed that T. kingsejongensis -specific genes are enriched in transport and metabolism processes. Furthermore, rapidly evolving genes related to energy metabolism showed positive selection signatures. The T. kingsejongensis genome provides an interesting example of an evolutionary strategy for Antarctic cold adaptation, and offers new genetic insights into Antarctic intertidal biota. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Gene Expression Signature in Endemic Osteoarthritis by Microarray Analysis

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    Xi Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kashin-Beck Disease (KBD is an endemic osteochondropathy with an unknown pathogenesis. Diagnosis of KBD is effective only in advanced cases, which eliminates the possibility of early treatment and leads to an inevitable exacerbation of symptoms. Therefore, we aim to identify an accurate blood-based gene signature for the detection of KBD. Previously published gene expression profile data on cartilage and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from adults with KBD were compared to select potential target genes. Microarray analysis was conducted to evaluate the expression of the target genes in a cohort of 100 KBD patients and 100 healthy controls. A gene expression signature was identified using a training set, which was subsequently validated using an independent test set with a minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR algorithm and support vector machine (SVM algorithm. Fifty unique genes were differentially expressed between KBD patients and healthy controls. A 20-gene signature was identified that distinguished between KBD patients and controls with 90% accuracy, 85% sensitivity, and 95% specificity. This study identified a 20-gene signature that accurately distinguishes between patients with KBD and controls using peripheral blood samples. These results promote the further development of blood-based genetic biomarkers for detection of KBD.

  13. Vegetative propagation of the Azorean endemic shrub Viburnum treleasei Gand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓNICA MOURA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Viburnum treleasei Gand. is a threatened hermaphroditic shrub or small tree endemic to the Azores islands. In this study we aimed at defining a fast, simple and cost-efficient propagation methodology that could be used by non-skilled workers in conservation actionplans. Our objective was also to produce cleaner material for initiation of in vitro cultures and to determine the effects of season, placement of cuttings in the branch, placement of vegetative buds in cuttings and forcing solutions in shoot development. It was possible to produce clean shoots from cuttings using a forcing solution with 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate (8-HQS, 2% sucrose and no growth regulators addition. Shoot development results obtained with apical and sub-apical cuttings indicate that V. treleasei possessesapical dominance and deep endodormancy. Apical semihardwood cuttings in autumn or airlayered branches in autumn and winter with 2 or 5% (w/w of IBA produced excellent rooting results which will allow reinforcing depleted populations of V. treleasei efficientlyand at reduced costs.

  14. Incidence of Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma in Three Regions of Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan-Gordo, Cristina; Casabonne, Delphine; Carrilho, Carla; Ferro, Josefo; Lorenzoni, Cesaltina; Zaqueu, Clesio; Nhabomba, Augusto; Aguilar, Ruth; Bassat, Quique; de Sanjosé, Sílvia; Dobaño, Carlota; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2016-01-01

    Data on the burden and incidence of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) across Mozambique are scarce. We retrospectively retrieved information on eBL cases from reports of the three main hospitals of Mozambique: Maputo Central Hospital (MCH), Beira Central Hospital (BCH), and Nampula Central Hospital (NCH) between 2004 and 2014. For 2015, we prospectively collected information of new eBL cases attending these hospitals. A total of 512 eBL cases were reported between 2004 and 2015: 153 eBL cases were reported in MCH, 195 in BCH, and 164 in NCH. Mean age of cases was 6.9 years (standard deviation = 2.8); 63% (319/504) of cases were males. For 2015, the estimated incidence rate of eBL was 2.0, 1.7, and 3.9 per 106 person-year at risk in MCH, BCH, and NCH, respectively. Incidence was higher in NCH (northern Mozambique), where intensity of malaria transmission is higher. Data presented show that eBL is a common pediatric malignancy in Mozambique, as observed in neighboring countries. PMID:27799648

  15. Distinct Viral and Mutational Spectrum of Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Francesco; Ambrosio, Maria Raffaella; Mundo, Lucia; Laginestra, Maria Antonella; Fuligni, Fabio; Rossi, Maura; Zairis, Sakellarios; Gazaneo, Sara; De Falco, Giulia; Lazzi, Stefano; Bellan, Cristiana; Rocca, Bruno Jim; Amato, Teresa; Marasco, Elena; Etebari, Maryam; Ogwang, Martin; Calbi, Valeria; Ndede, Isaac; Patel, Kirtika; Chumba, David; Piccaluga, Pier Paolo; Pileri, Stefano; Leoncini, Lorenzo; Rabadan, Raul

    2015-10-01

    Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is primarily found in children in equatorial regions and represents the first historical example of a virus-associated human malignancy. Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and MYC translocations are hallmarks of the disease, it is unclear whether other factors may contribute to its development. We performed RNA-Seq on 20 eBL cases from Uganda and showed that the mutational and viral landscape of eBL is more complex than previously reported. First, we found the presence of other herpesviridae family members in 8 cases (40%), in particular human herpesvirus 5 and human herpesvirus 8 and confirmed their presence by immunohistochemistry in the adjacent non-neoplastic tissue. Second, we identified a distinct latency program in EBV involving lytic genes in association with TCF3 activity. Third, by comparing the eBL mutational landscape with published data on sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL), we detected lower frequencies of mutations in MYC, ID3, TCF3 and TP53, and a higher frequency of mutation in ARID1A in eBL samples. Recurrent mutations in two genes not previously associated with eBL were identified in 20% of tumors: RHOA and cyclin F (CCNF). We also observed that polyviral samples showed lower numbers of somatic mutations in common altered genes in comparison to sBL specimens, suggesting dual mechanisms of transformation, mutation versus virus driven in sBL and eBL respectively.

  16. Endemic pemphigus foliaceus over a century: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abréu-Vélez, Ana María; Reason, Iara J de Messias; Howard, Michael S; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2010-02-01

    Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) is the only known autoimmune disease presenting in circumscribed geographic areas. We aim to provide information concerning the natural course of EPF, including systemic compromise in the presteroid era, which has been largely unavailable in the current medical literature. MATERIAL #ENTITYSTARTX00026; By a retrospective review of the literature we aim to compile and compare the focus of EPF and the current knowledge about them. The main aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of EPF, including data described almost one century ago; and, to include several unindexed reports, which may have not been available to many current scientists and health care personnel. Foci of EPF have been described in several Central American and South American countries, affecting predominately young people and Amerindians, with an additional female predilection. Although most cases have occurred in Brazil, some cases have been reported in Peru, Paraguay, El Salvador, and Venezuela. Another variant of EPF has been described in El Bagre, Colombia, affecting older men and a few post-menopausal females. Finally, another type of EPF was described in nomadic tribes affecting females of child bearing age in Tunisia, Africa. Our understanding of EPF has been hampered by a lack of government attention to these diseases, especially in some South and Central American countries. Other factors that have made past studies of EPF difficult include 1) that the disease foci are often located in rural areas bordering the rain forest of underdeveloped countries; and 2) military conflicts in some of these areas.

  17. Lyme disease testing in children in an endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sharif, Bashar; Hall, Matthew C

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine clinician adherence to recommendations regarding diagnostic testing for Lyme disease (LD). The specific aims were to determine the rate of inappropriate test ordering for a diagnosis of erythema migrans and tack of confirmatory test ordering for positive LD screening tests. Using the data warehouse of Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation's Bioinformatics Research Center, cases were identified from 2002 through 2007. A retrospective chart abstraction was performed using Marshfield Clinic's electronic medical record. The study involved children (testing occurred after a clinical diagnosis of erythema migrans was made. Patients with any symptom in addition to erythema migrans were more likely to have testing (odds ratio (OR) = 3.52, 1.75-7.08). A positive LD screening test was not confirmed 24% of the time. Lack of ordering confirmatory testing was not associated with any clinical factors or site of the evaluation. This study found that some clinicians in an LD-endemic area do not follow guidelines for diagnosing children suspected to have Lyme disease.

  18. Risk Factors for Leprosy Reactions in Three Endemic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollard, David M.; Martelli, Celina M. T.; Stefani, Mariane M. A.; Maroja, Maria de Fatima; Villahermosa, Laarni; Pardillo, Fe; Tamang, Krishna B.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain risk factors for complications (reactions or neuritis) in leprosy patients at the time of diagnosis in three leprosy-endemic countries. Newly diagnosed patients were enrolled in Brazil, the Philippines, and Nepal, and risk factors for reactions and neuritis were assessed using a case-control approach: “cases” were patients with these complications, and controls were patients without complications. Of 1,972 patients enrolled in this study, 22% had complications before treatment. Type 1 reaction was diagnosed in 13.7% of patients, neuritis alone in 6.9.%, and type 2 reaction in 1.4%. The frequency of these complications was higher in Nepal, in lepromatous patients, in males, and in adults versus children. Reactions and neuritis were seen in patients at diagnosis, before treatment was started. Reactions were seen in adults and children, even in patients with only a single lesion. Neuritis was often present without other signs of reaction. Reactions and neuritis were more likely to occur in lepromatous patients, and were more likely to be seen in adults than in children. PMID:25448239

  19. Number of endemic and native plant species in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Hansen, Anders J.; Nielsen, Kirstine Klitgaard

    2002-01-01

    By simple and multiple regression analyses we investigate updated species numbers of endemic and native vascular plants and seed plants in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters. We find that the best models to describe species numbers are regression models with log......-transformed species numbers as dependent and log-transformed modified area (i.e. area not covered with barren lava) as an independent variable. This holds both for total species number, for native species number, for endemic species number and for total number of seed plants as well as number of endemic seed plants...

  20. Crotalaria trifoliolata (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae), a previously incompletely known Ethiopian endemic rediscovered after 120 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Weber, Odile

    2014-01-01

    . rhynchocarpa Polhill, C. saltiana Andrews, C. thomasii Harms) in having the inside of the pod densely packed with long, white hairs. C. trifoliolata was observed at the edge of and in glades inside dry Juniperus-Olea forest, in which the canopy is dominated by J. procera Endl. and the undergrowth by Barbeya...... oleoides Schweinf. and other species characteristic of dry Afromontane forest and bushland. The species is found only in a limited area near the eastern Ethiopian escarpment at Sheik Hussein. It is documented with images and maps, its potential distribution is modelled and a conservation assessment...

  1. α-Methyl artoflavanocoumarin from Juniperus chinensis exerts anti-diabetic effects by inhibiting PTP1B and activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee Jin; Seong, Su Hui; Ali, Md Yousof; Min, Byung-Sun; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2017-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the greatest global health issues and much research effort continues to be directed toward identifying novel therapeutic agents. Insulin resistance is a challenging integrally related topic and molecules capable of overcoming it are of considerable therapeutic interest in the context of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) negatively regulates insulin signaling transduction and is regarded a novel therapeutic target in T2DM. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of α-methyl artoflavanocoumarin (MAFC), a natural flavanocoumarin isolated from Juniperus chinensis, on PTP1B in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells. MAFC was found to potently inhibit PTP1B with an IC 50 of 25.27 ± 0.14 µM, and a kinetics study revealed MAFC is a mixed type PTP1B inhibitor with a K i value of 13.84 µM. Molecular docking simulations demonstrated MAFC can bind to catalytic and allosteric sites of PTP1B. Furthermore, MAFC significantly increased glucose uptake and decreased the expression of PTP1B in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, down-regulated the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 (Ser307), and dose-dependently enhanced the protein levels of IRS-1, phosphorylated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and ERK1. These results suggest that MAFC from J. chinensis has therapeutic potential in T2DM by inhibiting PTP1B and activating insulin signaling pathways.

