WorldWideScience

Sample records for end-point tracking technology

  1. UST-ID robotics: Wireless communication and minimum conductor technology, and end-point tracking technology surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holliday, M.A.

    1993-10-01

    This report is a technology review of the current state-of-the-art in two technologies applicable to the Underground Storage Tank (UST) program at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. The first review is of wireless and minimal conductor technologies for in-tank communications. The second review is of advanced concepts for independent tool-point tracking. This study addresses the need to provide wireless transmission media or minimum conductor technology for in-tank communications and robot control. At present, signals are conducted via contacting transmission media, i.e., cables. Replacing wires with radio frequencies or invisible light are commonplace in the communication industry. This technology will be evaluated for its applicability to the needs of robotics. Some of these options are radio signals, leaky coax, infrared, microwave, and optical fiber systems. Although optical fiber systems are contacting transmission media, they will be considered because of their ability to reduce the number of conductors. In this report we will identify, evaluate, and recommend the requirements for wireless and minimum conductor technology to replace the present cable system. The second section is a technology survey of concepts for independent end-point tracking (tracking the position of robot end effectors). The position of the end effector in current industrial robots is determined by computing that position from joint information, which is basically a problem of locating a point in three-dimensional space. Several approaches are presently being used in industrial robotics, including: stereo-triangulation with a theodolite network and electrocamera system, photogrammetry, and multiple-length measurement with laser interferometry and wires. The techniques that will be evaluated in this survey are advanced applications of the aforementioned approaches. These include laser tracking (3-D and 5-D), ultrasonic tracking, vision-guided servoing, and adaptive robotic visual tracking

  2. A time domain inverse dynamic method for the end point tracking control of a flexible manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo; Book, Wayne J.

    1991-01-01

    The inverse dynamic equation of a flexible manipulator was solved in the time domain. By dividing the inverse system equation into the causal part and the anticausal part, we calculated the torque and the trajectories of all state variables for a given end point trajectory. The interpretation of this method in the frequency domain was explained in detail using the two-sided Laplace transform and the convolution integral. The open loop control of the inverse dynamic method shows an excellent result in simulation. For real applications, a practical control strategy is proposed by adding a feedback tracking control loop to the inverse dynamic feedforward control, and its good experimental performance is presented.

  3. Towards free 3D end-point control for robotic-assisted human reaching using binocular eye tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimon-Dror, Roni O; Fernandez-Quesada, Jorge; Zito, Giuseppe A; Konnaris, Charalambos; Dziemian, Sabine; Faisal, A Aldo

    2017-07-01

    Eye-movements are the only directly observable behavioural signals that are highly correlated with actions at the task level, and proactive of body movements and thus reflect action intentions. Moreover, eye movements are preserved in many movement disorders leading to paralysis (or amputees) from stroke, spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and muscular dystrophy among others. Despite this benefit, eye tracking is not widely used as control interface for robotic interfaces in movement impaired patients due to poor human-robot interfaces. We demonstrate here how combining 3D gaze tracking using our GT3D binocular eye tracker with custom designed 3D head tracking system and calibration method enables continuous 3D end-point control of a robotic arm support system. The users can move their own hand to any location of the workspace by simple looking at the target and winking once. This purely eye tracking based system enables the end-user to retain free head movement and yet achieves high spatial end point accuracy in the order of 6 cm RMSE error in each dimension and standard deviation of 4 cm. 3D calibration is achieved by moving the robot along a 3 dimensional space filling Peano curve while the user is tracking it with their eyes. This results in a fully automated calibration procedure that yields several thousand calibration points versus standard approaches using a dozen points, resulting in beyond state-of-the-art 3D accuracy and precision.

  4. Pharmaceutics, Drug Delivery and Pharmaceutical Technology: A New Test Unit for Disintegration End-Point Determination of Orodispersible Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Ariana; Kok, Si Ling; Khong, Yuetmei; Chan, Sui Yung; Gokhale, Rajeev

    2015-11-01

    No standard time or pharmacopoeia disintegration test method for orodispersible films (ODFs) exists. The USP disintegration test for tablets and capsules poses significant challenges for end-point determination when used for ODFs. We tested a newly developed disintegration test unit (DTU) against the USP disintegration test. The DTU is an accessory to the USP disintegration apparatus. It holds the ODF in a horizontal position, allowing top-view of the ODF during testing. A Gauge R&R study was conducted to assign relative contributions of the total variability from the operator, sample or the experimental set-up. Precision was compared using commercial ODF products in different media. Agreement between the two measurement methods was analysed. The DTU showed improved repeatability and reproducibility compared to the USP disintegration system with tighter standard deviations regardless of operator or medium. There is good agreement between the two methods, with the USP disintegration test giving generally longer disintegration times possibly due to difficulty in end-point determination. The DTU provided clear end-point determination and is suitable for quality control of ODFs during product developmental stage or manufacturing. This may facilitate the development of a standardized methodology for disintegration time determination of ODFs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3893-3903, 2015. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  5. Calorimetry end-point predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a portion of the work presently in progress at Rocky Flats in the field of calorimetry. In particular, calorimetry end-point predictions are outlined. The problems associated with end-point predictions and the progress made in overcoming these obstacles are discussed. The two major problems, noise and an accurate description of the heat function, are dealt with to obtain the most accurate results. Data are taken from an actual calorimeter and are processed by means of three different noise reduction techniques. The processed data are then utilized by one to four algorithms, depending on the accuracy desired to determined the end-point

  6. End-point sharpness in thermometric titrimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, H J

    1967-07-01

    It is shown that the sharpness of an end-point in a thermometric titration where the simple reaction A + B right harpoon over left harpoon AB takes place, depends on Kc(A') where K is the equilibrium constant for the reaction, and c(A') is the total concentration of the titrand (A) in the reaction mixture. The end-point is sharp if, (i) the enthalpy change in the reaction is not negligible, and (ii) Kc(A') > 10(3). This shows that it should, for example, be possible to titrate 0.1 M acid, pK(A) = 10, using a thennometric end-point. Some aspects of thermometric titrimetry when Kc(A') < 10(3) are also considered.

  7. UO3 deactivation end point criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanski, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    The UO 3 Deactivation End Point Criteria are necessary to facilitate the transfer of the UO 3 Facility from the Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60) to the office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The criteria were derived from a logical process for determining end points for the systems and spaces at the UO 3 , Facility based on the objectives, tasks, and expected future uses pertinent to that system or space. Furthermore, the established criteria meets the intent and supports the draft guidance for acceptance criteria prepared by EM-40, open-quotes U.S. Department of Energy office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) Decontamination and Decommissioning Guidance Document (Draft).close quotes For the UO 3 Facility, the overall objective of deactivation is to achieve a safe, stable and environmentally sound condition, suitable for an extended period, as quickly and economically as possible. Once deactivated, the facility is kept in its stable condition by means of a methodical surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) program, pending ultimate decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D). Deactivation work involves a range of tasks, such as removal of hazardous material, elimination or shielding of radiation fields, partial decontamination to permit access for inspection, installation of monitors and alarms, etc. it is important that the end point of each of these tasks be established clearly and in advance, for the following reasons: (1) End points must be such that the central element of the deactivation objective - to achieve stability - is unquestionably achieved. (2) Much of the deactivation work involves worker exposure to radiation or dangerous materials. This can be minimized by avoiding unnecessary work. (3) Each task is, in effect, competing for resources with other deactivation tasks and other facilities. By assuring that each task is appropriately bounded, DOE's overall resources can be used most fully and effectively

  8. Urbanism on Track : Application of tracking technologies in urbanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Hoeven, F.D.; Van Schaick, J.; Van der Spek, S.C.; Smit, M.G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Tracking technologies such as GPS, mobile phone tracking, video and RFID monitoring are rapidly becoming part of daily life. Technological progress offers huge possibilities for studying human activity patterns in time and space in new ways. Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) held an

  9. Information Technology Procurement Authorization (ITPA) Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Information Technology Procurement Authorization (ITPA) Tracking System is used for gathering consistent data from U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) program...

  10. Use of Surrogate end points in HTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangiapane, Sandra

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The different actors involved in health system decision-making and regulation have to deal with the question which are valid parameters to assess the health value of health technologies.So called surrogate endpoints represent in the best case preliminary steps in the casual chain leading to the relevant outcome (e. g. mortality, morbidity and are not usually directly perceptible by patients. Surrogate endpoints are not only used in trials of pharmaceuticals but also in studies of other technologies. Their use in the assessment of the benefit of a health technology is however problematic. In this report we intend to answer the following research questions: Which criteria need to be fulfilled for a surrogate parameter to be considered a valid endpoint? Which methods have been described in the literature for the assessment of the validity of surrogate endpoints? Which methodological recommendations concerning the use of surrogate endpoints have been made by international HTA agencies? Which place has been given to surrogate endpoints in international and German HTA reports? For this purpose, we choose three different approaches. Firstly, we conduct a review of the methodological literature dealing with the issue of surrogate endpoints and their validation. Secondly, we analyse current methodological guidelines of HTA agencies members of the International network of agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA as well as of agencies concerned with assessments for reimbursement purposes. Finally, we analyse the outcome parameter used in a sample of HTA reports available for the public. The analysis of methodological guidelines shows a very cautious position of HTA institutions regarding the use of surrogate endpoints in technology assessment. Surrogate endpoints have not been prominently used in HTA reports. None of the analysed reports based its conclusions solely on the results of surrogate endpoints. The analysis of German HTA reports shows a

  11. Validation of intermediate end points in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzkin, A; Freedman, L S; Schiffman, M H; Dawsey, S M

    1990-11-21

    Investigations using intermediate end points as cancer surrogates are quicker, smaller, and less expensive than studies that use malignancy as the end point. We present a strategy for determining whether a given biomarker is a valid intermediate end point between an exposure and incidence of cancer. Candidate intermediate end points may be selected from case series, ecologic studies, and animal experiments. Prospective cohort and sometimes case-control studies may be used to quantify the intermediate end point-cancer association. The most appropriate measure of this association is the attributable proportion. The intermediate end point is a valid cancer surrogate if the attributable proportion is close to 1.0, but not if it is close to 0. Usually, the attributable proportion is close to neither 1.0 nor 0; in this case, valid surrogacy requires that the intermediate end point mediate an established exposure-cancer relation. This would in turn imply that the exposure effect would vanish if adjusted for the intermediate end point. We discuss the relative advantages of intervention and observational studies for the validation of intermediate end points. This validation strategy also may be applied to intermediate end points for adverse reproductive outcomes and chronic diseases other than cancer.

  12. End points and assessments in esthetic dental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yuichi; Fujimoto, Keiko; Higaki, Nobuaki; Goto, Takaharu; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

    2015-10-01

    There are two key considerations for successful esthetic dental treatments. This article systematically describes the two key considerations: the end points of esthetic dental treatments and assessments of esthetic outcomes, which are also important for acquiring clinical skill in esthetic dental treatments. The end point and assessment of esthetic dental treatment were discussed through literature reviews and clinical practices. Before designing a treatment plan, the end point of dental treatment should be established. The section entitled "End point of esthetic dental treatment" discusses treatments for maxillary anterior teeth and the restoration of facial profile with prostheses. The process of assessing treatment outcomes entitled "Assessments of esthetic dental treatment" discusses objective and subjective evaluation methods. Practitioners should reach an agreement regarding desired end points with patients through medical interviews, and continuing improvements and developments of esthetic assessments are required to raise the therapeutic level of esthetic dental treatments. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Some nuclear track technologies developed recently for practical purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Xiuhong

    2000-01-01

    For practical purposes three kinds of nuclear track technologies developed recently are described. They are coloring of nuclear track, nuclear track sheet replication and molding of micro metallic cones from nuclear tracks

  14. Technology survey on video face tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Gomes, Herman Martins

    2014-03-01

    With the pervasiveness of monitoring cameras installed in public areas, schools, hospitals, work places and homes, video analytics technologies for interpreting these video contents are becoming increasingly relevant to people's lives. Among such technologies, human face detection and tracking (and face identification in many cases) are particularly useful in various application scenarios. While plenty of research has been conducted on face tracking and many promising approaches have been proposed, there are still significant challenges in recognizing and tracking people in videos with uncontrolled capturing conditions, largely due to pose and illumination variations, as well as occlusions and cluttered background. It is especially complex to track and identify multiple people simultaneously in real time due to the large amount of computation involved. In this paper, we present a survey on literature and software that are published or developed during recent years on the face tracking topic. The survey covers the following topics: 1) mainstream and state-of-the-art face tracking methods, including features used to model the targets and metrics used for tracking; 2) face identification and face clustering from face sequences; and 3) software packages or demonstrations that are available for algorithm development or trial. A number of publically available databases for face tracking are also introduced.

  15. Surrogate end points in clinical research: hazardous to your health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, David A; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2005-05-01

    Surrogate end points in clinical research pose real danger. A surrogate end point is an outcome measure, commonly a laboratory test, that substitutes for a clinical event of true importance. Resistance to activated protein C, for example, has been used as a surrogate for venous thrombosis in women using oral contraceptives. Other examples of inappropriate surrogate end points in contraception include the postcoital test instead of pregnancy to evaluate new spermicides, breakage and slippage instead of pregnancy to evaluate condoms, and bone mineral density instead of fracture to assess the safety of depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate. None of these markers captures the effect of the treatment on the true outcome. A valid surrogate end point must both correlate with and accurately predict the outcome of interest. Although many surrogate markers correlate with an outcome, few have been shown to capture the effect of a treatment (for example, oral contraceptives) on the outcome (venous thrombosis). As a result, thousands of useless and misleading reports on surrogate end points litter the medical literature. New drugs have been shown to benefit a surrogate marker, but, paradoxically, triple the risk of death. Thousands of patients have died needlessly because of reliance on invalid surrogate markers. Researchers should avoid surrogate end points unless they have been validated; that requires at least one well done trial using both the surrogate and true outcome. The clinical maxim that "a difference to be a difference must make a difference" applies to research as well. Clinical research should focus on outcomes that matter.

  16. Gran method for end point anticipation in monosegmented flow titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquino Emerson V

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An automatic potentiometric monosegmented flow titration procedure based on Gran linearisation approach has been developed. The controlling program can estimate the end point of the titration after the addition of three or four aliquots of titrant. Alternatively, the end point can be determined by the second derivative procedure. In this case, additional volumes of titrant are added until the vicinity of the end point and three points before and after the stoichiometric point are used for end point calculation. The performance of the system was assessed by the determination of chloride in isotonic beverages and parenteral solutions. The system employs a tubular Ag2S/AgCl indicator electrode. A typical titration, performed according to the IUPAC definition, requires only 60 mL of sample and about the same volume of titrant (AgNO3 solution. A complete titration can be carried out in 1 - 5 min. The accuracy and precision (relative standard deviation of ten replicates are 2% and 1% for the Gran and 1% and 0.5% for the Gran/derivative end point determination procedures, respectively. The proposed system reduces the time to perform a titration, ensuring low sample and reagent consumption, and full automatic sampling and titrant addition in a calibration-free titration protocol.

  17. ISS Asset Tracking Using SAW RFID Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellhase, Amy; Powers, Annie

    2004-01-01

    A team at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is undergoing final preparations to test Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to track assets aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Currently, almost 10,000 U.S. items onboard the ISS are tracked within a database maintained by both the JSC ground teams and crew onboard the ISS. This barcode-based inventory management system has successfully tracked the location of 97% of the items onboard, but its accuracy is dependant on the crew to report hardware movements, taking valuable time away from science and other activities. With the addition of future modules, the volume of inventory to be tracked is expected to increase significantly. The first test of RFID technology on ISS, which will be conducted by the Expedition 16 crew later this year, will evaluate the ability of RFID technology to track consumable items. These consumables, which include office supplies and clothing, are regularly supplied to ISS and can be tagged on the ground. Automation will eliminate line-of-sight auditing requirements, directly saving crew time. This first step in automating an inventory tracking system will pave the way for future uses of RFID for inventory tracking in space. Not only are there immediate benefits for ISS applications, it is a crucial step to ensure efficient logistics support for future vehicles and exploration missions where resupplies are not readily available. Following a successful initial test, the team plans to execute additional tests for new technology, expanded operations concepts, and increased automation.

  18. Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, L.; Bryan, T.; MacLeod, T.

    On-Orbit Small Debris Tracking and Characterization is a technical gap in the current National Space Situational Awareness necessary to safeguard orbital assets and crew. This poses a major risk of MOD damage to ISS and Exploration vehicles. In 2015 this technology was added to NASAs Office of Chief Technologist roadmap. For missions flying in or assembled in or staging from LEO, the physical threat to vehicle and crew is needed in order to properly design the proper level of MOD impact shielding and proper mission design restrictions. Need to verify debris flux and size population versus ground RADAR tracking. Use of ISS for In-Situ Orbital Debris Tracking development provides attitude, power, data and orbital access without a dedicated spacecraft or restricted operations on-board a host vehicle as a secondary payload. Sensor Applicable to in-situ measuring orbital debris in flux and population in other orbits or on other vehicles. Could enhance safety on and around ISS. Some technologies extensible to monitoring of extraterrestrial debris as well To help accomplish this, new technologies must be developed quickly. The Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera is one such up and coming technology. It consists of flying a pair of intensified megapixel telephoto cameras to evaluate Orbital Debris (OD) monitoring in proximity of International Space Station. It will demonstrate on-orbit optical tracking (in situ) of various sized objects versus ground RADAR tracking and small OD models. The cameras are based on Flight Proven Advanced Video Guidance Sensor pixel to spot algorithms (Orbital Express) and military targeting cameras. And by using twin cameras we can provide Stereo images for ranging & mission redundancy. When pointed into the orbital velocity vector (RAM), objects approaching or near the stereo camera set can be differentiated from the stars moving upward in background.

  19. Criteria for use of composite end points for competing risks-a systematic survey of the literature with recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manja, Veena; AlBashir, Siwar; Guyatt, Gordon

    2017-02-01

    Composite end points are frequently used in reports of clinical trials. One rationale for the use of composite end points is to account for competing risks. In the presence of competing risks, the event rate of a specific event depends on the rates of other competing events. One proposed solution is to include all important competing events in one composite end point. Clinical trialists require guidance regarding when this approach is appropriate. To identify publications describing criteria for use of composite end points for competing risk and to offer guidance regarding when a composite end point is appropriate on the basis of competing risks. We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, The Cochrane's Central & Systematic Review databases including the Health Technology Assessment database, and the Cochrane's Methodology register from inception to April 2015, and candidate textbooks, to identify all articles providing guidance on this issue. Eligible publications explicitly addressed the issue of a composite outcome to address competing risks. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts for full-text review; independently reviewed full-text publications; and abstracted specific criteria authors offered for use of composite end points to address competing risks. Of 63,645 titles and abstracts, 166 proved potentially relevant of which 43 publications were included in the final review. Most publications note competing risks as a reason for using composite end points without further elaboration. None of the articles or textbook chapters provide specific criteria for use of composite end points for competing risk. Some advocate using composite end points to avoid bias due to competing risks and others suggest that composite end points seldom or never be used for this purpose. We recommend using composite end points for competing risks only if the competing risk is plausible and if it occurs with sufficiently high frequency to influence the interpretation

  20. Modeling hard clinical end-point data in economic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Anuraag R; Zheng, Ying; Palencia, Roberto; Ruffolo, Antonio; Hass, Bastian; Sorensen, Sonja V

    2013-11-01

    The availability of hard clinical end-point data, such as that on cardiovascular (CV) events among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, is increasing, and as a result there is growing interest in using hard end-point data of this type in economic analyses. This study investigated published approaches for modeling hard end-points from clinical trials and evaluated their applicability in health economic models with different disease features. A review of cost-effectiveness models of interventions in clinically significant therapeutic areas (CV diseases, cancer, and chronic lower respiratory diseases) was conducted in PubMed and Embase using a defined search strategy. Only studies integrating hard end-point data from randomized clinical trials were considered. For each study included, clinical input characteristics and modeling approach were summarized and evaluated. A total of 33 articles (23 CV, eight cancer, two respiratory) were accepted for detailed analysis. Decision trees, Markov models, discrete event simulations, and hybrids were used. Event rates were incorporated either as constant rates, time-dependent risks, or risk equations based on patient characteristics. Risks dependent on time and/or patient characteristics were used where major event rates were >1%/year in models with fewer health states (Models of infrequent events or with numerous health states generally preferred constant event rates. The detailed modeling information and terminology varied, sometimes requiring interpretation. Key considerations for cost-effectiveness models incorporating hard end-point data include the frequency and characteristics of the relevant clinical events and how the trial data is reported. When event risk is low, simplification of both the model structure and event rate modeling is recommended. When event risk is common, such as in high risk populations, more detailed modeling approaches, including individual simulations or explicitly time-dependent event rates, are

  1. Underground communications and tracking technology advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S

    2007-03-15

    As the June 2009 deadline set by the MINER Act grows near, several technologies have emerged as possible options for communicating and tracking underground coal miners in the event of an emergency or disaster. NIOSH is currently deciding how best to invest $10 million assigned by Congress under an Emergency Supplementary Appropriations Act (ESA) to research and develop mine safety technology. Medium and ultra high frequency (UHF) systems seem to be leading the pack with radio frequency identification (RFID) tags serving as the tracking system. Wireless mesh systems can serve as a communications infrastructure and they can do much more. Even more technologies continue to emerge, such as inertial navigation tracking systems. Mines are discovering the wonders of modern voice and data communications underground. Still no one know if it is economically practical to design a system that will function after a coal mine explosion. From the nineteen systems submitted to MSHA's request for information (RFI), six systems were selected that represented most of the technologies that had been proposed: the Rajant Breadcrumb, Innovative Wireless, Concurrent Technologies/Time Domain, Transtek, Gamma Services, and the Kutta Consulting systems. They were tested at CONSOL Energy's McElroy mine in April 2006. MSHA felt that all of those systems needed a significant amount of work before they were ready for use in a underground coal mining environment. The agency continues to work with these, and other manufacturers, to assist in arranging for field demonstration and then to gain MSHA approval.

  2. Optical Tracking Technology in Stereotactic Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Thomas H.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Bova, Frank J.; Friedman, William A.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Tome, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    The last decade has seen the introduction of advanced technologies that have enabled much more precise application of therapeutic radiation. These relatively new technologies include multileaf collimators, 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy planning, and intensity modulated radiotherapy in radiotherapy. Therapeutic dose distributions have become more conformal to volumes of disease, sometimes utilizing sharp dose gradients to deliver high doses to target volumes while sparing nearby radiosensitive structures. Thus, accurate patient positioning has become even more important, so that the treatment delivered to the patient matches the virtual treatment plan in the computer treatment planning system. Optical and image-guided radiation therapy systems offer the potential to improve the precision of patient treatment by providing a more robust fiducial system than is typically used in conventional radiotherapy. The ability to accurately position internal targets relative to the linac isocenter and to provide real-time patient tracking theoretically enables significant reductions in the amount of normal tissue irradiated. This report reviews the concepts, technology, and clinical applications of optical tracking systems currently in use for stereotactic radiation therapy. Applications of radiotherapy optical tracking technology to respiratory gating and the monitoring of implanted fiducial markers are also discussed

  3. End point control of an actinide precipitation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muske, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    The actinide precipitation reactors in the nuclear materials processing facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory are used to remove actinides and other heavy metals from the effluent streams generated during the purification of plutonium. These effluent streams consist of hydrochloric acid solutions, ranging from one to five molar in concentration, in which actinides and other metals are dissolved. The actinides present are plutonium and americium. Typical actinide loadings range from one to five grams per liter. The most prevalent heavy metals are iron, chromium, and nickel that are due to stainless steel. Removal of these metals from solution is accomplished by hydroxide precipitation during the neutralization of the effluent. An end point control algorithm for the semi-batch actinide precipitation reactors at Los Alamos National Laboratory is described. The algorithm is based on an equilibrium solubility model of the chemical species in solution. This model is used to predict the amount of base hydroxide necessary to reach the end point of the actinide precipitation reaction. The model parameters are updated by on-line pH measurements

  4. Low dose response analysis through a cytogenetic end-point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojtor, I.; Koeteles, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of low doses were studied on human lymphocytes of various individuals. The frequency of micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked cultured lymphocytes was taken as end-point. The probability distribution of radiation-induced increment was statistically proved and identified as to be asymmetric when the blood samples had been irradiated with doses of 0.01-0.05 Gy of X-rays, similarly to that in unirradiated control population. On the contrary, at or above 1 Gy the corresponding normal curve could be accepted only reflecting an approximately symmetrical scatter of the increments about their mean value. It was found that the slope as well as the closeness of correlation of the variables considerably changed when lower and lower dose ranges had been selected. Below approximately 0.2 Gy even an unrelatedness was found betwen the absorbed dose and the increment

  5. Standardized End Point Definitions for Coronary Intervention Trials: The Academic Research Consortium-2 Consensus Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; McFadden, Eugène P; Farb, Andrew; Mehran, Roxana; Stone, Gregg W; Spertus, John; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Morel, Marie-Angèle; van Es, Gerrit-Anne; Zuckerman, Bram; Fearon, William F; Taggart, David; Kappetein, Arie-Pieter; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Vranckx, Pascal; Windecker, Stephan; Cutlip, Donald; Serruys, Patrick W

    2018-06-14

    The Academic Research Consortium (ARC)-2 initiative revisited the clinical and angiographic end point definitions in coronary device trials, proposed in 2007, to make them more suitable for use in clinical trials that include increasingly complex lesion and patient populations and incorporate novel devices such as bioresorbable vascular scaffolds. In addition, recommendations for the incorporation of patient-related outcomes in clinical trials are proposed. Academic Research Consortium-2 is a collaborative effort between academic research organizations in the United States and Europe, device manufacturers, and European, US, and Asian regulatory bodies. Several in-person meetings were held to discuss the changes that have occurred in the device landscape and in clinical trials and regulatory pathways in the last decade. The consensus-based end point definitions in this document are endorsed by the stakeholders of this document and strongly advocated for clinical trial purposes. This Academic Research Consortium-2 document provides further standardization of end point definitions for coronary device trials, incorporating advances in technology and knowledge. Their use will aid interpretation of trial outcomes and comparison among studies, thus facilitating the evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of these devices.

  6. Improving AR tracking and registration with markerless technology

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Lei

    2017-01-01

    This study is performed with two mai n goals in mind. The first goal is to understand the Augmented Reality technology and its mainly tracking and registration technology , the second one is find a way to improve the registration and tracking accuracy . T he project is graphic digital compass designed for android devices based on these mainly technology . It can obtain t...

  7. The effective QCD phase diagram and the critical end point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ayala

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the QCD phase diagram on the temperature T and quark chemical potential μ plane, modeling the strong interactions with the linear sigma model coupled to quarks. The phase transition line is found from the effective potential at finite T and μ taking into account the plasma screening effects. We find the location of the critical end point (CEP to be (μCEP/Tc,TCEP/Tc∼(1.2,0.8, where Tc is the (pseudocritical temperature for the crossover phase transition at vanishing μ. This location lies within the region found by lattice inspired calculations. The results show that in the linear sigma model, the CEP's location in the phase diagram is expectedly determined solely through chiral symmetry breaking. The same is likely to be true for all other models which do not exhibit confinement, provided the proper treatment of the plasma infrared properties for the description of chiral symmetry restoration is implemented. Similarly, we also expect these corrections to be substantially relevant in the QCD phase diagram.

  8. Survival End Points for Huntington Disease Trials Prior to a Motor Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jeffrey D; Mills, James A; Leavitt, Blair R; Durr, Alexandra; Roos, Raymund A; Stout, Julie C; Reilmann, Ralf; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Gregory, Sarah; Scahill, Rachael I; Langbehn, Douglas R; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2017-11-01

    Predictive genetic testing in Huntington disease (HD) enables therapeutic trials in HTT gene expansion mutation carriers prior to a motor diagnosis. Progression-free survival (PFS) is the composite of a motor diagnosis or a progression event, whichever comes first. To determine if PFS provides feasible sample sizes for trials with mutation carriers who have not yet received a motor diagnosis. This study uses data from the 2-phase, longitudinal cohort studies called Track and from a longitudinal cohort study called the Cooperative Huntington Observational Research Trial (COHORT). Track had 167 prediagnosis mutation carriers and 156 noncarriers, whereas COHORT had 366 prediagnosis mutation carriers and noncarriers. Track studies were conducted at 4 sites in 4 countries (Canada, France, England, and the Netherlands) from which data were collected from January 17, 2008, through November 17, 2014. The COHORT was conducted at 38 sites in 3 countries (Australia, Canada, and the United States) from which data were collected from February 14, 2006, through December 31, 2009. Results from the Track data were externally validated with data from the COHORT. The required sample size was estimated for a 2-arm prediagnosis clinical trial. Data analysis took place from May 1, 2016, to June 10, 2017. The primary end point is PFS. Huntington disease progression events are defined for the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale total motor score, total functional capacity, symbol digit modalities test, and Stroop word test. Of Track's 167 prediagnosis mutation carriers, 93 (55.6%) were women, and the mean (SD) age was 40.06 (8.92) years; of the 156 noncarriers, 87 (55.7%) were women, and the mean (SD) age was 45.58 (10.30) years. Of the 366 COHORT participants, 229 (62.5%) were women and the mean (SD) age was 42.21 (12.48) years. The PFS curves of the Track mutation carriers showed good external validity with the COHORT mutation carriers after adjusting for initial progression. For

  9. Using GPS-tracking technology for urban design interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Spek, S.C.; Van Langelaar, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to express the application of tracking technologies in Urban Design and Planning. Tracking technologies can be used to monitor different user groups in different occasions. Since 2005, TU Delft has explored and developed two types of research using GPS to collect spatio

  10. Exploring Experience of Runners with Sports Tracking Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuru, Armagan

    2016-01-01

    Running has been perceived as an easy way of becoming physically active. Over time, amateur runners start to use technology to keep track of their training and be aware of their improvement. In that sense, this article explores runners’ experience with activity tracking technology. After giving a

  11. Defining the end-point of mastication: A conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray-Stuart, Eli M; Jones, Jim R; Bronlund, John E

    2017-10-01

    properties define the end-point texture and enduring sensory perception of the food. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. An Indoor Tracking System Based on Bluetooth Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Opoku, Samuel King

    2012-01-01

    Implementations of tracking systems have become prevalent issues in modern technology due to its advantage of location detection of objects. Objects are usually tracked using trackers based on GPS, GSM, RFID and Bluetooth signal strength implementation. These mechanisms usually require line of sight operations, limited coverage and low level programming language for accessing Bluetooth signal strength. This paper presents an alternative technique for tracking the movement of indoor objects ba...

  13. End points for adjuvant therapy trials: has the time come to accept disease-free survival as a surrogate end point for overall survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Sharlene; Sargent, Daniel

    2006-06-01

    The intent of adjuvant therapy is to eradicate micro-metastatic residual disease following curative resection with the goal of preventing or delaying recurrence. The time-honored standard for demonstrating efficacy of new adjuvant therapies is an improvement in overall survival (OS). This typically requires phase III trials of large sample size with lengthy follow-up. With the intent of reducing the cost and time of completing such trials, there is considerable interest in developing alternative or surrogate end points. A surrogate end point may be employed as a substitute to directly assess the effects of an intervention on an already accepted clinical end point such as mortality. When used judiciously, surrogate end points can accelerate the evaluation of new therapies, resulting in the more timely dissemination of effective therapies to patients. The current review provides a perspective on the suitability and validity of disease-free survival (DFS) as an alternative end point for OS. Criteria for establishing surrogacy and the advantages and limitations associated with the use of DFS as a primary end point in adjuvant clinical trials and as the basis for approval of new adjuvant therapies are discussed.

  14. End points for validating early warning scores in the context of rapid response systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, N. E.; Oestergaard, D.; Lippert, A.

    2016-01-01

    with optimal treatment. This could pose a limitation to studies using these end points. We studied current expert opinion on end points for validating tools for the identification of patients in hospital wards at risk of imminent critical illness. METHODS: The Delphi consensus methodology was used. We......INTRODUCTION: When investigating early warning scores and similar physiology-based risk stratification tools, death, cardiac arrest and intensive care unit admission are traditionally used as end points. A large proportion of the patients identified by these end points cannot be saved, even...

  15. A strategy for end point criteria for Superfund remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.T.

    1992-06-01

    Since the inception of cleanup for hazardous waste sites, estimating target cleanup levels has been the subject of considerable investigation and debate in the Superfund remediation process. Establishing formal procedures for assessing human health risks associated with hazardous waste sites has provided a conceptual framework for determining remediation goals and target cleanup levels (TCLs) based on human health and ecological risk consideration. This approach was once considered at variance with the concept of the pre-risk assessment period; that is, cleaning up to the background level, or using containment design or best available control technologies. The concept has been gradually adopted by the regulatory agencies and the parties responsible for cleanup. Evaluation of cleanup strategies at the outset of the planning stage will eventually benefit the parties responsible for cleanup and the oversight organizations, including regulatory agencies. Development of the strategies will provide an opportunity to promote an improvement in the pace and quality of many activities to be carried out. The strategies should help address the issues related to (1) improving remediation management activities to arrive at remediation as expeditiously as possible, (2) developing alternate remediation management activities, (3) identifying obstructing issues to management for resolution, (4) adapting the existing framework to correspond to the change in remediation statutes and guidelines, and (5) providing the basis for evaluating options for the record of decision process. This paper will discuss some of the issues and the research efforts that were addressed as part of the strategies requiring future discussion and comment

  16. Mutagenesis and teratogenesis as end points in health impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    The genetic and teratogenic effects of agents released to the environment as a consequence of energy production are exceedingly difficult to evaluate. Nevertheless, these effects on human health may be very costly in the context of cost-benefit analysis. In fact, the procedures required to limit mutagenic or teratogenic agents to the levels considered acceptable by regulatory bodies may constitute a major fraction of the cost of energy, especially where prudence dictates that a lack of empirical data requires extremely conservative regulations. Experience with ionizing radiation and with regulation of nuclear power installations illustrates the difficulty of genetic and teratogenic health impact assessment and the great uncertainties involved, as well as the influence of these impacts on the regulatory process and the consequent increased cost of power from this source. Data on genetic and teratogenic impacts on human health from chemical agents released to the environment by other energy technologies are much less complete, and, because of the large number of potentially active agents involved, it is evident that generic solutions to health impact assessment will be required to evaluate these energy alternatives

  17. Laser technology for high precision satellite tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    Fixed and mobile laser ranging stations have been developed to track satellites equipped with retro-reflector arrays. These have operated consistently at data rates of once per second with range precision better than 50 cm, using Q-switched ruby lasers with pulse durations of 20 to 40 nanoseconds. Improvements are being incorporated to improve the precision to 10 cm, and to permit ranging to more distant satellites. These include improved reflector array designs, processing and analysis of the received reflection pulses, and use of sub-nanosecond pulse duration lasers.

  18. Science and technology with nuclear tracks in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Buford-Price, P

    2005-01-01

    Fission track dating has greatly expanded its usefulness to geology over the last 40 years. It is central to thermochronology—the use of shortened fission tracks to decipher the thermal history, movement, and provenance of rocks. When combined with other indicators, such as zircon color and (U–Th)/He, a range of temperatures from C to C can be studied. Combining fission track analysis with cosmogenic nuclide decay rates, one can study landscape development and denudation of passive margins. Technological applications have expanded from biological filters, radon mapping, and dosimetry to the use of ion track microtechnology in microlithography, micromachining by ion track etching, microscopic field emission tips, magnetic nanowires as magnetoresistive sensors, microfluidic devices, physiology of ion channels in single cells, and so on. In nuclear and particle physics, relatively insensitive glass detectors have been almost single-handedly responsible for our knowledge of cluster radioactivity, and plastic ...

  19. Estimated GFR Decline as a Surrogate End Point for Kidney Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Weldegiorgis, Misghina; Inker, Lesley A

    2014-01-01

    A doubling of serum creatinine value, corresponding to a 57% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), is used frequently as a component of a composite kidney end point in clinical trials in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether alternative end points defin...

  20. Consensus Statement on Diagnostic End Points for Infant Tuberculosis Vaccine Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatherill, Mark; Verver, Suzanne; Mahomed, Hassan; Barker, Lew; Behr, Marcel; Cardenas, Vicky; Eisele, Bernd; Douoguih, Macaya; Evans, Thomas G.; Eskola, Juhani; Fourie, Bernard; Grewal, Harleen; Grode, Leander; Hawkridge, Tony; Hesseling, Anneke; Hussey, Gregory; Kiringa, Grace; Landry, Bernard; Lockhart, Stephen; Marais, Ben; Måseide, Kårstein; Mayanja, Harriet; McClain, Bruce; McShane, Helen; Moyo, Sizulu; Ofori, Opokua; Parida, Shreemanta K.; Ryall, Robert P.; Sacarlal, Jahit; Sadoff, Jerry; Shea, Jacqui; Tameris, Michele; van Rie, Annelies; von Reyn, C. Fordham; Wajja, Anne; Walker, Bob; Walzl, Gerhard; Wilkinson, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Definition of clinical trial end points for childhood tuberculosis is hindered by lack of a standard case definition. We aimed to identify areas of consensus or debate on potential end points for tuberculosis vaccine trials among human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected children. Methods.

  1. A step towards standardization: A method for end-point titer determination by fluorescence index of an automated microscope. End-point titer determination by fluorescence index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Teresa; Gilio, Michele; Padula, Maria Carmela; Tramontano, Giuseppina; D'Angelo, Salvatore; Pafundi, Vito

    2018-05-01

    Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) is widely considered the Gold Standard for Antinuclear Antibody (ANA) screening. However, the high inter-reader variability remains the major disadvantage associated with ANA testing and the main reason for the increasing demand of the computer-aided immunofluorescence microscope. Previous studies proposed the quantification of the fluorescence intensity as an alternative for the classical end-point titer evaluation. However, the different distribution of bright/dark light linked to the nature of the self-antigen and its location in the cells result in different mean fluorescence intensities. The aim of the present study was to correlate Fluorescence Index (F.I.) with end-point titers for each well-defined ANA pattern. Routine serum samples were screened for ANA testing on HEp-2000 cells using Immuno Concepts Image Navigator System, and positive samples were serially diluted to assign the end-point titer. A comparison between F.I. and end-point titers related to 10 different staining patterns was made. According to our analysis, good technical performance of F.I. (97% sensitivity and 94% specificity) was found. A significant correlation between quantitative reading of F.I. and end-point titer groups was observed using Spearman's test and regression analysis. A conversion scale of F.I. in end-point titers for each recognized ANA-pattern was obtained. The Image Navigator offers the opportunity to improve worldwide harmonization of ANA test results. In particular, digital F.I. allows quantifying ANA titers by using just one sample dilution. It could represent a valuable support for the routine laboratory and an effective tool to reduce inter- and intra-laboratory variability. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. USING RF TECHNOLOGY FOR PROTECTED ASSET TRACKING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younkin, James R.; Pickett, Chris A.; Richardson, Dave; Stinson, Brad J.

