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Sample records for end-systolic pressure-volume relation

  1. A multi-scale cardiovascular system model can account for the load-dependence of the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The end-systolic pressure-volume relationship is often considered as a load-independent property of the heart and, for this reason, is widely used as an index of ventricular contractility. However, many criticisms have been expressed against this index and the underlying time-varying elastance theory: first, it does not consider the phenomena underlying contraction and second, the end-systolic pressure volume relationship has been experimentally shown to be load-dependent. Methods In place of the time-varying elastance theory, a microscopic model of sarcomere contraction is used to infer the pressure generated by the contraction of the left ventricle, considered as a spherical assembling of sarcomere units. The left ventricle model is inserted into a closed-loop model of the cardiovascular system. Finally, parameters of the modified cardiovascular system model are identified to reproduce the hemodynamics of a normal dog. Results Experiments that have proven the limitations of the time-varying elastance theory are reproduced with our model: (1) preload reductions, (2) afterload increases, (3) the same experiments with increased ventricular contractility, (4) isovolumic contractions and (5) flow-clamps. All experiments simulated with the model generate different end-systolic pressure-volume relationships, showing that this relationship is actually load-dependent. Furthermore, we show that the results of our simulations are in good agreement with experiments. Conclusions We implemented a multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system, in which ventricular contraction is described by a detailed sarcomere model. Using this model, we successfully reproduced a number of experiments that have shown the failing points of the time-varying elastance theory. In particular, the developed multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system can capture the load-dependence of the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship. PMID:23363818

  2. Relevance of the volume-axis intercept, V0, compared with the slope of end-systolic pressure-volume relationship in response to large variations in inotropy and afterload in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaudszun, Grégoire; Morel, Denis R

    2011-11-01

    The end-systolic pressure-volume relationship (ESPVR) is proposed and used as a reliable index of left ventricular (LV) contractility despite the fact that its afterload independence has been challenged. Furthermore, the physiological relevance of its volume-axis intercept, V(0), remains unclear. Systemic haemodynamics and pressure-volume loops obtained by inferior vena cava occlusion were recorded in 21 rats anaesthetized by isoflurane inhalation and instrumented with a conductance pressure-volume catheter in response to incremental I.V. doses of adrenaline, dobutamine, phenylephrine, metoprolol, papaverine and isoflurane inhalation. In conditions with large variations (± 100%) of both inotropy and afterload, infusion of negative inotropic drugs was associated with a dose-dependent rightward shift of ESPVR accompanied by a decrease in its slope (end-systolic elastance, E(es)), whereas positive inotropic agents produced an isolated decrease in V(0). With the predominant vasoactive drugs, there was a dose-dependent change in E(es) without major horizontal shifts, demonstrating that this slope mainly represents LV afterload rather than inotropy. When contractility was altered, V(0) was negatively correlated to the preload-adjusted contractility index, PAdP/dt(max), demonstrating that a reduced V(0) provides a good reflection of increased LV contractility. From these results, we computed a logarithmically adjusted E(es)/V(0) ratio, which resulted in reasonably strong concordance with PAdP/dt(max), including all the investigated drugs and dosages [n = 288; bias, 0.8 ± 16.2% (SD)]. Concordance with E(es) (bias, 7.2 ± 58.7%) or V(0) (bias, -0.6 ± 33.4%), used alone or with other commonly used contractility indices, was far less significant. In contrast to E(es), V(0) provides a relatively good LV contractility index because it is much less sensitive to afterload.

  3. Left ventricular outflow tract mean systolic acceleration as a surrogate for the slope of the left ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Fabrice; Jones, Michael; Shiota, Takahiro; Firstenberg, Michael S.; Qin, Jian Xin; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Kim, Yong Jin; Sitges, Marta; Cardon, Lisa A.; Zetts, Arthur D.; hide

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to analyze left ventricular outflow tract systolic acceleration (LVOT(Acc)) during alterations in left ventricular (LV) contractility and LV filling. BACKGROUND: Most indexes described to quantify LV systolic function, such as LV ejection fraction and cardiac output, are dependent on loading conditions. METHODS: In 18 sheep (4 normal, 6 with aortic regurgitation, and 8 with old myocardial infarction), blood flow velocities through the LVOT were recorded using conventional pulsed Doppler. The LVOT(Acc) was calculated as the aortic peak velocity divided by the time to peak flow; LVOT(Acc) was compared with LV maximal elastance (E(m)) acquired by conductance catheter under different loading conditions, including volume and pressure overload during an acute coronary occlusion (n = 10). In addition, a clinically validated lumped-parameter numerical model of the cardiovascular system was used to support our findings. RESULTS: Left ventricular E(m) and LVOT(Acc) decreased during ischemia (1.67 +/- 0.67 mm Hg.ml(-1) before vs. 0.93 +/- 0.41 mm Hg.ml(-1) during acute coronary occlusion [p < 0.05] and 7.9 +/- 3.1 m.s(-2) before vs. 4.4 +/- 1.0 m.s(-2) during coronary occlusion [p < 0.05], respectively). Left ventricular outflow tract systolic acceleration showed a strong linear correlation with LV E(m) (y = 3.84x + 1.87, r = 0.85, p < 0.001). Similar findings were obtained with the numerical modeling, which demonstrated a strong correlation between predicted and actual LV E(m) (predicted = 0.98 [actual] -0.01, r = 0.86). By analysis of variance, there was no statistically significant difference in LVOT(Acc) under different loading conditions. CONCLUSIONS: For a variety of hemodynamic conditions, LVOT(Acc) was linearly related to the LV contractility index LV E(m) and was independent of loading conditions. These findings were consistent with numerical modeling. Thus, this Doppler index may serve as a good noninvasive index of LV

  4. On pressure: volume relations in hemodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H.Y. Ie (Eric)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractChapter 1 is a brief introduction to several aspects of cardiovascular pressure-volume relations in dialysis patients. The aims of the thesis are presented. In Chapter 2, an overview is presented of circulatory physiology in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Volume withdrawal by

  5. Effects of critical coronary stenosis on global systolic left ventricular function quantified by pressure-volume relations during dobutamine stress in the canine heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steendijk, P.; Baan, J.; van der Velde, E. T.

    1998-01-01

    In this study we quantified the effects of a critical coronary stenosis on global systolic function using pressure-volume relations at baseline and during incremental dobutamine stress. The effects of coronary stenosis have previously been analyzed mainly in terms of regional (dys)function. Global

  6. Automatic detection of end-diastolic and end-systolic frames in 2D echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolgharni, Massoud; Negoita, Madalina; Dhutia, Niti M; Mielewczik, Michael; Manoharan, Karikaran; Sohaib, S M Afzal; Finegold, Judith A; Sacchi, Stefania; Cole, Graham D; Francis, Darrel P

    2017-07-01

    Correctly selecting the end-diastolic and end-systolic frames on a 2D echocardiogram is important and challenging, for both human experts and automated algorithms. Manual selection is time-consuming and subject to uncertainty, and may affect the results obtained, especially for advanced measurements such as myocardial strain. We developed and evaluated algorithms which can automatically extract global and regional cardiac velocity, and identify end-diastolic and end-systolic frames. We acquired apical four-chamber 2D echocardiographic video recordings, each at least 10 heartbeats long, acquired twice at frame rates of 52 and 79 frames/s from 19 patients, yielding 38 recordings. Five experienced echocardiographers independently marked end-systolic and end-diastolic frames for the first 10 heartbeats of each recording. The automated algorithm also did this. Using the average of time points identified by five human operators as the reference gold standard, the individual operators had a root mean square difference from that gold standard of 46.5 ms. The algorithm had a root mean square difference from the human gold standard of 40.5 ms (Paverage human operator was an outlier in 254/564 heartbeats (45%). An automated algorithm can identify the end-systolic and end-diastolic frames with performance indistinguishable from that of human experts. This saves staff time, which could therefore be invested in assessing more beats, and reduces uncertainty about the reliability of the choice of frame. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Free volume of an epoxy resin and its relation to structural relaxation: evidence from positron lifetime and pressure-volume-temperature experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlubek, Günter; Hassan, E M; Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard; Pionteck, Jürgen

    2006-03-01

    The microstructure of the free volume and its temperature dependence in the epoxy resin diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) have been examined using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS, 80-350K, 10(-5) Pa) and pressure-volume-temperature (PVT, 293-470 K, 0.1-200MPa) experiments. Employing the Simha-Somcynsky lattice-hole theory (S-S eos), the excess (hole) free volume fraction h and the specific free and occupied volumes, Vf=hV and Vocc=(1-h)V, were estimated. From the PALS spectra analyzed with the new routine LT9.0 the hole size distribution, its mean, , and mean dispersion, sigma h, were calculated. varies from 35 130 A3. From a comparison of with V and Vf, the specific hole number N'h was estimated to be independent of the temperature [Nh(300 K)=N'h/V=0.65 nm-3]. From comparison with reported dielectric and viscosity measurements, we found that the structural relaxation slows down faster than the shrinkage of the hole free volume Vf would predict on the basis of the free volume theory. Our results indicate that the structural relaxation in DGEBA operates via the free-volume mechanism only when liquidlike clusters of cells of the S-S lattice appear which contain a local free volume of approximately 1.5 or more empty S-S cells. The same conclusion follows from the pressure dependency of the structural relaxation and Vf. It is shown that PALS mirrors thermal volume fluctuations on a subnanometer scale via the dispersion in the ortho-positronium lifetimes. Using a fluctuation approach, the temperature dependency of the characteristic length of dynamic heterogeneity, xi, is estimated to vary from xi=1.9 nm at Tg to 1.0 nm at T/Tg>1.2. A model was proposed which relates the spatial structure of the free volume as concluded from PALS to the known mobility pattern of the dynamic glass transition at low (cooperative alpha-relaxation) and high (alpha-relaxation) temperatures. We discuss possible reasons for the differences between the results of our

  8. Right Heart End-Systolic Remodeling Index Strongly Predicts Outcomes in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Comparison With Validated Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsallem, Myriam; Sweatt, Andrew J; Aymami, Marie C; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Selej, Mona; Lu, HongQuan; Mercier, Olaf; Fadel, Elie; Schnittger, Ingela; McConnell, Michael V; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Zamanian, Roham T; Haddad, Francois

    2017-06-01

    Right ventricular (RV) end-systolic dimensions provide information on both size and function. We investigated whether an internally scaled index of end-systolic dimension is incremental to well-validated prognostic scores in pulmonary arterial hypertension. From 2005 to 2014, 228 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension were prospectively enrolled. RV end-systolic remodeling index (RVESRI) was defined by lateral length divided by septal height. The incremental values of RV free wall longitudinal strain and RVESRI to risk scores were determined. Mean age was 49±14 years, 78% were female, 33% had connective tissue disease, 52% were in New York Heart Association class ≥III, and mean pulmonary vascular resistance was 11.2±6.4 WU. RVESRI and right atrial area were strongly connected to the other right heart metrics. Three zones of adaptation (adapted, maladapted, and severely maladapted) were identified based on the RVESRI to RV systolic pressure relationship. During a mean follow-up of 3.9±2.4 years, the primary end point of death, transplant, or admission for heart failure was reached in 88 patients. RVESRI was incremental to risk prediction scores in pulmonary arterial hypertension, including the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term PAH Disease Management score, the Pulmonary Hypertension Connection equation, and the Mayo Clinic model. Using multivariable analysis, New York Heart Association class III/IV, RVESRI, and log NT-proBNP (N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide) were retained (χ 2 , 62.2; P right heart metrics, RVESRI demonstrated the best test-retest characteristics. RVESRI is a simple reproducible prognostic marker in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Free volume from positron lifetime and pressure-volume-temperature experiments in relation to structural relaxation of van der Waals molecular glass-forming liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlubek, G; Shaikh, M Q; Rätzke, K; Paluch, M; Faupel, F

    2010-06-16

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is employed to characterize the temperature dependence of the free volume in two van der Waals liquids: 1, 1'-bis(p-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexane (BMPC) and 1, 1'-di(4-methoxy-5-methylphenyl)cyclohexane (BMMPC). From the PALS spectra analysed with the routine LifeTime9.0, the size (volume) distribution of local free volumes (subnanometer size holes), its mean, [v(h)], and mean dispersion, σ(h), were calculated. A comparison with the macroscopic volume from pressure-volume-temperature (PV T) experiments delivered the hole density and the specific hole free volume and a complete characterization of the free volume microstructure in that sense. These data are used in correlation with structural (α) relaxation data from broad-band dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) in terms of the Cohen-Grest and Cohen-Turnbull free volume models. An extension of the latter model allows us to quantify deviations between experiments and theory and an attempt to systematize these in terms of T(g) or of the fragility. The experimental data for several fragile and less fragile glass formers are involved in the final discussion. It was concluded that, for large differences in the fragility of different glass formers, the positron lifetime mirrors clearly the different character of these materials. For small differences in the fragility, additional properties like the character of bonds and chemical structure of the material may affect size, distribution and thermal behaviour of the free volume.

  10. Simpson's method of discs in Salukis and Whippets: Echocardiographic reference intervals for end-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckerdieck, M; Holler, P; Smets, P; Wess, G

    2015-12-01

    Sighthound breeds are known to have different cardiac sizes and dimensions from other breeds; therefore, breed-specific references are required to avoid misinterpretation of echocardiographic findings. End-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) reference intervals derived from Simpson's method of discs (SMOD) do not exist for Salukis or Whippets. To establish EDV and ESV reference intervals for SMOD in Salukis and Whippets. 110 Salukis and 119 Whippets. Reference intervals for SMOD with and without normalization to body surface area (BSA) were established using the right parasternal and left apical views in 93 healthy Salukis and 82 healthy Whippets. Volumes were compared between both echocardiographic views, genders, and racing and show pedigree dogs. The 90% reference intervals were calculated using the robust method. Agreement between right-sided and left-sided echocardiographic views was good. Reference intervals indexed to body surface area (BSA) for Whippets were 59-109 mL/m² for end-diastolic volume index and 18-53 mL/m² for end-systolic volume index. Corresponding values for Salukis were 68-126 mL/m² for end-diastolic volume index and 27-64 mL/m² for end-systolic volume index. There were no indexed volume differences between male and female or racing and show pedigree dogs in both breeds. The non-normalized volumes significantly differed between genders. Whippets and Salukis had larger systolic and diastolic left ventricular volumes compared with other breeds. This study provided echocardiographic reference intervals for SMOD-derived left ventricular volumes for these athletic breeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Simpson's method of discs for measurement of echocardiographic end-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular volumes: breed-specific reference ranges in Boxer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, P; Daminet, S; Wess, G

    2014-01-01

    Boxer dogs are predisposed to congenital and adult onset cardiac diseases. Breed-specific reference values for M-mode and Doppler echocardiographic measurements previously have been established. Left ventricular (LV) end-systolic (ESV) and end-diastolic volumes (EDV) can be measured by M-mode or two-dimensional methods, such as Simpson's method of discs (SMOD). Reference ranges for SMOD-derived LV volumes are lacking. To determine reference intervals for EDV and ESV in Boxer dogs. Previously collected data from 85 healthy Boxers (37 males and 48 females) were used for analysis. Simpson's method of discs-derived EDV and ESV were measured using offline analysis by 1 observer, in both the right parasternal and the left apical views. Measurements were compared between both views and between male and female dogs using a t-test. Reference intervals were established using the mean + 2 × SD. Measurements obtained from both views showed good agreement, and mean EDVI and ESVI, indexed to body surface area (BSA), were calculated. Reference intervals were 49-93 mL/m² for EDVI, and 22-50 mL/m² for ESVI. EDV and ESV were significantly higher in males compared with females, when indexing to BSA, but not when indexing to body weight. The upper limit for ESVI exceeds the previously suggested cut-off of 30 mL/m² for detection of systolic dysfunction. The reference intervals generated in this study should be useful clinically in the assessment of LV size and function in Boxer dogs. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. Distribution of normal human left ventricular myofiber stress at end diastole and end systole: a target for in silico design of heart failure treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Martin; Lee, Lik Chuan; Nguyen, Rebecca; Haraldsson, Henrik; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Zhang, Zhihong; Ge, Liang; Ordovas, Karen; Kozerke, Sebastian; Guccione, Julius M

    2014-07-15

    Ventricular wall stress is believed to be responsible for many physical mechanisms taking place in the human heart, including ventricular remodeling, which is frequently associated with heart failure. Therefore, normalization of ventricular wall stress is the cornerstone of many existing and new treatments for heart failure. In this paper, we sought to construct reference maps of normal ventricular wall stress in humans that could be used as a target for in silico optimization studies of existing and potential new treatments for heart failure. To do so, we constructed personalized computational models of the left ventricles of five normal human subjects using magnetic resonance images and the finite-element method. These models were calibrated using left ventricular volume data extracted from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and validated through comparison with strain measurements from tagged MRI (950 ± 170 strain comparisons/subject). The calibrated passive material parameter values were C0 = 0.115 ± 0.008 kPa and B0 = 14.4 ± 3.18; the active material parameter value was Tmax = 143 ± 11.1 kPa. These values could serve as a reference for future construction of normal human left ventricular computational models. The differences between the predicted and the measured circumferential and longitudinal strains in each subject were 3.4 ± 6.3 and 0.5 ± 5.9%, respectively. The predicted end-diastolic and end-systolic myofiber stress fields for the five subjects were 2.21 ± 0.58 and 16.54 ± 4.73 kPa, respectively. Thus these stresses could serve as targets for in silico design of heart failure treatments. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Load dependency in force-length relations in isolated single cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribe, Gentaro; Kaneko, Toshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Naruse, Keiji

    2014-08-01

    The previously reported pressure-volume (PV) relationship in frog hearts shows that end-systolic PV relation (ESPVR) is load dependent, whereas ESPVR in canine hearts is load independent. To study intrinsic cardiac mechanics in detail, it is desirable to study mechanics in a single isolated cardiomyocyte that is free from interstitial connective tissue. Previous single cell mechanics studies used a pair of carbon fibers (CF) attached to the upper surface of opposite cell ends to stretch cells. These studies showed that end-systolic force-length (FL) relation (ESFLR) is load independent. However, the range of applicable mechanical load using the conventional technique is limited because of weak cell-CF attachment. Therefore, the behavior of ESFLR in single cells under physiologically possible conditions of greater load is not yet well known. To cover wider loading range, we contrived a new method to hold cell-ends more firmly using two pairs of CF attached to both upper and bottom surfaces of cells. The new method allowed stretching cells to 2.2 μm or more in end-diastolic sarcomere length. ESFLR virtually behaves in a load independent manner only with end-diastolic sarcomere length less than 1.95 μm. It exhibited clear load dependency with higher preload, especially with low afterload conditions. Instantaneous cellular elastance curves showed that decreasing afterload enhanced relaxation and slowed time to peak elastance, as previously reported. A simulation study of a mathematical model with detailed description of thin filament activation suggested that velocity dependent thin filament inactivation is crucial for the observed load dependent behaviors and previously reported afterload dependent change in Ca(2+) transient shape. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recommended reference materials for realization of physicochemical properties pressure-volume-temperature relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Herington, E F G

    1977-01-01

    Recommended Reference Materials for Realization of Physicochemical Properties presents recommendations of reference materials for use in measurements involving physicochemical properties, namely, vapor pressure; liquid-vapor critical temperature and critical pressure; orthobaric volumes of liquid and vapor; pressure-volume-temperature properties of the unsaturated vapor or gas; and pressure-volume-temperature properties of the compressed liquid. This monograph focuses on reference materials for vapor pressures at temperatures up to 770 K, as well as critical temperatures and critical pressures

  15. Entropy Production and the Pressure-Volume Curve of the Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Lucas Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate analytically the production of entropy during a breathing cycle in healthy and diseased lungs. First, we calculate entropy production in healthy lungs by applying the laws of thermodynamics to the well-known transpulmonary pressure-volume (P-V curves of the lung under the assumption that lung tissue behaves as an entropy spring-like rubber. The bulk modulus, $B$, of the lung is also derived from these calculations. Second, we extend this approach to elastic recoil disorders of the lung such as occur in pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. These diseases are characterized by particular alterations in the P-V relationship. For example, in fibrotic lungs B increases monotonically with disease progression, while in emphysema the opposite occurs. These diseases can thus be mimicked simply by making appropriate adjustments to the parameters of the P-V curve. Using Clausius's formalism, we show that entropy production, Delta_S, is related to the hysteresis area, Delta_A, enclosed by the P-V curve during a breathing cycle, namely, Delta_S = Delta_A/T, where T is the body temperature. Although Delta_A is highly dependent on the disease, such formula applies to healthy as well as diseased lungs, regardless of the disease stage. Finally, we use ansatzs to predict analytically the entropy produced by the fibrotic and emphysematous lungs.

  16. Non-pharmacological heart failure therapies : evaluation by ventricular pressure-volume loops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulner, Sven Arjen Friso

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, we evaluated the acute and chronic hemodynamic effects of non-pharmacological heart failure therapies. In particular, the effects of surgical treatment and biventricular pacing therapy were investigated by left ventricular pressure-volume loop analyses. We demonstrated that

  17. Teaching Archimedes' Principle to Sixth Graders without Teaching Mass, Density, Pressure, Volume or Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Neeraja

    2017-01-01

    Flotation is usually taught in Indian schools after students have been introduced to the concepts of mass, density, pressure, volume and buoyancy. This paper describes an attempt to teach the principle of flotation to a class of sixth graders--who had not yet been taught these concepts--so they could understand (and perhaps, arrive at) Archimedes'…

  18. Analysis of respiratory pressure-volume curves in intensive care medicine using inductive machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzert, Steven; Guttmann, Josef; Kersting, Kristian; Kuhlen, Ralf; Putensen, Christian; Sydow, Michael; Kramer, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    We present a case study of machine learning and data mining in intensive care medicine. In the study, we compared different methods of measuring pressure-volume curves in artificially ventilated patients suffering from the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Our aim was to show that inductive machine learning can be used to gain insights into differences and similarities among these methods. We defined two tasks: the first one was to recognize the measurement method producing a given pressure-volume curve. This was defined as the task of classifying pressure-volume curves (the classes being the measurement methods). The second was to model the curves themselves, that is, to predict the volume given the pressure, the measurement method and the patient data. Clearly, this can be defined as a regression task. For these two tasks, we applied C5.0 and CUBIST, two inductive machine learning tools, respectively. Apart from medical findings regarding the characteristics of the measurement methods, we found some evidence showing the value of an abstract representation for classifying curves: normalization and high-level descriptors from curve fitting played a crucial role in obtaining reasonably accurate models. Another useful feature of algorithms for inductive machine learning is the possibility of incorporating background knowledge. In our study, the incorporation of patient data helped to improve regression results dramatically, which might open the door for the individual respiratory treatment of patients in the future.

  19. Use of an iPad App to simulate pressure-volume loops and cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisman, Staci; Burkhoff, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this laboratory exercise is to model the changes in preload, afterload, and contractility on a simulated pressure-volume loop and to correlate those findings with common measurements of clinical cardiovascular physiology. Once students have modeled these changes on a healthy heart, the students are asked to look at a simulated case of cardiogenic shock. Effects on preload, contractility, and afterload are explored, as well as the hemodynamic effects of a number of student-suggested treatment strategies. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. [The evaluation of the end-ejection pressure-length relation as an index of regional contractility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlini, S; Meyer, T E; Bernardi, L; Soldà, P L; Calciati, A; Finardi, G; Foëx, P

    1992-08-01

    Although end-systolic pressure-length relationship (ESPLR) is now widely used as a regional substitute for the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship, there are some reservations about its use as an index of systolic performance. This study aimed at assessing whether by using end-ejection (zero aortic flow) as a definition of end-systole, ESPLR can be used to characterize myocardial performance independent of load, and if the choice of the region where to implant the sonomicrometers is critical. Ten anaesthetized dogs (16 +/- 2 kg) were instrumented with a left ventricular (LV) pressure micromanometer and an aortic flow probe. Sonomicrometers were implanted in the apical (L1) and the mid-ventricular (L2) regions of the anterior LV wall, and in the basal region of the lateral wall (L3). End-systolic pressure-length relationships were obtained during acute preload reduction induced by the inflation of a vena caval balloon. This evaluation was repeated after increasing end-diastolic pressure to 14-18 mmHg (delta PL), after increasing systolic pressure by 15 (delta P-I) and 25 mmHg (delta P-II) with graded descending aorta occlusion, and during dobutamine infusions at 2.5 (Db 2.5) and 5 micrograms/kg/min (Db5). End-systolic pressure-length relationships (r > 0.97; pressure range: 70-100 mmHg) were characterized by their slopes (Ees), the extrapolated intercept at zero pressure (L0) and the values of segment length at a pressure of 75 (L75) and 100 mmHg (L100). In all the myocardial regions studied by sonomicrometry, the increments in preload and afterload did not significantly shift ESPLR.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. The deflation limb of the pressure-volume relationship in infants during high-frequency ventilation.

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    Tingay, David G; Mills, John F; Morley, Colin J; Pellicano, Anastasia; Dargaville, Peter A

    2006-02-15

    The importance of applying high-frequency oscillatory ventilation with a high lung volume strategy in infants is well established. Currently, a lack of reliable methods for assessing lung volume limits clinicians' ability to achieve the optimum volume range. To map the pressure-volume relationship of the lung during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in infants, to determine at what point ventilation is being applied clinically, and to describe the relationship between airway pressure, lung volume, and oxygenation. In 12 infants, a partial inflation limb and the deflation limb of the pressure-volume relationship were mapped using a quasi-static lung volume optimization maneuver. This involved stepwise airway pressure increments to total lung capacity, followed by decrements until the closing pressure of the lung was identified. Lung volume and oxygen saturation were recorded at each airway pressure. Lung volume was measured using respiratory inductive plethysmography. A distinct deflation limb could be mapped in each infant. Overall, oxygenation and lung volume were improved by applying ventilation on the deflation limb. Maximal lung volume and oxygenation occurred on the deflation limb at a mean airway pressure of 3 and 5 cm H(2)O below the airway pressure approximating total lung capacity, respectively. Using current ventilation strategies, all infants were being ventilated near the inflation limb. It is possible to delineate the deflation limb in infants receiving high-frequency oscillatory ventilation; in doing so, greater lung volume and oxygenation can be achieved, often at lower airway pressures.

  2. A sigmoidal fit for pressure-volume curves of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients on mechanical ventilation: clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana C. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Respiratory pressure-volume curves fitted to exponential equations have been used to assess disease severity and prognosis in spontaneously breathing patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Sigmoidal equations have been used to fit pressure-volume curves for mechanically ventilated patients but not for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients. We compared a sigmoidal model and an exponential model to fit pressure-volume curves from mechanically ventilated patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: Six idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients and five controls underwent inflation pressure-volume curves using the constant-flow technique during general anesthesia prior to open lung biopsy or thymectomy. We identified the lower and upper inflection points and fit the curves with an exponential equation, V = A-B.e-k.P, and a sigmoid equation, V = a+b/(1+e-(P-c/d. RESULTS: The mean lower inflection point for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients was significantly higher (10.5 ± 5.7 cm H2O than that of controls (3.6 ± 2.4 cm H2O. The sigmoidal equation fit the pressure-volume curves of the fibrotic and control patients well, but the exponential equation fit the data well only when points below 50% of the inspiratory capacity were excluded. CONCLUSION: The elevated lower inflection point and the sigmoidal shape of the pressure-volume curves suggest that respiratory system compliance is decreased close to end-expiratory lung volume in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients under general anesthesia and mechanical ventilation. The sigmoidal fit was superior to the exponential fit for inflation pressure-volume curves of anesthetized patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and could be useful for guiding mechanical ventilation during general anesthesia in this condition.

  3. A Simple Mercury-Free Laboratory Apparatus to Study the Relationship between Pressure, Volume, and Temperature in a Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Donna; Sweeney, William V.; Mills, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive mercury-free apparatus to measure the change in volume of a gas as a function of pressure at different temperatures is described. The apparatus is simpler than many found in the literature and can be used to study variations in pressure, volume, and temperature. (Contains 1 table and 7 figures.)

  4. Regional respiratory inflation and deflation pressure-volume curves determined by electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, I; Dargaville, P A; Rimensberger, P C

    2013-06-01

    Measurement of regional lung volume changes during a quasi-static pressure-volume (PV) manoeuvre using electrical impedance tomography (EIT) could be used to assess regional respiratory system mechanics and to determine optimal ventilator settings in individual patients. Using this approach, we studied regional respiratory system mechanics in healthy and lung-injured animals, before and after surfactant administration during inflation and deflation PV manoeuvres. The comparison of the EIT-derived regional PV curves in ventral, middle and dorsal regions of the right and left lungs showed not only different amounts of hysteresis in these regions but also marked differences among different landmark pressures calculated on the inflation and deflation limbs of the curves. Regional pressures at maximum compliance as well as the lower and upper pressures of maximum compliance change differed between the inflation and deflation and increased from ventral to dorsal regions in all lung conditions. All these pressure values increased in the injured and decreased in the surfactant treated lungs. Examination of regional respiratory system mechanics using EIT enables the assessment of spatial and temporal heterogeneities in the ventilation distribution. Characteristic landmarks on the inflation and especially on the deflation limb of regional PV curves may become useful measures for guiding mechanical ventilation.

  5. Pressure-volume-temperature gauging method experiment using liquid nitrogen under microgravity condition of parabolic flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Man Su; Park, Hana; Yoo, Don Gyu; Jeong, Sang Kwon [Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young Suk [Launcher Systems Development Team, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Measuring an exact amount of remaining cryogenic liquid propellant under microgravity condition is one of the important issues of rocket vehicle. A Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) gauging method is attractive due to its minimal additional hardware and simple gauging process. In this paper, PVT gauging method using liquid nitrogen is investigated under microgravity condition with parabolic flight. A 9.2 litre metal cryogenic liquid storage tank containing approximately 30% of liquid nitrogen is pressurized by ambient temperature helium gas. During microgravity condition, the inside of the liquid tank becomes near-isothermal condition within 1 K difference indicated by 6 silicon diode sensors vertically distributed in the middle of the liquid tank. Helium injection with higher mass flow rate after 10 seconds of the waiting time results in successful measurements of helium partial pressure in the tank. Average liquid volume measurement error is within 11% of the whole liquid tank volume and standard deviation of errors is 11.9. As a result, the applicability of PVT gauging method to liquid.

  6. The pressure/volume relationship during dobutamine stress echocardiography in transplanted heart: comparison with quality of life and coronary anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minardi Giovanni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV is a major late complication in cardiac transplant recipients and has a relevant impact on outcome of these patients. Aims of this study: to compare, in cardiac transplant recipients patients, the diagnostic value of pressure/volume relationship (ESPVR during dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE for coronary artery disease, assessed by Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT, and by coronary angiography (CA. We also analyzed any possible relationship between ESPVR and the Health Related Quality of Life of the patients (HRQoL, evaluated by SF–36 questionnaire. Methods 25 consecutive patients underwent DSE within 24 hours after MSCT coronary angiogram and then they underwent CA. The HRQoL questionnaire was administered to the patients in the settings of DSE. They were followed-up for 6 months. Results DSE has a sensitivity in detecting CAV of 67%, specificity of 95%, positive predictive value of 67% and negative predictive value of 95%; DSE with ESPVR has a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 95%, positive predictive value of 75%, negative predictive value of 100%; MSCT has a sensitivity of 100%; specificity of 82%; positive predictive value of 43%; negative predictive value of 100%. Htx recipients with a flat-biphasic ESPVR, although asymptomatic, perceived a worst HRQoL compared with the up-sloping ESPVR population, and this is statistically significant for the general health (p 0.0004, the vitality (p 0.0013 and the mental health (p 0.021 SF-36 subscale. Conclusions Evaluation with DSE and ESPVR is accurate in the clinical control of heart transplant recipients reserving invasive evaluation only for patients with abnormal contractility indexes.

  7. Experimental Investigation of Pressure-volume-Temperature Mass Gauging Method Under Microgravity Condition by Parabolic Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Mansu; Park, Hana; Yoo, DonGyu; Jung, Youngsuk; Jeong, Sangkwon

    Gauging the volume or mass of liquid propellant of a rocket vehicle in space is an important issue for its economic feasibility and optimized design of loading mass. Pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) gauging method is one of the most suitable measuring techniques in space due to its simplicity and reliability. This paper presents unique experimental results and analyses of PVT gauging method using liquid nitrogen under microgravity condition by parabolic flight. A vacuum-insulated and cylindrical-shaped liquid nitrogen storage tank with 9.2 L volume is manufactured by observing regulation of parabolic flight. PVT gauging experiments are conducted under low liquid fraction condition from 26% to 32%. Pressure, temperature, and the injected helium mass into the storage tank are measured to obtain the ullage volume by gas state equation. Liquid volume is finally derived by the measured ullage volume and the known total tank volume. Two sets of parabolic flights are conducted and each set is composed of approximately 10 parabolic flights. In the first set of flights, the short initial waiting time (3 ∼ 5 seconds) cannot achieve sufficient thermal equilibrium condition at the beginning. It causes inaccurate gauging results due to insufficient information of the initial helium partial pressure in the tank. The helium injection after 12 second waiting time at microgravity condition with high mass flow rate in the second set of flights achieves successful initial thermal equilibrium states and accurate measurement results of initial helium partial pressure. Liquid volume measurement errors in the second set are within 11%.

  8. AV interval optimization using pressure volume loops in dual chamber pacemaker patients with maintained systolic left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Frank; Hanke, Thorsten; Fitschen, Joern; Heringlake, Matthias; Bode, Frank; Schunkert, Heribert; Wiegand, Uwe K H

    2012-08-01

    Atrioventricular (AV) interval optimization is often deemed too time-consuming in dual-chamber pacemaker patients with maintained LV function. Thus the majority of patients are left at their default AV interval. To quantify the magnitude of hemodynamic improvement following AV interval optimization in chronically paced dual chamber pacemaker patients. A pressure volume catheter was placed in the left ventricle of 19 patients with chronic dual chamber pacing and an ejection fraction >45 % undergoing elective coronary angiography. AV interval was varied in 10 ms steps from 80 to 300 ms, and pressure volume loops were recorded during breath hold. The average optimal AV interval was 152 ± 39 ms compared to 155 ± 8 ms for the average default AV interval (range 100-240 ms). The average improvement in stroke work following AV interval optimization was 935 ± 760 mmHg/ml (range 0-2,908; p AV interval changes the average stroke work by 207 ± 162 mmHg/ml. AV interval optimization also leads to improved systolic dyssynchrony indices (17.7 ± 7.0 vs. 19.4 ± 7.1 %; p = 0.01). The overall hemodynamic effect of AV interval optimization in patients with maintained LV function is in the same range as for patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy for several parameters. The positive effect of AV interval optimization also applies to patients who have been chronically paced for years.

  9. The correlation between pulsatile intracranial pressure and indices of intracranial pressure-volume reserve capacity: results from ventricular infusion testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Per Kristian

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to examine how pulsatile and static intracranial pressure (ICP) scores correlate with indices of intracranial pressure-volume reserve capacity, i.e., intracranial elastance (ICE) and intracranial compliance (ICC), as determined during ventricular infusion testing. METHODS All patients undergoing ventricular infusion testing and overnight ICP monitoring during the 6-year period from 2007 to 2012 were included in the study. Clinical data were retrieved from a quality registry, and the ventricular infusion pressure data and ICP scores were retrieved from a pressure database. The ICE and ICC (= 1/ICE) were computed during the infusion phase of the infusion test. RESULTS During the period from 2007 to 2012, 82 patients with possible treatment-dependent hydrocephalus underwent ventricular infusion testing within the department of neurosurgery. The infusion tests revealed a highly significant positive correlation between ICE and the pulsatile ICP scores mean wave amplitude (MWA) and rise-time coefficient (RTC), and the static ICP score mean ICP. The ICE was negatively associated with linear measures of ventricular size. The overnight ICP recordings revealed significantly increased MWA (> 4 mm Hg) and RTC (> 20 mm Hg/sec) values in patients with impaired ICC ( 4 mm Hg, RTC > 20 mm Hg/sec), but not increased mean ICP (pressure-volume reserve capacity, i.e., ICE and ICC.

  10. Study of pressure-volume relationships and higher derivatives of bulk modulus based on generalized equations of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwah, S.S.; Shrivastava, H.C.; Singh, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    We have generalized the pressure-volume (P-V) relationships using simple polynomial and logarithmic expansions so as to make them consistent with the infinite pressure extrapolation according to the model of Stacey. The formulations are used to evaluate P-V relationships and pressure derivatives of bulk modulus upto third order (K', K'' and K''') for the earth core material taking input parameters based on the seismological data. The results based on the equations of state (EOS) generalized in the present study are found to yield good agreement with the Stacey EOS. The generalized logarithmic EOS due to Poirier and Tarantola deviates substantially from the seismic values for P, K and K'. The generalized Rydberg EOS gives almost identical results with the Birch-Murnaghan third-order EOS. Both of them yield deviations from the seismic data, which are in opposite direction as compared to those found from the generalized Poirier-Tarantola logarithmic EOS

  11. Monte Carlo calculations of the elastic moduli and pressure-volume-temperature equation of state for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewell, Thomas D.; Bennett, Carl M.

    2000-01-01

    Isothermal-isobaric Monte Carlo calculations were used to obtain predictions of the elastic coefficients and derived engineering moduli and Poisson ratios for crystalline hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The elastic coefficients were computed using the strain fluctuation formula due to Rahman and Parrinello [J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2662 (1982)]. Calculations were performed as a function of temperature (218 K≤T≤333 K) and hydrostatic pressure (0 GPa≤p≤4 GPa). The predicted values of the moduli and Poisson ratios under ambient conditions are in accord with general expectations for molecular crystals and with a very recent, unpublished determination for RDX. The moduli exhibit a sensitive pressure dependence whereas the Poisson ratios are relatively independent of pressure. The temperature dependence of the moduli is comparable to the precision of the results. However, the crystal does exhibit thermal softening for most pressures. An additional product of the calculations is information about the pressure-volume-temperature (pVT) equation of state. We obtain near-quantitative agreement with experiment for the case of hydrostatic compression and reasonable, but not quantitative, correspondence for thermal expansion. The results indicate a significant dependence of the thermal expansion coefficients on hydrostatic pressure. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  12. Respiratory system model for quasistatic pulmonary pressure-volume (P-V) curve: inflation-deflation loop analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, R; Narusawa, U

    2008-06-01

    A respiratory system model (RSM) is developed for the deflation process of a quasistatic pressure-volume (P-V) curve, following the model for the inflation process reported earlier. In the RSM of both the inflation and the deflation limb, a respiratory system consists of a large population of basic alveolar elements, each consisting of a piston-spring-cylinder subsystem. A normal distribution of the basic elements is derived from Boltzmann statistical model with the alveolar closing (opening) pressure as the distribution parameter for the deflation (inflation) process. An error minimization by the method of least squares applied to existing P-V loop data from two different data sources confirms that a simultaneous inflation-deflation analysis is required for an accurate determination of RSM parameters. Commonly used terms such as lower inflection point, upper inflection point, and compliance are examined based on the P-V equations, on the distribution function, as well as on the geometric and physical properties of the basic alveolar element.

  13. [A comparative study between inflation and deflation pressure-volume curve in determining the optimal positive end-expiratory pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Li; Sun, Xiao-yi; Xu, Jin-quan; Zhang, Xin-li; Kou, Lu-xin; Jiang, Zhi-hong; Zhang, Lei

    2012-02-01

    To determine the optimal positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) according to inflation and deflation pressure-volume curve (P-V curve) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ARDS models were reproduced in 20 dogs, and they were randomly divided into two groups. In both groups, Levenberg-Marquardt iterative algorithm was employed using software to explore parameters fitting with Boltzmann formula, by which the real inflection point of pressure (Pinf d) in deflation limb or lower inflection point pressure (PLip) in inflation limb on P-V curve were defined. For the control group (inflation curve) P-V curve of PLip + 2 cm H(2)O [1 cm H(2)O = 0.098 kPa] was applied as the best PEEP value. In the experimental group (deflation curve) the Pinf d was taken as the best PEEP value. The heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), fingertip pulse oxygen saturation [SpO(2)], static lung compliance (Cst), arterial partial pressure of oxygen [PaO(2)] and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide [PaCO(2)] were monitored at 0, 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. Oxygenation index increased significantly both in control and experimental groups. In experimental group, oxygenation index (mm Hg, 1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa) of 12, 24 and 48 hours was respectively significantly higher than that of the control group (12 hours: 177.63 ± 8.94 vs. 165.60 ± 8.90, 24 hours: 194.19 ± 10.67 vs. 168.70 ± 10.60, 48 hours: 203.15 ± 13.21 vs. 171.26 ± 9.21, all P deflation P-V curve was better than that of inflation curve.

  14. Commonality Study of the Pressure-Volume-Temperature Based Propellant Gaging Software Modules for the Auxiliary Power Unit, Reaction Control System, and Orbital Maneuvering System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhon, D. D.

    1975-01-01

    Computer storage requirements can be reduced if areas of commonality exist in two or more programs placed in the same computer and identical code can be used by more than one program. The pressure-volume-temperature (P-V-T) relationship for the propellant tank pressurant agent is utilized as the basis for either a primary of a backup propellant gaging program for the auxiliary power unit (APU), the reaction control system (RCS), and the orbital maneuvering system (OMS). These three propellant gaging programs were investigated. It was revealed that a very limited degree of software commonality exits among them. An examination of this common software indicated that only the computation of the helium compressibility factor in an external function subprogram accessible to both the RCS and OMS propellant gaging programs appears to offer a savings in computer storage requirements.

  15. Myocardial twitch duration and the dependence of oxygen consumption on pressure-volume area: experiments and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J-C; Tran, K; Taberner, A J; Nickerson, D P; Kirton, R S; Nielsen, P M F; Ward, M-L; Nash, M P; Crampin, E J; Loiselle, D S

    2012-09-15

    We tested the proposition that linear length dependence of twitch duration underlies the well-characterised linear dependence of oxygen consumption (V(O(2)) ) on pressure–volume area (PVA) in the heart. By way of experimental simplification, we reduced the problem from three dimensions to one by substituting cardiac trabeculae for the classically investigated whole-heart. This allowed adoption of stress–length area (SLA) as a surrogate for PVA, and heat as a proxy for V(O(2)) . Heat and stress (force per cross-sectional area), at a range of muscle lengths and at both 1 mM and 2 mM [Ca(2+)](o), were recorded from continuously superfused rat right-ventricular trabeculae undergoing fixed-end contractions. The heat–SLA relations of trabeculae (reported here, for the first time) are linear. Twitch duration increases monotonically (but not strictly linearly) with muscle length. We probed the cellular mechanisms of this phenomenon by determining: (i) the length dependence of the duration of the Ca(2+) transient, (ii) the length dependence of the rate of force redevelopment following a length impulse (an index of Ca(2+) binding to troponin-C), (iii) the effect on the simulated time course of the twitch of progressive deletion of length and Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms of crossbridge cooperativity, using a detailed mathematical model of the crossbridge cycle, and (iv) the conditions required to achieve these multiple length dependencies, using a greatly simplified model of twitch mechano-energetics. From the results of these four independent investigations, we infer that the linearity of the heat–SLA relation (and, by analogy, the V(O(2))–PVA relation) is remarkably robust in the face of departures from linearity of length-dependent twitch duration.