  2. Estimating the Global Burden of Endemic Canine Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Katie; Coudeville, Laurent; Lembo, Tiziana; Sambo, Maganga; Kieffer, Alexia; Attlan, Michaël; Barrat, Jacques; Blanton, Jesse D.; Briggs, Deborah J.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Costa, Peter; Freuling, Conrad M.; Hiby, Elly; Knopf, Lea; Leanes, Fernando; Meslin, François-Xavier; Metlin, Artem; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth; Müller, Thomas; Nel, Louis H.; Recuenco, Sergio; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Schumacher, Carolin; Taylor, Louise; Vigilato, Marco Antonio Natal; Zinsstag, Jakob; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies is a notoriously underreported and neglected disease of low-income countries. This study aims to estimate the public health and economic burden of rabies circulating in domestic dog populations, globally and on a country-by-country basis, allowing an objective assessment of how much this preventable disease costs endemic countries. Methodology/Principal Findings We established relationships between rabies mortality and rabies prevention and control measures, which we incorporated into a model framework. We used data derived from extensive literature searches and questionnaires on disease incidence, control interventions and preventative measures within this framework to estimate the disease burden. The burden of rabies impacts on public health sector budgets, local communities and livestock economies, with the highest risk of rabies in the poorest regions of the world. This study estimates that globally canine rabies causes approximately 59,000 (95% Confidence Intervals: 25-159,000) human deaths, over 3.7 million (95% CIs: 1.6-10.4 million) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and 8.6 billion USD (95% CIs: 2.9-21.5 billion) economic losses annually. The largest component of the economic burden is due to premature death (55%), followed by direct costs of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, 20%) and lost income whilst seeking PEP (15.5%), with only limited costs to the veterinary sector due to dog vaccination (1.5%), and additional costs to communities from livestock losses (6%). Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that investment in dog vaccination, the single most effective way of reducing the disease burden, has been inadequate and that the availability and affordability of PEP needs improving. Collaborative investments by medical and veterinary sectors could dramatically reduce the current large, and unnecessary, burden of rabies on affected communities. Improved surveillance is needed to reduce uncertainty in burden estimates and to

  3. Malaria situation in an endemic area, southeastern iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Fekri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an endemic infectious disease in southeastern parts of Iran. Despite years of efforts and intervention programs against malaria, transmission still occurs in Jask County.The epidemiological perspective of malaria in Jask County was conducted by gathering data from Jask County health center, during 2006-2010. A knowledge, attitude and practice study was also carried out. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS ver. 11.5.A total of 2875 malaria cases were recorded, with highest and lowest numbers in 2007 and 2010, respectively. The number of cases had a decreasing trend from 1022 cases in 2006 to 114 cases in 2010. The main causative parasitic agent was Plasmodium vivax. Blood examination rate and slide positive rate were also decreased from 39.5% and 4.3% in 2006 to 15.6% and 1.4% in 2010, respectively. Most of people interviewed in the KAP study had a good knowledge about malaria transmission and symptoms but their use of the bed net for prevention was low (35%.Malaria incidence had significant reduction during the study years. The main reason for this may be due to changing environmental condition for Anopheline breeding and survival because of drought. Another reason may be integration of vector management by using long lasting insecticide treated bed nets, active case detection and treatment by implementation of mobile teams and increasing in financial sources of malaria control program. Knowledge, attitude and practice of people were good in malaria control and prevention, but needs to do more activities for health education and awareness.

  4. Toll-like receptor polymorphisms in malaria-endemic populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman Peter A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll-like receptors (TLR and related downstream signaling pathways of innate immunity have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Because of their potential role in malaria pathogenesis, polymorphisms in these genes may be under selective pressure in populations where this infectious disease is endemic. Methods A post-PCR Ligation Detection Reaction-Fluorescent Microsphere Assay (LDR-FMA was developed to determine the frequencies of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, MyD88-Adaptor Like Protein (MAL single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and TLR2 length polymorphisms in 170 residents of two regions of Kenya where malaria transmission is stable and high (holoendemic or episodic and low, 346 residents of a malaria holoendemic region of Papua New Guinea, and 261 residents of North America of self-identified ethnicity. Results The difference in historical malaria exposure between the two Kenyan sites has significantly increased the frequency of malaria protective alleles glucose-6-phoshpate dehydrogenase (G6PD and Hemoglobin S (HbS in the holoendemic site compared to the episodic transmission site. However, this study detected no such difference in the TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, and MAL allele frequencies between the two study sites. All polymorphisms were in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium in the Kenyan and Papua New Guinean populations. TLR9 SNPs and length polymorphisms within the TLR2 5' untranslated region were the only mutant alleles present at a frequency greater than 10% in all populations. Conclusion Similar frequencies of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, and MAL genetic polymorphisms in populations with different histories of malaria exposure suggest that these innate immune pathways have not been under strong selective pressure by malaria. Genotype frequencies are consistent with Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and the Neutral Theory, suggesting that genetic drift has influenced allele frequencies to a greater extent than selective

  5. Species distribution modelling for conservation of an endangered endemic orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Wonkka, Carissa L; Treglia, Michael L; Grant, William E; Smeins, Fred E; Rogers, William E

    2015-04-21

    Concerns regarding the long-term viability of threatened and endangered plant species are increasingly warranted given the potential impacts of climate change and habitat fragmentation on unstable and isolated populations. Orchidaceae is the largest and most diverse family of flowering plants, but it is currently facing unprecedented risks of extinction. Despite substantial conservation emphasis on rare orchids, populations continue to decline. Spiranthes parksii (Navasota ladies' tresses) is a federally and state-listed endangered terrestrial orchid endemic to central Texas. Hence, we aimed to identify potential factors influencing the distribution of the species, quantify the relative importance of each factor and determine suitable habitat for future surveys and targeted conservation efforts. We analysed several geo-referenced variables describing climatic conditions and landscape features to identify potential factors influencing the likelihood of occurrence of S. parksii using boosted regression trees. Our model classified 97 % of the cells correctly with regard to species presence and absence, and indicated that probability of existence was correlated with climatic conditions and landscape features. The most influential variables were mean annual precipitation, mean elevation, mean annual minimum temperature and mean annual maximum temperature. The most likely suitable range for S. parksii was the eastern portions of Leon and Madison Counties, the southern portion of Brazos County, a portion of northern Grimes County and along the borders between Burleson and Washington Counties. Our model can assist in the development of an integrated conservation strategy through: (i) focussing future survey and research efforts on areas with a high likelihood of occurrence, (ii) aiding in selection of areas for conservation and restoration and (iii) framing future research questions including those necessary for predicting responses to climate change. Our model could also

  6. Estimating the global burden of endemic canine rabies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Hampson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a notoriously underreported and neglected disease of low-income countries. This study aims to estimate the public health and economic burden of rabies circulating in domestic dog populations, globally and on a country-by-country basis, allowing an objective assessment of how much this preventable disease costs endemic countries.We established relationships between rabies mortality and rabies prevention and control measures, which we incorporated into a model framework. We used data derived from extensive literature searches and questionnaires on disease incidence, control interventions and preventative measures within this framework to estimate the disease burden. The burden of rabies impacts on public health sector budgets, local communities and livestock economies, with the highest risk of rabies in the poorest regions of the world. This study estimates that globally canine rabies causes approximately 59,000 (95% Confidence Intervals: 25-159,000 human deaths, over 3.7 million (95% CIs: 1.6-10.4 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs and 8.6 billion USD (95% CIs: 2.9-21.5 billion economic losses annually. The largest component of the economic burden is due to premature death (55%, followed by direct costs of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, 20% and lost income whilst seeking PEP (15.5%, with only limited costs to the veterinary sector due to dog vaccination (1.5%, and additional costs to communities from livestock losses (6%.This study demonstrates that investment in dog vaccination, the single most effective way of reducing the disease burden, has been inadequate and that the availability and affordability of PEP needs improving. Collaborative investments by medical and veterinary sectors could dramatically reduce the current large, and unnecessary, burden of rabies on affected communities. Improved surveillance is needed to reduce uncertainty in burden estimates and to monitor the impacts of control efforts.

  7. Genetic analysis of Asian measles virus strains--new endemic genotype in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, A T; Mulders, M N; Gautam, D C; Ammerlaan, W; de Swart, R L; King, C C; Osterhaus, A D; Muller, C P

    2001-07-01

    In many parts of Asia measles virus (MV) continues to be endemic. However, little is known about the genetic characteristics of viruses circulating on this continent. This study reports the molecular epidemiological analysis based on the entire nucleocapsid (N) and hemagglutinin (H) genes of the first isolates from Nepal and Taiwan, as well as of recent MV strains from India, Indonesia, and China. Four isolates collected in various regions in Nepal during 1999 belonged to a new genotype, tentatively called D8. Another Nepalese isolate and one from India belonged to genotype D4. The diversity of the Nepalese strains indicated that measles continues to be endemic in this country. The isolate from Taiwan grouped with D3 viruses and one Chinese strain isolated in The Netherlands was assigned to the previously described clade H, known to be endemic in Mainland China. Molecular characterization emerges as an important tool for monitoring virus endemicity and vaccination efforts.

  8. The phylogenetic relationships of endemic Australasian trichostrongylin families (Nematoda: Strongylida) parasitic in marsupials and monotremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Neil B; Huby-Chilton, Florence; Koehler, Anson V; Gasser, Robin B; Beveridge, Ian

    2015-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the endemic (or largely endemic) Australasian trichostrongylin nematode families Herpetostrongylidae, Mackerrastrongylidae and Nicollinidae as well as endemic trichostrongylin nematodes currently placed in the families Trichostrongylidae and Molineidae were examined using the complete large subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA gene. The Herpetostrongylinae proved to be monophyletic. However, representatives of the Nicollinidae nested with the Herpetostrongylinae. The Mackerrastrongylidae was also a monophyletic group and included Peramelistrongylus, currently classified within the Trichostrongylidae. The Globocephaloidinae, currently considered to be a subfamily of the Herpetostrongylidae, was excluded from the family in the current analysis. Ollulanus and Libyostrongylus, included for the first time in a molecular phylogenetic analysis, were placed within the Trichostrongylidae. This study provided strong support for the Herpetostrongylidae (including within it the Nicollinidae, but excluding the Globocephaloidinae) and the Mackerrastrongylidae as monophyletic assemblages. Additional studies are required to resolve the relationships of the remaining endemic Australasian trichostrongylin genera.

  9. Egg predators of an endemic Italian salamander, Salamandrina perspicillata (Savi, 1821

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romano

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We report new aquatic predators feeding on Northern spectacled salamander eggs, Salamandrina perspicillata, an endemic Italian species. Eggs were preyed upon by the leech, Trocheta bykowskii, and the trichopteran larvae of Potamophylax cingulatus and Halesus appenninus.