    2008-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is working on systems that use a new radio frequency (RF) technology called Rubee to manage and inventory many types of protected assets, including weapons housed in Department of Energy (DOE) armories, tooling, and nuclear material containers. Rubee is being considered for an IEEE Standard, and is used on several projects at ORNL because of its high performance when used in, on, and around metal-an environment that is typical of that found in an armory vault and that of many other protected assets locations within nuclear facilities. The primary objective using Rubee is to supply sustainable technology that provides timely information on the status and location of protected assets. This paper focuses on the results from a deployment of this technology at a DOE armory and discusses the applicability of Rubee for use with other protected assets within nuclear facilities. Key Words: Rubee, low radio frequency, protected assets

  3. European network on the determination of site end points for radiologically contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Peter; Lennon, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Nexia Solutions are currently running a small European network entitled 'European Network on the Determination of Site End Points for Radiologically Contaminated Land (ENDSEP)'. Other network members include NRG (Netherlands), UKAEA (UK), CEA (France), SOGIN (Italy), Wismut (Germany), Saxon State Agency of Environment and Geology (Germany). The network is focused on the technical and socio-economical issues associated with the determination of end points for sites potentially, or actually, impacted by radiological contamination. Such issues will cover: - Those associated with the run up to establishing a site end point; - Those associated with verifying that the end points have been met; and Those associated with post closure. The network's current high level objectives can be summarized as follows: Share experience and best practice in the key issues running up to determining site end points; Gain a better understanding of the potential effects of recent and forthcoming EU legislation; Assess consistency between approaches; Highlight potential gaps within the remit of site end point determination and management; and - Consider the formulation of research projects with a view to sharing time and expense. The programme of work revolves around the following key tasks: - Share information, experience and existing good practice. - Look to determine sustainable approaches to contaminated land site end point management. - Through site visits, gain first hand experience of determining an appropriate end point strategy, and identifying and resolving end point issues. Highlight the key data gaps and consider the development of programmes to either close out these gaps or to build confidence in the approaches taken. Production of position papers on each technical are a highlighting how different countries approach/resolve a specific problem. (authors)

  4. Testing of an End-Point Control Unit Designed to Enable Precision Control of Manipulator-Coupled Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Raymond C.; Ghosh, Dave; Tobbe, Patrick A.; Weathers, John M.; Manouchehri, Davoud; Lindsay, Thomas S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an end-point control concept designed to enable precision telerobotic control of manipulator-coupled spacecraft. The concept employs a hardware unit (end-point control unit EPCU) that is positioned between the end-effector of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System and the payload. Features of the unit are active compliance (control of the displacement between the end-effector and the payload), to allow precision control of payload motions, and inertial load relief, to prevent the transmission of loads between the end-effector and the payload. This paper presents the concept and studies the active compliance feature using a simulation and hardware. Results of the simulation show the effectiveness of the EPCU in smoothing the motion of the payload. Results are presented from initial, limited tests of a laboratory hardware unit on a robotic arm testbed at the l Space Flight Center. Tracking performance of the arm in a constant speed automated retraction and extension maneuver of a heavy payload with and without the unit active is compared for the design speed and higher speeds. Simultaneous load reduction and tracking performance are demonstrated using the EPCU.

  5. Comparison of methods for accurate end-point detection of potentiometric titrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villela, R L A; Borges, P P; Vyskočil, L

    2015-01-01

    Detection of the end point in potentiometric titrations has wide application on experiments that demand very low measurement uncertainties mainly for certifying reference materials. Simulations of experimental coulometric titration data and consequential error analysis of the end-point values were conducted using a programming code. These simulations revealed that the Levenberg-Marquardt method is in general more accurate than the traditional second derivative technique used currently as end-point detection for potentiometric titrations. Performance of the methods will be compared and presented in this paper

  6. Measurement of β-decay end point energy with planar HPGe detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, T.; Pandit, Deepak; Das, S. K.; Chowdhury, A.; Das, P.; Banerjee, D.; Saha, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pal, S.; Banerjee, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    The β - γ coincidence measurement has been performed with a segmented planar Hyper-Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector and a single coaxial HPGe detector to determine the end point energies of nuclear β-decays. The experimental end point energies have been determined for some of the known β-decays in 106Rh →106Pd. The end point energies corresponding to three weak branches in 106Rh →106Pd decay have been measured for the first time. The γ ray and β particle responses for the planar HPGe detector were simulated using the Monte Carlo based code GEANT3. The experimentally obtained β spectra were successfully reproduced with the simulation.

  7. Comparison of methods for accurate end-point detection of potentiometric titrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villela, R. L. A.; Borges, P. P.; Vyskočil, L.

    2015-01-01

    Detection of the end point in potentiometric titrations has wide application on experiments that demand very low measurement uncertainties mainly for certifying reference materials. Simulations of experimental coulometric titration data and consequential error analysis of the end-point values were conducted using a programming code. These simulations revealed that the Levenberg-Marquardt method is in general more accurate than the traditional second derivative technique used currently as end-point detection for potentiometric titrations. Performance of the methods will be compared and presented in this paper.

  8. Feasibility Study of RFID Technology for Construction Load Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-31

    RFID technology was proven to be successful in tracking dump trucks from loading plant to a paver location on a highway project. The average roundtrip time was 1 hour and 4 minutes. However, 3% of this data has truck delivery times in excess of 2 hou...

  9. Emerging applications of eye-tracking technology in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Kevin K; Jensen, Jakob D; King, Andy J; Pokharel, Manusheela; Grossman, Douglas

    2018-04-06

    Eye-tracking technology has been used within a multitude of disciplines to provide data linking eye movements to visual processing of various stimuli (i.e., x-rays, situational positioning, printed information, and warnings). Despite the benefits provided by eye-tracking in allowing for the identification and quantification of visual attention, the discipline of dermatology has yet to see broad application of the technology. Notwithstanding dermatologists' heavy reliance upon visual patterns and cues to discriminate between benign and atypical nevi, literature that applies eye-tracking to the study of dermatology is sparse; and literature specific to patient-initiated behaviors, such as skin self-examination (SSE), is largely non-existent. The current article provides a review of eye-tracking research in various medical fields, culminating in a discussion of current applications and advantages of eye-tracking for dermatology research. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Information resources and the correlation of response patterns between biological end points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malling, H.V. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wassom, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1990-12-31

    This paper focuses on the analysis of information for mutagenesis, a biological end point that is important in the overall process of assessing possible adverse health effects from chemical exposure. 17 refs.

  11. Radiometric titration of officinal radiopharmaceuticals using radioactive kryptonates as end-point indicators. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harangozo, M.; Jombik, J.; Schiller, P.; Toelgyessy, J.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the determination of citric, tartaric and undecylenic acids based on radiometric titration with 0.1 or 0.05 mole.l -1 NaOH was developed. As an indicator of the end point, radioactive kryptonate of glass was used. Experimental technique, results of determinations as well as other possible applications of the radioactive kryptonate of glass for end point determination in alkalimetric analyses of officinal pharmaceuticals are discussed. (author)

  12. Applying patent information to tracking a specific technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yuan Liu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Patents in general contain much novel technological information. This paper demonstrates that the usage of patent analysis can facilitate a unique scheme for tracking technology development. In this paper, the walking technique of the Japanese biped robot is tracked as an example. The searching method of the FI (file index and F-term classification system developed by JPO (Japan Patent Office was employed in this study, where all the related patent data were searched from the IPDL (Intellectual Property Digital Library. This study investigated an important technique applied to the humanoid biped robot that imitates the walking behavior of the human beings on two legs. By analyzing the patent information obtained, the relative research capabilities, technical strengths, and patent citation conditions among patent competitors were compared. Furthermore, a formulated technical matrix of patent map is established in this paper to indicate that the ZMP (Zero Moment Point control means is the main technology to achieve stabilized walking control of the humanoid biped robot. This study also incorporates relevant academic journal findings and industrial information. Results presented herein demonstrate that patents can function not only as a map for tracking a technology trajectory, but also as a guide to the main development of a new technology in years to come.

  13. Data-Base Software For Tracking Technological Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliberti, James A.; Wright, Simon; Monteith, Steve K.

    1996-01-01

    Technology Tracking System (TechTracS) computer program developed for use in storing and retrieving information on technology and related patent information developed under auspices of NASA Headquarters and NASA's field centers. Contents of data base include multiple scanned still images and quick-time movies as well as text. TechTracS includes word-processing, report-editing, chart-and-graph-editing, and search-editing subprograms. Extensive keyword searching capabilities enable rapid location of technologies, innovators, and companies. System performs routine functions automatically and serves multiple users.

  14. Development of Non-Tracking Solar Thermal Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Johnston, Bruce; Balkowski, Kevin

    2011-11-01

    The aims of this research is to develop high temperature solar thermal collectors that do not require complex solar tracking devices to maintain optimal performance. The collector technology developed through these efforts uses non-imaging optics and is referred to as an external compound parabolic concentrator. It is able to operate with a solar thermal efficiency of approximately 50% at a temperature of 200 ° C and can be readily manufactured at a cost between 15 and 18 per square foot.

  15. Intelligent products for enhancing the utilization of tracking technology in transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Gerben G.; Buijs, Paul; Szirbik, Nick B.; Wortmann, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Many transportation companies struggle to effectively utilize the information provided by tracking technology for performing operational control. The research as presented in this paper aims to identify the problems underlying the inability to utilize tracking technology within this

  16. Electrical breakthrough effect for end pointing in 90 and 45 nm node circuit edit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Kun; Soskov, Alex; Scipioni, Larry; Bassom, Neil; Sijbrandij, Sybren; Smith, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between high-energy Ga + ions and condensed matter is studied for circuit edit applications. A new 'electrical breakthrough effect' due to charging of, and Ga + penetration/doping into, dielectrics is discovered. This new effect is proposed for end pointing in 90 and 45 nm node circuit edits where integrated circuit device dimensions are of a few hundred nanometers. This new end point approach is very sensitive, reliable, and precise. Most importantly, it is not sensitive to device dimensions. A series of circuit edits involving milling holes of high aspect ratio (5-30) and small cross-section area (0.01-0.25 μm 2 ) on real chips has been successfully performed using the electrical breakthrough effect as the end point method

  17. Measurement of β-decay end point energy with planar HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, T., E-mail: btumpa@vecc.gov.in [Physics Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Pandit, Deepak [Physics Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Das, S.K. [RCD-BARC, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Chowdhury, A.; Das, P. [Physics Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Banerjee, D. [RCD-BARC, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Saha, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pal, S.; Banerjee, S.R. [Physics Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2014-12-11

    The β–γ coincidence measurement has been performed with a segmented planar Hyper-Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector and a single coaxial HPGe detector to determine the end point energies of nuclear β-decays. The experimental end point energies have been determined for some of the known β-decays in {sup 106}Rh→{sup 106}Pd. The end point energies corresponding to three weak branches in {sup 106}Rh→{sup 106}Pd decay have been measured for the first time. The γ ray and β particle responses for the planar HPGe detector were simulated using the Monte Carlo based code GEANT3. The experimentally obtained β spectra were successfully reproduced with the simulation.

  18. Radiometric titration of officinal radiopharmaceuticals using radioactive kryptonates as end-point indicators. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Dillinger, P.; Harangozo, M.; Jombik, J.

    1980-01-01

    A method for the determination of salicylic, acetylsalicylic and benzoic acids in officinal pharmaceutical based on radiometric titration with 0.1 mol.l -1 NaOH was developed. The end-point was detected with the aid of radioactive glass kryptonate. After the end-point, the excess titrant attacks the glass surface layers and this results in releasing 85 Kr, and consequently, in decreasing the radioactivity of the kryptonate employed. The radioactive kryptonate used as an indicator was prepared by the bombardment of glass with accelerated 85 Kr ions. The developed method is simple, accurate and correct. (author)

  19. USING RFID AND GIS TECHNOLOGIES FOR ADVANCED LUGGAGE TRACKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan KATO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available By purchasing a plane ticket or a cargo service, the passenger or the customer signs a contract with the airline company. From that moment on the airline company is responsible for all aspects of air travel, including the passenger' luggage (recording, handling to / from the aircraft etc.. Safe transport of passengers' luggage or cargo packages on airlines raises numerous problems for airlines and requires flexible, efficient solutions, appropriate to the specific requirements of each client. Annually millions of luggages get lost in airports around the world. This causes inconvenience to passengers and loss of resources and additional costs for the airlines. The aim of this paper is to examine how RFID(Radio Frequency Identification technology could be useful for advanced shipment tracking (Track and Trace in the airlines industry, by using rewritable passive RFID tags.

  20. Soft modes at the critical end point in the chiral effective models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Hirotsugu; Ohtani, Munehisa

    2004-01-01

    At the critical end point in QCD phase diagram, the scalar, vector and entropy susceptibilities are known to diverge. The dynamic origin of this divergence is identified within the chiral effective models as softening of a hydrodynamic mode of the particle-hole-type motion, which is a consequence of the conservation law of the baryon number and the energy. (author)

  1. Is Chronic Dialysis the Right Hard Renal End Point To Evaluate Renoprotective Drug Effects?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weldegiorgis, Misghina; de Zeeuw, Dick; Dwyer, Jamie P.; Mol, Peter; Heerspink, Hiddo J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: RRT and doubling of serum creatinine are considered the objective hard end points in nephrology intervention trials. Because both are assumed to reflect changes in the filtration capacity of the kidney, drug effects, if present, are attributed to kidney protection.

  2. Impact of confinement housing on study end-points in the calf model of cryptosporidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graef, Geneva; Hurst, Natalie J; Kidder, Lance; Sy, Tracy L; Goodman, Laura B; Preston, Whitney D; Arnold, Samuel L M; Zambriski, Jennifer A

    2018-04-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children confinement housing, and Interval Collection (IC), which permits use of box stalls. CFC mimics human challenge model methodology but it is unknown if confinement housing impacts study end-points and if data gathered via this method is suitable for generalization to human populations. Using a modified crossover study design we compared CFC and IC and evaluated the impact of housing on study end-points. At birth, calves were randomly assigned to confinement (n = 14) or box stall housing (n = 9), or were challenged with 5 x 107 C. parvum oocysts, and followed for 10 days. Study end-points included fecal oocyst shedding, severity of diarrhea, degree of dehydration, and plasma cortisol. Calves in confinement had no significant differences in mean log oocysts enumerated per gram of fecal dry matter between CFC and IC samples (P = 0.6), nor were there diurnal variations in oocyst shedding (P = 0.1). Confinement housed calves shed significantly more oocysts (P = 0.05), had higher plasma cortisol (P = 0.001), and required more supportive care (P = 0.0009) than calves in box stalls. Housing method confounds study end-points in the calf model of cryptosporidiosis. Due to increased stress data collected from calves in confinement housing may not accurately estimate the efficacy of chemotherapeutics targeting C. parvum.

  3. End-point construction and systematic titration error in linear titration curves-complexation reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenegracht, P.M.J.; Duisenberg, A.J.M.

    The systematic titration error which is introduced by the intersection of tangents to hyperbolic titration curves is discussed. The effects of the apparent (conditional) formation constant, of the concentration of the unknown component and of the ranges used for the end-point construction are

  4. New supervised learning theory applied to cerebellar modeling for suppression of variability of saccade end points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Masahiko

    2013-06-01

    A new supervised learning theory is proposed for a hierarchical neural network with a single hidden layer of threshold units, which can approximate any continuous transformation, and applied to a cerebellar function to suppress the end-point variability of saccades. In motor systems, feedback control can reduce noise effects if the noise is added in a pathway from a motor center to a peripheral effector; however, it cannot reduce noise effects if the noise is generated in the motor center itself: a new control scheme is necessary for such noise. The cerebellar cortex is well known as a supervised learning system, and a novel theory of cerebellar cortical function developed in this study can explain the capability of the cerebellum to feedforwardly reduce noise effects, such as end-point variability of saccades. This theory assumes that a Golgi-granule cell system can encode the strength of a mossy fiber input as the state of neuronal activity of parallel fibers. By combining these parallel fiber signals with appropriate connection weights to produce a Purkinje cell output, an arbitrary continuous input-output relationship can be obtained. By incorporating such flexible computation and learning ability in a process of saccadic gain adaptation, a new control scheme in which the cerebellar cortex feedforwardly suppresses the end-point variability when it detects a variation in saccadic commands can be devised. Computer simulation confirmed the efficiency of such learning and showed a reduction in the variability of saccadic end points, similar to results obtained from experimental data.

  5. Tracking Honey Bees Using LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENDER, SUSAN FAE ANN; RODACY, PHILIP J.; SCHMITT, RANDAL L.; HARGIS JR., PHILIP J.; JOHNSON, MARK S.; KLARKOWSKI, JAMES R.; MAGEE, GLEN I.; BENDER, GARY LEE

    2003-01-01

    The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has recognized that biological and chemical toxins are a real and growing threat to troops, civilians, and the ecosystem. The Explosives Components Facility at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been working with the University of Montana, the Southwest Research Institute, and other agencies to evaluate the feasibility of directing honeybees to specific targets, and for environmental sampling of biological and chemical ''agents of harm''. Recent work has focused on finding and locating buried landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO). Tests have demonstrated that honeybees can be trained to efficiently and accurately locate explosive signatures in the environment. However, it is difficult to visually track the bees and determine precisely where the targets are located. Video equipment is not practical due to its limited resolution and range. In addition, it is often unsafe to install such equipment in a field. A technology is needed to provide investigators with the standoff capability to track bees and accurately map the location of the suspected targets. This report documents Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) tests that were performed by SNL. These tests have shown that a LIDAR system can be used to track honeybees. The LIDAR system can provide both the range and coordinates of the target so that the location of buried munitions can be accurately mapped for subsequent removal.

  6. Technologies for Future Vertex and Tracking Detectors at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Spannagel, Simon

    2018-01-01

    CLIC is a proposed linear e$^{+}$e$^{-}$ collider with center-of-mass energies of up to 3 TeV. Its main objectives are precise top quark and Higgs boson measurements, as well as searches for Beyond Standard Model physics. To meet the physics goals, the vertex and tracking detectors require not only a spatial resolution of a few micrometers and a very low material budget, but also timing capabilities with a precision of a few nanoseconds to allow suppression of beam-induced backgrounds. Different technologies using hybrid silicon detectors are explored for the vertex detectors, such as dedicated readout ASICs, small-pitch active edge sensors as well as capacitively coupled High-Voltage CMOS sensors. Monolithic sensors are considered as an option for the tracking detector, and a prototype using a CMOS process with a high-resistivity epitaxial layer is being designed. Different designs using a silicon-on-insulator process are under investigation for both vertex and tracking detector. All prototypes are evaluate...

  7. Free Energy, Enthalpy and Entropy from Implicit Solvent End-Point Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogolari, Federico; Corazza, Alessandra; Esposito, Gennaro

    2018-01-01

    Free energy is the key quantity to describe the thermodynamics of biological systems. In this perspective we consider the calculation of free energy, enthalpy and entropy from end-point molecular dynamics simulations. Since the enthalpy may be calculated as the ensemble average over equilibrated simulation snapshots the difficulties related to free energy calculation are ultimately related to the calculation of the entropy of the system and in particular of the solvent entropy. In the last two decades implicit solvent models have been used to circumvent the problem and to take into account solvent entropy implicitly in the solvation terms. More recently outstanding advancement in both implicit solvent models and in entropy calculations are making the goal of free energy estimation from end-point simulations more feasible than ever before. We review briefly the basic theory and discuss the advancements in light of practical applications.

  8. Free Energy, Enthalpy and Entropy from Implicit Solvent End-Point Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Fogolari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Free energy is the key quantity to describe the thermodynamics of biological systems. In this perspective we consider the calculation of free energy, enthalpy and entropy from end-point molecular dynamics simulations. Since the enthalpy may be calculated as the ensemble average over equilibrated simulation snapshots the difficulties related to free energy calculation are ultimately related to the calculation of the entropy of the system and in particular of the solvent entropy. In the last two decades implicit solvent models have been used to circumvent the problem and to take into account solvent entropy implicitly in the solvation terms. More recently outstanding advancement in both implicit solvent models and in entropy calculations are making the goal of free energy estimation from end-point simulations more feasible than ever before. We review briefly the basic theory and discuss the advancements in light of practical applications.

  9. End point detection in ion milling processes by sputter-induced optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, C.; Dorian, M.; Tabei, M.; Elsea, A.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristic optical emission from the sputtered material during ion milling processes can provide an unambiguous indication of the presence of the specific etched species. By monitoring the intensity of a representative emission line, the etching process can be precisely terminated at an interface. Enhancement of the etching end point is possible by using a dual-channel photodetection system operating in a ratio or difference mode. The installation of the optical detection system to an existing etching chamber has been greatly facilitated by the use of optical fibers. Using a commercial ion milling system, experimental data for a number of etching processes have been obtained. The result demonstrates that sputter-induced optical emission spectroscopy offers many advantages over other techniques in detecting the etching end point of ion milling processes

  10. Kinetic titration with differential thermometric determination of the end-point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajó, I

    1968-06-01

    A method has been described for the determination of concentrations below 10(-4)M by applying catalytic reactions and using thermometric end-point determination. A reference solution, identical with the sample solution except for catalyst, is titrated with catalyst solution until the rates of reaction become the same, as shown by a null deflection on a galvanometer connected via bridge circuits to two opposed thermistors placed in the solutions.

  11. End Point of the Ultraspinning Instability and Violation of Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueras, Pau; Kunesch, Markus; Lehner, Luis; Tunyasuvunakool, Saran

    2017-04-01

    We determine the end point of the axisymmetric ultraspinning instability of asymptotically flat Myers-Perry black holes in D =6 spacetime dimensions. In the nonlinear regime, this instability gives rise to a sequence of concentric rings connected by segments of black membrane on the rotation plane. The latter become thinner over time, resulting in the formation of a naked singularity in finite asymptotic time and hence a violation of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture in asymptotically flat higher-dimensional spaces.

  12. A New Test Unit for Disintegration End-Point Determination of Orodispersible Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Ariana; Kok, Si Ling; Khong, Yuet Mei; Chan, Sui Yung; Gokhale, Rajeev

    2015-11-01

    No standard time or pharmacopoeia disintegration test method for orodispersible films (ODFs) exists. The USP disintegration test for tablets and capsules poses significant challenges for end-point determination when used for ODFs. We tested a newly developed disintegration test unit (DTU) against the USP disintegration test. The DTU is an accessory to the USP disintegration apparatus. It holds the ODF in a horizontal position, allowing top-view of the ODF during testing. A Gauge R&R study was conducted to assign relative contributions of the total variability from the operator, sample or the experimental set-up. Precision was compared using commercial ODF products in different media. Agreement between the two measurement methods was analysed. The DTU showed improved repeatability and reproducibility compared to the USP disintegration system with tighter standard deviations regardless of operator or medium. There is good agreement between the two methods, with the USP disintegration test giving generally longer disintegration times possibly due to difficulty in end-point determination. The DTU provided clear end-point determination and is suitable for quality control of ODFs during product developmental stage or manufacturing. This may facilitate the development of a standardized methodology for disintegration time determination of ODFs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  13. End-point impedance measurements across dominant and nondominant hands and robotic assistance with directional damping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, Mustafa Suphi; Billard, Aude

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to perform end-point impedance measurements across dominant and nondominant hands while doing airbrush painting and to use the results for developing a robotic assistance scheme. We study airbrush painting because it resembles in many ways manual welding, a standard industrial task. The experiments are performed with the 7 degrees of freedom KUKA lightweight robot arm. The robot is controlled in admittance using a force sensor attached at the end-point, so as to act as a free-mass and be passively guided by the human. For impedance measurements, a set of nine subjects perform 12 repetitions of airbrush painting, drawing a straight-line on a cartoon horizontally placed on a table, while passively moving the airbrush mounted on the robot's end-point. We measure hand impedance during the painting task by generating sudden and brief external forces with the robot. The results show that on average the dominant hand displays larger impedance than the nondominant in the directions perpendicular to the painting line. We find the most significant difference in the damping values in these directions. Based on this observation, we develop a "directional damping" scheme for robotic assistance and conduct a pilot study with 12 subjects to contrast airbrush painting with and without robotic assistance. Results show significant improvement in precision with both dominant and nondominant hands when using robotic assistance.

  14. Medication overuse headache: a critical review of end points in recent follow-up studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Knut; Jensen, Rigmor; Bøe, Magne Geir

    2010-01-01

    in headache index at the end of follow-up were reported in only one and two of nine studies, respectively. The present review demonstrated a lack of uniform end points used in recently published follow-up studies. Guidelines for presenting follow-up data on MOH are needed and we propose end points......No guidelines for performing and presenting the results of studies on patients with medication overuse headache (MOH) exist. The aim of this study was to review long-term outcome measures in follow-up studies published in 2006 or later. We included MOH studies with >6 months duration presenting...... a minimum of one predefined end point. In total, nine studies were identified. The 1,589 MOH patients (22% men) had an overall mean frequency of 25.3 headache days/month at baseline. Headache days/month at the end of follow-up was reported in six studies (mean 13.8 days/month). The decrease was more...

  15. Tracking Activities in Complex Settings Using Smart Environment Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Geetika; Cook, Diane J; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    The pervasive sensing technologies found in smart homes offer unprecedented opportunities for providing health monitoring and assistance to individuals experiencing difficulties living independently at home. A primary challenge that needs to be tackled to meet this need is the ability to recognize and track functional activities that people perform in their own homes and everyday settings. In this paper we look at approaches to perform real-time recognition of Activities of Daily Living. We enhance other related research efforts to develop approaches that are effective when activities are interrupted and interleaved. To evaluate the accuracy of our recognition algorithms we assess them using real data collected from participants performing activities in our on-campus smart apartment testbed.

  16. Guidelines for time-to-event end-point definitions in trials for pancreatic cancer. Results of the DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event End-points in CANcer trials)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnetain, Franck; Bonsing, Bert; Conroy, Thierry; Dousseau, Adelaide; Glimelius, Bengt; Haustermans, Karin; Lacaine, François; van Laethem, Jean Luc; Aparicio, Thomas; Aust, Daniela; Bassi, Claudio; Berger, Virginie; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Chibaudel, Benoist; Dahan, Laeticia; de Gramont, Aimery; Delpero, Jean Robert; Dervenis, Christos; Ducreux, Michel; Gal, Jocelyn; Gerber, Erich; Ghaneh, Paula; Hammel, Pascal; Hendlisz, Alain; Jooste, Valérie; Labianca, Roberto; Latouche, Aurelien; Lutz, Manfred; Macarulla, Teresa; Malka, David; Mauer, Muriel; Mitry, Emmanuel; Neoptolemos, John; Pessaux, Patrick; Sauvanet, Alain; Tabernero, Josep; Taieb, Julien; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Gourgou-Bourgade, Sophie; Bellera, Carine; Mathoulin-Pélissier, Simone; Collette, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Using potential surrogate end-points for overall survival (OS) such as Disease-Free- (DFS) or Progression-Free Survival (PFS) is increasingly common in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). However, end-points are too often imprecisely defined which largely contributes to a lack of homogeneity across

  17. Implementation and development of vehicle tracking and immobilization technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, limited use has been made of vehicle tracking using satellite communications to mitigate the security and safety risks created by the highway transportation of certain types of hazardous materials. However, vehicle-tracking techn...

  18. Quantum Triple Point and Quantum Critical End Points in Metallic Magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitz, D; Kirkpatrick, T R

    2017-12-29

    In low-temperature metallic magnets, ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) orders can exist, adjacent to one another or concurrently, in the phase diagram of a single system. We show that universal quantum effects qualitatively alter the known phase diagrams for classical magnets. They shrink the region of concurrent FM and AFM order, change various transitions from second to first order, and, in the presence of a magnetic field, lead to either a quantum triple point where the FM, AFM, and paramagnetic phases all coexist or a quantum critical end point.

  19. Potentiometric end point detection in the EDTA titrimetric determination of gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinath, N.; Renuka, M.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Gallium is titrated in presence of known amount of Fe (III) with EDTA in HNO 3 solution at pH 2 to 3. The end point is detected potentiometrically employing a bright platinum wire - saturated calomel (SCE) reference electrode system, the redox couple being Fe (III) / Fe (II). Since Fe (III) is also titrated by EDTA, it is, therefore, subtracted from titre value to get the EDTA equivalent to gallium only. Precision and accuracy 0.2 to 0.4% was obtained in the results of gallium in the range of 8 to 2 mg. (author)

  20. Dysglycemia and Index60 as Prediagnostic End Points for Type 1 Diabetes Prevention Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Brandon M; Boulware, David; Geyer, Susan; Atkinson, Mark A; Colman, Peter; Goland, Robin; Russell, William; Wentworth, John M; Wilson, Darrell M; Evans-Molina, Carmella; Wherrett, Diane; Skyler, Jay S; Moran, Antoinette; Sosenko, Jay M

    2017-11-01

    We assessed dysglycemia and a T1D Diagnostic Index60 (Index60) ≥1.00 (on the basis of fasting C-peptide, 60-min glucose, and 60-min C-peptide levels) as prediagnostic end points for type 1 diabetes among Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Pathway to Prevention Study participants. Two cohorts were analyzed: 1 ) baseline normoglycemic oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) with an incident dysglycemic OGTT and 2 ) baseline Index60 <1.00 OGTTs with an incident Index60 ≥1.00 OGTT. Incident dysglycemic OGTTs were divided into those with (DYS/IND+) and without (DYS/IND-) concomitant Index60 ≥1.00. Incident Index60 ≥1.00 OGTTs were divided into those with (IND/DYS+) and without (IND/DYS-) concomitant dysglycemia. The cumulative incidence for type 1 diabetes was greater after IND/DYS- than after DYS/IND- ( P < 0.01). Within the normoglycemic cohort, the cumulative incidence of type 1 diabetes was higher after DYS/IND+ than after DYS/IND- ( P < 0.001), whereas within the Index60 <1.00 cohort, the cumulative incidence after IND/DYS+ and after IND/DYS- did not differ significantly. Among nonprogressors, type 1 diabetes risk at the last OGTT was greater for IND/DYS- than for DYS/IND- ( P < 0.001). Hazard ratios (HRs) of DYS/IND- with age and 30- to 0-min C-peptide were positive ( P < 0.001 for both), whereas HRs of type 1 diabetes with these variables were inverse ( P < 0.001 for both). In contrast, HRs of IND/DYS- and type 1 diabetes with age and 30- to 0-min C-peptide were consistent (all inverse [ P < 0.01 for all]). The findings suggest that incident dysglycemia without Index60 ≥1.00 is a suboptimal prediagnostic end point for type 1 diabetes. Measures that include both glucose and C-peptide levels, such as Index60 ≥1.00, appear better suited as prediagnostic end points. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  1. Research on infrared small-target tracking technology under complex background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Xin; Chen, Jilu; Pan, Tao

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target tracking are described. On the foundation of above works, a moving target tracking software base on the OpenCV is developed by the software developing platform MFC. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. These two tracking algorithms are Kalman Filter tracking method and Camshift tracking method. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for tracking targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. This paper is very significant in the application of the infrared target tracking technology.

  2. No significant effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade on intermediate cardiovascular end points in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Christian Daugaard; Kjaergaard, Krista D; Jensen, Jens D

    2014-01-01

    Agents blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are frequently used in patients with end-stage renal disease, but whether they exert beneficial cardiovascular effects is unclear. Here the long-term effects of the angiotensin II receptor blocker, irbesartan, were studied in hemodialysis......, and residual renal function. Brachial blood pressure decreased significantly in both groups, but there was no significant difference between placebo and irbesartan. Use of additional antihypertensive medication, ultrafiltration volume, and dialysis dosage were not different. Intermediate cardiovascular end...... points such as central aortic blood pressure, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, left ventricular mass index, N-terminal brain natriuretic prohormone, heart rate variability, and plasma catecholamines were not significantly affected by irbesartan treatment. Changes in systolic blood pressure during...

  3. Determination of the Acidity of Oils Using Paraformaldehyde as a Thermometric End-Point Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro Mário J. D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the acidity of oils by catalytic thermometric titrimetry using paraformaldehyde as the thermometric end-point indicator was investigated. The sample solvent was a 1:1 (v/v mixture of toluene and 2-propanol and the titrant was 0.1 mol L-1 aqueous sodium hydroxide. Paraformaldehyde, being insoluble in the sample solvent, does not present the inconvenience of other indicators that change the properties of the solvent due to composition changes. The titration can therefore be done effectively in the same medium as the standard potentiometric and visual titration methods. The results of the application of the method to both non-refined and refined oils are presented herein. The proposed method has advantages in relation to the potentiometric method in terms of speed and simplicity.

  4. End-Point Contact Force Control with Quantitative Feedback Theory for Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhuan Wen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Robot force control is an important issue for intelligent mobile robotics. The end-point stiffness of a robot is a key and open problem in the research community. The control strategies are mostly dependent on both the specifications of the task and the environment of the robot. Due to the limited stiffness of the end-effector, we may adopt inherent torque to feedback the oscillations of the controlled force. This paper proposes an effective control strategy which contains a controller using quantitative feedback theory. The nested loop controllers take into account the physical limitation of the system's inner variables and harmful interference. The biggest advantage of the method is its simplicity in both the design process and the implementation of the control algorithm in engineering practice. Taking the one-link manipulator as an example, numerical experiments are carried out to verify the proposed control method. The results show the satisfactory performance.

  5. Quality control for electron beam processing of polymeric materials by end-point analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGraff, E.; McLaughlin, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    Properties of certain plastics, e.g. polytetrafluoroethylene, polyethylene, ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, can be modified selectively by ionizing radiation. One of the advantages of this treatment over chemical methods is better control of the process and the end-product properties. The most convenient method of dosimetry for monitoring quality control is post-irradiation evaluation of the plastic itself, e.g., melt index and melt point determination. It is shown that by proper calibration in terms of total dose and sufficiently reproducible radiation effects, such product test methods provide convenient and meaningful analyses. Other appropriate standardized analytical methods include stress-crack resistance, stress-strain-to-fracture testing and solubility determination. Standard routine dosimetry over the dose and dose rate ranges of interest confirm that measured product end points can be correlated with calibrated values of absorbed dose in the product within uncertainty limits of the measurements. (author)

  6. Lack of Bystander Effects From High-LET Radiation For Early Cytogenetic End Points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groesser, Torsten; Cooper, Brian; Rydberg, Bjorn

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study radiation-induced bystander effects for early cytogenetic end points in various cell lines using the medium transfer technique after exposure to high- and low-LET radiation. Cells were exposed to 20 MeV/ nucleon nitrogen ions, 968 MeV/nucleon iron ions, or 575 MeV/nucleon iron ions followed by transfer of the conditioned medium from the irradiated cells to unirradiated test cells. The effects studied included DNA double-strand break induction, γ-H2AX focus formation, induction of chromatid breaks in prematurely condensed chromosomes, and micronucleus formation using DNA repair-proficient and -deficient hamster and human cell lines (xrs6, V79, SW48, MO59K and MO59J). Cell survival was also measured in SW48 bystander cells using X rays. Although it was occasionally possible to detect an increase in chromatid break levels using nitrogen ions and to see a higher number of γ-H2AX foci using nitrogen and iron ions in xrs6 bystander cells in single experiments, the results were not reproducible. After we pooled all the data, we could not verify a significant bystander effect for any of these end points. Also, we did not detect a significant bystander effect for DSB induction or micronucleus formation in these cell lines or for clonogenic survival in SW48 cells. The data suggest that DNA damage and cytogenetic changes are not induced in bystander cells. In contrast, data in the literature show pronounced bystander effects in a variety of cell lines, including clonogenic survival in SW48 cells and induction of chromatid breaks and micronuclei in hamster cells. To reconcile these conflicting data, it is possible that the epigenetic status of the specific cell line or the precise culture conditions and medium supplements, such as serum, may be critical for inducing bystander effects.

  7. Is automated kinetic measurement superior to end-point for advanced oxidation protein product?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Osman; Inal, Berrin Bercik; Emre, Turker; Ozcan, Oguzhan; Altunoglu, Esma; Oguz, Gokce; Topkaya, Cigdem; Guvenen, Guvenc

    2014-01-01

    Advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) was first described as an oxidative protein marker in chronic uremic patients and measured with a semi-automatic end-point method. Subsequently, the kinetic method was introduced for AOPP assay. We aimed to compare these two methods by adapting them to a chemistry analyzer and to investigate the correlation between AOPP and fibrinogen, the key molecule responsible for human plasma AOPP reactivity, microalbumin, and HbA1c in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM II). The effects of EDTA and citrate-anticogulated tubes on these two methods were incorporated into the study. This study included 93 DM II patients (36 women, 57 men) with HbA1c levels > or = 7%, who were admitted to the diabetes and nephrology clinics. The samples were collected in EDTA and in citrate-anticoagulated tubes. Both methods were adapted to a chemistry analyzer and the samples were studied in parallel. In both types of samples, we found a moderate correlation between the kinetic and the endpoint methods (r = 0.611 for citrate-anticoagulated, r = 0.636 for EDTA-anticoagulated, p = 0.0001 for both). We found a moderate correlation between fibrinogen-AOPP and microalbumin-AOPP levels only in the kinetic method (r = 0.644 and 0.520 for citrate-anticoagulated; r = 0.581 and 0.490 for EDTA-anticoagulated, p = 0.0001). We conclude that adaptation of the end-point method to automation is more difficult and it has higher between-run CV% while application of the kinetic method is easier and it may be used in oxidative stress studies.

  8. A survey on the automatic object tracking technology using video signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Cheol; Jun, Hyeong Seop; Choi, Yu Rak; Kim, Jae Hee

    2003-01-01

    Recently, automatic identification and tracking of the object are actively studied according to the rapid development of signal processing and vision technology using improved hardware and software. The object tracking technology can be applied to various fields such as road watching of the vehicles, weather satellite, traffic observation, intelligent remote video-conferences and autonomous mobile robots. Object tracking system receives subsequent pictures from the camera and detects motions of the objects in these pictures. In this report, we investigate various object tracking techniques such as brightness change using histogram characteristic, differential image analysis, contour and feature extraction, and try to find proper methods that can be used to mobile robots actually

  9. Guidelines for time-to-event end-point definitions in trials for pancreatic cancer. Results of the DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event End-points in CANcer trials).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnetain, Franck; Bonsing, Bert; Conroy, Thierry; Dousseau, Adelaide; Glimelius, Bengt; Haustermans, Karin; Lacaine, François; Van Laethem, Jean Luc; Aparicio, Thomas; Aust, Daniela; Bassi, Claudio; Berger, Virginie; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Chibaudel, Benoist; Dahan, Laeticia; De Gramont, Aimery; Delpero, Jean Robert; Dervenis, Christos; Ducreux, Michel; Gal, Jocelyn; Gerber, Erich; Ghaneh, Paula; Hammel, Pascal; Hendlisz, Alain; Jooste, Valérie; Labianca, Roberto; Latouche, Aurelien; Lutz, Manfred; Macarulla, Teresa; Malka, David; Mauer, Muriel; Mitry, Emmanuel; Neoptolemos, John; Pessaux, Patrick; Sauvanet, Alain; Tabernero, Josep; Taieb, Julien; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Gourgou-Bourgade, Sophie; Bellera, Carine; Mathoulin-Pélissier, Simone; Collette, Laurence

    2014-11-01

    Using potential surrogate end-points for overall survival (OS) such as Disease-Free- (DFS) or Progression-Free Survival (PFS) is increasingly common in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). However, end-points are too often imprecisely defined which largely contributes to a lack of homogeneity across trials, hampering comparison between them. The aim of the DATECAN (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event End-points in CANcer trials)-Pancreas project is to provide guidelines for standardised definition of time-to-event end-points in RCTs for pancreatic cancer. Time-to-event end-points currently used were identified from a literature review of pancreatic RCT trials (2006-2009). Academic research groups were contacted for participation in order to select clinicians and methodologists to participate in the pilot and scoring groups (>30 experts). A consensus was built after 2 rounds of the modified Delphi formal consensus approach with the Rand scoring methodology (range: 1-9). For pancreatic cancer, 14 time to event end-points and 25 distinct event types applied to two settings (detectable disease and/or no detectable disease) were considered relevant and included in the questionnaire sent to 52 selected experts. Thirty experts answered both scoring rounds. A total of 204 events distributed over the 14 end-points were scored. After the first round, consensus was reached for 25 items; after the second consensus was reached for 156 items; and after the face-to-face meeting for 203 items. The formal consensus approach reached the elaboration of guidelines for standardised definitions of time-to-event end-points allowing cross-comparison of RCTs in pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of Bordetella pertussis from Clinical Samples by Culture and End-Point PCR in Malaysian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Tan Xue; Hashim, Rohaidah; Ahmad, Norazah; Abdullah, Khairul Hafizi

    2013-01-01

    Pertussis or whooping cough is a highly infectious respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis. In vaccinating countries, infants, adolescents, and adults are relevant patients groups. A total of 707 clinical specimens were received from major hospitals in Malaysia in year 2011. These specimens were cultured on Regan-Lowe charcoal agar and subjected to end-point PCR, which amplified the repetitive insertion sequence IS481 and pertussis toxin promoter gene. Out of these specimens, 275 were positive: 4 by culture only, 6 by both end-point PCR and culture, and 265 by end-point PCR only. The majority of the positive cases were from ≤3 months old patients (77.1%) (P 0.05). Our study showed that the end-point PCR technique was able to pick up more positive cases compared to culture method.