  16. Validation of noninvasive indices of global systolic function in patients with normal and abnormal loading conditions: a simultaneous echocardiography pressure-volume catheterization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotti, Raquel; Bermejo, Javier; Benito, Yolanda; Sanz-Ruiz, Ricardo; Ripoll, Cristina; Martínez-Legazpi, Pablo; del Villar, Candelas Pérez; Elízaga, Jaime; González-Mansilla, Ana; Barrio, Alicia; Bañares, Rafael; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive indices based on Doppler echocardiography are increasingly used in clinical cardiovascular research to evaluate left ventricular global systolic chamber function. Our objectives were to clinically validate ultrasound-based methods of global systolic chamber function to account for differences between patients in conditions of abnormal load, and to assess their sensitivity to load confounders. Twenty-seven patients (8 dilated cardiomyopathy, 10 normal ejection fraction, and 9 end-stage liver disease) underwent simultaneous echocardiography and left heart catheterization with pressure-conductance instrumentation. The reference index, maximal elastance (Emax), was calculated from pressure-volume loop data obtained during acute inferior vena cava occlusion. A wide range of values were observed for left ventricular systolic chamber function (Emax: 2.8±1.0 mm Hg/mL), preload, and afterload. Among the noninvasive indices tested, the peak ejection intraventricular pressure difference showed the best correlation with Emax (R=0.75). A significant but weaker correlation with Emax was observed for ejection fraction (R=0.41), midwall fractional shortening (R=0.51), global circumferential strain (R=-0.53), and strain rate (R=-0.46). Longitudinal strain and strain rate failed to correlate with Emax, as did noninvasive single-beat estimations of this index. Principal component and multiple regression analyses demonstrated that peak ejection intraventricular pressure difference was less sensitive to load, whereas ejection fraction and longitudinal strain and strain rate were heavily influenced by afterload. Current ultrasound methods have limited accuracy to characterize global left ventricular systolic chamber function in a given patient. The Doppler-derived peak ejection intraventricular pressure difference should be preferred for this purpose because it best correlates with the reference index and is more robust in conditions of abnormal load.

  17. Closing the loop: modelling of heart failure progression from health to end-stage using a meta-analysis of left ventricular pressure-volume loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warriner, David R; Brown, Alistair G; Varma, Susheel; Sheridan, Paul J; Lawford, Patricia; Hose, David R; Al-Mohammad, Abdallah; Shi, Yubing

    2014-01-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA)/American College of Cardiology (ACC) guidelines for the classification of heart failure (HF) are descriptive but lack precise and objective measures which would assist in categorising such patients. Our aim was two fold, firstly to demonstrate quantitatively the progression of HF through each stage using a meta-analysis of existing left ventricular (LV) pressure-volume (PV) loop data and secondly use the LV PV loop data to create stage specific HF models. A literature search yielded 31 papers with PV data, representing over 200 patients in different stages of HF. The raw pressure and volume data were extracted from the papers using a digitising software package and the means were calculated. The data demonstrated that, as HF progressed, stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF%) decreased while LV volumes increased. A 2-element lumped parameter model was employed to model the mean loops and the error was calculated between the loops, demonstrating close fit between the loops. The only parameter that was consistently and statistically different across all the stages was the elastance (Emax). For the first time, the authors have created a visual and quantitative representation of the AHA/ACC stages of LVSD-HF, from normal to end-stage. The study demonstrates that robust, load-independent and reproducible parameters, such as elastance, can be used to categorise and model HF, complementing the existing classification. The modelled PV loops establish previously unknown physiological parameters for each AHA/ACC stage of LVSD-HF, such as LV elastance and highlight that it this parameter alone, in lumped parameter models, that determines the severity of HF. Such information will enable cardiovascular modellers with an interest in HF, to create more accurate models of the heart as it fails.

  18. Closing the loop: modelling of heart failure progression from health to end-stage using a meta-analysis of left ventricular pressure-volume loops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Warriner

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The American Heart Association (AHA/American College of Cardiology (ACC guidelines for the classification of heart failure (HF are descriptive but lack precise and objective measures which would assist in categorising such patients. Our aim was two fold, firstly to demonstrate quantitatively the progression of HF through each stage using a meta-analysis of existing left ventricular (LV pressure-volume (PV loop data and secondly use the LV PV loop data to create stage specific HF models. METHODS AND RESULTS: A literature search yielded 31 papers with PV data, representing over 200 patients in different stages of HF. The raw pressure and volume data were extracted from the papers using a digitising software package and the means were calculated. The data demonstrated that, as HF progressed, stroke volume (SV, ejection fraction (EF% decreased while LV volumes increased. A 2-element lumped parameter model was employed to model the mean loops and the error was calculated between the loops, demonstrating close fit between the loops. The only parameter that was consistently and statistically different across all the stages was the elastance (Emax. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, the authors have created a visual and quantitative representation of the AHA/ACC stages of LVSD-HF, from normal to end-stage. The study demonstrates that robust, load-independent and reproducible parameters, such as elastance, can be used to categorise and model HF, complementing the existing classification. The modelled PV loops establish previously unknown physiological parameters for each AHA/ACC stage of LVSD-HF, such as LV elastance and highlight that it this parameter alone, in lumped parameter models, that determines the severity of HF. Such information will enable cardiovascular modellers with an interest in HF, to create more accurate models of the heart as it fails.

  19. Curvas pressão-volume e expansão foliar em cultivares de algodoeiro submetidos à défcit hídrico Pressure-volume curves and leaf expansion in cotton cultivars under water deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Jamil Marur

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o comportamento de dois cultivares de algodoeiro em resposta ao déficit hídrico, utilizando-se a expansão foliar como parâmetro discriminatório, bem como a metodologia das curvas pressão-volume para comparar suas habilidades com relação ao ajustamento osmótico. Nos tratamentos estressados, os valores dos Ys em plena turgescência e em turgescência zero obtidos para 'IAC 13-1' foram 0,1 MPa menores do que os obtidos para 'IAC 20'. O ajustamento osmótico em plena turgescência foi de 0.15 e 0.03 MPa, e em turgescência zero foi de 0.18 e 0.07 MPa, respectivamente para os dois cultivares. Os menores valores obtidos para o cultivar 'IAC 13-1' parecem indicar que seus tecidos suportam o estresse por um tempo maior antes das células atingirem o estado de plasmólise. Os valores do módulo volumétrico de elasticidade aumentaram quando os dois cultivares foram submetidos ao estresse hídrico, sendo que o cultivar 'IAC 13-1' parece apresentar paredes celulares com maior elasticidade. Os valores de Ya, antes do amanhecer, em que ocorreu a paralização do crescimento da folha foram -1,04 MPa e -0,98 MPa para os cultivares 'IAC 13-1' e 'IAC 20', respectivamente, mas não detectou-se diferenças significativas entre os dois cultivares.The response of two cotton cultivars to water deficit was studied using leaf expansion and pressure-volume curves method to compare their ability in relation to osmotic adjustment. The osmotic potential at full saturation and at the turgor loss point, for 'IAC 13-1', were 0.1 MPa lower than for `IAC 20' under later stress. Osmotic adjustment at full saturation was 0.15 and 0.03 MPa, and at turgor loss point was 0.18 and 0.07 MPa for 'IAC 13-1'and 'IAC 20', respectively. The low osmotic potential values observed for 'IAC 13-1' suggests that the tissues support water deficit longer, before cells reach plasmolysis. The values for bulk modulus of elasticity were higher when both cultivars were under water

  20. Right ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction: dependence upon infarct related coronary artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Ihn Ho; Chun, Kyung A; Won, Kyu Chang; Lee, Hyung Woo; Hong, Geu Ru; Park, Jong Seon; Shin, Dong Gu; Kim, Young Jo; Shim, Bong Sub [College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    We studied to know the relation between right ventricular function and infarct-related artery after acute myocardial infarction. The right and left ventricular function after a first myocardial infarction was assessed ECG-gated blood pool single photon emission computed tomography (GBPS) algorithms (Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angels, Calif) (12 after LAD related infarction (group 1) and 15 after RCA related infarction (group 2)). The left ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume did not differ significantly between two groups( group 1 vs 2 :LVEF 50.8% vs 55.1%. LVEDV=73.2 vs 79.7 ml, LVESV=38 vs 44 ml : P>0.05), but right ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume were significantly different after anterior myocardial infarction between two groups( group 1 vs 2 : RVEF=57.3% vs 46.3%. RVEDV=56.4 vs 95.1 ml, RVESV=25.6 vs 54.6ml : P<0.05). There was evidence of right ventricular dilatation in the group with RCA related infarction. Six with inferior infarction had abnormal right ventricular ejection fractions (< 40%). The relation between right and left ventricular ejection fractions was markedly different in the two groups. In the group with RCA related infarction there was a significant linear relation between right and left ventricular ejection fraction(R=0.5). Whereas in the group with LAD related infarction there was not (R=-0.3). Thus right ventricular dysfunction commonly occurs after RCA related infarction. Right ventricular impairment is related after RCA related infarction, but are independent after LAD related infarction. Finally, the different effects of LAD and RCA related infarction on right ventricular function may be explained by site of the myocardial wall involvement after infarction.

  1. Right ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction: dependence upon infarct related coronary artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Ihn Ho; Chun, Kyung A; Won, Kyu Chang; Lee, Hyung Woo; Hong, Geu Ru; Park, Jong Seon; Shin, Dong Gu; Kim, Young Jo; Shim, Bong Sub

    2004-01-01

    We studied to know the relation between right ventricular function and infarct-related artery after acute myocardial infarction. The right and left ventricular function after a first myocardial infarction was assessed ECG-gated blood pool single photon emission computed tomography (GBPS) algorithms (Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angels, Calif) (12 after LAD related infarction (group 1) and 15 after RCA related infarction (group 2)). The left ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume did not differ significantly between two groups( group 1 vs 2 :LVEF 50.8% vs 55.1%. LVEDV=73.2 vs 79.7 ml, LVESV=38 vs 44 ml : P>0.05), but right ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume were significantly different after anterior myocardial infarction between two groups( group 1 vs 2 : RVEF=57.3% vs 46.3%. RVEDV=56.4 vs 95.1 ml, RVESV=25.6 vs 54.6ml : P<0.05). There was evidence of right ventricular dilatation in the group with RCA related infarction. Six with inferior infarction had abnormal right ventricular ejection fractions (< 40%). The relation between right and left ventricular ejection fractions was markedly different in the two groups. In the group with RCA related infarction there was a significant linear relation between right and left ventricular ejection fraction(R=0.5). Whereas in the group with LAD related infarction there was not (R=-0.3). Thus right ventricular dysfunction commonly occurs after RCA related infarction. Right ventricular impairment is related after RCA related infarction, but are independent after LAD related infarction. Finally, the different effects of LAD and RCA related infarction on right ventricular function may be explained by site of the myocardial wall involvement after infarction

  2. Comparison of the Gibbs and Suga formulations of cardiac energetics: the demise of “isoefficiency”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J.-C.; Taberner, A. J.; Tran, K.; Goo, S.; Nickerson, D. P.; Nash, M. P.; Nielsen, P. M. F.; Crampin, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    Two very different sorts of experiments have characterized the field of cardiac energetics over the past three decades. In one of these, Gibbs and colleagues measured the heat production of isolated papillary muscles undergoing isometric contractions and afterloaded isotonic contractions. The former generated roughly linear heat vs. force relationships. The latter generated enthalpy-load relationships, the peak values of which occurred at or near peak isometric force, i.e., at a relative load of unity. Contractile efficiency showed a pronounced dependence on afterload. By contrast, Suga and coworkers measured the oxygen consumption (V̇o2) while recording the pressure-volume-time work loops of blood-perfused isolated dog hearts. From the associated (linear) end-systolic pressure-volume relations they derived a quantity labeled pressure-volume area (PVA), consisting of the sum of pressure-volume work and unspent elastic energy and showed that this was linearly correlated with V̇o2 over a wide range of conditions. This linear dependence imposed isoefficiency: constant contractile efficiency independent of afterload. Neither these data nor those of Gibbs and colleagues are in dispute. Nevertheless, despite numerous attempts over the years, no demonstration of either compatibility or incompatibility of these disparate characterizations of cardiac energetics has been forthcoming. We demonstrate that compatibility between the two formulations is thwarted by the concept of isoefficiency, the thermodynamic basis of which we show to be untenable. PMID:22879535

  3. Comparison of the Gibbs and Suga formulations of cardiac energetics: the demise of "isoefficiency".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J-C; Taberner, A J; Tran, K; Goo, S; Nickerson, D P; Nash, M P; Nielsen, P M F; Crampin, E J; Loiselle, D S

    2012-10-01

    Two very different sorts of experiments have characterized the field of cardiac energetics over the past three decades. In one of these, Gibbs and colleagues measured the heat production of isolated papillary muscles undergoing isometric contractions and afterloaded isotonic contractions. The former generated roughly linear heat vs. force relationships. The latter generated enthalpy-load relationships, the peak values of which occurred at or near peak isometric force, i.e., at a relative load of unity. Contractile efficiency showed a pronounced dependence on afterload. By contrast, Suga and coworkers measured the oxygen consumption (Vo(2)) while recording the pressure-volume-time work loops of blood-perfused isolated dog hearts. From the associated (linear) end-systolic pressure-volume relations they derived a quantity labeled pressure-volume area (PVA), consisting of the sum of pressure-volume work and unspent elastic energy and showed that this was linearly correlated with Vo(2) over a wide range of conditions. This linear dependence imposed isoefficiency: constant contractile efficiency independent of afterload. Neither these data nor those of Gibbs and colleagues are in dispute. Nevertheless, despite numerous attempts over the years, no demonstration of either compatibility or incompatibility of these disparate characterizations of cardiac energetics has been forthcoming. We demonstrate that compatibility between the two formulations is thwarted by the concept of isoefficiency, the thermodynamic basis of which we show to be untenable.

  4. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Time magazine's ""Man of the Century"", Albert Einstein is the founder of modern physics and his theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book, Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory that has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.With a new foreword by Derek Raine.

  5. Reduction of myocardial blood flow reserve in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy without overt heart failure and its relation with functional indices: an echo-Doppler and positron emission tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Maria-Aurora; Neglia, Danilo; L'Abbate, Antonio

    2008-08-01

    Myocardial blood flow during pharmacological vasodilatation is depressed in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy even the in absence of overt heart failure; the extent of myocardial blood flow abnormalities is not predictable by left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and diastolic dimensions. To assess whether myocardial blood flow impairment in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy without overt heart failure can be related to Doppler-derived dP/dt and to echocardiographically determined left ventricular end systolic stress - which is linked to myocardial blood flow reserve in advanced disease. Twenty-six patients, New York Heart Association Class I-II, (LVEF 37.4 +/- 1.4%, left ventricular diastolic dimensions 62.6 +/- 0.9 mm) underwent resting/dipyridamole [13N]NH3 flow positron emission tomography and an ultrasonic study. Regional myocardial blood flow values (ml/min per g) were computed from positron emission tomography data in 13 left ventricular (LV) myocardial regions and averaged to provide mean myocardial blood flow and myocardial blood flow reserve, defined as dipyridamole/resting mean myocardial blood flow ratio. Resting myocardial blood flow was 0.686 +/- 0.045, dipyridamole myocardial blood flow 1.39 +/- 0.15 and myocardial blood flow reserve 2.12 +/- 0.2, lower than in controls (P < 0.01). The ratio dP/dt was directly related to dipyridamole myocardial blood flow and myocardial blood flow reserve (r = 0.552 and 0.703, P < 0.005 and P < 0.0001); no relation was found between myocardial blood flow and LVEF left ventricular diastolic dimensions, and left ventricular end systolic stress. In idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy patients without overt heart failure, the extent of myocardial blood flow reserve impairment is related to dP/dt but not to more classical indices of left ventricular function.

  6. Myocardial contractility in the echo lab: molecular, cellular and pathophysiological basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombardini Tonino

    2005-09-01

    fails, there is a change in the gene expression from the normal adult pattern to that of fetal life with an inversion of the normal positive slope of the force-frequency relation: systolic calcium release and diastolic calcium reuptake process is lowered at the basal state and, instead of accelerating for increasing heart rates, slows down. Since the force-frequency relation uncovers initial alteration of contractility, as an intermediate step between normal and abnormal contractility at rest, a practical index to measure it is mandatory. Measuring end-systolic elastance for increasing heart rates is impractical: increasing heart rates with atrial pacing has to be adjunct to the left ventricular conductance catheter, to the left ventricular pressure catheter, to the vena cava balloon, and to afterload changes. Furthermore, a noninvasive index is needed. Noninvasive measurement of the pressure/volume ratio for increasing heart rates during stress in the echo lab could be the practical answer to this new clinical demand in the current years of a dramatic increase in the number of heart failure patients.

  7. Independent and interactive effects of preload and afterload on the pump function of the isolated lymphangion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scallan, Joshua P; Wolpers, John H; Muthuchamy, Mariappan; Zawieja, David C; Gashev, Anatoliy A; Davis, Michael J

    2012-10-01

    We tested the responses of single, isolated lymphangions to selective changes in preload and the effects of changing preload on the response to an imposed afterload. The methods used were similar to those described in our companion paper. Step-wise increases in input pressure (P(in); preload) over a pressure range between 0.5 and 3 cmH(2)O, at constant output pressure (P(out)), led to increases in end-diastolic diameter, decreases in end-systolic diameter, and increases in stroke volume. From a baseline of 1 cmH(2)O, P(in) elevation by 2-7 cmH(2)O consistently produced an immediate fall in stroke volume that subsequently recovered over a time course of 2-3 min. Surprisingly, this adaptation was associated with an increase in the slope of the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship, indicative of an increase in contractility. Lymphangions subjected to P(out) levels exceeding their initial ejection limit would often accommodate by increasing diastolic filling to strengthen contraction sufficiently to match P(out). The lymphangion adaptation to various pressure combinations (P(in) ramps with low or high levels of P(out), P(out) ramps at low or intermediate levels of P(in), and combined P(in) + P(out) ramps) were analyzed using pressure-volume data to calculate stroke work. Under relatively low imposed loads, stroke work was maximal at low preloads (P(in) ∼2 cmH(2)O), whereas at more elevated afterloads, the optimal preload for maximal work displayed a broad plateau over a P(in) range of 5-11 cmH(2)O. These results provide new insights into the normal operation of the lymphatic pump, its comparison with the cardiac pump, and its potential capacity to adapt to increased loads during edemagenic and/or gravitational stress.

  8. Aminoguanidine prevents age-related deterioration in left ventricular-arterial coupling in Fisher 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuo-Chu; Hsu, Kwan-Lih; Chou, Tsai-Fwu; Lo, Huey-Ming; Tseng, Yung-Zu

    2004-08-01

    In recent studies, aminoguanidine (AG), an inhibitor of advanced glycation endproducts, has been identified as a prominent agent that can prevent the age-related aortic stiffening and cardiac hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to determine whether AG had effects on the left ventricular (LV)-arterial coupling in aged Fisher 344 rats in terms of the ventricular and arterial chamber properties. Normotensive rats were treated from 18 to 24 months with AG (1 g l(-1) in drinking water) and compared with a control group. LV pressure and ascending aortic flow signals were recorded to construct the ventricular and arterial end-systolic pressure-stroke volume relationships to calculate LV end-systolic elastance (Ees) and effective arterial volume elastance (Ea), respectively. The optimal afterload (Qload) determined by the ratio of Ea to Ees was used to measure the efficiency of mechanical energy transferred from the left ventricle to the arterial system. In comparison with the 6-month-old rats, the 24-month-old animals had decreased Ees, at 567.4 +/- 26.7 vs 639.0 +/- 20.7 mmHg ml(-1), decreased Ea, at 411.5 +/- 18.6 vs 577.9 +/- 15.7 mmHg ml(-1), and decreased Q(load), at 0.9428 +/- 0.0024 vs 0.9962 +/- 0.0014. Treatment with AG for 6 months did not significantly affect Ees; however, when normalized to LV weight (i.e., Eesn = Ees/LV weight), Eesn showed a significant rise of 22.8%, suggesting that AG may retard the aging process on the intrinsic contractility of the left ventricle. On the other hand, the decrease in Ea in aging rats was prevented by AG, as reflected in the increase of 19.7% in this variable (P < 0.05). The 24-month-old treated rats also exhibited a significant rise of 21.6% in Ea/Ees, causing an increase of 5.2% in Qload (P < 0.05). We conclude that in healthy older Fisher 344 rats without diabetes, long-term treatment with AG may improve both the arterial and ventricular function and optimize the matching condition for the left ventricular

  9. Age-related ventricular-vascular coupling during acute inflammation in humans: Effect of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Ranadive, Sushant M; Yan, Huimin; Phillips, Shane; Baynard, Tracy; Woods, Jeffrey A; Motl, Robert; Fernhall, Bo

    2015-07-01

    Aging is commonly accompanied by increased arterial and ventricular stiffness (determined by arterial elastance (Ea) and ventricular elastance (Elv)), augmented ventricular-vascular coupling ratios (Ea/Elv) and systemic inflammation. Acute inflammation may impact ventricular-vascular coupling and predispose older adults to cardiovascular events. However, physically active older adults have more compliant large arteries and left ventricles and lower inflammation than sedentary older adults. We hypothesized that acute inflammation would alter Ea, Elv, and Ea/Elv more in older versus younger adults but that higher levels of physical activity would attenuate inflammation-induced changes. End-systolic and central blood pressures were obtained using applanation tonometry before and at 24 and 48 h post-influenza vaccination in 24 older and 38 younger adults. Ultrasonography was used to measure ventricular volumes and other indices of cardiac performance. Physical activity was measured with accelerometry. Ea and Ea/Elv were maintained (p > 0.05), but Elv was reduced (p pressure during inflammation (p physical activity was not related to the inflammation-induced changes in elastance (p > 0.05) except in the most active group of seniors (p blood pressure and other ventricular systolic responses to acute inflammation. Aging, not physical activity, appears to modulate cardiovascular responses to acute inflammation, except in the most active older adults. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Preoperative echocardiographic measures of left ventricular mechanics are associated with postoperative vasoactive support in preterm infants undergoing patent ductus arteriosus ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Margaret A; Graham, Eric M; Atz, Andrew M; Bradley, Scott M; Kavarana, Minoo N; Chowdhury, Shahryar M

    2017-12-01

    Preoperative risk factors associated with poor outcomes after patent ductus arteriosus ligation in preterm infants have not been well defined. The aim of this study was to determine the association between preoperative echocardiographic measures of left ventricular mechanics and postoperative clinical outcomes after patent ductus arteriosus ligation. Preterm infants less than 90 days of age with no other significant congenital anomalies who underwent patent ductus arteriosus ligation between 2007 and 2015 were considered for retrospective analysis. The primary outcome was peak postoperative vasoactive inotropic score. Conventional echocardiographic measures of ventricular size, function, and patent ductus arteriosus size were performed. Echocardiographic single-beat, pressure-volume loop analysis estimates of contractility (end-systolic elastance) and afterload (arterial elastance) were calculated. Ventriculoarterial coupling was assessed using the arterial elastance/end-systolic elastance ratio. Multivariable linear regression was performed using clinical and echocardiographic data. Echocardiograms from 101 patients (42.5% male) were analyzed. We found a statistically significant association between vasoactive inotropic score and both end-systolic elastance and arterial elastance. No patient with arterial elastance/end-systolic elastance greater than 0.78 (n = 32) had a vasoactive inotropic score 20 or greater. Analysis of our secondary outcomes found associations between preoperative end-systolic elastance and postoperative urine output less than 1 mL/kg/h at 24 hours, creatinine change greater than 0.5 mg/dL, and time to first extubation. End-systolic elastance and arterial elastance were the only predictors of postoperative vasoactive inotropic score after patent ductus arteriosus ligation in preterm infants. Those neonates with increased contractility and low afterload were at highest risk for elevated inotropic support. These findings suggest a role

  11. Left ventricular pressure and volume data acquisition and analysis using LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, S C; Teitel, D F

    1997-03-01

    To automate analysis of left ventricular pressure-volume data, we used LabVIEW to create applications that digitize and display data recorded from conductance and manometric catheters. Applications separate data into cardiac cycles, calculate parallel conductance, and calculate indices of left ventricular function, including end-systolic elastance, preload-recruitable stroke work, stroke volume, ejection fraction, stroke work, maximum and minimum derivative of ventricular pressure, heart rate, indices of relaxation, peak filling rate, and ventricular chamber stiffness. Pressure-volume loops can be graphically displayed. These analyses are exported to a text-file. These applications have simplified and automated the process of evaluating ventricular function.

  12. Improvement of aging-associated cardiovascular dysfunction by the orally administered copper(II)-aspirinate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovits, Tamás; Gerö, Domokos; Lin, Li-ni; Loganathan, Sivakkanan; Hoppe-Tichy, Torsten; Szabó, Csaba; Karck, Matthias; Sakurai, Hiromu; Szabó, Gábor

    2008-10-01

    Aging-associated nitro-oxidative stress causes tissue injury and activates proinflammatory pathways that play an important role in the pathogenesis of aging-associated cardiovascular dysfunction. It has been recently reported, that the copper(II)-aspirinate complex (CuAsp) exerts not only the well-known anti-inflammatory and platelet antiaggregating effects of aspirin, but, due to its superoxide dismutase mimetic activity, it acts as a potent antioxidant as well. In this study we investigated the effects of CuAsp on aging-associated myocardial and endothelial dysfunction. Aging and young rats were treated for 3 weeks with vehicle, or with CuAsp (200 mg/kg per day per os). Left ventricular pressure-volume relations were measured by using a microtip pressure-volume conductance catheter, and indexes of contractility (e.g., slope of end-systolic pressure-volume relationships [ESPVR] [E(es)], and dP/dt(max) - end-diastolic volume [EDV]) were calculated. In organ bath experiments for isometric tension with isolated aortic rings, endothelium-dependent and -independent vasorelaxation were investigated by using acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. When compared to the young controls, aging rats showed impaired left ventricular contractility (E(es), 0.51 +/- 0.04 vs. 2.16 +/- 0.28 mmHg/microL; dP/dt(max) - EDV, 10.71 +/- 2.02 vs. 37.23 +/- 4.18 mmHg/sec per microL; p aging animals (94.83 +/- 0.73 vs. 66.66 +/- 1.30%; p cardiovascular functions of young rats. Our results demonstrate that oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular dysfunction in the aging organism, which can be reversed by CuAsp.

  13. Left-sided cardiac chamber evaluation using single-phase mid-diastolic coronary computed tomography angiography: derivation of normal values and comparison with conventional end-diastolic and end-systolic phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Jonathan R. [Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Abadi, Sobhi [Rambam Health Care Campus, Medical Imaging Department, Haifa (Israel); Solomonica, Amir [Rambam Health Care Campus, Cardiology Department, Haifa (Israel); Mutlak, Diab; Aronson, Doron; Agmon, Yoram; Lessick, Jonathan [Rambam Health Care Campus, Cardiology Department, Haifa (Israel); Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

    2016-10-15

    With increasing use of prospective scanning techniques for cardiac computed tomography (CT), meaningful evaluation of chamber volumes is no longer possible due to lack of normal values. We aimed to define normal values for mid-diastolic (MD) chamber volumes and to determine their significance in comparison to maximum volumes. Normal ranges at MD for left ventricular (LV) volume and mass and left atrial (LA) volume were determined from 101 normal controls. Thereafter, 109 consecutive CT scans, as well as 21 post-myocardial infarction patients, were analysed to determine the relationship between MD and maximum volumes. MD volumes correlated closely with maximal volumes (r = 0.99) for both LV and LA, and could estimate maximum volumes accurately. LV mass, measured at ED or MD, were very similar (r = 0.99). Abnormal MD volumes had excellent sensitivity and specificity to detect chamber enlargement based on maximal volumes (LV 86 %, 100 %, respectively; LA 100 %, 92 %, respectively). A single MD phase can identify patients with cardiomegaly or LV hypertrophy with a high degree of accuracy and MD volumes can give an accurate estimate of maximum LV and LA volumes. circle Traditionally, helical cardiac CT provided clinically important information from chamber volume analysis. (orig.)

  14. Necessity of angiotensin-converting enzyme-related gene for cardiac functions and longevity of Drosophila melanogaster assessed by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fang-Tsu; Chang, Cheng-Yi; Su, Ming-Tsan; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies have established the necessity of an angiotensin-converting enzyme-related (ACER) gene for heart morphogenesis of Drosophila. Nevertheless, the physiology of ACER has yet to be comprehensively understood. Herein, we employed RNA interference to down-regulate the expression of ACER in Drosophila's heart and swept source optical coherence tomography to assess whether ACER is required for cardiac functions in living adult flies. Several contractile parameters of Drosophila heart, including the heart rate (HR), end-diastolic diameter (EDD), end-systolic diameter (ESD), percent fractional shortening (%FS), and stress-induced cardiac performance, are shown, which are age dependent. These age-dependent cardiac functions declined significantly when ACER was down-regulated. Moreover, the lifespans of ACER knock-down flies were significantly shorter than those of wild-type control flies. Thus, we posit that ACER, the Drosophila ortholog of mammalian angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is essential for both heart physiology and longevity of animals. Since mammalian ACE2 controls many cardiovascular physiological features and is implicated in cardiomyopathies, our findings that ACER plays conserved roles in genetically tractable animals will pave the way for uncovering the genetic pathway that controls the renin-angiotensin system.

  15. Relation Between Pressure and Volume Unloading During Ramp Testing in Patients Supported with a Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Mette H; Hassager, Christian; Balling, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is the key to describing left ventricular (LV) unloading, however, the relation between pressure and the echocardiography-derived surrogate of LV volume (left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD)) as a function of pump speed (RPM) in continuous......-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) patients is unknown. In this study the pressure-volume relationship as a function of RPM during ramp testing was investigated by simultaneously measuring PCWP by Swan-Ganz catheter and LVEDD by echocardiography. The ramp protocol started at usual pump setting...

  16. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition improves myocardial perfusion and function in experimental heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merabet, Nassiba; Bellien, Jeremy; Glevarec, Etienne; Nicol, Lionel; Lucas, Daniele; Remy-Jouet, Isabelle; Bounoure, Frederic; Dreano, Yvonne; Wecker, Didier; Thuillez, Christian; Mulder, Paul

    2012-03-01

    The study addressed the hypothesis that soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibition, which increases cardiovascular protective epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), exerts beneficial effects in an established chronic heart failure (CHF) model. In CHF rats, left ventricular (LV) function, perfusion and remodeling were assessed using MRI and invasive hemodynamics after 42-day (starting 8 days after coronary ligation) and delayed 3-day (starting 47 days after coronary ligation) treatments with the sEH inhibitor AUDA (twice 0.25 mg/day). Delayed 3-day and 42-day AUDA increased plasma EETs demonstrating the effective inhibition of sEH. Delayed 3-day and 42-day AUDA enhanced cardiac output without change in arterial pressure, thus reducing total peripheral resistance. Both treatment periods increased the slope of the LV end-systolic pressure-volume relation, but only 42-day AUDA decreased LV end-diastolic pressure, relaxation constant Tau and the slope of the LV end-diastolic pressure-volume relation, associated with a reduced LV diastolic volume and collagen density. Delayed 3-day and, to a larger extent, 42-day AUDA increased LV perfusion associated with a decreased LV hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha. Both treatment periods decreased reactive oxygen species level and increased reduced-oxidized glutathione ratio. Finally, MSPPOH, an inhibitor of the EET-synthesizing enzyme cytochrome epoxygenases, abolished the beneficial effects of 3-day AUDA on LV function and perfusion. Augmentation of EET availability by pharmacological inhibition of sEH increases LV diastolic and systolic functions in established CHF. This notably results from short-term processes, i.e. increased LV perfusion, reduced LV oxidative stress and peripheral vasodilatation, but also from long-term effects, i.e. reduced LV remodeling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Three-dimensional echocardiographic ventricular mass/end-diastolic volume ratio in native hypertensive patients: relation between stroke volume and geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, Maria; Esposito, Roberta; Santoro, Ciro; Lo Iudice, Francesco; Schiano-Lomoriello, Vincenzo; Fazio, Valeria; Grimaldi, Maria Gabriella; Trimarco, Bruno; de Simone, Giovanni; Galderisi, Maurizio

    2018-03-22

    Elevated left ventricular (LV) mass/end-diastolic volume ratio (LVM/EDV) has been associated with higher evidence of myocardial fibrosis and dysfunction in hypertensive patients by cardiac magnetic resonance, a technique with limited availability. We investigated the ability of three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography in identifying a phenotype of LV concentric geometry according to LVM/EDV ratio, possibly detecting early myocardial damage in native-hypertensive patients. One hundred and twenty-eight native-hypertensive patients underwent 2D and 3D-echocardiography. The population was divided into two groups, according to cut-off point values of 3D-LVM/EDV ratio corresponding to its upper 95% confidence interval in a population of 90 healthy normotensive individuals: LVM/EDV ratio cut-off was 1.22 in men and 1.23 in women. An increased 3D-LVM/EDV ratio identified a higher rate of LV concentric geometry in comparison with 2D-derived relative wall thickness (37 versus 24%, P = 0.03). Patients with LVM/EDV ratio of 1.22 or more in men and 1.23 or more in women were significantly older, had smaller 3D-LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes and higher LV mass index, without difference in ejection fraction. 3D-stroke volume (P geometry than 2D-relative wall thickness. Stroke volume is independently and negatively associated with LVM/EDV ratio and its reduction represents an early marker of myocardial dysfunction in hypertensives with LV concentric geometry.

  18. Relativity made relatively easy

    CERN Document Server

    Steane, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    Relativity Made Relatively Easy presents an extensive study of Special Relativity and a gentle (but exact) introduction to General Relativity for undergraduate students of physics. Assuming almost no prior knowledge, it allows the student to handle all the Relativity needed for a university course, with explanations as simple, thorough, and engaging as possible.The aim is to make manageable what would otherwise be regarded as hard; to make derivations as simple as possible and physical ideas as transparent as possible. Lorentz invariants and four-vectors are introduced early on, but tensor not

  19. Effects of manipulation of water and nitrogen regime on the water relations of the desert shrub Larrea tridentata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, F C; Sharifi, M R; Nilsen, E T; Rundel, P W

    1988-12-01

    Water and nitrogen regimes of Larrea tridentata shrubs growing in the field were manipulated during an annual cycle. Patterns of leaf water status, leaf water relations characteristics, and stomatal behavior were followed concurrently. Large variations in leaf water status in both irrigated and nonirrigated individuals were observed. Predawn and midday leaf water potentials of nonirrigated shrubs were lowest except when measurements had been preceded by significant rainfall. Despite the large seasonal variation in leaf water status, reasonably constant, high levels of turgor were maintained. Pressure-volume curve analysis suggested that changes in the bulk leaf osmotic potential at full turgor were small and that nearly all of the turgor adjustment was due to tissue elastic adjustment. The increase in tissue elasticity with increasing water deficit manifested itself as a decrease in the relative water content at zero turgor and as a decrease in the tissue bulk elastic modulus. Because of large hydration-induced displacement in the osmotic potential and relative water content at zero turgor, it was necessary to use shoots in their natural state of hydration for pressure-volume curve determinations. Large diurnal and seasonal differences in maximum stomatal conductance were observed, but could not easily be attributed to variations in leaf water potential or leaf water relations characteristics such as the turgor loss point. The single factor which seemed to account for most of the diurnal and seasonal differences in maximum stomatal conductance between individual shrubs was an index of soil/root/ shoot hydraulic resistance. Daily maximum stomatal conductance was found to decrease with increasing soil/root/ shoot hydraulic resistance. This pattern was most consistent if the hydraulic resistance calculation was based on an estimate of total canopy transpiration rather than the more commonly used transpiration per unit leaf area. The reasons for this are discussed. It

  20. Inflation and deflation pressure-volume loops in anesthetized pinnipeds confirms compliant chest and lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eFahlman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined structural properties of the marine mammal respiratory system, and tested Scholander’s hypothesis that the chest is highly compliant by measuring the mechanical properties of the respiratory system in five species of pinniped under anesthesia (Pacific harbor seal, Phoca vitulina; northern elephant seal, Mirounga angustirostris; northern fur seal Callorhinus ursinus; California sea lion, Zalophus californianus; and Steller sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus. We found that the chest wall compliance (CCW of all five species was greater than lung compliance (airways and alveoli, CL as predicted by Scholander, which suggests that the chest provides little protection against alveolar collapse or lung squeeze. We also found that specific respiratory compliance was significantly greater in wild animals than in animals raised under human care. While differences in ages between the two groups may affect this incidental finding, it is also possible that lung conditioning in free-living animals may increase pulmonary compliance and reduce the risk of lung squeeze during diving. Overall, our data indicate that compliance of excised pinniped lungs provide a good estimate of total respiratory compliance.

  1. Inflation and deflation pressure-volume loops in anesthetized pinnipeds confirms compliant chest and lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, Andreas; Loring, Stephen H; Johnson, Shawn P; Haulena, Martin; Trites, Andrew W; Fravel, Vanessa A; Van Bonn, William G

    2014-01-01

    We examined structural properties of the marine mammal respiratory system, and tested Scholander's hypothesis that the chest is highly compliant by measuring the mechanical properties of the respiratory system in five species of pinniped under anesthesia (Pacific harbor seal, Phoca vitulina; northern elephant seal, Mirounga angustirostris; northern fur seal Callorhinus ursinus; California sea lion, Zalophus californianus; and Steller sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus). We found that the chest wall compliance (CCW) of all five species was greater than lung compliance (airways and alveoli, CL) as predicted by Scholander, which suggests that the chest provides little protection against alveolar collapse or lung squeeze. We also found that specific respiratory compliance was significantly greater in wild animals than in animals raised in an aquatic facility. While differences in ages between the two groups may affect this incidental finding, it is also possible that lung conditioning in free-living animals may increase pulmonary compliance and reduce the risk of lung squeeze during diving. Overall, our data indicate that compliance of excised pinniped lungs provide a good estimate of total respiratory compliance.

  2. Pressure-Volume Work Exercises Illustrating the First and Second Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, William G.; Moran, Bill

    1979-01-01

    Presented are two problem exercises involving rapid compression and expansion of ideal gases which illustrate the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The first problem involves the conversion of gravitational energy into heat through mechanical work. The second involves the mutual interaction of two gases through an adiabatic piston. (BT)

  3. Relativity without relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbour, Julian; Foster, Brendan Z; Murchadha, Niall O

    2002-01-01

    We give a derivation of general relativity (GR) and the gauge principle that is novel in presupposing neither spacetime nor the relativity principle. We consider a class of actions defined on superspace (the space of Riemannian 3-geometries on a given bare manifold). It has two key properties. The first is symmetry under 3-diffeomorphisms. This is the only postulated symmetry, and it leads to a constraint linear in the canonical momenta. The second property is that the Lagrangian is constructed from a 'local' square root of an expression quadratic in the velocities. The square root is 'local' because it is taken before integration over 3-space. It gives rise to quadratic constraints that do not correspond to any symmetry and are not, in general, propagated by the Euler-Lagrange equations. Therefore these actions are internally inconsistent. However, one action of this form is well behaved: the Baierlein-Sharp-Wheeler (Baierlein R F, Sharp D and Wheeler J A 1962 Phys. Rev. 126 1864) reparametrization-invariant action for GR. From this viewpoint, spacetime symmetry is emergent. It appears as a 'hidden' symmetry in the (underdetermined) solutions of the Euler-Lagrange equations, without being manifestly coded into the action itself. In addition, propagation of the linear diffeomorphism constraint together with the quadratic square-root constraint acts as a striking selection mechanism beyond pure gravity. If a scalar field is included in the configuration space, it must have the same characteristic speed as gravity. Thus Einstein causality emerges. Finally, self-consistency requires that any 3-vector field must satisfy Einstein causality, the equivalence principle and, in addition, the Gauss constraint. Therefore we recover the standard (massless) Maxwell equations

  4. Objectively measured daily physical activity related to cardiac size in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Thorsson, O; Karlsson, M K

    2009-01-01

    Training studies in children have suggested that endurance training can give enlargement of cardiac dimensions. This relationship has not been studied on a population-based level in young children with objective methods. A cross-sectional study was made of 248 children (140 boys and 108 girls......), aged 8-11 years, from a population-based cohort. Left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVDD) and left atrial end-systolic diameter (LA) were measured with echocardiography and indexed for body surface area (BSA). Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry, and the duration of vigorous physical...

  5. [The mechanism of age-related change in lung elastic recoil pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, S; Takahashi, K

    1992-02-01

    To investigate the mechanism of age-related change in lung elastic recoil, golden syrian hamsters were divided into three age groups (11-wk group, n = 20; 24-wk group, n = 25; 60-wk group, n = 15). Pressure-volume curves in isolated lungs, length-tension properties of alveolar wall, surface tensions by modified Wilhelmy balance, and collagen and elastin concentrations in the lung tissue were measured. Light and electron micrographs and morphometry were studied. Age-related change was not observed in lung elastic recoil in hamsters. However, old hamsters significantly increased a mean linear intercept and the elasticity constant of alveolar wall. On one hand, a surface tension was increased in old hamsters, associating with the decrease in the number of lamellar body of alveolar type 2 cells. These findings suggested that the reduction in lung elastic recoil which should be caused by both the increase in air space and the decrease in extensibility of alveolar wall would be compensated by the increase in surface tension in old hamsters, which may account for the no age-related change in elastic recoil in hamster lungs.

  6. Relational databases

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, D A

    1986-01-01

    Relational Databases explores the major advances in relational databases and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in relational databases. Topics covered include capture and analysis of data placement requirements; distributed relational database systems; data dependency manipulation in database schemata; and relational database support for computer graphics and computer aided design. This book is divided into three sections and begins with an overview of the theory and practice of distributed systems, using the example of INGRES from Relational Technology as illustration. The

  7. Low tidal volume ventilation ameliorates left ventricular dysfunction in mechanically ventilated rats following LPS-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherpanath, Thomas G V; Smeding, Lonneke; Hirsch, Alexander; Lagrand, Wim K; Schultz, Marcus J; Groeneveld, A B Johan

    2015-10-07

    High tidal volume ventilation has shown to cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), possibly contributing to concomitant extrapulmonary organ dysfunction. The present study examined whether left ventricular (LV) function is dependent on tidal volume size and whether this effect is augmented during lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced lung injury. Twenty male Wistar rats were sedated, paralyzed and then randomized in four groups receiving mechanical ventilation with tidal volumes of 6 ml/kg or 19 ml/kg with or without intrapulmonary administration of LPS. A conductance catheter was placed in the left ventricle to generate pressure-volume loops, which were also obtained within a few seconds of vena cava occlusion to obtain relatively load-independent LV systolic and diastolic function parameters. The end-systolic elastance / effective arterial elastance (Ees/Ea) ratio was used as the primary parameter of LV systolic function with the end-diastolic elastance (Eed) as primary LV diastolic function. Ees/Ea decreased over time in rats receiving LPS (p = 0.045) and high tidal volume ventilation (p = 0.007), with a lower Ees/Ea in the rats with high tidal volume ventilation plus LPS compared to the other groups (p tidal volume ventilation without LPS (p = 0.223). A significant interaction (p tidal ventilation and LPS for Ees/Ea and Eed, and all rats receiving high tidal volume ventilation plus LPS died before the end of the experiment. Low tidal volume ventilation ameliorated LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction while preventing death following LPS-induced lung injury in mechanically ventilated rats. Our data advocates the use of low tidal volumes, not only to avoid VILI, but to avert ventilator-induced myocardial dysfunction as well.