  10. Human-induced hybridization among congeneric endemic plants on Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hengstum, T.; Lachmuth, S.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; den Nijs, J.C.M.; Meirmans, P.G.; van Tienderen, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    Endemic genera on oceanic islands often evolved striking morphological and ecological differences among species, with weak postzygotic reproductive isolation. Human activities can lead to increased connectivity and can thereby promote secondary contact and hybridization between previously isolated

  11. Relationship between weathered coal deposits and the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feder, G.L.; Radovanovic, Z.; Finkelman, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    Field studies in epidemiology and environmental geochemistry in areas in Yugoslavia containing villages with a high incidence of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), indicate a possible relationship between the presence of low-rank coal deposits and the etiology of BEN. Preliminary results from qualitative chemical analyses of drinking water from shallow farm wells indicate the presence of soluble polar aromatic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. These compounds may be derived from weathering of low-rank coals occurring in the vicinity of the endemic villages. All of the endemic villages are in alluvial valleys of tributaries to the Danube River. All except one of the clusters of endemic villages are located in the vicinity of known Pliocene age coals. Detailed sampling of the drinking waters and the nearby coals are being undertaken to identify a possible etiologic factor

  12. Co-endemicity of Cysticercosis and Schistosomiasis in Africa - how many people are at risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal

    The World Health Organisation (WHO) is aiming for elimination of schistosomiasis by 2020 through mass drug administration (MDA). However, the drug used for this, praziquantel, has been reported to cause dramatic side effects, even death, among people suffering from neurocysticercosis (NCC). Both...... countries were identified. The co-endemicity dataset was then combined with modelled data on population density for 2015 derived from the WorldPop database (http://www.worldpop.org). We used the open source GIS software QGIS and GRASS to overlay the two datasets and identified the number of people living...... in co-endemic districts. Over 135 million people live in co-endemic areas. Of these, almost 44 million live in high prevalence areas for schistosomiasis where WHO recommend MDA for the entire population. In co-endemic areas resources need to be allocated for evaluating the extent of adverse effects...

  13. Identification of seventeen microsatellite loci for conservation genetic studies of the endemic wrasse Coris bulbifrons

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Meer, Martin H.; Gardner, Mike; Berumen, Michael L.; Hobbs, Jean Paul Adrian; Van Herwerden, Lynne Van

    2012-01-01

    Coral reefs around the world are in decline, in part due to various anthropogenic factors, including fishing pressure. Coris bulbifrons is a large wrasse endemic to only four oceanic locations off Australia's east coast: Middleton Reef, Elizabeth

  14. Among-species differences in pollen quality and quantity limitation: implications for endemics in biodiverse hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Conchita; Navarro-Fernández, Carmen M; Arceo-Gómez, Gerardo; Meindl, George A; Parra-Tabla, Víctor; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2013-11-01

    Insufficient pollination is a function of quantity and quality of pollen receipt, and the relative contribution of each to pollen limitation may vary with intrinsic plant traits and extrinsic ecological properties. Community-level studies are essential to evaluate variation across species in quality limitation under common ecological conditions. This study examined whether endemic species are more limited by pollen quantity or quality than non-endemic co-flowering species in three endemic-rich plant communities located in biodiversity hotspots of different continents (Andalusia, California and Yucatan). Natural variations in pollen receipt and pollen tube formation were analysed for 20 insect-pollinated plants. Endemic and non-endemic species that co-flowered were paired in order to estimate and compare the quantity and quality components of pre-zygotic pollination success, obtained through piecewise regression analysis of the relationship between pollen grains and pollen tubes of naturally pollinated wilted flowers. Pollen tubes did not frequently exceed the number of ovules per flower. Only the combination of abundant and good quality pollen and a low number of ovules per flower conferred relief from pre-zygotic pollen limitation in the three stochastic pollination environments studied. Quality of pollen receipt was found to be as variable as quantity among study species. The relative pollination success of endemic and non-endemic species, and its quantity and quality components, was community dependent. Assessing both quality and quantity of pollen receipt is key to determining the ovule fertilization potential of both endemic and widespread plants in biodiverse hotspot regions. Large natural variation among flowers of the same species in the two components and pollen tube formation deserves further analysis in order to estimate the environmental, phenotypic and intraindividual sources of variation that may affect how plants evolve to overcome this limitation in

  15. A review of contemporary patterns of endemism for shallow water reef fauna in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph; Roberts, May B.; Bouwmeester, Jessica; Bowen, Brian W.; Coker, Darren James; Lozano-Corté s, Diego; Howard Choat, J.; Gaither, Michelle R.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Khalil, Maha T.; Kochzius, Marc; Myers, Robert F.; Paulay, Gustav; Robitzch, Vanessa S.N.; Saenz Agudelo, Pablo; Salas, Eva; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane; Toonen, Robert J.; Westneat, Mark W.; Williams, Suzanne T.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    The Red Sea biota appears resilient to major environmental fluctuations and is characterized by high rates of endemism with variable degrees of incursion into the Gulf of Aden. The nearby Omani and Arabian Gulfs also have variable environments and high levels of endemism, but these are not consistently distinct across taxa. The presence of physical barriers does not appear to explain species distributions, which are more likely determined by ecological plasticity and genetic diversity.

  16. China's endemic vertebrates sheltering under the protective umbrella of the giant panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binbin V; Pimm, Stuart L

    2016-04-01

    The giant panda attracts disproportionate conservation resources. How well does this emphasis protect other endemic species? Detailed data on geographical ranges are not available for plants or invertebrates, so we restrict our analyses to 3 vertebrate taxa: birds, mammals, and amphibians. There are gaps in their protection, and we recommend practical actions to fill them. We identified patterns of species richness, then identified which species are endemic to China, and then which, like the panda, live in forests. After refining each species' range by its known elevational range and remaining forest habitats as determined from remote sensing, we identified the top 5% richest areas as the centers of endemism. Southern mountains, especially the eastern Hengduan Mountains, were centers for all 3 taxa. Over 96% of the panda habitat overlapped the endemic centers. Thus, investing in almost any panda habitat will benefit many other endemics. Existing panda national nature reserves cover all but one of the endemic species that overlap with the panda's distribution. Of particular interest are 14 mammal, 20 bird, and 82 amphibian species that are inadequately protected. Most of these species the International Union for Conservation of Nature currently deems threatened. But 7 mammal, 3 bird, and 20 amphibian species are currently nonthreatened, yet their geographical ranges are pandas are absent and where there are no national nature reserves. The others concentrate in Yunnan, Nan Mountains, and Hainan. Here, 10 prefectures might establish new protected areas or upgrade local nature reserves to national status. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Diversification of an emerging pathogen in a biodiversity hotspot: Leptospira in endemic small mammals of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Muriel; Wilkinson, David A; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Goodman, Steven M; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

    2014-06-01

    Biodiversity hotspots and associated endemism are ideal systems for the study of parasite diversity within host communities. Here, we investigated the ecological and evolutionary forces acting on the diversification of an emerging bacterial pathogen, Leptospira spp., in communities of endemic Malagasy small mammals. We determined the infection rate with pathogenic Leptospira in 20 species of sympatric rodents (subfamily Nesomyinae) and tenrecids (family Tenrecidae) at two eastern humid forest localities. A multilocus genotyping analysis allowed the characterization of bacterial diversity within small mammals and gave insights into their genetic relationships with Leptospira infecting endemic Malagasy bats (family Miniopteridae and Vespertilionidae). We report for the first time the presence of pathogenic Leptospira in Malagasy endemic small mammals, with an overall prevalence of 13%. In addition, these hosts harbour species of Leptospira (L. kirschneri, L. borgpetersenii and L. borgpetersenii group B) which are different from those reported in introduced rats (L. interrogans) on Madagascar. The diversification of Leptospira on Madagascar can be traced millions of years into evolutionary history, resulting in the divergence of endemic lineages and strong host specificity. These observations are discussed in relation to the relative roles of endemic vs. introduced mammal species in the evolution and epidemiology of Leptospira on Madagascar, specifically how biodiversity and biogeographical processes can shape community ecology of an emerging pathogen and lead to its diversification within native animal communities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Nitrogen species in drinking water indicate potential exposure pathway for Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niagolova, Nedialka; McElmurry, Shawn P.; Voice, Thomas C.; Long, David T.; Petropoulos, Evangelos A.; Havezov, Ivan; Chou, Karen; Ganev, Varban

    2005-01-01

    This study explored two hypotheses relating elevated concentrations of nitrogen species in drinking water and the disease Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN). Drinking water samples were collected from a variety of water supplies in both endemic and non-endemic villages in the Vratza and Montana districts of Bulgaria. The majority of well water samples exceeded US drinking water standards for nitrate + nitrite. No statistically significant difference was observed for any of the nitrogen species between villages classified as endemic and non-endemic. Other constituents (sodium, potassium and chloride) known to be indicators of anthropogenic pollution were also found at elevated concentrations and all followed the order wells > springs > taps. This ordering coincides with the proximity of human influences to the water sources. Our results clearly establish an exposure pathway between anthropogenic activity and drinking water supplies, suggesting that the causative agent for BEN could result from surface contamination. - Water in villages affected and unaffected by Balkan Endemic Nephropathy had no significant differences in nitrogen compounds

  19. Measuring elimination of podoconiosis, endemicity classifications, case definition and targets: an international Delphi exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deribe, Kebede; Wanji, Samuel; Shafi, Oumer; Muheki Tukahebwa, Edridah; Umulisa, Irenee; Davey, Gail

    2015-09-01

    Podoconiosis is one of the major causes of lymphoedema in the tropics. Nonetheless, currently there are no endemicity classifications or elimination targets to monitor the effects of interventions. This study aimed at establishing case definitions and indicators that can be used to assess endemicity, elimination and clinical outcomes of podoconiosis. This paper describes the result of a Delphi technique used among 28 experts. A questionnaire outlining possible case definitions, endemicity classifications, elimination targets and clinical outcomes was developed. The questionnaire was distributed to experts working on podoconiosis and other neglected tropical diseases in two rounds. The experts rated the importance of case definitions, endemic classifications, elimination targets and the clinical outcome measures. Median and mode were used to describe the central tendency of expert responses. The coefficient of variation was used to describe the dispersals of expert responses. Consensus on definitions and indicators for assessing endemicity, elimination and clinical outcomes of podoconiosis directed at policy makers and health workers was achieved following the two rounds of Delphi approach among the experts. Based on the two Delphi rounds we discuss potential indicators and endemicity classification of this disabling disease, and the ongoing challenges to its elimination in countries with the highest prevalence. Consensus will help to increase effectiveness of podoconiosis elimination efforts and ensure comparability of outcome data. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. Reconsidering contact precautions for endemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Daniel J; Murthy, Rekha; Munoz-Price, L Silvia; Barnden, Marsha; Camins, Bernard C; Johnston, B Lynn; Rubin, Zachary; Sullivan, Kaede V; Shane, Andi L; Dellinger, E Patchen; Rupp, Mark E; Bearman, Gonzalo

    2015-10-01

    Whether contact precautions (CP) are required to control the endemic transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) in acute care hospitals is controversial in light of improvements in hand hygiene, MRSA decolonization, environmental cleaning and disinfection, fomite elimination, and chlorhexidine bathing. To provide a framework for decision making around use of CP for endemic MRSA and VRE based on a summary of evidence related to use of CP, including impact on patients and patient care processes, and current practices in use of CP for MRSA and VRE in US hospitals. A literature review, a survey of Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America Research Network members on use of CP, and a detailed examination of the experience of a convenience sample of hospitals not using CP for MRSA or VRE. Hospital epidemiologists and infection prevention experts. No high quality data support or reject use of CP for endemic MRSA or VRE. Our survey found more than 90% of responding hospitals currently use CP for MRSA and VRE, but approximately 60% are interested in using CP in a different manner. More than 30 US hospitals do not use CP for control of endemic MRSA or VRE. Higher quality research on the benefits and harms of CP in the control of endemic MRSA and VRE is needed. Until more definitive data are available, the use of CP for endemic MRSA or VRE in acute care hospitals should be guided by local needs and resources.