  11. Radiometric titration of officinal radiopharmaceuticals using radioactive kryptonates as end-point indicators. II. Citric, tartaric, undecylenic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harangozo, M.; Jombik, J.; Schiller, P. (Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Farmaceuticka Fakulta); Toelgyessy, J. (Slovenska Vysoka Skola Technicka, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Chemickotechnologicka Fakulta)

    1981-01-01

    A method for the determination of citric, tartaric and undecylenic acids based on radiometric titration with 0.1 or 0.05 mole.l/sup -1/ NaOH was developed. As an indicator of the end point, radioactive kryptonate of glass was used. Experimental technique, results of determinations as well as other possible applications of the radioactive kryptonate of glass for end point determination in alkalimetric analyses of officinal pharmaceuticals are discussed.

  12. Online Tracking Technologies and Web Privacy:Technologieën voor Online volgen en Web Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Acar, Mustafa Gunes Can

    2017-01-01

    In my PhD thesis, I would like to study the problem of online privacy with a focus on Web and mobile applications. Key research questions to be addressed by my study are the following: How can we formalize and quantify web tracking? What are the threats presented against privacy by different tracking techniques such as browser fingerprinting and cookie based tracking? What kind of privacy enhancing technologies (PET) can be used to ensure privacy without degrading service quality? The stud...

  13. A quantitative analysis of statistical power identifies obesity end points for improved in vivo preclinical study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimkhanov, J; Thompson, W C; Guo, J; Hall, K D; Musante, C J

    2017-08-01

    The design of well-powered in vivo preclinical studies is a key element in building the knowledge of disease physiology for the purpose of identifying and effectively testing potential antiobesity drug targets. However, as a result of the complexity of the obese phenotype, there is limited understanding of the variability within and between study animals of macroscopic end points such as food intake and body composition. This, combined with limitations inherent in the measurement of certain end points, presents challenges to study design that can have significant consequences for an antiobesity program. Here, we analyze a large, longitudinal study of mouse food intake and body composition during diet perturbation to quantify the variability and interaction of the key metabolic end points. To demonstrate how conclusions can change as a function of study size, we show that a simulated preclinical study properly powered for one end point may lead to false conclusions based on secondary end points. We then propose the guidelines for end point selection and study size estimation under different conditions to facilitate proper power calculation for a more successful in vivo study design.

  14. Stem Cell Tracking Technologies for Neurological Regenerative Medicine Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongtao Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing field of stem cell therapy is moving toward clinical trials in a variety of applications, particularly for neurological diseases. However, this translation of cell therapies into humans has prompted a need to create innovative and breakthrough methods for stem cell tracing, to explore the migration routes and its reciprocity with microenvironment targets in the body, to monitor and track the outcome after stem cell transplantation therapy, and to track the distribution and cell viability of transplanted cells noninvasively and longitudinally. Recently, a larger number of cell tracking methods in vivo were developed and applied in animals and humans, including magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine imaging, and optical imaging. This review has been intended to summarize the current use of those imaging tools in tracking stem cells, detailing their main features and drawbacks, including image resolution, tissue penetrating depth, and biosafety aspects. Finally, we address that multimodality imaging method will be a more potential tracking tool in the future clinical application.

  15. Changes in the Skin Conductance Monitor as an End Point for Sympathetic Nerve Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Semih; Rana, Bhumika; Fields, Kara; Bae, James J; Mount, Lauren; Buschiazzo, Valeria; Storm, Hanne

    2017-11-01

    There is a lack of objective methods for determining the achievement of sympathetic block. This study validates the skin conductance monitor (SCM) as an end point indicator of successful sympathetic blockade as compared with traditional monitors. This interventional study included 13 patients undergoing 25 lumbar sympathetic blocks to compare time to indication of successful blockade between the SCM indices and traditional measures, clinically visible hyperemia, clinically visible engorgement of veins, subjective skin temperature difference, unilateral thermometry monitoring, bilateral comparative thermometry monitoring, and change in waveform amplitude in pulse oximetry plethysmography, within a 30-minute observation period. Differences in the SCM indices were studied pre- and postblock to validate the SCM. SCM showed substantially greater odds of indicating achievement of sympathetic block in the next moment (i.e., hazard rate) compared with all traditional measures (clinically visible hyperemia, clinically visible engorgement of veins, subjective temperature difference, unilateral thermometry monitoring, bilateral comparative thermometry monitoring, and change in waveform amplitude in pulse oximetry plethysmography; P ≤ 0.011). SCM indicated successful block for all (100%) procedures, while the traditional measures failed to indicate successful blocks in 16-84% of procedures. The SCM indices were significantly higher in preblock compared with postblock measurements (P SCM is a more reliable and rapid response indicator of a successful sympathetic blockade when compared with traditional monitors. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Infrared interference patterns for new capabilities in laser end point detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heason, D J; Spencer, A G

    2003-01-01

    Standard laser interferometry is used in dry etch fabrication of semiconductor and MEMS devices to measure etch depth, rate and to detect the process end point. However, many wafer materials, such as silicon are absorbing at probing wavelengths in the visible, severely limiting the amount of information that can be obtained using this technique. At infrared (IR) wavelengths around 1500 nm and above, silicon is highly transparent. In this paper we describe an instrument that can be used to monitor etch depth throughout a thru-wafer etch. The provision of this information could eliminate the requirement of an 'etch stop' layer and improve the performance of fabricated devices. We have added a further new capability by using tuneable lasers to scan through wavelengths in the near IR to generate an interference pattern. Fitting a theoretical curve to this interference pattern gives in situ measurement of film thickness. Whereas conventional interferometry would only allow etch depth to be monitored in real time, we can use a pre-etch thickness measurement to terminate the etch on a remaining thickness of film material. This paper discusses the capabilities of, and the opportunities offered by, this new technique and gives examples of applications in MEMS and waveguides

  17. End-Point Immobilization of Recombinant Thrombomodulin via Sortase-Mediated Ligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Weingart, Jacob; Zhang, Hailong; Ma, Yong; Sun, Xue-Long

    2012-01-01

    We report an enzymatic end-point modification and immobilization of recombinant human thrombomodulin (TM), a cofactor for activation of anticoagulant protein C pathway via thrombin. First, a truncated TM mutant consisting of epidermal growth factor-like domains 4–6 (TM456) with a conserved pentapeptide LPETG motif at its C-terminal was expressed and purified in E. coli. Next, the truncated TM456 derivative was site-specifically modified with N-terminal diglycine containing molecules such as biotin and the fluorescent probe dansyl via sortase A (SrtA) mediated ligation (SML). The successful ligations were confirmed by SDS-PAGE and fluorescence imaging. Finally, the truncated TM456 was immobilized onto N-terminal diglycine-functionalized glass slide surface via SML directly. Alternatively, the truncated TM456 was biotinylated via SML and then immobilized onto streptavidin-functionalized glass slide surface indirectly. The successful immobilizations were confirmed by fluorescence imaging. The bioactivity of the immobilized truncated TM456 was further confirmed by protein C activation assay, in which enhanced activation of protein C by immobilized recombinant TM was observed. The sortase A-catalyzed surface ligation took place under mild conditions and is rapid occurring in a single step without prior chemical modification of the target protein. This site-specific covalent modification leads to molecules being arranged in a definitively ordered fashion and facilitating the preservation of the protein’s biological activity. PMID:22372933

  18. Modified titrimetric determination of plutonium using photometric end-point detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baughman, W.J.; Dahlby, J.W.

    1980-04-01

    A method used at LASL for the accurate and precise assay of plutonium metal was modified for the measurement of plutonium in plutonium oxides, nitrate solutions, and in other samples containing large quantities of plutonium in oxidized states higher than +3. In this modified method, the plutonium oxide or other sample is dissolved using the sealed-reflux dissolution method or other appropriate methods. Weighed aliquots, containing approximately 100 mg of plutonium, of the dissolved sample or plutonium nitrate solution are fumed to dryness with an HC1O 4 -H 2 SO 4 mixture. The dried residue is dissolved in dilute H 2 SO 4 , and the plutonium is reduced to plutonium (III) with zinc metal. The excess zinc metal is dissolved with HCl, and the solution is passed through a lead reductor column to ensure complete reduction of the plutonium to plutonium (III). The solution, with added ferroin indicator, is then titrated immediately with standardized ceric solution to a photometric end point. For the analysis of plutonium metal solutions, plutonium oxides, and nitrate solutions, the relative standard deviation are 0.06, 0.08, and 0.14%, respectively. Of the elements most likely to be found with the plutonium, only iron, neptunium, and uranium interfere. Small amounts of uranium and iron, which titrate quantitatively in the method, are determined by separate analytical methods, and suitable corrections are applied to the plutonium value. 4 tables, 4 figures

  19. End-point detection in potentiometric titration by continuous wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Baś, Bogusław; Kubiak, Władysław W

    2009-10-15

    The aim of this work was construction of the new wavelet function and verification that a continuous wavelet transform with a specially defined dedicated mother wavelet is a useful tool for precise detection of end-point in a potentiometric titration. The proposed algorithm does not require any initial information about the nature or the type of analyte and/or the shape of the titration curve. The signal imperfection, as well as random noise or spikes has no influence on the operation of the procedure. The optimization of the new algorithm was done using simulated curves and next experimental data were considered. In the case of well-shaped and noise-free titration data, the proposed method gives the same accuracy and precision as commonly used algorithms. But, in the case of noisy or badly shaped curves, the presented approach works good (relative error mainly below 2% and coefficients of variability below 5%) while traditional procedures fail. Therefore, the proposed algorithm may be useful in interpretation of the experimental data and also in automation of the typical titration analysis, specially in the case when random noise interfere with analytical signal.

  20. CaFE: a tool for binding affinity prediction using end-point free energy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Hou, Tingjun

    2016-07-15

    Accurate prediction of binding free energy is of particular importance to computational biology and structure-based drug design. Among those methods for binding affinity predictions, the end-point approaches, such as MM/PBSA and LIE, have been widely used because they can achieve a good balance between prediction accuracy and computational cost. Here we present an easy-to-use pipeline tool named Calculation of Free Energy (CaFE) to conduct MM/PBSA and LIE calculations. Powered by the VMD and NAMD programs, CaFE is able to handle numerous static coordinate and molecular dynamics trajectory file formats generated by different molecular simulation packages and supports various force field parameters. CaFE source code and documentation are freely available under the GNU General Public License via GitHub at https://github.com/huiliucode/cafe_plugin It is a VMD plugin written in Tcl and the usage is platform-independent. tingjunhou@zju.edu.cn. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be one of the terminal end points of metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helvaci, M.R.; Aydin, L.Y.; Aydin, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We tried to understand presence of any effect of excess weight on respiratory system by means of excessive adipose tissue functioning as an endocrine organ and causing a Methodology: Mild (stage 1), moderate (stage 2), and severe (stage 3 and 4) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients were detected, and compared according to the metabolic parameters in between. Results: There were 145, 56, and 34 patients in the mild, moderate, and severe COPD groups, respectively. The mean age increased gradually (52.4, 56.4, and 60.0 years) from the mild towards the severe COPD groups, respectively (p<0.05 nearly in all steps). Similarly, the mean direction (p<0.05 nearly in all steps). Parallel to them, the mean body mass index increased Conclusion: The metabolic syndrome includes some reversible indicators such as overweight, hyperbetalipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and white coat hypertension for the development of terminal diseases including obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, peripheral artery disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke. In our opinion, COPD may be one of the terminal end points of the syndrome. (author)

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be one of the terminal end points of metabolic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helvaci, M R; Aydin, L Y; Aydin, Y

    2012-04-15

    Objective: We tried to understand presence of any effect of excess weight on respiratory system by means of excessive adipose tissue functioning as an endocrine organ and causing a Methodology: Mild (stage 1), moderate (stage 2), and severe (stage 3 and 4) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients were detected, and compared according to the metabolic parameters in between. Results: There were 145, 56, and 34 patients in the mild, moderate, and severe COPD groups, respectively. The mean age increased gradually (52.4, 56.4, and 60.0 years) from the mild towards the severe COPD groups, respectively (p<0.05 nearly in all steps). Similarly, the mean direction (p<0.05 nearly in all steps). Parallel to them, the mean body mass index increased Conclusion: The metabolic syndrome includes some reversible indicators such as overweight, hyperbetalipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and white coat hypertension for the development of terminal diseases including obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, peripheral artery disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke. In our opinion, COPD may be one of the terminal end points of the syndrome. (author)

  3. Development of requirements tracking and verification technology for the NPP software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chul Hwan; Kim, Jang Yeol; Lee, Jang Soo; Song, Soon Ja; Lee, Dong Young; Kwon, Kee Choon

    1998-12-30

    Searched and analyzed the technology of requirements engineering in the areas of aerospace and defense industry, medical industry and nuclear industry. Summarized the status of tools for the software design and requirements management. Analyzed the software design methodology for the safety software of NPP. Development of the design requirements for the requirements tracking and verification system. Development of the background technology to design the prototype tool for the requirements tracking and verification.

  4. Development of requirements tracking and verification technology for the NPP software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Chul Hwan; Kim, Jang Yeol; Lee, Jang Soo; Song, Soon Ja; Lee, Dong Young; Kwon, Kee Choon

    1998-01-01

    Searched and analyzed the technology of requirements engineering in the areas of aerospace and defense industry, medical industry and nuclear industry. Summarized the status of tools for the software design and requirements management. Analyzed the software design methodology for the safety software of NPP. Development of the design requirements for the requirements tracking and verification system. Development of the background technology to design the prototype tool for the requirements tracking and verification

  5. Swimming speed alteration of Artemia sp. and Brachionus plicatilis as a sub-lethal behavioural end-point for ecotoxicological surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaventa, Francesca; Gambardella, Chiara; Di Fino, Alessio; Pittore, Massimiliano; Faimali, Marco

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the possibility to improve a new behavioural bioassay (Swimming Speed Alteration test-SSA test) using larvae of marine cyst-forming organisms: e.g. the brine shrimp Artemia sp. and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. Swimming speed was investigated as a behavioural end-point for application in ecotoxicology studies. A first experiment to analyse the linear swimming speed of the two organisms was performed to verify the applicability of the video-camera tracking system, here referred to as Swimming Behavioural Recorder (SBR). A second experiment was performed, exposing organisms to different toxic compounds (zinc pyrithione, Macrotrol MT-200, and Eserine). Swimming speed alteration was analyzed together with mortality. The results of the first experiment indicate that SBR is a suitable tool to detect linear swimming speed of the two organisms, since the values have been obtained in accordance with other studies using the same organisms (3.05 mm s(-1) for Artemia sp. and 0.62 mm s(-1) for B. plicatilis). Toxicity test results clearly indicate that swimming speed of Artemia sp. and B. plicatilis is a valid behavioural end-point to detect stress at sub-lethal toxic substance concentrations. Indeed, alterations in swimming speed have been detected at toxic compound concentrations as low as less then 0.1-5% of their LC(50) values. In conclusion, the SSA test with B. plicatilis and Artemia sp. can be a good behavioural integrated output for application in marine ecotoxicology and environmental monitoring programs.

  6. Association between time to disease progression end points and overall survival in patients with neuroendocrine tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Simron Singh,1 Xufang Wang,2 Calvin HL Law1 1Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Center, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Novartis Oncology, Florham Park, NJ, USA Abstract: Overall survival can be difficult to determine for slowly progressing malignancies, such as neuroendocrine tumors. We investigated whether time to disease progression is positively associated with overall survival in patients with such tumors. A literature review identified 22 clinical trials in patients with neuroendocrine tumors that reported survival probabilities for both time to disease progression (progression-free survival and time to progression and overall survival. Associations between median time to disease progression and median overall survival and between treatment effects on time to disease progression and treatment effects on overall survival were analyzed using weighted least-squares regression. Median time to disease progression was significantly associated with median overall survival (coefficient 0.595; P=0.022. In the seven randomized studies identified, the risk reduction for time to disease progression was positively associated with the risk reduction for overall survival (coefficient on −ln[HR] 0.151; 95% confidence interval −0.843, 1.145; P=0.713. The significant association between median time to disease progression and median overall survival supports the assertion that time to disease progression is an alternative end point to overall survival in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. An apparent albeit not significant trend correlates treatment effects on time to disease progression and treatment effects on overall survival. Informal surveys of physicians’ perceptions are consistent with these concepts, although additional randomized trials are needed. Keywords: neuroendocrine tumors, progression-free survival, disease progression, mortality

  7. Centralized adjudication of cardiovascular end points in cardiovascular and noncardiovascular pharmacologic trials: a report from the Cardiac Safety Research Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Jonathan H; Turner, J Rick; Geiger, Mary Jane; Rosano, Giuseppe; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; White, William B; Sabol, Mary Beth; Stockbridge, Norman; Sager, Philip T

    2015-02-01

    This white paper provides a summary of presentations and discussions at a cardiovascular (CV) end point adjudication think tank cosponsored by the Cardiac Safety Research Committee and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that was convened at the FDA's White Oak headquarters on November 6, 2013. Attention was focused on the lack of clarity concerning the need for end point adjudication in both CV and non-CV trials: there is currently an absence of widely accepted academic or industry standards and a definitive regulatory policy on how best to structure and use clinical end point committees (CECs). This meeting therefore provided a forum for leaders in the fields of CV clinical trials and CV safety to develop a foundation of initial best practice recommendations for use in future CEC charters. Attendees included representatives from pharmaceutical companies, regulatory agencies, end point adjudication specialist groups, clinical research organizations, and active, academically based adjudicators. The manuscript presents recommendations from the think tank regarding when CV end point adjudication should be considered in trials conducted by cardiologists and by noncardiologists as well as detailing key issues in the composition of a CEC and its charter. In addition, it presents several recommended best practices for the establishment and operation of CECs. The science underlying CV event adjudication is evolving, and suggestions for additional areas of research will be needed to continue to advance this science. This manuscript does not constitute regulatory guidance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolution of Randomized Trials in Advanced/Metastatic Soft Tissue Sarcoma: End Point Selection, Surrogacy, and Quality of Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zer, Alona; Prince, Rebecca M; Amir, Eitan; Abdul Razak, Albiruni

    2016-05-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) have used varying end points. The surrogacy of intermediate end points, such as progression-free survival (PFS), response rate (RR), and 3-month and 6-month PFS (3moPFS and 6moPFS) with overall survival (OS), remains unknown. The quality of efficacy and toxicity reporting in these studies is also uncertain. A systematic review of systemic therapy RCTs in STS was performed. Surrogacy between intermediate end points and OS was explored using weighted linear regression for the hazard ratio for OS with the hazard ratio for PFS or the odds ratio for RR, 3moPFS, and 6moPFS. The quality of reporting for efficacy and toxicity was also evaluated. Fifty-two RCTs published between 1974 and 2014, comprising 9,762 patients, met the inclusion criteria. There were significant correlations between PFS and OS (R = 0.61) and between RR and OS (R = 0.51). Conversely, there were nonsignificant correlations between 3moPFS and 6moPFS with OS. A reduction in the use of RR as the primary end point was observed over time, favoring time-based events (P for trend = .02). In 14% of RCTs, the primary end point was not met, but the study was reported as being positive. Toxicity was comprehensively reported in 47% of RCTs, whereas 14% inadequately reported toxicity. In advanced STS, PFS and RR seem to be appropriate surrogates for OS. There is poor correlation between OS and both 3moPFS and 6moPFS. As such, caution is urged with the use of these as primary end points in randomized STS trials. The quality of toxicity reporting and interpretation of results is suboptimal. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  9. Modulation of cigarette smoke-related end-points in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Flora, Silvio; D'Agostini, Francesco; Balansky, Roumen; Camoirano, Anna; Bennicelli, Carlo; Bagnasco, Maria; Cartiglia, Cristina; Tampa, Elena; Longobardi, Maria Grazia; Lubet, Ronald A.; Izzotti, Alberto

    2003-01-01

    The epidemic of lung cancer and the increase of other tumours and chronic degenerative diseases associated with tobacco smoking have represented one of the most dramatic catastrophes of the 20th century. The control of this plague is one of the major challenges of preventive medicine for the next decades. The imperative goal is to refrain from smoking. However, chemoprevention by dietary and/or pharmacological agents provides a complementary strategy, which can be targeted not only to current smokers but also to former smokers and passive smokers. This article summarises the results of studies performed in our laboratories during the last 10 years, and provides new data generated in vitro, in experimental animals and in humans. We compared the ability of 63 putative chemopreventive agents to inhibit the bacterial mutagenicity of mainstream cigarette smoke. Modulation by ethanol and the mechanisms involved were also investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Several studies evaluated the effects of dietary chemopreventive agents towards smoke-related intermediate biomarkers in various cells, tissues and organs of rodents. The investigated end-points included metabolic parameters, adducts to haemoglobin, bulky adducts to nuclear DNA, oxidative DNA damage, adducts to mitochondrial DNA, apoptosis, cytogenetic damage in alveolar macrophages, bone marrow and peripheral blood erytrocytes, proliferation markers, and histopathological alterations. The agents tested in vivo included N-acetyl-L-cysteine, 1,2-dithiole-3-thione, oltipraz, phenethyl isothiocyanate, 5,6-benzoflavone, and sulindac. We started applying multigene expression analysis to chemoprevention research, and postulated that an optimal agent should not excessively alter per se the physiological background of gene expression but should be able to attenuate the alterations produced by cigarette smoke or other carcinogens. We are working to develop an animal model for the induction of lung tumours following exposure

  10. Radiometric titration of officinal radiopharmaceuticals using radioactive kryptonates as end-point indicators. I. Salicylic, acetylosalicylic, benzoic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toelgyessy, J; Dillinger, P [Slovenska Vysoka Skola Technicka, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Chemickotechnologicka Fakulta; Harangozo, M; Jombik, J [Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Farmaceuticka Fakulta

    1980-01-01

    A method for the determination of salicylic, acetylsalicylic and benzoic acids in officinal pharmaceutical based on radiometric titration with 0.1 mol.l/sup -1/ NaOH was developed. The end-point was detected with the aid of radioactive glass kryptonate. After the end-point, the excess titrant attacks the glass surface layers and this results in releasing /sup 85/Kr, and consequently, in decreasing the radioactivity of the kryptonate employed. The radioactive kryptonate used as an indicator was prepared by the bombardment of glass with accelerated /sup 85/Kr ions. The developed method is simple, accurate and correct.

  11. The straw tube technology for the LHCb outer tracking system

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, S; Bagaturia, I; Deppe, H; Eisele, F; Haas, T; Hajduk, L; Langenegger, U; Michalowski, J; Nawrot, A; Polok, G; Pellegrino, A; Schuijlenburg, H; Schwierz, R; Sluijk, T; Spelt, J

    2004-01-01

    For the outer tracking system of the LHCb spectrometer 53.760 straws of 2.5 m length will be used. They are arranged in detector modules of 5 m length and 0.34 m width. The envisaged spatial resolution over the entire active area is 200$mu$m resulting in stringent requirements on the accuracy for the module construction. In this paper we discuss the optimisation of the straws, design and construction of detector modules. The long term operation properties of straws in two different counting g...

  12. Academic Technology Transfer: Tracking, Measuring and Enhancing Its Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, John

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1980 passage of the US Bayh-Dole Act, academic technology transfer has gained profile globally as a key component of knowledge-driven economic development. Research universities are seen as key contributors. In this article, focusing on the USA and drawing on over twenty years of experience in the field of academic technology transfer in…

  13. A non-disruptive technology for robust 3D tool tracking for ultrasound-guided interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mung, Jay; Vignon, Francois; Jain, Ameet

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade ultrasound (US) has become the preferred modality for a number of interventional procedures, offering excellent soft tissue visualization. The main limitation however is limited visualization of surgical tools. A new method is proposed for robust 3D tracking and US image enhancement of surgical tools under US guidance. Small US sensors are mounted on existing surgical tools. As the imager emits acoustic energy, the electrical signal from the sensor is analyzed to reconstruct its 3D coordinates. These coordinates can then be used for 3D surgical navigation, similar to current day tracking systems. A system with real-time 3D tool tracking and image enhancement was implemented on a commercial ultrasound scanner and 3D probe. Extensive water tank experiments with a tracked 0.2mm sensor show robust performance in a wide range of imaging conditions and tool position/orientations. The 3D tracking accuracy was 0.36 +/- 0.16mm throughout the imaging volume of 55 degrees x 27 degrees x 150mm. Additionally, the tool was successfully tracked inside a beating heart phantom. This paper proposes an image enhancement and tool tracking technology with sub-mm accuracy for US-guided interventions. The technology is non-disruptive, both in terms of existing clinical workflow and commercial considerations, showing promise for large scale clinical impact.

  14. Applying dual-laser spot positions measurement technology on a two-dimensional tracking measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hau-Wei; Chen, Chieh-Li

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional tracking measurement system with a tracking module, which consists of two stepping motors, two laser diodes and a four separated active areas segmented position sensitive detector (PSD). The PSD was placed on a two-dimensional moving stage and used as a tracking target. The two laser diodes in the tracking module were directly rotated to keep the laser spots on the origin of the PSD. The two-dimensional position of the target PSD on the moving stage is determined from the distance between the two motors and the tracking angles of the two laser diodes, which are rotated by the two stepping motors, respectively. In order to separate the four positional values of the two laser spots on one PSD, the laser diodes were modulated by two distinct frequencies. Multiple-laser spot position measurement technology was used to separate the four positional values of the two laser spots on the PSD. The experimental results show that the steady-state voltage shift rate is about 0.2% and dynamic cross-talk rate is smaller than 2% when the two laser spots are projected on one PSD at the same time. The measurement errors of the x and y axial positions of the two-dimensional tracking system were less than 1% in the measuring range of 20 mm. The results demonstrate that multiple-laser spot position measurement technology can be employed in a two-dimensional tracking measurement system

  15. Route activity tracking and management using available technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Yousef Khoury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Small organizations that maintain their own fleet and make their own deliveries are responsible for ensuring their drivers are utilizing the most efficient routes while delivering products to their customers. Furthermore, efficient delivery requires that drivers spend as little time as possible dropping off and picking up products, since these activities are referred to as “non-value added activities,” although they are necessary tasks in the order cycle process. To aid in reducing order cycle times, large organizations that can afford it have employed transportation management systems. Unfortunately, small organizations with limited resources are less likely to adopt transportation management systems, despite the need for such automation. One solution is to use available productivity software to track and manage driver route activity in an effort to improve and maintain driver productivity by reducing non-value time and identifying optimal routes. This paper will outline how office productivity software such as Microsoft® Access can meet the needs of small organizations with limited resources by describing the development and use of a route activity database that employs an easy-to-use multi-user interface. This paper also includes the details of the underlying infrastructure and the user interface.

  16. Can eye-tracking technology improve situational awareness in paramedic clinical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Quested, Andrew; Cooper, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Human factors play a significant part in clinical error. Situational awareness (SA) means being aware of one's surroundings, comprehending the present situation, and being able to predict outcomes. It is a key human skill that, when properly applied, is associated with reducing medical error: eye-tracking technology can be used to provide an objective and qualitative measure of the initial perception component of SA. Feedback from eye-tracking technology can be used to improve the understanding and teaching of SA in clinical contexts, and consequently, has potential for reducing clinician error and the concomitant adverse events.

  17. Technology on the Move: Recent and Forthcoming Innovations for Tracking Migratory Birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bridge, Eli S.; Thorup, Kasper; Bowlin, Melissa S.

    2011-01-01

    networks, solar geolocation, radar, and information technology are improving our understanding of when and where birds go during their annual cycles and informing numerous scientific disciplines, including evolutionary biology, population ecology, and global change. The recent developments described......Basic questions about the life histories of migratory birds have confounded scientists for generations, yet we are nearing an era of historic discovery as new tracking technologies make it possible to determine the timing and routes of an increasing number of bird migrations. Tracking small flying...

  18. DEPTracker – Sleep Pattern Tracking with Accelerometer Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grode, Jesper Nicolai Riis; Havn, Ib; Svane Hansen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep pattern changes are known to be an early indicator of effective medical treatment of patients with a depression diagnosis. Existing methods to detect REM sleep pattern changes are known to be inaccurate, costly, or otherwise inadequate in normal settings...... of this patient group. In this paper, we demonstrate DEPTracker, a system capable of detecting sleep patterns, and in particular REM sleep. We show that DEPTracker is an accurate, cost-effective and suitable approach for sleep pattern detection in general. Details of the technology used, combining accelerometer...... technology with digital signal analysis is given and illustrates that the system is able to successfully detect REM sleep. The project demonstrates that accelerometers can be mounted on an eye lid and eye movements can be detected, sampled and stored in a database for online real-time analysis or post-sleep...

  19. Free-time and fixed end-point multi-target optimal control theory: Application to quantum computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, K.; Yamashita, K.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The two-state Deutsch-Jozsa algortihm used to demonstrate the utility of free-time and fixed-end point multi-target optimal control theory. Research highlights: → Free-time and fixed-end point multi-target optimal control theory (FRFP-MTOCT) was constructed. → The features of our theory include optimization of the external time-dependent perturbations with high transition probabilities, that of the temporal duration, the monotonic convergence, and the ability to optimize multiple-laser pulses simultaneously. → The advantage of the theory and a comparison with conventional fixed-time and fixed end-point multi-target optimal control theory (FIFP-MTOCT) are presented by comparing data calculated using the present theory with those published previously [K. Mishima, K. Yamashita, Chem. Phys. 361 (2009) 106]. → The qubit system of our interest consists of two polar NaCl molecules coupled by dipole-dipole interaction. → The calculation examples show that our theory is useful for minor adjustment of the external fields. - Abstract: An extension of free-time and fixed end-point optimal control theory (FRFP-OCT) to monotonically convergent free-time and fixed end-point multi-target optimal control theory (FRFP-MTOCT) is presented. The features of our theory include optimization of the external time-dependent perturbations with high transition probabilities, that of the temporal duration, the monotonic convergence, and the ability to optimize multiple-laser pulses simultaneously. The advantage of the theory and a comparison with conventional fixed-time and fixed end-point multi-target optimal control theory (FIFP-MTOCT) are presented by comparing data calculated using the present theory with those published previously [K. Mishima, K. Yamashita, Chem. Phys. 361, (2009), 106]. The qubit system of our interest consists of two polar NaCl molecules coupled by dipole-dipole interaction. The calculation examples show that our theory is useful for minor

  20. RFID technology for hazardous waste management and tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namen, Anderson Amendoeira; Brasil, Felipe da Costa; Abrunhosa, Jorge José Gouveia; Abrunhosa, Glaucia Gomes Silva; Tarré, Ricardo Martinez; Marques, Flávio José Garcia

    2014-09-01

    The illegal dumping of hazardous waste is one of the most concerning occurrences related to illegal waste activities. The waste management process is quite vulnerable, especially when it comes to assuring the right destination for the delivery of the hazardous waste. The purpose of this paper is to present a new system design and prototype for applying the RFID technology so as to guarantee the correct destination for the hazardous waste delivery. The aim of this innovative approach, compared with other studies that employ the same technology to the waste disposal process, is to focus on the certification that the hazardous waste will be delivered to the right destination site and that no inappropriate disposal will occur in the transportation stage. These studies were carried out based on data collected during visits to two hazardous waste producer companies in Brazil, where the material transportation and delivery to a company in charge of the waste disposal were closely monitored. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. New drugs and patient-centred end-points in old age: setting the wheels in motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangoni, Arduino A; Pilotto, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Older patients with various degrees of frailty and disability, a key population target of pharmacological interventions in acute and chronic disease states, are virtually neglected in pre-marketing studies assessing the efficacy and safety of investigational drugs. Moreover, aggressively pursuing established therapeutic targets in old age, e.g. blood pressure, serum glucose or cholesterol concentrations, is not necessarily associated with the beneficial effects, and the acceptable safety, reported in younger patient cohorts. Measures of self-reported health and functional status might represent additional, more meaningful, therapeutic end-points in the older population, particularly in patients with significant frailty and relatively short life expectancy, e.g. in the presence of cancer and/or neurodegenerative disease conditions. Strategies enhancing early knowledge about key pharmacological characteristics of investigational drugs targeting older adults are discussed, together with the rationale for incorporating non-traditional, patient-centred, end-points in this ever-increasing group.

  2. The effect of adherence to statin therapy on cardiovascular mortality: quantification of unmeasured bias using falsification end-points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten J. Bijlsma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the clinical effectiveness of statins on cardiovascular mortality in practice, observational studies are needed. Control for confounding is essential in any observational study. Falsification end-points may be useful to determine if bias is present after adjustment has taken place. Methods We followed starters on statin therapy in the Netherlands aged 46 to 100 years over the period 1996 to 2012, from initiation of statin therapy until cardiovascular mortality or censoring. Within this group (n = 49,688, up to 16 years of follow-up, we estimated the effect of adherence to statin therapy (0 = completely non-adherent, 1 = fully adherent on ischemic heart diseases and cerebrovascular disease (ICD10-codes I20-I25 and I60-I69 as well as respiratory and endocrine disease mortality (ICD10-codes J00-J99 and E00-E90 as falsification end points, controlling for demographic factors, socio-economic factors, birth cohort, adherence to other cardiovascular medications, and diabetes using time-varying Cox regression models. Results Falsification end-points indicated that a simpler model was less biased than a model with more controls. Adherence to statins appeared to be protective against cardiovascular mortality (HR: 0.70, 95 % CI 0.61 to 0.81. Conclusions Falsification end-points helped detect overadjustment bias or bias due to competing risks, and thereby proved to be a useful technique in such a complex setting.

  3. Tracking air and water: Technology drives oil patch environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budd, G.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentation used in monitoring air and water quality in the oilpatch is discussed. One of these instruments is the oscillating micro-balance, a tool that enables continuous real-time measurement of potentially harmful particulates from gas plants. Similarly, testing for hydrogen sulfides is also done electronically: gas passes by an ultra violet light chamber which uses a calibrated filter to measure wavelengths of light that are specific to hydrogen sulfide. Fourier Transfer Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), one of the recent technologies to hit the market, enables the identification of a range of gases with one instrument. It also permits measurement from a distance. Still other instruments involve sensors that are fitted with chemical chambers whose contents react with hydrogen sulfide to produce a micro-volt of electricity. Data from this is digitized, and a reading of hydrogen sulfide, measured in parts per million, is obtained from a laptop computer

  4. Solid State nuclear track detector - [Part] III : applications in science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, Nand

    1992-01-01

    The present article describes the applications of solid state nuclear track detection techniques in different branches of science (e.g. life sciences, nuclear physics, cosmic ray and solar physics, earth sciences, teaching laboratories) and technology with selected examples from voluminous literature available on the subject. (author). 28 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Enabling technologies for silicon microstrip tracking detectors at the HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.

    2016-04-01

    While the tracking detectors of the ATLAS and CMS experiments have shown excellent performance in Run 1 of LHC data taking, and are expected to continue to do so during LHC operation at design luminosity, both experiments will have to exchange their tracking systems when the LHC is upgraded to the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) around the year 2024. The new tracking systems need to operate in an environment in which both the hit densities and the radiation damage will be about an order of magnitude higher than today. In addition, the new trackers need to contribute to the first level trigger in order to maintain a high data-taking efficiency for the interesting processes. Novel detector technologies have to be developed to meet these very challenging goals. The German groups active in the upgrades of the ATLAS and CMS tracking systems have formed a collaborative ''Project on Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC'' (PETTL), which was supported by the Helmholtz Alliance ''Physics at the Terascale'' during the years 2013 and 2014. The aim of the project was to share experience and to work together on key areas of mutual interest during the R and D phase of these upgrades. The project concentrated on five areas, namely exchange of experience, radiation hardness of silicon sensors, low mass system design, automated precision assembly procedures, and irradiations. This report summarizes the main achievements.

  6. Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, C; Bloch, I.; Bögelspacher, F.; de Boer, W.; Daniels, M.; Dierlamm, A.; Eber, R.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Erfle, J.; Feld, L.; Garutti, E.; Gregor, I. -M.; Guthoff, M.; Hartmann, F.; Hauser, M.; Husemann, U.; Jakobs, K.; Junkes, A.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Kuehn, S.; Lacker, H.; Mahboubi, K.; Müller, Th.; Mussgiller, A.; Nürnberg, A.; Parzefall, U.; Poehlsen, T.; Poley, L.; Preuten, M.; Rehnisch, L.; Sammet, J.; Schleper, P.; Schuwalow, S.; Sperlich, D.; Stanitzki, M.; Steinbrück, G.; Wlochal, M.

    2016-01-01

    While the tracking detectors of the ATLAS and CMS experiments have shown excellent performance in Run 1 of LHC data taking, and are expected to continue to do so during LHC operation at design luminosity, both experiments will have to exchange their tracking systems when the LHC is upgraded to the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) around the year 2024. The new tracking systems need to operate in an environment in which both the hit densities and the radiation damage will be about an order of magnitude higher than today. In addition, the new trackers need to contribute to the first level trigger in order to maintain a high data-taking efficiency for the interesting processes. Novel detector technologies have to be developed to meet these very challenging goals. The German groups active in the upgrades of the ATLAS and CMS tracking systems have formed a collaborative "Project on Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC" (PETTL), which was supported by the Helmholtz Alliance "Phys...

  7. Enabling technologies for silicon microstrip tracking detectors at the HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Institut B; Collaboration: The PETTL Collaboration; and others

    2016-04-15

    While the tracking detectors of the ATLAS and CMS experiments have shown excellent performance in Run 1 of LHC data taking, and are expected to continue to do so during LHC operation at design luminosity, both experiments will have to exchange their tracking systems when the LHC is upgraded to the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) around the year 2024. The new tracking systems need to operate in an environment in which both the hit densities and the radiation damage will be about an order of magnitude higher than today. In addition, the new trackers need to contribute to the first level trigger in order to maintain a high data-taking efficiency for the interesting processes. Novel detector technologies have to be developed to meet these very challenging goals. The German groups active in the upgrades of the ATLAS and CMS tracking systems have formed a collaborative ''Project on Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC'' (PETTL), which was supported by the Helmholtz Alliance ''Physics at the Terascale'' during the years 2013 and 2014. The aim of the project was to share experience and to work together on key areas of mutual interest during the R and D phase of these upgrades. The project concentrated on five areas, namely exchange of experience, radiation hardness of silicon sensors, low mass system design, automated precision assembly procedures, and irradiations. This report summarizes the main achievements.

  8. Player-Tracking Technology: Half-Full or Half-Empty Glass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Simpson, Ben Michael

    2017-04-01

    With the ongoing development of microtechnology, player tracking has become one of the most important components of load monitoring in team sports. The 3 main objectives of player tracking are better understanding of practice (provide an objective, a posteriori evaluation of external load and locomotor demands of any given session or match), optimization of training-load patterns at the team level, and decision making on individual players' training programs to improve performance and prevent injuries (eg, top-up training vs unloading sequences, return to play progression). This paper discusses the basics of a simple tracking approach and the need to integrate multiple systems. The limitations of some of the most used variables in the field (including metabolic-power measures) are debated, and innovative and potentially new powerful variables are presented. The foundations of a successful player-monitoring system are probably laid on the pitch first, in the way practitioners collect their own tracking data, given the limitations of each variable, and how they report and use all this information, rather than in the technology and the variables per se. Overall, the decision to use any tracking technology or new variable should always be considered with a cost/benefit approach (ie, cost, ease of use, portability, manpower/ability to affect the training program).

  9. Technologies pioneered by LHC. Superconducting magnet and radiation-tolerant tracking detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akira; Unno, Yoshinobu

    2007-01-01

    In the LHC project of proton-proton collisions exploring the energy frontier, superconducting magnets and radiation-tolerant tracking detector play fundamental roles as key technologies. The superconducting magnets contribute to bending and focusing particle beam by using high magnetic field created with the NbTi superconductor cooled to the superfluid temperature of He (1.9 K). In order to overcome the unprecedented radiation damage and to capture the particles emerging with high energy and high density, the large area and highly radiation-tolerant silicon semiconductor tracking detector has been developed for the LHC experiment. (author)

  10. IMPLEMENTATION OF OBJECT TRACKING ALGORITHMS ON THE BASIS OF CUDA TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Zalesky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A fast version of correlation algorithm to track objects on video-sequences made by a nonstabilized camcorder is presented. The algorithm is based on comparison of local correlations of the object image and regions of video-frames. The algorithm is implemented in programming technology CUDA. Application of CUDA allowed to attain real time execution of the algorithm. To improve its precision and stability, a robust version of the Kalman filter has been incorporated into the flowchart. Tests showed applicability of the algorithm to practical object tracking.