  8. Effects of human atrial natriuretic peptide on myocardial performance and energetics in heart failure due to previous myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Toru; Shinke, Toshiro; Shite, Junya; Takaoka, Hideyuki; Inoue, Nobutaka; Matsumoto, Hidenari; Watanabe, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Ryohei; Otake, Hiromasa; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Ogasawara, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Mitsuhiro; Hirata, Ken-ichi

    2015-09-01

    Human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP) and spontaneous nitric oxide (NO) donor share cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) as a second messenger, but their effect on myocardium may differ. We compared the effect of hANP and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on left ventricular (LV) mechano-energetics in heart failure (HF). Ten patients with HF due to previous myocardial infarction (LV ejection fraction: 45±3%) were instrumented with conductance and coronary sinus thermodilution catheters. LV contractility (Ees: slope of end-systolic pressure-volume relation) and the ratio of LV stroke work (SW) to myocardial oxygen consumption (SW/MVO2=mechanical efficiency) were measured in response to intravenous infusion of ANP (0.05 μg/kg/min) or SNP (0.3 μg/kg/min) to lower blood pressure by at least 10 mmHg, and changes in plasma cGMP. SNP had no effect on Ees, SW, or MVO2, thus SW/MVO2 remained unchanged (40.54±5.84% to 36.59±5.72%, p=0.25). ANP increased Ees, and decreased MVO2 with preserved SW, resulting in improved SW/MVO2 (40.49±6.35% to 50.30±7.96%, p=0.0073). Infusion of ANP (10.42-34.95 pmol/ml, p=0.0003) increased cGMP levels, whereas infusion of SNP had no effect (10.42-12.23 pmol/ml, p=0.75). Compared to SNP, the ANP-dependent increase in cGMP may ameliorate myocardial inotropy and energetics in HF. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Characterization of an investigative safety pharmacology model to assess comprehensive cardiac function and structure in chronically instrumented conscious beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Christopher P; Stump, Gary L; Detwiler, Theodore J; Chen, Li; Regan, Hillary K; Gilberto, David B; DeGeorge, Joseph J; Sannajust, Frederick J

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increasing need to conduct investigative safety pharmacology studies to complement regulatory-required studies, particularly as it applies to a comprehensive assessment of cardiovascular (CV) risk. We describe refined methodology using a combination of telemetry and direct signal acquisition to record concomitant peripheral hemodynamics, ECG, and left ventricular (LV) structure (LV chamber size and LV wall thickness) and function, including LV pressure-volume (PV) loops to determine load independent measures of contractility (end systolic elastance, Ees, and preload recruitable stroke work, PRSW) in conscious beagle dogs. Following baseline characterization, 28days of chronic rapid ventricular pacing (RVP) was performed and cardiac function monitored: both as a way to compare measures during development of dysfunction and to characterize feasibility of a model to assess CV safety in animals with underlying cardiac dysfunction. While ±dP/dT decreased within a few days of RVP and remained stable, more comprehensive cardiac function measurements, including Ees and PRSW, provided a more sensitive assessment confirming the value of such endpoints for a more clear functional assessment. After 28days of RVP, the inodilator pimobendan was administered to further demonstrate the ability to detect changes in cardiac function. Expectedly pimobendan caused a leftward shift in the PV loop, improved ejection fraction (EF) and significantly improved Ees and PRSW. In summary, the data show the feasibility and importance in measuring enhanced cardiac functional parameters in conscious normal beagle dogs and further describe a relatively stable cardiac dysfunction model that could be used as an investigative safety pharmacology risk assessment tool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Social relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Holstein, B; Lund, R

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a conceptual framework with social relations as the main concept and the structure and the function of social relations as subconcepts. The structure of social relations covers aspects of formal relations and social network. The function of social relations covers social support......, social anchorage and relational strain. We use this conceptual framework to describe social relations in the Danish population, with questionnaire data from the Danish Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study including a random sample of each of the age groups 25-, 50-, 60-and 70-year olds, N = 2......,011. The postal questionnaires were answered by a random sample in each of the age groups. The results show marked age and gender differences in both the structure and the function of social relations. The social network, measured as weekly contacts, weakens with age and so does instrumental support. Emotional...

  11. Relational Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we emphasise what we have outlined as interesting areas of relational leadership and present some ideas on how to facilitate a broader understanding of relational leadership practice. This involves the interpretations that create connections between practice and ontology. We...... elaborate on how leadership in everyday situations can be understood from a relational perspective. The chapter will focus on outlining and inspiring the reader to co-operate with other people to develop further relational understandings of leading....

  12. Is posture-related craniospinal compliance shift caused by jugular vein collapse? A theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlen, Manuel; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan; Schmid Daners, Marianne

    2017-02-16

    Postural changes are related to changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. While sitting up leads to a decrease in cranial CSF pressure, it also causes shifts in the craniospinal CSF volume and compliance distribution. We hypothesized that jugular vein collapse in upright posture is a major contributor to these shifts in CSF volume and compliance. To test this hypothesis, we implemented a mathematical lumped-parameter model of the CSF system and the relevant parts of the cardiovascular system. In this model, the CSF and the venous system are each divided into a cranial and a spinal part. The pressures in these cranial and spinal portions differ by the posture-dependent hydrostatic pressure columns in the connecting vessels. Jugular collapse is represented by a reduction of the hydrostatic pressure difference between cranial and spinal veins. The CSF pressure-volume relationship is implemented as a function of the local CSF to venous pressure gradient. This implies that an increase in CSF volume leads to a simultaneous displacement of blood from adjacent veins. CSF pulsations driven by the cardiovascular system are introduced through a pulsating cranial arterial volume. In upright posture, the implemented CSF pressure-volume relationship shifts to lower cranial CSF pressures compared to the horizontal position, leading to a decrease in cranial CSF pressure when sitting up. Concurrently, the compliance of the spinal compartment decreases while the one of the cranial compartment increases. With this, in upright posture only 10% of the CSF system's compliance is provided by the spinal compartment compared to 35% in horizontal posture. This reduction in spinal compliance is accompanied by a caudal shift of CSF volume. Also, the ability of the spinal CSF compartment to compensate for cerebral arterial volume pulsations reduces in upright posture, which in turn reduces the calculated craniospinal CSF flow pulsations. The mathematical model enabled us to isolate the

  13. Numerical relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Shibata, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    This book is composed of two parts: First part describes basics in numerical relativity, that is, the formulations and methods for a solution of Einstein's equation and general relativistic matter field equations. This part will be helpful for beginners of numerical relativity who would like to understand the content of numerical relativity and its background. The second part focuses on the application of numerical relativity. A wide variety of scientific numerical results are introduced focusing in particular on the merger of binary neutron stars and black holes.

  14. Numerical Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in numerical relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.

  15. View relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the potential of using visual representations to support people in managing, organizing, and understanding relations between multiple visualization views. Multiple views can help people understand different facets of data and data processing, and are a crucial part of data...... analysis particularly when it is done collaboratively. Both the growing use of multiple views and the increasing display sizes have amplified the need to explore how to better help people to understand the relations between many views. To improve our understanding of how to visualize view relations, we...... invited visualization and interaction designers to critique and sketch representations of view relations. The participants provided design critiques, and sketched their own relation representations. Our findings expand the range and palette of ways of visually linking visualization views and suggest new...

  16. Accuracy of Echocardiography to Evaluate Pulmonary Vascular and RV Function During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessen, Guido; La Gerche, Andre; Voigt, Jens-Uwe; Dymarkowski, Steven; Schnell, Frédéric; Petit, Thibault; Willems, Rik; Claus, Piet; Delcroix, Marion; Heidbuchel, Hein

    2016-05-01

    The authors have compared exercise echocardiography and exercise cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with simultaneous invasive pressure registration (ExCMRip) for the assessment of pulmonary vascular and right ventricular (RV) function. Exercise echocardiography may enable early diagnosis of pulmonary vascular disease, but its accuracy is untested. Exercise imaging was performed in 61 subjects (19 athletes, 9 healthy nonathletes, 8 healthy BMPR2 [bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II] mutation carriers, 5 patients with new or worsening dyspnea after acute pulmonary embolism, and 20 patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension). Echocardiographic variables included mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP), cardiac output (CO), RV fractional area change, tricuspid annular systolic excursion, and RV end-systolic pressure-area ratio as a surrogate measure of RV contractile reserve. ExCMRip provided measurements of CO, RV ejection fraction, mPAP, sPAP, and RV end-systolic pressure-volume ratio at rest and during exercise. Abnormal pulmonary vascular reserve was defined as mPAP/CO slope >3 mm Hg/l/min by ExCMRip. Echocardiographic determination of mPAP/CO was possible in 53 of 61 subjects (87%). mPAP/CO by echocardiography was higher than that obtained by ExCMRip (+0.9 mm Hg/l/min; 95% limits of agreement, -3.6 to 5.4), but enabled accurate identification of patients with abnormal pulmonary vascular reserve (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, 0.88 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77 to 1.00; p exercise intensity had similar accuracy in identifying subjects with pulmonary vascular disease (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, 0.95 [95% CI: 0.88 to 1.01]; p exercise to resting RV end-systolic pressure-area ratio and RV end-systolic pressure-volume ratio (r = 0.64; p exercise and identify pathology with reasonable accuracy. They represent valid screening tools for

  17. General relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1990-01-01

    General relativity is discussed in this book at a level appropriate to undergraduate students of physics and astronomy. It describes concepts and experimental results, and provides a succinct account of the formalism. A brief review of special relativity is followed by a discussion of the equivalence principle and its implications. Other topics covered include the concepts of curvature and the Schwarzschild metric, test of the general theory, black holes and their properties, gravitational radiation and methods for its detection, the impact of general relativity on cosmology, and the continuing search for a quantum theory of gravity. (author)

  18. Training Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Aja

    This thesis explores the phenomenon of horse-assisted leadership training and the manners, in which the training relations between horses, managers and facilitators were entangled with perceptions of, what “proper sociality” entailed and felt like in contemporary Danish society. The study...... managers, horses and facilitators were training to strike between self-centredness and other-orientation, self-interests and fellow-feelings, was related to this marriage. The thesis contributes to the conceptualisation of the relationship between the self and sociality, particularly within consumer...... culture research interested in destabilising the primacy of the agentive powers of the human consumer. It does so by broadening the notion of the social to include animals – and by emphasising the sensorial, bodily and affective dimensions of the relations between self and sociality. A related...

  19. Special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    This book is an introduction to special relativity theory. After a discussion of the limits of Newton's mechanics and the pecularities in the propagation of light the Lorentz transformation is introduced. Then the measurement of space and time intervals in the framework of relativity theory is considered. Thereafter the addition of velocities and acceleration are considered in this framework. Then relativistic kinematics of particle interactions are described. Then the four-dimensional calculus in space-time coordinates is introduced. Finally an introduction is given to the treatment of the electromagnetic field in the framework of relativity theory. Every chapter contains exercise problems with solutions. This book is suited for all students who want to get some fundamental knowledge about relativity theory. (HSI) [de

  20. Linguistic relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Phillip; Holmes, Kevin J

    2011-05-01

    The central question in research on linguistic relativity, or the Whorfian hypothesis, is whether people who speak different languages think differently. The recent resurgence of research on this question can be attributed, in part, to new insights about the ways in which language might impact thought. We identify seven categories of hypotheses about the possible effects of language on thought across a wide range of domains, including motion, color, spatial relations, number, and false belief understanding. While we do not find support for the idea that language determines the basic categories of thought or that it overwrites preexisting conceptual distinctions, we do find support for the proposal that language can make some distinctions difficult to avoid, as well as for the proposal that language can augment certain types of thinking. Further, we highlight recent evidence suggesting that language may induce a relatively schematic mode of thinking. Although the literature on linguistic relativity remains contentious, there is growing support for the view that language has a profound effect on thought. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 253-265 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.104 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Relational Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    The present study of PhD education and its impact on architectural research singles out three layers of relational architecture. A first layer of relationality appears in a graphic model in which an intimate link between PhD education and architectural research is outlined. The model reflects...... in a scholarly institution (element #3), as well as the certified PhD scholar (element #4) and the architectural profession, notably its labour market (element #5). This first layer outlines the contemporary context which allows architectural research to take place in a dynamic relationship to doctoral education....... A second layer of relational architecture is revealed when one examines the conception of architecture generated in selected PhD dissertations. Focusing on six dissertations with which the author of the present article was involved as a supervisor, the analysis lays bare a series of dynamic...

  2. Employee relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demann, Eric T K; Stein, Pamela S; Levitt, Christine; Shelton, Keith E

    2008-07-01

    This review highlights some of the more important employee relation aspects involved in starting, establishing, or expanding an existing dental practice. Despite a competitive compensation package, staff-related conflicts can sometimes hamper the progress of a dental practice. Such conflicts can be reduced by having policies and procedures in place for each employee that set expectations concerning the hours of operation, professional manner, dress code, job tasks, performance evaluations, disciplinary actions, and termination if violations occur. Understanding the legal requirements set by various governmental agencies such as OSHA can help ensure that the rights and well-being of every employee are protected.

  3. General relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The author proposes a course on general relativity. He first presents a geometrical framework by addressing, presenting and discussion the following notions: the relativistic space-time, the metric tensor, Universe lines, observers, principle of equivalence and geodesics. In the next part, he addresses gravitational fields with spherical symmetry: presentation of the Schwarzschild metrics, radial light geodesics, gravitational spectral shift (Einstein effect), orbitals of material objects, photon trajectories. The next parts address the Einstein equation, black holes, gravitational waves, and cosmological solutions. Appendices propose a discussion of the relationship between relativity and GPS, some problems and their solutions, and Sage codes

  4. Relative Hypovolaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    dium, water, calcium and magnesium reabsorption and can ... Capillary Leak. Aggressive resuscitation of patients with damaged capillary endothelial integrity will result in overload of the extracellu- lar fluid compartment, often with associated intravascular .... The detection of relative hypovolaemia may be difficult, and.

  5. General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Straumann, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a completely revised and expanded version of the previous classic edition ‘General Relativity and Relativistic Astrophysics’. In Part I the foundations of general relativity are thoroughly developed, while Part II is devoted to tests of general relativity and many of its applications. Binary pulsars – our best laboratories for general relativity – are studied in considerable detail. An introduction to gravitational lensing theory is included as well, so as to make the current literature on the subject accessible to readers. Considerable attention is devoted to the study of compact objects, especially to black holes. This includes a detailed derivation of the Kerr solution, Israel’s proof of his uniqueness theorem, and a derivation of the basic laws of black hole physics. Part II ends with Witten’s proof of the positive energy theorem, which is presented in detail, together with the required tools on spin structures and spinor analysis. In Part III, all of the differential geomet...

  6. International relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Concerning international relations, the different meetings in the field of nuclear safety are reported (Western european nuclear regulator association or Wenra, Nea, IAEA, northern dimension environmental partnership or N.D.E.P., nuclear safety and security group or N.S.S.G., international nuclear regulators association or I.N.R.A.). (N.C.)

  7. Readable relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Durell, Clement V

    1962-01-01

    Concise and practical, this text by a renowned teacher sketches the mathematical background essential to understanding the fundamentals of relativity theory. Subjects include the velocity of light, measurement of time and distance, and properties of mass and momentum, with numerous diagrams, formulas, and examples, plus exercises and solutions. 1960 edition.

  8. Relativizing relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Svozil, Karl

    1998-01-01

    Special relativity theory is generalized to two or more ``maximal'' signalling speeds. This framework is discussed in three contexts: (i) as a scenario for superluminal signalling and motion, (ii) as the possibility of two or more ``light'' cones due to the a ``birefringent'' vaccum, and (iii) as a further extension of conventionality beyond synchrony.

  9. Synergistic effects of remote perconditioning with terminal blood cardioplegia in an in vivo piglet model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takayuki; Morita, Kiyozo; Shinohara, Gen; Hashimoto, Kazuhiro; Nishikawa, Masako

    2017-09-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that remote perconditioning offers effective and synergistic cardioprotection to terminal warm blood cardioplegia for prompt ventricular recovery after prolonged cardioplegic arrest in an in vivo piglet model. Twenty-four piglets were subjected to 120 min of single-dose cardioplegic arrest and were divided into 4 groups according to the mode of reperfusion: control (simple aortic unclamp), remote perconditioning, terminal warm blood cardioplegia or remote perconditioning + terminal warm blood cardioplegia; remote perconditioning (4 cycles of 5-min ischaemia-reperfusion of the lower limb) was applied prior to aortic unclamping. Left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions were assessed by pressure-volume loop analysis at baseline and after 60 min of reperfusion. Biochemical injury was evaluated by plasma troponin T level. The control group showed decreased end-systolic elastance, preload recruitable stroke work and inverse of end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship of 51.3 ± 14.0%, 46.1 ± 22.5% and 34.8 ± 14.9%, respectively. Percentage recovery of end-systolic elastance and preload recruitable stroke work were significantly better with terminal warm blood cardioplegia (with or without remote perconditioning) (end-systolic elastance: 95% confidence interval, 38.6-84.1; preload recruitable stroke work: 95% confidence interval, 0.4-54.3). Percentage recovery of inverse of end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship was significantly better in the remote perconditioning groups (with or without terminal warm blood cardioplegia) (95% confidence interval, 1.6-41.6). No synergistic effects of remote perconditioning and terminal warm blood cardioplegia on troponin T release were noted. Remote perconditioning offers promising synergistic cardioprotection to terminal warm blood cardioplegia, implicating potential clinical benefit by contributing to prompt left ventricular functional recovery during paediatric open

  10. Entrained-flow gasification at elevated pressure: Volume 1: Final technical report, March 1, 1985-April 30,1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedman, P.O.; Smoot, L.D.; Smith, P.J.; Blackham, A.U.

    1987-10-15

    The general purpose of this research program was to develop a basic understanding of the physical and chemical processes in entrained coal gasification and to use the results to improve and evaluate an entrained gasification computer model. The first task included the collection and analysis of in-situ gasifier data at elevated pressures with three coal types (North Dakota lignite, Wyoming subbituminous and Illinois bituminous), the design, construction, and testing of new coal/oxygen/steam injectors with a fourth coal type (Utah bituminous), the collection of supporting turbulent fluid dynamic (LDV) data from cold-flow studies, and the investigation of the feasibility of using laser-based (CARS) daignostic instruments to make measurements in coal flames. The second task included improvements to the two-dimensional gasifier submodels, tabulation and evaluation of new coal devolatilization and char oxidation data for predictions, fundamental studies of turbulent particle dispersion, the development of improved numerical methods, and validation of the comprehensive model through comparison of predictions with experimental results. The third task was to transfer technical advances to industry and to METC through technical seminars, production of a detailed data book, code placement, and publication of results. Research results for these three tasks are summarized briefly here and presented in detail in the body of the report and in supporting references. 202 refs., 73 figs., 23 tabs.

  11. Basic relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, Richard A

    1994-01-01

    This comprehensive textbook develops in a logical and coherent way both the formalism and the physical ideas of special and general relativity. Part one focuses on the special theory and begins with the study of relativistic kinematics from three points of view. Part two begins with a chapter introducing differential geometry. Subsequent chapters cover: rotation, the electromagnetic field, and material media. A second chapter on differential geometry provides the background for Einstein's gravitational-field equation and Schwarzschild's solution. The book is aimed at advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students in physics or astrophysics.

  12. Relatives and Relations in Paluai’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schokkin, Dineke; Otto, Ton

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the expression of kinship in Paluai (Baluan-Pam, ISO 639-3: blq), an Oceanic language spoken on Baluan Island, Manus Province, Papua New Guinea. Based on data gathered during extensive fieldwork, the authors first consider the formal characteristics of nominal possessive cons...... of birth order terms, which are a relatively rare phenomenon, and the partial replacement of the system by terms from the creole language Tok Pisin....

  13. Ventricular Energetics in Pediatric Left Ventricular Assist Device Patients: A Retrospective Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Molfetta, Arianna; Ferrari, Gianfranco; Iacobelli, Roberta; Filippelli, Sergio; Di Chiara, Luca; Guccione, Paolo; Amodeo, Antonio

    The aim of this study is to estimate the trend of right and left energetic parameters in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) pediatric patients. Echocardiographic data were retrospectively collected at the baseline, in the acute phase after and at the monthly follow-ups till the LVAD explantation to estimate left and right ventricular energetic parameters. A significant relationship between the left and right ventricular energetic parameter trends was found along all the study period. Left ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relationship improved till the follow-up of 2 months and then progressively decreases. Left arteroventricular coupling decreases after the LVAD, and right arteroventricular coupling decreases at the short-term follow-up. Left ventricular external work, potential energy, and pressure-volume area decrease at the short-term follow-up and then increase progressively. Right ventricular external work, potential energy, and pressure-volume area increase after the LVAD implantation. Left (right) cardiac mechanical efficiency is improved (worsened) by the LVAD. Energetic variables show that the LVAD benefits could decrease over time. A continuous and patient tailored LVAD setting could contribute to prolong LVAD benefits. The introduction of energetic parameters could lead to a more complete evaluation of LVAD patients' outcome which is a multiparametric process.

  14. Special relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Faraoni, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    This book offers an essential bridge between college-level introductions and advanced graduate-level books on special relativity. It begins at an elementary level, presenting and discussing the basic concepts normally covered in college-level works, including the Lorentz transformation. Subsequent chapters introduce the four-dimensional worldview implied by the Lorentz transformations, mixing time and space coordinates, before continuing on to the formalism of tensors, a topic usually avoided in lower-level courses. The book’s second half addresses a number of essential points, including the concept of causality; the equivalence between mass and energy, including applications; relativistic optics; and measurements and matter in Minkowski spacetime. The closing chapters focus on the energy-momentum tensor of a continuous distribution of mass-energy and its covariant conservation; angular momentum; a discussion of the scalar field of perfect fluids and the Maxwell field; and general coordinates. Every chapter...

  15. International Relations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is the textbook for the Open University module International Relations: Continuity and Change in Global Politics. Instead of leading with a succession of theoretical 'isms', the module structures its presentation of the subject around six teaching ‘blocks’, each of which explores a dilemma......: Flat or uneven? Change and transformation in the international system • Block 3: Just or unjust? Intervention and inequality in the international system • Block 4: Top-down or bottom-up? Governance in the international system • Block 5: Secure or insecure? Pursuing security in the international system...... • Block 6: Continuity or change in global politics? Each block introduces new IR theories through discussions of the substantive dilemmas and adds in a layered way levels of analysis and conceptual complexity....

  16. Community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, C.

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of the oil and gas companies with the Northern communities regarding drilling activities was an important aspect of oil and gas operations conducted in the Beaufort Sea. During the 1960s the industry and aboriginal people basically ignored each other. Later, the industry put more emphasis on community consultation until finally two-way communication was established. Respect for the land and the environment were very important to aboriginal people who depended on the land and its resources for their traditional way of life. Community relations policies by the various companies involved in the area, and the impact they have had on their respective communities were recounted. Not all efforts were successful, however, the companies and the communities learned from their experiences, and by the time operations ceased, the communities seemed to be more appreciative of the ways they were being treated by the oil companies. 22 figs

  17. Numerical relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, T

    1993-01-01

    In GR13 we heard many reports on recent. progress as well as future plans of detection of gravitational waves. According to these reports (see the report of the workshop on the detection of gravitational waves by Paik in this volume), it is highly probable that the sensitivity of detectors such as laser interferometers and ultra low temperature resonant bars will reach the level of h ~ 10—21 by 1998. in this level we may expect the detection of the gravitational waves from astrophysical sources such as coalescing binary neutron stars once a year or so. Therefore the progress in numerical relativity is urgently required to predict the wave pattern and amplitude of the gravitational waves from realistic astrophysical sources. The time left for numerical relativists is only six years or so although there are so many difficulties in principle as well as in practice.

  18. Distant Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2011-01-01

    contribute to and learn from entrepreneurship research. In a number of workshops sponsored by the Knowledge Foundation and the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation, a group of international scholars, practicing artists, and representatives of funding organizations have addressed issues such as opportunity...... recognition among creative individuals, similarities and differences between artists and entrepreneurs, the survival and failure of new art initiatives, the globalization of the art arena, and policies for maintaining a dynamic art arena. Publications: The collective findings from the project will appear......) Entrepreneurship on the art arena - An ecological perspective (Mikael Scherdin and Ivo Zander) Distant relations - Art practice in a global culture (Morten Søndergaard) Art entrepreneurship - A commentary (Daved Barry) Summary and policy implications (Mikael Scherdin and Ivo Zander)...

  19. International relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The French nuclear safety authority (A.S.N.) has participated at different meeting in European Union as nuclear decommissioning assistance programme(N.D.A.P.), Regulatory assistance management group (R.A.M.G.) and Instrument for nuclear safety cooperation (I.N.S.C.). The members of Western European nuclear regulator association (W.E.N.R.A.) met and discussed about the future of W.E.N.R.A. and its representativeness and its cooperation with European nuclear safety regulator group (E.N.S.R.E.G.) and head of European radiation control authorities (H.E.R.C.A.). About International relations it is to noticed a meeting at the invitation of IAEA to discuss about the possibility to resort to the Ines scale for medical events. An audit mission under the IAEA aegis stood at Fessenheim, O.S.A.R.T. for operational safety review team. Two years and a half passed by between the audit mission Integrated regulatory review service (I.R.S.S.) welcome by A.S.N. in november 2006 and the audit mission follow up in 2009, 12 experts from 11 different countries and coordinated by three representatives of IAEA worked, the conclusions were that 90% of recommendations made to A.S.N. in 2006 were treated in a satisfying way; the evaluation gives three new recommendations, 7 new suggestions and 11 new correct practices. A meeting of the commission on safety standards (C.S.S.) stood in april 2009. Some others meeting are to be noticed: nuclear safety and security group (N.S.S.G.), expert group on nuclear and radiation safety (E.G.N.R.S.) instituted by the council of the Baltic sea states (C.B.S.S.) treats data exchange on the national networks of dose rates and surveillance of radioactivity in air. International nuclear regulator association (I.N.R.A.) held its first meeting in april 2009 at Seoul (Korea). Bilateral relations with Poland, Italy, Ukraine and Germany planed cooperation or information exchange in the field of nuclear safety. Participation to conference in Usa, meetings with United

  20. Ventricular energetics early after surgery for chronic mitral regurgitation: repair versus replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imasaka, Ken-ichi; Motomatsu, Yuma; Hori, Hidetsugu; Kono, Takanori; Tanoue, Yoshihisa; Tayama, Eiki; Tomita, Yukihiro

    2013-11-01

    The study aim was to compare the effects of mitral valve (MV) repair and replacement with partial (posterior leaflet only) chordal preservation on left ventricular (LV) performance in chronic degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR) by assessing ventricular energetics. Contractility (end-systolic elastance), afterload (effective arterial elastance), and ventricular efficiency (ventriculoarterial coupling and the ratio of stroke work to pressure-volume area were determined using transthoracic echocardiography data obtained before and at one month after surgery in 29 patients undergoing MV repair, and in 12 patients undergoing partial chordal-sparing MV replacement. A two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was used for comparisons among patients who underwent MV surgery (valve repair versus valve replacement). The LV diastolic volume index was decreased significantly in both groups (p<0.0001), whereas the LV systolic volume index did not change significantly (p=0.956). Despite the similar remarkable decrease in ejection fraction (p<0.0001) in both groups, end-systolic elastance remained unchanged (p=0.312). Effective arterial elastance was increased significantly in both groups (p<0.0001). Ventriculoarterial coupling and the ratio of stroke work to pressure-volume area deteriorated similarly in both groups (p<0.0001 and p<0.0001). Compensation of LV geometry after correction of chronic MR preserved ventricular contractility. Furthermore, the results of MV repair were not superior to those of MV replacement with partial chordal preservation in the early postoperative period. This suggested that partial chordal-sparing MV replacement is an effective method for the treatment of chronic MR in selected patients.

  1. Water relations and microclimate around the upper limit of a cloud forest in Maui, Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsch, Sybil G; Crausbay, Shelley D; Giambelluca, Thomas W; Weintraub, Alexis E; Longman, Ryan J; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Hotchkiss, Sara C; Dawson, Todd E

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effects of atmospheric demand on both plant water relations and daily whole-tree water balance across the upper limit of a cloud forest at the mean base height of the trade wind inversion in the tropical trade wind belt. We measured the microclimate and water relations (sap flow, water potential, stomatal conductance, pressure-volume relations) of Metrosideros polymorpha Gaudich. var. polymorpha in three habitats bracketing the cloud forest's upper limit in Hawai'i to understand the role of water relations in determining ecotone position. The subalpine shrubland site, located 100 m above the cloud forest boundary, had the highest vapor pressure deficit, the least amount of rainfall and the highest levels of nighttime transpiration (EN) of all three sites. In the shrubland site, on average, 29% of daily whole-tree transpiration occurred at night, while on the driest day of the study 50% of total daily transpiration occurred at night. While EN occurred in the cloud forest habitat, the proportion of total daily transpiration that occurred at night was much lower (4%). The average leaf water potential (Ψleaf) was above the water potential at the turgor loss point (ΨTLP) on both sides of the ecotone due to strong stomatal regulation. While stomatal closure maintained a high Ψleaf, the minimum leaf water potential (Ψleafmin) was close to ΨTLP, indicating that drier conditions may cause drought stress in these habitats and may be an important driver of current landscape patterns in stand density. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Water relations and gas exchange of fan bryophytes and their adaptations to microhabitats in an Asian subtropical montane cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liang; Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Chen, Xi; Li, Su; Lu, Hua-Zheng; Wu, Chuan-Sheng; Tan, Zheng-Hong; Liu, Wen-Yao; Shi, Xian-Meng

    2015-07-01

    Fan life forms are bryophytes with shoots rising from vertical substratum that branch repeatedly in the horizontal plane to form flattened photosynthetic surfaces, which are well suited for intercepting water from moving air. However, detailed water relations, gas exchange characteristics of fan bryophytes and their adaptations to particular microhabitats remain poorly understood. In this study, we measured and analyzed microclimatic data, as well as water release curves, pressure-volume relationships and photosynthetic water and light response curves for three common fan bryophytes in an Asian subtropical montane cloud forest (SMCF). Results demonstrate high relative humidity but low light levels and temperatures in the understory, and a strong effect of fog on water availability for bryophytes in the SMCF. The facts that fan bryophytes in dry air lose most of their free water within 1 h, and a strong dependence of net photosynthesis rates on water content, imply that the transition from a hydrated, photosynthetically active state to a dry, inactive state is rapid. In addition, fan bryophytes developed relatively high cell wall elasticity and the osmoregulatory capacity to tolerate desiccation. These fan bryophytes had low light saturation and compensation point of photosynthesis, indicating shade tolerance. It is likely that fan bryophytes can flourish on tree trunks in the SMCF because of substantial annual precipitation, average relative humidity, and frequent and persistent fog, which can provide continual water sources for them to intercept. Nevertheless, the low water retention capacity and strong dependence of net photosynthesis on water content of fan bryophytes indicate a high risk of unbalanced carbon budget if the frequency and severity of drought increase in the future as predicted.

  3. Space, Time and Relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Galilean relativity; inertial frames; Newtonian mechanics; Maxwell electromagnetism; special relativity; non Euclidean geometry; principle of equiva ence; general relativity; absolute space and time.

  4. Social relations: network, support and relational strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Holstein, B; Lund, Rikke

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a conceptual framework with social relations as the main concept and the structure and the function of social relations as subconcepts. The structure of social relations covers aspects of formal relations and social network. The function of social relations covers social support......,011. The postal questionnaires were answered by a random sample in each of the age groups. The results show marked age and gender differences in both the structure and the function of social relations. The social network, measured as weekly contacts, weakens with age and so does instrumental support. Emotional...... support is unrelated to this decline in contact frequency and appears to be at the same level for younger and older individuals. Relational strain, measured as conflicts, declines with age for all kinds of social relations. The weakening of the social network with age does not seem to affect the level...

  5. Visualizing relativity: The OpenRelativity project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherin, Zachary W.; Cheu, Ryan; Tan, Philip; Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2016-05-01

    We present OpenRelativity, an open-source toolkit to simulate effects of special relativity within the popular Unity game engine. Intended for game developers, educators, and anyone interested in physics, OpenRelativity can help people create, test, and share experiments to explore the effects of special relativity. We describe the underlying physics and some of the implementation details of this toolset with the hope that engaging games and interactive relativistic "laboratory" experiments might be implemented.

  6. Incorporating Relation Paths in Neural Relation Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Wenyuan; Lin, Yankai; Liu, Zhiyuan; Sun, Maosong

    2016-01-01

    Distantly supervised relation extraction has been widely used to find novel relational facts from plain text. To predict the relation between a pair of two target entities, existing methods solely rely on those direct sentences containing both entities. In fact, there are also many sentences containing only one of the target entities, which provide rich and useful information for relation extraction. To address this issue, we build inference chains between two target entities via intermediate...

  7. What Are Related Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Contact Us Donate Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ...

  8. Factors influencing left ventricular structure and stress-corrected systolic function in men and women with asymptomatic aortic valve stenosis (a SEAS Substudy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramariuc, D.; Rieck, A.E.; Staal, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    also was a predictor of LV hypertrophy (p body mass index, heart rate, aortic valve area, LV...... mass, relative wall thickness, aortic regurgitation, hypertension, and end-systolic stress (R(2) = 0.23 and 0.59, respectively, p ... higher stress-corrected indexes of systolic function independent of LV geometry or size, wall stress, older age, or more concomitant hypertension Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2/15...

  9. Tests Related to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to learn. Search form Search Tests related to pregnancy You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... to Genetic Counseling . What Are Tests Related to Pregnancy? Pregnancy related testing is done before or during ...

  10. Influence of age on left ventricular performance during exercise in normal Japanese subject

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Tokuji; Koyama, Takao; Aoki, Toshikazu; Makino, Katsutoshi; Yamamuro, Masashi; Nakai, Kyudayu; Nakamura, Masayuki; Nakano, Takeshi.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the effects of age on left ventricular performance, multistage supine ergometer exercise radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) was performed in 92 normal subjects. The subjects ranged in age from 24 to 86 years and were free of cardiopulmonary disease and diabetes. Age-related changes in exercise duration, left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV), cardiac output (CO) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular dv/dt, systolic and diastolic time indexes of dv/dt, and peak systolic pressure/left ventricular end-systolic volume (PSP/LVESV) were analyzed at rest and during the peak exercise stage. Age-related decrease in LVEDV and peak diastolic dv/dt were significant at rest. The time indexes of ECG R to peak systolic dv/dt and time of end-systole to peak diastolic dv/dt also were prolonged with age. Both maximum heart rate and exercise duration were shown to decline with age. No age-related difference was observed in LVESV, LVEF or PSP/LVESV either at rest or during exercise. However, the change of LVEF and LVESV during exercise was less in subjects aged 60 or more. These results indicate decreased left ventricular function during exercise in elderly subjects. (author)

  11. Shoot water relations of mature black spruce families displaying a genotype x environment interaction in growth rate. I. Family and site effects over three growing seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John E Major

    1999-01-01

    Pressure-volume curves were determined for black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) trees from four full-sib families. During the first two years, trees were measured from a plantation on a dry site. In the third year, trees were sampled from the dry site and a wet site. Diurnal measurements of shoot water potential allowed in situ ...

  12. Shoot water relations of mature black spruce families displaying a genotype x environment interaction in growth rate. II. Temporal trends and response to varying soil water conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Major; Kurt H. Johnsen

    1999-01-01

    Pressure-volume curves and shoot water potentials were determined for black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) trees from four full-sib families at the Petawawa Research Forest, Ontario, Canada. Trees were sampled from a dry site in 1992 and from the dry site and a wet site in 1993. Modulus of elasticity (e ), osmotic potential at...

  13. Public Relations and Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Daniel D.

    1987-01-01

    Urges community colleges to adopt pro-active public relations strategies. Examines the role of the public information officer in such areas as coordination of public relations and marketing activities, relations with media, and the development of a comprehensive public relations plan. (AYC)

  14. Functional Programming With Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, Graham

    1991-01-01

    While programming in a relational framework has much to offer over the functional style in terms of expressiveness, computing with relations is less efficient, and more semantically troublesome. In this paper we propose a novel blend of the functional and relational styles. We identify a class of "causal relations", which inherit some of the bi-directionality properties of relations, but retain the efficiency and semantic foundations of the functional style.

  15. Introduction to relation algebras relation algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Givant, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The first volume of a pair that charts relation algebras from novice to expert level, this text offers a comprehensive grounding for readers new to the topic. Upon completing this introduction, mathematics students may delve into areas of active research by progressing to the second volume, Advanced Topics in Relation Algebras; computer scientists, philosophers, and beyond will be equipped to apply these tools in their own field. The careful presentation establishes first the arithmetic of relation algebras, providing ample motivation and examples, then proceeds primarily on the basis of algebraic constructions: subalgebras, homomorphisms, quotient algebras, and direct products. Each chapter ends with a historical section and a substantial number of exercises. The only formal prerequisite is a background in abstract algebra and some mathematical maturity, though the reader will also benefit from familiarity with Boolean algebra and naïve set theory. The measured pace and outstanding clarity are particularly ...

  16. Quantitative radionuclide angiography in assessment of hemodynamic changes during upright exercise: observations in normal subjects, patient with coronary artery disease and patients with aortic regurgitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Hakki, A.H.; Kane, S.A.; Segal, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative radionuclide angiography was used to evaluate hemodynamic changes in three subject groups during symptom-limited upright exercise. The 12 normal subjects had significant increases in heart rate, stroke volume, left ventricular ejection fraction and cardiac output during exercise; changes in end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were not significant. In the 24 patients with coronary artery disease there were significant increases in heart rate and cardiac output during exercise, but insignificant changes in end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes and ejection fraction. The change in diastolic volume in these patients was determined by the extent of coronary artery disease, propranolol therapy, end point of exercise and presence of collateral vessels. Furthermore, patients with previous myocardial infarction had a lower ejection fraction and higher end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes during exercise than those without myocardial infarction. In the 12 patients with chronic aortic regurgitation of moderate to severe degree, there was a decrease in the end-diastolic volume during exercise. This response was distinctly different from that of the normal subjects or the patients with coronary artery disease. All three groups had a significant decrease in pulmonary transit time during exercise. It is concluded that changes in cardiac output in normal subjects during upright exercise are related to augmentation of stroke volume and tachycardia, whereas in patients with coronary artery disease they are related mainly to tachycardia

  17. Increased stiffness is the major early abnormality in a pig model of severe aortic stenosis and predisposes to congestive heart failure in the absence of systolic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kiyotake; Aguero, Jaume; Oh, Jae Gyun; Hammoudi, Nadjib; Fish, Lauren A; Leonardson, Lauren; Picatoste, Belén; Santos-Gallego, Carlos G; Fish, Kenneth M; Hajjar, Roger J

    2015-05-20

    It remains unclear whether abnormal systolic function and relaxation are essential for developing heart failure in pathophysiology of severe aortic stenosis. Yorkshire pigs underwent surgical banding of the ascending aorta. The animals were followed for up to 5 months after surgery, and cardiac function was assessed comprehensively by invasive pressure-volume measurements, 3-dimensional echocardiography, echocardiographic speckle-tracking strain, and postmortem molecular and histological analyses. Pigs with aortic banding (n=6) exhibited significant left ventricular hypertrophy with increased stiffness compared with the control pigs (n=7) (end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship β: 0.053±0.017 versus 0.028±0.009 mm Hg/mL, P=0.007); however, all other parameters corresponding to systolic function, including ejection fraction, end-systolic pressure-volume relationship, preload recruitable stroke work, echocardiographic circumferential strain, and longitudinal strain, were not impaired in pigs with aortic banding. Relaxation parameters were also similar between groups. Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium (Ca(2+)) ATPase protein levels in the left ventricle were similar. There were significant increases in 3-dimensional echocardiographic left atrial volumes, suggesting the usefulness of these indexes to detect increased stiffness. Right atrial pacing with a heart rate of 120 beats per minute induced increased end-diastolic pressure in pigs with aortic banding in contrast to decreased end-diastolic pressure in the control pigs. Histological evaluation revealed that increased stiffness was accompanied by cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and increased perimysial and perivascular fibrosis. Increased stiffness is the major early pathological process that predisposes to congestive heart failure without abnormalities in systolic function and relaxation in a clinically relevant animal model of aortic stenosis. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart

  18. Measuring Relative Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkham, Chester A.; Barrett, Kristin Burrows

    1992-01-01

    Describes four experiments that enable students to explore the phenomena of evaporation and condensation and determine the relative humidity by measuring air temperature and dew point on warm September days. Provides tables to calculate saturation points and relative humidity. (MDH)

  19. Teaching General Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    This Resource Letter provides some guidance on issues that arise in teaching general relativity at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Particular emphasis is placed on strategies for presenting the mathematical material needed for the formulation of general relativity.

  20. FUZZY NEUTROSOPHIC RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Arockiarani; J. Martina Jency

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present the concept of fuzzy neutrosophic relations. Further we study the composition of fuzzy neutrosophic relations with the choice of t-norms and tconorms and characterize their properties.

  1. Down to earth relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, I. I.

    1978-01-01

    The basic concepts of the special and general theories of relativity are described. Simple examples are given to illustrate the effect of relativity on measurements of time and frequency in the near-earth environment.

  2. Elevated augmentation index derived from peripheral arterial tonometry is associated with abnormal ventricular-vascular coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Kevin S; Patvardhan, Eshan A; Hession, Michael; Ruan, Jenny; Karas, Richard H; Kuvin, Jeffrey T

    2010-09-01

    Although typically derived from the contour of arterial pressure waveform, augmentation index (AIx) may also be derived from the digital pulse volume waveform using finger plethysmography (peripheral arterial tonometry, PAT). Little is known regarding the physiologic correlates of AIx derived from PAT. In this study, we investigated the relation of PAT-AIx with measures of ventricular-vascular coupling. Pulse volume waves were measured via PAT and used to derive AIx. Using 2-dimensional echocardiography, effective arterial elastance index (EaI) was estimated as end-systolic pressure/stroke volume index. Left ventricular (LV) end-systolic elastance index (E(LV)I) was calculated as end-systolic pressure/end-systolic volume index. Ventricular-vascular coupling ratio was defined as EaI/E(LV)I. Given the bi-directional nature of ventricular-vascular uncoupling as measured by echocardiography, patients were separated into three groups: low EaI/E(LV)I (EaI/E(LV)I (mean 0.6-1.2, n = 16) and high EaI/E(LV)I (>1.2, n = 10). Adjusting for potential confounders (age, mean arterial pressure, height and heart rate), patients with optimal EaI/E(LV)I had lower AIx (1 +/- 4%, PEaI/E(LV)I (13 +/- 4%) and high EaI/E(LV)I (19 +/- 5%). Abnormal ventricular-vascular coupling, arising from either increased effective arterial elastance or increased ventricular elastance, is associated with increased AIx as measured by PAT. Additional research is needed to examine other vascular correlates of PAT-AIx.

  3. Relativity without tears

    OpenAIRE

    Silagadze, Z. K.

    2007-01-01

    Special relativity is no longer a new revolutionary theory but a firmly established cornerstone of modern physics. The teaching of special relativity, however, still follows its presentation as it unfolded historically, trying to convince the audience of this teaching that Newtonian physics is natural but incorrect and special relativity is its paradoxical but correct amendment. I argue in this article in favor of logical instead of historical trend in teaching of relativity and that special ...