  1. Development of clonal matrices of australian red cedar in different substrates under fertilizer doses Desenvolvimento de matrizes clonais de cedro Australiano em diferentes substratos sob doses de fertilizantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Peres Benatti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate fertilizers doses in different substrates for growth and development of clonal matrices of Australian Red Cedar [Toona ciliata var. australis (F. Muell. Bahadur], an experiment was conducted in a greenhouse. Five substrates were evaluate, with proportions by volume, the first consisting of 100% of Multiplant florestal®, the second of 50% vermiculite, 20% carbonized rice hulls, 20% soil and 10% coconut fiber, the third with 50% soil and 50% sand, the fourth was composed by 50% Multiplant florestal®, 10% soil and 40% coconut fiber and the fifth with 65% of Multiplant florestal®, 25% vermiculite and 10% carbonized rice hulls. The fertilizers doses applied were 0.0; 0.3; 0.6; 1.2; 2.4 of fertilization suggested by Malavolta (1980 for vases. The characteristics evaluated were: collar diameter of the matrices, production of dry mater by shoots, root system and total and accumulation of nutrients by shoot at the end of the experimental period of 150 days. The Australian Red Cedar plants have high nutritional requirements, as showed by the better development obtained with higher fertilizer doses than those suggested by Malavolta (1980. The substrate three provided the worst development to clonal matrices while the substrates 1, 4 and 5 provided the best environment for the development considering all the fertilizer doses and all variables.Com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes substratos com taxas de fertilizantes para o crescimento e desenvolvimento de matrizes clonais de cedro australiano [Toona ciliata var. australis (F. Muell. Bahadur], foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação. Foram avaliados cinco substratos, com as proporções em volume, sendo o primeiro composto por 100% Multiplant florestal®, o segundo de 50% Vermiculita, 20% casca de arroz carbonizada, 20% terra e 10% fibra de coco, o terceiro com 50% terra e 50% areia, o quarto com proporção de 50% Multiplant florestal®, 10% terra e 40% de fibra de coco e

  2. Azimuthal and radial variations in sap flux density and effects on stand-scale transpiration estimates in a Japanese cedar forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Yoshinori; Tsuruta, Kenji; Ogura, Akira; Noto, Fumikazu; Komatsu, Hikaru; Otsuki, Kyoichi; Maruyama, Toshisuke

    2013-05-01

    Understanding radial and azimuthal variation, and tree-to-tree variation, in sap flux density (Fd) as sources of uncertainty is important for estimating transpiration using sap flow techniques. In a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don.) forest, Fd was measured at several depths and aspects for 18 trees, using heat dissipation (Granier-type) sensors. We observed considerable azimuthal variation in Fd. The coefficient of variation (CV) calculated from Fd at a depth of 0-20 mm (Fd1) and Fd at a depth of 20-40 mm (Fd2) ranged from 6.7 to 37.6% (mean = 28.3%) and from 19.6 to 62.5% (mean = 34.6%) for the -azimuthal directions. Fd at the north aspect averaged for nine trees, for which azimuthal measurements were made, was -obviously smaller than Fd at the other three aspects (i.e., west, south and east) averaged for the nine trees. Fd1 averaged for the nine trees was significantly larger than Fd2 averaged for the nine trees. The error for stand-scale transpiration (E) estimates caused by ignoring the azimuthal variation was larger than that caused by ignoring the radial variation. The error caused by ignoring tree-to-tree variation was larger than that caused by ignoring both radial and azimuthal variations. Thus, tree-to-tree variation in Fd would be more important than both radial and azimuthal variations in Fd for E estimation. However, Fd for each tree should not be measured at a consistent aspect but should be measured at various aspects to make accurate E estimates and to avoid a risk of error caused by the relationship of Fd to aspect.

  3. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Project - ODFW, 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Scott

    2009-04-10

    Core activities of the Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Supplementation Program (GRESCSP) are funded through the authority of the Lower Snake River Fish and Wildlife Compensation Plan (LSRCP). The LSRCP program was approved by the Water Resources Development Act of 1976, PL 94-587, Section 102, 94th Congress substantially in accordance with the Special Report, LSRCP, June 1975 on file with the Chief of Engineers. The LSRCP was prepared and submitted in compliance with the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of 1958, PL 85-624, 85th Congress, August 12, 1958 to mitigate for the losses of fish and wildlife caused by the construction of dams on lower Snake River. The GRESCSP is an artificial propagation program that was initiated by Bonneville Power Administrations Fish and Wildlife program in the mid 1990's. The intent of this program was to change the mitigation aspect of the LSRCP program (harvest mitigation) to an integrated supplementation program; inasmuch as, hatchery produced fish could be experimentally used as a recovery tool and fish surplus to mitigation would be available for in-place and in-kind harvest. Fish production is still authorized by the LSRCP with the original mitigation return goal of 5,860 adult spring Chinook to the project area. The GRESCSP was developed with two primary components: (1) conventional broodstock (projects 199800702; 199800703; 199800704) and (2) captive brood (projects 199801001; 199801006). The GRESCSP relies on cooperative M&E efforts from the LSRCP including setting aside the Wenaha and Minam tributaries as natural production reserves components used for reference streams. The GRESCSP, coordinated with federal and tribal partners, identifies production levels for both propagation components and weir management strategies for each of the three supplemented tributary areas within the Grande Ronde Sub-basin. The three supplemented areas are Catherine Creek, Lostine River, and upper Grande Ronde River. Lookingglass

  4. Comparing sociocultural features of cholera in three endemic African settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cholera mainly affects developing countries where safe water supply and sanitation infrastructure are often rudimentary. Sub-Saharan Africa is a cholera hotspot. Effective cholera control requires not only a professional assessment, but also consideration of community-based priorities. The present work compares local sociocultural features of endemic cholera in urban and rural sites from three field studies in southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (SE-DRC), western Kenya and Zanzibar. Methods A vignette-based semistructured interview was used in 2008 in Zanzibar to study sociocultural features of cholera-related illness among 356 men and women from urban and rural communities. Similar cross-sectional surveys were performed in western Kenya (n = 379) and in SE-DRC (n = 360) in 2010. Systematic comparison across all settings considered the following domains: illness identification; perceived seriousness, potential fatality and past household episodes; illness-related experience; meaning; knowledge of prevention; help-seeking behavior; and perceived vulnerability. Results Cholera is well known in all three settings and is understood to have a significant impact on people’s lives. Its social impact was mainly characterized by financial concerns. Problems with unsafe water, sanitation and dirty environments were the most common perceived causes across settings; nonetheless, non-biomedical explanations were widespread in rural areas of SE-DRC and Zanzibar. Safe food and water and vaccines were prioritized for prevention in SE-DRC. Safe water was prioritized in western Kenya along with sanitation and health education. The latter two were also prioritized in Zanzibar. Use of oral rehydration solutions and rehydration was a top priority everywhere; healthcare facilities were universally reported as a primary source of help. Respondents in SE-DRC and Zanzibar reported cholera as affecting almost everybody without differentiating much for gender, age

  5. The role of endemic plants in Mauritian traditional medicine - Potential therapeutic benefits or placebo effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummun, Nawraj; Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S; Pynee, Kersley B; Baider, Cláudia; Bahorun, Theeshan

    2018-03-01

    The Mauritian endemic flora has been recorded to be used as medicines for nearly 300 years. Despite acceptance of these endemic plants among the local population, proper documentation of their therapeutic uses is scarce. This review aims at summarising documented traditional uses of Mauritian endemic species with existing scientific data of their alleged bioactivities, in a view to appeal for more stringent validations for their ethnomedicinal uses. A comprehensive bibliographic investigation was carried out by analysing published books on ethnopharmacology and international peer-reviewed papers via scientific databases namely ScienceDirect and PubMed. The keywords "Mauritius endemic plants" and "Mauritius endemic medicinal plants" were used and articles published from 1980 to 2016 were considered. 675 works of which 12 articles were filtered which documented the ethnomedicinal uses and 22 articles reported the biological activities of Mauritian endemic plants. Only materials published in English or French language were included in the review. Available data on the usage of Mauritian endemic plants in traditional medicine and scientific investigation were related. We documented 87 taxa of Mauritian endemic plants for their medicinal value. Endemic plants are either used as part of complex herbal formulations or singly, and are prescribed by herbalists to mitigate a myriad of diseases from metabolic disorders, dermatological pathologies, arthritis to sexually transmissible diseases. However, these species have undergone a limited consistent evaluation to validate their purported ethnomedicinal claims. As the World Health Organization Traditional Medicine Strategy 2014-2023 emphasises on moving traditional medicine into mainstream medicine on an equally trusted footage, the re-evaluation and modernization of Mauritius cultural heritage become necessary. With a consumer-driven 'return to nature', scientific validation and valorization of the herbal remedies, including

  6. Population connectivity and the effectiveness of marine protected areas to protect vulnerable, exploited and endemic coral reef fishes at an endemic hotspot

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Meer, Martin H.

    2014-12-23

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) aim to mitigate anthropogenic impacts by conserving biodiversity and preventing overfishing. The effectiveness of MPAs depends on population connectivity patterns between protected and non-protected areas. Remote islands are endemism hotspots for coral reef fishes and provide rare examples of coral reefs with limited fishing pressure. This study explored population genetic connectivity across a network of protected and non-protected areas for the endemic wrasse, Coris bulbifrons, which is listed as “vulnerable” by the IUCN due to its small, decreasing geographic range and declining abundance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA (msatDNA) markers were used to estimate historic and contemporary gene flow to determine the level of population self-replenishment and to measure genetic and genotypic diversity among all four locations in the species range (south-west Pacific Ocean)—Middleton Reef (MR), Elizabeth Reef (ER), Lord Howe Island (LHI) and Norfolk Island (NI). MPAs exist at MR and LHI and are limited or non-existent at ER and NI, respectively. There was no obvious differentiation in mtDNA among locations, however, msatDNA revealed differentiation between the most peripheral (NI) and all remaining locations (MR, ER and LHI). Despite high mtDNA connectivity (M = 259–1,144), msatDNA connectivity was limited (M = 3–9) with high self-replenishment (68–93 %) at all locations. NI is the least connected and heavily reliant on self-replenishment, and the absence of MPAs at NI needs to be rectified to ensure the persistence of endemic species at this location. Other endemic fishes exhibit similar patterns of high self-replenishment across the four locations, indicating that a single spatial management approach consisting of a MPA network protecting part of each location could provide reasonable protection for these species. Thus, the existing network of MPAs at this endemic hotspot appears adequate at some locations

  7. Population connectivity and the effectiveness of marine protected areas to protect vulnerable, exploited and endemic coral reef fishes at an endemic hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, M. H.; Berumen, M. L.; Hobbs, J.-P. A.; van Herwerden, L.