  11. Impact of Mobile Dose-Tracking Technology on Medication Distribution at an Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelm, Matthew; Campbell, Udobi

    2016-05-01

    Medication dose-tracking technologies have the potential to improve efficiency and reduce costs associated with re-dispensing doses reported as missing. Data describing this technology and its impact on the medication use process are limited. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of dose-tracking technology on pharmacy workload and drug expense at an academic, acute care medical center. Dose-tracking technology was implemented in June 2014. Pre-implementation data were collected from February to April 2014. Post-implementation data were collected from July to September 2014. The primary endpoint was the percent of re-dispensed oral syringe and compounded sterile product (CSP) doses within the pre- and post-implementation periods per 1,000 discharges. Secondary endpoints included pharmaceutical expense generated from re-dispensing doses, labor costs, and staff satisfaction with the medication distribution process. We observed an average 6% decrease in re-dispensing of oral syringe and CSP doses from pre- to post-implementation (15,440 vs 14,547 doses; p = .047). However, when values were adjusted per 1,000 discharges, this trend did not reach statistical significance (p = .074). Pharmaceutical expense generated from re-dispensing doses was significantly reduced from pre- to post-implementation ($834,830 vs $746,466 [savings of $88,364]; p = .047). We estimated that $2,563 worth of technician labor was avoided in re-dispensing missing doses. We also saw significant improvement in staff perception of technology assisting in reducing missing doses (p = .0003), as well as improvement in effectiveness of resolving or minimizing missing doses (p = .01). The use of mobile dose-tracking technology demonstrated meaningful reductions in both the number of doses re-dispensed and cost of pharmaceuticals dispensed.

  12. A Radar-Enabled Collaborative Sensor Network Integrating COTS Technology for Surveillance and Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Murat Demirer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS sensor nodes is studied in a distributed network, aiming at dynamic surveillance and tracking of ground targets. Data acquisition by low-cost ( < $50 US miniature low-power radar through a wireless mote is described. We demonstrate the detection, ranging and velocity estimation, classification and tracking capabilities of the mini-radar, and compare results to simulations and manual measurements. Furthermore, we supplement the radar output with other sensor modalities, such as acoustic and vibration sensors. This method provides innovative solutions for detecting, identifying, and tracking vehicles and dismounts over a wide area in noisy conditions. This study presents a step towards distributed intelligent decision support and demonstrates effectiveness of small cheap sensors, which can complement advanced technologies in certain real-life scenarios.

  13. A radar-enabled collaborative sensor network integrating COTS technology for surveillance and tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Robert; Wang, Lan; Iftekharuddin, Khan; McCracken, Ernest; Khan, Muhammad; Islam, Khandakar; Bhurtel, Sushil R; Demirer, R Murat

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) sensor nodes is studied in a distributed network, aiming at dynamic surveillance and tracking of ground targets. Data acquisition by low-cost (wireless mote is described. We demonstrate the detection, ranging and velocity estimation, classification and tracking capabilities of the mini-radar, and compare results to simulations and manual measurements. Furthermore, we supplement the radar output with other sensor modalities, such as acoustic and vibration sensors. This method provides innovative solutions for detecting, identifying, and tracking vehicles and dismounts over a wide area in noisy conditions. This study presents a step towards distributed intelligent decision support and demonstrates effectiveness of small cheap sensors, which can complement advanced technologies in certain real-life scenarios.

  14. The use of a radioactive tracer for the determination of distillation end point in a coke oven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgio, N.; Capannesi, G.; Ciavola, C.; Sedda, F.

    1995-01-01

    A novel high precision detection method for the determination of the distillation end point of the coking process (usually in the 950 deg C range) has been developed. The system is based on the use of a metallic capsule that melts at a fixed temperature and releases a radioactive gas tracer ( 133 Xe) in the stream of the distillation gas. A series of tests on a pilot oven confirmed the feasibility of the method on industrial scale. Application of the radioactive tracer method to the staging and monitoring in the coking process appears to be possible. (author). 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Removal of oxides from alkali metal melts by reductive titration to electrical resistance-change end points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Floris Y.

    1980-01-01

    Alkali metal oxides dissolved in alkali metal melts are reduced with soluble metals which are converted to insoluble oxides. The end points of the reduction is detected as an increase in electrical resistance across an alkali metal ion-conductive membrane interposed between the oxide-containing melt and a material capable of accepting the alkali metal ions from the membrane when a difference in electrical potential, of the appropriate polarity, is established across it. The resistance increase results from blocking of the membrane face by ions of the excess reductant metal, to which the membrane is essentially non-conductive.

  16. Development of system technology for radiation cancer therapy with the dexterous auto lesions tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seungho; Jeong, Kyungmin; Jung, Seungho; Lee, Namho

    2013-01-01

    The project objectives are to establish the fundamental core technologies for precise auto lesions tracking radiation cancer therapy and developing related system technology as well. Radiation cancer therapy apparatus should be domestically produced to reduce medical expenses, hence advanced technologies are suggested and developed to make cost down medical expenses and save expenditure for importing 10 million dollars/set from overseas. To achieve these targets, we have carried out reviewing of domestic and foreign technology trend. Based on review of state-of-the-art technology, radiation sensory system is studied. 3m high precise image processing technique and intelligent therapy planning software are developed. Also precedent study on the redundant robot for dexterous motion control system has been performed for developing of radiation cancel therapy robot system

  17. GFR Decline as an Alternative End Point to Kidney Failure in Clinical Trials : A Meta-analysis of Treatment Effects From 37 Randomized Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inker, Lesley A.; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Mondal, Hasi; Schmid, Christopher H.; Tighiouart, Hocine; Noubary, Farzad; Coresh, Josef; Greene, Tom; Levey, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is increased interest in using alternative end points for trials of kidney disease progression. The currently established end points of end-stage renal disease and doubling of serum creatinine level, equivalent to a 57% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), are

  18. Using eye tracking technology to compare the effectiveness of malignant hyperthermia cognitive aid design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Roderick; Hanhan, Jaber; Harrison, T Kyle; Kou, Alex; Howard, Steven K; Borg, Lindsay K; Shum, Cynthia; Udani, Ankeet D; Mariano, Edward R

    2018-05-15

    Malignant hyperthermia is a rare but potentially fatal complication of anesthesia, and several different cognitive aids designed to facilitate a timely and accurate response to this crisis currently exist. Eye tracking technology can measure voluntary and involuntary eye movements, gaze fixation within an area of interest, and speed of visual response and has been used to a limited extent in anesthesiology. With eye tracking technology, we compared the accessibility of five malignant hyperthermia cognitive aids by collecting gaze data from twelve volunteer participants. Recordings were reviewed and annotated to measure the time required for participants to locate objects on the cognitive aid to provide an answer; cumulative time to answer was the primary outcome. For the primary outcome, there were differences detected between cumulative time to answer survival curves (P typescript with minimal use of single color blocking.

  19. [Echo-tracking technology for evaluating femoral artery endothelial function in patients with Grave's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Jingyuan; Zhao, Qiaoling; Yang, Jinru

    2012-10-01

    To assess the value of echo-tracking technology in evaluating endothelial function of the femoral artery in patients with Grave's disease. Thirty-four patients with Grave's disease patients and 30 normal adults as controls were recruited in this study. The intima-media thickness (IMT), arterial stiffness (β), pressure strain elastic modulus (Ep), arterial compliance (AC), pulse wave conducting velocity (PWVβ) and augmentation index (AI) parameters were examined using echo-tracking technology for evaluating the right femoral arterial elasticity. Compared with the control subjects, the patients with Grave's disease showed significantly increased β, Ep, and PWVβ and significantly decreased AC (P0.05). In patients with Grave's disease, β and Ep were positively correlated with FT3, FT4, TT3, TT4, and PWVβ was positively correlated with FT3 and FT4. Echo-tracking technology can provide more accurate quantitative evidences for early diagnosis of femoral artery endothelial dysfunction in patients with Grave's disease, but the influence of procedural factors on the measurement accuracy should be considered in the evaluation.

  20. Calorie counting and fitness tracking technology: Associations with eating disorder symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Courtney C; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2017-08-01

    The use of online calorie tracking applications and activity monitors is increasing exponentially. Anecdotal reports document the potential for these trackers to trigger, maintain, or exacerbate eating disorder symptomatology. Yet, research has not examined the relation between use of these devices and eating disorder-related attitudes and behaviors. This study explored associations between the use of calorie counting and fitness tracking devices and eating disorder symptomatology. Participants (N=493) were college students who reported their use of tracking technology and completed measures of eating disorder symptomatology. Individuals who reported using calorie trackers manifested higher levels of eating concern and dietary restraint, controlling for BMI. Additionally, fitness tracking was uniquely associated with ED symptomatology after adjusting for gender and bingeing and purging behavior within the past month. Findings highlight associations between use of calorie and fitness trackers and eating disorder symptomatology. Although preliminary, overall results suggest that for some individuals, these devices might do more harm than good. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. End points of planar reaching movements are disrupted by small force pulses: an evaluation of the hypothesis of equifinality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, F C; Rymer, W Z

    2000-11-01

    A single force pulse was applied unexpectedly to the arms of five normal human subjects during nonvisually guided planar reaching movements of 10-cm amplitude. The pulse was applied by a powered manipulandum in a direction perpendicular to the motion of the hand, which gripped the manipulandum via a handle at the beginning, at the middle, or toward the end the movement. It was small and brief (10 N, 10 ms), so that it was barely perceptible. We found that the end points of the perturbed motions were systematically different from those of the unperturbed movements. This difference, dubbed "terminal error," averaged 14.4 +/- 9.8% (mean +/- SD) of the movement distance. The terminal error was not necessarily in the direction of the perturbation, although it was affected by it, and it did not decrease significantly with practice. For example, while perturbations involving elbow extension resulted in a statistically significant shift in mean end-point and target-acquisition frequency, the flexion perturbations were not clearly affected. We argue that this error distribution is inconsistent with the "equilibrium point hypothesis" (EPH), which predicts minimal terminal error is determined primarily by the variance in the command signal itself, a property referred to as "equifinality." This property reputedly derives from the "spring-like" properties of muscle and is enhanced by reflexes. To ensure that terminal errors were not due to mid-course voluntary corrections, we only accepted trials in which the final position was already established before such a voluntary response to the perturbation could have begun, that is, in a time interval shorter than the minimum reaction time (RT) for that subject. This RT was estimated for each subject in supplementary experiments in which the subject was instructed to move to a new target if perturbed and to the old target if no perturbation was detected. These RT movements were found to either stop or slow greatly at the original

  2. Measuring advertising effectiveness in Travel 2.0 websites through eye-tracking technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leiva, Francisco; Hernández-Méndez, Janet; Gómez-Carmona, Diego

    2018-03-06

    The advent of Web 2.0 is changing tourists' behaviors, prompting them to take on a more active role in preparing their travel plans. It is also leading tourism companies to have to adapt their marketing strategies to different online social media. The present study analyzes advertising effectiveness in social media in terms of customers' visual attention and self-reported memory (recall). Data were collected through a within-subjects and between-groups design based on eye-tracking technology, followed by a self-administered questionnaire. Participants were instructed to visit three Travel 2.0 websites (T2W), including a hotel's blog, social network profile (Facebook), and virtual community profile (Tripadvisor). Overall, the results revealed greater advertising effectiveness in the case of the hotel social network; and visual attention measures based on eye-tracking data differed from measures of self-reported recall. Visual attention to the ad banner was paid at a low level of awareness, which explains why the associations with the ad did not activate its subsequent recall. The paper offers a pioneering attempt in the application of eye-tracking technology, and examines the possible impact of visual marketing stimuli on user T2W-related behavior. The practical implications identified in this research, along with its limitations and future research opportunities, are of interest both for further theoretical development and practical application. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An application of the 'end-point' method to the minimum critical mass problem in two group transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.

    2003-01-01

    A two group integral equation derived using transport theory, which describes the fuel distribution necessary for a flat thermal flux and minimum critical mass, is solved by the classical end-point method. This method has a number of advantages and in particular highlights the changing behaviour of the fissile mass distribution function in the neighbourhood of the core-reflector interface. We also show how the reflector thermal flux behaves and explain the origin of the maximum which arises when the critical size is less than that corresponding to minimum critical mass. A comparison is made with diffusion theory and the necessary and somewhat artificial presence of surface delta functions in the fuel distribution is shown to be analogous to the edge transients that arise naturally in transport theory

  4. The upgrade of the multiwire drift chamber readout of the HADES experiment at GSI: the optical end point board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarantola, Attilio; Michel, Jan; Muentz, Christian; Stroth, Joachim [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Froehlich, Ingo; Stroebele, Herbert [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Kolb, Burkhard; Traxler, Michael [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Palka, Marek [Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland); GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Wuestenfeld, Joern [Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, Forschungszentrum, Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    One of the goal of the HADES upgrade project is the realization of a new data acquisition scheme for the 24 Multiwire Drift Chambers (MDCs), which allows to increase the readout speed of the 40.000 TDC channels. On the existing MDC Front End Electronic (FEE) side an Optical End Point Board (OEPB) has been designed to control configuration and readout of the chamber's TDCs. The OEPB uses Plastic Optical Fibres (POF) for data transmission, which results in total electromagnetic immunity, amazing simplicity in handling and low power consumption. The employment of a Lattice ECP2/M FPGA with SERDES manages serial data transmission and its large resources allow for the storage of several events close-to-front-end. As 400 OEPBs will be located in the detector acceptance, dedicated FPGA hardware is used to detect Single Event Upsets (SEUs).

  5. Some thoughts on the nature of chromosomal aberrations and their use as a quantitative end-point for radiobiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, J.R.K.

    1978-01-01

    A vital condition when chromosomal aberrations are to be used as a quantitative end-point (e.g. for constructing a dose response curve) is that a specific dose must produce a specific yield of aberrations under a given set of experimental conditions. In practice, there are very few cell systems where this condition is met. The majority show significant variations in observed yield with time between irradiation and sampling, indicative of variable radiosensitivity within the cell population. The profile of this yield time curve is determined by the cell-cycle kinetics and therefore is itself subject to modification by radiation through mitotic delay and perturbation. Thus in such heterogeneous populations, each increment of dose not only induces more aberrations, but at the same time modifies the recovered yield per cell. This has an obvious bearing upon the interpretation of the shape of any dose-response curve obtained

  6. Evaluation of Short-Term Changes in Serum Creatinine Level as a Meaningful End Point in Randomized Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca, Steven G; Zabetian, Azadeh; Ferket, Bart S; Zhou, Jing; Testani, Jeffrey M; Garg, Amit X; Parikh, Chirag R

    2016-08-01

    Observational studies have shown that acute change in kidney function (specifically, AKI) is a strong risk factor for poor outcomes. Thus, the outcome of acute change in serum creatinine level, regardless of underlying biology or etiology, is frequently used in clinical trials as both efficacy and safety end points. We performed a meta-analysis of clinical trials to quantify the relationship between positive or negative short-term effects of interventions on change in serum creatinine level and more meaningful clinical outcomes. After a thorough literature search, we included 14 randomized trials of interventions that altered risk for an acute increase in serum creatinine level and had reported between-group differences in CKD and/or mortality rate ≥3 months after randomization. Seven trials assessed interventions that, compared with placebo, increased risk of acute elevation in serum creatinine level (pooled relative risk, 1.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.22 to 1.89), and seven trials assessed interventions that, compared with placebo, reduced risk of acute elevation in serum creatinine level (pooled relative risk, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.44 to 0.74). However, pooled risks for CKD and mortality associated with interventions did not differ from those with placebo in either group. In conclusion, several interventions that affect risk of acute, mild to moderate, often temporary elevation in serum creatinine level in placebo-controlled randomized trials showed no appreciable effect on CKD or mortality months later, raising questions about the value of using small to moderate changes in serum creatinine level as end points in clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  7. Predicting the outcome of oral food challenges with hen's egg through skin test end-point titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, S; Businco, A Di Rienzo; Alessandri, C; Panetta, V; Restani, P; Matricardi, P M

    2009-08-01

    Oral food challenge (OFC) is the diagnostic 'gold standard' of food allergies but it is laborious and time consuming. Attempts to predict a positive OFC through specific IgE assays or conventional skin tests so far gave suboptimal results. To test whether skin test with titration curves predict with enough confidence the outcome of an oral food challenge. Children (n=47; mean age 6.2 +/- 4.2 years) with suspected and diagnosed allergic reactions to hen's egg (HE) were examined through clinical history, physical examination, oral food challenge, conventional and end-point titrated skin tests with HE white extract and determination of serum specific IgE against HE white. Predictive decision points for a positive outcome of food challenges were calculated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for HE white using IgE concentration, weal size and end-point titration (EPT). OFC was positive (Sampson's score >or=3) in 20/47 children (42.5%). The area under the ROC curve obtained with the EPT method was significantly bigger than the one obtained by measuring IgE-specific antibodies (0.99 vs. 0.83, P<0.05) and weal size (0.99 vs. 0.88, P<0.05). The extract's dilution that successfully discriminated a positive from a negative OFC (sensitivity 95%, specificity 100%) was 1 : 256, corresponding to a concentration of 5.9 microg/mL of ovotransferrin, 22.2 microg/mL of ovalbumin, and 1.4 microg/mL of lysozyme. EPT is a promising approach to optimize the use of skin prick tests and to predict the outcome of OFC with HE in children. Further studies are needed to test whether this encouraging finding can be extended to other populations and food allergens.

  8. The Prestressed Track Beam Testing Technology of Shanghai Electromagnetic Levitation Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-biao WANG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Shanghai electromagnetic levitation train (maglev is the first one that is constructed and operated commercially in the world. Many technological problems have to be tackled during its construction, and the most difficult problem in the civil engineering part is the making of prestressed track beam. It requires high precision because of its special function. The stretching control of the pre-tensioning force and the post-tensioning force in the making of prestressed track beam is most important during the construction. This paper introduces and analyses the technical features of vibrating wire sensors as well as the development, the research and the application of force sensor for pulling force measurement of anchor cable.

  9. The end point of the first-order phase transition of the SU(2) gauge-Higgs model on a four-dimensional isotropic lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Y.; Csikor, F.; Fodor, Z.; Ukawa, A.

    1999-01-01

    We report results of a study of the end point of the electroweak phase transition of the SU(2) gauge-Higgs model defined on a four-dimensional isotropic lattice with N t = 2. Finite-size scaling study of Lee-Yang zeros yields λ c = 0.00116(16) for the end point. Combined with a zero-temperature measurement of Higgs and W boson masses, this leads to M H,c = 68.2 ± 6.6 GeV for the critical Higgs boson mass. An independent analysis of Binder cumulant gives a consistent value λ c = 0.00102(3) for the end point

  10. Satellite tracking of radioactive shipments - High technology solution to tough institutional problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, L.H.; Grimm, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Three troublesome institutional issues face every large-quantity radioactive materials shipment. They are routing, pre-notification, and emergency response. The Transportation Communications System (TRANSCOM), under development by DOE, is based on a rapidly developing technology to determine geographical location using geo-positioning satellite systems. This technology will be used to track unclassified radioactive materials shipments in real-time. It puts those charged with monitoring transportation status on top of very shipment. Besides its practical benefits in the areas of logistics planning and execution, it demonstrates emergency preparedness has indeed been considered and close monitoring is possible. This paper describes TRANSCOM in its technical detail and DOE plans and policy for its implementation. The state of satellite positioning technology and its business future is also discussed

  11. Detection of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic subjects using ultrasound radiofrequency-tracking technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Niu

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic and systemic disease and its developmental process involves the synergism of multiple risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity and smoking. The diagnosis of subclinical atherosclerosis is essential for strategic guidance towards suitable treatments and efficient prevention against acute cardiovascular events. This study employed ultrasound radiofrequency (RF tracking technology to characterize human carotid arteries in vivo in terms of intima-media thickness (IMT and artery stiffness, and evaluated the statistical correlation between carotid IMT and stiffness, and the number of risk factors for atherosclerosis.A total of 160 asymptomatic subjects were enrolled. Ultrasound RF-tracking technology was employed to acquire carotid IMT and stiffness parameters: maximum IMT ((MAXIMT, RF Quality IMT ((RFQIMT, distensibility coefficient (DC, compliance coefficient (CC, αindex, β index and local pulse wave velocity (PWVβ. The subjects were categorized in four groups in terms of the number of risk factors: 'zero', 'single', 'double', and 'multiple', and statistical analyses of carotid IMT and stiffness parameters were performed between these different groups.The subjects (n = 145 with (MAXIMT smaller than 1.0 mm matched the IMT criteria for non-atherosclerosis and were named as NA-subjects. Spearman's rho correlation analysis of the whole group and the NA-subjects both showed that (MAXIMT correlated positively with (RFQIMT, α, β, and PWVβ, and negatively with DC and CC (p<0.01. The analysis of covariance of NA-subjects showed significant differences between subjects with and without risk factors, and also showed significant differences between the 'zero', 'single', 'double', and 'multiple' groups.The carotid IMT and stiffness parameters obtained by the ultrasound RF-tracking technology were demonstrated to possess significant statistical correlation with the number of risk factors from 160

  12. Next Generation Waste Tracking: Linking Legacy Systems with Modern Networking Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Randy M.; Resseguie, David R.; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Gorman, Bryan L.; Smith, Cyrus M.; Hill, David E.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes results from a preliminary analysis to satisfy the Department of Energy (DOE) objective to ensure the safe, secure, efficient packaging and transportation of materials both hazardous and non hazardous (1, 2). The DOE Office of Environmental Management (OEM) through Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has embarked on a project to further this objective. OEM and ORNL have agreed to develop, demonstrate and make available modern day cost effective technologies for characterization, identification, tracking, monitoring and disposal of radioactive waste when transported by, or between, motor, air, rail, and water modes. During the past 8 years ORNL has investigated and deployed Web 2.0 compliant sensors into the transportation segment of the supply chain. ORNL has recently demonstrated operational experience with DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) and others in national test beds and applications within this domain of the supply chain. Furthermore, in addition to DOE, these hazardous materials supply chain partners included Federal and State enforcement agencies, international ports, and commercial sector shipping operations in a hazardous/radioactive materials tracking and monitoring program called IntelligentFreight. IntelligentFreight is an ORNL initiative encompassing 5 years of research effort associated with the supply chain. The ongoing ORNL SmartFreight programs include RadSTraM (3), GRadSTraM, Trusted Corridors, SensorPedia (4), SensorNet, Southeastern Transportation Corridor Pilot (SETCP) and Trade Data Exchange (5). The integration of multiple technologies aimed at safer more secure conveyance has been investigated with the core research question being focused on testing distinctly different distributed supply chain information sharing systems. ORNL with support from ORO have demonstrated capabilities when transporting Environmental Management (EM) waste materials for disposal over an onsite haul road. ORNL has unified the operations

  13. Feasibility of popular m-health technologies for activity tracking among individuals with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, John A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Barre, Laura K; Bartels, Stephen J

    2015-03-01

    Obesity prevalence is nearly double among individuals with serious mental illness (SMI), including schizophrenia spectrum disorders, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder, compared with the general population. Emerging mobile health (m-health) technologies are increasingly available and offer the potential to support lifestyle interventions targeting weight loss, yet the practical feasibility of using these technologies in this high-risk group has not been established. We evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of popular m-health technologies for activity tracking among overweight and obese individuals with SMI. We provided wearable activity monitoring devices (FitBit [San Francisco, CA] Zip™ or Nike Inc. [Beaverton, OR] FuelBand) and smartphones (Apple [Cupertino, CA] iPhone(®) 4S) for accessing the smartphone application for each device to participants with SMI enrolled in a weight loss program. Feasibility of these devices was measured by the frequency of use over time. Acceptability was measured through qualitative follow-up interviews with participants. Ten participants with SMI wore the devices for a mean of 89% (standard deviation=13%) of the days in the study. Five participants wore the devices 100% of the time. Participants reported high satisfaction, stating the devices were easy to use, helpful for setting goals, motivational, and useful for self-monitoring. Several participants liked the social connectivity feature of the devices where they could see each other's progress on the smartphone application, noting that "friendly" competition increased motivation to be more physically active. This study supports using popular m-health technologies for activity tracking among individuals with SMI. These findings can inform the design of weight loss interventions targeting this vulnerable patient population.

  14. Comparison between amperometric and true potentiometric end-point detection in the determination of water by the Karl Fischer method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedergren, A

    1974-06-01

    A rapid and sensitive method using true potentiometric end-point detection has been developed and compared with the conventional amperometric method for Karl Fischer determination of water. The effect of the sulphur dioxide concentration on the shape of the titration curve is shown. By using kinetic data it was possible to calculate the course of titrations and make comparisons with those found experimentally. The results prove that the main reaction is the slow step, both in the amperometric and the potentiometric method. Results obtained in the standardization of the Karl Fischer reagent showed that the potentiometric method, including titration to a preselected potential, gave a standard deviation of 0.001(1) mg of water per ml, the amperometric method using extrapolation 0.002(4) mg of water per ml and the amperometric titration to a pre-selected diffusion current 0.004(7) mg of water per ml. Theories and results dealing with dilution effects are presented. The time of analysis was 1-1.5 min for the potentiometric and 4-5 min for the amperometric method using extrapolation.

  15. End-point effector stress mediators in neuroimmune interactions: their role in immune system homeostasis and autoimmune pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Mirjana; Stanojevic, Stanislava; Kustrimovic, Natasa; Leposavic, Gordana

    2012-04-01

    Much evidence has identified a direct anatomical and functional link between the brain and the immune system, with glucocorticoids (GCs), catecholamines (CAs), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) as its end-point mediators. This suggests the important role of these mediators in immune system homeostasis and the pathogenesis of inflammatory autoimmune diseases. However, although it is clear that these mediators can modulate lymphocyte maturation and the activity of distinct immune cell types, their putative role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease is not yet completely understood. We have contributed to this field by discovering the influence of CAs and GCs on fine-tuning thymocyte negative selection and, in particular, by pointing to the putative CA-mediated mechanisms underlying this influence. Furthermore, we have shown that CAs are implicated in the regulation of regulatory T-cell development in the thymus. Moreover, our investigations related to macrophage biology emphasize the complex interaction between GCs, CAs and NPY in the modulation of macrophage functions and their putative significance for the pathogenesis of autoimmune inflammatory diseases.

  16. Angiographic core laboratory reproducibility analyses: implications for planning clinical trials using coronary angiography and left ventriculography end-points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigen, Terje K; Claudio, Cheryl; Abbott, David; Schulzer, Michael; Burton, Jeff; Tymchak, Wayne; Buller, Christopher E; John Mancini, G B

    2008-06-01

    To assess reproducibility of core laboratory performance and impact on sample size calculations. Little information exists about overall reproducibility of core laboratories in contradistinction to performance of individual technicians. Also, qualitative parameters are being adjudicated increasingly as either primary or secondary end-points. The comparative impact of using diverse indexes on sample sizes has not been previously reported. We compared initial and repeat assessments of five quantitative parameters [e.g., minimum lumen diameter (MLD), ejection fraction (EF), etc.] and six qualitative parameters [e.g., TIMI myocardial perfusion grade (TMPG) or thrombus grade (TTG), etc.], as performed by differing technicians and separated by a year or more. Sample sizes were calculated from these results. TMPG and TTG were also adjudicated by a second core laboratory. MLD and EF were the most reproducible, yielding the smallest sample size calculations, whereas percent diameter stenosis and centerline wall motion require substantially larger trials. Of the qualitative parameters, all except TIMI flow grade gave reproducibility characteristics yielding sample sizes of many 100's of patients. Reproducibility of TMPG and TTG was only moderately good both within and between core laboratories, underscoring an intrinsic difficulty in assessing these. Core laboratories can be shown to provide reproducibility performance that is comparable to performance commonly ascribed to individual technicians. The differences in reproducibility yield huge differences in sample size when comparing quantitative and qualitative parameters. TMPG and TTG are intrinsically difficult to assess and conclusions based on these parameters should arise only from very large trials.

  17. Tracking the Mind's Eye: A New Technology for Researching Twenty-First-Century Writing and Reading Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Chris M.; Schwegler, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the nature of eye-tracking technology and its use in the study of discourse processes, particularly reading. It then suggests several areas of research in composition studies, especially at the intersection of writing, reading, and digital media, that can benefit from the use of this technology. (Contains 2 figures.)

  18. A Heritage Tourism and Tourist Flow Pattern: A Perspective on Traditional versus Modern Technologies in Tracking the Tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Akmal Mohamad Toha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Historic city offers tourists a mixture of cultural heritage and leisure activities in a unique set-ting. However, there are limited research addressing the movement and behavior of tourists in tourism destination that leads the understanding of urban function towards "heterogeneity" and "multi functionality". In order to maintain and ensuring long-term success as an attractive des-tination for tourists, tourist’s movement and behavior is most likely an important element to be fully understood by decision maker. Hence, the method of tracking tourist is one of the im-portant aspects in providing better picture, especially in the context of obtaining accurate data on the tourist’s movement. Hence, the studies were designed to determine the potential worth of the various tracking technologies for research on tourist movement in Melaka historic cities. The discussion in this paper focusing on 6 traditional and 5 modern methods of tracking tourists movement. Accuracy, availability, location of the study area, costs, privacy of travelling, dura-tion of tracking and suitability in tracking daily movement are used as variables to identify which tracking method is the best to track tourists in heritage site. Existing literature indicates that application of GPS in a smart phone emerges as the best option method for tracking tour-ists in Melaka heritage site. By comparing methods of tracking tourists, it may assist researcher to choose the best option of method to obtain accurate and precise data about tourist move-ment. Thus, the study offered a systematic review of several tracking technologies in which potentially able to push the boundaries of tourism studies, as well as improving policy making, planning and management in tourism area.

  19. MotorSense: Using Motion Tracking Technology to Support the Identification and Treatment of Gross-Motor Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedillo-Sánchez, Inmaculada; Boyle, Bryan; Bossavit, Benoît

    2017-01-01

    MotorSense is a motion detection and tracking technology that can be implemented across a range of environments to assist in detecting delays in gross-motor skills development. The system utilises the motion tracking functionality of Microsoft's Kinect™. It features games that require children to perform graded gross-motor tasks matched with their chronological and developmental ages. This paper describes the rationale for MotorSense, provides an overview of the functionality of the system and illustrates sample activities.

  20. Constraints on grip selection in hemiparetic cerebral palsy: effects of lesional side, end-point accuracy, and context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbergen, Bert; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J; Rosenbaum, David A

    2004-04-01

    This study was concerned with selection criteria used for grip planning in adolescents with left or right hemiparetic cerebral palsy. In the first experiment, we asked participants to pick up a pencil and place the tip in a pre-defined target region. We varied the size of the target to test the hypothesis that increased end-point precision demands would favour the use of a grip that affords end-state comfort. In the second experiment, we studied grip planning in three task contexts that were chosen to let us test the hypothesis that a more functional task context would likewise promote the end-state comfort effect. When movements were performed with the impaired hand, we found that participants with right hemiparesis (i.e., left brain damage) aimed for postural comfort at the start rather than at the end of the object-manipulation phase in both experiments. By contrast, participants with left hemiparesis (i.e., right brain damage) did not favour a particular selection criterion with the impaired hand in the first experiment, but aimed for postural comfort at the start in the second experiment. When movements were performed with the unimpaired hand, grip selection criteria again differed for right and left hemiparetic participants. Participants with right hemiparesis did not favour a particular selection criterion with the unimpaired hand in the first experiment and only showed the end-state comfort effect in the most functional tasks of the second experiment. By contrast, participants with left hemiparesis showed the end-state comfort effect in all conditions of both experiments. These data suggest that the left hemisphere plays a special role in action planning, as has been recognized before, and that one of the deficits accompanying left brain damage is a deficit in forward movement planning, which has not been recognized before. Our findings have both theoretical and clinical implications.

  1. Application of a computer model to predict optimum slaughter end points for different biological types of feeder cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C B; Bennett, G L

    1995-10-01

    A bioeconomic model was developed to predict slaughter end points of different genotypes of feeder cattle, where profit/rotation and profit/day were maximized. Growth, feed intake, and carcass weight and composition were simulated for 17 biological types of steers. Distribution of carcass weight and proportion in four USDA quality and five USDA yield grades were obtained from predicted carcass weights and composition. Average carcass value for each genotype was calculated from these distributions under four carcass pricing systems that varied from value determined on quality grade alone to value determined on yield grade alone. Under profitable market conditions, rotation length was shorter and carcass weights lighter when the producer's goal was maximum profit/day, compared with maximum profit/rotation. A carcass value system based on yield grade alone resulted in greater profit/rotation and in lighter and leaner carcasses than a system based on quality grade alone. High correlations ( > .97) were obtained between breed profits obtained with different sets of input/output prices and carcass price discount weight ranges. This suggests that breed rankings on the basis of breed profits may not be sensitive to changes in input/output market prices. Steers that were on a grower-stocker system had leaner carcasses, heavier optimum carcass weight, greater profits, and less variation in optimum carcass weights between genotypes than steers that were started on a high-energy finishing diet at weaning. Overall results suggest that breed choices may change with different carcass grading and value systems and postweaning production systems. This model has potential to provide decision support in marketing fed cattle.

  2. Four points function fitted and first derivative procedure for determining the end points in potentiometric titration curves: statistical analysis and method comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholeif, S A

    2001-06-01

    A new method that belongs to the differential category for determining the end points from potentiometric titration curves is presented. It uses a preprocess to find first derivative values by fitting four data points in and around the region of inflection to a non-linear function, and then locate the end point, usually as a maximum or minimum, using an inverse parabolic interpolation procedure that has an analytical solution. The behavior and accuracy of the sigmoid and cumulative non-linear functions used are investigated against three factors. A statistical evaluation of the new method using linear least-squares method validation and multifactor data analysis are covered. The new method is generally applied to symmetrical and unsymmetrical potentiometric titration curves, and the end point is calculated using numerical procedures only. It outperforms the "parent" regular differential method in almost all factors levels and gives accurate results comparable to the true or estimated true end points. Calculated end points from selected experimental titration curves compatible with the equivalence point category of methods, such as Gran or Fortuin, are also compared with the new method.

  3. Automatic neutron dosimetry system based on fluorescent nuclear track detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akselrod, M.S.; Fomenko, V.V.; Bartz, J.A.; Haslett, T.L.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, the authors are describing an automatic fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD) reader for neutron dosimetry. FNTD is a luminescent integrating type of detector made of aluminium oxide crystals that does not require electronics or batteries during irradiation. Non-destructive optical readout of the detector is performed using a confocal laser scanning fluorescence imaging with near-diffraction limited resolution. The fully automatic table-top reader allows one to load up to 216 detectors on a tray, read their engraved IDs using a CCD camera and optical character recognition, scan and process simultaneously two types of images in fluorescent and reflected laser light contrast to eliminate false-positive tracks related to surface and volume crystal imperfections. The FNTD dosimetry system allows one to measure neutron doses from 0.1 mSv to 20 Sv and covers neutron energies from thermal to 20 MeV. The reader is characterised by a robust, compact optical design, fast data processing electronics and user-friendly software. The first table-top automatic FNTD neutron dosimetry system was successfully tested for LLD, linearity and ability to measure neutrons in mixed neutron-photon fields satisfying US and ISO standards. This new neutron dosimetry system provides advantages over other technologies including environmental stability of the detector material, wide range of detectable neutron energies and doses, detector re-readability and re-usability and all-optical readout. A new adaptive image processing algorithm reliably removes false-positive tracks associated with surface and bulk crystal imperfections. (authors)

  4. Innovative technology summary report: System for Tracking Remediation, Exposure, Activities and Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    The System for Tracking Remediation, Exposure, Activities, and Materials (STREAM) technology is a multi-media database that consolidates project information into a single, easily-accessible place for day-to-day work performance and management tracking. Information inputs can range from procedures, reports, and references to waste generation logs and manifests to photographs and contaminant survey maps. Key features of the system are quick and easy information organization and retrieval, versatile information display options, and a variety of visual imaging methods. These elements enhance productivity and compliance and facilitate communications with project staff, clients, and regulators. Use of STREAM also gives visual access to contaminated areas, reducing the number of physical entries and promoting safety and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principles. The STREAM system can be customized to focus on the information needs of a specific project, and provides a capability and work process improvement well beyond the usual collection of paperwork and independent databases. Especially when incorporated early in project planning and implemented to the fullest extent, it is a systematic and cost-effective tool for controlling and using project information. The STREAM system can support up to 50 different work stations. This report covers the period February through October 1997, when the STREAM software program, owned by Delphinus Engineering, was demonstrated at the Hanford Site's Reactor Interim Safe Storage (ISS) Project

  5. Recent technological developments on LGAD and iLGAD detectors for tracking and timing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, G.; Baselga, M.; Carulla, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Fernández-Martínez, P.; García, M. Fernández; Flores, D.; Galloway, Z.; Gallrapp, C.; Hidalgo, S.; Liang, Z.; Merlos, A.; Moll, M.; Quirion, D.; Sadrozinski, H.; Stricker, M.; Vila, I.

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports the latest technological development on the Low Gain Avalanche Detector (LGAD) and introduces a new architecture of these detectors called inverse-LGAD (iLGAD). Both approaches are based on the standard Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD) concept, commonly used in optical and X-ray detection applications, including an internal multiplication of the charge generated by radiation. The multiplication is inherent to the basic n++-p+-p structure, where the doping profile of the p+ layer is optimized to achieve high field and high impact ionization at the junction. The LGAD structures are optimized for applications such as tracking or timing detectors for high energy physics experiments or medical applications where time resolution lower than 30 ps is required. Detailed TCAD device simulations together with the electrical and charge collection measurements are presented through this work.

  6. Recent technological developments on LGAD and iLGAD detectors for tracking and timing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, G.; Baselga, M.; Carulla, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Fernández-Martínez, P.; García, M. Fernández; Flores, D.; Galloway, Z.; Gallrapp, C.; Hidalgo, S.; Liang, Z.; Merlos, A.; Moll, M.; Quirion, D.; Sadrozinski, H.; Stricker, M.; Vila, I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the latest technological development on the Low Gain Avalanche Detector (LGAD) and introduces a new architecture of these detectors called inverse-LGAD (iLGAD). Both approaches are based on the standard Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD) concept, commonly used in optical and X-ray detection applications, including an internal multiplication of the charge generated by radiation. The multiplication is inherent to the basic n"+"+–p"+–p structure, where the doping profile of the p"+ layer is optimized to achieve high field and high impact ionization at the junction. The LGAD structures are optimized for applications such as tracking or timing detectors for high energy physics experiments or medical applications where time resolution lower than 30 ps is required. Detailed TCAD device simulations together with the electrical and charge collection measurements are presented through this work.

  7. Recent technological developments on LGAD and iLGAD detectors for tracking and timing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, G.; Baselga, M.; Carulla, M. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Fadeyev, V. [Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics SCIPP, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Fernández-Martínez, P. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); García, M. Fernández [Instituto de Física de Cantabria IFCA-CSIC-UC, Santander (Spain); Flores, D. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Galloway, Z. [Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics SCIPP, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Gallrapp, C. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Hidalgo, S. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Liang, Z. [Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics SCIPP, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Merlos, A. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Moll, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Quirion, D. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Sadrozinski, H. [Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics SCIPP, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Stricker, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Vila, I. [Instituto de Física de Cantabria IFCA-CSIC-UC, Santander (Spain)

    2016-09-21

    This paper reports the latest technological development on the Low Gain Avalanche Detector (LGAD) and introduces a new architecture of these detectors called inverse-LGAD (iLGAD). Both approaches are based on the standard Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD) concept, commonly used in optical and X-ray detection applications, including an internal multiplication of the charge generated by radiation. The multiplication is inherent to the basic n{sup ++}–p{sup +}–p structure, where the doping profile of the p{sup +} layer is optimized to achieve high field and high impact ionization at the junction. The LGAD structures are optimized for applications such as tracking or timing detectors for high energy physics experiments or medical applications where time resolution lower than 30 ps is required. Detailed TCAD device simulations together with the electrical and charge collection measurements are presented through this work.