  4. Relativity and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, William J

    1973-01-01

    The foundations of gravitational theory ; the birth of relativity theory ; the foundations of general relativity ; experimental tests of relativity ; the meaning of the redshift ; the black hole ; wormholes and white holes ; galaxies and quasars ; gravitational waves ; the shape of the Universe ; the creation of the Universe.

  5. Transit labor relations guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    This report is designed as a guide for those involved in labor relations in the transit industry. It begins with a history of transit labor relations. The economic, political, and legal environment of transit relations is then discussed. A section fo...

  6. Nothing but relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Palash B

    2003-01-01

    We deduce the most general space-time transformation laws consistent with the principle of relativity. Thus, our result contains the results of both Galilean and Einsteinian relativity. The velocity addition law comes as a by-product of this analysis. We also argue why Galilean and Einsteinian versions are the only possible embodiments of the principle of relativity

  7. A Bigraph Relational Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauquier, Maxime; Schürmann, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a model based on relations for bigraphical reactive system [Milner09]. Its defining characteristics are that validity and reaction relations are captured as traces in a multi-set rewriting system. The relational model is derived from Milner's graphical definition...

  8. Quantum General Relativity, Torsion and Uncertainty Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sabbata, V.; Sivaram, C.; Borzeszkowski, H.-H. V.; Treder, H.-J.

    It is shown that in gravitational theories with torsion one is led to commutation rules corresponding to Landau-Peierls type uncertainty relations.Translated AbstractQuantisierte allgemeine Relativitätstheorie, Torsion und UnschärferelationenEs wird gezeigt, daß man in Gravitationstheorien mit Torsion zu Vertauschungsregeln geführt wird, die Landau-Peierls-artigen Unschärferelationen entsprechen.

  9. (Pressure + volume + temperature) properties for binary oligomeric solutions of poly(ethylene glycol mono-4-octylphenyl ether) with 1-octanol or acetophenone at pressures up to 50 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.-J.; Ku, T.-J.; Lin Homu

    2009-01-01

    Densities were measured with a high-pressure densitometer for two binary oligomeric systems of poly(ethylene glycol mono-4-octylphenyl ether) (PEGOPE) with 1-octanol or acetophenone at temperatures from 298.15 K to 348.15 K and pressures up to 50 MPa. While the excess volumes are negative in (acetophenone + PEGOPE) over the entire composition range, those are found to change from positive to negative with increasing mole fraction of the solvent in (1-octanol + PEGOPE). The pressure-effect on the liquid densities can be represented accurately by the Tait equation. Moreover, an empirical equation with two characteristic parameters correlates well the PVT data over the entire experimental conditions for each binary system. The experimental specific volumes were also correlated with the Flory-Orwoll-Vrij (FOV) and the Schotte equations of state to within the experimental uncertainty.

  10. Coronary vascular resistance increases under full bypass support of centrifugal pumps--relation between myocardial perfusion and ventricular workload during pump support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Masahiko; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Nishimura, Takashi; Yamazaki, Kenji; Kyo, Shunei; Ono, Minoru; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Mizuno, Toshihide; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2012-01-01

    Coronary circulation is closely linked to myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO(2)), and previous reports have suggested decreased coronary flow (CoF) under left ventricular assist device support. Decreased CoF itself under support is not unfavorable because the native heart can be well unloaded and myocardial oxygen demand is also decreased. There should be an autoregulatory system that would maintain optimal CoF according to oxygen demand; however, the detailed mechanism is still unclear. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effect of centrifugal pumps on CoF under varied bypass rates in relation to left ventricle workload. A centrifugal pump, EVAHEART (Sun Medical Technology Research Corporation, Nagano, Japan), was installed in an adult goat (n = 10, 61.3 ± 6.5 kg). We set up the following conditions, including Circuit-Clamp (i.e., no pump support), 50% bypass, and 100% bypass. In these settings, CoF, MVO(2), pressure-volume area (PVA), and coronary vascular resistance (CVR) were measured. In 100% bypass, CoF, MVO(2), and PVA were all decreased significantly from clamp. While in 50% bypass, CoF and MVO(2) decreased from clamp, but not PVA. There was a significant 40% increase in CVR in 100% bypass from clamp. This CVR increase in 100% bypass was possibly due to mechanical collapse of coronary vascular bed itself by pump support or increased vascular tone through autoregulatory system. In clinical settings, we should adjust optimal pump speed so as not to cause this vascular collapse. However, to clarify autoregulatory system of the coronary perfusion, further investigation is ongoing in ischemic and heart failure models. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Limitation to the flashing of a supersaturated liquid related to the sonic ejection of the produced phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackme, Claude.

    1978-10-01

    For an adiabatic, constant flowrate and frictionless flow of a supersaturated liquid, the equations of evolution are established owing to a variable which is a flashing index. A graphical analysis in the pressure volume diagram shows that the flashing is choked when the produced phases are expelled at the local sonic velocity. Comparison is made between theory and existing experimental results for hot water [fr

  12. Relational aggression in marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, David A; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Harper, James M; Ashton, Ruth Hagmann; Jensen, Alexander C

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from developmental theories of relational aggression, this article reports on a study designed to identify if spouses use relationally aggressive tactics when dealing with conflict in their marriage and the association of these behaviors with marital outcomes. Using a sample of 336 married couples (672 spouses), results revealed that the majority of couples reported that relationally aggressive behaviors, such as social sabotage and love withdrawal, were a part of their marital dynamics, at least to some degree. Gender comparisons of partner reports of their spouse's behavior revealed that wives were significantly more likely to be relationally aggressive than husbands. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational aggression is associated with lower levels of marital quality and greater marital instability for both husbands and wives. Implications are drawn for the use of relational aggression theory in the future study of couple conflict and marital aggression. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...... relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky...

  14. Strategi Komunikasi Public Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Artis, Artis

    2011-01-01

    Living man in interrelates society. Relationship among human being done by gets communication so man one by another one mutually understand and influence regard for the benefit, it that always been practiced by Public Relations( liaison) in a governance and also firm institute to reach to the effect which ices. The institute of Public Relations declares for,”Public Relations is overall effort which be passed off by design and berkesenambungan in order to creates and pet keenness and mutual un...

  15. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...... and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...

  16. Public relations and ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Milan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the analysis of different forms of PR implementation and research its relation with ethics in practice. 'Public relations' is the every-day term that represents the job that is widely used in all aspects of life and work in today's society. Public relations represent a specific form of communication that has a particular application in society. Public relations involve focusing on a public aspect of organization with the aim of building a positive attitude and image. Image of public relations as a profession is often unfairly negative, and the reason for this is unprofessional and unethical relation of individuals towards their profession. In practice ethics in public relations is often considered to be an oxymoron. Ethical thinking of experts in public relations goes from Biblical attitude 'all you want people to do to you, do even so to them' (Matthew 7:12to professional loyalty to organization they work for. Because of unethical appearance it is important to set the rules, in the form of codex by which the public relations professionals will set their behaviors. .

  17. Antecedents of Relational Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowinska, Agnieszka

    This paper merges economic geography and relational capital perspective in order to analyze the proximity-based antecedents of relational assets in brokerage. It investigates empirically the role and interplay of geographical and cognitive proximity between a broker and her buyers in a quantitative...... case- study. Its contribution is threefold: first, I distinguish between the effects of cognitive and geographical proximity and explore empirically their interplay on the relational assets. Second, I contribute to the under-researched field of studying the social context of relations by accounting...

  18. Gaining Relational Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2015-01-01

    Establishing strategic technological partnerships (STPs) with foreign partners is an increasingly studied topic within the innovation management literature. Partnering firms can jointly create sources of relational competitive advantage. Chinese firms often lack research and development (R......&D) capabilities but are increasingly becoming preferred technological partners for transnational corporations. We investigate an STP between a Scandinavian and a Chinese firm and try to explore how to gain relational competitive advantage by focusing on its two essential stages: relational rent generation...... and appropriation. Based on an explorative case study, we develop a conceptual framework that consists of process, organizational alliance factors, and coordination modes that we propose lead to relational competitive advantage....

  19. Motion and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Infeld, Leopold

    1960-01-01

    Motion and Relativity focuses on the methodologies, solutions, and approaches involved in the study of motion and relativity, including the general relativity theory, gravitation, and approximation.The publication first offers information on notation and gravitational interaction and the general theory of motion. Discussions focus on the notation of the general relativity theory, field values on the world-lines, general statement of the physical problem, Newton's theory of gravitation, and forms for the equation of motion of the second kind. The text then takes a look at the approximation meth

  20. Mathematics of relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Rainich, George Yuri

    1950-01-01

    Based on the ideas of Einstein and Minkowski, this concise treatment is derived from the author's many years of teaching the mathematics of relativity at the University of Michigan. Geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students of physics, the text covers old physics, new geometry, special relativity, curved space, and general relativity. Beginning with a discussion of the inverse square law in terms of simple calculus, the treatment gradually introduces increasingly complicated situations and more sophisticated mathematical tools. Changes in fundamental concepts, which characterize relativity theory, and the refinements of mathematical technique are incorporated as necessary. The presentation thus offers an easier approach without sacrifice of rigor.

  1. Models as Relational Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Tommi

    2017-11-01

    Model-based learning (MBL) has an established position within science education. It has been found to enhance conceptual understanding and provide a way for engaging students in authentic scientific activity. Despite ample research, few studies have examined the cognitive processes regarding learning scientific concepts within MBL. On the other hand, recent research within cognitive science has examined the learning of so-called relational categories. Relational categories are categories whose membership is determined on the basis of the common relational structure. In this theoretical paper, I argue that viewing models as relational categories provides a well-motivated cognitive basis for MBL. I discuss the different roles of models and modeling within MBL (using ready-made models, constructive modeling, and generative modeling) and discern the related cognitive aspects brought forward by the reinterpretation of models as relational categories. I will argue that relational knowledge is vital in learning novel models and in the transfer of learning. Moreover, relational knowledge underlies the coherent, hierarchical knowledge of experts. Lastly, I will examine how the format of external representations may affect the learning of models and the relevant relations. The nature of the learning mechanisms underlying students' mental representations of models is an interesting open question to be examined. Furthermore, the ways in which the expert-like knowledge develops and how to best support it is in need of more research. The discussion and conceptualization of models as relational categories allows discerning students' mental representations of models in terms of evolving relational structures in greater detail than previously done.

  2. Destination: Alumni Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maura King

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly today, with the growing and sophisticated skill set alumni professionals need to get the job done, alumni relations has become a destination career rather than a stop along the way. Modern alumni relations is "so much more than homecoming and punch-and-cookie receptions." It's marketing, volunteer management, and social networking. To…

  3. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can be caused by overexposure to the sun or any situation that involves extreme heat. Young children and the elderly are most at risk, ...

  4. Space, Time and Relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Special Relativity is now a hundred years old, and Gen- eral Relativity is just ten years younger. Even the gen- eral literate public probably knows that these two the- ories of physics - STR and GTR - profoundly altered previous conceptions and understanding of space and time in physics. We will try to describe these ...

  5. relatives in Butajira, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: The occurrence of psychosocial problems related to epilepsy is well recognized and in certain situations could even be more troublesome than the effect of the seizure disorders themselves. Objective: This study was conducted to assess the magnitude of stigma experienced by patients and relatives ...

  6. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicine's Front Line Observation Emergency Care Fact Sheet Health & Safety Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can ...

  7. EU-Mashreq Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2018-01-01

    -related foreign policy considerations: the ENP Action Plans (APs) ‘will draw on a common set of principles but will be differentiated, reflecting the existing state of relations with each country, its needs and capacities, as well as common interests’ (Commission of the European Communities 2004). In the Mashreq...

  8. Relative Effects at Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braeken, Johan; Mulder, Joris; Wood, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the relative importance of predictors has been of historical importance in a variety of disciplines including management, medicine, economics, and psychology. When approaching hypotheses on the relative ordering of the magnitude of predicted effects (e.g., the effects of discrimination

  9. The Redshifts in Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satya Pal; Singh, Apoorva; Hareet, Prabhav

    2011-01-01

    The progress of modern cosmology took off in 1917 when A. Einstein published his paper on general theory of relativity extending his work of special theory of relativity (1905). In 1922 Alexander Friedmann constructed a mathematical model for expanding Universe that had a big bang in remote past. The experimental evidences could come in 1929 by…

  10. Relational Processing Following Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.; Shum, David; Maujean, Annick; Chappell, Mark; Birney, Damian

    2013-01-01

    The research examined relational processing following stroke. Stroke patients (14 with frontal, 30 with non-frontal lesions) and 41 matched controls completed four relational processing tasks: sentence comprehension, Latin square matrix completion, modified Dimensional Change Card Sorting, and n-back. Each task included items at two or three…

  11. Relational Perspectives on Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Relational Perspectives on Leading discusses leadership from a relational and social constructionism perspective as practiced on an everyday basis between people. The book pursues a fast growing, practice-based approach - particularly within the Anglo-Saxon parts of the world - to organization...

  12. Status of numerical relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Numerical relativity; gravitational waves; black hole; neutron star. Abstract. I describe the current status of numerical relativity from my personal point of view. Here, I focus mainly on explaining the numerical implementations necessary for simulating general relativistic phenomena such as the merger of compact ...

  13. Forces in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  14. Means-End Relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Rekom (Johan); B. Wierenga (Berend)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMeans-end relations are generally assumed to be hierarchical, and, by implication, asymmetrical. That is, if A is a means to achieve B, B is not at the same time also a means to achieve A. Literature casting doubt on this directedness of means-end relations is reviewed, and the

  15. Relative Lyapunov Center Bifurcations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Claudia; Schilder, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Relative equilibria (REs) and relative periodic orbits (RPOs) are ubiquitous in symmetric Hamiltonian systems and occur, for example, in celestial mechanics, molecular dynamics, and rigid body motion. REs are equilibria, and RPOs are periodic orbits of the symmetry reduced system. Relative Lyapunov...... center bifurcations are bifurcations of RPOs from REs corresponding to Lyapunov center bifurcations of the symmetry reduced dynamics. In this paper we first prove a relative Lyapunov center theorem by combining recent results on the persistence of RPOs in Hamiltonian systems with a symmetric Lyapunov...... center theorem of Montaldi, Roberts, and Stewart. We then develop numerical methods for the detection of relative Lyapunov center bifurcations along branches of RPOs and for their computation. We apply our methods to Lagrangian REs of the N-body problem....

  16. Water relations of coastal and estuarine Rhizophora mangle: xylem pressure potential and dynamics of embolism formation and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, P J; Goldstein, G; Meinzer, F C; Yount, D E; Jones, T J; Holbrook, N M; Huang, C X

    2001-01-01

    , the proportion of gas-filled vessels was 20-30% greater at midday than at dawn or during the late afternoon. Refilling of cavitated vessels thus occurred during the late afternoon when considerable tension was present in neighboring vessels. These results and results from pressure-volume relationships suggest that R. mangle adjusts hydraulic properties of the water-transport system, as well as the leaf osmotic potential, in concert with the environmental growing conditions.

  17. The relational universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnon, A.

    1998-01-01

    A relational approach to be observable universe is proposed, which precludes the concept of absolute background. Space-time events emerge as dynamical entities which owe their existence to a memorization process, itself inter wind with the availability of cosmological horizons (screening from totality) sourcing long-range correlations. The resulting (and relational) mode of description sheds light on various paradoxes (EPR, Foucault pendolum, light beam effect, etc.), on the problem of instantaneous and global influences (quark deconfinement) as related to the interconnectedness of our cosmos. This scenario leads to comment on living systems vs. robots, and on non-recursive and global aspects of the mathematical intuition

  18. Clocks and special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacRoberts, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    A kinematic theory without precise definitions of the 'space' and 'time' used is an uninterpreted calculus. The definition of 'time' in special relativity is based on light propagation and the 'constant velocity of light' is a tautological consequence of the definition. When this definition is reified in a 'clock' the phenomenon of 'time dilation' occurs, in terms of the defined time, but is not reciprocal between moving systems; the postulate of relativity is not observed. The new definition of time is compatible with an ether theory without the relativity principle. The derivation of the Lorentz transformations, which requires both postulates, is purely formalistic and is not ontologically sound. (Auth.)

  19. NgsRelate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Moltke, Ida

    2015-01-01

    be called with high certainty. RESULTS: We present a software tool, NgsRelate, for estimating pairwise relatedness from NGS data. It provides maximum likelihood estimates that are based on genotype likelihoods instead of genotypes and thereby takes the inherent uncertainty of the genotypes into account....... Using both simulated and real data, we show that NgsRelate provides markedly better estimates for low-depth NGS data than two state-of-the-art genotype-based methods. AVAILABILITY: NgsRelate is implemented in C++ and is available under the GNU license at www.pop gen.dk/software. CONTACT: ida...

  20. Gravitation and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, William F

    1964-01-01

    Remarks on the observational basis of general relativity ; Riemannian geometry ; gravitation as geometry ; gravitational waves ; Mach's principle and experiments on mass anisotropy ; the many faces of Mach ; the significance for the solar system of time-varying gravitation ; relativity principles and the role of coordinates in physics ; the superdense star and the critical nucleon number ; gravitation and light ; possible effects on the solar system of φ waves if they exist ; the Lyttleton-Bondi universe and charge equality ; quantization of general relativity ; Mach's principle as boundary condition for Einstein's equations.

  1. Public Relations vs. Propaganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru BASTIAN

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at presenting the characteristics, methods and aplications of two related activities – Public Relations and propaganda. Although different from the piont of wiev of purpose and results (the practice of Public Relations aims at establishing and maintaining mutual lines of communications, understanding, acceptance, and cooperation between an organization and its publics, through transparency and honesty, while propaganda insists on a message that is intended primarily to serve the interests of the messenger. in order to influence public opinion and to manipulate other people’s beliefs by any means necessary, the two activities also present quite a lot of similarities.

  2. Simple relation algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Givant, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This monograph details several different methods for constructing simple relation algebras, many of which are new with this book. By drawing these seemingly different methods together, all are shown to be aspects of one general approach, for which several applications are given. These tools for constructing and analyzing relation algebras are of particular interest to mathematicians working in logic, algebraic logic, or universal algebra, but will also appeal to philosophers and theoretical computer scientists working in fields that use mathematics. The book is written with a broad audience in mind and features a careful, pedagogical approach; an appendix contains the requisite background material in relation algebras. Over 400 exercises provide ample opportunities to engage with the material, making this a monograph equally appropriate for use in a special topics course or for independent study. Readers interested in pursuing an extended background study of relation algebras will find a comprehensive treatme...

  3. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ICE” in Your Cell Phone Prepare for Disasters Communication With Your Family And Your Doctor About Your ... Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can be ...

  4. General relativity and experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Damour, T.

    1994-01-01

    The confrontation between Einstein's theory of gravitation and experiment is summarized. Although all current experimental data are compatible with general relativity, the importance of pursuing the quest for possible deviations from Einstein's theory is emphasized.

  5. General Relativity and Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    Reviews theoretical and experimental fundamentals of Einstein's theory of general relativity. Indicates that recent development of the theory of the continually expanding universe may lead to revision of the space-time continuum of the finite and unbounded universe. (CC)

  6. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  7. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  8. Sport-related concussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Natuline Ianof

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such as American football, rugby, soccer, boxing, basketball and hockey are associated with a relatively high prevalence of concussion. Various factors may be associated with a greater risk of sport-related concussion, such as age, sex, sport played, level of sport played and equipment used. Physical complaints (headache, fatigue, dizziness, behavioral changes (depression, anxiety, irritability and cognitive impairment are very common after a concussion. The risk of premature return to activities includes the prolongation of post-concussive symptoms and increased risk of concussion recurrence.

  9. Toward relational empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christens, Brian D

    2012-09-01

    Psychological empowerment has been theorized as a construct with emotional, behavioral and cognitive components. Yet, many studies have stressed that empowerment processes are contingent on interpersonal relationships. Moreover, theory suggests that power is developed and exercised through relationships. This article makes the case that expanding our conceptions of psychological empowerment through the addition of a relational component can enhance our understanding of psychological empowerment and the effectiveness of empowerment-oriented community practice. Previous research on empowerment is reviewed for relational content, and additional insights into the relational context of empowerment processes are marshaled from other concepts in community research including social capital, sense of community, social networks, social support, and citizen participation. A new iteration of the nomological network for psychological empowerment is presented, including the elements of a relational component.

  10. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicine's Front Line Observation Emergency Care Fact Sheet Health & Safety Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Emergencies A-Z Share ... Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can ...

  11. de Sitter special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrovandi, R; Almeida, J P Beltran; Pereira, J G

    2007-01-01

    A special relativity based on the de Sitter group is introduced, which is a theory that might hold up in the presence of a non-vanishing cosmological constant. Like ordinary special relativity, it retains the quotient character of spacetime, and a notion of homogeneity. As a consequence, the underlying spacetime will be a de Sitter spacetime, whose associated kinematics will differ from that of ordinary special relativity. The corresponding modified notions of energy and momentum are obtained, and the exact relationship between them, which is invariant under a re-scaling of the involved quantities, explicitly exhibited. Since the de Sitter group can be considered a particular deformation of the Poincare group, this theory turns out to be a specific kind of deformed (or doubly) special relativity. Some experimental consequences, as well as the causal structure of spacetime-modified by the presence of the de Sitter horizon-are briefly discussed

  12. Journalism of Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    of the self-other relation which is simultaneously personal and political. Secondly, the dissertation relates the phenomenological ‘race’ and gender debates to the societal and productive context of contemporary European and ‘western’ globalised and mediated culture and politics. Journalism is re......-defined as theory and practice of production of cultural memory and social imaginaries of gendered, ethnic, religious, national and ‘racial’ differences. At the core of the argument here is a critique of the journalistic use of ‘objectivity’. This use hides the journalistic subjectivity by splitting the ethical...... accountability and relation from journalistic training and practices whereby a ‘white’ and homogeneous social imaginary is reproduced. I make a call for thinking about journalism as relation – in terms of technological mediations, but also in terms of subjectivities. In order to allow for this, a shift is needed...

  13. Surviving relatives after suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelykke, Helle; Cohrt, Pernille

    We would like to focus on the surviving relatives after suicides, because it is generally accepted that it is especially difficult to recover after the loss from suicide and because we know as a fact that one suicide affects five persons on average. Every year approximately 700 people commit...... suicide in Denmark. This means that at least 400 people undergo the trauma it is when one of their near relatives commits suicide. We also know that the loss from suicide involves a lot of conflicting feelings - like anger, shame, guilt and loss and that the lack of therapy/treatment of these difficult...... for treatment for the relatives. In the wake of this policy document a national organization for relatives after suicide and a national network for those who attempt suicide occurred. Both organizations are formed by voluntary subscription and both organizations offer acute emergency relief, conversation groups...

  14. Asbestos-related malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antmann, K.; Aisner, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 20 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Radiology of Asbestosis and Related Neoplasms; Computed Tomography and Malignant Mesothelioma; Radiation Therapy for Pleural Mesothelioma; and Radiation Therapy of Peritoneal Mesothelioma

  15. School of International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Michail M. Narinskii

    2014-01-01

    International Relations have been and remain not only one of the basic academic disciplines, but also one of the main directions of research work at MGIMO. Doing IR is closely intertwined with theory and practice, history and current events, the desire to combine a deep knowledge of the factual material and research-based evaluation in accordance with objective laws found in international life. Training of highly qualified specialists in international relations is impossible without a fundame...

  16. Classifying Linear Canonical Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Lorand, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.

  17. Managing or Relating?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sproedt, Henrik; Buur, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a case of user-driven innovation. We draw on social capital theory and the concept of complex responsive processes to examine the role of relations for the exchange and generation of knowledge across different knowledge traditions. We argue that innovation as a social...... phenomenon with a high degree of uncertainty and complexity requires more relating and less managing to use conflict as a resource by turning the friction between different knowledge traditions into creative friction....

  18. The metamorphoses of relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Richard

    This talk will explore the ways that problems shifted and disciplinary boundaries changed around physicists' engagement with relational physics and relativistic thought, first in research dealing with physiology, psychology and geometry in the late nineteenth century and then (a better-known story) moving between physics, mathematics and geometry in the twentieth century. I hope to develop a richer approach for understanding the disciplinary and political significance of relativity, especially by considering in one framework the work of Engels, Mach, Einstein and Planck.

  19. Sport-related concussions

    OpenAIRE

    Ianof, Jéssica Natuline; Freire, Fabio Rios; Calado, Vanessa Tomé Gonçalves; Lacerda, Juliana Rhein; Coelho, Fernanda; Veitzman, Silvia; Schmidt, Magali Taino; Machado, Sergio; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Basile, Luis Fernando Hindi; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Amorim, Robson; Anghinah, Renato

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such...

  20. De Sitter projective relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Licata, Ignazio; Benedetto, Elmo

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the Projective approach to de Sitter Relativity. It traces the development of renewed interest in models of the universe at constant positive curvature such as "vacuum" geometry. The De Sitter Theory of Relativity, formulated in 1917 with Willem De Sitter's solution of the Einstein equations, was used in different fields during the 1950s and 1960s, in the work of H. Bacry, J.M. LevyLeblond and F.Gursey, to name some important contributors. From the 1960s to 1980s, L. Fantappié and G. Arcidiacono provided an elegant group approach to the De Sitter universe putting the basis for special and general projective relativity. Today such suggestions flow into a unitary scenario, and this way the De Sitter Relativity is no more a "missing opportunity" (F. Dyson, 1972), but has a central role in theoretical physics. In this volume a systematic presentation is given of the De Sitter Projective relativity, with the recent developments in projective general relativity and quantum cosmology.

  1. The theories of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deruelle, N.; Uzan, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    This book is a quite complete route towards general relativity via special relativity with a start point at Newton's mechanics. The mathematical formulation is based on tensors. All the relativistic aspects of only classical physics - it means no quantum mechanics - are exposed. This book is divided into 3 books and each book represents a consistent knowledge of physics at a certain time in the past: in Newton's time, in the second half of the 19. century and today. The advantage of this presentation is to make the reader feels the changes over time in the concepts of time, space, gravity, cosmology. Each book is divided into 3, 4 and 5 parts which are sub-divided into numerous chapters. Book 1: Space, time and gravity in Newton's theory, with part 1: kinematics, part 2: dynamics and part 3: gravity. Book 2: Special relativity and Maxwell's theory, with part 1: kinematics, part 2: dynamics, part 3: electromagnetism and part 4: electrodynamics. And Book 3: General relativity and gravity, with part 1: curved space-time and gravity, part 2: Schwarzschild solution and black holes, part 3: general relativity and experiments, part 4: Friedman-Lemaitre solutions and cosmology, and part 5: elements or Riemann geometry. The 3. book dedicated to general relativity, tackles topics like the relationships between space-time curvature and gravity, Schwarzschild solutions and black holes, gravitational waves, Friedmann-Lemaitre solutions and cosmology, and Riemann geometry. (A.C.)

  2. INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS IN SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Opić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of the scientific project titled “The Curriculum of Social Competences and Relations in School”, the aim of this paper is to examine the quality of interpersonal relations between teachers and pupils. On a sample of 432 teachers from 20 towns, 35 primary schools in the Republic of Croatia, and 432 pupils, it was confirmed that there is a difference in the appraisal of the quality of their interpersonal relations. Although the overall quality of interpersonal relations between pupils and teachers is at a moderately satisfactory level, pupils still appraise the quality of interpersonal relations lower than their teachers. In view of latent dimensionality, a factor questionnaire structure was used (14 variables; ordinal type and two main components (subscales determined: didactic support and interaction, and rough verbal and physical treatment. As part of the differential draft of our research, no gender differences were established (between female and male teachers in the appraisal of the quality of interpersonal relations with pupils (on two subscales. The correlation analysis confirmed a low negative statistically significant correlation between the years of service and the subscale rough verbal and physical treatment (Rho=-0.101. In view of the subscale of rough verbal and physical treatment between pupils and teachers, such results on a negative correlation imply that older teachers, as opposed to their younger colleagues, use more corporal punishment in schools, treat pupils rudely, use nasty and impolite words, and call pupils insulting names.

  3. STRATEGI KOMUNIKASI PUBLIC RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artis Artis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Living man in interrelates society. Relationship among human being done by gets communication so man one by another one mutually understand and influence regard for the benefit, it that always been practiced by Public Relations( liaison in a governance and also firm institute to reach to the effect which ices. The institute of Public Relations declares for,”Public Relations is overall effort which be passed off by design and berkesenambungan in order to creates and pet keenness and mutual understanding among an organization with whole its member “. In this case, Public Relations in give distribution on manajement's strategy there is two: First, Doing task as part of Public Relations's strategy and involvement in comprehensive process and gives benefit for management an organization. Both of, Public Relations gets role in management strategy in bring off activity to reach to the effect good one gets internal character and also external one correspond to that desirable by good institute on level governance and firm.

  4. Workplace-related burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, M A H; Mullins, R F; Alam, B; Brandigi, C; Friedman, B C; Shaver, J R; Hassan, Z

    2011-06-30

    Introduction. The key element of a safe workplace for employees is the maintenance of fire safety. Thermal, chemical, and electrical burns are common types of burns at the workplace. This study assessed the epidemiology of work-related burn injuries on the basis of the workers treated in a regional burn centre. Methods. Two years' retrospective data (2005-2006) from the Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons of the Joseph M. Still Burn Center at Doctors Hospital in Augusta, Georgia, were collected and analysed. Results. During the time period studied, 2510 adult patients with acute burns were admitted; 384 cases (15%) were work-related. The average age of the patients was 37 yr (range, 15-72 yr). Males constituted the majority (90%) of workrelated burn injury admissions. The racial distribution was in accordance with the Centre's admission census. Industrial plant explosions accounted for the highest number of work-related burns and, relatively, a significant number of patients had chemical burns. The average length of hospital stay was 5.54 days. Only three patients did not have health insurance and four patients (1%) died. Conclusion. Burn injuries at the workplace predominantly occur among young male workers, and the study has shown that chemical burns are relatively frequent. This study functions as the basis for the evaluation of work-related burns and identification of the causes of these injuries to formulate adequate safety measures, especially for young, male employees working with chemicals.

  5. Algorithmic Relative Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cerra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Information content and compression are tightly related concepts that can be addressed through both classical and algorithmic information theories, on the basis of Shannon entropy and Kolmogorov complexity, respectively. The definition of several entities in Kolmogorov’s framework relies upon ideas from classical information theory, and these two approaches share many common traits. In this work, we expand the relations between these two frameworks by introducing algorithmic cross-complexity and relative complexity, counterparts of the cross-entropy and relative entropy (or Kullback-Leibler divergence found in Shannon’s framework. We define the cross-complexity of an object x with respect to another object y as the amount of computational resources needed to specify x in terms of y, and the complexity of x related to y as the compression power which is lost when adopting such a description for x, compared to the shortest representation of x. Properties of analogous quantities in classical information theory hold for these new concepts. As these notions are incomputable, a suitable approximation based upon data compression is derived to enable the application to real data, yielding a divergence measure applicable to any pair of strings. Example applications are outlined, involving authorship attribution and satellite image classification, as well as a comparison to similar established techniques.

  6. Tensors, relativity, and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Dalarsson, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Tensors, Relativity, and Cosmology, Second Edition, combines relativity, astrophysics, and cosmology in a single volume, providing a simplified introduction to each subject that is followed by detailed mathematical derivations. The book includes a section on general relativity that gives the case for a curved space-time, presents the mathematical background (tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry), discusses the Einstein equation and its solutions (including black holes and Penrose processes), and considers the energy-momentum tensor for various solutions. In addition, a section on relativistic astrophysics discusses stellar contraction and collapse, neutron stars and their equations of state, black holes, and accretion onto collapsed objects, with a final section on cosmology discussing cosmological models, observational tests, and scenarios for the early universe. This fully revised and updated second edition includes new material on relativistic effects, such as the behavior of clocks and measuring rods in m...

  7. Introduction to special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rindler, W.

    1982-01-01

    This is intended as a text for an introductory course on special relativity; it assumes no prior knowledge of relativity. It is intended for the upper undergraduate level and upwards. The first three chapters take a three-dimensional viewpoint for a simple introduction to topics such as the relativity of simultaneity, length contraction, time dilation, the twin paradox and the appearance of moving objects. For the remaining chapters the strongest possible use is made of four-dimensional techniques. Chapter four deals with space-time, chapters five and six with mechanics and electromagnetism. In these a purely synthetic four-tensor approach is adopted. Pure tensor theory is covered in an appendix. The last chapter is on the mechanics of continua. (U.K.)

  8. Altitude-related cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Altitude-related cough is a troublesome condition of uncertain aetiology that affects many visitors to high altitude. The traditionally held belief that it was due solely to the inspiration of cold, dry air was refuted by observations and experiments in long duration hypobaric chamber studies. It is likely that altitude-related cough is a symptom of a number of possible perturbations in the cough reflex arc that may exist independently or together. These include loss of water from the respiratory tract; respiratory tract infections and sub-clinical high altitude pulmonary oedema. The published work on altitude-related cough is reviewed and possible aetiologies for the condition are discussed. PMID:24175933

  9. Dynamics and Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Forshaw, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    A new title in the Manchester Physics Series, this introductory text emphasises physical principles behind classical mechanics and relativity. It assumes little in the way of prior knowledge, introducing relevant mathematics and carefully developing it within a physics context. Designed to provide a logical development of the subject, the book is divided into four sections, introductory material on dynamics, and special relativity, which is then followed by more advanced coverage of dynamics and special relativity. Each chapter includes problems ranging in difficulty from simple to challenging with?solutions for solving problems. Includes?solutions for solving problemsNumerous worked examples included throughout the bookMathematics is carefully explained and developed within a physics environmentSensitive to topics that can appear daunting or confusing

  10. Rotating Stars in Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergioulas Nikolaos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on the equilibrium properties and on the nonaxisymmetric instabilities in f-modes and r-modes have been updated and several new sections have been added on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity.

  11. Bourdieu in International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The last few years have seen a genuine wave of publications promoting sociology in international relations. Scholars have suggested that Bourdieu’s vocabulary can be applied to study security, diplomacy, migration and global environmental politics. Yet we still lack a systematic and accessible....... The chapters demonstrate how these concepts can be reinterpreted and used in new ways when exposed to Bourdieusian logic. Challenging key pillars of IR scholarship, Bourdieu in International Relations will be of interest to critical theorists, and scholars of IR theory....

  12. The Relational Database Dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    J, C

    2006-01-01

    Avoid misunderstandings that can affect the design, programming, and use of database systems. Whether you're using Oracle, DB2, SQL Server, MySQL, or PostgreSQL, The Relational Database Dictionary will prevent confusion about the precise meaning of database-related terms (e.g., attribute, 3NF, one-to-many correspondence, predicate, repeating group, join dependency), helping to ensure the success of your database projects. Carefully reviewed for clarity, accuracy, and completeness, this authoritative and comprehensive quick-reference contains more than 600 terms, many with examples, covering i

  13. Intentionality and interpersonal relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillos, Julia

    2009-12-01

    The present commentary re-introduces Heider's (1958) common-sense psychology and his treatment of intentionality, comparing and contrasting his theoretical formulations with those of Elstrup (IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science 43:4, 2009). Special emphasis is made in all those aspects of Heider's theory that are related to the perception, interpretation, prediction and control of our behavior and that of another person. Also, different social aspects of interpersonal relations are presented. Finally, some ideas regarding different approaches to the study of attributing are discussed.

  14. Turbine related fish mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicher, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to assess the factors affecting turbine-related fish mortality. The mechanics of fish passage through a turbine is outlined, and various turbine related stresses are described, including pressure and shear effects, hydraulic head, turbine efficiency, and tailwater level. The methodologies used in determining the effects of fish passage are evaluated. The necessity of adequate controls in each test is noted. It is concluded that mortality is the result of several factors such as hardiness of study fish, fish size, concentrations of dissolved gases, and amounts of cavitation. Comparisons between Francis and Kaplan turbines indicate little difference in percent mortality. 27 refs., 5 figs

  15. Relativity and its roots

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Banesh

    1998-01-01

    In this fascinating, accessible introduction to one of the most revolutionary developments in modern physics, Einstein scholar Banesh Hoffmann recounts the successive insights that led to both the special and general theories of relativity.Using simple examples from everyday life, the author presents entertaining, nontechnical demonstrations of what relativity actually means and how it has revolutionized our ideas of time and space. Starting with the geometrical and cosmological ideas of the ancient Greeks, the author traces the succession of ideas and advances that paved the way for modern p

  16. Essential dynamics and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    O'Donnell, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Essential Dynamics & Relativity provides students with an introduction to the core aspects of dynamics and special relativity. The author reiterates important ideas and terms throughout and covers concepts that are often missing from other textbooks at this level. He also places each topic within the wider constructs of the theory, without jumping from topic to topic to illustrate a point.The first section of the book focuses on dynamics, discussing the basic aspects of single particle motion and analyzing the motion of multi-particle systems. The book also explains the dynamical behavior of b

  17. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1992-05-01

    The annual Research Programme Plan describes publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1992. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities and industry also contribute to many projects

  18. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.; Mattila, L.

    1990-08-01

    The annual Research Programme Plan describes the publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1990. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and VTT itself. Utilities and industry also contribute to some projects

  19. Functions of public relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov G. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available the article reveals the importance of communication with the public in the implementation of human rights and the ideals of mankind; characterized by the specificity of public relations in the information culture of belief; PR functions are explained on the criterion of optimization of activity of social interactions on the basis of cultural ideals.

  20. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can be caused by overexposure to the sun or any situation that involves extreme heat. Young children and the elderly are most at risk, but anyone can be affected. Here ...

  1. Conformal special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the information loss/recovery theorem based on the ADS/CFT correspondence is not consistent with the stability of the Schwarzschild or Reissner-Nordstrom black holes. Nonetheless, the conformal invariance of Yang-Mills theory points to new relativity principle compatible with quantum unitarity near those black holes

  2. Sport-Related Concussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Don; Brady, Flo

    2011-01-01

    Sport-related concussions (SRC) are not limited to specific age ranges, professional athletes, or gender. The primary focus of much of SRC research pertains to the assessment, management, and return to play (RTP) of the concussed athlete. This article highlights some major issues of SRC along with some controversies that presently exist within the…

  3. Work-related stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the content and organisation of work in recent decades have resulted in an intensification of work, which is commonly regarded as a cause of stress. This report presents trends in the risks and consequences of work-related stress, and identifies how these can be prevented. The focus

  4. Aquinas on Real Relation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, David

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2016), s. 147-172 ISSN 1804-5588 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : relation and its foundation * Aquinas * order Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://www.cupress.cuni.cz/ink2_stat/index.jsp?include=AUC_clanek&id=2868&id=5343&casopis=921&zalozka=0&predkl=0

  5. Relationality and Mathematical Knowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheux, Jean-Francois; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2011-01-01

    Current conceptualizations of knowing and learning tend to separate the knower from others, the world they know, and themselves. In this article, we offer "relationality" as an alternative to such conceptualizations of mathematical knowing. We begin with the perspective of Maturana and Varela to articulate some of its problems and our alternative.…

  6. Modalities, Relations, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Martin Eric

    While the popularity of statistical, probabilistic and exhaustive machine learning techniques still increases, relational and logic approaches are still a niche market in research. While the former approaches focus on predictive accuracy, the latter ones prove to be indispensable in knowledge discovery.

  7. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, Pertti

    1987-02-01

    This annual Research Programme Plan covers the nuclear related research planned to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1987 and funded by the Ministry of Trade and Industry in Finland, the Nordic Council of Ministers and VTT itself

  8. Goedel, relativity, and mind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, Roger

    2007-01-01

    Goedel's acquaintance with Einstein led him to discover, by use of novel techniques, an exotic cosmological model which flouted many preconceived notions, such as the role of Mach's principle in general relativity and the nature of time. Goedel also invoked it in speculations concerning the question of minds

  9. Relational Database and Retrieval

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computer Aided Design for Soil Classification. Relational Database and Retrieval. Techniques ... also presents algorithms showing the procedure for generating various soil classifications, retrieval techniques for ... In engineering discipline, for instance, design choices are a compromise,'shaped by many competing factors.

  10. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.

    1988-02-01

    This annual Research Programme Plan covers the publicly funded nuclear energy related research planned to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1988. The research will be financed by the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, the Nordic Council of Ministers and VTT itself

  11. Related Drupal Nodes Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Related Drupal Nodes Block This module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks. 1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix.

  12. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toerroenen, K.; Kilpi, K.

    1985-01-01

    This research programme plan for 1985 covers the nuclear energy related research planned to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and funded by the Ministry of Trade and Industry in Finland, the Nordic Council of Ministers and VTT

  13. Relational Demonic Fuzzy Refinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairouz Tchier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use relational algebra to define a refinement fuzzy order called demonic fuzzy refinement and also the associated fuzzy operators which are fuzzy demonic join (⊔fuz, fuzzy demonic meet (⊓fuz, and fuzzy demonic composition (□fuz. Our definitions and properties are illustrated by some examples using mathematica software (fuzzy logic.

  14. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, Pertti

    1989-03-01

    This annual Research Programme Plan covers the publicly funded nuclear energy related research planned to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1989. The research will be financed by the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, the Nordic Council of Ministers and VTT itself

  15. Relational Aggression among Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  16. Employment Relations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen Steen; Due, Jesper Jørgen; Andersen, Søren Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Jørgen Steen Madsen, Jesper Due og Søren Kaj Andersen har skrevet et kapitel om udviklingen i dansk arbejdsmarkedsregulering til bogen International and Comparative Employment Relations, redigeret af Greg Bamber, Russell Lansbury og Nick Wailes. Bogen indeholder bidrag, der præsenterer og...

  17. General Theory of Relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 4. General Theory of Relativity – The Power of Speculative Thought. Asit Banerjee. General Article Volume 11 Issue 4 April 2006 pp 45-55. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  18. Seeds of General Relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Frederic R.

    1984-01-01

    Proposes novel methods of solving mechanics and dynamics problems by changing frames of reference. Uses these ideas to pursue Einstein's notions of inertial and uniformly rotating reference frames, gravitational and inertial mass, and the gravitational bending of light in relation to the simple original problem. (JM)

  19. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fact Sheet Health & Safety Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related ... if the person becomes unconscious. READ IN EMERGENCIES A-Z Adverse Drug Reactions Your Blood Pressure Score ...

  20. Space, Time and Relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We will try to describe these changes. ~ginning with earlier ideas ... various states of relative motion, each with a global space-time ... planetary system, provided that we neglect the perturbations due to the sun and planets". - Einstein. GENERAL I ARTICLE planet Mars are known with great accuracy, including the time of its ...

  1. Related Addictive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Tina; Sales, Amos

    This paper provides an overview of addiction related to substance abuse. It provides basic information, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, assessment tools, and treatment issues for eating disorders, compulsive gambling, sex addictions, and work addictions. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, especially affect adolescents.…

  2. Argumentation and Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, Richard L.

    Issue management oriented public relations provides an excellent pedagogical device for anyone interested in the application of argumentation. This can be illustrated by a case study in which a commercial metals company was wrongly accused of improperly disposing of toxic waste at a particular site. To counter the bad publicity that followed the…

  3. Fission Spectrum Related Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Aliberti; I. Kodeli; G. Palmiotti; M. Salvatores

    2007-10-01

    The paper presents a preliminary uncertainty analysis related to potential uncertainties on the fission spectrum data. Consistent results are shown for a reference fast reactor design configuration and for experimental thermal configurations. However the results obtained indicate the need for further analysis, in particular in terms of fission spectrum uncertainty data assessment.