    2015-06-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) aim to mitigate anthropogenic impacts by conserving biodiversity and preventing overfishing. The effectiveness of MPAs depends on population connectivity patterns between protected and non-protected areas. Remote islands are endemism hotspots for coral reef fishes and provide rare examples of coral reefs with limited fishing pressure. This study explored population genetic connectivity across a network of protected and non-protected areas for the endemic wrasse, Coris bulbifrons, which is listed as "vulnerable" by the IUCN due to its small, decreasing geographic range and declining abundance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA (msatDNA) markers were used to estimate historic and contemporary gene flow to determine the level of population self-replenishment and to measure genetic and genotypic diversity among all four locations in the species range (south-west Pacific Ocean)—Middleton Reef (MR), Elizabeth Reef (ER), Lord Howe Island (LHI) and Norfolk Island (NI). MPAs exist at MR and LHI and are limited or non-existent at ER and NI, respectively. There was no obvious differentiation in mtDNA among locations, however, msatDNA revealed differentiation between the most peripheral (NI) and all remaining locations (MR, ER and LHI). Despite high mtDNA connectivity ( M = 259-1,144), msatDNA connectivity was limited ( M = 3-9) with high self-replenishment (68-93 %) at all locations. NI is the least connected and heavily reliant on self-replenishment, and the absence of MPAs at NI needs to be rectified to ensure the persistence of endemic species at this location. Other endemic fishes exhibit similar patterns of high self-replenishment across the four locations, indicating that a single spatial management approach consisting of a MPA network protecting part of each location could provide reasonable protection for these species. Thus, the existing network of MPAs at this endemic hotspot appears adequate at some locations, but not

  8. Oral iron supplements for children in malaria-endemic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Ami; Okebe, Joseph; Yahav, Dafna; Paul, Mical

    2016-01-01

    prevention or management services are provided efficiently. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Iron supplements for children living in malaria-endemic countries Why the review is important Children living in malarial areas commonly develop anaemia. Long-term anaemia is thought to delay a child's development and make children more likely to get infections. In areas where anaemia is common, health providers may give iron to prevent anaemia, but there is a concern amongst researchers that this may increase the risk of malaria. It is thought that the iron tablets will increase iron levels in the blood, and this will promote the growth of the Plasmodium parasite that causes malaria. We aimed to assess the effects of oral iron supplementation in children living in countries where malaria is common. Main findings of the review Cochrane researchers searched the available evidence up to 30 August 2015 and included 35 trials (31,955 children). Iron did not increase the risk of malaria, indicated by fever and the presence of parasites in the blood (high quality evidence). There was no increased risk of death among children treated with iron, although the quality of the evidence for this was low. Among children treated with iron, there was no increased risk of severe malaria (high quality evidence). Although it is hypothesized that iron supplementation might harm children who do not have anaemia living in malarial areas, there is probably no increased risk for malaria in these children (moderate quality evidence). In areas where health services are sufficient to help prevent and treat malaria, giving iron supplements (with or without folic acid) may reduce clinical malaria. In areas where these services are not available, iron supplementation (with or without folic acid) may increase the number of children with clinical malaria (low quality evidence). Overall, iron resulted in fewer anaemic children at follow up, and the end average change in haemoglobin from base line was higher with iron

  9. Molecular typing of Brucella melitensis endemic strains and differentiation from the vaccine strain Rev-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutsios, Georgios T; Papi, Rigini M; Ekateriniadou, Loukia V; Minas, Anastasios; Kyriakidis, Dimitrios A

    2012-03-01

    In the present study forty-four Greek endemic strains of Br. melitensis and three reference strains were genotyped by Multi locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat (ML-VNTR) analysis based on an eight-base pair tandem repeat sequence that was revealed in eight loci of Br. melitensis genome. The forty-four strains were discriminated from the vaccine strain Rev-1 by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). The ML-VNTR analysis revealed that endemic, reference and vaccine strains are genetically closely related, while most of the loci tested (1, 2, 4, 5 and 7) are highly polymorphic with Hunter-Gaston Genetic Diversity Index (HGDI) values in the range of 0.939 to 0.775. Analysis of ML-VNTRs loci stability through in vitro passages proved that loci 1 and 5 are non stable. Therefore, vaccine strain can be discriminated from endemic strains by allele's clusters of loci 2, 4, 6 and 7. RFLP and DGGE were also employed to analyse omp2 gene and reveled different patterns among Rev-1 and endemic strains. In RFLP, Rev-1 revealed three fragments (282, 238 and 44 bp), while endemic strains two fragments (238 and 44 bp). As for DGGE, the electrophoretic mobility of Rev-1 is different from the endemic strains due to heterologous binding of DNA chains of omp2a and omp2b gene. Overall, our data show clearly that it is feasible to genotype endemic strains of Br. melitensis and differentiate them from vaccine strain Rev-1 with ML-VNTR, RFLP and DGGE techniques. These tools can be used for conventional investigations in brucellosis outbreaks.

  10. Endemic plants harbour specific Trichoderma communities with an exceptional potential for biocontrol of phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachow, Christin; Berg, Christian; Müller, Henry; Monk, Jana; Berg, Gabriele

    2016-10-10

    Trichoderma strains exhibit enormous potential for applications in biotechnology, in particular as biocontrol agents against pathogens. However, little is known about the diversity of plant-associated Trichoderma communities at a global scale and their antagonistic spectrum. In order to gather information about structure and function, we compared Trichoderma biomes of endemic (Aeonium, Diospyros, Hebe, Rhododendron) and cosmopolitan plants (Zea mays) in a global study encompassing the area Northwest Africa to New Zealand via the European Alps and Madagascar. At the quantitative level we found no differences between cosmopolitan and endemic plants. Statistically significant differences were detected at the qualitative level: Trichoderma populations of endemic plants were highly specific and diverse with hot spots appearing in Madagascar and New Zealand. By contrast, maize plants from all sites shared the majority of Trichoderma species (65.5%). Interestingly, the high above ground biodiversity in ecosystems containing endemic plants was confirmed by a high below ground Trichoderma diversity. Despite the differences, we found a global Trichoderma core community shared by all analysed plants, which was dominated by T. koningii and T. koningiopsis. Amplicon-based network analyses revealed a high similarity between maize Trichoderma grown world-wide and distinct populations of endemic plants. Furthermore, Trichoderma strains from endemic plants showed a higher antagonistic activity against fungal pathogens compared to maize-associated strains. Our results showed that endemic plants are associated with a specific Trichoderma microbiome which possesses a high antagonistic activity indicating that it has potential to be used for biocontrol purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Imposex in endemic volutid from Northeast Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda

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    Ítalo Braga de Castro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Imposex is characterized by the development of masculine sexual organs in neogastropod females. Almost 120 mollusk species are known to present imposex when exposed to organic tin compounds as tributyltin (TBT and triphenyltin (TPT. These compounds are used as biocide agents in antifouling paints to prevent the incrustations on boats. Five gastropod species are known to present imposex in Brazil: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium parthenopeum and Olivancillaria vesica. This paper reports the first record of imposex observed in the endemic gastropod Voluta ebraea from Pacheco Beach, Northeast Brazil. Animals presenting imposex had regular female reproductive organs (capsule gland, oviduct and sperm-ingesting gland and an abnormal penis. As imposex occurs in mollusks exposed to organotin compounds typically found at harbors, marinas, shipyards and areas with high shipping activities, probably contamination of Pacheco Beach is a consequence of a shipyard activity located in the nearest areas.O imposex caracteriza-se pelo surgimento de estruturas sexuais masculinas, em fêmeas de gastrópodes. Cerca de 120 espécies de moluscos que exibem o fenômeno quando expostas a contaminação por compostos orgânicos de estanho tais como o Tributilestanho (TBT e o Trifenilestanho (TPT. Esses compostos são utilizados, sobretudo em embarcações, no intuito de evitar a bioincrustração que danifica as embarcações e eleva os custos das viagens marítimas. No Brasil se conhecem 5 espécies de moluscos gastrópodes que manifestam imposex, são elas: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium parthenopeum e Olivancillaria vesica. No Nordeste, monitoramentos da contaminação por organoestânicos foram realizados utilizando o imposex em gastrópodes como biomarcador. O presente estudo tem por objetivo notificar a primeira ocorrência de imposex na espécie endêmica do Nordeste brasileiro, Voluta

  12. Seseli farrenyi: an Empordanese endemism close to extinction?

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    Molero, J.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Seseli farrenyi is a narrow endemic from Catalonia (Spain. Only a very limited number of populations of this species are known, located in the north coast of the Creus Cape (Alt Empordà. This species has been catalogued as “Endangered” (EN according to the IUCN criteria, based on a series of studies performed in the late 1990s, which included censuses and detailed cartography. New censuses performed by the same researchers a decade later revealed a decline of 90% of the total number of individuals, as well as the loss of the species in its type locality. These data justify the classification of S. farrenyi as “Critically Endangered” (CR. The development of demographic studies in order to determine the causes of the population loss in this species should be a priority for its recovery plan, which is mandatory under the current legislation.Seseli farrenyi es un endemismo estrictamente catalán, que cuenta con un número muy reducido de poblaciones en la franja litoral norte del cabo de Creus (Alt Empordà. La especie ha sido catalogada como “En Peligro” (EN según los criterios de la UICN basándose en una serie de estudios realizados a finales de los años noventa, incluyendo censos y cartografía detallada. Tras poco más de una década, la realización de un nuevo censo por parte del mismo equipo de investigadores revela una pérdida de más del 90% del total de individuos, así como la desaparición de la localidad clásica de la especie, justificando elevar su categoría de amenaza a “En Peligro Crítico” (CR. Una de las prioridades del plan de recuperación para esta especie (la redacción y aplicación del cual se deriva de la inclusión de S. farrenyi en el Catàleg de Flora Amenaçada de Catalunya debería ser la realización de estudios demográficos que permitieran conocer las causas de este declive poblacional. [ct] Seseli farrenyi és un endemisme estrictament català, que compta amb un nombre molt reduït de

  13. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of turkish endemic Sideritis extracts

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    Ünver, Ahmet

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Sideritis species are traditionally used as teas, flavoring agents and for medicinal purposes in Turkey . In this study, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Sideritis condensata Boiss. & Heldr. (SC and Sideritis eryhrantha v ar. erythrantha Boiss. & Heldr. (SE endemic species' extracts of Lamiaceae were determined. These extracts were investigated for antibacterial activity by using the agar diffusion method against 15 species of bacteria: Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus feacalis, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica. Statistical differences within bacteria were significant at pLas especies de Sideritis de usan tradicionalmente para la elaboración del té, como flavorizantes y con fines médicos en Turquía. En este estudio, se han determinado las actividades antimicrobiana y antioxidante de extractos de especies endémicas de la Familia Lamiaceae , como son Sideritis condensata Boiss. & Heldr. (SC y Sideritis erythrantha v ar. erythrantha Boiss. & Heldr. (SE. La actividad antibacteriana fue determinada mediante el método de difusión en agar con 15 especies de bacterias: Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus , Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus feacalis, Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli O157:H7, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus y Yersinia enterocolitica. Se consideraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas cuando p<0,05. El extracto de SC tuvo mayor actividad antimicrobiana que el extracto de SE. La bacteria más sensible fue P. aeruginosa , mientras que las más resistentes fueron E. feacalis para el extracto

  14. A review of contemporary patterns of endemism for shallow water reef fauna in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph

    2015-11-03

    Aim The Red Sea is characterised by a unique fauna and historical periods of desiccation, hypersalinity and intermittent isolation. The origin and contemporary composition of reef-associated taxa in this region can illuminate biogeographical principles about vicariance and the establishment (or local extirpation) of existing species. Here we aim to: (1) outline the distribution of shallow water fauna between the Red Sea and adjacent regions, (2) explore mechanisms for maintaining these distributions and (3) propose hypotheses to test these mechanisms. Location Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, Arabian Gulf and Indian Ocean. Methods Updated checklists for scleractinian corals, fishes and non-coral invertebrates were used to determine species richness in the Red Sea and the rest of the Arabian Peninsula and assess levels of endemism. Fine-scale diversity and abundance of reef fishes within the Red Sea were explored using ecological survey data. Results Within the Red Sea, we recorded 346 zooxanthellate and azooxanthellate scleractinian coral species of which 19 are endemic (5.5%). Currently 635 species of polychaetes, 211 echinoderms and 79 ascidians have been documented, with endemism rates of 12.6%, 8.1% and 16.5% respectively. A preliminary compilation of 231 species of crustaceans and 137 species of molluscs include 10.0% and 6.6% endemism respectively. We documented 1071 shallow fish species, with 12.9% endemic in the entire Red Sea and 14.1% endemic in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. Based on ecological survey data of endemic fishes, there were no major changes in species richness or abundance across 1100 km of Saudi Arabian coastline. Main conclusions The Red Sea biota appears resilient to major environmental fluctuations and is characterized by high rates of endemism with variable degrees of incursion into the Gulf of Aden. The nearby Omani and Arabian Gulfs also have variable environments and high levels of endemism, but these are not consistently distinct

  15. Climate vs. topography – spatial patterns of plant species diversity and endemism on a high-elevation island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irl, Severin David Howard; Harter, David E. V.; Steinbauer, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    the independent contribution of climatic and topographic variables to spatial diversity patterns. We constructed a presence/absence matrix of perennial endemic and native vascular plant species (including subspecies) in 890 plots on the environmentally very heterogeneous island of La Palma, Canary Islands......Climate and topography are among the most fundamental drivers of plant diversity. Here, we assessed the importance of climate and topography in explaining diversity patterns of species richness, endemic richness and endemicity on the landscape scale of an oceanic island and evaluated...... to ecological speciation and specialization to local conditions. We highlight the importance of incorporating climatic variability into future studies of plant species diversity and endemism. The spatial incongruence in hot spots of species richness, endemic richness and endemicity emphasizes the need...