  8. Overview of the "epigenetic end points in toxicologic pathology and relevance to human health" session of the 2014 Society Of Toxicologic Pathology Annual Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenerhoff, Mark J; Hartke, James

    2015-01-01

    The theme of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology 2014 Annual Symposium was "Translational Pathology: Relevance of Toxicologic Pathology to Human Health." The 5th session focused on epigenetic end points in biology, toxicity, and carcinogenicity, and how those end points are relevant to human exposures. This overview highlights the various presentations in this session, discussing integration of epigenetics end points in toxicologic pathology studies, investigating the role of epigenetics in product safety assessment, epigenetic changes in cancers, methodologies to detect them, and potential therapies, chromatin remodeling in development and disease, and epigenomics and the microbiome. The purpose of this overview is to discuss the application of epigenetics to toxicologic pathology and its utility in preclinical or mechanistic based safety, efficacy, and carcinogenicity studies. © 2014 by The Author(s).

  9. Highway travel time information system based on cumulative count curves and new tracking technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriguera Marti, F.; Martinez-Diaz, M.; Perez Perez, I.

    2016-07-01

    Travel time is probably the most important indicator of the level of service of a highway, and it is also the most appreciated information for its users. Administrations and private companies make increasing efforts to improve its real time estimation. The appearance of new technologies makes the precise measurement of travel times easier than never before. However, direct measurements of travel time are, by nature, outdated in real time, and lack of the desired forecasting capabilities. This paper introduces a new methodology to improve the real time estimation of travel times by using the equipment usually present in most highways, i.e., loop detectors, in combination with Automatic Vehicle Identification or Tracking Technologies. One of the most important features of the method is the usage of cumulative counts at detectors as an input, avoiding the drawbacks of common spot-speed methodologies. Cumulative count curves have great potential for freeway travel time information systems, as they provide spatial measurements and thus allow the calculation of instantaneous travel times. In addition, they exhibit predictive capabilities. Nevertheless, they have not been used extensively mainly because of the error introduced by the accumulation of the detector drift. The proposed methodology solves this problem by correcting the deviations using direct travel time measurements. The method results highly beneficial for its accuracy as well as for its low implementation cost. (Author)

  10. Effects of Different Multimedia Presentations on Viewers' Information-Processing Activities Measured by Eye-Tracking Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Liu, Han-Chin

    2012-01-01

    This study implemented eye-tracking technology to understand the impact of different multimedia instructional materials, i.e., five successive pages versus a single page with the same amount of information, on information-processing activities in 21 non-science-major college students. The findings showed that students demonstrated the same number…

  11. Biomarkers of Host Response Predict Primary End-Point Radiological Pneumonia in Tanzanian Children with Clinical Pneumonia: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K Erdman

    Full Text Available Diagnosing pediatric pneumonia is challenging in low-resource settings. The World Health Organization (WHO has defined primary end-point radiological pneumonia for use in epidemiological and vaccine studies. However, radiography requires expertise and is often inaccessible. We hypothesized that plasma biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial activation may be useful surrogates for end-point pneumonia, and may provide insight into its biological significance.We studied children with WHO-defined clinical pneumonia (n = 155 within a prospective cohort of 1,005 consecutive febrile children presenting to Tanzanian outpatient clinics. Based on x-ray findings, participants were categorized as primary end-point pneumonia (n = 30, other infiltrates (n = 31, or normal chest x-ray (n = 94. Plasma levels of 7 host response biomarkers at presentation were measured by ELISA. Associations between biomarker levels and radiological findings were assessed by Kruskal-Wallis test and multivariable logistic regression. Biomarker ability to predict radiological findings was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and Classification and Regression Tree analysis.Compared to children with normal x-ray, children with end-point pneumonia had significantly higher C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and Chitinase 3-like-1, while those with other infiltrates had elevated procalcitonin and von Willebrand Factor and decreased soluble Tie-2 and endoglin. Clinical variables were not predictive of radiological findings. Classification and Regression Tree analysis generated multi-marker models with improved performance over single markers for discriminating between groups. A model based on C-reactive protein and Chitinase 3-like-1 discriminated between end-point pneumonia and non-end-point pneumonia with 93.3% sensitivity (95% confidence interval 76.5-98.8, 80.8% specificity (72.6-87.1, positive likelihood ratio 4.9 (3.4-7.1, negative likelihood ratio 0

  12. Guidelines for the definition of time-to-event end points in renal cell cancer clinical trials: results of the DATECAN project†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramar, A; Negrier, S; Sylvester, R; Joniau, S; Mulders, P; Powles, T; Bex, A; Bonnetain, F; Bossi, A; Bracarda, S; Bukowski, R; Catto, J; Choueiri, T K; Crabb, S; Eisen, T; El Demery, M; Fitzpatrick, J; Flamand, V; Goebell, P J; Gravis, G; Houédé, N; Jacqmin, D; Kaplan, R; Malavaud, B; Massard, C; Melichar, B; Mourey, L; Nathan, P; Pasquier, D; Porta, C; Pouessel, D; Quinn, D; Ravaud, A; Rolland, F; Schmidinger, M; Tombal, B; Tosi, D; Vauleon, E; Volpe, A; Wolter, P; Escudier, B; Filleron, T

    2015-12-01

    In clinical trials, the use of intermediate time-to-event end points (TEEs) is increasingly common, yet their choice and definitions are not standardized. This limits the usefulness for comparing treatment effects between studies. The aim of the DATECAN Kidney project is to clarify and recommend definitions of TEE in renal cell cancer (RCC) through a formal consensus method for end point definitions. A formal modified Delphi method was used for establishing consensus. From a 2006-2009 literature review, the Steering Committee (SC) selected 9 TEE and 15 events in the nonmetastatic (NM) and metastatic/advanced (MA) RCC disease settings. Events were scored on the range of 1 (totally disagree to include) to 9 (totally agree to include) in the definition of each end point. Rating Committee (RC) experts were contacted for the scoring rounds. From these results, final recommendations were established for selecting pertinent end points and the associated events. Thirty-four experts scored 121 events for 9 end points. Consensus was reached for 31%, 43% and 85% events during the first, second and third rounds, respectively. The expert recommend the use of three and two endpoints in NM and MA setting, respectively. In the NM setting: disease-free survival (contralateral RCC, appearance of metastases, local or regional recurrence, death from RCC or protocol treatment), metastasis-free survival (appearance of metastases, regional recurrence, death from RCC); and local-regional-free survival (local or regional recurrence, death from RCC). In the MA setting: kidney cancer-specific survival (death from RCC or protocol treatment) and progression-free survival (death from RCC, local, regional, or metastatic progression). The consensus method revealed that intermediate end points have not been well defined, because all of the selected end points had at least one event definition for which no consensus was obtained. These clarified definitions of TEE should become standard practice in

  13. Biomarkers of Host Response Predict Primary End-Point Radiological Pneumonia in Tanzanian Children with Clinical Pneumonia: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Laura K.; D’Acremont, Valérie; Hayford, Kyla; Kilowoko, Mary; Kyungu, Esther; Hongoa, Philipina; Alamo, Leonor; Streiner, David L.; Genton, Blaise; Kain, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diagnosing pediatric pneumonia is challenging in low-resource settings. The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined primary end-point radiological pneumonia for use in epidemiological and vaccine studies. However, radiography requires expertise and is often inaccessible. We hypothesized that plasma biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial activation may be useful surrogates for end-point pneumonia, and may provide insight into its biological significance. Methods We studied children with WHO-defined clinical pneumonia (n = 155) within a prospective cohort of 1,005 consecutive febrile children presenting to Tanzanian outpatient clinics. Based on x-ray findings, participants were categorized as primary end-point pneumonia (n = 30), other infiltrates (n = 31), or normal chest x-ray (n = 94). Plasma levels of 7 host response biomarkers at presentation were measured by ELISA. Associations between biomarker levels and radiological findings were assessed by Kruskal-Wallis test and multivariable logistic regression. Biomarker ability to predict radiological findings was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and Classification and Regression Tree analysis. Results Compared to children with normal x-ray, children with end-point pneumonia had significantly higher C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and Chitinase 3-like-1, while those with other infiltrates had elevated procalcitonin and von Willebrand Factor and decreased soluble Tie-2 and endoglin. Clinical variables were not predictive of radiological findings. Classification and Regression Tree analysis generated multi-marker models with improved performance over single markers for discriminating between groups. A model based on C-reactive protein and Chitinase 3-like-1 discriminated between end-point pneumonia and non-end-point pneumonia with 93.3% sensitivity (95% confidence interval 76.5–98.8), 80.8% specificity (72.6–87.1), positive likelihood ratio 4.9 (3.4–7

  14. User acceptance of location-tracking technologies in health research: Implications for study design and data quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Jean; Veinot, Tiffany C; Yan, Xiang; Berrocal, Veronica J; Clarke, Philippa; Goodspeed, Robert; Gomez-Lopez, Iris N; Romero, Daniel; Vydiswaran, V G Vinod

    2018-03-01

    Research regarding place and health has undergone a revolution due to the availability of consumer-focused location-tracking devices that reveal fine-grained details of human mobility. Such research requires that participants accept such devices enough to use them in their daily lives. There is a need for a theoretically grounded understanding of acceptance of different location-tracking technology options, and its research implications. Guided by an extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), we conducted a 28-day field study comparing 21 chronically ill people's acceptance of two leading, consumer-focused location-tracking technologies deployed for research purposes: (1) a location-enabled smartphone, and (2) a GPS watch/activity tracker. Participants used both, and completed two surveys and qualitative interviews. Findings revealed that all participants exerted effort to facilitate data capture, such as by incorporating devices into daily routines and developing workarounds to keep devices functioning. Nevertheless, the smartphone was perceived to be significantly easier and posed fewer usability challenges for participants than the watch. Older participants found the watch significantly more difficult to use. For both devices, effort expectancy was significantly associated with future willingness to participate in research although prosocial motivations overcame some concerns. Social influence, performance expectancy and use behavior were significantly associated with intentions to use the devices in participants' personal lives. Data gathered via the smartphone was significantly more complete than data gathered via the watch, primarily due to usability challenges. To make longer-term participation in location tracking research a reality, and to achieve complete data capture, researchers must minimize the effort involved in participation; this requires usable devices. For long-term location-tracking studies using similar devices

  15. Integrating different tracking systems in football: multiple camera semi-automatic system, local position measurement and GPS technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Allen, Adam; Poon, Tsz Kit; Modonutti, Mattia; Gregson, Warren; Di Salvo, Valter

    2014-12-01

    Abstract During the past decade substantial development of computer-aided tracking technology has occurred. Therefore, we aimed to provide calibration equations to allow the interchangeability of different tracking technologies used in soccer. Eighty-two highly trained soccer players (U14-U17) were monitored during training and one match. Player activity was collected simultaneously with a semi-automatic multiple-camera (Prozone), local position measurement (LPM) technology (Inmotio) and two global positioning systems (GPSports and VX). Data were analysed with respect to three different field dimensions (small, systems were compared, and calibration equations (linear regression models) between each system were calculated for each field dimension. Most metrics differed between the 4 systems with the magnitude of the differences dependant on both pitch size and the variable of interest. Trivial-to-small between-system differences in total distance were noted. However, high-intensity running distance (>14.4 km · h -1 ) was slightly-to-moderately greater when tracked with Prozone, and accelerations, small-to-very largely greater with LPM. For most of the equations, the typical error of the estimate was of a moderate magnitude. Interchangeability of the different tracking systems is possible with the provided equations, but care is required given their moderate typical error of the estimate.

  16. Eye/head tracking technology to improve HCI with iPad applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Basterretxea, Asier; Mendez-Zorrilla, Amaia; Garcia-Zapirain, Begoña

    2015-01-22

    In order to improve human computer interaction (HCI) for people with special needs, this paper presents an alternative form of interaction, which uses the iPad's front camera and eye/head tracking technology. With this functional nature/capability operating in the background, the user can control already developed or new applications for the iPad by moving their eyes and/or head. There are many techniques, which are currently used to detect facial features, such as eyes or even the face itself. Open source bookstores exist for such purpose, such as OpenCV, which enable very reliable and accurate detection algorithms to be applied, such as Haar Cascade using very high-level programming. All processing is undertaken in real time, and it is therefore important to pay close attention to the use of limited resources (processing capacity) of devices, such as the iPad. The system was validated in tests involving 22 users of different ages and characteristics (people with dark and light-colored eyes and with/without glasses). These tests are performed to assess user/device interaction and to ascertain whether it works properly. The system obtained an accuracy of between 60% and 100% in the three test exercises taken into consideration. The results showed that the Haar Cascade had a significant effect by detecting faces in 100% of cases, unlike eyes and the pupil where interference (light and shade) evidenced less effectiveness. In addition to ascertaining the effectiveness of the system via these exercises, the demo application has also helped to show that user constraints need not affect the enjoyment and use of a particular type of technology. In short, the results obtained are encouraging and these systems may continue to be developed if extended and updated in the future.

  17. Eye/Head Tracking Technology to Improve HCI with iPad Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Lopez-Basterretxea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve human computer interaction (HCI for people with special needs, this paper presents an alternative form of interaction, which uses the iPad’s front camera and eye/head tracking technology. With this functional nature/capability operating in the background, the user can control already developed or new applications for the iPad by moving their eyes and/or head. There are many techniques, which are currently used to detect facial features, such as eyes or even the face itself. Open source bookstores exist for such purpose, such as OpenCV, which enable very reliable and accurate detection algorithms to be applied, such as Haar Cascade using very high-level programming. All processing is undertaken in real time, and it is therefore important to pay close attention to the use of limited resources (processing capacity of devices, such as the iPad. The system was validated in tests involving 22 users of different ages and characteristics (people with dark and light-colored eyes and with/without glasses. These tests are performed to assess user/device interaction and to ascertain whether it works properly. The system obtained an accuracy of between 60% and 100% in the three test exercises taken into consideration. The results showed that the Haar Cascade had a significant effect by detecting faces in 100% of cases, unlike eyes and the pupil where interference (light and shade evidenced less effectiveness. In addition to ascertaining the effectiveness of the system via these exercises, the demo application has also helped to show that user constraints need not affect the enjoyment and use of a particular type of technology. In short, the results obtained are encouraging and these systems may continue to be developed if extended and updated in the future.

  18. The use of advanced tracking technologies for the analysis of mobility in Alzheimer's disease and related cognitive diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahl Hans-Werner

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the more common behavioral manifestations of dementia-related disorders is severe problems with out-of-home mobility. Various efforts have been attempted to attain a better understanding of mobility behavior, but most studies are based on institutionalized patients and the assessment usually relies on reports of caregivers and institutional staff, using observational approaches, activity monitoring, or behavioral checklists. The current manuscript describes the research protocol of a project that measures mobility in Alzheimer's disease and related cognitive disorders in an innovative way, by taking advantage of advanced tracking technologies. Methods/design Participants are 360 demented persons, mildly cognitively impaired persons, and unimpaired controls aged ≥ 65 in Israel and Germany. Data regarding space-time activities will be collected via a GPS tracking kit for a period of 4 weeks in 3 waves (one year apart with the same participants (using a repeated measures design. Participants will be interviewed by use of a battery of instruments prior to and following GPS data collection. Further, a family member will complete a questionnaire both before and after data tracking. Statistical analyses will strive to explain differences in mobility based on a wide range of socio-structural, clinical, affect-related and environmental variables. We will also assess the impact of the use of advanced tracking technology on the quality of life of dementia patients and care givers, as well as its potential as a diagnostic tool. Systematic assessment of ethical issues involved in the use of tracking technology will be an integral component of the project. Discussion This project will be able to make a substantial contribution to basic as well as applied and clinical aspects in the area of mobility and cognitive impairment research. The innovative technologies applied in this study will allow for assessing a range of dimensions of

  19. Timber tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Düdder, Boris; Ross, Omry

    2017-01-01

    Managing and verifying forest products in a value chain is often reliant on easily manipulated document or digital tracking methods - Chain of Custody Systems. We aim to create a new means of tracking timber by developing a tamper proof digital system based on Blockchain technology. Blockchain...

  20. Studies and applications of nuclear tracks in solids in basic science and technology in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.A.; Qureshi, I.E.; Khan, E.U.

    2008-01-01

    The solid state nuclear track detection (SSNTD) technique is now a well-established tool for the detection of charged particles with stopping power greater than a certain threshold value. Being a passive detection system, it existed in the form of primordial crystals and hence qualified to be regarded as the 'oldest' member of the nuclear detection systems. Since the advent of its laboratory use in 1958, the technique was adopted by different laboratories at different times all over the world. Pakistan is one of the countries that established an SSNTD-laboratory in the earliest developmental stage of the technique. Consequently, significant contributions were made by a small but energetic group of scientists toward the methodology of the technique as well as its applications in diverse areas such as nuclear physics, cosmology, material science, geology, geophysics, bio-medical physics and environmental science. In this article we will attempt to present a brief summary of the important advances made in the development of this technique and its innovative applications by Pakistani researchers in various fields of science and technology. As elsewhere in the world, the technique is not ubiquitous in all nuclear research laboratories in Pakistan because of the well-known limitations of the detection system. However, the number of workers involved in research studies has been growing over the years. These included both the fresh researchers as well as those who shifted from other research interests. This has resulted in a healthy reinforcement of the manpower engaged in SSNTD-based research work. After a selective presentation of the on-going investigations based on the use of SSNTDs in Pakistan, some comments are made for the possible future directions of progress. To put the Pakistani experience in international perspective, it is emphasized that the unique features of SSNTDs are facing serious challenges from rapid advances in high precision electronic detectors. The

  1. Welding technology transfer task/laser based weld joint tracking system for compressor girth welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Sensors to control and monitor welding operations are currently being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center. The laser based weld bead profiler/torch rotation sensor was modified to provide a weld joint tracking system for compressor girth welds. The tracking system features a precision laser based vision sensor, automated two-axis machine motion, and an industrial PC controller. The system benefits are elimination of weld repairs caused by joint tracking errors which reduces manufacturing costs and increases production output, simplification of tooling, and free costly manufacturing floor space.

  2. Digital Tracking Array for FM Signals Based on Off-The-Shelf Wireless Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edmund, Hui K

    2007-01-01

    ... a 2.4 GHz frequency modulation (FM) video signal from an unmanned air vehicle. The tracking is done using a monopulse technique Various numbers of elements were simulated to access the pattern coverage...

  3. Research on Key Technologies of Network Centric System Distributed Target Track Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Mao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize common tactical picture in network-centered system, this paper proposes a layered architecture for distributed information processing and a method for distributed track fusion on the basis of analyzing the characteristics of network-centered systems. Basing on the noncorrelation of three-dimensional measurement of surveillance and reconnaissance sensors under polar coordinates, it also puts forward an algorithm for evaluating track quality (TQ using statistical decision theory. According to simulation results, the TQ value is associated with the measurement accuracy of sensors and the motion state of targets, which is well matched with the convergence process of tracking filters. Besides, the proposed algorithm has good reliability and timeliness in track quality evaluation.

  4. Envisioning the Future of Aquatic Animal Tracking: Technology, Science, and Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennox, Robert J.; Aarestrup, Kim; Cooke, Steven J.; Cowley, Paul D.; Deng, Zhiqun D.; Fisk, Aaron T.; Harcourt, Robert G.; Heupel, Michelle; Hinch, Scott G.; Holland, Kim N.; Hussey, Nigel E.; Iverson, Sara J.; Kessel, Steven T.; Kocik, John F.; Lucas, Martyn C.; Flemming, Joanna Mills; Nguyen, Vivian M.; Stokesbury, Michael J. W.; Vagle, Svein; VanderZwaag, David L.; Whoriskey, Frederick G.; Young, Nathan

    2017-09-13

    Electronic tags have proven to be extremely useful for broadening our understanding of aquatic animals by answering diverse questions about their behaviours, physiologies, and life histories fundamental to ecology. Simultaneously, many applied conservation and management efforts are informed by animals tagged with electronic tags. In spite of the many advances in tracking software and hardware, an uncertain future in the world’s aquatic ecosystems portends great challenges for science. Aquatic animal tracking with electronic tags represents both the present and future of integrative biology and ecology in aquatic ecosystems. Here we identify what we regard as the future of aquatic animal tracking in a horizon scanning exercise. We submit that the future of aquatic animal tracking will include opportunities for multi-platform tracking systems for simultaneously monitoring position, activity, physiology, and microhabitat of animals, improved data collection and accessibility with new infrastructure (e.g. tags, receivers) and cyberinfrastructure, and integrated tagging information with animal traits derived from biopsy during tagging. We discuss parallel needs and opportunities in areas related to the application of animal tracking in the future such as knowledge mobilization and governance.

  5. Kinect technology for hand tracking control of surgical robots: technical and surgical skill comparison to current robotic masters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yonjae; Leonard, Simon; Shademan, Azad; Krieger, Axel; Kim, Peter C W

    2014-06-01

    Current surgical robots are controlled by a mechanical master located away from the patient, tracking surgeon's hands by wire and pulleys or mechanical linkage. Contactless hand tracking for surgical robot control is an attractive alternative, because it can be executed with minimal footprint at the patient's bedside without impairing sterility, while eliminating current disassociation between surgeon and patient. We compared technical and technologic feasibility of contactless hand tracking to the current clinical standard master controllers. A hand-tracking system (Kinect™-based 3Gear), a wire-based mechanical master (Mantis Duo), and a clinical mechanical linkage master (da Vinci) were evaluated for technical parameters with strong clinical relevance: system latency, static noise, robot slave tremor, and controller range. Five experienced surgeons performed a skill comparison study, evaluating the three different master controllers for efficiency and accuracy in peg transfer and pointing tasks. da Vinci had the lowest latency of 89 ms, followed by Mantis with 374 ms and 3Gear with 576 ms. Mantis and da Vinci produced zero static error. 3Gear produced average static error of 0.49 mm. The tremor of the robot used by the 3Gear and Mantis system had a radius of 1.7 mm compared with 0.5 mm for da Vinci. The three master controllers all had similar range. The surgeons took 1.98 times longer to complete the peg transfer task with the 3Gear system compared with Mantis, and 2.72 times longer with Mantis compared with da Vinci (p value 2.1e-9). For the pointer task, surgeons were most accurate with da Vinci with average error of 0.72 mm compared with Mantis's 1.61 mm and 3Gear's 2.41 mm (p value 0.00078). Contactless hand-tracking technology as a surgical master can execute simple surgical tasks. Whereas traditional master controllers outperformed, given that contactless hand-tracking is a first-generation technology, clinical potential is promising and could

  6. Estimated GFR Decline as a Surrogate End Point for Kidney Failure : A Post Hoc Analysis From the Reduction of End Points in Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes With the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) Study and Irbesartan Diabetic Nephropathy Trial (IDNT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo; Weldegiorgis, Misghina; Inker, Lesley A.; Gansevoort, Ron; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Dwyer, Jamie P.; Mondal, Hasi; Coresh, Josef; Greene, Tom; Levey, Andrew S.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    Background: A doubling of serum creatinine value, corresponding to a 57% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), is used frequently as a component of a composite kidney end point in clinical trials in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether alternative end

  7. NOAA JPSS Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) Remapped to Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) Sensor Data Record (SDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) is a 22 channel microwave sounder on board the Suomi NPP satellite that provides continuous cross-track scanning in...

  8. Sci—Fri PM: Topics — 08: The Role and Benefits of Electromagnetic Needle-Tracking Technologies in Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, L.; Racine, E.; Boutaleb, S.; Filion, O. [Département de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, CHU de Québec, Québec (Québec), and Département de Physique, de Génie Physique et d' Optique et Centre de recherche en sur le Cancer, Université Laval, Québec (Québec) (Canada); Poulin, E.; Hautvast, G. [Biomedical Systems, Philips Group Innovation, High Tech Campus 34 (HTC 34), Eindhoven (Netherlands); Binnekamp, D. [Integrated Clinical Solutions and Marketing, Philips Healthcare, Veenpluis 4-6, Best (Netherlands)

    2014-08-15

    In modern brachytherapy, application of large doses of ionizing radiation in a limited number of fractions is frequent. Furthermore, as with any surgical procedures, brachytherapy is subject to learning curve effects. In this context, there could be advantages of integrating real-time tracking of needles/catheters to existing protocols given the recent prominent advances in tracking technologies. In this work, we review the use of an electromagnetic tracking system (EMTS) based on the second generation Aurora® Planar Field Generator (Northern Digital Inc) and custom design needles (Philips Healthcare) for brachytherapy applications. The position and orientation information is obtained from 5 degrees of freedom sensors. Basic system performance characterization is performed in well-controlled conditions to establish accuracy and reproducibility as well as potential interference from standard brachytherapy equipment. The results show that sensor locations can be tracked to within 0.04mm (la) when located within 26cm of the generator. Orientation accuracy of the needle remained within ±1° in the same region, but rose quickly at larger distances. The errors on position and orientation strongly dependent the sensor position in the characterization volume (500×500×500mm{sup 3}). The presence of an ultrasound probe was shown to have negligible effects on tracking accuracy. The use of EMTS for automatic catheter/applicator reconstruction was also explored. Reconstruction time was less than 10 sec/channel and tips identification was within 0.69±0.29mm of the reference values. Finally, we demonstrate that hollow needle designs with special EM adaptation also allow for real-time seed drop position estimation. In phantom experiments showed that drop positions were on average within 1.6±0.9mm of the reference position measured from μCT. Altogether, EMTS offer promising benefits in a wide range of brachytherapy applications.

  9. Sci—Fri PM: Topics — 08: The Role and Benefits of Electromagnetic Needle-Tracking Technologies in Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulieu, L.; Racine, E.; Boutaleb, S.; Filion, O.; Poulin, E.; Hautvast, G.; Binnekamp, D.

    2014-01-01

    In modern brachytherapy, application of large doses of ionizing radiation in a limited number of fractions is frequent. Furthermore, as with any surgical procedures, brachytherapy is subject to learning curve effects. In this context, there could be advantages of integrating real-time tracking of needles/catheters to existing protocols given the recent prominent advances in tracking technologies. In this work, we review the use of an electromagnetic tracking system (EMTS) based on the second generation Aurora® Planar Field Generator (Northern Digital Inc) and custom design needles (Philips Healthcare) for brachytherapy applications. The position and orientation information is obtained from 5 degrees of freedom sensors. Basic system performance characterization is performed in well-controlled conditions to establish accuracy and reproducibility as well as potential interference from standard brachytherapy equipment. The results show that sensor locations can be tracked to within 0.04mm (la) when located within 26cm of the generator. Orientation accuracy of the needle remained within ±1° in the same region, but rose quickly at larger distances. The errors on position and orientation strongly dependent the sensor position in the characterization volume (500×500×500mm 3 ). The presence of an ultrasound probe was shown to have negligible effects on tracking accuracy. The use of EMTS for automatic catheter/applicator reconstruction was also explored. Reconstruction time was less than 10 sec/channel and tips identification was within 0.69±0.29mm of the reference values. Finally, we demonstrate that hollow needle designs with special EM adaptation also allow for real-time seed drop position estimation. In phantom experiments showed that drop positions were on average within 1.6±0.9mm of the reference position measured from μCT. Altogether, EMTS offer promising benefits in a wide range of brachytherapy applications

  10. The Use of Motion Tracking Technologies in Serious Games to Enhance Rehabilitation in Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Andrew M.; Liu, Hao; Battersby, Steven; Brown, David; Sherkat, Nasser; Standen, Penny; Walker, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is the main cause of long term disability worldwide. Of those surviving, more than half will fail to regain functional usage of their impaired upper limb. Typically stroke upper limb rehabilitation exercises consist of repeated movements, which when tracked can form the basis of inputs to games. This paper discusses two systems utilizing…

  11. Using Mobile Technology to Observe Student Study Behaviors and Track Library Space Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Libraries have become increasingly interested in studying the use of spaces within their buildings. Traditional methods for tracking library building use, such as gate counts, provide little information on what patrons do once they are in the library; therefore, new methods for studying space usage are being developed. Particularly promising are…

  12. Effect of stereotactic dosimetric end points on overall survival for Stage I non–small cell lung cancer: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulryan, Kathryn; Leech, Michelle; Forde, Elizabeth, E-mail: eforde@tcd.ie

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivers a high biologically effective dose while minimizing toxicities to surrounding tissues. Within the scope of clinical trials and local practice, there are inconsistencies in dosimetrics used to evaluate plan quality. The purpose of this critical review was to determine if dosimetric parameters used in SBRT plans have an effect on local control (LC), overall survival (OS), and toxicities. A database of relevant trials investigating SBRT for patients with early-stage non–small cell lung cancer was compiled, and a table of dosimetric variables used was created. These parameters were compared and contrasted for LC, OS, and toxicities. Dosimetric end points appear to have no effect on OS or LC. Incidences of rib fractures correlate with a lack of dose-volume constraints (DVCs) reported. This review highlights the great disparity present in clinical trials reporting dosimetrics, DVCs, and toxicities for lung SBRT. Further evidence is required before standard DVCs guidelines can be introduced. Dosimetric end points specific to stereotactic treatment planning have been proposed but require further investigation before clinical implementation.

  13. Effects of Cooking End-point Temperature and Muscle Part on Sensory 'Hardness' and 'Chewiness' Assessed Using Scales Presented in ISO11036:1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Motoyama, Michiyo; Narita, Takumi; Chikuni, Koichi

    2013-10-01

    Texture and 'tenderness' in particular, is an important sensory characteristic for consumers' satisfaction of beef. Objective and detailed sensory measurements of beef texture have been needed for the evaluation and management of beef quality. This study aimed to apply the sensory scales defined in ISO11036:1994 to evaluate the texture of beef. Longissimus and Semitendinosus muscles of three Holstein steers cooked to end-point temperatures of 60°C and 72°C were subjected to sensory analyses by a sensory panel with expertise regarding the ISO11036 scales. For the sensory analysis, standard scales of 'chewiness' (9-points) and 'hardness' (7-points) were presented to the sensory panel with reference materials defined in ISO11036. As a result, both 'chewiness' and 'hardness' assessed according to the ISO11036 scales increased by increasing the cooking end-point temperature, and were different between Longissimus and Semitendinosus muscles. The sensory results were in good agreement with instrumental texture measurements. However, both texture ratings in this study were in a narrower range than the full ISO scales. For beef texture, ISO11036 scales for 'chewiness' and 'hardness' are useful for basic studies, but some alterations are needed for practical evaluation of muscle foods.

  14. Effects of Cooking End-point Temperature and Muscle Part on Sensory ‘Hardness’ and ‘Chewiness’ Assessed Using Scales Presented in ISO11036:1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Sasaki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Texture and ‘tenderness’ in particular, is an important sensory characteristic for consumers’ satisfaction of beef. Objective and detailed sensory measurements of beef texture have been needed for the evaluation and management of beef quality. This study aimed to apply the sensory scales defined in ISO11036:1994 to evaluate the texture of beef. Longissimus and Semitendinosus muscles of three Holstein steers cooked to end-point temperatures of 60°C and 72°C were subjected to sensory analyses by a sensory panel with expertise regarding the ISO11036 scales. For the sensory analysis, standard scales of ‘chewiness’ (9-points and ‘hardness’ (7-points were presented to the sensory panel with reference materials defined in ISO11036. As a result, both ‘chewiness’ and ‘hardness’ assessed according to the ISO11036 scales increased by increasing the cooking end-point temperature, and were different between Longissimus and Semitendinosus muscles. The sensory results were in good agreement with instrumental texture measurements. However, both texture ratings in this study were in a narrower range than the full ISO scales. For beef texture, ISO11036 scales for ‘chewiness’ and ‘hardness’ are useful for basic studies, but some alterations are needed for practical evaluation of muscle foods.

  15. Tracking Professional Development of Novice Teachers When Integrating Technology in Teaching Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Irina; Stein, Hana; Gorev, Dvora

    2017-01-01

    This research traced changes in choices of technological tools and attitudes toward technology use among novice mathematics teachers at three stages of their professional development: as pre-service teachers, a year later, and in their work as novice teachers. At each stage, the participants were required to evaluate the benefits of technology use…

  16. Tracking the New Technology. A Summary of the Second Invitational Postsecondary Educational Review Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, C. H.

    The second educational technology review panel addressed problems with forecasting the trends and impact of newer telecomunications technologies in both home and institution of higher education settings, and the role of several grant programs in educational technology. Paul Mertins provided an update on a National Center for Education Statistics…

  17. Investigation of CMOS pixel sensor with 0.18 μm CMOS technology for high-precision tracking detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Wang, M.; Fu, M.; Zhang, Y.; Yan, W.

    2017-01-01

    The Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) proposed by the Chinese high energy physics community is aiming to measure Higgs particles and their interactions precisely. The tracking detector including Silicon Inner Tracker (SIT) and Forward Tracking Disks (FTD) has driven stringent requirements on sensor technologies in term of spatial resolution, power consumption and readout speed. CMOS Pixel Sensor (CPS) is a promising candidate to approach these requirements. This paper presents the preliminary studies on the sensor optimization for tracking detector to achieve high collection efficiency while keeping necessary spatial resolution. Detailed studies have been performed on the charge collection using a 0.18 μm CMOS image sensor process. This process allows high resistivity epitaxial layer, leading to a significant improvement on the charge collection and therefore improving the radiation tolerance. Together with the simulation results, the first exploratory prototype has bee designed and fabricated. The prototype includes 9 different pixel arrays, which vary in terms of pixel pitch, diode size and geometry. The total area of the prototype amounts to 2 × 7.88 mm 2 .

  18. Object tracking with robotic total stations: Current technologies and improvements based on image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Matthias; Lienhart, Werner

    2017-09-01

    The importance of automated prism tracking is increasingly triggered by the rising automation of total station measurements in machine control, monitoring and one-person operation. In this article we summarize and explain the different techniques that are used to coarsely search a prism, to precisely aim at a prism, and to identify whether the correct prism is tracked. Along with the state-of-the-art review, we discuss and experimentally evaluate possible improvements based on the image data of an additional wide-angle camera which is available for many total stations today. In cases in which the total station's fine aiming module loses the prism, the tracked object may still be visible to the wide-angle camera because of its larger field of view. The theodolite angles towards the target can then be derived from its image coordinates which facilitates a fast reacquisition of the prism. In experimental measurements we demonstrate that our image-based approach for the coarse target search is 4 to 10-times faster than conventional approaches.

  19. Surfactant-controlled etching of ion track nanopores and its practical applications in membrane technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, P.Yu.; Blonskaya, I.V.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Mamonova, T.I.; Orelovitch, O.L.; Sartowska, B.; Yamauchi, Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of surfactants on chemical development of ion tracks in polymers has been studied. It has been shown that surface-active agents added to an alkaline etching solution adsorb on the polymer surface at the pore entrances. This reduces the etch rate, which leads to the formation of pores tapered toward the surface. Self-assembly of surfactant molecules at the pore entrance creates a barrier for their penetration into the etched-out nanopores, whereas hydroxide ions diffuse freely. Due to this, the internal pore volume grows faster than the pore surface diameter. The ability to control pore shape is demonstrated with the fabrication of profiled nano- and micropores in polyethylene terephthalate, polycarbonate. Some earlier published data on small track-etched pores in polycarbonate (in particular, the pore diameter vs. etching time curves measured conductometrically) have been revised in light of the above findings. Adding surfactants to chemical etchants makes it possible to optimize the structure of track membranes, thus improving their retention and permeation properties. Asymmetric membranes with thin skin retention layers have been produced and their performance studied

  20. Development of the compact proton beam therapy system dedicated to spot scanning with real-time tumor-tracking technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezawa, Masumi; Fujimoto, Rintaro; Umekawa, Tooru; Fujii, Yuusuke; Takayanagi, Taisuke; Ebina, Futaro; Aoki, Takamichi; Nagamine, Yoshihiko; Matsuda, Koji; Hiramoto, Kazuo; Matsuura, Taeko; Miyamoto, Naoki; Nihongi, Hideaki; Umegaki, Kikuo; Shirato, Hiroki

    2013-04-01

    Hokkaido University and Hitachi Ltd. have started joint development of the Gated Spot Scanning Proton Therapy with Real-Time Tumor-Tracking System by integrating real-time tumor tracking technology (RTRT) and the proton therapy system dedicated to discrete spot scanning techniques under the "Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology (FIRST Program)". In this development, we have designed the synchrotron-based accelerator system by using the advantages of the spot scanning technique in order to realize a more compact and lower cost proton therapy system than the conventional system. In the gated irradiation, we have focused on the issues to maximize irradiation efficiency and minimize the dose errors caused by organ motion. In order to understand the interplay effect between scanning beam delivery and target motion, we conducted a simulation study. The newly designed system consists of the synchrotron, beam transport system, one compact rotating gantry treatment room with robotic couch, and one experimental room for future research. To improve the irradiation efficiency, the new control function which enables multiple gated irradiations per synchrotron cycle has been applied and its efficacy was confirmed by the irradiation time estimation. As for the interplay effect, we confirmed that the selection of a strict gating width and scan direction enables formation of the uniform dose distribution.

  1. Guidelines for time-to-event end point definitions in breast cancer trials: results of the DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event Endpoints in CANcer trials)†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgou-Bourgade, S; Cameron, D; Poortmans, P; Asselain, B; Azria, D; Cardoso, F; A'Hern, R; Bliss, J; Bogaerts, J; Bonnefoi, H; Brain, E; Cardoso, M J; Chibaudel, B; Coleman, R; Cufer, T; Dal Lago, L; Dalenc, F; De Azambuja, E; Debled, M; Delaloge, S; Filleron, T; Gligorov, J; Gutowski, M; Jacot, W; Kirkove, C; MacGrogan, G; Michiels, S; Negreiros, I; Offersen, B V; Penault Llorca, F; Pruneri, G; Roche, H; Russell, N S; Schmitt, F; Servent, V; Thürlimann, B; Untch, M; van der Hage, J A; van Tienhoven, G; Wildiers, H; Yarnold, J; Bonnetain, F; Mathoulin-Pélissier, S; Bellera, C; Dabakuyo-Yonli, T S

    2015-05-01

    Using surrogate end points for overall survival, such as disease-free survival, is increasingly common in randomized controlled trials. However, the definitions of several of these time-to-event (TTE) end points are imprecisely which limits interpretation and cross-trial comparisons. The estimation of treatment effects may be directly affected by the definitions of end points. The DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event Endpoints in CANcer trials) aims to provide recommendations for definitions of TTE end points. We report guidelines for randomized cancer clinical trials (RCTs) in breast cancer. A literature review was carried out to identify TTE end points (primary or secondary) reported in publications of randomized trials or guidelines. An international multidisciplinary panel of experts proposed recommendations for the definitions of these end points based on a validated consensus method that formalize the degree of agreement among experts. Recommended guidelines for the definitions of TTE end points commonly used in RCTs for breast cancer are provided for non-metastatic and metastatic settings. The use of standardized definitions should facilitate comparisons of trial results and improve the quality of trial design and reporting. These guidelines could be of particular interest to those involved in the design, conducting, reporting, or assessment of RCT. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Inter-laboratory assessment by trained panelists from France and the United Kingdom of beef cooked at two different end-point temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Micol, Didier; Picard, Brigitte; Terlouw, Claudia E M; Moloney, Aidan P; Juin, Hervé; Meteau, Karine; Scollan, Nigel; Richardson, Ian; Hocquette, Jean-François

    2016-12-01

    Eating quality of the same meat samples from different animal types cooked at two end-point cooking temperatures (55°C and 74°C) was evaluated by trained panels in France and the United Kingdom. Tenderness and juiciness scores were greater at 55°C than at 74°C, irrespective of the animal type and location of the panel. The UK panel, independently of animal type, gave greater scores for beef flavour (+7 to +24%, PFrench panel was higher at 74°C than at 55°C (+26%, Pcooking beef at a lower temperature increased tenderness and juiciness, irrespective of the location of the panel. In contrast, cooking beef at higher temperatures increased beef flavour and decreased abnormal flavour for the UK panelists but increased abnormal flavour for the French panel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Different End-Point Cooking Temperatures on the Efficiency of Encapsulated Phosphates on Lipid Oxidation Inhibition in Ground Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, B; Şimşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E; Aktaş, N

    2015-10-01

    Effects of 0.5% encapsulated (e) phosphates (sodium tripolyphosphate, STP; sodium hexametaphosphate, HMP; sodium pyrophosphate, SPP) on lipid oxidation during storage (0, 1, and 7 d) of ground meat (chicken, beef) after being cooked to 3 end-point cooking temperatures (EPCT; 71, 74, and 77 °C) were evaluated. The use of STP or eSTP resulted in lower (P cooking loss (CL) compared to encapsulated or unencapsulated forms of HMP and SPP. Increasing EPCT led to a significant increase in CL (P chicken compared to 74 and 71 °C (P chicken samples (P < 0.05). Findings suggest that encapsulated phosphates can be a strategy to inhibit lipid oxidation for meat industry and the efficiency of encapsulated phosphates on lipid oxidation inhibition can be enhanced by lowering EPCT. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Use of cluster analysis and preference mapping to evaluate consumer acceptability of choice and select bovine M. longissimus lumborum steaks cooked to various end-point temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T B; Schilling, M W; Behrends, J M; Battula, V; Jackson, V; Sekhon, R K; Lawrence, T E

    2010-01-01

    Consumer research was conducted to evaluate the acceptability of choice and select steaks from the Longissimus lumborum that were cooked to varying degrees of doneness using demographic information, cluster analysis and descriptive analysis. On average, using data from approximately 155 panelists, no differences (P>0.05) existed in consumer acceptability among select and choice steaks, and all treatment means ranged between like slightly and like moderately (6-7) on the hedonic scale. Individual consumers were highly variable in their perception of acceptability and consumers were grouped into clusters (eight for select and seven for choice) based on their preference and liking of steaks. The largest consumer groups liked steaks from all treatments, but other groups preferred (Pconsumers could be grouped together according to preference, liking and descriptive sensory attributes, (juiciness, tenderness, bloody, metallic, and roasted) to further understand consumer perception of steaks that were cooked to different end-point temperatures.