  4. BNFL and community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolter, H.

    1982-01-01

    The contributions made by BNFL to community relations are described in an illustrated booklet under the headings: introduction (general policy); donations and sponsorships; BNFL talks service; brochures and public information; visits; local liaison committees; industrial training; sponsored students; apprentices. (U.K.)

  5. Status of numerical relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. I describe the current status of numerical relativity from my personal point of view. Here, I focus mainly on explaining the numerical implementations necessary for simulating general relativistic phenomena such as the merger of compact binaries and stellar collapse, emphasizing the well-developed current status of ...

  6. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fact Sheet Health & Safety Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related ... if the person becomes unconscious. READ IN EMERGENCIES A-Z Seizures Sunburn and Sun Safety Stroke Resources ...

  7. Stress-related IBS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related anxiety/stress response circuit. However, symptom- based therapies do not necessarily modify the natural history of the disorder, and a greater appreciation of the postulated pathophysiology may well refine therapeutic approaches.2,11. Brain–gut–enteric microbiota axis. The brain–gut axis. Stressors compel the ...

  8. Status of numerical relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I describe the current status of numerical relativity from my personal point of view. Here, I focus mainly on explaining the numerical implementations necessary for simulating general relativistic phenomena such as the merger of compact binaries and stellar collapse, emphasizing the well-developed current status of such ...

  9. Om evalueringsforskningens relative autonomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Det empiriske udgangspunkt for artiklen "Om evalueringsforskningens relative autonomi - dansk normal evalueringsforskning som et ikke-autonomt (sub)felt i magtens felt" er en række tekster af fire dominerende danske evalueringsforskere. Det teoretiske udgangspunkt er især Pierre Bourdieus teori om...

  10. Sports-related concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conder, Robert L; Conder, Alanna A

    2015-04-01

    Concussions are an inherent part of collision sports such as football and soccer. As a subset of traumatic brain injury, concussions are neurometabolic events that cause transient neurologic dysfunction. Following a concussion, some athletes require longer neurologic recovery than others. Education and intervention aimed at prevention and management can minimize the long-term sequelae of sports-related concussions.

  11. Correspondences. Equivalence relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouligand, G.M.

    1978-03-01

    We comment on sections paragraph 3 'Correspondences' and paragraph 6 'Equivalence Relations' in chapter II of 'Elements de mathematique' by N. Bourbaki in order to simplify their comprehension. Paragraph 3 exposes the ideas of a graph, correspondence and map or of function, and their composition laws. We draw attention to the following points: 1) Adopting the convention of writting from left to right, the composition law for two correspondences (A,F,B), (U,G,V) of graphs F, G is written in full generality (A,F,B)o(U,G,V) = (A,FoG,V). It is not therefore assumed that the co-domain B of the first correspondence is identical to the domain U of the second (EII.13 D.7), (1970). 2) The axiom of choice consists of creating the Hilbert terms from the only relations admitting a graph. 3) The statement of the existence theorem of a function h such that f = goh, where f and g are two given maps having the same domain (of definition), is completed if h is more precisely an injection. Paragraph 6 considers the generalisation of equality: First, by 'the equivalence relation associated with a map f of a set E identical to (x is a member of the set E and y is a member of the set E and x:f = y:f). Consequently, every relation R(x,y) which is equivalent to this is an equivalence relation in E (symmetrical, transitive, reflexive); then R admits a graph included in E x E, etc. Secondly, by means of the Hilbert term of a relation R submitted to the equivalence. In this last case, if R(x,y) is separately collectivizing in x and y, theta(x) is not the class of objects equivalent to x for R (EII.47.9), (1970). The interest of bringing together these two subjects, apart from this logical order, resides also in the fact that the theorem mentioned in 3) can be expressed by means of the equivalence relations associated with the functions f and g. The solutions of the examples proposed reveal their simplicity [fr

  12. Relational time in physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, A.K.T. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Isaac Newton (1642-1727) defended in his book Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, also know as Principia, published in 1687, the utilization of absolute time in physics. According to him 'absolute, true, and mathematical time, of itself, and from its own nature, flows equably without relation to anything external'. Leibniz (1646-1716), on the other hand, was against this concept and proposed relative time to replace it: 'As for my opinion, I have said more than once, that I hold space to be something merely relative, as time is; that I hold it to be an order of coexistence, as time is an order of successions'. Leibniz ideas were accepted and developed by Ernst Mach (1838-1916) in his book The Science of Mechanics, published in 1883. In this work we consider the implementation of relational time, as proposed by Leibniz and Mach, and the consequences this implementation will mean for physics as a whole. We consider some specific examples related to mechanics (Newton's bucket experiment, the flattening of the Earth, Foucault's pendulum experiment) and to electromagnetism (Ampere's force between current carrying wires, an electric charge describing a Larmor radius due to a nearby large magnet, two charges orbiting around one another). We generalize these ideas considering the principle of physical proportions (PPP), according to which no absolute magnitudes should appear in the laws of physics. We present some laws satisfying this principle and others which do not comply with it. The laws which do not satisfy the PPP should be based upon incomplete theories. We present the consequences of complete theories complying with this fundamental principle of nature. (author)

  13. Relational time in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, A.K.T.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Isaac Newton (1642-1727) defended in his book Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, also know as Principia, published in 1687, the utilization of absolute time in physics. According to him 'absolute, true, and mathematical time, of itself, and from its own nature, flows equably without relation to anything external'. Leibniz (1646-1716), on the other hand, was against this concept and proposed relative time to replace it: 'As for my opinion, I have said more than once, that I hold space to be something merely relative, as time is; that I hold it to be an order of coexistence, as time is an order of successions'. Leibniz ideas were accepted and developed by Ernst Mach (1838-1916) in his book The Science of Mechanics, published in 1883. In this work we consider the implementation of relational time, as proposed by Leibniz and Mach, and the consequences this implementation will mean for physics as a whole. We consider some specific examples related to mechanics (Newton's bucket experiment, the flattening of the Earth, Foucault's pendulum experiment) and to electromagnetism (Ampere's force between current carrying wires, an electric charge describing a Larmor radius due to a nearby large magnet, two charges orbiting around one another). We generalize these ideas considering the principle of physical proportions (PPP), according to which no absolute magnitudes should appear in the laws of physics. We present some laws satisfying this principle and others which do not comply with it. The laws which do not satisfy the PPP should be based upon incomplete theories. We present the consequences of complete theories complying with this fundamental principle of nature. (author)

  14. THE RELATION APICULTURE - TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goryana Yonkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents analyses of the current condition, trends and opportunities for the apiculture development and its relation to tourism in Bulgaria. Beekeeping is considered as a branch of agriculture since its formation after the liberation to the present day and in its dynamics of development for the last 5 years. Resource base including traditions, state, production and marketing of honey is presented. Data from the National Statistics Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Food beekeepers' associations, processors and traders of honey and bee products, the Ministry of Tourism and tourism industry organizations is analyzed and discussed. Beekeeping is represented in the relation as a resource for development of apitourism, as untraditional attractive specialized type of tourism, which can support farmers through non-agricultural practices. The paper aimed at assisting companies and individuals in the field of agribusiness and apitourism for the realization of bee products and services.

  15. Annoying Danish Relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen de López, Kristine M.; Sundahl Olsen, Lone; Chondrigianni, V.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI...... and to compare errors with those produced by TD children. Eighteen children with SLI, eighteen TD age-matched (AM) and nine TD language-matched (LM) Danish-speaking children participated in a comprehension and in a production task. All children performed better on the comprehension compared with the production...... task, as well as on SRCs compared to ORCs and produced various avoidance strategies. In the ORC context, children with SLI produced more reversal errors than the AM children, who opted for passive ORCs. These results are discussed within current theories of SLI and indicate a deficiency...

  16. Relativity without spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Cosgrove, Joseph K

    2018-01-01

    In 1908, three years after Einstein first published his special theory of relativity, the mathematician Hermann Minkowski introduced his four-dimensional “spacetime” interpretation of the theory. Einstein initially dismissed Minkowski’s theory, remarking that “since the mathematicians have invaded the theory of relativity I do not understand it myself anymore.” Yet Minkowski’s theory soon found wide acceptance among physicists, including eventually Einstein himself, whose conversion to Minkowski’s way of thinking was engendered by the realization that he could profitably employ it for the formulation of his new theory of gravity. The validity of Minkowski’s mathematical “merging” of space and time has rarely been questioned by either physicists or philosophers since Einstein incorporated it into his theory of gravity. Physicists often employ Minkowski spacetime with little regard to the whether it provides a true account of the physical world as opposed to a useful mathematical tool in th...

  17. Modelling dense relational data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    Relational modelling classically consider sparse and discrete data. Measures of influence computed pairwise between temporal sources naturally give rise to dense continuous-valued matrices, for instance p-values from Granger causality. Due to asymmetry or lack of positive definiteness they are no......Relational modelling classically consider sparse and discrete data. Measures of influence computed pairwise between temporal sources naturally give rise to dense continuous-valued matrices, for instance p-values from Granger causality. Due to asymmetry or lack of positive definiteness...... they are not naturally suited for kernel K-means. We propose a generative Bayesian model for dense matrices which generalize kernel K-means to consider off-diagonal interactions in matrices of interactions, and demonstrate its ability to detect structure on both artificial data and two real data sets....

  18. Very special relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew G; Glashow, Sheldon L

    2006-07-14

    By very special relativity (VSR) we mean descriptions of nature whose space-time symmetries are certain proper subgroups of the Poincaré group. These subgroups contain space-time translations together with at least a two-parameter subgroup of the Lorentz group isomorphic to that generated by K(x) + J(y) and K(y)- J(x). We find that VSR implies special relativity (SR) in the context of local quantum field theory or of conservation. Absent both of these added hypotheses, VSR provides a simulacrum of SR for which most of the consequences of Lorentz invariance remain wholly or essentially intact, and for which many sensitive searches for departures from Lorentz invariance must fail. Several feasible experiments are discussed for which Lorentz-violating effects in VSR may be detectable.

  19. Attachment and Related Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Morsunbul

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Attachment which is defined as strong emotional bond people develop for significant others have been investigated by researchers for long years. Attachment theory proposes that attachment patterns developed in the first stages of life are carried onto next stages of life with internal working models. Additionally it is also proposed that attachment patterns are important to determine individual’s social-emotional competence. This study aims to review how attachment patterns differ according to life stages, continuity/discontiniuty of attachment patterns developed in the first stages of life and evaluate the relations between attachment patterns and social-emotional competence. The basic features of social relations model, relationship between attachment patterns and identity development, and risk taking behavior in adolescence have also been investigated in this review.

  20. Numerical relativity beyond astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkle, David

    2017-01-01

    Though the main applications of computer simulations in relativity are to astrophysical systems such as black holes and neutron stars, nonetheless there are important applications of numerical methods to the investigation of general relativity as a fundamental theory of the nature of space and time. This paper gives an overview of some of these applications. In particular we cover (i) investigations of the properties of spacetime singularities such as those that occur in the interior of black holes and in big bang cosmology. (ii) investigations of critical behavior at the threshold of black hole formation in gravitational collapse. (iii) investigations inspired by string theory, in particular analogs of black holes in more than 4 spacetime dimensions and gravitational collapse in spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant.

  1. LAMA2-related myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkken, Nicoline; Born, Alfred Peter; Duno, Morten

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Muscular dystrophy caused by LAMA2-gene mutations is an autosomal recessive disease typically presenting as a severe, early-onset congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD). However, milder cases with a limb-girdle type muscular dystrophy (LGMD) have been described. METHODS: In this study......, we assessed the frequency and phenotypic spectrum of LAMA2-related muscular dystrophy in CMD (n = 18) and LGMD2 (n = 128) cohorts identified in the last 15 years in eastern Denmark. The medical history, brain-MRI, muscle pathology, muscle laminin-α2 expression, and genetic analyses were assessed....... RESULTS: Molecular genetics revealed 2 pathogenic LAMA2 mutations in 5 of 18 CMD and 3 of 128 LGMD patients, corresponding to a LAMA2-mutation frequency of 28% in the CMD and 2.3% in the LGMD cohorts, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a wide clinical spectrum of LAMA2-related muscular...

  2. Rotating stars in relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalidis, Vasileios; Stergioulas, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on equilibrium properties and on nonaxisymmetric oscillations and instabilities in f -modes and r -modes have been updated. Several new sections have been added on equilibria in modified theories of gravity, approximate universal relationships, the one-arm spiral instability, on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity including both hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic studies of these objects.

  3. Numerical relativity beyond astrophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkle, David

    2017-01-01

    Though the main applications of computer simulations in relativity are to astrophysical systems such as black holes and neutron stars, nonetheless there are important applications of numerical methods to the investigation of general relativity as a fundamental theory of the nature of space and time. This paper gives an overview of some of these applications. In particular we cover (i) investigations of the properties of spacetime singularities such as those that occur in the interior of black holes and in big bang cosmology. (ii) investigations of critical behavior at the threshold of black hole formation in gravitational collapse. (iii) investigations inspired by string theory, in particular analogs of black holes in more than 4 spacetime dimensions and gravitational collapse in spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant.

  4. Offentlighed og Public Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Heltoft

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Lars Heltoft, der er en af grundlæggerne af Public Relationsuddannelsen på Roskilde Universitetscenter, kaster i artiklen et kritisk blik på den akademiske forskning i feltet public relations. Selv i nyere udgaver af PR-forskningen - af mange anset for "progressive", f.eks. James Grunings og Jon Whites arbejder - ser Lars Heltoft tydelige spor af PR- professionens selvforståelse og legitimationsbehov. Resultatet er, at den "offentlighed", der burde være kernen i den videnskabelige beskæftigelse med public relations, "forsvinder i den blå luft". Han argumenterer for, at Habermas´ forestilling om "offentlighed" stadig institutionaliserer mulig- heden for kritisk diskurs inden for feltet, samtidig med at han i sproghand- lingsteoretisk perspektiv problematiserer Habermas´ legitimationsbegreb, fordi det undtager private virksomheder og organisationer.

  5. Galilei-isotopic relativities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santilli, R.M.

    1991-09-01

    In this note we further develop the proposal made in preceding works of constructing the infinite family of Lie-isotopic liftings of Galilei's relativity for closed-isolated systems of particles possessing local, potential and selfadjoint, as well as nonlocal, nonhamiltonian and non selfadjoint internal forces. In particular, we show that the nonlinear and nonlocal generalization of the Galilei transformations introduced in a preceding note do indeed represent motion of extended particles within resistive media, but in such a way to coincide with the conventional transformations at the abstract, realization-free level. This allows the preservation of the basic, physical and mathematical axioms of Galilei's relativity under our liftings, and their realization in the most general possible nonlinear, nonlocal and nonhamiltonian way. (author). 18 refs, 1 fig

  6. Theorising International Monetary Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2015-01-01

    on Cohen's treatment of electronic money and its significance for the Politics of International Monetary Relations. The first question posed is about ontology, the second about agency and the third about the scope of politics. The three questions are raised as a conversation in which arguments...... and counterarguments are advanced. The questions are therefore posed with Cohen's contributions to theorizing the political significance of materiality as their point of departure. They are formulated as a consequence of bringing these contributions in relation to insights from the Social Studies of Finance. From...... this perspective it would seem that a more far reaching engagement with materiality (in terms of ontology, agency and epistemology) is necessary to capture its political significance for international monetary politics and currency hierarchies. The article does not conclude in conventional fashion but purposefully...

  7. Relational (Trans)formations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelmark, Nathalie Wind

    2015-01-01

    their generative immediacy structure understandings of body, technology and kinship. Biotechnological and media technological intersections are widely acknowledged within kinship studies and media studies as ways in which biotechnology networks itself into the way we think of the body socially, economically...... to the relevance of considering how the aesthetic-affective dimension of media cultural productions have ramifications for how we relate to ourselves, others, and the world where the small, mundane, ambivalent, and ugly feelings play a crucial role. Article 2 “Atmospheric Video Blogs on Infertility” relates...... in Technostorks (2006) and The Baby Clinic (2012)” takes departure in discussions and critiques within kinship studies of intersections between media and ART, particular media’s role in the public face of IVF as miraculous and spectacular (Franklin 2013; Bouquet 2002). Through an analysis of a Danish TV...

  8. Relativity and accelerator engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2017-09-01

    From a geometrical viewpoint, according to the theory of relativity, space and time constitute a four-dimensional continuum with pseudo-Euclidean structure. This has recently begun to be a practically important statement in accelerator physics. An X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) is in fact the best, exciting example of an engineering system where improvements in accelerator technology makes it possible to develop ultrarelativistic macroscopic objects with an internal fine structure, and the theory of relativity plays an essential role in their description. An ultrarelativistic electron bunch modulated at nanometer-scale in XFELs has indeed a macroscopic finite-size of order of 10 μm. Its internal, collective structure is characterized in terms of a wave number vector. Here we will show that a four-dimensional geometrical approach, unusual in accelerator physics, is needed to solve problems involving the emission of radiation from an ultrarelativistic modulated electron beam accelerating along a curved trajectory. We will see that relativistic kinematics enters XFEL physics in a most fundamental way through the so-called Wigner rotation of the modulation wave number vector, which is closely associated to the relativity of simultaneity. If not taken into account, relativistic kinematics effects would lead to a strong qualitative disagreement between theory and experiments. In this paper, several examples of relativistic kinematics effects, which are important for current and future XFEL operation, are studied. The theory of relativity is applied by providing details of the clock synchronization procedure within the laboratory frame. This approach, exploited here but unusual in literature, is rather ''practical'', and should be acceptable to accelerator physicists.

  9. Relational Demonic Fuzzy Refinement

    OpenAIRE

    Tchier, Fairouz

    2014-01-01

    We use relational algebra to define a refinement fuzzy order called demonic fuzzy refinement and also the associated fuzzy operators which are fuzzy demonic join $({\\bigsqcup }_{\\mathrm{\\text{f}}\\mathrm{\\text{u}}\\mathrm{\\text{z}}})$ , fuzzy demonic meet $({\\sqcap }_{\\mathrm{\\text{f}}\\mathrm{\\text{u}}\\mathrm{\\text{z}}})$ , and fuzzy demonic composition $({\\square }_{\\mathrm{\\text{f}}\\mathrm{\\text{u}}\\mathrm{\\text{z}}})$ . Our definitions and properties are illustrated by some examples using ma...

  10. Statin-related myotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, V; Santos, MJ; Pérez, A

    2016-01-01

    Statin therapy has a very important role in decreasing cardiovascular risk, and treatment non-compliance may therefore be a concern in high cardiovascular risk patients. Myotoxicity is a frequent side effect of statin therapy and one of the main causes of statin discontinuation, which limits effective treatment of patients at risk of or with cardiovascular disease. Because of the high proportion of patients on statin treatment and the frequency of statin-related myotoxicity, this is a subject...

  11. Pinned equivalence relations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, Jindřich

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2011), s. 559-564 ISSN 1073-2780 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA MŠk MEB060909; GA MŠk MEB051006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : equivalence relations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.743, year: 2011 http://intlpress.com/site/pub/pages/journals/items/mrl/content/vols/0018/0003/a015/index.html

  12. Industrial labor relations manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Industrial Labor Relations Manual provides internal guidelines and procedures to assist NASA Field Installations in dealing with contractor labor management disputes, Service Contract Act variance hearings, and to provide access of Labor Union Representatives to NASA for the purpose of maintaining schedules and goals in connection with vital NASA programs. This manual will be revised by page changes as revisions become necessary. Initial distribution of this manual has been made to NASA Headquarters and Field Installations.

  13. Matter in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Two theories of matter in general relativity, the fluid theory and the kinetic theory, were studied. Results include: (1) a discussion of various methods of completing the fluid equations; (2) a method of constructing charged general relativistic solutions in kinetic theory; and (3) a proof and discussion of the incompatibility of perfect fluid solutions in anisotropic cosmologies. Interpretations of NASA gravitational experiments using the above mentioned results were started. Two papers were prepared for publications based on this work.

  14. Corrupt Relational Contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Johann Graf Lambsdorff; Sitki Utku Teksoz

    2002-01-01

    Because corruption must be hidden from the public and is not enforced by courts it entails transaction costs, which are larger than those from legal exchange. This suggests that corrupt contracts are primarily relational contracts where legal exchange serves as a basis for sealing and enforcing corrupt agreements. Legal exchange not only provides for corrupt opportunities, but for the necessary enforcement mechanisms. Examples of such legal exchange are long-term business exchange, belonging ...

  15. Relativity and accelerator engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Schenefeld (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    From a geometrical viewpoint, according to the theory of relativity, space and time constitute a four-dimensional continuum with pseudo-Euclidean structure. This has recently begun to be a practically important statement in accelerator physics. An X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) is in fact the best, exciting example of an engineering system where improvements in accelerator technology makes it possible to develop ultrarelativistic macroscopic objects with an internal fine structure, and the theory of relativity plays an essential role in their description. An ultrarelativistic electron bunch modulated at nanometer-scale in XFELs has indeed a macroscopic finite-size of order of 10 μm. Its internal, collective structure is characterized in terms of a wave number vector. Here we will show that a four-dimensional geometrical approach, unusual in accelerator physics, is needed to solve problems involving the emission of radiation from an ultrarelativistic modulated electron beam accelerating along a curved trajectory. We will see that relativistic kinematics enters XFEL physics in a most fundamental way through the so-called Wigner rotation of the modulation wave number vector, which is closely associated to the relativity of simultaneity. If not taken into account, relativistic kinematics effects would lead to a strong qualitative disagreement between theory and experiments. In this paper, several examples of relativistic kinematics effects, which are important for current and future XFEL operation, are studied. The theory of relativity is applied by providing details of the clock synchronization procedure within the laboratory frame. This approach, exploited here but unusual in literature, is rather ''practical'', and should be acceptable to accelerator physicists.

  16. The elements of relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Wittman, David

    2018-01-01

    Relativity has much to offer for a well-rounded education. Yet books on relativity either assume a strong background in physics and math, aimed at advanced physics students, or, alternatively, offer a broad description with little intellectual challenge. This book bridges the gap. It aims at readers with essentially no physics or math background, who still find it rewarding to think rigorously. The book takes a "thinking tools" approach, by first making readers comfortable with a new thinking tool and then applying it to learn more about how nature works. By the end of the book, readers will have collected a versatile toolbox and will be comfortable using the tools to think about and really understand the intriguing phenomena they may have only heard about, including the twin paradox, black holes, and time travel. End-of-chapter exercises span a range of difficulty, allowing adventurous readers to stretch their understanding further as desired. Students who have studied, or are studying, relativity at a more...

  17. Teleseismic magnitude relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Båth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Using available sets of magnitude determinations, primarily from Uppsala seismological bulletin, various extensions are made of the Zurich magnitude recommendations of 1967. Thus, body-wave magnitude (m and surface-wave magnitudes (M are related to each other for 12 different earthquake regions as well as world-wide. Depth corrections for M are derived for all focal depths. Formulas are developed which permit calculation of M also from vertical component long-period seismographs. Body-wave magnitudes from broad-band and narrow-band short-period seismographs are compared and relations deduced. Applications are made both to underground nuclear explosions and to earthquakes. The possibilities of explosion-earthquake discrimination on the basis of magnitudes are examined, as well as the determination of explosive yield from magnitudes. For earthquakes, relations between magnitudes of main earthquakes and largest aftershocks are investigated. A world-wide station network for more homogeneous magnitude determinations is suggested in order to provide the necessary reference system.

  18. Statin-related myotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Vera; Santos, Maria Joana; Pérez, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Statin therapy has a very important role in decreasing cardiovascular risk, and treatment non-compliance may therefore be a concern in high cardiovascular risk patients. Myotoxicity is a frequent side effect of statin therapy and one of the main causes of statin discontinuation, which limits effective treatment of patients at risk of or with cardiovascular disease. Because of the high proportion of patients on statin treatment and the frequency of statin-related myotoxicity, this is a subject of concern in clinical practice. However, statin-related myotoxicity is probably underestimated because there is not a gold standard definition, and its diagnosis is challenging. Moreover, information about pathophysiology and optimal therapeutic options is scarce. Therefore, this paper reviews the knowledge about the definition, pathophysiology and predisposing conditions, diagnosis and management of statin-related myotoxicity, and provides a practical scheme for its management in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. General Relativity and Gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Berger, Beverly; Isenberg, James; MacCallum, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    Part I. Einstein's Triumph: 1. 100 years of general relativity George F. R. Ellis; 2. Was Einstein right? Clifford M. Will; 3. Cosmology David Wands, Misao Sasaki, Eiichiro Komatsu, Roy Maartens and Malcolm A. H. MacCallum; 4. Relativistic astrophysics Peter Schneider, Ramesh Narayan, Jeffrey E. McClintock, Peter Mészáros and Martin J. Rees; Part II. New Window on the Universe: 5. Receiving gravitational waves Beverly K. Berger, Karsten Danzmann, Gabriela Gonzalez, Andrea Lommen, Guido Mueller, Albrecht Rüdiger and William Joseph Weber; 6. Sources of gravitational waves. Theory and observations Alessandra Buonanno and B. S. Sathyaprakash; Part III. Gravity is Geometry, After All: 7. Probing strong field gravity through numerical simulations Frans Pretorius, Matthew W. Choptuik and Luis Lehner; 8. The initial value problem of general relativity and its implications Gregory J. Galloway, Pengzi Miao and Richard Schoen; 9. Global behavior of solutions to Einstein's equations Stefanos Aretakis, James Isenberg, Vincent Moncrief and Igor Rodnianski; Part IV. Beyond Einstein: 10. Quantum fields in curved space-times Stefan Hollands and Robert M. Wald; 11. From general relativity to quantum gravity Abhay Ashtekar, Martin Reuter and Carlo Rovelli; 12. Quantum gravity via unification Henriette Elvang and Gary T. Horowitz.

  20. Lectures on general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Papapetrou, Achille

    1974-01-01

    This book is an elaboration of lecture notes for the graduate course on General Rela­ tivity given by the author at Boston University in the spring semester of 1972. It is an introduction to the subject only, as the time available for the course was limited. The author of an introduction to General Relativity is faced from the beginning with the difficult task of choosing which material to include. A general criterion as­ sisting in this choice is provided by the didactic character of the book: Those chapters have to be included in priority, which will be most useful to the reader in enabling him to understand the methods used in General Relativity, the results obtained so far and possibly the problems still to be solved. This criterion is not sufficient to ensure a unique choice. General Relativity has developed to such a degree, that it is impossible to include in an introductory textbook of a reasonable length even a very condensed treatment of all important problems which have been discussed unt...

  1. Cancer-related anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rzaeq, Hikmat N.

    2004-01-01

    Anemia is the most common hematological abnormality in cancer patients is often under-recognized and undertreated. The pathogenesis of cancer anemia is complex and most of time multifactorial; involving factors related to the tumor itself or its therapy. While anemia can be present in a wide range of symptoms, involing almost every organ, it is beleived that it contributes much to cancer-related-fatigue, one of the most common symptoms in cancer patients. In addition there is increasing evidence to suggest that anemia is an independent factor adversely affecting tumor reponse and patient survival. While blood transfusion was the only option to treat cancer related anemia, the use of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) is becomig the new standard of care, more so with the recent studies demonstrating the feasibility of a sigle weekly injection .Things are even getting better with the recent approval of a new form of rHuEPO; Darbepoetin an analogue with a 3-fold longer half-life. In addition to its effects in raising homoglobin, several well controlled studies demonstrated decrease in transfusion requirementsand better qualify of life assessed objectively using standard assesments scales. (author)

  2. The Viking Relativity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, I. I.; Reasenberg, R. D.; Macneil, P. E.; Goldstein, R. B.; Brenkle, J. P.; Cain, D. L.; Komarek, T.; Zygielbaum, A. I.; Cuddihy, W. F.; Michael, W. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of the round-trip time of flight of radio signals transmitted from the earth to the Viking spacecraft are being analyzed to test the predictions of Einstein's theory of general relativity. According to this theory the signals will be delayed by up to approximately 250 microsec owing to the direct effect of solar gravity on the propagation. A very preliminary qualitative analysis of the Viking data obtained near the 1976 superior conjunction of Mars indicates agreement with the predictions to within the estimated uncertainty of 0.5%.

  3. Relational Information Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippi, Marco; Jaeger, Manfred; Frasconi, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    We introduce relational information gain, a refinement scoring function measuring the informativeness of newly introduced variables. The gain can be interpreted as a conditional entropy in a well-defined sense and can be efficiently approximately computed. In conjunction with simple greedy general......-to-specific search algorithms such as FOIL, it yields an efficient and competitive algorithm in terms of predictive accuracy and compactness of the learned theory. In conjunction with the decision tree learner TILDE, it offers a beneficial alternative to lookahead, achieving similar performance while significantly...

  4. Challenging Scandinavian employment relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Larsen, Trine Pernille; Madsen, Jørgen Steen

    2011-01-01

    and employment relations in the Danish, Norwegian and Swedish public sector. In this paper, we argue that although differences exist across the Scandinavian countries, it is evident that they have managed to adopt and implement NPM-inspired reforms without dismantling their universal welfare services and strong......Building on the convergence/divergence approach, this paper examines whether recent new public management (NPM) inspired reforms entailing inter alia cutbacks in the public sector, marketisation and management by performance measures have had significant implications for service provision...... traditions of collective bargaining in the public sector. However, this restructuring is taking its toll on the work environment....

  5. A Concurrent Logical Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Sieczkowski, Filip; Thamsborg, Jacob Junker

    2012-01-01

    We present a logical relation for showing the correctness of program transformations based on a new type-and-effect system for a concurrent extension of an ML-like language with higher-order functions, higher-order store and dynamic memory allocation. We show how to use our model to verify a number...... of interesting program transformations that rely on effect annotations. In particular, we prove a Parallelization Theorem, which expresses when it is sound to run two expressions in parallel instead of sequentially. The conditions are expressed solely in terms of the types and effects of the expressions...

  6. Theory of relations

    CERN Document Server

    Fraïssé, R

    2011-01-01

    The first part of this book concerns the present state of the theory of chains (= total or linear orderings), in connection with some refinements of Ramsey's theorem, due to Galvin and Nash-Williams. This leads to the fundamental Laver's embeddability theorem for scattered chains, using Nash-Williams' better quasi-orderings, barriers and forerunning.The second part (chapters 9 to 12) extends to general relations the main notions and results from order-type theory. An important connection appears with permutation theory (Cameron, Pouzet, Livingstone and Wagner) and with logics (existence criter

  7. Nuclear public relations campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    A two-day hearing to investigate DOE's participation in a $30 million nuclear public relations program at a time when the country is asked to decrease spending and in conjunction with similar efforts by the nuclear industry focused on the issue of whether ratepayers or shareholders should finance the effort. Shelby Brewer, Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy, defended the expenditures as a response to public demand for information and the need to correct misinformation. The testimony of 14 other witnesses includes the views of citizen and professional groups, utilities, and government agencies. Their testimony is followed by additional material submitted for the record. (DCK)

  8. Analysing international relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    theories to ‘explain’ international relations and distinguishes between different kinds of explanation. In Section 4 I look at how different theories have been grouped – first according to their underlying views of what is valid knowledge, and second in terms of different accounts of how history works....... matters by depicting reality in new ways. I then show how different theories rely on different ‘pictures’ of what makes up the international system. Section 2 shows how theories differ in terms of their scope, their aims and their purposes. Section 3 explores some of the choices to be made when using...

  9. Studies Relating to EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JA1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: The Staged Decompression to the Hypobaric Atmosphere as a Prophylactic Measure Against Decompression Sickness During Repetitive EVA; A New Preoxygenation Procedure for Extravehicular Activity (EVA); Metabolic Assessments During Extra-Vehicular Activity; Evaluation of Safety of Hypobaric Decompressions and EVA From Positions of Probabilistic Theory; Fatty Acid Composition of Plasma Lipids and Erythrocyte Membranes During Simulation of Extravehicular Activity; Biomedical Studies Relating to Decompression Stress with Simulated EVA, Overview; The Joint Angle and Muscle Signature (JAMS) System - Current Uses and Future Applications; and Experimental Investigation of Cooperative Human-Robotic Roles in an EVA Work Site.

  10. Migraine Related Vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udagatti, Vithal D; Dinesh Kumar, Rajendran

    2017-12-01

    Migraine related vertigo (MRV) is largely accepted in the vestibular community and probably represents the second most common cause of vertigo after benign positional vertigo by far exceeding Meniere's disease. The data on vestibular migraine management is still relatively poor, despite its enormous importance in daily practice. A 55-year old male presented with history of giddiness, imbalance, sweating and sensation of nausea with severe pulsating headache of one day duration. Ear, Nose and Throat examination was normal. Neurological tests were negative. Audiogram and Electronystagmography were within normal limits. Nystagmus was positive on turning his head to left side. By reviewing the available literature on MRV, the report aims to outline a protocol for future management. The patient and caretakers were thoroughly counseled and educated, started on Flunarizine 10 mg and Dimenhydrinate 50 mg; advice healthy life style, necessary precautions, compliance to treatment. Patient was reportedly followed up and was symptom free over a period of 9 years. There is a call for proper diagnosis to address the complaint and manage of symptoms in acute attack and prophylaxis. In addition, this case highlight the ongoing need for proper systematic evaluation, therapeutic management, follow up by ensuring compliance to medication, necessary precautions and life style modification.

  11. Relativity of Electric Quantity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAO Zhong-wen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The demonstration foundation,which is used to demonstrate that observed values from the interaction force between two charges,which are not at the same point would be different in different reference frames,is that the transmission of the interaction between charges needs time. Firstly,this paper analyzes the foundation of hypothetical process that the electric field and the magnetic field are built by one charge,and then the electromagnetic field would be transferred to another charge in vacuo by the speed of light,and produces force. It points out that from the simultaneity of relativity,the force applied to charge would occur in different time in the different reference frames,the force would be neither in the same size nor in the opposite direction,and Newton’s Third Law is not valid longer, the deeper cause of these conclusions would be known. On this basis,this paper gives the basis that force would keep invariant in different reference frames,and according to this condition,with the situation of the charge that under the Coulombian force and electromagnetism,the relative form of expression and demonstration methods of electric quantity in different reference frames are given. On the basis of the hypothesis that force would keep invariant in different reference frames,with the similar derivation process,the mass relativity equation of Einstein would be obtained.

  12. Radiotherapy-related fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja; Marsiglia, Hugo Raul; Orecchia, Roberto

    2002-03-01

    Radiotherapy-induced fatigue is a common early and chronic side-effect of irradiation, reported in up to 80 and 30% of patients during radiation therapy and at follow-up visits, respectively. It is frequently underestimated by medical and nursing staff, only about 50% of patients discuss it with a physician and in one fourth of cases any intervention is proposed to the patient. The patients rarely expect fatigue to be a side-effect of treatment. The etiology of this common symptom, its correlates and prevalence are poorly understood. In numerous studies the level and time course of fatigue was demonstrated to depend on the site of tumor and treatment modalities. For example, psychological mechanisms have been proposed to explain fatigue in women receiving irradiation for early breast cancer, whereas decline in neuromuscular efficiency rather than psychological reasons can lead to the fatigue observed in patients undergoing radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Fatigue can affect global quality of life more than pain, sexual dysfunction and other cancer- or treatment-related symptoms. Several interventions have been tested in the management of radiotherapy-related fatigue and some randomized studies have been recently published. Although an optimal method has not yet been established, some promising results have been reported with relaxation therapy, group psychotherapy, physical exercise and sleep. Further methodologically correct studies are warranted to define better the causes, optimal prevention and management of this symptom.

  13. Public relations strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukovica, T.; Mele, I.

    1996-01-01

    NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) syndrome has become a major problem in the field of environmental planning. Also in Slovenia. Agency for Radwaste management was established by the Slovene government in 1991. Our main objective is to provide the final disposal of radioactive waste in Slovenia. Overcoming the NIMBY syndrome is therefore the primary aim of Agency's PR (public relations) strategy. Agency's public relations strategy was prepared in 1993. After very unpleasant experience with NIMBY syndrome in local community where one of the potential locations for low and intermediate level repository was identified the strategy was renewed in 1994. It is divided into two parts: information and education. The first one includes providing information to the media, surveys of press clippings, interviews, press conferences, public opinion polls and publishing articles. Agency's first task in the field of education was to prepare different materials like: leaflets, Agency's newspaper and videos. Materials were distributed to various target publics. There is also a special program of lectures for youngsters. All those activities and projects have been successfully realized within the last year. Plans of PR activities for this year are focused on informing the local community about remediation of temporary storage of radioactive waste near village Zavratec. Other new projects are also under preparation like: new leaflets, presentation on Internet, journalist's guide to rad waste management, most frequently asked questions and answers. (author)

  14. Principle or constructive relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Mathias

    Appealing to Albert Einstein's distinction between principle and constructive theories, Harvey Brown has argued for an interpretation of the theory of relativity as a dynamic and constructive theory. Brown's view has been challenged by Michel Janssen and in this paper I investigate their dispute. I argue that their disagreement appears larger than it actually is due to the two frameworks used by Brown and Janssen to express their respective views: Brown's appeal to Einstein's principle-constructive distinction and Janssen's framing of the disagreement as one over the question whether relativity provides a kinematic or a dynamic constraint. I appeal to a distinction between types of theories drawn by H. A. Lorentz two decades before Einstein's distinction to argue that Einstein's distinction represents a false dichotomy. I argue further that the disagreement concerning the kinematics-dynamics distinction is a disagreement about labels but not about substance. There remains a genuine disagreement over the explanatory role of spacetime geometry and here I agree with Brown arguing that Janssen sees a pressing need for an explanation of Lorentz invariance where no further explanation is needed.

  15. A logic road from special relativity to general relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Andréka, Hajnal; Madarász, Judit X.; Németi, István; Székely, Gergely

    2010-01-01

    We present a streamlined axiom system of special relativity in first-order logic. From this axiom system we "derive" an axiom system of general relativity in two natural steps. We will also see how the axioms of special relativity transform into those of general relativity. This way we hope to make general relativity more accessible for the non-specialist.

  16. Age-related normal structural and functional ventricular values in cardiac function assessed by magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiechter, Michael; Gaemperli, Oliver; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Fuchs, Tobias A; Gebhard, Catherine; Stehli, Julia; Klaeser, Bernd; Stähli, Barbara E; Manka, Robert; Manes, Costantina; Tanner, Felix C

    2013-01-01

    The heart is subject to structural and functional changes with advancing age. However, the magnitude of cardiac age-dependent transformation has not been conclusively elucidated. This retrospective cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) study included 183 subjects with normal structural and functional ventricular values. End systolic volume (ESV), end diastolic volume (EDV), and ejection fraction (EF) were obtained from the left and the right ventricle in breath-hold cine CMR. Patients were classified into four age groups (20–29, 30–49, 50–69, and ≥70 years) and cardiac measurements were compared using Pearson’s rank correlation over the four different groups. With advanced age a slight but significant decrease in ESV (r=−0.41 for both ventricles, P<0.001) and EDV (r=−0.39 for left ventricle, r=−0.35 for right ventricle, P<0.001) were observed associated with a significant increase in left (r=0.28, P<0.001) and right (r=0.27, P<0.01) ventricular EF reaching a maximal increase in EF of +8.4% (P<0.001) for the left and +6.1% (P<0.01) for the right ventricle in the oldest compared to the youngest patient group. Left ventricular myocardial mass significantly decreased over the four different age groups (P<0.05). The aging process is associated with significant changes in left and right ventricular EF, ESV and EDV in subjects with no cardiac functional and structural abnormalities. These findings underline the importance of using age adapted values as standard of reference when evaluating CMR studies

  17. Uruguay in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sergeevich Andreev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the foreign policy of the leftist government of Uruguay at the beginning of the XXI century. Latin America is an important actor in the process of creating a multipolar world, and Uruguay becomes one of the political and economic centers of the continent. One of the important political processes in South America is a regional integration which has many forms. This article shows the main areas of Uruguay diplomacy in various integration formations of the region. Based on the analysis of the program of the third government of “Broad Front” article shows the goals and objectives of the country in the processes of regional integration, the problems and prospects of these processes. The author notes that the Government of Uruguay is looking for creating common political and economic institutions for the united Latin American continent. In the new political and economic conditions Uruguay becomes important partner for the BRICS countries as well as for the EU and the United States. The article shows the prospects for Uruguay in the BRICS in the context of changing the place of developing countries in the architecture of the global world, as well as in the context of the participation of ex-President Jose Mujica in the BRICS summit 2014. Currently, Uruguay is standing in front of a political choice, because the country has people who want the development of relations with the United States as economic partner and political center of the region. Also in Uruguay are supporters of the development of relations with the EU. The paper shows the tasks and objectives of Uruguay's foreign policy towards the US and the EU, as well as a place of Uruguay in the foreign policy of major actors of international relations. The article says the prospects for the foreign policy of Uruguay in the context of the presidential and parliamentary elections in 2014, a new government and the conservation status of Uruguay as a country of “left turn

  18. Communication and external relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A company's identity is what it really is, whereas its image is what others perceive or think it is. Therefore, it should suffice to simply combine these two concepts-identity and image-to simplify communication activities. However, identity and image are complex, varying concepts that are conditioned by environment, opinions, expectations, attitudes, market evolution and many other factors. In Cofrentes, we have always been aware of the difficulties involved in successful communication at all levels and, therefore, from the very beginning, even before the Plant was started up, channels were established for public service and relations with all the entities of Cofrentes NPP physical, human and institutional environment in its three possible spheres of influence at the local, provincial and national levels. (Author)

  19. Sleep-related laryngospasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio S. Aloe

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Seven patients (mean age 46.6; range 33-58; 6M.1F presented with sleep-related choking episodes and were found to have features in common that distinguished them from other known causes of choking episodes during sleep. The characteristic features include: an awakening from sleep with an acute choking sensation, stridor, panic, tachycardia, short duration of episode Gess than 60 seconds, infrequent episodes (typically less than 1 per month, and absence of any known etiology. The disorder most commonly occurs in middle-aged males who are otherwise healthy. In one patient an episode of laryngospasm was polysomnographically documented to occur during stage 3. The clinical features and the polysomnographic findings suggest spasm of the vocal cords of unknown etiology.

  20. Introduction to general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Parthasarthy, R

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO GENERAL RELATIVITY begins with a description of the geometry of curved space, explaining geodesics, parallel transport, covariant differentiation, geodesic deviation and spacetime symmetry by killing vectors. It then introduces Einstein's theory of gravitation followed by Schwarzschild solution with its relevance to Positive Mass theorem. The three tests for Einstein's gravity are explained. Other exact solutions such as Vaidya, Kerr and Reisner - Nordstrom metric are included. In the Chapter on cosmological solutions, a detailed description of Godel metric is provided. It then introduces five dimensional spacetime of Kaluza showing the unification of gravity with electromagnetism. This is extended to include non-Abelian gauge theory by invoking compact extra dimensions. Explicit expressions in this case for Christoffel connections and ricci tensor are derived and the higher dimensional gravity action is shown to compactification are given.

  1. Can Relations be Designed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels Peter; Mikkelsen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    the project a set of specified design methods and the concept of social prototypes were utilized. The article discusses the functioning of these methods. Taking its departure in the concept of ‘fuzzyness’ and ‘the fuzzy front end’ of design projects derived from Elizabeth Sanders and Pieter Jan Stappers...... the authors argue that the main function of the methods was not to present an accurate picture of the design process but to work as tools for managing ‘fuzzyness’, which in social innovation projects is not confined to the front end of the process but establishes itself as a general condition. Thus......This paper examines the role of design methods in a social innovation project on a Danish Institution for severely physically and mentally handicapped people. The project was focused on ‘designing’ new or better relations between the residents at the institution and the civil society. During...