  16. Speciation and the Latitudinal Diversity Gradient: Insights from the Global Distribution of Endemic Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Patrick J; Mittelbach, Gary G; Schemske, Douglas W

    2017-06-01

    The nearly universal pattern that species richness increases from the poles to the equator (the latitudinal diversity gradient [LDG]) has been of intense interest since its discovery by early natural-history explorers. Among the many hypotheses proposed to explain the LDG, latitudinal variation in (1) productivity, (2) time and area available for diversification, and (3) speciation and/or extinction rates have recently received the most attention. Because tropical regions are older and were formerly more widespread, these factors are often intertwined, hampering efforts to distinguish their relative contributions to the LDG. Here we examine the global distribution of endemic lake fishes to determine how lake age, area, and latitude each affect the probability of speciation and the extent of diversification occurring within a lake. We analyzed the distribution of endemic fishes worldwide (1,933 species and subspecies from 47 families in 2,746 lakes) and find that the probability of a lake containing an endemic species and the total number of endemics per lake increase with lake age and area and decrease with latitude. Moreover, the geographic locations of endemics in 34 of 41 families are found at lower latitudes than those of nonendemics. We propose that the greater diversification of fish at low latitudes may be driven in part by ecological opportunities promoted by tropical climates and by the coevolution of species interactions.

  17. Taxonomic Study of Endemic Species of Astragalus L. (Fabaceae of India

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    Lal Babu Chaudhary

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study is to provide a comprehensive taxonomic account of 12 endemic species of Astragalus occurring in India. The north-west Himalayan region harbors more endemic species (11 spp. than eastern Himalaya where only two species have been noticed from Sikkim. Jammu & Kashmir with seven species occupies first position in the list of endemic species. Five species are strictly confined to Jammu & Kashmir, while two species to Uttaranchal and one species to Sikkim. Only one species (A. tenuicaulis is found in both the Himalayas, otherwise the elements of both the Himalayas are quite distinct from each other. Most of the endemic species of Astragalus have been observed quite rare in the nature except A. uttaranchalensis. In the present investigation, A. turgidus, a newly described species from Jammu & Kashmir, has been found conspecific to A. kashmirensis. For each species nomenclature, description, distribution, phenology, taxonomic notes, list of the investigated materials, distribution map and figures are given. A new combination A. falconeri var. pilosus (Ali Chaudhary has been proposed based on A. hoffmeisteri var. pilosus Ali. A new endemic species A. nainitalensis from Kumaon Himalaya has also been described here along with illustrations.

  18. Dispersing towards Madagascar: Biogeography and evolution of the Madagascan endemics of the Spermacoceae tribe (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Steven B; Groeninckx, Inge; De Block, Petra J; Verstraete, Brecht; Smets, Erik F; Dessein, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Despite the close proximity of the African mainland, dispersal of plant lineages towards Madagascar remains intriguing. The composition of the Madagascan flora is rather mixed and shows besides African representatives, also floral elements of India, Southeast Asia, Australia, and the Neotropics. Due to its proportionally large number of Madagascan endemics, the taxonomically troublesome Spermacoceae tribe is an interesting group to investigate the origin and evolution of the herbaceous Rubiaceae endemic to Madagascar. The phylogenetic position of these endemics were inferred using four plastid gene markers. Age estimates were obtained by expanding the Spermacoceae dataset with representatives of all Rubiaceae tribes. This allowed incorporation of multiple fossil-based calibration points from the Rubiaceae fossil record. Despite the high morphological diversity of the endemic herbaceous Spermacoceae on Madagascar, only two colonization events gave rise to their current diversity. The first clade contains Lathraeocarpa, Phylohydrax and Gomphocalyx, whereas the second Madagascan clade includes the endemic genera Astiella, Phialiphora, Thamnoldenlandia and Amphistemon. The tribe Spermacoceae is estimated to have a Late Eocene origin, and diversified during Oligocene and Miocene. The two Madagascan clades of the tribe originated in the Oligocene and radiated in the Miocene. The origin of the Madagascan Spermacoceae cannot be explained by Gondwanan vicariance but only by means of Cenozoic long distance dispersal events. Interestingly, not only colonization from Africa occurred but also long distance dispersal from the Neotropics shaped the current diversity of the Spermacoceae tribe on Madagascar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Endemic versus epidemic viral spreads display distinct patterns of HTLV-2b replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabet, Anne-Sophie; Moules, Vincent; Sibon, David; Nass, Catharie C.; Mortreux, Franck; Mauclere, Philippe; Gessain, Antoine; Murphy, Edward L.; Wattel, Eric

    2006-01-01

    As the replication pattern of leukemogenic PTLVs possesses a strong pathogenic impact, we investigated HTLV-2 replication in vivo in asymptomatic carriers belonging into 2 distinct populations infected by the same HTLV-2b subtype. They include epidemically infected American blood donors, in whom HTLV-2b has been present for only 30 years, and endemically infected Bakola Pygmies from Cameroon, characterized by a long viral endemicity (at least few generations). In blood donors, both the circulating proviral loads and the degree of infected cell proliferation were largely lower than those characterizing asymptomatic carriers infected with leukemogenic PTLVs (HTLV-1, STLV-1). This might contribute to explain the lack of known link between HTLV-2b infection and the development of malignancies in this population. In contrast, endemically infected individuals displayed high proviral loads resulting from the extensive proliferation of infected cells. The route and/or the duration of infection, viral genetic drift, host immune response, genetic background, co-infections or a combination thereof might have contributed to these differences between endemically and epidemically infected subjects. As the clonality pattern observed in endemically infected individuals is very reminiscent of that of leukemogenic PTLVs at the pre-leukemic stage, our results highlight the possible oncogenic effect of HTLV-2b infection in such population

  20. Oxidative stress in patients with endemic pemphigus foliaceus and healthy subjects with anti-desmoglein 1 antibodies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Ericson Leonardo; Ramos, Willy; Seminario-Vidal, Lucia; Tello, Mercedes; Ronceros, Gerardo; Ortega-Loayza, Alex G.

    2018-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown oxidative stress in pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus, nevertheless, it remains unknown whether a similar response is characteristic of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in Peru. Objectives To determine the oxidative stress response in endemic pemphigus foliaceus patients and subjects with positive for anti-desmoglein1 antibodies (anti-dsg1) from endemic areas of Peru. Subjects and Methods This is a cross-sectional study. The study population included 21 patients with Endemic Pemphigus foliaceus and 12 healthy subjects with anti-dsg1 antibodies from the Peruvian Amazon (Ucayali), as well as 30 healthy control subjects. Malondialdehyde, an indicator of lipid peroxidation by free radicals, was measured in serum. Results We collected 21 cases of endemic pemphigus foliaceus, 15 of them with active chronic disease and 6 in clinical remission. Serum malondialdehyde values in patients with chronic active evolution and healthy subjects with anti-dsg1 antibodies were statistically higher than those of healthy controls (p<0.001). There was no significant difference between serum values of localized and generalized clinical forms. Study limitations The main limitation of this present study is the small number of patients with endemic pemphigus and healthy subjects positive for desmoglein 1 antibodies. Conclusions The increased serum levels of malondialdehyde in patients with chronic active endemic pemphigus foliaceus and healthy subjects from endemic areas with anti-dsg1 antibodies may suggest a contribution of systemic lipid peroxidation in the pathogenesis of endemic pemphigus foliaceus. PMID:29723379

  1. The Cedar Project: resilience in the face of HIV vulnerability within a cohort study involving young Indigenous people who use drugs in three Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Margo E; Jongbloed, Kate A; Richardson, Chris G; Henderson, Earl W; Pooyak, Sherri D; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Christian, Wunuxtsin M; Schechter, Martin T; Spittal, Patricia M

    2015-10-29

    Indigenous scholars have long argued that it is critical for researchers to identify factors related to cultural connectedness that may protect against HIV and hepatitis C infection and buffer the effects of historical and lifetime trauma among young Indigenous peoples. To our knowledge, no previous epidemiological studies have explored the effect of historical and lifetime traumas, cultural connectedness, and risk factors on resilience among young, urban Indigenous people who use drugs. This study explored risk and protective factors associated with resilience among participants of the Cedar Project, a cohort study involving young Indigenous peoples who use illicit drugs in three cities in British Columbia, Canada. We utilized the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale to measure resilience, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire to measure childhood maltreatment, and the Symptom-Checklist 90-Revised to measure psychological distress among study participants. Multivariate linear mixed effects models (LME) estimated the effect of study variables on mean change in resilience scores between 2011-2012. Among 191 participants, 92 % had experienced any form of childhood maltreatment, 48 % had a parent who attended residential school, and 71 % had been in foster care. The overall mean resilience score was 62.04, with no differences between the young men and women (p = 0.871). Adjusted factors associated with higher mean resilience scores included having grown up in a family that often/always lived by traditional culture (B = 7.70, p = 0.004) and had often/always spoken their traditional language at home (B = 10.52, p resilience scores. Adjusted factors associated with diminished mean resilience scores included severe childhood emotional neglect (B = -13.34, p = 0.001), smoking crack daily (B = -5.42, p = 0.044), having been sexual assaulted (B =  14.42, p = 0.041), and blackout drinking (B = -6.19, p = 0.027). Young people in this study have faced multiple complex challenges to

  2. Reference Range of Functional Data of Gated Myocardial Perfusion SPECT by Quantitative Gated SPECT of Cedars-Sinai and 4D-MSPECT of Michigan University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Kim, Moo Hyun; Kim, Young Dae [College of Medicine, Univ. of Donga, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Various programs have been developed for gating of myocardial perfusion SPECT. Among the those program, the most popular program is the Quantitative Gated SPECT (QGS)? developed by Cedars-Sinai hospital and most recently released program is 4D-MSPECT? developed by university of Michigan. It is important to know the reference range of the functional data of gated myocardial perfusion SPECT because it is necessary to determine abnormality of individual patient and echocardiographic data is different from those of gated SPECT. Tc-99m MIBI gated myocardial perfusion SPECT image was reconstructed by dual head gamma camera (Siemens, BCAM, esoft) as routine procedure and analyzed using QGS? and 4D-MSPECT? program. All patients (M: F=9: 18, Age 69{+-}9 yrs) showed normal myocardial perfusion. The patients with following characteristics were excluded: previous angina or MI history, ECG change with Q wave or ST-T change, diabetes melitius, hypercholesterolemia, typical chest pain, hypertension and cardiomyopathy. Pre-test likelihood of all patients was low. (1) In stress gated SPECT by QGS?, EDV was 73{+-}25 ml, ESV 25{+-}14 ml, EF 67{+-}11 % and area of first frame of gating 106.4{+-}21cm{sup 2}. In rest gated SPECT, EDV was 76{+-}26 ml, ESV 27{+-}15 ml, EF 66{+-}12 and area of first frame of gating 108{+-}20cm{sup 2}. (2) In stress gated SPECT by 4D-MSPECT?, EDV was 76{+-}28 ml, ESV 23{+-}16 ml, EF 72{+-}11 %, mass 115{+-}24 g and ungated volume 42{+-}15 ml. In rest gated SPECT, EDV was 75{+-}27 ml, ESV 23{+-}12 ml, EF 71{+-}9%, mass 113{+-}25g and ungate dvolume 42{+-}15 ml, (3) s-EDV, s-EF, r-ESV and r-EF were significantly different between QGS? and 4D-MSPECT? (each p=0.016, p<0.001. p=0.003 and p=0.001). We determined the normal reference range of functional parameters by QGS? and 4D-MSPECT? program to diagnose individually the abnormality of patients. And the reference ranges have to adopted to be patients by each specific gating program.