  5. At-line determination of pharmaceuticals small molecule's blending end point using chemometric modeling combined with Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Jagdish; Strong, Richard; Boulas, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    This article summarizes the development and validation of a Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) method for the rapid at-line prediction of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in a powder blend to optimize small molecule formulations. The method was used to determine the blend uniformity end-point for a pharmaceutical solid dosage formulation containing a range of API concentrations. A set of calibration spectra from samples with concentrations ranging from 1% to 15% of API (w/w) were collected at-line from 4000 to 12,500 cm- 1. The ability of the FT-NIR method to predict API concentration in the blend samples was validated against a reference high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The prediction efficiency of four different types of multivariate data modeling methods such as partial least-squares 1 (PLS1), partial least-squares 2 (PLS2), principal component regression (PCR) and artificial neural network (ANN), were compared using relevant multivariate figures of merit. The prediction ability of the regression models were cross validated against results generated with the reference HPLC method. PLS1 and ANN showed excellent and superior prediction abilities when compared to PLS2 and PCR. Based upon these results and because of its decreased complexity compared to ANN, PLS1 was selected as the best chemometric method to predict blend uniformity at-line. The FT-NIR measurement and the associated chemometric analysis were implemented in the production environment for rapid at-line determination of the end-point of the small molecule blending operation. FIGURE 1: Correlation coefficient vs Rank plot FIGURE 2: FT-NIR spectra of different steps of Blend and final blend FIGURE 3: Predictions ability of PCR FIGURE 4: Blend uniformity predication ability of PLS2 FIGURE 5: Prediction efficiency of blend uniformity using ANN FIGURE 6: Comparison of prediction efficiency of chemometric models TABLE 1: Order of Addition for Blending Steps

  6. 77 FR 19678 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Asset Tracking and Reporting Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Demonstration Concept Document, Technology Test Objectives, Test Plan, and Project Report for the CRADA work. We... Demonstration Concept Document, Technology Test Objectives, Test Plan, and Project Report; (2) Provide, install, operate, maintain, and remove all material (including hardware, software, and test equipment), along with...

  7. Using NFC technology for fast-tracking large-siza multi-touch screens

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Organero, Mario; Opoku, Samuel King

    2011-01-01

    Multi-touch technology interfaces are becoming ubiquitous since their integration in smart-phones, tablets and many consumer electronics devices. Depending on the size of the tangible interface, the computing resource restrictions and the resolution required, there are different technological alternatives for multi-touch screens such as camera based systems, capacity, resistive or pressure sensing systems or LED based systems. This paper presents a different alternative to d...

  8. Potentials of Tracking and Tracing Technologies - The Perspective of IT Decision Makers in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Knebel, Uta;Leimeister, Jan Marco;Krcmar, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    RFID-technologies have been described as major enabling technologies for automated, contactless data collection. We conveyed a quantitative survey of 463 executives across various industries in Germany to investigate about the perceived strategic importance of RFID among IT decision makers,current RFID usage, companies' intentions to invest in RFID and visions of RFID application. The survey results showed that: - RFID is currently not very widespread. - The importance of RFID will rise signi...

  9. Patient-Driven Innovation for Mobile Mental Health Technology: Case Report of Symptom Tracking in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torous, John; Roux, Spencer

    2017-07-06

    This patient perspective piece presents an important case at the intersection of mobile health technology, mental health, and innovation. The potential of digital technologies to advance mental health is well known, although the challenges are being increasingly recognized. Making mobile health work for mental health will require broad collaborations. We already know that those who experience mental illness are excited by the potential technology, with many actively engaged in research, fundraising, advocacy, and entrepreneurial ventures. But we don't always hear their voice as often as others. There is a clear advantage for their voice to be heard: so we can all learn from their experiences at the direct intersection of mental health and technology innovation. The case is cowritten with an individual with schizophrenia, who openly shares his name and personal experience with mental health technology in order to educate and inspire others. This paper is the first in JMIR Mental Health's patient perspective series, and we welcome future contributions from those with lived experience. ©John Torous, Spencer Roux. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 06.07.2017.

  10. Using virtual reality technology and hand tracking technology to create software for training surgical skills in 3D game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirova, A. A.; Ganiev, B. A.; Mullin, R. I.

    2015-11-01

    The lack of visible and approachable ways of training surgical skills is one of the main problems in medical education. Existing simulation training devices are not designed to teach students, and are not available due to the high cost of the equipment. Using modern technologies such as virtual reality and hands movements fixation technology we want to create innovative method of learning the technics of conducting operations in 3D game format, which can make education process interesting and effective. Creating of 3D format virtual simulator will allow to solve several conceptual problems at once: opportunity of practical skills improvement unlimited by the time without the risk for patient, high realism of environment in operational and anatomic body structures, using of game mechanics for information perception relief and memorization of methods acceleration, accessibility of this program.

  11. Guidelines for time-to-event end point definitions in sarcomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) trials: results of the DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event Endpoints in CANcer trials)†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellera, C A; Penel, N; Ouali, M; Bonvalot, S; Casali, P G; Nielsen, O S; Delannes, M; Litière, S; Bonnetain, F; Dabakuyo, T S; Benjamin, R S; Blay, J-Y; Bui, B N; Collin, F; Delaney, T F; Duffaud, F; Filleron, T; Fiore, M; Gelderblom, H; George, S; Grimer, R; Grosclaude, P; Gronchi, A; Haas, R; Hohenberger, P; Issels, R; Italiano, A; Jooste, V; Krarup-Hansen, A; Le Péchoux, C; Mussi, C; Oberlin, O; Patel, S; Piperno-Neumann, S; Raut, C; Ray-Coquard, I; Rutkowski, P; Schuetze, S; Sleijfer, S; Stoeckle, E; Van Glabbeke, M; Woll, P; Gourgou-Bourgade, S; Mathoulin-Pélissier, S

    2015-05-01

    The use of potential surrogate end points for overall survival, such as disease-free survival (DFS) or time-to-treatment failure (TTF) is increasingly common in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in cancer. However, the definition of time-to-event (TTE) end points is rarely precise and lacks uniformity across trials. End point definition can impact trial results by affecting estimation of treatment effect and statistical power. The DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event End points in CANcer trials) aims to provide recommendations for definitions of TTE end points. We report guidelines for RCT in sarcomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). We first carried out a literature review to identify TTE end points (primary or secondary) reported in publications of RCT. An international multidisciplinary panel of experts proposed recommendations for the definitions of these end points. Recommendations were developed through a validated consensus method formalizing the degree of agreement among experts. Recommended guidelines for the definition of TTE end points commonly used in RCT for sarcomas and GIST are provided for adjuvant and metastatic settings, including DFS, TTF, time to progression and others. Use of standardized definitions should facilitate comparison of trials' results, and improve the quality of trial design and reporting. These guidelines could be of particular interest to research scientists involved in the design, conduct, reporting or assessment of RCT such as investigators, statisticians, reviewers, editors or regulatory authorities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Measuring process performance within healthcare logistics - a decision tool for selecting track and trace technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feibert, Diana Cordes; Jacobsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    quality of work. Data validity is essential for enabling performance measurement, and selecting the right technologies is important to achieve this. A case study of the hospital cleaning process was conducted at a public Danish hospital to develop a framework for assessing technologies in healthcare......Monitoring tasks and ascertaining quality of work is difficult in a logistical healthcare process due to cleaning personnel being dispersed throughout the hospital. Performance measurement can support the organization in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of processes and in ensuring...... logistics. A set of decision indicators was identified in the case study to assess technologies based on expected process performance. Two aspects of performance measurement were investigated for the hospital cleaning process: what to measure and how to measure it....

  13. Molecular recognition in a diverse set of protein-ligand interactions studied with molecular dynamics simulations and end-point free energy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Li, Liwei; Hurley, Thomas D; Meroueh, Samy O

    2013-10-28

    End-point free energy calculations using MM-GBSA and MM-PBSA provide a detailed understanding of molecular recognition in protein-ligand interactions. The binding free energy can be used to rank-order protein-ligand structures in virtual screening for compound or target identification. Here, we carry out free energy calculations for a diverse set of 11 proteins bound to 14 small molecules using extensive explicit-solvent MD simulations. The structure of these complexes was previously solved by crystallography and their binding studied with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data enabling direct comparison to the MM-GBSA and MM-PBSA calculations. Four MM-GBSA and three MM-PBSA calculations reproduced the ITC free energy within 1 kcal·mol(-1) highlighting the challenges in reproducing the absolute free energy from end-point free energy calculations. MM-GBSA exhibited better rank-ordering with a Spearman ρ of 0.68 compared to 0.40 for MM-PBSA with dielectric constant (ε = 1). An increase in ε resulted in significantly better rank-ordering for MM-PBSA (ρ = 0.91 for ε = 10), but larger ε significantly reduced the contributions of electrostatics, suggesting that the improvement is due to the nonpolar and entropy components, rather than a better representation of the electrostatics. The SVRKB scoring function applied to MD snapshots resulted in excellent rank-ordering (ρ = 0.81). Calculations of the configurational entropy using normal-mode analysis led to free energies that correlated significantly better to the ITC free energy than the MD-based quasi-harmonic approach, but the computed entropies showed no correlation with the ITC entropy. When the adaptation energy is taken into consideration by running separate simulations for complex, apo, and ligand (MM-PBSAADAPT), there is less agreement with the ITC data for the individual free energies, but remarkably good rank-ordering is observed (ρ = 0.89). Interestingly, filtering MD snapshots by prescoring

  14. Radiographic Progression-Free Survival as a Clinically Meaningful End Point in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: The PREVAIL Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathkopf, Dana E; Beer, Tomasz M; Loriot, Yohann; Higano, Celestia S; Armstrong, Andrew J; Sternberg, Cora N; de Bono, Johann S; Tombal, Bertrand; Parli, Teresa; Bhattacharya, Suman; Phung, De; Krivoshik, Andrew; Scher, Howard I; Morris, Michael J

    2018-05-01

    Drug development for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer has been limited by a lack of clinically relevant trial end points short of overall survival (OS). Radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) as defined by the Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Working Group 2 (PCWG2) is a candidate end point that represents a clinically meaningful benefit to patients. To demonstrate the robustness of the PCWG2 definition and to examine the relationship between rPFS and OS. PREVAIL was a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multinational study that enrolled 1717 chemotherapy-naive men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer from September 2010 through September 2012. The data were analyzed in November 2016. Patients were randomized 1:1 to enzalutamide 160 mg or placebo until confirmed radiographic disease progression or a skeletal-related event and initiation of either cytotoxic chemotherapy or an investigational agent for prostate cancer treatment. Sensitivity analyses (SAs) of investigator-assessed rPFS were performed using the final rPFS data cutoff (May 6, 2012; 439 events; SA1) and the interim OS data cutoff (September 16, 2013; 540 events; SA2). Additional SAs using investigator-assessed rPFS from the final rPFS data cutoff assessed the impact of skeletal-related events (SA3), clinical progression (SA4), a confirmatory scan for soft-tissue disease progression (SA5), and all deaths regardless of time after study drug discontinuation (SA6). Correlations between investigator-assessed rPFS (SA2) and OS were calculated using Spearman ρ and Kendall τ via Clayton copula. In the 1717 men (mean age, 72.0 [range, 43.0-93.0] years in enzalutamide arm and 71.0 [range, 42.0-93.0] years in placebo arm), enzalutamide significantly reduced risk of radiographic progression or death in all SAs, with hazard ratios of 0.22 (SA1; 95% CI, 0.18-0.27), 0.31 (SA2; 95% CI, 0.27-0.35), 0.21 (SA3; 95% CI, 0.18-0.26), 0.21 (SA4; 95% CI, 0.17-0.26), 0

  15. Moving Object Tracking and Avoidance Algorithm for Differential Driving AGV Based on Laser Measurement Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandu Sandi Pratama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed an algorithm to track the obstacle position and avoid the moving objects for differential driving Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGV system in industrial environment. This algorithm has several abilities such as: to detect the moving objects, to predict the velocity and direction of moving objects, to predict the collision possibility and to plan the avoidance maneuver. For sensing the local environment and positioning, the laser measurement system LMS-151 and laser navigation system NAV-200 are applied. Based on the measurement results of the sensors, the stationary and moving obstacles are detected and the collision possibility is calculated. The velocity and direction of the obstacle are predicted using Kalman filter algorithm. Collision possibility, time, and position can be calculated by comparing the AGV movement and obstacle prediction result obtained by Kalman filter. Finally the avoidance maneuver using the well known tangent Bug algorithm is decided based on the calculation data. The effectiveness of proposed algorithm is verified using simulation and experiment. Several examples of experiment conditions are presented using stationary obstacle, and moving obstacles. The simulation and experiment results show that the AGV can detect and avoid the obstacles successfully in all experimental condition. [Keywords— Obstacle avoidance, AGV, differential drive, laser measurement system, laser navigation system].

  16. Evaluation of a Tracking System for Patients and Mixed Intravenous Medication Based on RFID Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Pérez, María; Vázquez González, Guillermo; Dafonte, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    At present, one of the primary concerns of healthcare professionals is how to increase the safety and quality of the care that patients receive during their stay in hospital. This is particularly important in the administration of expensive and high-risk medicines with which it is fundamental to minimize the possibility of adverse events in the process of prescription-validation-preparation/dosage-dispensation-administration of intravenous mixes. This work is a detailed analysis of the evaluation, carried out by the health personnel involved in the Radiofrequency Identification (RFID) system developed in the Day Hospital and Pharmacy services of the Complejo Hospitalario Universitario A Coruña (CHUAC). The RFID system is evaluated by analyzing surveys completed by said health personnel, since their questions represent the key indicators of the patient care process (safety, cost, adequacy with the clinical practice). This work allows us to conclude, among other things, that the system tracks the patients satisfactorily and that its cost, though high, is justified in the context of the project context (use of dangerous and costly medication). PMID:27916915

  17. A Comparison of Accuracy of Image- versus Hardware-based Tracking Technologies in 3D Fusion in Aortic Endografting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, A E; Maurel, B; Davis, M; Constantinou, J; Hamilton, G; Mastracci, T M

    2016-09-01

    Fusion of three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography and intraoperative two-dimensional imaging in endovascular surgery relies on manual rigid co-registration of bony landmarks and tracking of hardware to provide a 3D overlay (hardware-based tracking, HWT). An alternative technique (image-based tracking, IMT) uses image recognition to register and place the fusion mask. We present preliminary experience with an agnostic fusion technology that uses IMT, with the aim of comparing the accuracy of overlay for this technology with HWT. Data were collected prospectively for 12 patients. All devices were deployed using both IMT and HWT fusion assistance concurrently. Postoperative analysis of both systems was performed by three blinded expert observers, from selected time-points during the procedures, using the displacement of fusion rings, the overlay of vascular markings and the true ostia of renal arteries. The Mean overlay error and the deviation from mean error was derived using image analysis software. Comparison of the mean overlay error was made between IMT and HWT. The validity of the point-picking technique was assessed. IMT was successful in all of the first 12 cases, whereas technical learning curve challenges thwarted HWT in four cases. When independent operators assessed the degree of accuracy of the overlay, the median error for IMT was 3.9 mm (IQR 2.89-6.24, max 9.5) versus 8.64 mm (IQR 6.1-16.8, max 24.5) for HWT (p = .001). Variance per observer was 0.69 mm(2) and 95% limit of agreement ±1.63. In this preliminary study, the error of magnitude of displacement from the "true anatomy" during image overlay in IMT was less than for HWT. This confirms that ongoing manual re-registration, as recommended by the manufacturer, should be performed for HWT systems to maintain accuracy. The error in position of the fusion markers for IMT was consistent, thus may be considered predictable. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by

  18. DCS Budget Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DCS Budget Tracking System database contains budget information for the Information Technology budget and the 'Other Objects' budget. This data allows for monitoring...

  19. Comet assay with gill cells of Mytilus galloprovincialis end point tools for biomonitoring of water antibiotic contamination: Biological treatment is a reliable process for detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Nadia; Zouiten, Amina; Dridi, Dorra; Tahrani, Leyla; Zouiten, Dorra; Mosrati, Ridha; Cherif, Ameur; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila; Mansour, Hedi Ben

    2016-04-01

    This article investigates the ability of Pseudomonas peli to treat industrial pharmaceuticals wastewater (PW). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS analysis revealed the presence, in this PW, of a variety of antibiotics such as sulfathiazole, sulfamoxole, norfloxacine, cloxacilline, doxycycline, and cefquinome.P. peli was very effective to be grown in PW and inducts a remarkable increase in chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand (140.31 and 148.51%, respectively). On the other hand, genotoxicity of the studied effluent, before and after 24 h of shaking incubation with P. peli, was evaluated in vivo in the Mediterranean wild mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis using comet assay for quantification of DNA fragmentation. Results show that PW exhibited a statistically significant (pbody weight (b.w.); 0.33 ml/kg b.w. of PW, respectively. However, genotoxicity decreased strongly when tested with the PW obtained after incubation with P. peli We can conclude that using comet assay genotoxicity end points are useful tools to biomonitor the physicochemical and biological quality of water. Also, it could be concluded that P. peli can treat and detoxify the studied PW. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Pressure Injury Progression and Factors Associated With Different End-Points in a Home Palliative Care Setting: A Retrospective Chart Review Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Marco; D'Angelo, Daniela; Piredda, Michela; Petitti, Tommasangelo; Lamarca, Luciano; De Marinis, Maria Grazia; Dante, Angelo; Lusignani, Maura; Matarese, Maria

    2018-07-01

    Patients with advanced illnesses show the highest prevalence for pressure injuries. In the palliative care setting, the ultimate goal is injury healing, but equally important is wound maintenance, wound palliation (wound-related pain and symptom management), and primary and secondary wound prevention. To describe the course of healing for pressure injuries in a home palliative care setting according to different end-points, and to explore patient and caregiver characteristics and specific care activities associated with their achievement. Four-year retrospective chart review of 669 patients cared for in a home palliative care service, of those 124 patients (18.5%) had at least one pressure injury with a survival rate less than or equal to six months. The proportion of healed pressure injuries was 24.4%. Of the injuries not healed, 34.0% were in a maintenance phase, whereas 63.6% were in a process of deterioration. Body mass index (P = 0.0014), artificial nutrition (P = 0.002), and age pay attention to artificial nutrition, continuous deep sedation, and the caregiver's role and gender. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The free fractions of circulating docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentenoic acid as optimal end-point of measure in bioavailability studies on n-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarsi, Claudia; Levesque, Ann; Lisi, Lucia; Navarra, Pierluigi

    2015-05-01

    The high complexity of n-3 fatty acids absorption process, along with the huge amount of endogenous fraction, makes bioavailability studies with these agents very challenging and deserving special consideration. In this paper we report the results of a bioequivalence study between a new formulation of EPA+DHA ethyl esters developed by IBSA Institut Biochimique and reference medicinal product present on the Italian market. Bioequivalence was demonstrated according to the criteria established by the EMA Guideline on the Investigation of Bioequivalence. We found that the free fractions represent a better and more sensitive end-point for bioequivalence investigations on n-3 fatty acids, since: (i) the overall and intra-subject variability of PK parameters was markedly lower compared to the same variability calculated on the total DHA and EPA fractions; (ii) the absorption process was completed within 4h, and the whole PK profile could be drawn within 12-15 h from drug administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Recent Technological Developments on LGAD and iLGAD Detectors for Tracking and Timing Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pellegrini, G.; Baselga, M.; Carulla, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Fernández-Martínez, P.; Fernandez-Garcia, M.; Flores, D.; Galloway, Z.; Gallrapp, C.; Hidalgo, S.; Liang, Z.; Merlos, A.; Moll, M.; Quirion, D.; Sadrozinski, H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the last technological development on the Low Gain Avalanche Detector (LGAD) and introduces a new architecture of these detectors called inverse-LGAD (iLGAD). Both approaches are based on the standard Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD) concept, commonly used in optical and X-ray detection applications, including an internal multiplication of the charge generated by radiation. The multiplication is inherent to the basic n++-p+-p structure, where the doping profile of the p+ layer ...

  3. EU PVSEC: New products: Cells and modules, production technology, monitoring and communication, measuring technology, inverters, tracking systems etc.; EU PVSEC: Produktneuheiten. Zellen und Module, Produktionstechnik, Monitoring und Kommunikation, Messtechnik, Wechselrichter, Nachfuehrsysteme, Was man sonst noch braucht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossenbrink, Ralf; Augsten, Eva; Gesthuizen, Jan; Maeuler, Desiree; Buddensiek, Volker; Garus, Katharina

    2010-09-01

    The contribution takes a look back at the EU PVSEC trade fair and presents some of the innovations that were shown. There was news in many areas, e.g. cells and modules, production technology, monitoring and communication, measuring technology, inverters, tracking systems etc. (orig./AKB)

  4. Quantitative Evaluation of the Fetal Right and Left Ventricular Fractional Area Change Using Speckle Tracking Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Greggory R; Klas, Berthold; Satou, Gary; Sklansky, Mark

    2018-03-14

    The purpose of this study was to measure the fractional area change (FAC) of the right and left ventricles in normal fetal hearts between 20 and 40 weeks of gestation using speckle-tracking software. The 4-chamber view of the fetal heart was obtained in 200 control fetuses between 20 and 40 weeks of gestation. The FAC was computed from the ventricular areas [((end-diastolic area) - (end-systolic area)/(end-diastolic area)) x 100] for the right and left ventricles and regressed against 7 independent biometric and age variables. The FAC was correlated with longitudinal fractional shortening (LFS) [((end-diastolic longitudinal length) - (end-systolic longitudinal length) /(end-diastolic longitudinal length)) x 100] obtained from the mid ventricular basal-apical lengths of the right and left ventricular chambers and the transverse fractional shortening (TFS) [((end-diastolic transverse length) - (end-systolic transverse length)/(end-diastolic transverse length)) x 100] from three transverse positions (base, mid, apical) located within each ventricular chamber. To evaluate potential clinical utility, the FAC, LFS, and TFS results were examined in 9 fetuses with congenital heart defects (CHD). Regression analysis demonstrated significant associations between the FAC and the biometric and age independent variables (R 2 = 0.13 - 0.15). The FAC was significantly correlated with the LFS (R 2 =0.18 to 0.28) and TFS (R 2 = 0.13 to 0.33). The 9 fetuses with CHD illustrated the interrelationship between the FAC, LFS, and TFS when identifying abnormal ventricular function. This study reports results from measuring the FAC of the right and left ventricles, and demonstrates a correlation with longitudinal fractional shortening (LFS) and transverse fractional shortening (TFS). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. [A review of progress of real-time tumor tracking radiotherapy technology based on dynamic multi-leaf collimator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fubo; Li, Guangjun; Shen, Jiuling; Li, Ligin; Bai, Sen

    2017-02-01

    While radiation treatment to patients with tumors in thorax and abdomen is being performed, further improvement of radiation accuracy is restricted by the tumor intra-fractional motion due to respiration. Real-time tumor tracking radiation is an optimal solution to tumor intra-fractional motion. A review of the progress of real-time dynamic multi-leaf collimator(DMLC) tracking is provided in the present review, including DMLC tracking method, time lag of DMLC tracking system, and dosimetric verification.

  6. Recent Developments in Maximum Power Point Tracking Technologies for Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Onat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In photovoltaic (PV system applications, it is very important to design a system for operating of the solar cells (SCs under best conditions and highest efficiency. Maximum power point (MPP varies depending on the angle of sunlight on the surface of the panel and cell temperature. Hence, the operating point of the load is not always MPP of PV system. Therefore, in order to supply reliable energy to the load, PV systems are designed to include more than the required number of modules. The solution to this problem is that switching power converters are used, that is called maximum power point tracker (MPPT. In this study, the various aspects of these algorithms have been analyzed in detail. Classifications, definitions, and basic equations of the most widely used MPPT technologies are given. Moreover, a comparison was made in the conclusion.

  7. Radio-tracking large wilderness mammals: integration of GPS and Argos technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Arthur, Steve M.

    1999-01-01

    We tested 30 prototype global positioning system (GPS) radiocollars on brown bears (Ursus arctos) over a 3-year period on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Collars were of 2 design types: GPS units with an Argos (Argos Data collection and Location System) satellite uplink (n = 19) and GPS units where the data were stored on board (n = 10) for retrieval at a later date. All units also contained a conventional VHF (very high frequency) transmitter and weighed 1.7 kg. GPS-Argos units obtained 10-82% of expected GPS fixes, and fix rate declined significantly (P bears varied more and were lower than fix rates for stationary collars placed in various vegetation types, suggesting that the bear, terrain, and movement all influence both fix and uplink success rate. Application of this new technology to grizzly and brown bear research and comparisons to studies with moose (Alces alces) are discussed.

  8. Sensitivity of predictions in an effective model: Application to the chiral critical end point position in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biguet, Alexandre; Hansen, Hubert; Brugiere, Timothee; Costa, Pedro; Borgnat, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of the position of the chiral critical end point (CEP) in the QCD phase diagram is under debate. While it is possible to predict its position by using effective models specifically built to reproduce some of the features of the underlying theory (QCD), the quality of the predictions (e.g., the CEP position) obtained by such effective models, depends on whether solving the model equations constitute a well- or ill-posed inverse problem. Considering these predictions as being inverse problems provides tools to evaluate if the problem is ill-conditioned, meaning that infinitesimal variations of the inputs of the model can cause comparatively large variations of the predictions. If it is ill-conditioned, it has major consequences because of finite variations that could come from experimental and/or theoretical errors. In the following, we shall apply such a reasoning on the predictions of a particular Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model within the mean field + ring approximations, with special attention to the prediction of the chiral CEP position in the (T-μ) plane. We find that the problem is ill-conditioned (i.e. very sensitive to input variations) for the T-coordinate of the CEP, whereas, it is well-posed for the μ-coordinate of the CEP. As a consequence, when the chiral condensate varies in a 10MeV range, μ CEP varies far less. As an illustration to understand how problematic this could be, we show that the main consequence when taking into account finite variation of the inputs, is that the existence of the CEP itself cannot be predicted anymore: for a deviation as low as 0.6% with respect to vacuum phenomenology (well within the estimation of the first correction to the ring approximation) the CEP may or may not exist. (orig.)

  9. Photo-neutron reaction cross-section for 93Nb in the end-point bremsstrahlung energies of 12–16 and 45–70 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, H.; Kim, G.N.; Schwengner, R.; Kim, K.; Zaman, M.; Tatari, M.; Sahid, M.; Yang, S.C.; John, R.; Massarczyk, R.; Junghans, A.; Shin, S.G.; Key, Y.; Wagner, A.; Lee, M.W.; Goswami, A.; Cho, M.-H.

    2013-01-01

    The photo-neutron cross-sections of 93 Nb at the end-point bremsstrahlung energies of 12, 14 and 16 MeV as well as 45, 50, 55, 60 and 70 MeV have been determined by the activation and the off-line γ-ray spectrometric techniques using the 20 MeV electron linac (ELBE) at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden, Germany, and 100 MeV electron linac at Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL), Pohang, Korea. The 93 Nb(γ, xn, x=1–4) reaction cross-sections as a function of photon energy were also calculated using computer code TALYS 1.4. The flux-weighted average values were obtained from the experimental and the theoretical (TALYS) values based on mono-energetic photons. The experimental values of present work are in good agreement with the flux-weighted theoretical values of TALYS 1.4 but are slightly higher than the flux-weighted experimental data of mono-energetic photons. It was also found that the theoretical and the experimental values of present work and literature data for the 93 Nb(γ, xn) reaction cross-sections increase from the threshold values to a certain energy, where other reaction channels opens. However, the increase of 93 Nb(γ, n) and 93 Nb(γ, 2n) reaction cross-sections are sharper compared to 93 Nb(γ, 3n) and 93 Nb(γ, 4n) reaction cross-sections. The sharp increase of 93 Nb(γ, n) and 93 Nb(γ, 2n) reaction cross-sections from the threshold value up to 17–22 MeV is due to the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) effect besides the role of excitation energy. After a certain values, the individual 93 Nb(γ, xn) reaction cross-sections decrease with increase of bremsstrahlung energy due to opening of other reaction channels

  10. Comparison of burrowing and stimuli-evoked pain behaviors as end-points in rat models of inflammatory pain and peripheral neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun eMuralidharan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishment and validation of ethologically-relevant, non-evoked behavioral end-points as surrogate measures of spontaneous pain in rodent pain models has been proposed as a means to improve preclinical to clinical research translation in the pain field. Here, we compared the utility of burrowing behavior with hypersensitivity to applied mechanical stimuli for pain assessment in rat models of chronic inflammatory and peripheral neuropathic pain. Briefly, groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were habituated to the burrowing environment and trained over a 5-day period. Rats that burrowed ≤450g of gravel on any two days of the individual training phase were excluded from the study. The remaining rats received either a unilateral intraplantar injection of Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA or saline, or underwent unilateral chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve- or sham-surgery. Baseline burrowing behavior and evoked pain behaviors were assessed prior to model induction, and twice-weekly until study completion on day 14. For FCA- and CCI-rats, but not the corresponding groups of sham-rats, evoked mechanical hypersensitivity developed in a temporal manner in the ipsilateral hindpaws. Although burrowing behavior also decreased in a temporal manner for both FCA- and CCI-rats, there was considerable inter-animal variability. By contrast, mechanical hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in the ipsilateral hindpaws of FCA- and CCI-rats respectively, exhibited minimal inter-animal variability. Our data collectively show that burrowing behavior is altered in rodent models of chronic inflammatory pain and peripheral neuropathic pain. However, large group sizes are needed to ensure studies are adequately powered due to considerable inter-animal variability.

  11. Modest blood pressure reduction with valsartan in acute ischemic stroke: a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-end-point trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Mi Sun; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Hong, Keun-Sik; Kang, Dong-Wha; Park, Jong-Moo; Bae, Hee-Joon; Koo, Jaseong; Lee, Juneyoung; Lee, Byung-Chul

    2015-07-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of modest blood pressure (BP) reduction with valsartan within 48 h after symptom onset in patients with acute ischemic stroke and high BP. This was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-end-point trial. A total of 393 subjects were recruited at 28 centers and then randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive valsartan (n = 195) or no treatment (n = 198) for seven-days after presentation. The primary outcome was death or dependency, defined as a score of 3-6 on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 90 days after symptom onset. Early neurological deterioration (END) within seven-days and 90-day major vascular events were also assessed. There were 372 patients who completed the 90-day follow-up. The valsartan group had 46 of 187 patients (24·6%) with a 90-day mRS 3-6, compared with 42 of 185 patients (22·6%) in the control group (odds ratio [OR], 1·11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0·69-1·79; P = 0·667). The rate of major vascular events did not differ between groups (OR, 1·41; 95% CI, 0·44-4·49; P = 0·771). There was a significant increase of END in the valsartan group (OR, 2·43; 95% CI, 1·25-4·73; P = 0·008). Early reduction of BP with valsartan did not reduce death or dependency and major vascular events at 90 days, but increased the risk of END. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.

  12. Sensitivity of predictions in an effective model: Application to the chiral critical end point position in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biguet, Alexandre; Hansen, Hubert; Brugiere, Timothee [Universite Claude Bernard de Lyon, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, CNRS/IN2P3, Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Costa, Pedro [Universidade de Coimbra, Centro de Fisica Computacional, Departamento de Fisica, Coimbra (Portugal); Borgnat, Pierre [CNRS, l' Ecole normale superieure de Lyon, Laboratoire de Physique, Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2015-09-15

    The measurement of the position of the chiral critical end point (CEP) in the QCD phase diagram is under debate. While it is possible to predict its position by using effective models specifically built to reproduce some of the features of the underlying theory (QCD), the quality of the predictions (e.g., the CEP position) obtained by such effective models, depends on whether solving the model equations constitute a well- or ill-posed inverse problem. Considering these predictions as being inverse problems provides tools to evaluate if the problem is ill-conditioned, meaning that infinitesimal variations of the inputs of the model can cause comparatively large variations of the predictions. If it is ill-conditioned, it has major consequences because of finite variations that could come from experimental and/or theoretical errors. In the following, we shall apply such a reasoning on the predictions of a particular Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model within the mean field + ring approximations, with special attention to the prediction of the chiral CEP position in the (T-μ) plane. We find that the problem is ill-conditioned (i.e. very sensitive to input variations) for the T-coordinate of the CEP, whereas, it is well-posed for the μ-coordinate of the CEP. As a consequence, when the chiral condensate varies in a 10MeV range, μ {sub CEP} varies far less. As an illustration to understand how problematic this could be, we show that the main consequence when taking into account finite variation of the inputs, is that the existence of the CEP itself cannot be predicted anymore: for a deviation as low as 0.6% with respect to vacuum phenomenology (well within the estimation of the first correction to the ring approximation) the CEP may or may not exist. (orig.)

  13. Estimating the Cost of Preeclampsia in the Healthcare System: Cross-Sectional Study Using Data From SCOPE Study (Screening for Pregnancy End Points).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Aimée; McHugh, Sheena; Browne, John; Kenny, Louise C; Fitzgerald, Anthony; Khashan, Ali S; Dempsey, Eugene; Fahy, Ciara; O'Neill, Ciaran; Kearney, Patricia M

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the cost of preeclampsia from the national health payer's perspective using secondary data from the SCOPE study (Screening for Pregnancy End Points). SCOPE is an international observational prospective study of healthy nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies. Using data from the Irish cohort recruited between November 2008 and February 2011, all women with preeclampsia and a 10% random sample of women without preeclampsia were selected. Additional health service use data were extracted from the consenting participants' medical records for maternity services which were not included in SCOPE. Unit costs were based on estimates from 3 existing Irish studies. Costs were extrapolated to a national level using a prevalence rate of 5% to 7% among nulliparous pregnancies. Within the cohort of 1774 women, 68 developed preeclampsia (3.8%) and 171 women were randomly selected as controls. Women with preeclampsia used higher levels of maternity services. The average cost of a pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia was €5243 per case compared with €2452 per case for an uncomplicated pregnancy. The national cost of preeclampsia is between €6.5 and €9.1 million per annum based on the 5% to 7% prevalence rate. Postpartum care was the largest contributor to these costs (€4.9-€6.9 million), followed by antepartum care (€0.9-€1.3 million) and peripartum care (€0.6-€0.7 million). Women with preeclampsia generate significantly higher maternity costs than women without preeclampsia. These cost estimates will allow policy-makers to efficiently allocate resources for this pregnancy-specific condition. Moreover, these estimates are useful for future research assessing the cost-effectiveness of preeclampsia screening and treatment. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Capecitabine and oxaliplatin in the preoperative multimodality treatment of rectal cancer: surgical end points from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project trial R-04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Michael J; Colangelo, Linda H; Beart, Robert W; Petrelli, Nicholas J; Allegra, Carmen J; Sharif, Saima; Pitot, Henry C; Shields, Anthony F; Landry, Jerome C; Ryan, David P; Parda, David S; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Arora, Amit; Evans, Lisa S; Bahary, Nathan; Soori, Gamini S; Eakle, Janice; Robertson, John M; Moore, Dennis F; Mullane, Michael R; Marchello, Benjamin T; Ward, Patrick J; Wozniak, Timothy F; Roh, Mark S; Yothers, Greg; Wolmark, Norman

    2014-06-20

    The optimal chemotherapy regimen administered concurrently with preoperative radiation therapy (RT) for patients with rectal cancer is unknown. National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project trial R-04 compared four chemotherapy regimens administered concomitantly with RT. Patients with clinical stage II or III rectal cancer who were undergoing preoperative RT (45 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks plus a boost of 5.4 Gy to 10.8 Gy in three to six daily fractions) were randomly assigned to one of the following chemotherapy regimens: continuous intravenous infusional fluorouracil (CVI FU; 225 mg/m(2), 5 days per week), with or without intravenous oxaliplatin (50 mg/m(2) once per week for 5 weeks) or oral capecitabine (825 mg/m(2) twice per day, 5 days per week), with or without oxaliplatin (50 mg/m(2) once per week for 5 weeks). Before random assignment, the surgeon indicated whether the patient was eligible for sphincter-sparing surgery based on clinical staging. The surgical end points were complete pathologic response (pCR), sphincter-sparing surgery, and surgical downstaging (conversion to sphincter-sparing surgery). From September 2004 to August 2010, 1,608 patients were randomly assigned. No significant differences in the rates of pCR, sphincter-sparing surgery, or surgical downstaging were identified between the CVI FU and capecitabine regimens or between the two regimens with or without oxaliplatin. Patients treated with oxaliplatin experienced significantly more grade 3 or 4 diarrhea (P < .001). Administering capecitabine with preoperative RT achieved similar rates of pCR, sphincter-sparing surgery, and surgical downstaging compared with CVI FU. Adding oxaliplatin did not improve surgical outcomes but added significant toxicity. The definitive analysis of local tumor control, disease-free survival, and overall survival will be performed when the protocol-specified number of events has occurred. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  15. The usefulness of cytogenetic parameters, level of p53 protein and endogenous glutathione as intermediate end-points in raw betel-nut genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpawat, K; Chatterjee, A

    2003-07-01

    Betel-nut (BN) chewing related oral mucosal lesions are potential hazards to a large population worldwide. Genotoxicity of betel alkaloids, polyphenol and tannin fractions have been reported. It has been shown earlier that BN ingredients altered the level of endogenous glutathione (GSH) which could modulate the host susceptibility to the action of other chemical carcinogens. The north-east Indian variety of BN, locally known as 'kwai', is raw, wet and consumed unprocessed with betel-leaf and slaked lime and contains higher alkaloids, polyphenol and tannins as compared to the dried one. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the extent of DNA damage, pattern of cell kinetics, the level of p53-protein and endogenous GSH in kwai chewers in the tribal population of Meghalaya state in the northeastern region of India with an aim to see whether these end-points could serve as biomarkers of genetic damage of relevance for genotoxic/carcinogenic process. The present data show higher DNA damage, delay in cell kinetics, p53 expression and lower GSH-level in heavy chewers (HC) than nonchewers (NC). The influence of bleomycin (BLM) on chromatid break induction in G2-phase of peripheral blood lymphocytes in NC and HC has been analysed to determine individual susceptibility to carcinogenic assaults. HC showed higher induction of chromatid breaks than NC. Risk assessment in this study suggests an interaction between carcinogen exposure and mutagen sensitivity measures, risk estimates being higher in those individuals who both consume kwai and express sensitivity to free radical oxygen damage in vitro. From this study it seems that besides cytogenetical parameters, the level of endogenous GSH and the level of p53 protein could act as effective biomarkers for kwai chewers.