  2. Poland- Ukraine Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Szeptycki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland and Ukraine are the two biggest and most populated countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Because of their size, neighbourhood and position in the region the two countries have often been compared to France and Germany. Both countries are deeply interested in their mutual cooperation. Such situation steams from five factors: direct neighbourhood, common (albeit difficult history, attractiveness of the Polish labour market for the Ukrainians, membership of Poland in the Western structures, and last but not least, the Russian threat. Despite complimentary interests, both countries have difficulty to effectively develop their mutual relations and turn them into a real “strategic partnership”. These problems are due to the internal political and economic situation in Ukraine, limits imposed by the membership of Poland in the EU, Russian policy aiming at keeping Ukraine within its zone of influence and, finally, the EU reluctance to effectively engage in Ukraine.

  3. Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Peter L.; Vincent, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy of solar system tests of gravitational theory could be very much improved by range and Doppler measurements to a Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter. A nearly circular orbit at roughly 2400 km altitude is assumed in order to minimize problems with orbit determination and thermal radiation from the surface. The spacecraft is spin-stabilized and has a 30 cm diameter de-spun antenna. With K-band and X-band ranging systems using a 50 MHz offset sidetone at K-band, a range accuracy of 3 cm appears to be realistically achievable. The estimated spacecraft mass is 50 kg. A consider-covariance analysis was performed to determine how well the Earth-Mercury distance as a function of time could be determined with such a Relativity Orbiter. The minimum data set is assumed to be 40 independent 8-hour arcs of tracking data at selected times during a two year period. The gravity field of Mercury up through degree and order 10 is solved for, along with the initial conditions for each arc and the Earth-Mercury distance at the center of each arc. The considered parameters include the gravity field parameters of degree 11 and 12 plus the tracking station coordinates, the tropospheric delay, and two parameters in a crude radiation pressure model. The conclusion is that the Earth-Mercury distance can be determined to 6 cm accuracy or better. From a modified worst-case analysis, this would lead to roughly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in the knowledge of the precession of perihelion, the relativistic time delay, and the possible change in the gravitational constant with time.

  4. Fuel related risks; Braenslerisker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englund, Jessica; Sernhed, Kerstin; Nystroem, Olle; Graveus, Frank (Grontmij AB, (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    The project, within which this work report was prepared, aimed to complement the Vaermeforsk publication 'Handbook of fuels' on fuel related risks and measures to reduce the risks. The fuels examined in this project where the fuels included in the first version of the handbook from 2005 plus four additional fuels that will be included in the second and next edition of the handbook. Following fuels were included: woodfuels (sawdust, wood chips, powder, briquettes), slash, recycled wood, salix, bark, hardwood, stumps, straw, reed canary grass, hemp, cereal, cereal waste, olive waste, cocoa beans, citrus waste, shea, sludge, forest industrial sludge, manure, Paper Wood Plastic, tyre, leather waste, cardboard rejects, meat and bone meal, liquid animal and vegetable wastes, tall oil pitch, peat, residues from food industry, biomal (including slaughterhouse waste) and lignin. The report includes two main chapters; a general risk chapter and a chapter of fuel specific risks. The first one deals with the general concept of risk, it highlights laws and rules relevant for risk management and it discuss general risks that are related to the different steps of fuel handling, i.e. unloading, storing, processing the fuel, transportation within the facility, combustion and handling of ashes. The information that was used to produce this chapter was gathered through a literature review, site visits, and the project group's experience from risk management. The other main chapter deals with fuel-specific risks and the measures to reduce the risks for the steps of unloading, storing, processing the fuel, internal transportation, combustion and handling of the ashes. Risks and measures were considered for all the biofuels included in the second version in the handbook of fuels. Information about the risks and risk management was gathered through interviews with people working with different kinds of fuels in electricity and heat plants in Sweden. The information from

  5. Superconcentration and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    A certain curious feature of random objects, introduced by the author as “super concentration,” and two related topics, “chaos” and “multiple valleys,” are highlighted in this book. Although super concentration has established itself as a recognized feature in a number of areas of probability theory in the last twenty years (under a variety of names), the author was the first to discover and explore its connections with chaos and multiple valleys. He achieves a substantial degree of simplification and clarity in the presentation of these findings by using the spectral approach. Understanding the fluctuations of random objects is one of the major goals of probability theory and a whole subfield of probability and analysis, called concentration of measure, is devoted to understanding these fluctuations. This subfield offers a range of tools for computing upper bounds on the orders of fluctuations of very complicated random variables. Usually, concentration of measure is useful when more direct prob...

  6. Relative Critical Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Lewis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Relative equilibria of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems with symmetry are critical points of appropriate scalar functions parametrized by the Lie algebra (or its dual of the symmetry group. Setting aside the structures – symplectic, Poisson, or variational – generating dynamical systems from such functions highlights the common features of their construction and analysis, and supports the construction of analogous functions in non-Hamiltonian settings. If the symmetry group is nonabelian, the functions are invariant only with respect to the isotropy subgroup of the given parameter value. Replacing the parametrized family of functions with a single function on the product manifold and extending the action using the (coadjoint action on the algebra or its dual yields a fully invariant function. An invariant map can be used to reverse the usual perspective: rather than selecting a parametrized family of functions and finding their critical points, conditions under which functions will be critical on specific orbits, typically distinguished by isotropy class, can be derived. This strategy is illustrated using several well-known mechanical systems – the Lagrange top, the double spherical pendulum, the free rigid body, and the Riemann ellipsoids – and generalizations of these systems.

  7. [Chronotherapy and relativity theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, N A

    2008-01-01

    The course of time itself in alive organisms is treated from positions of the special theory of the relativity created by A. Einstein in 1905 and added by the Nobel winners H.A.Lorentsem, M. Plankom, M. fon Laue. These achievements of fundamental physics have been put in a basis of special medical technology "Resonant chronophytotherapy" (SMT RCPT) which is applied in practice of treatment of chronic diseases for 27 years. Grass tinctures in various dosages are used in SMT RCPT, which patients take once a day during precisely designated time. Parameters "dosage-time" daily vary. SMT RCPT have been conducted in treatment of epilepsy bronchial asthma, rheumatism, sclerodermia, hypertension, chronic glomerulonephritis, vegeto-vascular dystonia, female sterility, circular alopecia, vitiligo, eczema, psoriasis, onychomycosis. SMT RCPT does have adverse events, has no contra-indications to its use, directed, first of all, on elimination of nonspecific signs of a disease, reduces dependence and complications of the use of chemical synthetic preparations. SMT RCPT can be combined with any kind of specific treatment. Internet-variant of SMT RCPT has been developed. Chronomedicine is priority tendency in industrialized countries of the world--the USA, the Great Britain, Germany, France, Russia, China, Japan and appears on lead positions among alternative methods of treatment, both traditional, and non-traditional.

  8. Sports related to drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpilman, David; Orlowski, James P

    2016-09-01

    Aquatic sports are included in the top list of risky practices as the environment per se carries a possibility of death by drowning if not rescued in time. Not only are aquatic sports related to a high risk of death, but also all sports practiced on the water, over the water and on ice. Whatever the reason a person is in the water, drowning carries a higher possibility of death if the individual is unable to cope with the water situation, which may simply be caused by an inability to stay afloat and get out of the water or by an injury or disease that may lead to physical inability or unconsciousness. The competitive nature of sports is a common pathway that leads the sports person to exceed their ability to cope with the environment or simply misjudge their physical capability. Drowning involves some principles and medical interventions that are rarely found in other medical situations as it occurs in a deceptively hostile environment that may not seem dangerous. Therefore, it is essential that health professionals are aware of the complete sequence of action in drowning. This article focuses on the pulmonary injury in sports and recreational activities where drowning plays the major role. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  9. Malnutrition related deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparre-Sørensen, Maja; Kristensen, Gustav N

    2016-10-01

    Studies have shown that malnutrition increases the risk of morbidity, mortality, the length of hospital stay, and costs in the elderly population. Approximately one third of all patients admitted to geriatric wards in Denmark are malnourished according to the Danish Geriatric database. The aim of this study is to describe and examine the sudden increase in deaths due to malnutrition in the elderly population in Denmark from 1999 and, similarly, the sudden decline in malnutrition related deaths in 2007. A descriptive epidemiologic study was performed. All Danes listed in the national death registry who died from malnutrition in the period from 1994 to 2012 are included. The number of deaths from malnutrition increased significantly during the period from 1999 to 2007, especially in the age group 70 years and over. Additionally, we document a surprising similarity between the development in excess mortality from malnutrition in the five Danish regions during the same period. During the period 1999-2007 malnutrition was the direct cause of 340 extra deaths, and probably ten times more registered under other diseases. This development in excess mortality runs parallel in all five Danish regions over time. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Armenian – Mamluks Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Armenians, were able to establish a state on their behalf in consequence of the Crusades and do not miss the great historical opportunity, in Cilicia (Çukurova. Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia in the vicinity of Cukurova have been fed with the support of the Crusader States and Cyprus, and especially after being subjected to the Il-Khans in their regions had reached a certain strength. However, the Armenians, they apply their attacks and with trade embargoes, they were made themselves the target of the Mamluk State. By the capacity of a single state to stop the Mongols in the region, proved the power of the Mamluks, and it was not possible to remain silent this situation. From 1260, the Armenian capital, Sis, reduced date that until 1375 the period of time, as a result of political, struggle, almost continuous-time war between Mamluks and the Armenians, Mamluk had been the empire continue to existing side, In this study, 115 years of laying down the Mamluk-Armenian relations, will be presented with detailed information about the subject.

  11. Stakeholder Relations Office

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Scientists, politicians, the public, school children, our neighbours, you. All of these groups of people have a stake in CERN, and all are important to us.   The list of stakeholders in an organisation as large and complex as CERN is a long and ever lengthening one. Each group has its own specific interests and needs in terms of what kind of information it requires from CERN and how we should engage. It’s important, therefore, for us to ensure that we’re communicating optimally with everyone we care about and who cares about us. This is something that CERN has always taken seriously. The CERN Courier, for example, was first published in 1959 and we had a pro-active public information office right from the start. Today, our stakeholder relations are spread between several groups and teams, reflecting the nature of CERN today. But while we’re already doing a good job, I think we can do better by exploiting the synergies between these teams, and that’s wh...

  12. Sports-Related Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laker, Scott R

    2015-08-01

    Sports-related concussions (SRC) are common in all ages and occur in all sports. The diagnosis based on clinical suspicion after more serious injury is ruled out. Symptoms of concussion are due to a temporary and reversible neurometabolic cascade resulting in blood flow changes, neuronal excitotoxicity, ionic shifts, and mitochondrial changes. Symptoms are nonspecific, and commonly include headache, cognitive complaints, photophobia, and phonophobia. Loss of consciousness is rare in SRC and has limited influence on recovery and prognosis. Imaging has a limited role in the management of concussion and should be used to evaluate for more serious intracranial pathology. Treatment is based on symptoms and an understanding of the typical, rapid (7-10 days) recovery. No athlete should return to play until their symptoms have resolved and they have completed a supervised, step-wise return to play protocol. The article covers the most recent literature on the diagnosis and management of SRC, including evidence-based recommendations and expert-based consensus opinion. The article will also discuss issues regarding medical retirement, legislation, and future concepts in concussion diagnosis and management.

  13. Relational uncertainty in service dyads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreye, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Relational uncertainty determines how relationships develop because it enables the building of trust and commitment. However, relational uncertainty has not been explored in an inter-organisational setting. This paper investigates how organisations experience relational uncertainty in se...

  14. Is there a map between Galilean relativity and special relativity?

    OpenAIRE

    Shariati, Ahmad; Jafari, N.

    2014-01-01

    Mandanici has provided a map which he claims to be a two way map between Galilean relativity and special relativity. We argue that this map is simply a curvilinear coordinate system on a subset of the two-dimensional Minkowski space-time, and is not a two way map between 1+1 dimensional Galilean relativity and 1+1 dimensional special relativity.

  15. Dispersion relation and relative intensity for double-plasmon satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, K.S.; Shiv Singh; Harsh, O.K.

    1981-01-01

    An expression for the dispersion relation and the relative intensity of double-plasmon oscillations and satellites has been derived by extending the dispersion relation and the extended Bohm and Pines Hamiltonian to second order. The calculated value of the relative intensity of the double-plasmon satellite for Be agrees fairly well with the value observed experimentally by other workers. (orig.)

  16. Shaping Relations: Exploiting Relational Features for Visuospatial Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livins, Katherine A.; Doumas, Leonidas A. A.; Spivey, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Although relational reasoning has been described as a process at the heart of human cognition, the exact character of relational representations remains an open debate. Symbolic-connectionist models of relational cognition suggest that relations are structured representations, but that they are ultimately grounded in feature sets; thus, they…

  17. Dynamic Relation Logic Is the Logic of DPL-Relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we prove that the principles in the language with relation composition and dynamic implication, valid for all binary relations, are the same ones as the principles valid when we restrict ourselves to DPL-relations ,i.e. relations generated from conditions (tests) and resettings.

  18. Geriatic Disability Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Adib Hajbagheri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Reports are indicating of increasing trend of aging and disability in the developing countries while such disabilities are decreasing within the developed countries. This study designed to evaluate the disability and some of its related factors among the elderly population (65 and older in Kashan, Iran. Methods & Materials: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on a multi-stage random sample of 350 elderly people (65 year and older in Kashan. The WHO-DAS-II was used as the generic disability measure. The questionnair had 48 questions. The range of score could be between 0-144. Chi-square, t-test analysis and ANOVA were utilized to check significant differences between subgroups. Results: 61% were men and 12% were living lonely. One fourth had some type of addiction, the majority were ilitrate and two thired had not regular phisycal activity.Twenty percent of the old people had a modereate disability and 4.3% were extremely disabled. A significant relationship was found between the disability and variables such as sex, age, living style, needing help, marriage status, living location, addiction, job, level of physical activity, education, and having multiple diseases. Conclusion: In conclusion, geriatric population in Iran, has a lower levels of disability in compare to those of other developed countries. Need of geriatric cares must be be increasing, since the populationpattern of elderly people is increasing in Iran. Female and ilitrate elders were sufering of more disability. These findings indicated the nessesity to more attention to these voulnarable subgroups of population.

  19. Fault-Related Sanctuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, L.

    2001-12-01

    Beyond the study of historical surface faulting events, this work investigates the possibility, in specific cases, of identifying pre-historical events whose memory survives in myths and legends. The myths of many famous sacred places of the ancient world contain relevant telluric references: "sacred" earthquakes, openings to the Underworld and/or chthonic dragons. Given the strong correspondence with local geological evidence, these myths may be considered as describing natural phenomena. It has been possible in this way to shed light on the geologic origin of famous myths (Piccardi, 1999, 2000 and 2001). Interdisciplinary researches reveal that the origin of several ancient sanctuaries may be linked in particular to peculiar geological phenomena observed on local active faults (like ground shaking and coseismic surface ruptures, gas and flames emissions, strong underground rumours). In many of these sanctuaries the sacred area is laid directly above the active fault. In a few cases, faulting has affected also the archaeological relics, right through the main temple (e.g. Delphi, Cnidus, Hierapolis of Phrygia). As such, the arrangement of the cult site and content of relative myths suggest that specific points along the trace of active faults have been noticed in the past and worshiped as special `sacred' places, most likely interpreted as Hades' Doors. The mythological stratification of most of these sanctuaries dates back to prehistory, and points to a common derivation from the cult of the Mother Goddess (the Lady of the Doors), which was largely widespread since at least 25000 BC. The cult itself was later reconverted into various different divinities, while the `sacred doors' of the Great Goddess and/or the dragons (offspring of Mother Earth and generally regarded as Keepers of the Doors) persisted in more recent mythologies. Piccardi L., 1999: The "Footprints" of the Archangel: Evidence of Early-Medieval Surface Faulting at Monte Sant'Angelo (Gargano, Italy

  20. Sexually related trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, R F

    1988-08-01

    cases. Physicians must be educated and vigilant for sexually related injuries because people frequently will delay treatment and then provide misleading histories because of embarrassment.

  1. Three levels of understanding physical relativity: Galileo's relativity, Up-to-date Galileo's relativity and Einstein's relativity: A historical survey

    OpenAIRE

    Rothenstein, Bernhard; Nafornita, Corina

    2004-01-01

    We present a way of teaching Einstein's special relativity. It starts with Galileo's relativity, the learners know from previous lectures. The lecture underlines that we can have three transformation equations for the space-time coordinates of the same event, which lead to absolute clock readings, time intervals and lengths (Galileo's relativity), to absolute clock readings but to relative time intervals and lengths (up-to-date Galileo transformations) and to relative clock readings time inte...

  2. Public Relations Sebagai Tools Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhriz, Dewi Wulandari

    2015-01-01

    This study, entitled "Public Relations As Marketing Tools In Increasing image in Hotel Inna Dharma Deli". The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of public relations activities as marketing tools to the image at the Hotel Inna Dharma Deli. A correlational study aimed to see how far the variable public relations activities as marketing tools affect the company's image variables. The theories used is communications, public relations, marketing, marketing public relations, an...

  3. Sex Differences in Immunology: More Severe Development of Experimental Pulmonary Hypertension in Male Rats Exposed to Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor Blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Guihaire

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The epidemiology of pulmonary hypertension (PH is characterized by a female preponderance, whereas males share higher severity of the disease. Objective. To compare the severity of experimental PH between male and female athymic rats. Methods. PH was induced in 11 male and 11 female athymic rats (resp., SU_M and SU_F groups using an inhibitor of VEGF-receptors I and II, semaxanib (40 mg/kg. After 28 days, right ventricular (RV remodeling, systolic function, and hemodynamics were measured using echocardiography and a pressure-volume admittance catheter. Morphometric analyses of lung vasculature and RV myocardium were performed. Results. Four weeks after semaxanib injection, RV end-systolic pressure was higher in SU_M than in SU_F. Males developed marked RV enlargement and systolic dysfunction compared to females. Impairment of RV-PA coupling efficiency was observed only in SU_M. The smooth muscle cells of the pulmonary arteries switched from a contractile state to a dedifferentiated state only in males. Conclusions. Female athymic rats were protected against the development of severe PH. RV-PA coupling was preserved in females through limitation of pulmonary artery muscularization. Control of smooth muscle cells plasticity may be a promising therapeutic approach to reverse established vascular remodeling in PH patients.

  4. Dynamics of relative motion of test particles in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazanski, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Several variational principles which lead to the first and the second geodesic deviation equations, recently formulated by the author and used for the description of the relative motion of test particles in general relativity are presented. Relations between these principles are investigated and exhibited. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is also studied for these generalized deviations and the conservation laws appearing here are discussed

  5. Alcoholic Relatives and Their Impact on Alcohol-Related Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick B.; And Others

    Although research on children of alcoholics indicates that they are at high risk for later problem drinking, the etiological dynamics associated with this heightened risk status are not yet understood. This study compared the alcohol-related beliefs of subjects who possessed close relatives with alcohol problems with alcohol-related beliefs of…

  6. The relation between herbivore density and relative resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relation between the relative density of resources and herbivore density is illustrated by regressions of the ecological density of kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on the relative density of habitat patches within landscapes for a semi-arid savanna. Habitat suitability models were used to isolate patches of suitable kudu ...

  7. European Union-Chinese Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pou Serradell

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper situates the relations between the European Union (EU and China in a double framework: the general framework of UE-Asian relations, on the one hand, and the ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting process initiated in 1996, on the other hand. Likewise, it examines EU-Chinese relations in a specific way –including the relations of the most relevant member states of the EU with China–, the latest events that have occurred in EU-Chinese relations in the new international scenario following the 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, and the future perspectives for EU-Chinese relations.

  8. Contemporary Developments in Employee Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchington, Mick; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Consists of seven articles describing the newest developments in employee relations. Topics include (1) research at two centers studying employee relations, (2) comparisons between United States and United Kingdom systems, (3) unions, (4) displacement, and (5) forms of remuneration. (CH)

  9. Cooperation and competition between relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, S.A.; Pen, I.R.; Griffin, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Individuals are predicted to. behave more altruistically and less competitively toward their relatives, because they share a relatively high proportion of their genes (e.g., one-half for siblings and one-eighth for cousins). Consequently, by helping a relative reproduce, an individual passes its

  10. Introducing Relativity into Quantum Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wai-Kee; Blinder, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    It is not often realized by chemists that the special theory of relativity is behind several aspects of quantum chemistry. The Schrdinger equation itself is based on relations between space-time and energy-momentum four vectors. Electron spin is, of course, the most obvious manifestation of relativity. The chemistry of some heavy elements is…

  11. Introduction to the general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radix, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    This work deals with the introduction of the general relativity including the introduction of the tensorial calculation, the Euclidean space in curvilinear coordinates, the Riemann space, the recalls and complements of the restricted relativity and the elements of the general relativity. (O.L.) 83 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Spatial geometry and special relativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kneubil, Fabiana Botelho

    2016-01-01

    In this work, it is shown the interplay of relative and absolute entities, which are present in both spatial geometry and special relativity. In order to strengthen the understanding of special relativity, we discuss firstly an instance of geometry and the existence of both frame-dependent and fr...

  13. Relative deprivation and intergroup prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettigrew, T.F.; Christ, O.; Wagner, U.; Meertens, R.W.; van Dick, R.; Zick, A.

    2008-01-01

    Using three diverse European surveys, we test the relationship between relative deprivation (RD) and anti-immigrant prejudice. We find that both group relative deprivation (GRD) and individual relative deprivation (IRD) are found primarily among working-class respondents who are politically

  14. Representing and querying now-relative relational medical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselma, Luca; Piovesan, Luca; Stantic, Bela; Terenziani, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    Temporal information plays a crucial role in medicine. Patients' clinical records are intrinsically temporal. Thus, in Medical Informatics there is an increasing need to store, support and query temporal data (particularly in relational databases), in order, for instance, to supplement decision-support systems. In this paper, we show that current approaches to relational data have remarkable limitations in the treatment of "now-relative" data (i.e., data holding true at the current time). This can severely compromise their applicability in general, and specifically in the medical context, where "now-relative" data are essential to assess the current status of the patients. We propose a theoretically grounded and application-independent relational approach to cope with now-relative data (which can be paired, e.g., with different decision support systems) overcoming such limitations. We propose a new temporal relational representation, which is the first relational model coping with the temporal indeterminacy intrinsic in now-relative data. We also propose new temporal algebraic operators to query them, supporting the distinction between possible and necessary time, and Allen's temporal relations between data. We exemplify the impact of our approach, and study the theoretical and computational properties of the new representation and algebra. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rhetorical relations for information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Lu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    -called discourse structure has been applied successfully to several natural language processing tasks. This work studies the use of rhetorical relations for Information Retrieval (IR): Is there a correlation between certain rhetorical relations and retrieval performance? Can knowledge about a document’s rhetorical...... relations be useful to IR? We present a language model modification that considers rhetorical relations when estimating the relevance of a document to a query. Empirical evaluation of different versions of our model on TREC settings shows that certain rhetorical relations can benefit retrieval effectiveness...

  16. Organization, relational justice and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoetzer, Ulrich; Åborg, Carl; Johansson, Gun; Svartengren, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for more knowledge on how to manage companies towards healthier and more prosperous organizations with low levels of absenteeism. Relational Justice can be a useful concept when managing such organizations. Organizational factors can help to explain why some companies have relatively low absenteeism rates, even though they are equal to other companies in many other aspects. Previous studies suggest that management may be one important factor. Efficient management may depend on good relations between the leaders and the employees. The concept of Relational Justice is designed to capture these relations. Consequently, a Relational Justice framework may be used to understand why some companies have a low incidence of absenteeism. Managers from a representative body of Swedish companies. Interviews were analyzed to explore whether the items representing the concept of Relational Justice can be used to further understand the strategies, procedures and structures that characterize organizations and management in companies with a low incidence of absenteeism. Strategies, procedures or principles related to Relational Justice were common and highlighted in companies with an incidence of absenteeism. The most frequently occurring factors were; to be treated with kindness and consideration, personal viewpoint considered and to be treated impartially. The results suggested that a Relational Justice framework could be used to increase understanding of the organizational and managerial factors typical for companies with a low incidence of absenteeism. A Relational Justice approach to organizational management may be used to successfully lower absenteeism, change organizations and promote healthy and prosperous companies.

  17. Relationalism or why diplomats find international relations theory strange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    In this conclusion, which reflects critically on the relational approach to diplomacy and its wider consequences, I argue that diplomats are estranged from IR theory and vice versa - because International Relations scholars generally subscribe to substantialism, whereas diplomats tend to think...... scholarship and diplomatic knowledge and practice are important for how we understand (and construct) world politics, including war, international cooperation, and responses to human and natural catastrophes....... in terms of relations. In fact, a deeper understanding of these relations is a key theoretical take-away point of this book. More specifically, I argue that relationalism - as a meta-theoretical approach - not only helps us understand the diplomatic production of world politics, relationalism also reflects...

  18. Producing and Recognizing Analogical Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkens, Regina; Hayes, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is an important component of intelligent behavior, and a key test of any approach to human language and cognition. Only a limited amount of empirical work has been conducted from a behavior analytic point of view, most of that within Relational Frame Theory (RFT), which views analogy as a matter of deriving relations among relations. The present series of four studies expands previous work by exploring the applicability of this model of analogy to topography-based rather than merely selection-based responses and by extending the work into additional relations, including nonsymmetrical ones. In each of the four studies participants pretrained in contextual control over nonarbitrary stimulus relations of sameness and opposition, or of sameness, smaller than, and larger than, learned arbitrary stimulus relations in the presence of these relational cues and derived analogies involving directly trained relations and derived relations of mutual and combinatorial entailment, measured using a variety of productive and selection-based measures. In Experiment 1 participants successfully recognized analogies among stimulus networks containing same and opposite relations; in Experiment 2 analogy was successfully used to extend derived relations to pairs of novel stimuli; in Experiment 3 the procedure used in Experiment 1 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations; in Experiment 4 the procedure used in Experiment 2 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations. Although not every participant showed the effects predicted, overall the procedures occasioned relational responses consistent with an RFT account that have not yet been demonstrated in a behavior-analytic laboratory setting, including productive responding on the basis of analogies. PMID:19230515

  19. Real Time Relativity: exploration learning of special relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, C. M.; Searle, A.; McCalman, L.

    2007-01-01

    Real Time Relativity is a computer program that lets students fly at relativistic speeds though a simulated world populated with planets, clocks, and buildings. The counterintuitive and spectacular optical effects of relativity are prominent, while systematic exploration of the simulation allows the user to discover relativistic effects such as length contraction and the relativity of simultaneity. We report on the physics and technology underpinning the simulation, and our experience using i...

  20. The special theory of relativity bound with relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Dingle, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The Special Theory of Relativity:Based on a short course of lectures delivered in the late 1930s, this short book presents the theory of Special Relativity by formulating a redefinition of the measurement of length, and thus will appeal to students of physics who wish to think through Einstein's thought without the encumbrance of quasi-scientific concepts and language. Relativity: A Very Elementary Exposition:This brief lecture, delivered in October 1921 and published for the first time in 1925, offers an explanation of Einstein's theory of Special Relativity for the non-scientist, giving a ge

  1. Shaping relations: Exploiting relational features for visuospatial priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livins, Katherine A; Doumas, Leonidas A A; Spivey, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Although relational reasoning has been described as a process at the heart of human cognition, the exact character of relational representations remains an open debate. Symbolic-connectionist models of relational cognition suggest that relations are structured representations, but that they are ultimately grounded in feature sets; thus, they predict that activating those features can affect the trajectory of the relational reasoning process. The present work points out that such models do not necessarily specify what those features are though, and endeavors to show that spatial information is likely a part of it. To this end, it presents 2 experiments that used visuospatial priming to affect the course of relational reasoning. The first is a relational category-learning experiment in which this type of priming was shown to affect which spatial relation was learned when multiple were possible. The second used crossmapping analogy problems, paired with this same type of priming, to show that visuospatial cues can make participants more likely to map analogs based on relational roles, even with short presentation times. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Superluminary relativity related to nuclear forces and structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasovski, Petar K.

    1998-01-01

    The new Theory of Superluminary Relativity (SLR) presented and proposed here is based on the superluminary frame of reference transformation and on the modified principles of Special Relativity, General Relativity and Quantum Mass Theory. One of the main concepts of the SLR theory is application of Newton's law of universal gravitation to nuclear structures. The constant in the Newton's gravitational magnitudes for distances and masses characteristic for nuclear structures is defined and determined by the Quantum Mass Theory. The analysis is performed for a nucleus with two nucleons, that is for the deuteron nucleus. On the bases of the principles of Superluminary Relativity a new deuteron nucleus model is offered. (author)

  3. Relating Derived Relations as a Model of Analogical Reasoning: Reaction Times and Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Regan, Donal; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Commins, Sean; Walsh, Derek; Stewart, Ian; Smeets, Paul M.; Whelan, Robert; Dymond, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The current study aimed to test a Relational Frame Theory (RFT) model of analogical reasoning based on the relating of derived same and derived difference relations. Experiment 1 recorded reaction time measures of similar-similar (e.g., "apple is to orange as dog is to cat") versus different-different (e.g., "he is to his brother as…

  4. Relation between moisture content of fine fuels and relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold K. Steen

    1963-01-01

    Measurements indicate a relation between diurnal curves of relative humidity and moisture content of some important fuels of Oregon and Washington. Some of these measurements were made in early years of forest fire research in this region. The data in this note were collected at intervals throughout 4 days (in September 1938) at the Wind River Experimental Forest near...

  5. How public relations works: theoretical roots and public relations perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ihlen, Ø.; van Ruler, B.

    2007-01-01

    Public relations is often studied from a managerial, instrumental perspective or a psychological, behavioral perspective. To understand the role of public relations in building trust or mistrust and to develop - or destroy - a license to operate, it needs also to be studied as a social phenomenon.

  6. The relation between herbivore density and relative resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological theory can help range scientists to understand the determinants of ecological animal density or, in range management terms, 'carrying capacity'. The relation between the relative density of resources and herbivore density is illustrated by regressions of the ecological density of kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on ...

  7. Relative expression of genes related with cold tolerance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low temperature is one of the main abiotic stresses affecting rice yield in Chile. Alterations in phenology and physiology of the crop are observed after a cold event. The objective of this work was to study the relative expression of genes related with cold stress in Chilean cultivars of rice. For this, we analyzed the expression ...

  8. The principle of relativity and the special relativity triple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hanying; Wu Hongtu; Zhou Bin

    2009-01-01

    Based on the principle of relativity and the postulate on universal invariant constants (c,l) as well as Einstein's isotropy conditions, three kinds of special relativity form a triple with a common Lorentz group as isotropy group under full Umov-Weyl-Fock-Lorentz transformations among inertial motions

  9. Special Relativity in Week One: 1) The Principle of Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    We like to begin an introductory physics course with a law of physics that applies to everything, has no known exceptions, and whose consequences are already familiar to students. That law is the principle of relativity. By focusing on the principle of relativity itself, and a careful selection of the thought experiments, we can comfortably…

  10. Relational Aggression and Peer Relations: Gender and Developmental Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rys, Gail S.; Bear, George G.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relationship between three behaviors (physical aggression, relational aggression, and prosocial behaviors) and three social outcomes (peer rejection, acceptance, and reciprocal friendships) in 131 third-graders and 135 sixth-graders. Found that among girls, but not boys, relational aggression explained variance in rejection beyond…

  11. General relativity basics and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Date, Ghanashyam

    2015-01-01

    A Broad Perspective on the Theory of General Relativity and Its Observable Implications General Relativity: Basics and Beyond familiarizes students and beginning researchers with the basic features of the theory of general relativity as well as some of its more advanced aspects. Employing the pedagogical style of a textbook, it includes essential ideas and just enough background material needed for readers to appreciate the issues and current research. Basics The first five chapters form the core of an introductory course on general relativity. The author traces Einstein’s arguments and presents examples of space-times corresponding to different types of gravitational fields. He discusses the adaptation of dynamics in a Riemannian geometry framework, the Einstein equation and its elementary properties, and different phenomena predicted or influenced by general relativity. Beyond Moving on to more sophisticated features of general relativity, the book presents the physical requirements of a well-defined de...

  12. The Impact of Political Relations Between Countries on Economic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we assess the implications of changes in bilateral diplomatic relations with the United States for economic relations. We identify countries whose relations with the US changed during two historic and significant milestones in the past three decades, and a third group of countries after their leftist governments failed/collapsed in early 1990s. Using the Mann-Whitney U-test, we measure the significance of changes in economic relations. We chose the following set of economic indices to reflect economic relations: imports and exports to and from the US, capital outflows from the US to the country, economic and military assistance provided by the US, flow of students to the US, US arms export to the country, the country’s military expenditures, and believing in the importance of remittances and FDI and portfolio investment we use total figures as we did not have bilateral figures. Our results, though mixed, offer some interesting insights.

  13. Special relativity, electrodynamics, and general relativity from Newton to Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Kogut, John B

    2018-01-01

    Special Relativity, Electrodynamics and General Relativity: From Newton to Einstein, Second Edition, is intended to teach (astro)physics, astronomy, and cosmology students how to think about special and general relativity in a fundamental, but accessible, way. Designed to render any reader a "master of relativity," everything on the subject is comprehensible and derivable from first principles. The book emphasizes problem solving, contains abundant problem sets, and is conveniently organized to meet the needs of both student and instructor. Fully revised, updated and expanded second edition Includes new chapters on magnetism as a consequence of relativity and electromagnetism Contains many improved and more engaging figures Uses less algebra resulting in more efficient derivations Enlarged discussion of dynamics and the relativistic version of Newton's second law

  14. Crystal Microbalance Monitors Relative Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L. C.

    1984-01-01

    Sensor monitors water evaporation in industrial drying processes. Measured adsorption isotherm for instrument essentially linear over entire range of relative humidity. Testing at each temperature setting less than half hour for full relative-humidity range, with estimated frequency response time less than 10 seconds. Used to measure relative humidity of ambient atmosphere near drying paper, food textile fabrics and pulp to optimize water-drying portion of processing cycle.

  15. Infinitesimal bundles and projective relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, G.T.

    1973-01-01

    An intrinsic and global presentation of five-dimensional relativity theory is developed, in which special coordinate conditions are replaced by conditions of Lie invariance. The notion of an infinitesimal bundle is introduced, and the theory of connexions on principal bundles is extended to infinitesimal bundles. Global aspects of projective relativity are studied: it is shown that projective relativity can describe almost any space-time. In particular, it is not necessary to assume that the electromagnetic field have a global potential. (author)

  16. Relative Liquidity and Future Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela, Marcela; Zer, Ilknur; Fryzlewicz, Piotr; Rheinlander, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is to identify the strong predictive power of the relative concentration of depth provision, rather than volume of orders, over volatility. To this end, we propose a new measure, relative liquidity (RLIQ), which extracts information from a limit order book distribution and captures the level of consensus on a security's trading price. Higher liquidity provision farther away from the best quotes, relative to the rest of the book, is associated with a disagre...

  17. LES FORMES TEMPORELLES DES RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrand, Alexis

    1990-01-01

    International audience; In personal networks analysis, durations of relations are very frequently observed properties but they are often used without any theoretical meaning in sociology. We suggest to distinguish relations which should consist of different types of processes: stable, evolving, random, or cyclical. These processes are due to regulations of relations: by interpersonal regulation (expected stages of life cycle or interpersonal agreement), by social patterns, or to obtain a spec...

  18. Violence related to health work

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana da Silva Oliveira; Roberta Laíse Gomes Leite Morais; Elisama Nascimento Rocha; Sérgio Donha Yarid; Edite Lago da Silva Sena; Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira Boery

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to present a critical and reflective literature review on the violence related to health work. The survey was conducted through an integrated search in the Virtual Health Library in the months of May and June 2011. We selected 24 articles. The reading of the material led us to the following division results: studies characterization and bioethical reflection on violence related to health work. The work-related violence has consequences not only direct on ...

  19. SUMS Counts-Related Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Staging Instance for all SUMs Counts related projects including: Redeterminations/Limited Issue, Continuing Disability Resolution, CDR Performance Measures, Initial...

  20. Geometry of physical dispersion relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzel, Dennis; Rivera, Sergio; Schuller, Frederic P.

    2011-01-01

    To serve as a dispersion relation, a cotangent bundle function must satisfy three simple algebraic properties. These conditions are derived from the inescapable physical requirements that local matter field dynamics must be predictive and allow for an observer-independent notion of positive energy. Possible modifications of the standard relativistic dispersion relation are thereby severely restricted. For instance, the dispersion relations associated with popular deformations of Maxwell theory by Gambini-Pullin or Myers-Pospelov are not admissible. Dispersion relations passing the simple algebraic checks derived here correspond to physically admissible Finslerian refinements of Lorentzian geometry.

  1. Can coupling constants be related

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Satyanarayan; Ng, Wing-Chiu.

    1978-06-01

    We analyze the conditions under which several coupling constants in field theory can be related to each other. When the relation is independent of the renormalization point, the relation between any g and g' must satisfy a differential equation as follows from the renormalization group equations. Using this differential equation, we investigate the criteria for the feasibility of a power-series relation for various theories, especially the Weinberg-Salam type (including Higgs bosons) with an arbitrary number of quark and lepton flavors. (orig./WL) [de

  2. Employment relations, flexibility and risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    Employment relations literature often distinguishes between social democratic/corporatist models of employment relations and liberal models of employment relations as they are seen as opposite or at least different ways of organizing labor markets. They are often characterized as having very...... different risk profiles in terms of relationships between employees, employers, and the state. Low levels of labor market regulation very often characterize the liberal models of employment relations as we know them from, for instance, the USA and the UK. This means that employment conditions are very often...

  3. Cross-Domain Analogies as Relating Derived Relations among Two Separate Relational Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Francisco J; Luciano, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary behavior analytic research is making headway in analyzing analogy as the establishment of a relation of coordination among common types of trained or derived relations. Previous studies have been focused on within-domain analogy. The current study expands previous research by analyzing cross-domain analogy as relating relations among separate relational networks and by correlating participants' performance with a standard measure of analogical reasoning. In two experiments, adult participants first completed general intelligence and analogical reasoning tests. Subsequently, they were exposed to a computerized conditional discrimination training procedure designed to create two relational networks, each consisting of two 3-member equivalence classes. The critical test was a two-part analogical test in which participants had to relate combinatorial relations of coordination and distinction between the two relational networks. In Experiment 1, combinatorial relations for each network were individually tested prior to analogical testing, but in Experiment 2 they were not. Across both experiments, 65% of participants passed the analogical test on the first attempt. Moreover, results from the training procedure were strongly correlated with the standard measure of analogical reasoning. PMID:21547072

  4. Real-time 3D echo in patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stamatis; Bhan, Amit; Murgatroyd, Francis; Kearney, Mark T; Gall, Nicholas; Zhang, Qing; Yu, Cheuk-Man; Monaghan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    this study investigated the use of 3-dimensional (3D) echo in quantifying left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony (LVMD), its interhospital agreement, and potential impact on patient selection. assessment of LVMD has been proposed as an improvement on conventional criteria in selecting patients for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Three-dimensional echo offers a reproducible assessment of left ventricular (LV) structure, function, and LVMD and may be useful in selecting patients for this intervention. we studied 187 patients at 2 institutions. Three-dimensional data from baseline and longest follow-up were quantified for volume, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and systolic dyssynchrony index (SDI). New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class was assessed independently. Several outcomes from CRT were considered: 1) reduction in NYHA functional class; 2) 20% relative increase in LVEF; and 3) 15% reduction in LV end-systolic volume. Sixty-two cases were shared between institutions to analyze interhospital agreement. there was excellent interhospital agreement for 3D-derived LV end-diastolic and end- systolic volumes, EF, and SDI (variability: 2.9%, 1%, 7.1%, and 7.6%, respectively). Reduction in NYHA functional class was found in 78.9% of patients. Relative improvement in LVEF of 20% was found in 68% of patients, but significant reduction in LV end-systolic volume was found in only 41.5%. The QRS duration was not predictive of any of the measures of outcome (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.52, 0.58, and 0.57 for NYHA functional class, LVEF, and LV end-systolic volume), whereas SDI was highly predictive of improvement in these parameters (AUC: 0.79, 0.86, and 0.66, respectively). For patients not fulfilling traditional selection criteria (atrial fibrillation, QRS duration <120 ms, or undergoing device upgrade), SDI had similar predictive value. A cutoff of 10.4% for SDI was found to have the highest accuracy for predicting improvement following

  5. Stakeholder relations and financial performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.; Zhou, Y.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze how shareholder performance can be associated with stakeholder relations. As such, we try to find out whether there is an association between financial performance and stakeholder relations with respect to different theoretical notions about the firm. Financial performance is

  6. Training Guidelines for Employee Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotel and Catering Training Board, Wembley (England).

    This set of guidelines is intended for use by employers desiring to establish the training needs of those involved in employee relations. The 16 guidelines cover the following principal activities normally associated with employee relations: staff management policy and aims, staff recruitment and selection, terms and conditions of employment,…

  7. New relations in basic dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebigan, F. [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania)

    1995-12-01

    Four new relations have been derived based on the definitions of the fundamental dosimetric quantities given in recent ICRU reports. These relations have the general form A.B=A.B, where A and B are respectively the dosimetric quantities and their rates.

  8. Emotional Intelligence and Interpersonal Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.; Bobik, Chad; Coston, Tracie D.; Greeson, Cyndy; Jedlicka, Christina; Rhodes, Emily; Wendorf, Greta

    2001-01-01

    Presents the results of seven studies that focused on the link between emotional intelligence and interpersonal relations. Tests emotional intelligence with empathy and self-monitoring, social skills, cooperation, relations with others, and marital satisfaction. Explores preference for emotionally intelligent partners in the final study. Includes…

  9. Geriatric fall-related injuries.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The majority of geriatric fall-related injuries were due to fall from the same level at home. Assessment of risk fac- tors for falls including home hazards is essential for prevention of geriatric fall-related injuries. Keywords: Accidental fall, geriatrics, injury, trauma registry. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v16i2.24.

  10. Teaching Special Relativity without Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 many AAPT members received a booklet that is the first chapter of a physics textbook available on a CD. This book espouses the new educational philosophy of teaching special relativity as the first item in the topic of mechanics. Traditionally, special relativity is part of one or more modern physics chapters at the end of the text, and…

  11. China-Latin America Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba; Silva Ramos Becard, Danielly

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the research field of China-Latin American relations and suggests a broad and encompassing approach to the topic. It discusses the main themes and problem areas that analysts mostly emphasize in analyses of China-Latin America relations....

  12. Making Probabilistic Relational Categories Learnable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Wookyoung; Hummel, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Theories of relational concept acquisition (e.g., schema induction) based on structured intersection discovery predict that relational concepts with a probabilistic (i.e., family resemblance) structure ought to be extremely difficult to learn. We report four experiments testing this prediction by investigating conditions hypothesized to facilitate…

  13. Relativity and EPR Entanglement: Comments

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, S. C.

    2001-01-01

    Recent experiment by Zhinden et al (Phys. Rev {\\bf A} 63 02111, 2001) purports to test compatibility between relativity and quantum mechanics in the classic EPR setting. We argue that relativity has no role in the EPR argument based solely on non-relativistic quantum formalism. It is suggested that this interesting experiment may have significance to address fundamental questions on quantum probability.