  3. Response of understory vegetation over 10 years after thinning in an old-growth cedar and cypress plantation overgrazed by sika deer in eastern Japan

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    Atsushi Tamura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Forest management strategies such as thinning have long been used to enhance ecosystem functions, especially in plantations. Thinning in plantations with high deer density, however, may not yield a desired increase in understory vegetation because deer graze on germinating plants after thinning. Here, we examine the changes in understory vegetation after thinning in plantations that have been overgrazed by sika deer to provide insight into the effects of thinning on ecosystem functions such as soil conservation and biological diversity. Methods We conducted our survey in the Tanzawa Mountains of eastern Japan. We surveyed the change in understory vegetation within and outside of three deer exclosures on a single slope with three levels of understory vegetation cover: sparse (1%, exclosure “US”, moderate (30%, exclosure “MM”, and dense (80%, exclosure “LD” over 10 years after a 30% thinning of an old-growth cedar and cypress plantation which was overgrazed by sika deer. Results Understory vegetation cover, biomass and species richness increased within and outside the “US” and “MM” exclosures after thinning, and biomass was greater within than outside the exclosures at 10 years after thinning. Unpalatable species dominated both “US” and “MM” exclosures before thinning, and trees and shrubs dominated within the exclosures over time after thinning. In contrast, unpalatable, grazing-tolerant, perennial, and annual species increased outside the “US” and “MM” exclosures. No noticeable changes were observed within and outside the “LD” exclosure when compared with the “US” and “MM” exclosures. Conclusions Our results suggest that thinning a stand by 30% based on volume resulted in an increase in understory vegetation cover mainly composed of both unpalatable and grazing-tolerant species in a plantation forest where understory vegetation is sparse or moderate and sika deer density is high. We

  4. Distribution pattern, ecology and endemism of family crassulaceae in Pakistan and Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, G.R.; Qaiser, M.

    2012-01-01

    Distribution pattern, ecology and endemism of family Crassul aceae have been studied in Pakistan and Kashmir. Out of 31 taxa, 15 are Irano-Turanian elements, 16 are Sino-Japanese elements and only one is Mediterranean element. Twenty nine taxa are classified as uniregional, while one is biregional element. Only one taxon is considered as pluriregional element. Rhodiola saxifragoides, Rosularia adenotricha subsp. chitralica and Hylotelephium pakistanicum are endemic taxa. While Rhodiola pachyclados and Rosularia sedoides are partim endemic. The former species is confined to (Kurrum valley) Pakistan and Afghanistan whereas the latter species distributed in Kashmir and N India. Rhodiola coccinea subsp. scabrida is subendemic to the peripheral belt of Irano-Turanian and Sino-Japanese regions. (author)

  5. Advances in the diagnosis of endemic treponematoses: yaws, bejel, and pinta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Mitjà

    Full Text Available Improved understanding of the differential diagnosis of endemic treponematoses is needed to inform clinical practice and to ensure the best outcome for a new global initiative for the eradication of yaws, bejel, and pinta. Traditionally, the human treponematoses have been differentiated based upon their clinical manifestations and epidemiologic characteristics because the etiologic agents are indistinguishable in the laboratory. Serological tests are still considered standard laboratory methods for the diagnosis of endemic treponematoses and new rapid point-of-care treponemal tests have become available which are extremely useful in low-resource settings. In the past ten years, there has been an increasing effort to apply polymerase chain reaction to treponematoses and whole genome fingerprinting techniques have identified genetic signatures that can differentiate the existing treponemal strains; however, definitive diagnosis is also hampered by widespread unavailability of molecular diagnostics. We review the dilemmas in the diagnosis of endemic treponematoses, and advances in the discovery of new diagnostic tools.

  6. Determinants of bird species richness, endemism, and island network roles in Wallacea and the West Indies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Carstensen, Daniel Wisbech; Fjeldså, Jon

    2014-01-01

    , and network roles indicates that historical climate had little effects on extinction-immigration dynamics. This is in contrast to the strong effect of historical climate observed on the mainland, possibly because surrounding oceans buffer against strong climate oscillations and because geography is a strong....... Here, we evaluate the potential additional effects of historical climate on breeding land bird richness and endemism in Wallacea and the West Indies. Furthermore, on the basis of species distributions, we identify island biogeographical network roles and examine their association with geography......, current and historical climate, and bird richness/endemism. We found that island geography, especially island area but also isolation and elevation, largely explained the variation in island species richness and endemism. Current and historical climate only added marginally to our understanding...

  7. TUMORS OF THE KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT IN ENDEMIC AREA OF VILLAGE BRESTOVAC

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    Rade Cukuranovic

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available During the twenty- five-year period the incidence of urothelial tumors was followed in the endemic village Brestovac. Thirty patients (3 of which with confirmed endemic nephropathy and 15 persons with suspected nephropathy were investigated. Our retrograde study showed that there is a relationship between endemic nephropathy and urothelial cancer, and this association persisted with marked tendency to rise. Tumors were more common among males, aged from 50 to 70 years, with upper urinary tract urothelial cancer, papillary or trancellular forms, predominantly. Clinical feature showed classic triad of hematuria, flank pain and, rarely, flank mass, accompanied with non-specific symptomatology. Normal renal function was observed in 25 patients, but chronic renal failure was proven in five. Ten patients were treated by surgery, while 20 patients were treated by conservative therapy. There are no marked risk factors.

  8. Diversity, rarity and the evolution and conservation of the Canary Islands endemic flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes-Betancort, J. Alfredo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The endemic vascular flora of the Canary Islands comprises over 680, taxa collectively accounting for more than 50% of the total native flora. To investigate geographical patterns of diversity within the endemic flora, distribution data from published sources together with other field observation and herbarium data were used to compile a data matrix comprising the distributions of ca. 90% of endemic taxa scored on a 10 × 10km UTM grid. WORLDMAP was then used to investigate patterns of endemic diversity, range size rarity (a measure of endemicity, phylogenetic diversity and threatened taxon richness. Endemic taxon richness was found to be highly heterogeneous across the archipelago, with cells containing between one and 139 taxa each (0.05-22.82% of endemic diversity. Patterns of variation in range size rarity and phylogenetic diversity were found to be largely congruent with endemic diversity, although some cells exhibited markedly higher range size rarity scores than would be predicted by their endemic diversity scores. In contrast, the pattern of endangered taxon richness across the archipelago differed markedly from endemic taxon richness. Many cells in Lanzarote, Fuerteventura and Gran Canaria exhibit higher endangered taxon richness scores than would be predicted from their endemic richness scores whereas in Tenerife, El Hierro, La Palma and La Gomera, the converse is generally true. The implications of the results both for understanding the evolution of Canary Island endemic diversity and for the conservation of the region’s unique and vulnerable flora are considered.La flora vascular endémica de las Islas Canarias comprende unos 680 táxones, lo que viene a representar más del 50% de la flora nativa. Con objeto de investigar patrones geográficos de diversidad en la flora endémica, se recopilaron los datos publicados que, junto con otras observaciones de campo y datos de herbario, sirvieron para completar una matriz de datos

  9. The Resistance to Plague Infection among Meriones persicus from Endemic and Non-endemic Regions in Iran: The Role of Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASSMAR, Mehdi; KEYPOUR, Marjan; ROHANI, Mehdi; MOSTAFAVI, Ehsan; DANESHVAR FARHUD, Dariush

    2018-01-01

    Background: The present study was conducted approximately 40 years ago, but its results have not been released. At the time of this study, the importance of the gut microbiota was not fully understood. Methods: Meriones persicus rodents, as one of the major reservoirs of Yersinia pestis bacterium in Iran, were compared in a disease endemic area (Akanlu, Hamadan, western Iran) and a non-endemic zone (Telo, Tehran, Iran) from 1977 to 1981. Results: This study was able to transmit the resistance to Y. pestis to other rodents creatively by using and transferring gut microbiota. Conclusion: The study indicated for the first time that the gut microbiota could affect the sensitivity to plague in Meriones in Telo. PMID:29318122

  10. Marine Biodiversity in Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands, Chile: Global Endemism Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Alan M; Ballesteros, Enric; Caselle, Jennifer E; Gaymer, Carlos F; Palma, Alvaro T; Petit, Ignacio; Varas, Eduardo; Muñoz Wilson, Alex; Sala, Enric

    2016-01-01

    The Juan Fernández and Desventuradas islands are among the few oceanic islands belonging to Chile. They possess a unique mix of tropical, subtropical, and temperate marine species, and although close to continental South America, elements of the biota have greater affinities with the central and south Pacific owing to the Humboldt Current, which creates a strong biogeographic barrier between these islands and the continent. The Juan Fernández Archipelago has ~700 people, with the major industry being the fishery for the endemic lobster, Jasus frontalis. The Desventuradas Islands are uninhabited except for a small Chilean military garrison on San Félix Island. We compared the marine biodiversity of these islands across multiple taxonomic groups. At San Ambrosio Island (SA), in Desventuradas, the laminarian kelp (Eisenia cokeri), which is limited to Desventuradas in Chile, accounted for >50% of the benthic cover at wave exposed areas, while more sheltered sites were dominated by sea urchin barrens. The benthos at Robinson Crusoe Island (RC), in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, comprised a diverse mix of macroalgae and invertebrates, a number of which are endemic to the region. The biomass of commercially targeted fishes was >2 times higher in remote sites around RC compared to sheltered locations closest to port, and overall biomass was 35% higher around SA compared to RC, likely reflecting fishing effects around RC. The number of endemic fish species was extremely high at both islands, with 87.5% of the species surveyed at RC and 72% at SA consisting of regional endemics. Remarkably, endemics accounted for 99% of the numerical abundance of fishes surveyed at RC and 96% at SA, which is the highest assemblage-level endemism known for any individual marine ecosystem on earth. Our results highlight the uniqueness and global significance of these biodiversity hotspots exposed to very different fishing pressures.