  16. Calculation of absorbed dose and biological effectiveness from photonuclear reactions in a bremsstrahlung beam of end point 50 MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudowska, I; Brahme, A; Andreo, P; Gudowski, W; Kierkegaard, J

    1999-09-01

    The absorbed dose due to photonuclear reactions in soft tissue, lung, breast, adipose tissue and cortical bone has been evaluated for a scanned bremsstrahlung beam of end point 50 MeV from a racetrack accelerator. The Monte Carlo code MCNP4B was used to determine the photon source spectrum from the bremsstrahlung target and to simulate the transport of photons through the treatment head and the patient. Photonuclear particle production in tissue was calculated numerically using the energy distributions of photons derived from the Monte Carlo simulations. The transport of photoneutrons in the patient and the photoneutron absorbed dose to tissue were determined using MCNP4B; the absorbed dose due to charged photonuclear particles was calculated numerically assuming total energy absorption in tissue voxels of 1 cm3. The photonuclear absorbed dose to soft tissue, lung, breast and adipose tissue is about (0.11-0.12)+/-0.05% of the maximum photon dose at a depth of 5.5 cm. The absorbed dose to cortical bone is about 45% larger than that to soft tissue. If the contributions from all photoparticles (n, p, 3He and 4He particles and recoils of the residual nuclei) produced in the soft tissue and the accelerator, and from positron radiation and gammas due to induced radioactivity and excited states of the nuclei, are taken into account the total photonuclear absorbed dose delivered to soft tissue is about 0.15+/-0.08% of the maximum photon dose. It has been estimated that the RBE of the photon beam of 50 MV acceleration potential is approximately 2% higher than that of conventional 60Co radiation.

  17. Calculation of absorbed dose and biological effectiveness from photonuclear reactions in a bremsstrahlung beam of end point 50 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowska, I.; Brahme, A.; Andreo, P.; Gudowski, W.; Kierkegaard, J.

    1999-01-01

    The absorbed dose due to photonuclear reactions in soft tissue, lung, breast, adipose tissue and cortical bone has been evaluated for a scanned bremsstrahlung beam of end point 50 MeV from a racetrack accelerator. The Monte Carlo code MCNP4B was used to determine the photon source spectrum from the bremsstrahlung target and to simulate the transport of photons through the treatment head and the patient. Photonuclear particle production in tissue was calculated numerically using the energy distributions of photons derived from the Monte Carlo simulations. The transport of photoneutrons in the patient and the photoneutron absorbed dose to tissue were determined using MCNP4B; the absorbed dose due to charged photonuclear particles was calculated numerically assuming total energy absorption in tissue voxels of 1 cm 3 . The photonuclear absorbed dose to soft tissue, lung, breast and adipose tissue is about (0.11-0.12)±0.05% of the maximum photon dose at a depth of 5.5 cm. The absorbed dose to cortical bone is about 45% larger than that to soft tissue. If the contributions from all photoparticles (n, p, 3 He and 4 He particles and recoils of the residual nuclei) produced in the soft tissue and the accelerator, and from positron radiation and gammas due to induced radioactivity and excited states of the nuclei, are taken into account the total photonuclear absorbed dose delivered to soft tissue is about 0.15±0.08% of the maximum photon dose. It has been estimated that the RBE of the photon beam of 50 MV acceleration potential is approximately 2% higher than that of conventional 60 Co radiation. (author)

  18. Identifying and tracking attacks on networks: C3I displays and related technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manes, Gavin W.; Dawkins, J.; Shenoi, Sujeet; Hale, John C.

    2003-09-01

    Converged network security is extremely challenging for several reasons; expanded system and technology perimeters, unexpected feature interaction, and complex interfaces all conspire to provide hackers with greater opportunities for compromising large networks. Preventive security services and architectures are essential, but in and of themselves do not eliminate all threat of compromise. Attack management systems mitigate this residual risk by facilitating incident detection, analysis and response. There are a wealth of attack detection and response tools for IP networks, but a dearth of such tools for wireless and public telephone networks. Moreover, methodologies and formalisms have yet to be identified that can yield a common model for vulnerabilities and attacks in converged networks. A comprehensive attack management system must coordinate detection tools for converged networks, derive fully-integrated attack and network models, perform vulnerability and multi-stage attack analysis, support large-scale attack visualization, and orchestrate strategic responses to cyber attacks that cross network boundaries. We present an architecture that embodies these principles for attack management. The attack management system described engages a suite of detection tools for various networking domains, feeding real-time attack data to a comprehensive modeling, analysis and visualization subsystem. The resulting early warning system not only provides network administrators with a heads-up cockpit display of their entire network, it also supports guided response and predictive capabilities for multi-stage attacks in converged networks.

  19. Characterization of inappetent sheep in a feedlot using radio-tracking technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Anne L; Wickham, Sarah L; Admiraal, Ryan; Miller, David W; Collins, Teresa; Stockman, Catherine; Fleming, Patricia A

    2018-04-03

    The feeding and drinking behaviours of sheep were monitored using RFID technology at a commercial pre-embarkation feedlot in Western Australia with the aim of characterizing feeding and drinking patterns of inappetent sheep that might allow them to be treated. Feeding and drinking behaviours of sheep were compared with their survival and change in body condition. Patterns of number of visits and the time spent at feed and water troughs were analyzed for a total of 8,206 sheep, representing four consignments that were monitored for a range of 6-31 d. Data for feeding and drinking behaviours were compared for the first 6 d. For animals that were alive at exit, 18.9% of sheep attended the feed trough for less than 0.25 h d-1 (15 min per day) on day 1; this decreased to only 2.4% of sheep by day 6. Of the sheep monitored, 0.93% died (n = 76); Salmonella spp. infection was the leading cause of death (n = 40; 52.6% of all deaths) across all months and was accompanied with inanition. There was marked variability in the average time spent at the feed trough for sheep that died eventually from salmonella/inanition (contributing to the lack of statistical difference in time spent at feed trough between sheep dying from different causes; P = 0.056). Over half (55%) of the animals diagnosed with salmonella/inanition spent an average of less than 0.50 h d-1 (30 min per day) and 45% less than 0.25 h d-1 at the feed trough. There was a negative correlation (r) in time spent at the feed trough overtime for individual sheep that died from salmonella/inanition, indicating that these individuals went off their feed. This pattern was not evident for animals that died from other causes (significant difference in r values between five categories of cause of death; P = 0.040). Characterization of feeding behaviour of sheep that died from salmonella/inanition therefore appears to require more than simply monitoring daily intake. There was no difference in time spent at water troughs

  20. Tracking the conversion of nitrogen during pyrolysis of antibiotic mycelial fermentation residues using XPS and TG-FTIR-MS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiangdong; Yang, Shijun; Wang, Liang; Liu, Yuchen; Qian, Feng; Yao, Wenqing; Zhang, Shicheng; Chen, Jianmin

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotic mycelial fermentation residues (AMFRs), which are emerging solid pollutants, have been recognized as hazardous waste in China since 2008. Nitrogen (N), which is an environmental sensitivity element, is largely retained in AMFR samples derived from fermentation substrates. Pyrolysis is a promising technology for the treatment of solid waste. However, the outcomes of N element during the pyrolysis of AMFRs are still unknown. In this study, the conversion of N element during the pyrolysis of AMFRs was tracked using XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and online TG-FTIR-MS (Thermogravimetry-Fourier transform infrared-Mass spectrometry) technology. In the AMFR sample, organic amine-N, pyrrolic-N, protein-N, pyridinic-N, was the main N-containing species. XPS results indicated that pyrrolic-N and pyridinic-N were retained in the AMFR-derived pyrolysis char. More stable species, such as N-oxide and quaternary-N, were also produced in the char. TG-FTIR-MS results indicated that NH3 and HCN were the main gaseous species, and their contents were closely related to the contents of amine-N and protein-N, and pyrrolic-N and pyridinic-N of AMFRs, respectively. Increases in heating rate enhanced the amounts of NH3 and HCN, but had less of an effect on the degradation degree of AMFRs. N-containing organic compounds, including amine-N, nitrile-N and heterocyclic-N, were discerned from the AMFR pyrolysis process. Their release range was extended with increasing of heating rate and carbon content of AMFR sample. This work will help to take appropriate measure to reduce secondary pollution from the treatment of AMFRs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Test-retest reliability of the KINARM end-point robot for assessment of sensory, motor and neurocognitive function in young adult athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron S Mang

    Full Text Available Current assessment tools for sport-related concussion are limited by a reliance on subjective interpretation and patient symptom reporting. Robotic assessments may provide more objective and precise measures of neurological function than traditional clinical tests.To determine the reliability of assessments of sensory, motor and cognitive function conducted with the KINARM end-point robotic device in young adult elite athletes.Sixty-four randomly selected healthy, young adult elite athletes participated. Twenty-five individuals (25 M, mean age±SD, 20.2±2.1 years participated in a within-season study, where three assessments were conducted within a single season (assessments labeled by session: S1, S2, S3. An additional 39 individuals (28M; 22.8±6.0 years participated in a year-to-year study, where annual pre-season assessments were conducted for three consecutive seasons (assessments labeled by year: Y1, Y2, Y3. Forty-four parameters from five robotic tasks (Visually Guided Reaching, Position Matching, Object Hit, Object Hit and Avoid, and Trail Making B and overall Task Scores describing performance on each task were quantified.Test-retest reliability was determined by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs between the first and second, and second and third assessments. In the within-season study, ICCs were ≥0.50 for 68% of parameters between S1 and S2, 80% of parameters between S2 and S3, and for three of the five Task Scores both between S1 and S2, and S2 and S3. In the year-to-year study, ICCs were ≥0.50 for 64% of parameters between Y1 and Y2, 82% of parameters between Y2 and Y3, and for four of the five Task Scores both between Y1 and Y2, and Y2 and Y3.Overall, the results suggest moderate-to-good test-retest reliability for the majority of parameters measured by the KINARM robot in healthy young adult elite athletes. Future work will consider the potential use of this information for clinical assessment of concussion

  2. Development of a versatile tool for the simultaneous differential detection of Pseudomonas savastanoi pathovars by End Point and Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegli, Stefania; Cerboneschi, Matteo; Libelli, Ilaria Marsili; Santilli, Elena

    2010-05-28

    Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi is the causal agent of olive knot disease. The strains isolated from oleander and ash belong to the pathovars nerii and fraxini, respectively. When artificially inoculated, pv. savastanoi causes disease also on ash, and pv. nerii attacks also olive and ash. Surprisingly nothing is known yet about their distribution in nature on these hosts and if spontaneous cross-infections occur. On the other hand sanitary certification programs for olive plants, also including P. savastanoi, were launched in many countries. The aim of this work was to develop several PCR-based tools for the rapid, simultaneous, differential and quantitative detection of these P. savastanoi pathovars, in multiplex and in planta. Specific PCR primers and probes for the pathovars savastanoi, nerii and fraxini of P. savastanoi were designed to be used in End Point and Real-Time PCR, both with SYBR Green or TaqMan chemistries. The specificity of all these assays was 100%, as assessed by testing forty-four P. savastanoi strains, belonging to the three pathovars and having different geographical origins. For comparison strains from the pathovars phaseolicola and glycinea of P. savastanoi and bacterial epiphytes from P. savastanoi host plants were also assayed, and all of them tested always negative. The analytical detection limits were about 5 - 0.5 pg of pure genomic DNA and about 102 genome equivalents per reaction. Similar analytical thresholds were achieved in Multiplex Real-Time PCR experiments, even on artificially inoculated olive plants. Here for the first time a complex of PCR-based assays were developed for the simultaneous discrimination and detection of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi, pv. nerii and pv. fraxini. These tests were shown to be highly reliable, pathovar-specific, sensitive, rapid and able to quantify these pathogens, both in multiplex reactions and in vivo. Compared with the other methods already available for P. savastanoi, the identification

  3. Tracking the conversion of nitrogen during pyrolysis of antibiotic mycelial fermentation residues using XPS and TG-FTIR-MS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiangdong; Yang, Shijun; Wang, Liang; Liu, Yuchen; Qian, Feng; Yao, Wenqing; Zhang, Shicheng; Chen, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic mycelial fermentation residues (AMFRs), which are emerging solid pollutants, have been recognized as hazardous waste in China since 2008. Nitrogen (N), which is an environmental sensitivity element, is largely retained in AMFR samples derived from fermentation substrates. Pyrolysis is a promising technology for the treatment of solid waste. However, the outcomes of N element during the pyrolysis of AMFRs are still unknown. In this study, the conversion of N element during the pyrolysis of AMFRs was tracked using XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and online TG-FTIR-MS (Thermogravimetry-Fourier transform infrared-Mass spectrometry) technology. In the AMFR sample, organic amine-N, pyrrolic-N, protein-N, pyridinic-N, was the main N-containing species. XPS results indicated that pyrrolic-N and pyridinic-N were retained in the AMFR-derived pyrolysis char. More stable species, such as N-oxide and quaternary-N, were also produced in the char. TG-FTIR-MS results indicated that NH_3 and HCN were the main gaseous species, and their contents were closely related to the contents of amine-N and protein-N, and pyrrolic-N and pyridinic-N of AMFRs, respectively. Increases in heating rate enhanced the amounts of NH_3 and HCN, but had less of an effect on the degradation degree of AMFRs. N-containing organic compounds, including amine-N, nitrile-N and heterocyclic-N, were discerned from the AMFR pyrolysis process. Their release range was extended with increasing of heating rate and carbon content of AMFR sample. This work will help to take appropriate measure to reduce secondary pollution from the treatment of AMFRs. - Highlights: • Hazardous AMFR material was treated by slow pyrolysis reaction. • TG-FTIR-MS were used to study the N conversion for pyrolysis gas and bio-oil. • NH_3 and HCN were observed as the main N-containing gas species. • XPS were used to study the N conversion for pyrolysis char. • Stable species, such as N-oxide and quaternary-N, were

  4. Validation of a method for real time foot position and orientation tracking with Microsoft Kinect technology for use in virtual reality and treadmill based gait training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Gabriele; Peruzzi, Agnese; Mirelman, Anat; Cereatti, Andrea; Gaukrodger, Stephen; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Della Croce, Ugo

    2014-09-01

    The use of virtual reality for the provision of motor-cognitive gait training has been shown to be effective for a variety of patient populations. The interaction between the user and the virtual environment is achieved by tracking the motion of the body parts and replicating it in the virtual environment in real time. In this paper, we present the validation of a novel method for tracking foot position and orientation in real time, based on the Microsoft Kinect technology, to be used for gait training combined with virtual reality. The validation of the motion tracking method was performed by comparing the tracking performance of the new system against a stereo-photogrammetric system used as gold standard. Foot position errors were in the order of a few millimeters (average RMSD from 4.9 to 12.1 mm in the medio-lateral and vertical directions, from 19.4 to 26.5 mm in the anterior-posterior direction); the foot orientation errors were also small (average %RMSD from 5.6% to 8.8% in the medio-lateral and vertical directions, from 15.5% to 18.6% in the anterior-posterior direction). The results suggest that the proposed method can be effectively used to track feet motion in virtual reality and treadmill-based gait training programs.

  5. Implementation of a new blood cooler insert and tracking technology with educational initiatives and its effect on reducing red blood cell wastage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeyi, Emmanuel A; Emery, Wanda; Simmons, Julie H; Jones, Mary Rose; Pomper, Gregory J

    2017-10-01

    The objective was to report a successful implementation of a blood cooler insert and tracking technology with educational initiatives and its effect on reducing red blood cell (RBC) wastage. The blood bank database was used to quantify and categorize total RBC units issued in blood coolers from January 2010 to December 2015 with and without the new inserts throughout the hospital. Radiofrequency identification tags were used with special software to monitor blood cooler tracking. An educational policy on how to handle the coolers was initiated. Data were gathered from the software that provided a real-time location monitoring of the blood coolers with inserts throughout the institution. The implementation of the blood cooler with inserts and tracking device reduced mean yearly RBC wastage by fourfold from 0.64% to 0.17% between 2010 and 2015. The conserved RBCs corresponded to a total cost savings of $167,844 during the 3-year postimplementation period. The implementation of new blood cooler inserts, tracking system, and educational initiatives substantially reduced the mean annual total RBC wastage. The cost to implement this initiative may be small if there is an existing institutional infrastructure to monitor and track hospital equipment into which the blood bank intervention can be adapted when compared to the cost of blood wastage. © 2017 AABB.

  6. Keeping Track of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2009-01-01

    A lack of consistent and accurate auditing and record keeping of district IT equipment can lead to confusion between administrative departments, including redundant purchases, transferred equipment being mislabeled as stolen, computers and other equipment simply being lost, or a variety of other scenarios. This had led to an increased demand for…

  7. A Case Study Application of the Aggregate Exposure Pathway (AEP) and Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) Frameworks to Facilitate the Integration of Human Health and Ecological End Points for Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumulative risk assessment (CRA) methods promote the use of a conceptual site model (CSM) to apportion exposures and integrate risk from multiple stressors. While CSMs may encompass multiple species, evaluating end points across taxa can be challenging due to data availability an...

  8. Plasma triglycerides and cardiovascular events in the Treating to New Targets and Incremental Decrease in End-Points through Aggressive Lipid Lowering trials of statins in patients with coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faergeman, Ole; Holme, Ingar; Fayyad, Rana

    2009-01-01

    We determined the ability of in-trial measurements of triglycerides (TGs) to predict new cardiovascular events (CVEs) using data from the Incremental Decrease in End Points through Aggressive Lipid Lowering (IDEAL) and Treating to New Targets (TNT) trials. The trials compared atorvastatin 80 mg...

  9. The Pop-Up Ads are Among Us: The Invasion of this Game Placement and its Effects on Consumer Technology with the Aid Eye Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Martin De La Martinière Petroll; Paulo Henrique Müller Prado

    2015-01-01

    Companies are investing exponentially in inserting their products and brands in television shows called placement. This empirical article tests the effects of pop-up ad prominence and congruence type of placement on visual attention, memory, attitudes and brand purchase intention by the consumer. From an exploratory and another causal study done in an American university and with the help of Eye Tracking technology, it was found that the prominence significantly impacts the consumer's attenti...

  10. A pattern recognition mezzanine based on associative memory and FPGA technology for L1 track triggering at HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alunni, L.; Biesuz, N.; Bilei, G.M.; Citraro, S.; Crescioli, F.; Fanò, L.; Fedi, G.; Magalotti, D.; Magazzù, G.; Servoli, L.; Storchi, L.; Palla, F.; Placidi, P.; Papi, A.; Piadyk, Y.; Rossi, E.; Spiezia, A.

    2016-01-01

    The increase of luminosity at HL-LHC will require the introduction of tracker information at Level-1 trigger system for the experiments to maintain an acceptable trigger rate to select interesting events despite the one order of magnitude increase in the minimum bias interactions. To extract in the required latency the track information a dedicated hardware has to be used. We present the tests of a prototype system (Pattern Recognition Mezzanine) as core of pattern recognition and track fitting for HL-LHC ATLAS and CMS experiments, combining the power of both Associative Memory custom ASIC and modern Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices.

  11. A pattern recognition mezzanine based on associative memory and FPGA technology for L1 track triggering at HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunni, L.; Biesuz, N.; Bilei, G. M.; Citraro, S.; Crescioli, F.; Fanò, L.; Fedi, G.; Magalotti, D.; Magazzù, G.; Servoli, L.; Storchi, L.; Palla, F.; Placidi, P.; Papi, A.; Piadyk, Y.; Rossi, E.; Spiezia, A.

    2016-07-01

    The increase of luminosity at HL-LHC will require the introduction of tracker information at Level-1 trigger system for the experiments to maintain an acceptable trigger rate to select interesting events despite the one order of magnitude increase in the minimum bias interactions. To extract in the required latency the track information a dedicated hardware has to be used. We present the tests of a prototype system (Pattern Recognition Mezzanine) as core of pattern recognition and track fitting for HL-LHC ATLAS and CMS experiments, combining the power of both Associative Memory custom ASIC and modern Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices.

  12. A pattern recognition mezzanine based on associative memory and FPGA technology for L1 track triggering at HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alunni, L. [INFN Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Biesuz, N. [INFN Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Bilei, G.M. [INFN Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Citraro, S. [Università di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Crescioli, F. [LPNHE, Paris (France); Fanò, L. [INFN Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Fedi, G., E-mail: giacomo.fedi@pi.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Magalotti, D. [INFN Sezione di Perugia (Italy); UNIMORE, Modena (Italy); Magazzù, G. [INFN Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Servoli, L.; Storchi, L. [INFN Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Palla, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Placidi, P. [INFN Sezione di Perugia (Italy); DIEI, Perugia (Italy); Papi, A. [INFN Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Piadyk, Y. [LPNHE, Paris (France); Rossi, E. [INFN Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Spiezia, A. [IHEP (China)

    2016-07-11

    The increase of luminosity at HL-LHC will require the introduction of tracker information at Level-1 trigger system for the experiments to maintain an acceptable trigger rate to select interesting events despite the one order of magnitude increase in the minimum bias interactions. To extract in the required latency the track information a dedicated hardware has to be used. We present the tests of a prototype system (Pattern Recognition Mezzanine) as core of pattern recognition and track fitting for HL-LHC ATLAS and CMS experiments, combining the power of both Associative Memory custom ASIC and modern Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices.

  13. Methods of a large prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point study comparing morning versus evening dosing in hypertensive patients: the Treatment In Morning versus Evening (TIME) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorie, David A; Rogers, Amy; Mackenzie, Isla S; Ford, Ian; Webb, David J; Willams, Bryan; Brown, Morris; Poulter, Neil; Findlay, Evelyn; Saywood, Wendy; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2016-02-09

    Nocturnal blood pressure (BP) appears to be a better predictor of cardiovascular outcome than daytime BP. The BP lowering effects of most antihypertensive therapies are often greater in the first 12 h compared to the next 12 h. The Treatment In Morning versus Evening (TIME) study aims to establish whether evening dosing is more cardioprotective than morning dosing. The TIME study uses the prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point (PROBE) design. TIME recruits participants by advertising in the community, from primary and secondary care, and from databases of consented patients in the UK. Participants must be aged over 18 years, prescribed at least one antihypertensive drug taken once a day, and have a valid email address. After the participants have self-enrolled and consented on the secure TIME website (http://www.timestudy.co.uk) they are randomised to take their antihypertensive medication in the morning or the evening. Participant follow-ups are conducted after 1 month and then every 3 months by automated email. The trial is expected to run for 5 years, randomising 10,269 participants, with average participant follow-up being 4 years. The primary end point is hospitalisation for the composite end point of non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), non-fatal stroke (cerebrovascular accident; CVA) or any vascular death determined by record-linkage. Secondary end points are: each component of the primary end point, hospitalisation for non-fatal stroke, hospitalisation for non-fatal MI, cardiovascular death, all-cause mortality, hospitalisation or death from congestive heart failure. The primary outcome will be a comparison of time to first event comparing morning versus evening dosing using an intention-to-treat analysis. The sample size is calculated for a two-sided test to detect 20% superiority at 80% power. TIME has ethical approval in the UK, and results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. UKCRN17071; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ

  14. 眼球追蹤技術在學習與教育上的應用 Eye Tracking Technology for Learning and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳學志 Hsueh-Chih Chen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 本文目的為對眼球追蹤技術在學習與教育上的應用進行論述。人類的認知訊息處理歷程中有80%以上的訊息是由視覺獲得,而眼球運動也是認知過程中最為重要的感官訊息來源,近來發展的眼球追蹤技術提供了自然且即時的測量來探討認知、情緒、動機等議題,因此,眼球追蹤技術已經被廣泛地使用在各個領域中。本文針對眼球追蹤與眼球追蹤儀的基本概念、眼動指標、操作方法、資料分析方法等進行介紹。並針對眼動與閱讀、眼動與教學、眼動與問題解決及眼動與情意特質的運用等議題進行論述。藉由本文的介紹將使讀者對眼動研究在學習與教育上的應用有基本的認識。 The purpose of this article is to canvass the advantages of using eye-tracking technologies for applications in learning and education. More than 80% of the course of human cognitive processing is based on information acquired from visual modals. Eye movement plays an unrivaled role in inferring a given individual internal state. Recent developments in eye tracking technology have shown a powerful natural and real-time measuring for cognition, emotion, and motivation. This is evidenced from a wide range of reported studies and researches. We reviewed the representative research of reading, problem-solving, teaching, affect disposition, and other issues by displaying how eye-tracking technology can support advanced studies on mental processes. In addition, basic mechanical concepts, indicators, operation methods, and data analysis for the use of eye-tracking technology were introduced and discussed.

  15. The Pop-Up Ads are Among Us: The Invasion of this Game Placement and its Effects on Consumer Technology with the Aid Eye Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin De La Martinière Petroll

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Companies are investing exponentially in inserting their products and brands in television shows called placement. This empirical article tests the effects of pop-up ad prominence and congruence type of placement on visual attention, memory, attitudes and brand purchase intention by the consumer. From an exploratory and another causal study done in an American university and with the help of Eye Tracking technology, it was found that the prominence significantly impacts the consumer's attention, but no significant effects for the other constructs. 

  16. Tracking telecommuting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stastny, P.

    2007-03-15

    Many employees are now choosing to work from home using laptops and telephones. Employers in the oil and gas industry are now reaping a number of benefits from their telecommuting employees, including increased productivity; higher levels of employee satisfaction, and less absenteeism. Providing a telecommunication option can prove to be advantageous for employers wishing to hire or retain employees. Telecommuting may also help to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This article provided details of Teletrips Inc., a company that aids in the production of corporate social responsibility reports. Teletrips provides reports that document employee savings in time, vehicle depreciation maintenance, and gasoline costs. Teletrips currently tracks 12 companies in Calgary, and plans to grow through the development of key technology partnerships. The company is also working with the federal government to provide their clients with emission trading credits, and has forged a memorandum of understanding with the British Columbia government for tracking emissions. Calgary now openly supports telecommuting and is encouraging businesses in the city to adopt telecommuting on a larger scale. It was concluded that the expanding needs for road infrastructure and the energy used by cars to move workers in and out of the city are a massive burden to the city's tax base. 1 fig.

  17. Eye-Tracking Technology and the Dynamics of Natural Gaze Behavior in Sports: A Systematic Review of 40 Years of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kredel, Ralf; Vater, Christian; Klostermann, André; Hossner, Ernst-Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Reviewing 60 studies on natural gaze behavior in sports, it becomes clear that, over the last 40 years, the use of eye-tracking devices has considerably increased. Specifically, this review reveals the large variance of methods applied, analyses performed, and measures derived within the field. The results of sub-sample analyses suggest that sports-related eye-tracking research strives, on the one hand, for ecologically valid test settings (i.e., viewing conditions and response modes), while on the other, for experimental control along with high measurement accuracy (i.e., controlled test conditions with high-frequency eye-trackers linked to algorithmic analyses). To meet both demands, some promising compromises of methodological solutions have been proposed-in particular, the integration of robust mobile eye-trackers in motion-capture systems. However, as the fundamental trade-off between laboratory and field research cannot be solved by technological means, researchers need to carefully weigh the arguments for one or the other approach by accounting for the respective consequences. Nevertheless, for future research on dynamic gaze behavior in sports, further development of the current mobile eye-tracking methodology seems highly advisable to allow for the acquisition and algorithmic analyses of larger amounts of gaze-data and further, to increase the explanatory power of the derived results.

  18. Eye-Tracking Technology and the Dynamics of Natural Gaze Behavior in Sports: A Systematic Review of 40 Years of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Kredel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Reviewing 60 studies on natural gaze behavior in sports, it becomes clear that, over the last 40 years, the use of eye-tracking devices has considerably increased. Specifically, this review reveals the large variance of methods applied, analyses performed, and measures derived within the field. The results of sub-sample analyses suggest that sports-related eye-tracking research strives, on the one hand, for ecologically valid test settings (i.e., viewing conditions and response modes, while on the other, for experimental control along with high measurement accuracy (i.e., controlled test conditions with high-frequency eye-trackers linked to algorithmic analyses. To meet both demands, some promising compromises of methodological solutions have been proposed—in particular, the integration of robust mobile eye-trackers in motion-capture systems. However, as the fundamental trade-off between laboratory and field research cannot be solved by technological means, researchers need to carefully weigh the arguments for one or the other approach by accounting for the respective consequences. Nevertheless, for future research on dynamic gaze behavior in sports, further development of the current mobile eye-tracking methodology seems highly advisable to allow for the acquisition and algorithmic analyses of larger amounts of gaze-data and further, to increase the explanatory power of the derived results.

  19. Radiological source tracking in oil/gas, medical and other industries: requirements and specifications for passive RFID technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowla, Farid U. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Subsurface sensors that employ radioisotopes, such 241Am-Be and 137Cs, for reservoir characterization must be tracked for safety and security reasons. Other radiological sources are also widely used in medicine. The radiological source containers, in both applications, are small, mobile and used widely worldwide. The nuclear sources pose radiological dispersal device (RDD) security risks. Security concerns with the industrial use of radionuclide sources is in fact quite high as it is estimated that each year hundreds of sealed sources go missing, either lost or stolen. Risk mitigation efforts include enhanced regulations, source-use guidelines, research and development on electronic tracking of sources. This report summarizes the major elements of the requirements and operational concepts of nuclear sources with the goal of developing automated electronic tagging and locating systems.

  20. Quantifying Novice and Expert Differences in Visual Diagnostic Reasoning in Veterinary Pathology Using Eye-Tracking Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Amy L; Donnon, Tyrone L; Wagg, Catherine R; Priest, Heather; Fernandez, Nicole J

    2018-01-18

    Visual diagnostic reasoning is the cognitive process by which pathologists reach a diagnosis based on visual stimuli (cytologic, histopathologic, or gross imagery). Currently, there is little to no literature examining visual reasoning in veterinary pathology. The objective of the study was to use eye tracking to establish baseline quantitative and qualitative differences between the visual reasoning processes of novice and expert veterinary pathologists viewing cytology specimens. Novice and expert participants were each shown 10 cytology images and asked to formulate a diagnosis while wearing eye-tracking equipment (10 slides) and while concurrently verbalizing their thought processes using the think-aloud protocol (5 slides). Compared to novices, experts demonstrated significantly higher diagnostic accuracy (preasoning and script-inductive knowledge structures with system 2 (analytic) reasoning to verify their diagnosis.

  1. Preliminary Experience Using Eye-Tracking Technology to Differentiate Novice and Expert Image Interpretation for Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Lindsay K; Harrison, T Kyle; Kou, Alex; Mariano, Edward R; Udani, Ankeet D; Kim, T Edward; Shum, Cynthia; Howard, Steven K

    2018-02-01

    Objective measures are needed to guide the novice's pathway to expertise. Within and outside medicine, eye tracking has been used for both training and assessment. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that eye tracking may differentiate novices from experts in static image interpretation for ultrasound (US)-guided regional anesthesia. We recruited novice anesthesiology residents and regional anesthesiology experts. Participants wore eye-tracking glasses, were shown 5 sonograms of US-guided regional anesthesia, and were asked a series of anatomy-based questions related to each image while their eye movements were recorded. The answer to each question was a location on the sonogram, defined as the area of interest (AOI). The primary outcome was the total gaze time in the AOI (seconds). Secondary outcomes were the total gaze time outside the AOI (seconds), total time to answer (seconds), and time to first fixation on the AOI (seconds). Five novices and 5 experts completed the study. Although the gaze time (mean ± SD) in the AOI was not different between groups (7 ± 4 seconds for novices and 7 ± 3 seconds for experts; P = .150), the gaze time outside the AOI was greater for novices (75 ± 18 versus 44 ± 4 seconds for experts; P = .005). The total time to answer and total time to first fixation in the AOI were both shorter for experts. Experts in US-guided regional anesthesia take less time to identify sonoanatomy and spend less unfocused time away from a target compared to novices. Eye tracking is a potentially useful tool to differentiate novices from experts in the domain of US image interpretation. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  2. Tracking Porters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Maja Hojer; Krause-Jensen, Jakob; Saltofte, Margit

    2015-01-01

    . In this chapter, we argue that although anthropology has its specific methodology – including a myriad of ethnographic data-gathering tools, techniques, analytical approaches and theories – it must first and foremost be understood as a craft. Anthropology as craft requires a specific ‘anthropological sensibility......’ that differs from the standardized procedures of normal science. To establish our points we use an example of problem-based project work conducted by a group of Techno-Anthropology students at Aalborg University, we focus on key aspects of this craft and how the students began to learn it: For two weeks...... the students followed the work of a group of porters. Drawing on anthropological concepts and research strategies the students gained crucial insights about the potential effects of using tracking technologies in the hospital....

  3. Exploring Transduction Mechanisms of Protein Transduction Domains (PTDs in Living Cells Utilizing Single-Quantum Dot Tracking (SQT Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Suzuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific protein domains known as protein transduction domains (PTDs can permeate cell membranes and deliver proteins or bioactive materials into living cells. Various approaches have been applied for improving their transduction efficacy. It is, therefore, crucial to clarify the entry mechanisms and to identify the rate-limiting steps. Because of technical limitations for imaging PTD behavior on cells with conventional fluorescent-dyes, how PTDs enter the cells has been a topic of much debate. Utilizing quantum dots (QDs, we recently tracked the behavior of PTD that was derived from HIV-1 Tat (TatP in living cells at the single-molecule level with 7-nm special precision. In this review article, we initially summarize the controversy on TatP entry mechanisms; thereafter, we will focus on our recent findings on single-TatP-QD tracking (SQT, to identify the major sequential steps of intracellular delivery in living cells and to discuss how SQT can easily provide direct information on TatP entry mechanisms. As a primer for SQT study, we also discuss the latest findings on single particle tracking of various molecules on the plasma membrane. Finally, we discuss the problems of QDs and the challenges for the future in utilizing currently available QD probes for SQT. In conclusion, direct identification of the rate-limiting steps of PTD entry with SQT should dramatically improve the methods for enhancing transduction efficiency.

  4. Difference in Composite End Point of Readmission and Death Between Malnourished and Nonmalnourished Veterans Assessed Using Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Clinical Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Lynn D; Shaw, Robert F; Fabri, Peter J

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an association between malnutrition and poor outcomes. The primary objective of this study was to explore the difference in the composite end point of readmission rate or mortality rate between hospitalized veterans with and without malnutrition. This was a retrospective chart review comparing veterans with malnutrition based on a modified version of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition consensus characteristics that used 5 of the 6 clinical characteristics to a matched control group of nonmalnourished veterans based on age, admitting service, and date of admission who were admitted between August 1, 2012, and December 1, 2014. Data were extracted from the medical record. Multivariate analysis was used to identify predictors of outcomes. In total, 404 patients were included in the final analysis. All end points were found to be statistically significant. The malnourished group was more likely to meet the composite end point (odds ratio [OR], 5.3), more likely to be readmitted within 30 days (OR, 3.4), more likely to die within 90 days of discharge (OR, 5.5), and more likely to have a length of stay >7 days (OR, 4.3) compared with the nonmalnourished group. Length of stay was significantly longer in the malnourished group, 9.80 (11.5) vs 4.38 (4.5) days. Malnutrition was an independent risk factor for readmission within 30 days or death within 90 days of discharge. Malnourished patients had higher rates of readmission, higher mortality rates, and longer lengths of stay and were more likely to be discharged to nursing homes.

  5. Negotiating Family Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Bøge, Ask Risom; Sonne Damkjær, Maja

    This presentation explores the question: What motivates the use of tracking technologies in families, and how does the use transform the relations between parent and child? The purpose is to investigate why tracking technologies are used in families and how these technologies potentially change...... the relation between parents and children. The use of tracking technologies in families implicate negotiations about the boundaries of trust and intimacy in parent-child relations which can lead to strategies of resistance or modification (Fotel and Thomsen, 2004; Rooney, 2010; Steeves and Jones, 2010......). In the presentation, we report from a qualitative study that focuses on intergenerational relations. The study draws on empirical data from workshops with Danish families as well as individual and group interviews. We aim to gain insights about the sharing habits and negotiations in intimate family relations...

  6. A review of technology for contact protection of remediation manipulators (WHC Issue 39)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunborg, S.

    1994-09-01

    Remediation of waste from Underground Storage Tanks (UST) at Hanford will require the use of large remotely controlled equipment. Inherent safety methods need to be identified and incorporated into the retrieval system to prevent contact damage to the UST or to the remediation equipment. This report discusses the requirements for an adequate protection system and reviews the major technologies available for inclusion in a damage protection system. The report proposes that adequate reliability of a protection system can be achieved through the use of two fully-independent subsafety systems. Safety systems technologies reviewed were Force/Torque Sensors, Overload Protection Devices, Ultrasonic Sensors, Capacitance Sensors, Controller Software Limit Graphic Collision Detection, and End Point Tracking. A relative comparison between retrieval systems protection technologies is presented

  7. SEARCHING THE RIGHT TRACKS OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN THE EARTH RACE FOR A BALANCE BETWEEN PROGRESS AND SURVIVAL

    OpenAIRE

    GREU, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the actual World major challenges, which could require priority technological solutions from the information and communications technologies (ICT) field, but not exclusively from this area. The main point of the paper is to emphasize the importance, for the actual information society (IS) and for the following Knowledge Based Society (KBS), of perceiving the gravity of these challenges, which appear as a companion of the general race for progress, as they put...

  8. Large scale tracking algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Ross L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Love, Joshua Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Melgaard, David Kennett [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Karelitz, David B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pitts, Todd Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zollweg, Joshua David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anderson, Dylan Z. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nandy, Prabal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whitlow, Gary L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bender, Daniel A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Byrne, Raymond Harry [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  9. Preliminary results of tracked photorefractive keratectomy (T-PRK) for mild to moderate myopia with the autonomous technologies excimer laser at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguen, Ezra I.; Salz, James J.; Nesburn, Anthony B.

    1997-05-01

    Preliminary results of the correction of myopia up to -7.00 D by tracked photorefractive keratectomy (T-PRK) with a scanning and tracking excimer laser by Autonomous Technologies are discussed. 41 eyes participated (20 males). 28 eyes were evaluated one month postop. At epithelization day mean uncorrected vision was 20/45.3. At one month postop, 92.8 of eyes were 20/40 and 46.4% were 20/20. No eye was worse than 20/50. 75% of eyes were within +/- 0.5 D of emmetropia and 82% were within +/- 1.00 D of emmetropia. Eyes corrected for monovision were included. One eye lost 3 lines of best corrected vision, and had more than 1.00 D induced astigmatism due to a central corneal ulcer. Additional complications included symptomatic recurrent corneal erosions which were controlled with topical hypertonic saline. T-PRK appears to allow effective correction of low to moderate myopia. Further study will establish safety and efficacy of the procedure.

  10. The effects on grid matching and ramping requirements, of single and distributed PV systems employing various fixed and sun-tracking technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, A.A.; Faiman, D.; Meron, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this second paper, which studies the hourly generation data from the Israel Electric Corporation for the year 2006, with a view to adding very large-scale photovoltaic power (VLS-PV) plants, three major extensions are made to the results reported in our first paper. In the first extension, PV system simulations are extended to include the cases of 1- and 2-axis sun-tracking, and 2-axis concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) technologies. Secondly, the effect of distributing VLS-PV plants among 8 Negev locations, for which hourly metrological data exist, is studied. Thirdly, in addition to studying the effect of VLS-PV on grid penetration, the present paper studies its effect on grid ramping requirements. The principal results are as follows: (i) sun-tracking improves grid matching at high but not low levels of grid flexibility; (ii) geographical distribution has little effect on grid penetration; (iii) VLS-PV significantly increases grid ramping requirements, particularly for CPV systems, but not beyond existing ramping capabilities; (iv) geographical distribution considerably ameliorates this effect.