  14. Fluctuation relation for heat engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinitsyn, N A

    2011-01-01

    We derive the exact equality, referred to as the fluctuation relation for heat engines (FRHE), that relates statistics of heat extracted from one of the two heat baths and the work per one cycle of a heat engine operation. Carnot's inequality of classical thermodynamics follows as a direct consequence of the FRHE. (paper)

  15. Industrial relations in Europe 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.

    2009-01-01

    This report - the fifth edition in a well-established series - aims to increase the visibility of European social dialogue, describe and raise awareness of developments in European industrial relations, and initiate related discussion through its analytical chapters. The 2008 report addresses the

  16. Perempuan Dalam Dunia Public Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novi Kurnia

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Literature review shows that women gain more access to job in public relations. Observation in Yogyakarta shows that women are not easily top position in corporation due to understatement of the role of public relations in organizational structure. Discrimination against women is minimal except on family allowance.

  17. Universal relation between spectroscopic constants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (3) The author has used eq. (6) of his paper to calculate De. This relation leads to a large deviation from the correct value depending upon the extent to which experimental values are known. Guided by this fact, in our work, we used experimentally observed De values to derive the relation between spectroscopic constants.

  18. The security in international relations

    OpenAIRE

    Iurie RICHICINSCHI

    2016-01-01

    Regardless the fact that concerns about the nature of relations between states, the causes of war, the peacekeeping issues, the international cooperation and recognition of international actors have preceded with millennia the emergence of the academic field of International Relations as a discipline, this one has been embedded along several centuries in much broader areas of research, whose influence is still manifested today.

  19. IS-related Organizational Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinwald, Anja

    The link between information systems (IS) and organizational change has been well established in the IS literature. This dissertation introduces the Complex Responsive Processes perspective as a novel approach to the study of IS-related organizational change. By combining insights from complexity...... science with insights from social science, attention is directed to differences, and the related conflict and power balance as the basis of change. An interpretive case study was conducted of a process towards realizing the digital school unfolding within a Danish municipality. Through observations...... this novel approach to the study of IS-related organizational change, the dissertation identifies the role of conflict as a potential driver of IS-related organizational change as well as the need for ongoing initiatives to ensure the needed local changes. Further, power is emphasized as a relational...

  20. Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Ullits; Lanng, Susanne; Pressler, Tania

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cystic fibrosis (CF)-related diabetes has been regarded as a mild form of diabetes with a low risk of severe diabetes complications. The prevalence of CF-related diabetes increases with age, resulting in a 50% prevalence of diabetes at age 30 years. We sought to investigate whether...... microvascular complications in CF-related diabetes appear with a relevant frequency. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Thirty-eight patients aged 30 (range 18-55) years with CF-related diabetes for 20 (0-31) years were screened for diabetes complications. Because of chronic pulmonary infections, the majority...... of diabetic retinopathy was found in patients with insulin-treated CF-related diabetes, stressing the need for a regular screening program as in type 1 diabetes. Severely impaired kidney function was common in lung transplant patients, probably secondary to cyclosporine treatment....

  1. The Principle of Relativity and the Indeterminacy of Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Rodrigo; Guerra, Vasco

    2008-01-01

    This work ends a trilogy devoted to a journey into the foundations of special relativity. The first paper debated the meaning of the constancy of the two-way speed of light and its close relation to the conceptualization of time. The second one addressed the question of the possible constancy of the one-way speed of light and the trivial--but,…

  2. Variations of relative humidity in relation to meningitis in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, M. W.; Hopson, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    The meningitis belt is a region covering Sub-Saharan Africa from the Sahel of West Africa eastward to western Ethiopia. The region is prone to meningitis epidemics during the dry season extending from approximately January to May, depending on the region. Relative humidity has been found to be a critical environmental factor indicating the susceptibility of a region to meningitis epidemics. This study evaluates the variation of relative humidity across West Africa over 30 dry-seasons (1979 - 2009) using the NASA-MERRA dataset. The method of self-organizing maps is employed to characterize the changes in relative humidity patterns across the region within a given dry season as well as changes over the 30 years. A general pattern of changes in relative humidity is indicated as the rainbelt retreats to the south at the onset of the dry season and then returns to the region at the end of the dry season. Within each dry season there is a unique pattern. The climatological conditions of relative humidity at the onset of the dry season provide an indication of the moisture environment for the entire dry season. Year to year variation in the relative humidity patterns are found to be gradual. Future applications involve using the results from the SOM evaluation to be used for future decisions involving prevention of meningitis epidemics.

  3. Towards a relational health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry; Burnett, Patrick John

    2016-03-01

    The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion exhibits a substantialist approach to the agency-structure dichotomy. From a substantialist point of view, both individual agency and social structure come preformed and subsequently relate to and influence one another, starkly positioning the choices made by individuals against the structured sets of opportunities and constraints in reference to which choices are made. From a relational perspective, however, relations between elements, not the elements themselves, are the primary ontological focus. We advocate for a relational approach to the structure-agency dichotomy, one that locates both agency and structure in social relations and thereby dissolves the stark distinction between them, suggesting that relational theories can provide useful insights into how and why people 'choose' to engage in health-related behaviours. Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice, predicated upon the notions of field, capital and habitus, is exemplary in this regard. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Special relativity a first encounter

    CERN Document Server

    Giulini, Domenico

    2005-01-01

    Special relativity provides the foundations of our knowledge of space and time. Without it, our understanding of the world, and its place in the universe, would be unthinkable. This book gives a concise, elementary, yet exceptionally modern, introduction to special relativity. It is a gentle yet serious 'first encounter', in that it conveys a true understanding rather than purely reports the basic facts. Only very elementary mathematical knowledge is needed to master it (basichigh-school maths), yet it will leave the reader with a sound understanding of the subject. Special Relativity: A First

  5. Evaluating the Relational Coordination instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke

    2014-01-01

    and surgical performance. This has prompted the attention of both practitioners and politicians some of who perceive relational coordination as a means to attain better performance. The relational coordination instrument has been validated as a measure of teamwork from the following perspectives: internal...... consistency, interrater agreement and reliability, structural validity, content validity. However as relational coordination is being used as a diagnostics tool it is important to examine further if the instrument can measure changes. Indeed we need to know how precise and sensitive the instrument is when...

  6. A primer of special relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Sardesai, PL

    2004-01-01

    A Primer of Special Relativity1 is an unusually lucid introduction to the subject specifically written for Indian students. It is intended to give the beginner a firm grounding for a more advanced course in relativity. An entire chapter is devoted to applications of the theory to elucidate a large number of topics the students (B.Sc. Physics) come across in Modern Physics. Detailed and well-selected examples are used to illuminate aspects of the theory as well as to show techniques of application. A large number of Illustrative Examples enables the students to gain confidence to solve any problem in relativity normally expected of B.Sc. students.

  7. Violence related to health work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to present a critical and reflective literature review on the violence related to health work. The survey was conducted through an integrated search in the Virtual Health Library in the months of May and June 2011. We selected 24 articles. The reading of the material led us to the following division results: studies characterization and bioethical reflection on violence related to health work. The work-related violence has consequences not only direct on professionals’ health, but also for the citizen and society as a whole. Make it visible is the first action needed for prevention / control and to promote healthier workplaces.

  8. VIOLENCE RELATED TO HEALTH WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to present a critical and reflective literature review on the violence related to health work. The survey was conducted through an integrated search in the Virtual Health Library in the months of May and June 2011. We selected 24 articles. The reading of the material led us to the following division results: studies characterization and bioethical reflection on violence related to health work. The work-related violence has consequences not only direct on professionals’ health, but also for the citizen and society as a whole. Make it visible is the first action needed for prevention / control and to promote healthier workplaces.

  9. Spinning fluids in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J. R.; Smalley, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    General relativity field equations are employed to examine a continuous medium with internal spin. A variational principle formerly applied in the special relativity case is extended to the general relativity case, using a tetrad to express the spin density and the four-velocity of the fluid. An energy-momentum tensor is subsequently defined for a spinning fluid. The equations of motion of the fluid are suggested to be useful in analytical studies of galaxies, for anisotropic Bianchi universes, and for turbulent eddies.

  10. Sgr A* and General Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Johannsen, Tim

    2015-01-01

    General relativity has been widely tested in weak gravitational fields but still stands largely untested in the strong-field regime. According to the no-hair theorem, black holes in general relativity depend only on their masses and spins and are described by the Kerr metric. Mass and spin are the first two multipole moments of the Kerr spacetime and completely determine all higher-order moments. The no-hair theorem and, hence, general relativity can be tested by measuring potential deviation...

  11. Local and Transnational Care Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher; Olwig, Karen Fog

    2015-01-01

    moral and contractual obligations and expectations associated with these varying family relations, the power asymmetries with which they are linked, and the agency that the au pairs display as they seek to position themselves in the most favourable way in relation to the multi-directional ties in which...... as transnational family relations in which these women are embedded as au pairs, and the opportunities and restraints that they present. We use anthropological theory to conceptualize family and kinship in terms of notions and practices of relatedness. This offers a useful framework for elucidating the different...

  12. Relating derived relations as a model of analogical reasoning: reaction times and event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Regan, Donal; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Commins, Sean; Walsh, Derek; Stewart, Ian; Smeets, Paul M; Whelan, Robert; Dymond, Simon

    2005-11-01

    The current study aimed to test a Relational Frame Theory (RFT) model of analogical reasoning based on the relating of derived same and derived difference relations. Experiment 1 recorded reaction time measures of similar-similar (e.g., "apple is to orange as dog is to cat") versus different-different (e.g., "he is to his brother as chalk is to cheese") derived relational responding, in both speed-contingent and speed-noncontingent conditions. Experiment 2 examined the event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with these two response patterns. Both experiments showed similar-similar responding to be significantly faster than different-different responding. Experiment 2 revealed significant differences between the waveforms of the two response patterns in the left-hemispheric prefrontal regions; different-different waveforms were significantly more negative than similar-similar waveforms. The behavioral and neurophysiological data support the RFT prediction that, all things being equal, similar-similar responding is relationally "simpler" than, and functionally distinct from, different-different analogical responding. The ERP data were fully consistent with findings in the neurocognitive literature on analogy. These findings strengthen the validity of the RFT model of analogical reasoning and supplement the behavior-analytic approach to analogy based on the relating of derived relations.

  13. Basic statements of relativity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Muschik

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Some basic statements of relativity theory, starting out with geometry and observers up to Einstein's field equations, are collected in a systematical order without any proof, to serve as a short survey of tools and results.

  14. LABOUR RELATIONS IN POSTINDUSTRIAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Rostislavovitch Chistyakov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with inadequacy of present-day labour relations in economy. Out of date form of labour relations makes workforce dependable, causes social inequality, prevents economical development. The article gives results of theoretical and empiric research. The mechanism of guaranteed reproduction of labour to be realized as social partnership is offered.Purpose: the purpose is to give critical estimation of present-day labour relations in postindustrial economy.Method of studies: monographic, general theoretic economic analysis, correlation statistic analysisResults: a new modern adequate alternative form of labour relations guarantying the reproduction of labour is introducedField of application: industrial regulation both in economics in general and concrete businesses; motivation of workers.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-29

  15. Relational Expertise in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2014-01-01

    This paper positions relation expertise as a core competence in participatory design. It is an expertise that demands the participatory designer to stimulate the emergence of loosely coupled knotworks, and obtain symbiotic agreement between participants disregarding their professional and social...

  16. Grammatical Constructions as Relational Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B

    2017-07-01

    This paper argues that grammatical constructions, specifically argument structure constructions that determine the "who did what to whom" part of sentence meaning and how this meaning is expressed syntactically, can be considered a kind of relational category. That is, grammatical constructions are represented as the abstraction of the syntactic and semantic relations of the exemplar utterances that are expressed in that construction, and it enables the generation of novel exemplars. To support this argument, I review evidence that there are parallel behavioral patterns between how children learn relational categories generally and how they learn grammatical constructions specifically. Then, I discuss computational simulations of how grammatical constructions are abstracted from exemplar sentences using a domain-general relational cognitive architecture. Last, I review evidence from adult language processing that shows parallel behavioral patterns with expert behavior from other cognitive domains. After reviewing the evidence, I consider how to integrate this account with other theories of language development. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. Stressful social relations and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Christensen, Ulla; Nilsson, Charlotte Juul

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the relationship between stressful social relations in private life and all-cause mortality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between stressful social relations (with partner, children, other family, friends and neighbours, respectively) and all...... men and women aged 36-52 years, linked to the Danish Cause of Death Registry for information on all-cause mortality until 31 December 2011. Associations between stressful social relations with partner, children, other family, friends and neighbours, respectively, and all-cause mortality were examined...... hazards model. RESULTS: Frequent worries/demands from partner or children were associated with 50-100% increased mortality risk. Frequent conflicts with any type of social relation were associated with 2-3 times increased mortality risk. Interaction between labour force participation and worries...

  18. Canada-U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ek, Carl; Fergusson, Ian F; Nunez-Neto, Blas; Clarke, Stephen F; Abel, Amy; Becker, Geoffrey S; Buck, Eugene H; Corn, M. L; Gelb, Bernard A; Gorte, Ross W

    2006-01-01

    .... The early 1990s brought new governments to Ottawa and Washington, and although Canada's Liberal Party emphasized its determination to act independently of the United States when necessary, relations...

  19. Recursion relations from soft theorems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hui [II. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, Hamburg, D-22761 (Germany); Wen, Congkao [I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, Roma, 00133 (Italy)

    2016-03-14

    We establish a set of new on-shell recursion relations for amplitudes satisfying soft theorems. The recursion relations can apply to those amplitudes whose additional physical inputs from soft theorems are enough to overcome the bad large-z behaviour. This work is a generalization of the recursion relations recently obtained by Cheung et al. for amplitudes in scalar effective field theories with enhanced vanishing soft behaviours, which can be regarded as a special case of those with non-vanishing soft limits. We apply the recursion relations to tree-level amplitudes in various theories, including amplitudes in the Akulov-Volkov theory and amplitudes containing dilatons of spontaneously-broken conformal symmetry.

  20. Some Pitfalls in Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, An-Ti

    1973-01-01

    The problem of observing a collision between two spaceships is utilized to illustrate the misuse of time dilation and length contraction, and the incorrect description of space-time coordinates in special relativity. (Author/DF)

  1. Issues related to geothermal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesperance, G.O.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a number of potential barriers to geothermal development in Hawaii which have been overcome but some remain. Efforts continue to address issues relating to transmission, project economics, the regulatory process, resource verification, and public acceptance

  2. Israeli-United States Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark, Clyde R

    2001-01-01

    ....-Israeli relations have evolved from an initial American policy of sympathy and support for the creation of a Jewish homeland in 1948 to an unusual partnership that links a small but militarily...

  3. Israeli-United States Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark, Clyde R

    2004-01-01

    ....-Israeli relations have evolved from an initial American policy of sympathy and support for the creation of a Jewish homeland in 1948 to an unusual partnership that links a small but militarily...

  4. Israeli-United States Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark, Clyde R

    2002-01-01

    ....-Israeli relations have evolved from an initial American policy of sympathy and support for the creation of a Jewish homeland in 1948 to an unusual partnership that links a small but militarily...

  5. Israeli-United States Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark, Clyde R

    2003-01-01

    ....-Israeli relations have evolved from an initial American policy of sympathy and support for the creation of a Jewish homeland in 1948 to an unusual partnership that links a small but militarily...

  6. Israeli-United States Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark, Clyde R

    2005-01-01

    ....-Israeli relations have evolved from an initial American policy of sympathy and support for the creation of a Jewish homeland in 1948 to an unusual partnership that links a small but militarily...

  7. Teorie relativity a relativita teorie

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlík, Vladimír

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 6 (2005), s. 878-893 ISSN 0015-1831 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : theory of relativity * relativism * philosophy of science Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  8. Relational Multimodal Freight Database Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The relational Multimodal Freight Database (MFD) was developed as part of Texas Department : of Transportation (TxDOT) Research Project 0-6297 entitled Freight Planning Factors Impacting : Texas Commodity Flows, conducted by the Center for Transporta...

  9. Public Relations & Media Relations (Kritik Budaya Amplop Pada Media Relations Institusi Pendidikan Di Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhianty Nurjanah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is aims to determine how the media relations activities that have been done 10 Public Relations Higher Education, including the possibility of granting cultural envelope in media relations activities during this do. The object of this study is ten (10 Universities in Yogyakarta that consists of three (3 State University (PTN and seven (7 Colleges (PTS. Variations and types of media relations activities have been conducted by 10 universities. The reason is because the electoral college to ten (10 college is a big college in the city of Yogyakarta who own Public Relations and media relations activities that have a systematic and well-planned. In the course of media relations, Public Relations universities do culture accepting envelopes to reporters on the grounds reimburse the costs of transport and not as a "bribe" so that they publicized the news and as a means of imaging the institution. Publicist colleges feel that culture provides envelopes to reporters did not violate the code of ethics of their profession as a Public Relations, On the other hand for journalists, cultural granting envelope can interfere with the independence and constitute a violation of the code of ethics of their profession as journalists. Yet there are also journalists who will receive an envelope in their reporting activities. The discrepancies in the implementation of the code of ethics of journalism, is strongly influenced by the integrity of journalists and policies that apply to each media institution. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimana kegiatan media relations yang telah dilakukan 10 Public Relations / Humas Perguruan Tinggi tersebut, termasuk kemungkinan adanya budaya pemberian amplop dalam kegiatan media relations yang selama ini dilakukan. Objek penelitian ini adalah sepuluh (10 Perguruan Tinggi di Yogyakarta yang terdiri dari tiga (3 Perguruan Tinggi Negeri (PTN dan tujuh (7 Perguruan Tinggi Swasta (PTS . Beragam variasi dan jenis

  10. Integrodifferential relations in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Kostin, Georgy V

    2012-01-01

    This work treats the elasticity of deformed bodies, including the resulting interior stresses and displacements.It also takes into account that some of constitutive relations can be considered in a weak form. To discuss this problem properly, the method of integrodifferential relations is used, and an advanced numerical technique for stress-strain analysis is presented and evaluated using various discretization techniques. The methods presented in this book are of importance for almost all elasticity problems in materials science and mechanical engineering.

  11. Finding related functional neuroimaging volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a content-based image retrieval technique for finding related functional neuroimaging experiments by voxelization of sets of stereotactic coordinates in Talairach space, comparing the volumes and reporting related volumes in a sorted list. Voxelization is accomplished by convolving each...... coordinate with a Gaussian kernel. The scheme allows us to compare experiments represented as either lists of coordinates or volumes, and we introduce alternative entrances to databases by image-based indices constructed via novelty measures and singular value decomposition....

  12. Subjunctive in Russian relative clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Dobrushina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at determining the factors that trigger the choice of subjunctive in relative clauses, where it freely alternates with indicative forms. The factors are established on a basis of frequency of occurrence in Russian National Corpus (www.ruscorpora.ru and include the referential status of the noun heading the relative clause, the polarity, semantic type and epistemic status of the main predicate and the affirmative vs. interrogative status of the whole sentence.

  13. General relativity 50 years old

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    In May 1916, 'The Foundations of General Relativity Theory' by Albert Einstein was published in 'Annalen der Physik'. Fifty years later, this major contribution to scientific thought still has a rather isolated position with respect to the main-stream of scientific theory. (In contrast, the Special Theory of Relativity is one of the cornerstones of sub-nuclear physics.) To mark the anniversary of the publication of Einstein's paper a theoretician from CERN discusses the theory and its present status.

  14. International Relations Research Methodology: Realism

    OpenAIRE

    Andrey Vladimirovich Shabaga

    2015-01-01

    The article examines the origins and conceptual analysis capabilities of international relations in the framework of a realistic paradigm. We research political conditions and preconditions of the creation of realism’s theory and axiological features of realism’s practice in international relations. We also analyze the basic concepts and schools of realism: Realpolitik, political realism, neorealism, neoclassical realism. It is shown that based on the balance of power in the Realpolitik Pruss...

  15. The security in international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurie RICHICINSCHI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Regardless the fact that concerns about the nature of relations between states, the causes of war, the peacekeeping issues, the international cooperation and recognition of international actors have preceded with millennia the emergence of the academic field of International Relations as a discipline, this one has been embedded along several centuries in much broader areas of research, whose influence is still manifested today.

  16. Numerical relativity; La relatividad numerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcubierre, M.

    2015-07-01

    Today the numerical relativity has developed numerical techniques and an understanding of the structure of the field equations and terms of coordinates, as well as an explosion in speed and memory capacity of supercomputers, make it possible to simulate the collision of black holes with masses and different spins in gravitational orbits. It has also allowed to study in detail the collapse and collision of stars neutrons.la numerical relativity has allowed other both numerical and theoretical studies. (Author)

  17. Is special relativity logically inconsistent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokhovnik, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    The author gives his view that Special Relativity is logically and mathematically consistent, as well as physically comprehensible if, and only if, it is firmly based on the single assumption of a unique fundamental reference frame for light propagation. The theory and all its results are derivable from this assumption; the Relativity and Light Principles become intelligible consequences of this assumption; the physical significance and source of time dilation and length contraction are made manifest thereby. (Auth.)

  18. Relational citizenship: supporting embodied selfhood and relationality in dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Pia; Miller, Karen-Lee; Kontos, Alexis P

    2017-02-01

    We draw on findings from a mixed-method study of specialised red-nosed elder-clowns in a long-term care facility to advance a model of 'relational citizenship' for individuals with dementia. Relational citizenship foregrounds the reciprocal nature of engagement and the centrality of capacities, senses, and experiences of bodies to the exercise of human agency and interconnectedness. We critically examine elder-clown strategies and techniques to illustrate how relational citizenship can be supported and undermined at the micro level of direct care through a focus on embodied expressions of creativity and sexuality. We identify links between aesthetic enrichment and relational practices in art, music and imagination. Relational citizenship offers an important rethinking of notions of selfhood, entitlement, and reciprocity that are central to a sociology of dementia, and it also provides new ethical grounds to explore how residents' creative and sexual expression can be cultivated in the context of long-term care. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  19. Researcher/Researched: Relations of Vulnerability/Relations of Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckaby, M. Francyne

    2011-01-01

    Turning to reflexive journals and fieldnotes, the author reconsiders Foucault's "relations of power" through her experiences with five research participants, who are professors of education. The paper explores: (1) the translation of Foucault for an analysis of power; (2) the dynamics of researching up and analyzing from below; and (3) the…

  20. Nonlinear generalization of special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1985-01-01

    In Poincares axiomatic formulation special relativity is a derived consequence of a true Lorentz contraction, for a rod in absolute motion through a substratum. Furthermore, Lorentz had shown that the rod contraction can be understood by an inverse square law interaction and therefore special relativity derived from more fundamental principles. The derivation by Lorentz shows that the root of the divergence problems is the singular inverse square law. By replacing the inverse square law with a regular one through the introduction of a finite length, the author has succeeded in deriving a nonlinear generalization of special relativity which eliminates all infinities. Besides the relative velocities, these nonlinear transformation equations also contain absolute velocities against a substratum, but in the limit of small energies they go over into the linear Lorentz transformations. Depending on the smallness of the fundamental length, departures from special relativity can be observed only at very high energies. The theorem that the velocity of light is the same in all reference systems still holds and likewise the conservation laws for energy and momentum

  1. Gadow's relational narrative: an elaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Joanne D

    2003-07-01

    Nurse philosopher Sally Gadow (1999) has proposed the relational narrative between patient and nurse as a 'postmodern turn' for nursing ethics. She has conceptualized this moral approach as the construction by patient and nurse of a coauthored narrative describing the good they are seeking, as well as the means to achieve this good. The purpose of this article is to provide an elaboration of Gadow's seminal conceptualization of relational narrative based on her writings and those of other philosophers. The article will further develop relational narrative's foundations in relationship and narrative and will explore engagement as a dimension essential to its creation and growth. The elaboration first builds on the notion of relationship as foundational to this postmodern moral perspective. Narrative then is advanced as being at the heart of the patient-nurse relationship and their relational narrative, based on an exploration of narrative's role in the moral realm as an epistemology for patient and nurse. Finally, the dialogic and embodied engagement expressed by a relational narrative is developed as a critical element of the ethic.

  2. Motion Control along Relative Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is control of mechanical systems as they evolve along the steady motions called relative equilibria. These trajectories are of interest in theory and applications and have the characterizing property that the system's body-fixed velocity is constant. For example, constant......-speed rotation about a principal axis is a relative equilibrium of a rigid body in three dimensions. We focus our study on simple mechanical control systems on Lie groups, i.e., mechanical systems with the following properties: the configuration manifold is a matrix Lie group, the total energy is equal...... on a Lie group is locally controllable along a relative equilibrium. These conditions subsume the well-known local controllability conditions for equilibrium points. Second, for systems that have fewer controls than degrees of freedom, we present a novel algorithm to control simple mechanical control...

  3. Aspergillus-Related Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia Al-Alawi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus is a ubiquitous dimorphic fungus that causes a variety of human diseases ranging in severity from trivial to life-threatening, depending on the host response. An intact host defence is important to prevent disease, but individuals with pre-existing structural lung disease, atopy, occupational exposure or impaired immunity are susceptible. Three distinctive patterns of aspergillus-related lung disease are recognized: saprophytic infestation of airways, cavities and necrotic tissue; allergic disease including extrinsic allergic alveolitis, asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, bronchocentric granulomatosis and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia; and airway and tissue invasive disease -- pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis, acute bronchopneumonia, angioinvasive aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing aspergillosis and invasive pleural disease. A broad knowledge of these clinical presentations and a high index of suspicion are required to ensure timely diagnosis and treatment of the potentially lethal manifestations of aspergillus-related pulmonary disease. In the present report, the clinical, radiographic and pathological aspects of the various aspergillus-related lung diseases are briefly reviewed.

  4. Unifying relations for scattering amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Clifford; Shen, Chia-Hsien; Wen, Congkao

    2018-02-01

    We derive new amplitudes relations revealing a hidden unity among a wideranging variety of theories in arbitrary spacetime dimensions. Our results rely on a set of Lorentz invariant differential operators which transmute physical tree-level scattering amplitudes into new ones. By transmuting the amplitudes of gravity coupled to a dilaton and two-form, we generate all the amplitudes of Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, Dirac-Born-Infield theory, special Galileon, nonlinear sigma model, and biadjoint scalar theory. Transmutation also relates amplitudes in string theory and its variants. As a corollary, celebrated aspects of gluon and graviton scattering like color-kinematics duality, the KLT relations, and the CHY construction are inherited traits of the transmuted amplitudes. Transmutation recasts the Adler zero as a trivial consequence of the Weinberg soft theorem and implies new subleading soft theorems for certain scalar theories.

  5. Umayyad Relations with Byzantium Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Haidari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the political and military relations between Umayyad caliphates with the Byzantine Empire. The aim of this research is to clarify Umayyad caliphate’s relations with the Byzantine Empire. We know that these relations were mostly about war and fight. Because there were always intense conflicts between Muslims and the Byzantine Empire, they had to have an active continuous diplomacy to call truce and settle the disputes. Thus, based on the general policy of the Umayyad caliphs, Christians were severely ignored and segregated within Islamic territories. This segregation of the Christians was highly affected by political relationships. It is worthy of mentioning that Umayyad caliphs brought the governing style of the Sassanid kings and Roman Caesar into the Islamic Caliphate system but they didn’t establish civil institutions and administrative organizations.

  6. Ordering relations for quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Ian

    2015-03-01

    It is often desirable to model physical states in an order-theoretic manner, e.g. as a partially ordered set. Classical states are known to possess a unique ordering relation corresponding to a neo-realist interpretation of these states. No such unique relation exists for quantum states. This lack of a unique ordering relation for quantum states turns out to be a manifestation of quantum contextuality vis-à-vis the Kochen-Specker theorem. It also turns out that this provides a link to certain large-scale thermodynamic processes. The suggestion that the ordering of quantum states leads to macroscopic thermodynamic processes is at least five decades old. The suggestion that the mechanism that drives the ordering is contextuality, is unique to this work. The argument is framed in the language of the theories of domains, categories, and topoi. Financial support provided by FQXi.

  7. Ciemat Relational Capital: Institutional Presence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaquero Ortiz, E. M.; González Pineda, L. M.; Cascante Díaz, E.

    2015-01-01

    The resources in any organization for its activity development can be divided into two main groups: tangible assets and intangible assets. In recent decades there has been a recognition of the importance of the intangible assets as value generators for the development and growth of organizations. And the so called Relational Capital is among them Relational Capital arises from the relationship processes that an organization maintains with external agents. Thus, in the case of a public research institution, such as CIEMAT, it includes the relations with projects financing organizations, with partners and with customers (both public and private entities which are serviced), as well as the institutional presence understood as the participation in discussion and coordination forums (foundations, associations, committees…). This report presents a study of CIEMAT institutional presence in the year 2015.

  8. The genesis of general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, John; Renn, Jürgen; Sauer, Tilman; Stachel, John

    2007-01-01

    This four-volume work represents the most comprehensive documentation and study of the creation of general relativity; one of the fundamental physical theories of the 20th century. It comprises key sources from Einstein and others who from the late 19th to the early 20th century contributed to this monumental development. Some of these sources are presented here in translation for the first time. Einstein’s famous Zurich notebook, which documents the pivotal steps toward general relativity, is reproduced here for the first time and transcribed in its entirety. The volumes offer detailed commentaries and analyses of these sources that are based on a close reading of these documents supplemented by interpretations by the leading historians of relativity. All in all, the facets of this work, based on more than a decade of research, combine to constitute one of the most in-depth studies of a scientific revolution ever written.

  9. Relational uncertainty in service dyads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreye, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    in service dyads and how they resolve it through suitable organisational responses to increase the level of service quality. Design/methodology/approach: We apply the overall logic of Organisational Information-Processing Theory (OIPT) and present empirical insights from two industrial case studies collected...... via semi-structured interviews and secondary data. Findings: The findings suggest that relational uncertainty is caused by the partner’s unresolved organisational uncertainty, i.e. their lacking capabilities to deliver or receive (parts of) the service. Furthermore, we found that resolving...... the relational uncertainty increased the functional quality while resolving the partner’s organisational uncertainty increased the technical quality of the delivered service. Originality: We make two contributions. First, we introduce relational uncertainty to the OM literature as the inability to predict...

  10. Recursion Relations for Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Penedones, João; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-09-12

    In the context of conformal field theories in general space-time dimension, we find all the possible singularities of the conformal blocks as functions of the scaling dimension $\\Delta$ of the exchanged operator. In particular, we argue, using representation theory of parabolic Verma modules, that in odd spacetime dimension the singularities are only simple poles. We discuss how to use this information to write recursion relations that determine the conformal blocks. We first recover the recursion relation introduced in 1307.6856 for conformal blocks of external scalar operators. We then generalize this recursion relation for the conformal blocks associated to the four point function of three scalar and one vector operator. Finally we specialize to the case in which the vector operator is a conserved current.

  11. Special relativity a heuristic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Hassani, Sadri

    2017-01-01

    Special Relativity: A Heuristic Approach provides a qualitative exposition of relativity theory on the basis of the constancy of the speed of light. Using Einstein's signal velocity as the defining idea for the notion of simultaneity and the fact that the speed of light is independent of the motion of its source, chapters delve into a qualitative exposition of the relativity of time and length, discuss the time dilation formula using the standard light clock, explore the Minkowski four-dimensional space-time distance based on how the time dilation formula is derived, and define the components of the two-dimensional space-time velocity, amongst other topics. Provides a heuristic derivation of the Minkowski distance formula Uses relativistic photography to see Lorentz transformation and vector algebra manipulation in action Includes worked examples to elucidate and complement the topic being discussed Written in a very accessible style

  12. Coping, social relations, and communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thastum, Mikael; Jensen-Johansen, Mikael Birkelund; Gubba, Lotte

    2008-01-01

    and concerns for the child. Twenty-one children from 15 families and their parents were interviewed. In 13 families the mother was ill, in two the father. Children were aware of the facts of the illness, but there was limited emotional communication between the generations. The children were very observant...... examples of parentification were found. Communication patterns and parental coping seemed to be highly related to the child's coping repertoire. Even though most children seemed to manage rather well, all children were strongly affected by the illness. The `healthiest' adaptation related to factors within...

  13. Gravitation. [Book on general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misner, C. W.; Thorne, K. S.; Wheeler, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    This textbook on gravitation physics (Einstein's general relativity or geometrodynamics) is designed for a rigorous full-year course at the graduate level. The material is presented in two parallel tracks in an attempt to divide key physical ideas from more complex enrichment material to be selected at the discretion of the reader or teacher. The full book is intended to provide competence relative to the laws of physics in flat space-time, Einstein's geometric framework for physics, applications with pulsars and neutron stars, cosmology, the Schwarzschild geometry and gravitational collapse, gravitational waves, experimental tests of Einstein's theory, and mathematical concepts of differential geometry.

  14. Hermitian relativity, chromodynamics and confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treder, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    The extension of the Riemann metrics of General Relativity to the complex domain (substitution of the symmetry conditions for the fundamental tensor, the affinity and the Ricci curvature by the conditions of hermicity) leads to a 'Generalized Theory of Gravity' (Einstein) describing the Newton-Einstein gravodynamics combined with the chromodynamics of quarks. The interaction of gravodynamics and chromodynamics implied by the Einstein-Schroedinger field equations of the hermitian relativity theory enforces the 'confinement'. The 'confinement' prevents the gravitational potential from divergence which would result in the lack of a Riemann space-time metric

  15. Radioimmunoassay and other related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, Moutaz

    1993-04-01

    The article reviews principles, requirements and reliability criteria of radioimmunoassay (RIA). Since basic reactions involved in RIA and related techniques are derived from reactions which take place in the immune system (IS) of humans and animals, the IS and the way it works will be described. In addition to RIA which involves the use of isotopes as tracers (labels), other non-radioisotopic and recent immunoassay techniques i.e. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) will be dealt with. Some important and related terms will be defined and explained. (author). 59 refs., 4 figs

  16. Functional statistics and related fields

    CERN Document Server

    Bongiorno, Enea; Cao, Ricardo; Vieu, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    This volume collects latest methodological and applied contributions on functional, high-dimensional and other complex data, related statistical models and tools as well as on operator-based statistics. It contains selected and refereed contributions presented at the Fourth International Workshop on Functional and Operatorial Statistics (IWFOS 2017) held in A Coruña, Spain, from 15 to 17 June 2017. The series of IWFOS workshops was initiated by the Working Group on Functional and Operatorial Statistics at the University of Toulouse in 2008. Since then, many of the major advances in functional statistics and related fields have been periodically presented and discussed at the IWFOS workshops. .

  17. The special theory of relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Devanathan, V

    2015-01-01

    THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY, designed as a text book for undergraduate and postgraduate students, deals with the Michelson-Morley experiment, the concept of unified space and time, the Lorentz transformation of physical quantities, length contraction, time dilation, the Minkowski space, the mass-energy relation, the concept of four-vectors, the relativistic mechanics, the laws of transformation between centre of momentum and laboratory systems, the relativistic kinematics, the unification of laws of electricity and magnetism into laws of electromagnetism, the invariance of Maxwell's equations under Lorentz transformation and the Lorentz transformation of electromagnetic quantities. KEY FEATURES: * Review Questions * Problems * Solutions to Problems * Multiple Choice Questions

  18. General relativity and gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Johanna

    1961-01-01

    An internationally famous physicist and electrical engineer, the author of this text was a pioneer in the investigation of gravitational waves. Joseph Weber's General Relativity and Gravitational Waves offers a classic treatment of the subject. Appropriate for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this text remains ever relevant. Brief but thorough in its introduction to the foundations of general relativity, it also examines the elements of Riemannian geometry and tensor calculus applicable to this field.Approximately a quarter of the contents explores theoretical and experimenta

  19. Persondata i relation til ting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter

    2011-01-01

    En intelligent verden er under udvikling. En verden, hvor stadig flere ting har indbygget digital teknologi, der indsamler personoplysninger med henblik på at lette borgernes tilværelseog for at realisere samfundsmæssige målsætninger. Atiklen vedrører især anvendelsen af intelligente ting i relat...... relation til måling af energiforbrug m.v. Dette kan medføre en øget anvendelse af persondata, og på denne baggrund sætter artiklen fokus på, hvorledes persondataretten finder anvendelse i denne sammenhæng....

  20. Hermitian relativity, chromodynamics and confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treder, H.J. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Potsdam-Babelsberg. Einstein-Laboratorium fuer Theoretische Physik)

    1983-01-01

    The extension of the Riemann metrics of General Relativity to the complex domain (substitution of the symmetry conditions for the fundamental tensor, the affinity and the Ricci curvature by the conditions of hermicity) leads to a 'Generalized Theory of Gravity' (Einstein) describing the Newton-Einstein gravodynamics combined with the chromodynamics of quarks. The interaction of gravodynamics and chromodynamics implied by the Einstein-Schroedinger field equations of the hermitian relativity theory enforces the 'confinement'. The 'confinement' prevents the gravitational potential from divergence which would result in the lack of a Riemann space-time metric.

  1. Results from Numerical General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2011-01-01

    For several years numerical simulations have been revealing the details of general relativity's predictions for the dynamical interactions of merging black holes. I will review what has been learned of the rich phenomenology of these mergers and the resulting gravitational wave signatures. These wave forms provide a potentially observable record of the powerful astronomical events, a central target of gravitational wave astronomy. Asymmetric radiation can produce a thrust on the system which may accelerate the single black hole resulting from the merger to high relative velocity.

  2. BOOK REVIEW An Introduction to Relativity An Introduction to Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, Tevian

    2011-02-01

    As is clearly stated in the preface, this book is a fresh rewrite of Narlikar's published lecture notes [1] from 1978, resulting in a unique historical perspective with a modernized presentation. For workers in the field, this book provides a fascinating glimpse of the state of the art 30 years ago, but there are some inevitable idiosyncracies which might make it less useful to the beginner, especially those attempting to read this book on their own. The author is well-known for his informal, readable style, and this book is no exception. Although the treatment is overly algebraic from this reviewer's modern perspective, that is not necessarily a drawback, and does accurately reflect contemporary usage. This text is a `math first' approach to relativity, presenting the tensor calculus first, and the physics second. Not surprisingly given the author's interests, there is an emphasis on cosmological applications. After a quick review of special relativity, the book jumps right in with a fairly standard introduction to tensor calculus, followed almost immediately by chapters on Einstein's equations, the Schwarzschild solution, experimental tests, relativistic astrophysics, and black holes, followed in turn by several chapters on cosmology. This new text is a faithful adaptation of the earlier text, with essentially identical tables of contents. In fact, the only notable differences are the opening chapter summarizing special relativity, a brief new chapter on gravitational radiation, and the exclusion of a lecture on the Steady State Theory — and that material appears separately in the author's cosmology text [2]. Some of the material, such as the excellent chapter on symmetries, is largely identical to the original, but most of the material has been extensively rewritten, with most of the changes being to presentation, rather than content. There are some seldom seen gems in this book, such as the aforementioned discussion of symmetries, the extensive discussion of

  3. The Special Theory of Relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the laws of transformation of spacetime coordinates and electromagnetic ... same and does not depend on the relative motion of the. Earth and the .... Laws. Several results can be derived from the Lorentz trans- formation laws. The reader is encouraged to derive the first two results discussed below (length contraction and.

  4. Poverty-related diseases (PRDs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makoge, Valerie; Maat, Harro; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Koelen, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background: In Cameroon, poverty-related diseases (PRDs) are a major public health concern. Research and policies addressing PRDs are based on a particular understanding of the interaction between poverty and disease, usually an association between poverty indicators and health indicators for a

  5. Computer-Related Task Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longstreet, Phil; Xiao, Xiao; Sarker, Saonee

    2016-01-01

    's CSE is often a cumbersome process. Thus, we introduce the theoretical concept of self-prophecy (SP) and examine how this social influence strategy can be used to improve computer-related task performance. Two experiments are conducted to examine the influence of SP on task performance. Results show...

  6. Relative humidity from psychrometric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, T. W.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical equation for computing relative humidity as function of wet bulb temperature, dry bulb temperature, and atmospheric pressure is suitable for use with calculator or computer. Analytical expressions may be useful for chemical process control systems and building environmental control systems.

  7. Verifying the Theory of Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, S.

    1975-01-01

    This article, based on a talk the author gave to the 'Innominates', an interdisciplinary faculty group at the University of Chicago, focuses on events of the years surrounding the British Expeditions to Brazil and West Africa in 1919 that led to the confirmation of Einstein's theory of relativity. (BT)

  8. Studying Intergroup Relations in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-10

    Psychology and Intergroup Relations. London; Academic Press, 1976. Bion , Wilfred R.: Experiences in Groups. New York; Basic Books, 1961. Blake... Bion , 1961; Bradford, Gibb and Benne, 1964; Rice, 1965; Gibhard, Hartman, and Mann, 1974; Cooper and Alderfer, 1978; Alderfer and Cooper, 1980

  9. Blog Consumption and International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    International relations professors have sought to incorporate current events into their curriculum through various mechanisms. A traditional way to incorporate the news into the classroom is to have students either subscribe and read a particular newspaper or watch the nightly news and hold them responsible for that information. However, with the…

  10. EU-Russia Cultural Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sidorova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the link between culture and diplomacy between Russia and the European Union, and shows the importance of cultural relations. It examines the common space of science, education and culture introduced at the 2003 EU-Russia Summit in St. Petersburg and the application of the principles of this concept that were established at the 2005 EU-Russia Summit in Moscow. It then considers EU-Russia collaboration on humanitarian action and the challenges that both parties face in this sphere. It also explains the formation of EU domestic and foreign cultural policy, and the role of European institutions and states in cultural affairs and diplomacy, as well as key elements and mechanisms of contemporary Russian foreign cultural policy. In addition, the article focuses on the European side of post-Soviet EU-Russia cultural relations. This cultural collaboration is defined as a competitive neighbourhood. EU and Russian interests collide: while Europeans try to promote their values, norms and standards within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, Russia seeks to culturally influence and engage in this region for geostrategic and historical reasons. Finally, the article assesses the prospects for the EU-Russia cultural relations and emphasizes the role of ideology in improving such relations.

  11. Water Relations of White Alder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia I. Dains

    1989-01-01

    White alder (Alnus rhombifolia) is a potentially valuable indicator of water stress along California's waterways. Measurements of stomatal conductance, water potential and tissue water relations in conjunction with growth and morphological studies give evidence for the sensitivity of this species to changes in water availability. Potted...

  12. Thinking Relationally about Studying "Up"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Amy E.; Colyar, Julia E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors argue that despite a resurgence of elite studies, the majority of existing scholarship works to reify and legitimize social inequality through its language and method. In particular, the authors utilize Pierre Bourdieu's concept of relational thinking to review and critique contemporary research on elite education and…

  13. Patient Relations and Workplace Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Career Resources Development Center, Inc., San Francisco, CA.

    The workbook contains lessons and exercises in patient relations and workplace communication in a medical services office, particularly for interactions involving one or more non-native speaker of English. Seven units address these topics: (1) greetings and basic assistance, greeting established patients, and measuring height and weight and taking…

  14. Modified General Relativity and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, A.-M. M.

    1997-10-01

    Aspects of the modified general relativity theory of Rastall, Al-Rawaf and Taha are discussed in both the radiation- and matter-dominated flat cosmological models. A nucleosynthesis constraint on the theory's free parameter is obtained and the implication for the age of the Universe is discussed. The consistency of the modified matter- dominated model with the neoclassical cosmological tests is demonstrated.