  11. Marine Biodiversity in Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands, Chile: Global Endemism Hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Alan M.; Ballesteros, Enric; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Gaymer, Carlos F.; Palma, Alvaro T.; Petit, Ignacio; Varas, Eduardo; Muñoz Wilson, Alex; Sala, Enric

    2016-01-01

    The Juan Fernández and Desventuradas islands are among the few oceanic islands belonging to Chile. They possess a unique mix of tropical, subtropical, and temperate marine species, and although close to continental South America, elements of the biota have greater affinities with the central and south Pacific owing to the Humboldt Current, which creates a strong biogeographic barrier between these islands and the continent. The Juan Fernández Archipelago has ~700 people, with the major industry being the fishery for the endemic lobster, Jasus frontalis. The Desventuradas Islands are uninhabited except for a small Chilean military garrison on San Félix Island. We compared the marine biodiversity of these islands across multiple taxonomic groups. At San Ambrosio Island (SA), in Desventuradas, the laminarian kelp (Eisenia cokeri), which is limited to Desventuradas in Chile, accounted for >50% of the benthic cover at wave exposed areas, while more sheltered sites were dominated by sea urchin barrens. The benthos at Robinson Crusoe Island (RC), in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, comprised a diverse mix of macroalgae and invertebrates, a number of which are endemic to the region. The biomass of commercially targeted fishes was >2 times higher in remote sites around RC compared to sheltered locations closest to port, and overall biomass was 35% higher around SA compared to RC, likely reflecting fishing effects around RC. The number of endemic fish species was extremely high at both islands, with 87.5% of the species surveyed at RC and 72% at SA consisting of regional endemics. Remarkably, endemics accounted for 99% of the numerical abundance of fishes surveyed at RC and 96% at SA, which is the highest assemblage-level endemism known for any individual marine ecosystem on earth. Our results highlight the uniqueness and global significance of these biodiversity hotspots exposed to very different fishing pressures. PMID:26734732

  12. Evaluating Hypotheses of Plant Species Invasions on Mediterranean Islands: Inverse Patterns between Alien and Endemic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bjarnason

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species cause major changes to ecosystem functioning and patterns of biodiversity, and the main factors involved in invasion success remain contested. Using the Mediterranean island of Crete, Greece as a case study, we suggest a framework for analyzing spatial data of alien species distributions, based on environmental predictors, aiming to gain an understanding of their spatial patterns and spread. Mediterranean islands are under strong ecological pressure from invading species due to their restricted size and increased human impact. Four hypotheses of invasibility, the “propagule pressure hypothesis” (H1, “biotic resistance hypothesis vs. acceptance hypothesis” (H2, “disturbance-mediated hypothesis” (H3, and “environmental heterogeneity hypothesis” (H4 were tested. Using data from alien, native, and endemic vascular plant species, the propagule pressure, biotic resistance vs. acceptance, disturbance-mediated, and environmental heterogeneity hypotheses were tested with Generalized Additive Modeling (GAM of 39 models. Based on model selection, the optimal model includes the positive covariates of native species richness, the negative covariates of endemic species richness, and land area. Variance partitioning between the four hypotheses indicated that the biotic resistance vs. acceptance hypothesis explained the vast majority of the total variance. These results show that areas of high species richness have greater invasibility and support the acceptance hypothesis and “rich-get-richer” distribution of alien species. The negative correlation between alien and endemic species appears to be predominantly driven by altitude, with fewer alien and more endemic species at greater altitudes, and habitat richness. The negative relationship between alien and endemic species richness provides potential for understanding patterns of endemic and alien species on islands, contributing to more effective conservation

  13. Species Diversity Distribution Patterns of Chinese Endemic Seed Plants Based on Geographical Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jihong; Ma, Keping; Huang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Based on a great number of literatures, we established the database about the Chinese endemic seed plants and analyzed the compositions, growth form, distribution and angiosperm original families of them within three big natural areas and seven natural regions. The results indicate that the above characters of Chinese endemic plants take on relative rule at the different geographical scales. Among the three big natural areas, Eastern Monsoon area has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas Northwest Dryness area is the lowest. For life forms, herbs dominate. In contrast, the proportion of herbs of Eastern Monsoon area is remarkable under other two areas. Correspondingly the proportions of trees and shrubs are substantially higher than other two. For angiosperm original families, the number is the highest in Eastern Monsoon area, and lowest in Northwest Dryness area. On the other hand, among the seven natural regions, the humid and subtropical zone in Central and Southern China has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas the humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China has the lowest. For life forms, the proportion of herbs tends to decrease from humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China to humid and tropical zone in Southern China. Comparably, trees, shrubs and vines or lianas increase with the same directions. This fully represents these characters of Chinese endemic plants vary with latitudinal gradients. Furthermore, as to the number of endemic plants belonging to angiosperm original families, the number is the most in humid and subtropical zone in Center and Southern China, and tropical zone in Southern China in the next place. In contrast, the endemic plant of these two regions relatively is richer than that of The Qinghai-Tibet alpine and cold region. All above results sufficiently reflect that the Chinese endemic plants mainly distribute in Eastern Monsoon area, especially humid and subtropical zone in Center

  14. Discovery of an endemic area of Gnathostoma turgidum infection among opossums, Didelphis virginiana, in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Camacho, Sylvia Páz; Willms, Kaethe; Rendón-Maldonado, José Guadalupe; de la Cruz-Otero, María del Carmen; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco; Robert, Lilia; Antuna, Silvia; León-Règagnon, Virginia; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2009-06-01

    Gnathostomosis, caused by Gnathostoma binucleatum, is a serious public health issue in Mexico. Although 2 other Gnathostoma spp., G. turgidum and G. lamothei, have been found in wild animals, their natural life cycle or their relation to human disease remains unclear. While we were conducting an epidemiological survey on Gnathostoma spp. in Sinaloa State, Mexico, we found an endemic area for G. turgidum in common opossums, Didelphis virginiana, located in Tecualilla, Sinaloa. The species identification was carried out by morphological and molecular biological methods. This is the first record of an endemic area for G. turgidum infection in opossums, D. virginiana, in the Americas.

  15. Floristic richness and endemism in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the distribution of species richness and endemism on the floristic regions that have been used for the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea; the article is based on a previously published and more comprehensive study of the flora of the entire Horn of Africa.......An analysis of the distribution of species richness and endemism on the floristic regions that have been used for the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea; the article is based on a previously published and more comprehensive study of the flora of the entire Horn of Africa....

  16. Analysis of pituitary-thyroid functional condition in neurotic type of endemic cretinism in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Peiqin; Yuan Shenyuan; Wang Ruihua; Xiao Feng

    1992-01-01

    The authors reported 57 patients with endemic cretinism from 1981 to 1984, 41 of which were proved to be nervous endemic cretinism. The severe mental disorders were the main manifestations. But thyroid gland function was mostly normal. Tg-Ab was negative. The location size, shape of thyroid and distribution of radioactive 131 I in thyroid gland were normal. The main cause of this disease is deficiency of thyroxine and iodine during embryo period, resulting in irreversible damages in proliferation, differentiation and maturation of nervous system

  17. Canine antibody response to Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Luís Fábio da Silva; Matta, Vânia Lúcia Ribeiro da; Tomokane, Thaise Yumie; Pacheco, Acácio Duarte; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; Rossi, Claudio Nazaretian; Marcondes, Mary; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra

    2016-01-01

    Canine exposure to Lutzomyia longipalpis bites and the potential of Leishmania infantum transmissibility for the vector were evaluated. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-Lu longipalpis saliva and -L. infantum, and blood parasite load were determined in dogs from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis. Blood parasitism was similar between symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. IgG anti-L. infantum was higher in symptomatic dogs, but IgG anti-Lu. longipalpis saliva was mostly observed in higher titers in asymptomatic dogs, indicating vector preference for feeding on asymptomatic dogs. Our data suggest a pivotal role of asymptomatic dogs in L. infantum transmission in endemic areas.

  18. A comparison of urinary tract pathology and morbidity in adult populations from endemic and non-endemic zones for urinary schistosomiasis on Unguja Island, Zanzibar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamis Simba

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal tract involvement is implicated in both early and late schistosomiasis leading to increased disease burden. Despite there being good estimates of disease burden due to renal tract disease secondary to schistosomiasis at the global level, it is often difficult to translate these estimates into local communities. The aim of this study was to assess the burden of urinary tract pathology and morbidity due to schistosomiasis in Zanzibar and identify reliable clinical predictors of schistosomiasis associated renal disease. Methods A cross-sectional comparison of Ungujan men and women living within either high or low endemic areas for urinary schistosomiasis was conducted. Using urine analysis with reagent strips, parasitological egg counts, portable ultrasonography and a qualitative case-history questionnaire. Data analysis used single and multiple predictor variable logistic regression. Results One hundred and sixty people were examined in the high endemic area (63% women and 37% men, and 101 people in the low endemic area (61% women and 39% men. In the high endemic area, egg-patent schistosomiasis and urinary tract pathology were much more common (p = 1 × 10-3, 8 × 10-6, respectively in comparison with the low endemic area. Self-reported frothy urine, self-reported haematuria, dysuria and urgency to urinate were associated with urinary tract pathology (p = 1.8 × 10-2, p = 1.1 × 10-4, p = 1.3 × 10-6, p = 1.1 × 10-7, respectively as assessed by ultrasonography. In a multi-variable logistic regression model, self-reporting of schistosomiasis in the past year, self-reporting of urgency to urinate and having an egg-positive urine sample were all independently associated with detectable urinary tract abnormality, consistent with schistosomiasis-specific disease. Having two or more of these features was moderately sensitive (70% as a predictor for urinary tract abnormality with high specificity (92%. Conclusion Having two

  19. The endemic medicinal plants of Northern Balochistan, Pakistan and their uses in traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Tahira; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Mohammad Tareen, Niaz; Jabeen, Rukhsana; Sultana, Shazia; Zafar, Muhammad; Zain-ul-Abidin, Sheikh

    2015-09-15

    The highlands of Northern Balochistan are the hot spots of medicinal and endemic plant in Pakistan. These plants are still commonly used for medicinal purposes by local people in their daily lives. This study first documented the information about the medicinal uses of endemic species of Balochistan-province Pakistan. A survey was performed using open ended questionnaires, free listening and personal observations with 152 informants (54% female, 46% male). In addition, the use value (MUV), use report (UR), fidelity level (FL), frequency citation (FC), relative frequency citation (RFC), family importance value (FIV) of species were determined and the informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. A total of 24 endemic plants belonging to 19 genera and 14 families were used by the local inhabitants to treat 12 categories of various diseases. The most common families of endemic plant species as depicted by its number of species (6 species) and FIV (9.9) was Fabaceae as the dominant family. The endemic plant species comprised perennial herbs (30%), annual herbs (25%), shrubs (29%) and under shrubs (16% each), no endemic tree species was reported in the study area. The highest number of species were used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases (12 species). The main route of administration is oral injection (62%) while the most frequently used form of external administration of herbal medicine was paste (5.4%) and the most commonly applied methods of preparation are powder (48.2%). Highest use report were calculated for Allium baluchistanicum and Viola makranica, (8 UR each), and least use report were calculated for two species Heliotropium remotiflorum and Tetracme stocksii (1 UR for each). Use values of the recorded plant species have been calculated which showed a highest use value of (0.73) for A. baluchistanicum and (0.56) for Berberis baluchistanica while the lowest UVs were attained for T. stocksii (0

  20. Optimization of seed germination in an Iranian serpentine endemic, Fortuynia garcinii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salehi Eskandari, Behrooz; Ghaderian, Seyed Majid; Ghasemi, Rasoul; Schat, Henk

    2017-01-01

    Fortuynia garcinii (Brassicaceae) is endemic to serpentine soils in central Iran. It has indehiscent silicles. The effects of its fruit pericarp on seed imbibition and germination were determined. The effects of moist chilling (15 days) and gibberellic acid (GA3, four levels), both alone and