  15. Age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Morten; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    2002-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common macular disease affecting elderly people in the Western world. It is characterised by the appearance of drusen in the macula, accompanied by choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) or geographic atrophy. The disease is more common in Caucasian...

  16. Relative income, race, and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Douglas L; Paxson, Christina

    2006-09-01

    This paper examines the relationship between relative income and mortality. Our research is motivated by recent literature that posits that, holding individual income fixed, those whose income are low relative to the incomes of those in a reference group will have worse health. We develop an empirical model in which an individual's health is a function of his or her own income and the incomes of those who live in the same geographical area. We show how this individual-level model can be estimated using semi-aggregated data on the mortality rates of people categorized by age, race, gender, and place of residence. The model is estimated using mortality data from the 1980 and 1990 Compressed Mortality Files, merged with income data from the 1980 and 1990 5% Public Use samples of the US Census. We find no evidence that having relatively wealthy neighbors, holding own income fixed, is associated with higher mortality. Instead, we find evidence that among some demographic and age groups--in particular working-aged black males--having relatively wealthy neighbors is associated with lower mortality. For example, among younger (aged 25-64) black men, an increase in the income of others is estimated to have a beneficial effect on mortality that is 40% as large as an equivalent increase in own income.

  17. Wild Vietnamese relatives of blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    rom 25 October to 14 November 2015, wild relatives of cultivated blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum, were collected during a Vietnamese-US cooperative expedition in Northern Vietnam. The exploration involved representatives of the Plant Resources Center, Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences, in Han...

  18. Steam-water relative permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambusso, W.; Satik, C.; Home, R.N. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A set of relative permeability relations for simultaneous flow of steam and water in porous media have been measured in steady state experiments conducted under the conditions that eliminate most errors associated with saturation and pressure measurements. These relations show that the relative permeabilities for steam-water flow in porous media vary approximately linearly with saturation. This departure from the nitrogen/water behavior indicates that there are fundamental differences between steam/water and nitrogen/water flows. The saturations in these experiments were measured by using a high resolution X-ray computer tomography (CT) scanner. In addition the pressure gradients were obtained from the measurements of liquid phase pressure over the portions with flat saturation profiles. These two aspects constitute a major improvement in the experimental method compared to those used in the past. Comparison of the saturation profiles measured by the X-ray CT scanner during the experiments shows a good agreement with those predicted by numerical simulations. To obtain results that are applicable to general flow of steam and water in porous media similar experiments will be conducted at higher temperature and with porous rocks of different wetting characteristics and porosity distribution.

  19. U.S.-Japanese Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCannon, Bob

    1993-01-01

    Disagrees with the tone and conclusions of the special section on United States-Japan relations in the November-December, 1991 issue. Contends that the national interests of the United States were ignored to avoid "Japan Bashing" over trade and other economic issues. Calls for a more realistic view of Japan's trade policies toward the…

  20. Paediatric horse-related trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Jane E; Theodore, Sigrid G; Stockton, Kellie A; Kimble, Roy M

    2017-06-01

    This retrospective cohort study reported on the epidemiology of horse-related injuries for patients presenting to the only tertiary paediatric trauma hospital in Queensland. The secondary outcome was to examine the use of helmets and adult supervision. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was examined in relation to helmet use. Morbidity and mortality were also recorded. Included were all patients presenting with any horse-related trauma to the Royal Children's Hospital in Brisbane from January 2008 to August 2014. Data were retrospectively collected on patient demographics, hospital length of stay (LOS), mechanism of injury (MOI), safety precautions taken, diagnoses and surgical procedures performed. Included in the analysis were 187 incidents involving 171 patients. Most patients were aged 12-14 years (36.9%) and female (84.5%). The most common MOI were falls while riding horses (97.1%). Mild TBI (24.6%) and upper limb fractures (20.9%) were common injuries sustained. Patients who wore helmets had significantly reduced hospital LOS and severity of TBI when compared with those who did not wear helmets (P horses, in addition to being a compulsory requirement whilst horse riding. Prompts in documentation may assist doctors to record the use of safety attire and adult supervision. This will allow future studies to further investigate these factors in relation to clinical outcomes. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. Relative/Identical Semantic Structuralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, George Edward

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of Afrikaans and English to speakers of Xhosa, with semantics as the point of focus. The purpose is to aid the teaching of Afrikaans and English by introducing componential analysis in order to compare the relative/identical aspects of semantic structuralization in these languages with those in Xhosa. (Author/RM)

  2. Industrial relations in agriculture examined

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapman, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Agriculture remains an important part of the Dutch economy, accounting for around 10%of GDP . The sector is currently undergoing major changes in terms of production, markets and technology, with important implications for employment. This article examines industrial relations in agriculture,

  3. Sport-related maxillofacial fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruslin, M.; Boffano, P.; ten Brincke, Y.J.D.; Forouzanfar, T.; Brand, H.S.

    2016-01-01

    Sports and exercise are important causes of maxillofacial injuries. Different types of sports might differ in frequency and type of fractures. The aim of the present study was to explore the possible relation between the types of sport practiced and the frequency and nature of the facial bone

  4. Age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjiku Mathenge

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a disease of the retina that usually develops in people aged 60 years and older. It affects about 8.7% of the world’s population and is the leading cause of blindness among people aged 50 and older in industrialised countries.

  5. Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly. AMD is diagnosed based on characteristic retinal findings in individuals older than 50. Early detection and treatment are critical in increasing the likelihood of retaining good and functional vision. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Behavioral Research in Industrial Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, David; Feuille, Peter

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines and assesses the behavioral content of industrial relations research in a variety of social science disciplines. The authors compare economic research on the wage and productivity consequences of unionism with psychological research on worker attitudes toward unions, sociological research on the negotiation process and conflict…

  7. Supervisor Training and Industrial Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, R.

    1980-01-01

    The supervisor's traditional role of authority and leadership has changed, accompanied by a gradual diminution of his/her status. Training in industrial relations would help the supervisor understand his/her new role and reestablish his/her self-esteem. The process of training for supervisors must assume priority within the activities of the…

  8. Testing general relativity on accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigran Kalaydzhyan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the general theory of relativity, the curvature of spacetime is related to the energy and momentum of the present matter and radiation. One of the more specific predictions of general relativity is the deflection of light and particle trajectories in the gravitational field of massive objects. Bending angles for electromagnetic waves and light in particular were measured with a high precision. However, the effect of gravity on relativistic massive particles was never studied experimentally. Here we propose and analyze experiments devoted to that purpose. We demonstrate a high sensitivity of the laser Compton scattering at high energy accelerators to the effects of gravity. The main observable – maximal energy of the scattered photons – would experience a significant shift in the ambient gravitational field even for otherwise negligible violation of the equivalence principle. We confirm predictions of general relativity for ultrarelativistic electrons of energy of tens of GeV at a current level of resolution and expect our work to be a starting point of further high-precision studies on current and future accelerators, such as PETRA, European XFEL and ILC.

  9. Inference Optimization using Relational Algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, S.; Fokkinga, M.M.; Apers, Peter M.G.

    Exact inference procedures in Bayesian networks can be expressed using relational algebra; this provides a common ground for optimizations from the AI and database communities. Specifically, the ability to accomodate sparse representations of probability distributions opens up the way to optimize

  10. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    61 Access to Medicines ...and Mexico . Canada claims the rule is a non-tariff barrier that has led to a steep drop in beef and hog shipments to U.S. processors...concern about trade in pirated and counterfeit goods in Canada, as well as weak enforcement and relatively lax penalties

  11. Work-related voice disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Przysiezny

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dysphonia is the main symptom of the disorders of oral communication. However, voice disorders also present with other symptoms such as difficulty in maintaining the voice (asthenia, vocal fatigue, variation in habitual vocal fundamental frequency, hoarseness, lack of vocal volume and projection, loss of vocal efficiency, and weakness when speaking. There are several proposals for the etiologic classification of dysphonia: functional, organofunctional, organic, and work-related voice disorder (WRVD.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a literature review on WRVD and on the current Brazilian labor legislation.METHODS: This was a review article with bibliographical research conducted on the PubMed and Bireme databases, using the terms "work-related voice disorder", "occupational dysphonia", "dysphonia and labor legislation", and a review of labor and social security relevant laws.CONCLUSION: WRVD is a situation that frequently is listed as a reason for work absenteeism, functional rehabilitation, or for prolonged absence from work. Currently, forensic physicians have no comparative parameters to help with the analysis of vocal disorders. In certain situations WRVD may cause, work disability. This disorder may be labor-related, or be an adjuvant factor to work-related diseases.

  12. Relative Deprivation with Imperfect Information

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Verme; Rima Izem

    2008-01-01

    The paper proposes an alternative index of relative deprivation which allows for selection of the reference group and imperfect information, two central elements of modern theories of social justice. An application to real data and a simulation on artificial data illustrate the use and some properties of the index.

  13. Towards Online Relational Schema Transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, L.; Hofstra, M; Tammens, M; Huisman, Marieke; van Keulen, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Current relational database systems are ill-equipped for changing the structure of data while the database is in use. This is a real problem for systems for which we expect 24/7 availability, such as telecommunication, payment, and control systems. As a result, developers tend to avoid making

  14. Hybrid Tourism-Related Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Jens Christian

    2014-01-01

    This article is rooted in theories presented in the PhD dissertation Tourism and Strategic Planning (Pasgaard 2012) and features a number of much discussed concepts related to the complicated phenomenon of tourism and to the discipline of strategic urban planning. It is beyond the scope of this a...

  15. Public relations activities in BNFL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, B. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is a major industrial company employing 15,000 people and supporting another 50,000 jobs in British industry through it`s isnvestment program. BNFL is frequently in the news, mainly because of the Sellafield reprocessing plant in West Cumbria. The company`s public relation policy is described in this report.

  16. General Relativity: Geometry Meets Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Dietrick E.

    1975-01-01

    Observing the relationship of general relativity and the geometry of space-time, the author questions whether the rest of physics has geometrical explanations. As a partial answer he discusses current research on subatomic particles employing geometric transformations, and cites the existence of geometrical definitions of physical quantities such…

  17. Green economy and related concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loiseau, Eleonore; Saikku, Laura; Antikainen, Riina; Droste, Nils; Hansjürgens, Bernd; Pitkänen, Kati; Leskinen, Pekka; Kuikman, Peter; Thomsen, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    For the last ten years, the notion of a green economy has become increasingly attractive to policy makers. However, green economy covers a lot of diverse concepts and its links with sustainability are not always clear. In this article, we focus on definitions of green economy and related concepts

  18. Cosmological models in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cosmological models in general relativity. B B PAUL. Department of Physics, Nowgong College, Nagaon, Assam, India. MS received 4 October 2002; revised 6 March 2003; accepted 21 May 2003. Abstract. LRS Bianchi type-I space-time filled with perfect fluid is considered here with deceler- ation parameter as variable.

  19. India-U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kronstadt, K. A

    2006-01-01

    The end of the Cold War freed India-U.S. relations from the constraints of global bipolarity, but interactions continued for a decade to be affected by the burden of history, most notably the longstanding India-Pakistan rivalry and nuclear...

  20. Whales. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Claire

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  1. Dimensional Analysis and General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovatt, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Newton's law of gravitation is a central topic in the first-year physics curriculum. A lecturer can go beyond the physical details and use the history of gravitation to discuss the development of scientific ideas; unfortunately, the most recent chapter in this history, general relativity, is not covered in first-year courses. This paper discusses…

  2. Hospital-physician relations: the relative importance of economic, relational and professional attributes to organizational attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Belgian hospitals face a growing shortage of physicians and increasingly competitive market conditions. In this challenging environment hospitals are struggling to build effective hospital-physician relationships which are considered to be a critical determinant of organizational success. Methods Employed physicians of a University hospital were surveyed. Organizational attributes were identified through the literature and two focus groups. Variables were measured using validated questionnaires. Descriptive analyses and linear regression were used to test the model and relative importance analyses were performed. Results The selected attributes predict hospital attractiveness significantly (79.3%). The relative importance analysis revealed that hospital attractiveness is most strongly predicted by professional attributes (35.3%) and relational attributes (29.7%). In particular, professional development opportunities (18.8%), hospital prestige (16.5%), organizational support (17.2%) and leader support (9.3%) were found to be most important. Besides these non-economic aspects, the employed physicians indicated pay and financial benefits (7.4%) as a significant predictor of hospital attractiveness. Work-life balance and job security were not significantly related to hospital attractiveness. Conclusions This study shows that initiatives aimed at strengthening physicians’ positive perceptions of professional and relational aspects of practicing medicine in hospitals, while assuring satisfactory financial conditions, may offer useful avenues for increasing the level of perceived hospital attractiveness. Overall, hospitals are advised to use a differentiated approach to increase their attractiveness to physicians. PMID:24884491

  3. Hospital-physician relations: the relative importance of economic, relational and professional attributes to organizational attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybou, Jeroen; Gemmel, Paul; Van Vaerenbergh, Yves; Annemans, Lieven

    2014-05-21

    Belgian hospitals face a growing shortage of physicians and increasingly competitive market conditions. In this challenging environment hospitals are struggling to build effective hospital-physician relationships which are considered to be a critical determinant of organizational success. Employed physicians of a University hospital were surveyed. Organizational attributes were identified through the literature and two focus groups. Variables were measured using validated questionnaires. Descriptive analyses and linear regression were used to test the model and relative importance analyses were performed. The selected attributes predict hospital attractiveness significantly (79.3%). The relative importance analysis revealed that hospital attractiveness is most strongly predicted by professional attributes (35.3%) and relational attributes (29.7%). In particular, professional development opportunities (18.8%), hospital prestige (16.5%), organizational support (17.2%) and leader support (9.3%) were found to be most important. Besides these non-economic aspects, the employed physicians indicated pay and financial benefits (7.4%) as a significant predictor of hospital attractiveness. Work-life balance and job security were not significantly related to hospital attractiveness. This study shows that initiatives aimed at strengthening physicians' positive perceptions of professional and relational aspects of practicing medicine in hospitals, while assuring satisfactory financial conditions, may offer useful avenues for increasing the level of perceived hospital attractiveness. Overall, hospitals are advised to use a differentiated approach to increase their attractiveness to physicians.

  4. The Concept of General Relativity is not Related to Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotas, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    The concept of general relativity is not related to reality. It is not real or factual Science. GR cannot account for objects falling to earth or for the weight of objects sitting on the earth. The Cavendish demonstration showing the attraction between two masses at right angles to earth's gravity, is not explained by GR. No one can prove the existence of ``space fabric.'' The concept of ``space time'' effects causing gravitational attraction between masses is wrong. Conservation law of energy - momentum does not exist in GR. LIGO fails in detecting ``gravity waves'' because there is no ``space fabric'' to transmit them. The Gravity B Probe data manipulated to show some effects, is not proof of ``space fabric.'' It is Nuclear Quantum Gravitation that provides clear definitive explanation of Gravity and Gravitation. It is harmonious with Newtonian and Quantum Mechanics, and Scientific Logic. Nuclear Quantum Gravitation has 10 clear, Scientific proofs and 21 more good indications. With this theory the Physical Forces are Unified. See: OBSCURANTISM ON EINSTEIN GRAVITATION? http://www.santilli-foundation.org/inconsistencies-gravitation.php and Einstein's Theory of Relativity versus Classical Mechanics, by Paul Marmet http://www.newtonphysics.on.ca/einstein/

  5. Kinematics of relative motion of test particles in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazanski, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    A detailed mathematical study of the concept of geodesic deviation in pseudo-riemannian geometry is presented. A generalization of this concept to geodesic deviations of a higher order is then introduced and the second geodesic deviation is investigated in some detail. A geometric interpretation of the set of generalized geodesic deviations is given and applied in general relativity to determine a covariant and local description (with a desired order of accuracy) of test motions which take place in a certain finite neighbourhood of a given world line of an observer. The proper time evolution of two other objects related to geodesic deviation is also discussed: the space separation vector and the telescopic vector. This last name is given here to a field of null vectors along observer's world line which always point towards the same adjacent world line. The telescopic equations allow to determine the evolution of the frequency shift of electromagnetic radiation sent from and received on neighbouring world lines. On the basis of these equations also certain relations have been derived which connect the frequencies or frequency shifts with the curvature of space-time

  6. Relational ethics and psychosomatic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, António

    2012-01-01

    The main ethical perspective in the clinical relationship takes into consideration the vulnerability of the clinical condition before threats and risks that can undermine the integrity and dignity of the person. Psychosomatic medicine faces complex cases whose ethical problems cannot only be solved by applying top-down deontological or utilitarian approaches, principlism, which is limited mainly to easing ethical tensions, or a bottom-up approach, the casuistic model, case-based reasoning. In introducing vulnerability as the core of ethical questioning as a principle ontological priority over other principles, relational ethics refers to the appreciation of the responsibility of health professionals through which a health care professional and the patient 'together' can construct more reasonable and prudential courses of action with, for, and by the patient. The model of relational ethics is based on three main aspects, clinically integrated approach, science/philosophy partnership, and deliberative process, that when taken together, form an intermediate model that ensures prudent and reasonable decision-making. The three structural elements and characteristics of relational ethics create and maintain a responsible relationship between the professional and the patient being aware that the mutual vulnerability of health professional and the patient has a moral value and recognizing that their relationship will allow for personal development of each. I conceptualized the model of relational ethics as one that embraces the meta-ethical principles of vulnerability, dignity, responsibility, and respect for autonomy as they are considered by many international declarations or conventions. This model integrates three key polarities: ensure conditions of authenticity, facilitate a process of cooperative mutuality, and promote opportunities for growth and development. Relational ethics can be used to solve major ethical problems in psychosomatic medicine, capacity

  7. Quantum decoherence and interlevel relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crull, Elise M.

    Quantum decoherence is a dynamical process whereby a system's phase relations become delocalized due to interaction and subsequent entanglement with its environment. This delocalization, or decoherence, forces the quantum system into a state that is apparently classical (or apparently an eigenstate) by prodigiously suppressing features that typically give rise to so-called quantum behavior. Thus it has been frequently proposed by physicists and philosophers alike that decoherence explains the dynamical transition from quantum behavior to classical behavior. Statements like this assume the existence of distinct realms, however, and the present thesis is an exploration of the metaphysical consequences of quantum decoherence motivated by the question of the quantum-to-classical transition and interlevel relations: if there are in-principle "classical" and "quantum" levels, what are the relations between them? And if there are no such levels, what follows? Importantly, the following philosophical investigations are carried out by intentionally leaving aside the measurement problem and concerns about particular interpretations of quantum mechanics. Good philosophical work, it is argued, can be done without adopting a specific interpretational framework and without recourse to the measurement problem. After introducing the physics of decoherence and exploring the four canonical models applied to system-environment interactions, it is argued that, ontologically speaking, there exist no levels. This claim---called the "nontological thesis"---exposes as ill-posed questions regarding the transition from the quantum regime to the classical regime and reveals the inappropriateness of interlevel relations (like reduction, supervenience and emergence) operating within metaphysical frameworks. The nontological thesis has further important consequences regarding intralevel relations: not only are there no meaningful ways to carve the world into levels, but there are no meaningful

  8. Relation chain based clustering analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-ning; Zhao, Ming-yang; Luo, Hai-bo

    2011-08-01

    Clustering analysis is currently one of well-developed branches in data mining technology which is supposed to find the hidden structures in the multidimensional space called feature or pattern space. A datum in the space usually possesses a vector form and the elements in the vector represent several specifically selected features. These features are often of efficiency to the problem oriented. Generally, clustering analysis goes into two divisions: one is based on the agglomerative clustering method, and the other one is based on divisive clustering method. The former refers to a bottom-up process which regards each datum as a singleton cluster while the latter refers to a top-down process which regards entire data as a cluster. As the collected literatures, it is noted that the divisive clustering is currently overwhelming both in application and research. Although some famous divisive clustering methods are designed and well developed, clustering problems are still far from being solved. The k - means algorithm is the original divisive clustering method which initially assigns some important index values, such as the clustering number and the initial clustering prototype positions, and that could not be reasonable in some certain occasions. More than the initial problem, the k - means algorithm may also falls into local optimum, clusters in a rigid way and is not available for non-Gaussian distribution. One can see that seeking for a good or natural clustering result, in fact, originates from the one's understanding of the concept of clustering. Thus, the confusion or misunderstanding of the definition of clustering always derives some unsatisfied clustering results. One should consider the definition deeply and seriously. This paper demonstrates the nature of clustering, gives the way of understanding clustering, discusses the methodology of designing a clustering algorithm, and proposes a new clustering method based on relation chains among 2D patterns. In

  9. Relative Ages of Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzia, Thomas H.

    Ages of extragalactic globular clusters can provide valuable insights into the formation and evolution of galaxies. In this contribution the photometric methods of age dating old globular cluster systems are summarised. The spectroscopic approach is reviewed with an emphasis of the fight choice of age diagnostics. We present a new method of quantifying the relatively best age-sensitive spectroscopic index given the quality of a data set and a certain theoretical stellar synthesis model. The relatively best diagnostic plot is constructed from the set of Lick indices and used to age date globular clusters in several early-type galaxies which are part of a large spectroscopic survey of extragalactic globular cluster systems. We find that, independently of host galaxy, metal-poor ([Fe/H] old (t > 8 Gyr) and coeval. Metal-rich clusters show a wide range of ages from ˜ 15 down to a few Gyr.

  10. Swearing, Euphemisms, and Linguistic Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Pleydell-Pearce, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Participants read aloud swear words, euphemisms of the swear words, and neutral stimuli while their autonomic activity was measured by electrodermal activity. The key finding was that autonomic responses to swear words were larger than to euphemisms and neutral stimuli. It is argued that the heightened response to swear words reflects a form of verbal conditioning in which the phonological form of the word is directly associated with an affective response. Euphemisms are effective because they replace the trigger (the offending word form) by another word form that expresses a similar idea. That is, word forms exert some control on affect and cognition in turn. We relate these findings to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, and suggest a simple mechanistic account of how language may influence thinking in this context. PMID:21799832

  11. Methamphetamine-related brainstem haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Zelia K; Bennett, Iwan E; Chan, Patrick; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V

    2016-10-01

    We report the case of an otherwise healthy 29-year-old woman who presented with a brainstem haemorrhage following intravenous methamphetamine use. Extensive investigation did not reveal an underlying pathology, and the development of symptoms was temporally related to methamphetamine injection. Although intracerebral haemorrhage secondary to methamphetamine use is well documented, this report describes a haemorrhage within the brainstem which is a rare location. While animal studies have demonstrated the potential of methamphetamines to produce brainstem haemorrhages, there has only been one previous report describing a haemorrhage in this location due to amphetamine use in humans. We conclude with a brief discussion of the clinical features and aetiology of methamphetamine-related stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Additivity of entropic uncertainty relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Schwonnek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider the uncertainty between two pairs of local projective measurements performed on a multipartite system. We show that the optimal bound in any linear uncertainty relation, formulated in terms of the Shannon entropy, is additive. This directly implies, against naive intuition, that the minimal entropic uncertainty can always be realized by fully separable states. Hence, in contradiction to proposals by other authors, no entanglement witness can be constructed solely by comparing the attainable uncertainties of entangled and separable states. However, our result gives rise to a huge simplification for computing global uncertainty bounds as they now can be deduced from local ones. Furthermore, we provide the natural generalization of the Maassen and Uffink inequality for linear uncertainty relations with arbitrary positive coefficients.

  13. Persuasion, Politeness and Relational Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Świątek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Politeness Theory, just like Grice’s Cooperative Principle, points out that pragmatic analysis of language behaviour has to be grounded in extra-linguistic facts of social (or even biological nature. Additionally, despite the slightly misleading label, Politeness Theory provides a sound methodology to explain some persuasive as well as politeness phenomena. In the same vein, the so called Relational Model Theory provides another theoretical framework for the explanation of persuasive phenomena and persuasive language. Both Relational Model Theory and Politeness Theory show that persuasion is also to be understood as a rational response to not-so-rational social and biological needs. In the article an attempt is made to compare the two theories focusing on their explanatory power in reference to language choices aiming at enhancing the persuasive potential of a language message.

  14. Relativity: Special, General, and Cosmological

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, G F R

    2005-01-01

    Wolfgang Rindler is known as a writer of exceptional clarity. This quality is evident in this book as it explores in depth first special relativity, then general relativity, and finally relativistic cosmology. He bases his writing in the fundamental underlying ideas and principles that so successfully guided Einstein in his work, clarifying their nature and implications in an illuminating way with many examples. The usual suspects are there: the relativity principle and equivalence principle, the abolishing of absolute space, invariance of the speed of light, analytic and geometric representations of the Lorentz transformation, its kinematic and dynamic consequences, relativistic optics, Minkowski spacetime, energy and momentum conservation, and the Compton effect. Particularly useful is the emphasis on the unity of the whole: for example (p 63) that the kinematic effect of length shortening must imply a corresponding detailed mechanical explanation of that shortening. The tensor formulation of Maxwell's equations leads to the transformation properties of the electromagnetic field and consequent elegant derivation of the field of an infinite straight current; in this case, relativity is important even for slowly moving charges because an ordinary current moves a very big charge (p 151). General relativity is systematically introduced in stages, starting with curved spaces and moving on through static and stationary spacetimes, geodesics, and tensor calculus to the field equations. A considerable strength of the book is the careful detailed examination of the local and global geometry of the major significant solutions of the equations: the Schwarzschild spacetime and its Kruskal extension, plane gravitational waves, de sitter and anti-de Sitter spacetimes, and Robertson-Walker cosmologies. The latter includes a clear presentation of the dust and radiation model dynamics for the variety of possible cases, a detailed examination of observational relations, and

  15. Relational agents: A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Robert H.; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Green, Gill

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between people who meet in virtual worlds are common and these relationships can be long term, in some cases lasting a life-time. Although relationships formed in virtual worlds have invited a lot of recent interest, surprisingly little work has been done on developing computer agen...... but remain few and far between. This review critically assesses the progress of relational agent development and research since their inception in 2005, proposes new areas of research and considers the potential for their exploitation in virtual worlds....... and non-player characters that can actively participate in such relationships. The focus of this review is relational agents, agents that can build long term socioemotional relationships with users. In virtual worlds, such agents are just starting to emerge; they are more common in other environments...

  16. The Genesis of General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renn, Jürgen

    2008-09-01

    This brief historical review of the genesis of general relativity is based on a detailed study and reconstruction of the historical sources undertaken in a collaborative research project centered at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science in Berlin. This research was made possible due to a close cooperation between historians of science and physicists. The results of this research are now published in a four-volume work "The Genesis of General Relativity" aiming at a comprehensive account of the way in which the work of Albert Einstein and his contemporaries changed our understanding of space, time, and gravitation. These volumes document the results of a joint effort - extending over more than a decade- at an in-depth analysis of a scientific revolution...

  17. On the Finsler relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asanov, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    Possibility for revealing the Finsler metric space-time properties in kinematics and dynamics of local nonprobe particles is investigated. Spherically-symmetric S particle in a static gravitational field is considered. It is shown that S particle follows S line of a ''renormalized'' gravitational field. The situation is alternative to the case of a probe particle. It is also shown that the Finsler properties of real space-time can be revealed in kinematic and ''dynamics of S particles relative to a ''nonrenormalization'' field. So, the Finsler kinematic dualism is the geometrical analogue of physical dualism between probe particles and S particles. Noted are difficulties related to problems of determining the Lagrangian density for the gravitational field which leads to the Finsler geodesic ones

  18. Solar Neutrons and Related Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Dorman, Lev

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the first comprehensive compilation and review of the extensive body of experimental and theoretical material on solar neutrons and related phenomena published in the scientific literature over the last sixty years. Phenomena related to solar neutrons are more specifically: the decay products of solar neutrons solar gamma rays generated in processes like nuclear reactions between solar energetic charged particles and matter of the solar atmosphere, as well as by the capture of solar neutrons by hydrogen atoms in the solar atmosphere the propagation of solar neutrons, solar gamma rays and other secondary particles through the solar photosphere, chromosphere and corona, as well as through interplanetary space and through the Earth's atmosphere. Models and simulations of particle acceleration, interactions, and propagation processes show that observations of solar neutrons and gamma rays in space and in the Earth's atmosphere yield essential and unique information on the source function of ene...

  19. Public relations as public information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coninx, C.

    1983-01-01

    To the man in the street, the topic of nuclear energy on the one hand is a highly emotional subject incorporating dangers hard to assess. However, on the other hand, there is in most cases little inclination to concern oneself with problems of energy economy. Public relations activities therefore frequently must motivate their adresses to accept information before they can actually inform. In this connection, the informing party must appear trustworthy and avoid that a teacher : pupil relationship is created. In addition, the changes in the socio-political environment must be taken into account. Within the industries and organizations engaged in the nuclear field there is the problem that the effects and the impact of public relations work can hardly be gaged by individually, which greatly hampers quantification of the work actually done.

  20. Public Relations as Promotional Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almira CURRI-MEMETI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Public relations give opportunity to the organization to present its image and personality to its own “public”- users, supporters, sponsors, donors, local community and other public.It is about transferring the message to the public, but that is a twoway street. You must communicate with your public, but at the same time you must give opportunity to the public to communicate easier with you. The real public relations include dialog – you should listen to the others, to see things through their perspective. This elaborate is made with the purpose to be useful for every organization, not for the sensational promotion of its achievements, but to become more critical towards its work. Seeing the organization in the way that the other see it, you can become better and sure that you are giving to your users the best service possible.

  1. Multileaf collimator and related apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    In radiotherapy apparatus using a multileaf collimator, the adjustment positions of the individual leaves can be determined optically by means of a video camera which observes the leaves via a radiation transparent mirror in the beam path. In order to overcome problems of low contrast and varying object brightness, the improvement comprises adding retroreflectors to the collimator leaves whose positions are known relative to the inner edge of the respective leaf. The retroreflectors can extend along the length of the leaf or they can be small. For setting up, corresponding manually adjustable optical diaphragm leaves can be used to project an optical simulation of the treatment area onto the patient, retroreflectors being similarly located relative to the shadow-casting edge of the leaves. (author)

  2. Sensitivity analysis of left ventricle with dilated cardiomyopathy in fluid structure simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Ting Chan

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is the most common myocardial disease. It not only leads to systolic dysfunction but also diastolic deficiency. We sought to investigate the effect of idiopathic and ischemic DCM on the intraventricular fluid dynamics and myocardial wall mechanics using a 2D axisymmetrical fluid structure interaction model. In addition, we also studied the individual effect of parameters related to DCM, i.e. peak E-wave velocity, end systolic volume, wall compliance and sphericity index on several important fluid dynamics and myocardial wall mechanics variables during ventricular filling. Intraventricular fluid dynamics and myocardial wall deformation are significantly impaired under DCM conditions, being demonstrated by low vortex intensity, low flow propagation velocity, low intraventricular pressure difference (IVPD and strain rates, and high-end diastolic pressure and wall stress. Our sensitivity analysis results showed that flow propagation velocity substantially decreases with an increase in wall stiffness, and is relatively independent of preload at low-peak E-wave velocity. Early IVPD is mainly affected by the rate of change of the early filling velocity and end systolic volume which changes the ventriculo:annular ratio. Regional strain rate, on the other hand, is significantly correlated with regional stiffness, and therefore forms a useful indicator for myocardial regional ischemia. The sensitivity analysis results enhance our understanding of the mechanisms leading to clinically observable changes in patients with DCM.

  3. Sensitivity Analysis of Left Ventricle with Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Fluid Structure Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Bee Ting; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Lim, Einly; Chee, Kok Han; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah; Abed, Amr Al; Lovell, Nigel H.; Dokos, Socrates

    2013-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most common myocardial disease. It not only leads to systolic dysfunction but also diastolic deficiency. We sought to investigate the effect of idiopathic and ischemic DCM on the intraventricular fluid dynamics and myocardial wall mechanics using a 2D axisymmetrical fluid structure interaction model. In addition, we also studied the individual effect of parameters related to DCM, i.e. peak E-wave velocity, end systolic volume, wall compliance and sphericity index on several important fluid dynamics and myocardial wall mechanics variables during ventricular filling. Intraventricular fluid dynamics and myocardial wall deformation are significantly impaired under DCM conditions, being demonstrated by low vortex intensity, low flow propagation velocity, low intraventricular pressure difference (IVPD) and strain rates, and high-end diastolic pressure and wall stress. Our sensitivity analysis results showed that flow propagation velocity substantially decreases with an increase in wall stiffness, and is relatively independent of preload at low-peak E-wave velocity. Early IVPD is mainly affected by the rate of change of the early filling velocity and end systolic volume which changes the ventriculo:annular ratio. Regional strain rate, on the other hand, is significantly correlated with regional stiffness, and therefore forms a useful indicator for myocardial regional ischemia. The sensitivity analysis results enhance our understanding of the mechanisms leading to clinically observable changes in patients with DCM. PMID:23825628

  4. Intuitionistic H-fuzzy relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kul Hur

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the category IRel(H consisting of intuitionistic fuzzy relational spaces on sets and we study structures of the category IRel(H in the viewpoint of the topological universe introduced by Nel. Thus we show that IRel(H satisfies all the conditions of a topological universe over Set except the terminal separator property and IRel(H is cartesian closed over Set.

  5. Osteoporosis in relation to menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, W L; Loh, F H; Ng, S C

    2002-01-01

    With an ageing population in Singapore, it is anticipated that postmenopausal osteoporosis and related fractures will be an increasingly important health issue in the coming decades. Oestrogen replacement therapy has a long history of use to treat postmenopausal problems including osteoporosis. The availability of other potent agents such as bisphosphonates, calcitonin and selective oestrogen receptor modulators has enriched the therapeutic options. This article reviews the evidence for the choice of appropriate agents, and strategies to prevent and treat postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  6. Margins related to equipment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devos, J.

    1994-01-01

    Safety margins related to design of reactor equipment are defined according to safety regulations. Advanced best estimate methods are proposed including some examples which were computed and compared to experimental results. Best estimate methods require greater computation effort and more material data but give better variable accuracy and need careful experimental validation. Simplified methods compared to the previous are less sensitive to material data, sometimes are more accurate but very long to elaborate

  7. Institutional Theory in International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Christer; Tallberg, Jonas

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter, we trace the emergence of institutional approaches in IR theory, outline three important areas of research on international institutions, and suggest promising directions for future research. The review demonstrates that rational choice institutionalism, historical institutionalism, and normative institutionalism, as developed in the study of domestic institutions, have constituted sources of inspiration in IR theory. At the same time, the relative absence of formal instituti...

  8. Contact Lens Related Corneal Ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, KY; Agarwal, P

    2010-01-01

    A corneal ulcer caused by infection is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One of the recent health concerns is the increasing incidence of corneal ulcers associated with contact lens user especially if the users fail to follow specific instruction in using their contact lenses. Risk factors associated with increased risk of contact lens related corneal ulcers are: overnight wear, long duration of continuous wear, lower socio-economic classes, smoking, dry eye and poor hygiene. Th...

  9. OGM et relations commerciales transatlantiques

    OpenAIRE

    Cadot, Olivier; Suwa-Eisenmann, Akiko; Traça, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines some of the trade-related aspects of the transatlantic conflict over agricultural biotechnology regulation. We first review the notion of “regulatory protectionism” and the difficulties arising in its definition. We also discuss its economic rationale in the light of the strategic trade policy literature. Next, we turn to an empirical assessment of the trade effects of EU biotechnology regulations, verifying the evidence in support of US claims that those regulations have ...

  10. Age-related oral changes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mckenna, Gerald

    2010-10-01

    Age-related oral changes are seen in the oral hard and soft tissues as well as in bone, the temporomandibular joints and the oral mucosa. As older patients retain their natural teeth for longer, the clinical picture consists of normal physiological age changes in combination with pathological and iatrogenic effects. Clinical Relevance: With an ageing population retaining more of its natural teeth for longer, dental professionals should expect to observe oral age changes more frequently.

  11. The environment and community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odogwu, E.C.

    1991-01-01

    Even though the petroleum industry in Nigeria has become the back bone of the Nigerian economy the relationship with the communities in the oil producing area is not all what it should be. There has been a significant shift in emphasis from the earlier peaceful and cordial relationship to the present more vocal sometimes violent relationship from a few communities who would like to see the operator held responsible for all environmental lapses of the past 50 years of oil operations in Nigeria. As the leading and most visible oil producer, we experience our share of strained relations in proportion to the size and extent of Shell's operations. Social unrest in the oil producing areas can be attributed to the frequent complaint by the communities of gross neglect by the oil producing companies and the Federal Government of Nigeria in the development of their areas. The community's feeling in that the level of compensation from environmental pollution is not sufficient to compensate the damage caused and this affects good community relations. Also, some communities feel that despite the taxes and royalties paid by multinational companies that, most of the petroleum profit from their God-given wealth is being taken away by such multinationals for development elsewhere. This feeling stems from the perceived glaring disparity between developments in the urban and rural areas where oil operations are carried out. This paper is an attempt to examine the social problems associated with oil exploration and production and the related environmental pollution therefrom and proffer suggestions on how such problems can be solved for good community relations

  12. Stochastic Analysis and Related Topics

    CERN Document Server

    Ustunel, Ali

    1988-01-01

    The Silvri Workshop was divided into a short summer school and a working conference, producing lectures and research papers on recent developments in stochastic analysis on Wiener space. The topics treated in the lectures relate to the Malliavin calculus, the Skorohod integral and nonlinear functionals of white noise. Most of the research papers are applications of these subjects. This volume addresses researchers and graduate students in stochastic processes and theoretical physics.

  13. [Eponyms related to Nazism neurosciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damulin, I V

    The author considers eponymous names of CNS diseases related to physicians who had actively cooperated with Nazis during the Second World War. The data on the activity of some specialists in the field of neurosciences whose activity did not correspond to ethical values of the physician and the scientist are presented. The author suggests excluding a number of eponymous terms associated with the names of physicians, former Nazis or those who actively cooperated with Nazis.

  14. Symbol Recognition using Spatial Relations

    OpenAIRE

    K.C., Santosh; Lamiroy, Bart; Wendling, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present a method for symbol recognition based on the spatio-structural description of a 'vocabulary' of extracted visual elementary parts. It is applied to symbols in electrical wiring diagrams. The method consists of first identifying vocabulary elements into different groups based on their types (e.g., circle, corner ). We then compute spatial relations between the possible pairs of labelled vocabulary types which are further used as a basis for bui...

  15. Probabilistic analysis and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Bharucha-Reid, A T

    1983-01-01

    Probabilistic Analysis and Related Topics, Volume 3 focuses on the continuity, integrability, and differentiability of random functions, including operator theory, measure theory, and functional and numerical analysis. The selection first offers information on the qualitative theory of stochastic systems and Langevin equations with multiplicative noise. Discussions focus on phase-space evolution via direct integration, phase-space evolution, linear and nonlinear systems, linearization, and generalizations. The text then ponders on the stability theory of stochastic difference systems and Marko

  16. Controllability, Bezoutian and relative primeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Datta

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Let f(x and g(x be two polynomials of degree n. Then it is well-known that the Bezoutian matrix Bfg associated with f(x and g(x is nonsingular if and only if f(x and g(x are relatively prime. We give an alternative proof of this result. The proof is based on a result on controllability derived in this note.

  17. General Relativity and Spacetime Relationism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefer, Carl

    1992-01-01

    This dissertation takes up the project of showing that, in the context of the general theory of relativity (GTR), spacetime relationism is not a refuted or hopeless view, as many in the recent literature have maintained (John Earman, Michael Friedman, and others). Most of the challenges to the relationist view in General Relativity can be satisfactorily answered; in addition, the opposing absolutist and substantivalist views of spacetime can be shown to be problematic. The crucial burden for relationists concerned with GTR is to show that the realistic cosmological models, i.e. those that may be roughly accurate representations of our universe, satisfy Mach's ideas about the origin of inertia. This dissertation clears the way for and begins such a demonstration. After a brief discussion of the problem of the nature of spacetime and its history in the Introduction, chapters 2 and 3 provide conceptual analysis and criticism of contemporary philosophical arguments about relationism, absolutism, and particularly substantivalism. The current best arguments in favor of substantivalism are shown to be flawed, with the exception of the argument from inertial and metrical structure; and on this issue, it is shown that both relationism and substantivalism need to argue for modifications of GTR (restriction of its models to those with certain features) in order to have a non-trivial explanation of inertial and metrical structure. For relationists, a Machian account of the origin of inertia in some models of GTR is required. Chapter 4 demonstrates that such a Machian account is equivalent to the demand for a truly general relativity of motion. Chapter 5 explores the history of Einstein's commitment to Mach's ideas in his work on GTR. Through an examination of the history of Einstein's attempts to impose Machian constraints on the models of General Relativity, further insight into the nature of this problem is obtained, as are reasons to believe that the project is by no means

  18. New Media and Public Relations

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    Renata Demeterffy Lančić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the importance of new communication technologies in terms of the development of a pluralistic public sphere and public relations (PR as one type of communication. In ageneral social context, where the media have lost their primary importance, there is an increasing need for an independent and free communication system. New communication technologies, primarily enabled by the advancement of the Internet, create new development opportunities to communicate to the public. Blogs, web forums, web pages, online-magazines, e-mail lists, chat rooms, social networks, etc. are new forms of public communication, where citizens have equal opportunity to participate in the public sphere, where communication becomes a re-exchange of opinion. Such networks have the potential to be public hearings, a fundamental basis of democracy. These types of media are particularly important in the fi eld of public relations because they improve communication and infl uence social change. The article highlights the signifi cant impact of new communication technologies on public relations and suggests the possibilities of manipulation that result from them. Unlike traditional methods, the new methods are far more subtle. The article concludes that the only possibility to protect computer users is via proper education.

  19. On research in Public Relations

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    Dr. Sarelly Martínez Mendoza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation constitutes one of the forms to improve the public relations continuously (RRPP. For that reason, this article bets to retake the investigation processes to consolidate the discipline, and explains the types of investigation at great length (basic, introspective and applied that is used in RRPP. Also it reflects on the approaches of investigation (pursuits of a created atmosphere, audits of public relations, audits in communication, ethnographies and the studies of case, the techniques (analysis of content, focal analyses of the speech, focus groups or survey, and the instruments (questionnaires, tests or experiments, that they must be used in this discipline. Part of the principle of which the investigation, in all its phases, is the transforming element of the public relations. Today it is not possible to start up successful program of RRPP but leans continuously in the investigation. The investigation marks the viability of a RRPP program. The intuition, the inspiration and the improvisation, as only elements of support, must stay in the past, and must be replaced by the scientific research.

  20. International Relations Research Methodology: Realism

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    Andrey Vladimirovich Shabaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the origins and conceptual analysis capabilities of international relations in the framework of a realistic paradigm. We research political conditions and preconditions of the creation of realism’s theory and axiological features of realism’s practice in international relations. We also analyze the basic concepts and schools of realism: Realpolitik, political realism, neorealism, neoclassical realism. It is shown that based on the balance of power in the Realpolitik Prussian and Austrian cases, this understanding of politics within the systematics of the XIX century; the adaptation of the bourgeois liberal and national ideas to the foreign-policy specifics Germany middle of the XIX century. It is shown that political realism is targeting an international actor on the desire to subjugate the greatest possible political space. In the case of political weakness (absolute or relative political realism indicates a way of adapting to circumstances in order to achieve the most desirable of the possible. The article discusses the concept A. Rochau, H. Morgenthau, H. Kissinger, K. Waltz, showing differences and instrumentality realistic theories and concludes that the main provisions of the concept as a whole.