  11. Study on the clinical application of pulsed DC magnetic technology for tracking of intraoperative head motion during frameless stereotaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stendel Rüdiger

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracking of post-registration head motion is one of the major problems in frameless stereotaxy. Various attempts in detecting and compensating for this phenomenon rely on a fixed reference device rigidly attached to the patient's head. However, most of such reference tools are either based on an invasive fixation technique or have physical limitations which allow mobility of the head only in a restricted range of motion after completion of the registration procedure. Methods A new sensor-based reference tool, the so-called Dynamic Reference Frame (DRF which is designed to allow an unrestricted, 360° range of motion for the intraoperative use in pulsed DC magnetic navigation was tested in 40 patients. Different methods of non-invasive attachment dependent on the clinical need and type of procedure, as well as the resulting accuracies in the clinical application have been analyzed. Results Apart from conventional, completely rigid immobilization of the head (type A, four additional modes of head fixation and attachment of the DRF were distinguished on clinical grounds: type B1 = pin fixation plus oral DRF attachment; type B2 = pin fixation plus retroauricular DRF attachment; type C1 = free head positioning with oral DRF; and type C2 = free head positioning with retroauricular DRF. Mean fiducial registration errors (FRE were as follows: type A interventions = 1.51 mm, B1 = 1.56 mm, B2 = 1.54 mm, C1 = 1.73 mm, and C2 = 1.75 mm. The mean position errors determined at the end of the intervention as a measure of application accuracy were: 1.45 mm in type A interventions, 1.26 mm in type B1, 1.44 mm in type B2, 1.86 mm in type C1, and 1.68 mm in type C2. Conclusion Rigid head immobilization guarantees most reliable accuracy in various types of frameless stereotaxy. The use of an additional DRF, however, increases the application scope of frameless stereotaxy to include e.g. procedures in which rigid pin fixation of the cranium is

  12. Text-mining as a methodology to assess eating disorder-relevant factors: Comparing mentions of fitness tracking technology across online communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaig, Duncan; Bhatia, Sudeep; Elliott, Mark T; Walasek, Lukasz; Meyer, Caroline

    2018-05-07

    Text-mining offers a technique to identify and extract information from a large corpus of textual data. As an example, this study presents the application of text-mining to assess and compare interest in fitness tracking technology across eating disorder and health-related online communities. A list of fitness tracking technology terms was developed, and communities (i.e., 'subreddits') on a large online discussion platform (Reddit) were compared regarding the frequency with which these terms occurred. The corpus used in this study comprised all comments posted between May 2015 and January 2018 (inclusive) on six subreddits-three eating disorder-related, and three relating to either fitness, weight-management, or nutrition. All comments relating to the same 'thread' (i.e., conversation) were concatenated, and formed the cases used in this study (N = 377,276). Within the eating disorder-related subreddits, the findings indicated that a 'pro-eating disorder' subreddit, which is less recovery focused than the other eating disorder subreddits, had the highest frequency of fitness tracker terms. Across all subreddits, the weight-management subreddit had the highest frequency of the fitness tracker terms' occurrence, and MyFitnessPal was the most frequently mentioned fitness tracker. The technique exemplified here can potentially be used to assess group differences to identify at-risk populations, generate and explore clinically relevant research questions in populations who are difficult to recruit, and scope an area for which there is little extant literature. The technique also facilitates methodological triangulation of research findings obtained through more 'traditional' techniques, such as surveys or interviews. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. High-accuracy vibration sensor based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer with active phase-tracking technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Li, Chuncheng; Hao, Hui; Wang, Yiping; Ni, Xiaoqi; Guo, Dongmei; Wang, Ming

    2018-02-01

    A novel position-sensitive Fabry-Perot interferometer was constructed with direct phase modulation by a built-in electro-optic modulator. Pure sinusoidal phase modulation of the light was produced, and the first harmonic of the interference signal was extracted to dynamically maintain the interferometer phase to the most sensitive point of the interferogram. Therefore, the minute vibration of the object was coded on the variation of the interference signal and could be directly retrieved by the output voltage of a photodetector. The operating principle and the signal processing method for active feedback control of the interference phase have been demonstrated in detail. The developed vibration sensor was calibrated through a high-precision piezo-electric transducer and tested by a nano-positioning stage under a vibration magnitude of 60 nm and a frequency of 300 Hz. The active phase-tracking method of the system provides high immunity against environmental disturbances. Experimental results show that the proposed interferometer can effectively reconstruct tiny vibration waveforms with subnanometer resolution, paving the way for high-accuracy vibration sensing, especially for micro-electro-mechanical systems/nano-electro-mechanical systems and ultrasonic devices.

  14. Individual patient data analysis of progression-free survival versus overall survival as a first-line end point for metastatic colorectal cancer in modern randomized trials: findings from the analysis and research in cancers of the digestive system database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qian; de Gramont, Aimery; Grothey, Axel; Zalcberg, John; Chibaudel, Benoist; Schmoll, Hans-Joachim; Seymour, Matthew T; Adams, Richard; Saltz, Leonard; Goldberg, Richard M; Punt, Cornelis J A; Douillard, Jean-Yves; Hoff, Paulo M; Hecht, Joel Randolph; Hurwitz, Herbert; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo; Porschen, Rainer; Tebbutt, Niall C; Fuchs, Charles; Souglakos, John; Falcone, Alfredo; Tournigand, Christophe; Kabbinavar, Fairooz F; Heinemann, Volker; Van Cutsem, Eric; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Buyse, Marc; Sargent, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Progression-free survival (PFS) has previously been established as a surrogate for overall survival (OS) for first-line metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Because mCRC treatment has advanced in the last decade with extended OS, this surrogacy requires re-examination. Individual patient data from 16,762 patients were available from 22 first-line mCRC studies conducted from 1997 to 2006; 12 of those studies tested antiangiogenic and/or anti-epidermal growth factor receptor agents. The relationship between PFS (first event of progression or death) and OS was evaluated by using R(2) statistics (the closer the value is to 1, the stronger the correlation) from weighted least squares regression of trial-specific hazard ratios estimated by using Cox and Copula models. Forty-four percent of patients received a regimen that included biologic agents. Median first-line PFS was 8.3 months, and median OS was 18.2 months. The correlation between PFS and OS was modest (R(2), 0.45 to 0.69). Analyses limited to trials that tested treatments with biologic agents, nonstrategy trials, or superiority trials did not improve surrogacy. In modern mCRC trials, in which survival after the first progression exceeds time to first progression, a positive but modest correlation was observed between OS and PFS at both the patient and trial levels. This finding demonstrates the substantial variability in OS introduced by the number of lines of therapy and types of effective subsequent treatments and the associated challenge to the use of OS as an end point to assess the benefit attributable to a single line of therapy. PFS remains an appropriate primary end point for first-line mCRC trials to detect the direct treatment effect of new agents. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  15. Multicentre, prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end point trial of the efficacy of allopurinol therapy in improving cardiovascular outcomes in patients with ischaemic heart disease: protocol of the ALL-HEART study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Isla S; Ford, Ian; Walker, Andrew; Hawkey, Chris; Begg, Alan; Avery, Anthony; Taggar, Jaspal; Wei, Li; Struthers, Allan D; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2016-09-08

    Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the most common causes of death in the UK and treatment of patients with IHD costs the National Health System (NHS) billions of pounds each year. Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor used to prevent gout that also has several positive effects on the cardiovascular system. The ALL-HEART study aims to determine whether allopurinol improves cardiovascular outcomes in patients with IHD. The ALL-HEART study is a multicentre, controlled, prospective, randomised, open-label blinded end point (PROBE) trial of allopurinol (up to 600 mg daily) versus no treatment in a 1:1 ratio, added to usual care, in 5215 patients aged 60 years and over with IHD. Patients are followed up by electronic record linkage and annual questionnaires for an average of 4 years. The primary outcome is the composite of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke or cardiovascular death. Secondary outcomes include all-cause mortality, quality of life and cost-effectiveness of allopurinol. The study will end when 631 adjudicated primary outcomes have occurred. The study is powered at 80% to detect a 20% reduction in the primary end point for the intervention. Patient recruitment to the ALL-HEART study started in February 2014. The study received ethical approval from the East of Scotland Research Ethics Service (EoSRES) REC 2 (13/ES/0104). The study is event-driven and results are expected after 2019. Results will be reported in peer-reviewed journals and at scientific meetings. Results will also be disseminated to guideline committees, NHS organisations and patient groups. 32017426, pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Particle tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mais, H.; Ripken, G.; Wrulich, A.; Schmidt, F.

    1986-02-01

    After a brief description of typical applications of particle tracking in storage rings and after a short discussion of some limitations and problems related with tracking we summarize some concepts and methods developed in the qualitative theory of dynamical systems. We show how these concepts can be applied to the proton ring HERA. (orig.)

  17. Track counting in radon dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenbeck, Ingo; Koehler, Bernd; Reichert, Klaus-Martin

    2013-01-01

    The newly developed, computer-controlled track counting system is capable of imaging and analyzing the entire area of nuclear track detectors. The high optical resolution allows a new analysis approach for the process of automated counting using digital image processing technologies. This way, higher exposed detectors can be evaluated reliably by an automated process as well. (orig.)

  18. Making tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-10-15

    In many modern tracking chambers, the sense wires, rather than being lined up uniformly, are grouped into clusters to facilitate the pattern recognition process. However, with higher energy machines providing collisions richer in secondary particles, event reconstruction becomes more complicated. A Caltech / Illinois / SLAC / Washington group developed an ingenious track finding and fitting approach for the Mark III detector used at the SPEAR electron-positron ring at SLAC (Stanford). This capitalizes on the detector's triggering, which uses programmable logic circuits operating in parallel, each 'knowing' the cell patterns for all tracks passing through a specific portion of the tracker (drift chamber)

  19. Efficacy and tolerability balance of oxycodone/naloxone and tapentadol in chronic low back pain with a neuropathic component: a blinded end point analysis of randomly selected routine data from 12-week prospective open-label observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueberall, Michael A; Mueller-Schwefe, Gerhard H H

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the benefit-risk profile (BRP) of oxycodone/naloxone (OXN) and tapentadol (TAP) in patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) with a neuropathic component (NC) in routine clinical practice. This was a blinded end point analysis of randomly selected 12-week routine/open-label data of the German Pain Registry on adult patients with cLBP-NC who initiated an index treatment in compliance with the current German prescribing information between 1st January and 31st October 2015 (OXN/TAP, n=128/133). Primary end point was defined as a composite of three efficacy components (≥30% improvement of pain, pain-related disability, and quality of life each at the end of observation vs baseline) and three tolerability components (normal bowel function, absence of either central nervous system side effects, and treatment-emergent adverse event [TEAE]-related treatment discontinuation during the observation period) adopted to reflect BRP assessments under real-life conditions. Demographic as well as baseline and pretreatment characteristics were comparable for the randomly selected data sets of both index groups without any indicators for critical selection biases. Treatment with OXN resulted formally in a BRP noninferior to that of TAP and showed a significantly higher primary end point response vs TAP (39.8% vs 25.6%, odds ratio: 1.93; P =0.014), due to superior analgesic effects. Between-group differences increased with stricter response definitions for all three efficacy components in favor of OXN: ≥30%/≥50%/≥70% response rates for OXN vs TAP were seen for pain intensity in 85.2%/67.2%/39.1% vs 83.5%/54.1%/15.8% ( P = ns/0.031/<0.001), for pain-related disability in 78.1%/64.8%/43.8% vs 66.9%/50.4%/24.8% ( P =0.043/0.018/0.001), and for quality of life in 76.6%/68.0%/50.0% vs 63.9%/54.1%/34.6% ( P =0.026/0.022/0.017). Overall, OXN vs TAP treatments were well tolerated, and proportions of patients who either maintained a normal bowel function (68.0% vs 72

  20. Why tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchart, J.; Kral, J.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison is made of two methods of determining the age of rocks, ie., the krypton-argon method and the fission tracks method. The former method is more accurate but is dependent on the temperature and on the grain size of the investigated rocks (apatites, biotites, muscovites). As for the method of fission tracks, the determination is not dependent on grain size. This method allows dating and the determination of uranium concentration and distribution in rocks. (H.S.)

  1. An analysis of clinical and treatment related prognostic factors on outcome using biochemical control as an end-point in patients with prostate cancer treated with external beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, Eric M.; Vicini, Frank A.; Ziaja, Ellen L.; Dmuchowski, Carl F.; Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Gustafson, Gary S.; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: We reviewed our institution's experience in treating patients with clinically localized prostate cancer with external beam irradiation (RT) to determine if previously analyzed clinical and treatment related prognostic factors affected outcome when biochemical control was used as an end-point to evaluate results. Materials and methods: Between 1 January 1987 and 31 December 1991, 470 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with external beam RT using localized prostate fields at William Beaumont Hospital. Biochemical control was defined as PSA nadir ≤1.5 ng/ml within 1 year of treatment. After achieving nadir, if two consecutive increases of PSA were noted, the patient was scored a failure at the time of the first increase. Prognostic factors, including the total number of days in treatment, the method of diagnosis, a history of any pretreatment transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and the type of boost were analyzed. Results: Median follow-up was 48 months. No statistically significant difference in rates of biochemical control were noted for treatment time, overall time (date of biopsy to completion of RT), history of any pretreatment TURP, history of diagnosis by TURP, or boost techniques. Patients diagnosed by TURP had a significant improvement in the overall rate of biochemical control (P < 0.03) compared to transrectal/transperineal biopsy. The 5-year actuarial rates were 58 versus 39%, respectively. This improvement was not evident when pretreatment PSA, T stage, or Gleason score were controlled for. On multivariate analysis, no variable was associated with outcome. When analysis was limited to a more favorable group of patients (T1/T2 tumors, pretreatment PSA ≤20 ng/ml and Gleason score <7), none of these variables were significantly predictive of biochemical control when controlling for pretreatment PSA, T stage and Gleason score. Conclusions: No significant effect of treatment time, overall time, pretreatment

  2. Re-analysis of clinical and treatment related prognostic factors on outcome using biochemical control as an end-point in patients with prostate cancer treated with external beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziaja, Ellen L.; Horwitz, Eric M.; Vicini, Frank A.; Dmuchowski, Carl F.; Brabbins, Donald S.; Gustafson, Gary S.; Hollander, Jay; Matter, Richard C.; Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate specific antigen (PSA) has been established as the most important prognostic factor for prostate cancer. We reviewed our experience treating patients with clinically localized prostate cancer with external beam irradiation (RT) to evaluate if previously defined clinical and treatment related prognostic factors remain valid when biochemical control was used as an end-point to evaluate results. Methods and Materials: Between 1/87 and 12/91, 480 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer received external beam irradiation (RT) using localized prostate fields at William Beaumont Hospital. The median dose to the prostate was 66.6 Gy (range 58 - 70.4 Gy) using a 4 field or arc technique. Pre- and post-treatment serum PSA levels were recorded. Biochemical control was defined as PSA nadir ≤ 1.5 ng/ml within 1 year of treatment completion. After achieving nadir, if 2 consecutive increases of PSA were noted, the patient was scored a failure at the time of the first increase. Patients (pts) were divided into 3 groups according to total number of days on treatment: ≤ 49 days (≤ 7 weeks)- 21 pts; 50-63 days (8-9 weeks)- 429 pts; and ≥ 64 days (≥ 9 weeks)- 15 pts. Patients were also divided into groups with respect to the method of diagnosis: TURP (81 pts), or other means (399 pts). Patients were further divided into 2 groups: 1) if they had ever had a pre-treatment TURP (170 pts) or 2) if they had not (310 pts). Patients were divided into 2 groups according to boost technique: bilateral arcs (459 pts) or 4 field box (21 pts). Patients were also divided into groups according to total RT dose: ≤ 70 Gy (421 pts) or > 70 Gy (59 pts). Patients were further subdivided into 3 dose groups: 70 Gy (59 pts). Results: Median follow-up is 48 months (range 3 - 112 months). No statistically significant difference in rates of biochemical control were noted for treatment time, overall time (date of biopsy to completion of RT), or treatment time divided into

  3. The track nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, A.; Forsyth, D.; Watts, A.; Saad, A.F.; Mitchell, G.R.; Farmer, M.; Harris, P.J.F.

    2009-01-01

    The discipline now called Solid State Nuclear Track Detection (SSNTD) dates back to 1958 and has its roots in the United Kingdom. Its strength stems chiefly from factors such as its simplicity, small geometry, permanent maintenance of the nuclear record and other diversified applications. A very important field with exciting applications reported recently in conjuction with the nuclear track technique is nanotechnology, which has applications in biology, chemistry, industry, medicare and health, information technology, biotechnology, and metallurgical and chemical technologies. Nanotechnology requires material design followed by the study of the quantum effects for final produced applications in sensors, medical diagnosis, information technology to name a few. We, in this article, present a review of past and present applications of SSNTD suggesting ways to apply the technique in nanotechnology, with special reference to development of nanostructure for applications utilising nanowires, nanofilters and sensors.

  4. The track nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waheed, A. [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AF (United Kingdom); Forsyth, D., E-mail: dforsyth@bite.ac.u [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Watts, A. [Department of Physics, UCL, London Centre of Nanotechnology (LCN), 17-19 Gordon Street, London WC1H OAH (United Kingdom); Saad, A.F. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Garyounis University, Benghazi (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya); Mitchell, G.R. [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AF (United Kingdom); Farmer, M. [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Harris, P.J.F. [Physics Department, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AF (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    The discipline now called Solid State Nuclear Track Detection (SSNTD) dates back to 1958 and has its roots in the United Kingdom. Its strength stems chiefly from factors such as its simplicity, small geometry, permanent maintenance of the nuclear record and other diversified applications. A very important field with exciting applications reported recently in conjuction with the nuclear track technique is nanotechnology, which has applications in biology, chemistry, industry, medicare and health, information technology, biotechnology, and metallurgical and chemical technologies. Nanotechnology requires material design followed by the study of the quantum effects for final produced applications in sensors, medical diagnosis, information technology to name a few. We, in this article, present a review of past and present applications of SSNTD suggesting ways to apply the technique in nanotechnology, with special reference to development of nanostructure for applications utilising nanowires, nanofilters and sensors.

  5. Congestive heart failure is associated with lipoprotein components in statin-treated patients with coronary heart disease Insights from the Incremental Decrease in End points Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering Trial (IDEAL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Ingar; Strandberg, Timo E; Faergeman, Ole

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Very few, if any, studies have assessed the ability of apolipoproteins to predict new-onset of congestive heart failure (HF) in statin-treated patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). AIMS: To employ the Incremental Decrease in End points Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering Trial...... with the occurrence of new-onset HF. Variables related to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) carried less predictive information than those related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and apoA-1 was the single variable most strongly associated with HF. LDL-C was less predictive than both non......-HDL-C (total cholesterol minus HDL-C) and apoB. The ratio of apoB to apoA-1 was most strongly related to HF after adjustment for potential confounders, among which diabetes had a stronger correlation with HF than did hypertension. ApoB/apoA-1 carried approximately 2.2 times more of the statistical information...

  6. TRAIL Activates a Caspase 9/7-Dependent Pathway in Caspase 8/10-Defective SK-N-SH Neuroblastoma Cells with Two Functional End Points: Induction of Apoptosis and PGE2 Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Zauli

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Most neuroblastoma cell lines do not express apical caspases 8 and 10, which play a key role in mediating tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL cytotoxicity in a variety of malignant cell types. In this study, we demonstrated that TRAIL induced a moderate but significant increase of apoptosis in the caspase 8/10-deficient SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cell line, through activation of a novel caspase 9/7 pathway. Concomitant to the induction of apoptosis, TRAIL also promoted a significant increase of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 release by SKN-SH cells. Moreover, coadministration of TRAIL plus indomethacin, a pharmacological inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX, showed an additive effect on SKN-SH cell death. In spite of the ability of TRAIL to promote the phosphorylation of both ERKi/2 and p38/MAPK, which have been involved in the control of COX expression/activity, neither PD98059 nor SB203580, pharmacological inhibitors of the ERKi/2 and p38/MAPK pathways, respectively, affected either PGE2 production or apoptosis induced by TRAIL. Finally, both induction of apoptosis and PGE2 release were completely abrogated by the broad caspase inhibitor z-VAD4mk, suggesting that both biologic end points were regulated in SK-N-SH cells through a caspase 9/7-dependent pathway.

  7. Eye tracking in user experience design

    CERN Document Server

    Romano Bergstorm, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Eye Tracking for User Experience Design explores the many applications of eye tracking to better understand how users view and interact with technology. Ten leading experts in eye tracking discuss how they have taken advantage of this new technology to understand, design, and evaluate user experience. Real-world stories are included from these experts who have used eye tracking during the design and development of products ranging from information websites to immersive games. They also explore recent advances in the technology which tracks how users interact with mobile devices, large-screen displays and video game consoles. Methods for combining eye tracking with other research techniques for a more holistic understanding of the user experience are discussed. This is an invaluable resource to those who want to learn how eye tracking can be used to better understand and design for their users. * Includes highly relevant examples and information for those who perform user research and design interactive experi...

  8. Measurement of photo-neutron cross sections and isomeric yield ratios in the {sup 89}Y(γ,xn){sup 89-x}Y reactions at the bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 65, 70 and 75 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatari, Mansoureh [Yazd Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Physics Dept.; Naik, Haladhara [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiochemistry Div.; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Kwangsoo [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Physics; Shin, Sung-Gyun; Cho, Moo-Hyun [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Advanced Nuclear Engineering

    2017-07-01

    The flux-weighted average cross sections of the {sup 89}Y(γ,xn; x=1-4){sup 89-x}Y reactions and the isomeric yield ratios of the {sup 87m,g}Y, {sup 86m,g}Y, and {sup 85m,g}Y radionuclides produced in these reactions with the bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 65, 70 and 75 MeV have been determined by an activation and off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique using the 100 MeV electron linac in Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Korea. The theoretical {sup 89}Y(γ,xn; x=1-4){sup 89-x}Y reaction cross sections for mono-energetic photons have been calculated using the computer code TALYS 1.6. Then the flux-weighted theoretical values were obtained to compare with the present data. The flux-weighted experimental and theoretical {sup 89}Y(γ,xn; x=1-4){sup 89-x}Y reaction cross sections increase very fast from the threshold values to a certain bremsstrahlung energy, where the other reaction channels open up. Thereafter it remains constant a while and then slowly decreases with the increase of cross sections for other reactions. Similarly, the isomeric yield ratios of {sup 87m,g}Y, {sup 86m,g}Y and {sup 85m,g}Y in the {sup 89}Y(γ,xn; x=2-4){sup 89-x}Y reactions from the present work and literature data show an increasing trend from their respective threshold values to a certain bremsstrahlung energy. After a certain point of energy, the isomeric yield ratios increase slowly with the bremsstrahlung energy. These observations indicate the role of excitation energy and its partitioning in different reaction channels.

  9. Utilization of the ex vivo LLNA: BrdU-ELISA to distinguish the sensitizers from irritants in respect of 3 end points-lymphocyte proliferation, ear swelling, and cytokine profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancioglu, Seren; Ulker, Ozge Cemiloglu; Karakaya, Asuman

    2015-01-01

    Dermal exposure to chemicals may result in allergic or irritant contact dermatitis. In this study, we performed ex vivo local lymph node assay: bromodeoxyuridine-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LLNA: BrdU-ELISA) to compare the differences between irritation and sensitization potency of some chemicals in terms of the 3 end points: lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine profiles (interleukin 2 [IL-2], interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-4, IL-5, IL-1, and tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α]), and ear swelling. Different concentrations of the following well-known sensitizers and irritant chemicals were applied to mice: dinitrochlorobenzene, eugenol, isoeugenol, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and croton oil. According to the lymph node results; the auricular lymph node weights and lymph node cell counts increased after application of both sensitizers and irritants in high concentrations. On the other hand, according to lymph node cell proliferation results, there was a 3-fold increase in proliferation of lymph node cells (stimulation index) for sensitizer chemicals and SLS in the applied concentrations; however, there was not a 3-fold increase for croton oil and negative control. The SLS gave a false-positive response. Cytokine analysis demonstrated that 4 cytokines including IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-5 were released in lymph node cell cultures, with a clear dose trend for sensitizers whereas only TNF-α was released in response to irritants. Taken together, our results suggest that the ex vivo LLNA: BrdU-ELISA method can be useful for discriminating irritants and allergens. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Online Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can disable blocking on those sites. Tagged with: computer security , cookies , Do Not Track , personal information , privacy June ... email Looking for business guidance on privacy and ... The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is the nation’s consumer protection agency. The FTC works to prevent fraudulent, deceptive ...

  11. Tracking Online Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Man; Edgar-Nevill, Denis; Wang, Yongquan; Xu, Rongsheng

    Traceability is a key to the investigation of the internet criminal and a cornerstone of internet research. It is impossible to prevent all internet misuse but may be possible to identify and trace the users, and then take appropriate action. This paper presents the value of traceability within the email/-newsposting utilities, the technologies being using to hide identities, the difficulties in locating the traceable data and the challenges in tracking online trails.

  12. GPS Navigation and Tracking Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Salameh Khraisat

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of GPS Navigation systems in the marketplace, consumers and businesses have been coming up with innovative ways to use the technology in their everyday life. GPS Navigation and Tracking systems keep us from getting lost when we are in strange locations, they monitor children when they are away from home, keep track of business vehicles and can even let us know where a philandering partner is at all times. Because of this we attend to build a GPS tracking device to solve the mentioned problems. Our work consists of the GPS module that collects data from satellites and calculates the position information before transmitting them to the user’s PC (of Navigation system or observers (of Tracking System using wireless technology (GSM.

  13. Adhesion kinetics of human primary monocytes, dendritic cells, and macrophages: Dynamic cell adhesion measurements with a label-free optical biosensor and their comparison with end-point assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgovan, Norbert; Ungai-Salánki, Rita; Lukácsi, Szilvia; Sándor, Noémi; Bajtay, Zsuzsa; Erdei, Anna; Szabó, Bálint; Horvath, Robert

    2016-09-01

    obtained with the high-temporal-resolution Epic BT, but could only provide end-point data. In contrast, complex, nonmonotonic cell adhesion kinetics measured by the high-throughput optical biosensor is expected to open a window on the hidden background of the immune cell-extracellular matrix interactions.

  14. Measurement of flux-weighted average cross-sections and isomeric yield ratios for {sup 103}Rh(γ, xn) reactions in the bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 55 and 60 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakilur Rahman, Md.; Kim, Kwangsoo; Kim, Guinyun; Nadeem, Muhammad; Thi Hien, Nguyen; Shahid, Muhammad [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Naik, Haladhara [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Radiochemistry Division, Mumbai (India); Yang, Sung-Chul; Cho, Young-Sik; Lee, Young-Ouk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Nuclear Data Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sung-Gyun; Cho, Moo-Hyun [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Woo Lee, Man; Kang, Yeong-Rok; Yang, Gwang-Mo [Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Research Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ro, Tae-Ik [Dong-A University, Department of Materials Physics, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    We measured the flux-weighted average cross-sections and the isomeric yield ratios of {sup 99m,g,100m,g,101m,g,102m,g}Rh in the {sup 103}Rh(γ, xn) reactions with the bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 55 and 60 MeV by the activation and the off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique, using the 100 MeV electron linac at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL), Korea. The flux-weighted average cross-sections were calculated by using the computer code TALYS 1.6 based on mono-energetic photons, and compared with the present experimental data. The flux-weighted average cross-sections of {sup 103}Rh(γ, xn) reactions in intermediate bremsstrahlung energies are the first time measurement and are found to increase from their threshold value to a particular value, where the other reaction channels open up. Thereafter, it decreases with bremsstrahlung energy due to its partition in different reaction channels. The isomeric yield ratios (IR) of {sup 99m,g,100m,g,101m,g,102m,g}Rh in the {sup 103}Rh(γ, xn) reactions from the present work were compared with the literature data in the {sup 103}Rh(d, x), {sup 102-99}Ru(p, x), {sup 103}Rh(α, αn), {sup 103}Rh(α, 2p3n), {sup 102}Ru({sup 3}He, x), and {sup 103}Rh(γ, xn) reactions. It was found that the IR values of {sup 102,101,100,99}Rh in all these reactions increase with the projectile energy, which indicates the role of excitation energy. At the same excitation energy, the IR values of {sup 102,101,100,99}Rh are higher in the charged particle-induced reactions than in the photon-induced reaction, which indicates the role of input angular momentum. (orig.)

  15. Real-time ed end-point Polymerase Chain Reaction per la quantizzazione del DNA di Citomegalovirus: confronto tra metodi e con il test per l’antigene pp65

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Allice

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitave Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR for Cytomegalovirus (CMV DNA provides highly sensitive and specific data for detecting CMV as well as monitoring the infection and determining the appropriate antiviral strategy.To determine the clinical application of a recently introduced real-time (RT PCR assay for CMV DNA quantitation in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs and defining its correlation with the commercial quantitative end-point (EP PCR method COBAS AMPLICOR CMV Monitor and pp65 antigen test. Sequential PBL samples (n=158 from 32 liver transplanted patients with CMV asymptomatic infection and positive for CMV DNA by EP-PCR were retrospectively analysed with RT-PCR and studied according to pp65 antigen levels. A good correlation was found between RT-PCR and pp65 antigen test (r=0.691 and between the two PCR assays (r=0.761. RT-PCR data were significantly higher in pre-emptive treated patients (those with >20 pp65+positive cells, median value: 3.8 log10 copies/500,000 PBLs than in not-treated ones (2.9 logs.According to pp65 levels of 0, 1-10, 11-20, 21-50, 51-100 and >100 positive cells/200,000 PBLs, median CMV DNA load by RT-PCR was 2.6, 3.0, 3.6, 4.0. 4.2 and 4.8, log10 copies/ 500,000 PBLs, respectively (EP-PCR CMV DNA levels: 2. 8, 2.9, 3.8, 3.7, 3.9 and 4.0 logs. For samples with >20 pp65+cells, that is above the level at which pre-emptive therapy was started, RT-PCR values were significantly higher than in groups with less than 20 pp65+cells, whereas EP-PCR values did not significantly differ and showed a slower progression rate. Dilutions of DNA from CMV AD169 strain were used to probe RT-PCR reproducibility (between and intra-assay variability < 2% and sensitivity (100% detection rate at 10 copies/reaction, 28.5% with EP-PCR. A significant improvement is coming from the introduction of RT-PCR to the study of CMV DNA dynamics in differently CMV infected patients due to a more reliable quantitation of CMV DNA for moderate and high

  16. When self-tracking enters physical rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwennesen, Nete

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, I explore what happens when self-tracking technologies and devices travel into the context of physical rehabilitation and come to constitute what Lupton has called ‘pushed’ self-tracking. By unpacking the processes through which a self-tracking technology is put to use in physical...... rehabilitation in Denmark, and the kind of relationships patients and healthcare providers establish with and through this technology, I illustrate how a new geography of responsibility is constituted, where responsibility for professional guidance is delegated to the technology and patients are expected...

  17. Track following of Ξ"- hyperons in nuclear emulsion for the E07 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishina, Akihiro; Endo, Yoko; Hoshino, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    The E07 experiment is expected to provide knowledge of S = -2 systems with ten times more statistics than that of the past E373 experiment. To achieve this in a reasonable time, an automated track following system is very important. This system consists of three techniques, 'emulsion surface detection', 'alignment of plate by plate connection with K"- beams' and 'followed track recognition in nuclear emulsion'. Ξ"- hyperon candidate tracks are followed from the entrance to the end point in the emulsion. If the system operates properly such that one track is processed in each plate within one minute, all Ξ"- candidate tracks can be followed successfully to their stopping points in a year. The development of softwares for the system is ongoing. (author)

  18. Latent tracks in polymeric etched track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Tomoya

    2013-01-01

    Track registration properties in polymeric track detectors, including Poly(allyl diglycol carbonate), Bispenol A polycarbonate, Poly(ethylen terephtarate), and Polyimide, have been investigated by means of Fourie transform Infararede FT-IR spectrometry. Chemical criterion on the track formation threshold has been proposes, in stead of the conventional physical track registration models. (author)

  19. INNER TRACKING

    CERN Document Server

    P. Sharp

    The CMS Inner Tracking Detector continues to make good progress. The Objective for 2006 was to complete all of the CMS Tracker sub-detectors and to start the integration of the sub-detectors into the Tracker Support Tube (TST). The Objective for 2007 is to deliver to CMS a completed, installed, commissioned and calibrated Tracking System (Silicon Strip and Pixels) aligned to < 100µ in April 2008 ready for the first physics collisions at LHC. In November 2006 all of the sub-detectors had been delivered to the Tracker Integration facility (TIF) at CERN and the tests and QA procedures to be carried out on each sub-detector before integration had been established. In December 2006, TIB/TID+ was integrated into TOB+, TIB/TID- was being prepared for integration, and TEC+ was undergoing tests at the final tracker operating temperature (-100 C) in the Lyon cold room. In February 2007, TIB/TID- has been integrated into TOB-, and the installation of the pixel support tube and the services for TI...

  20. Fibre tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, J.M.

    1994-03-01

    A large-size scintillating plastic fibre tracking detector was built as part of the upgrade of the UA2 central detector at the SPS proton-antiproton collider. The cylindrical fibre detector of average radius of 40 cm consisted of 60000 plastic fibres with an active length of 2.1 m. One of the main motivations was to improve the electron identification. The fibre ends were bunched to be coupled to read-out systems of image intensifier plus CCD, 32 in total. The quality and the reliability of the UA2 fibre detector performance exceeded expectations throughout its years of operation. A few examples of the use of image intensifiers and of scintillating fibres in biological instrumentation are described. (R.P.) 11 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Track formation. Principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnin, M.

    1978-01-01

    The principles and technical aspects of track formation in insulating solids are first described. The characteristics of dialectic track detection are discussed from the technical point of view: the nature of the detectors, the chemical treatment, the sensitivity and the environmental conditions of use. The applications are reviewed. The principle of each type of applied research is described and then the applications are listed. When used as a detector, nuclear tracks can provide valuable information in a number of fields: element content determination and wrapping, imaging, radiation dosimetry, environmental studies, technological uses and miscellaneous other applications. The track-formation process can also be used for making well-defined holes; this method allows other applications which are also described. Finally, some possible future applications are mentioned. (author)

  2. A Pattern Recognition Mezzanine based on Associative Memory and FPGA technology for Level 1 Track Triggers for the HL-LHC upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalotti, D.; Alunni, L.; Bilei, G.M.; Fanò, L.; Servoli, L.; Storchi, L.; Placidi, P.; Spiezia, A.; Biesuz, N.; Fedi, G.; Magazzù, G.; Palla, F.; Rossi, E.; Citraro, S.; Crescioli, F.

    2016-01-01

    The increment of luminosity at HL-LHC will require the introduction of tracker information at Level-1 trigger system for the experiments in order to maintain an acceptable trigger rate for selecting interesting events despite the one order of increased magnitude in the minimum bias interactions. In order to extract the track information in the required latency (∼ 5–10 μ s depending on the experiment), a dedicated hardware processor needs to be used. We here propose a prototype system (Pattern Recognition Mezzanine) as core of pattern recognition and track fitting for HL-LHC experiments, combining the power of both Associative Memory custom ASIC and modern Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices

  3. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program Peer Review Technical Track: Nanostructures and Quantum Dots Project Name: Center for Nanoscale Energy Related Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas L. Schulz; Philip R. Boudjouk

    2009-03-09

    Some major accomplishments of the program are: (1) First crystal structures of Si{sub 6}H{sub 12}-related molecules; (2) PECVD of both a-Si and alloys (i.e., SiN and SiO{sub x}) using Si{sub 6}H{sub 12}; (3) Establishment of a system that couples a printing methodology with laser annealing; and (4) Developed schematics and electrical models for power-point tracking system and filed invention disclosure.

  4. Integrating eye tracking in virtual reality for stroke rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Júlio Miguel Gomes Rebelo

    2014-01-01

    This thesis reports on research done for the integration of eye tracking technology into virtual reality environments, with the goal of using it in rehabilitation of patients who suffered from stroke. For the last few years, eye tracking has been a focus on medical research, used as an assistive tool  to help people with disabilities interact with new technologies  and as an assessment tool  to track the eye gaze during computer interactions. However, tracking more complex gaze behavio...

  5. An analysis of particle track effects on solid mammalian tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, P.

    1992-01-01

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and quality factor (Q) at extreme values of linear energy transfer (LET) have been determined on the basis of experiments with single-cell systems and specific tissue responses. In typical single-cell systems, each heavy particle (Ar or Fe) passes through a single cell or no cell. In experiments on animal tissues, however, each heavy particle passes through several cells, and the LET can exceed 200 keV μm -1 in every cell. In most laboratory animal tissue systems, however, only a small portion of the hit cells are capable of expressing the end-point being measured, such as cell killing, mutation or carcinogenesis. The following question was therefore addressed: do RBEs and Q factors derived from single-cell experiments properly account for the damage at high LET when multiple cells are hit by HZE tracks? A review is offered in which measured radiation effects and known tissue properties are combined to estimate on the one hand, the number of cells at risk, p 3 n, per track, where n is the number of cells per track based on tissue and organ geometry, and p 3 is the probability that a cell in the track is capable of expressing the experimental end-point. On the other hand, the tissue and single-cell responses are compared by determining the ratio RBE in tissue/RBE in corresponding single cells. Experimental data from the literature indicate that tissue RBEs at very high LET (Fe and Ar ions) are higher than corresponding single-cell RBEs, especially in tissues in which p 3 n is high. (author)

  6. Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2013 (TCEP 2013) examines progress in the development and deployment of key clean energy technologies. Each technology and sector is tracked against interim 2020 targets in the IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 2°C scenario, which lays out pathways to a sustainable energy system in 2050. Stark message emerge: progress has not been fast enough; large market failures are preventing clean energy solutions from being taken up; considerable energy efficiency remains untapped; policies need to better address the energy system as a whole; and energy-related research, development and demonstration need to accelerate. Alongside these grim conclusions there is positive news. In 2012, hybrid-electric vehicle sales passed the 1 million mark. Solar photovoltaic systems were being installed at a record pace. The costs of most clean energy technologies fell more rapidly than anticipated.

  7. Tracking Boulders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    13 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of a trough in the Sirenum Fossae region. On the floor and walls of the trough, large -- truck- to house-sized -- boulders are observed at rest. However, there is evidence in this image for the potential for mobility. In the central portion of the south (bottom) wall, a faint line of depressions extends from near the middle of the wall, down to the rippled trough floor, ending very near one of the many boulders in the area. This line of depressions is a boulder track; it indicates the path followed by the boulder as it trundled downslope and eventually came to rest on the trough floor. Because it is on Mars, even when the boulder is sitting still, this once-rolling stone gathers no moss. Location near: 29.4oS, 146.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  8. INNER TRACKING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sharp

    The CMS Inner Tracking Detector continues to make good progress. The successful commissioning of ~ 25% of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed in the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN in July 2007 and the Tracker has since been prepared for moving and installation into CMS at P5. The Tracker was ready to move on schedule in September 2007. The Installation of the Tracker cooling pipes and LV cables between Patch Panel 1 (PP1) on the inside the CMS magnet cryostat, and the cooling plants and power system racks on the balconies has been completed. The optical fibres from PP1 to the readout FEDs in the USC have been installed, together with the Tracker cable channels, in parallel with the installation of the EB/HB services. All of the Tracker Safety, Power, DCS and the VME Readout Systems have been installed at P5 and are being tested and commissioned with CMS. It is planned to install the Tracker into CMS before Christmas. The Tracker will then be connected to the pre-installed services on Y...

  9. INNER TRACKING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sharp

    The CMS Inner Tracking Detector continues to make good progress. The successful commissioning of ~ 25% of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed in the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN on 18 July 2007 and the Tracker has since been prepared for moving and installation into CMS at P5. The Tracker will be ready to move on schedule in September 2007. The Installation of the Tracker cooling pipes and LV cables between Patch Panel 1 (PP1) on the inside the CMS magnet cryostat, and the cooling plants and power system racks on the balconies has been completed. The optical fibres from PP1 to the readout FEDs in the USC will be installed in parallel with the installation of the EB/HB services, and will be completed in October. It is planned to install the Tracker into CMS at the end of October, after the completion of the installation of the EB/HB services. The Tracker will then be connected to the pre-installed services on YB0 and commissioned with CMS in December. The FPix and BPix continue to make ...

  10. Method for Improving EEG Based Emotion Recognition by Combining It with Synchronized Biometric and Eye Tracking Technologies in a Non-invasive and Low Cost Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gil, Juan-Miguel; Virgili-Gomá, Jordi; Gil, Rosa; García, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Technical advances, particularly the integration of wearable and embedded sensors, facilitate tracking of physiological responses in a less intrusive way. Currently, there are many devices that allow gathering biometric measurements from human beings, such as EEG Headsets or Health Bracelets. The massive data sets generated by tracking of EEG and physiology may be used, among other things, to infer knowledge about human moods and emotions. Apart from direct biometric signal measurement, eye tracking systems are nowadays capable of determining the point of gaze of the users when interacting in ICT environments, which provides an added value research on many different areas, such as psychology or marketing. We present a process in which devices for eye tracking, biometric, and EEG signal measurements are synchronously used for studying both basic and complex emotions. We selected the least intrusive devices for different signal data collection given the study requirements and cost constraints, so users would behave in the most natural way possible. On the one hand, we have been able to determine basic emotions participants were experiencing by means of valence and arousal. On the other hand, a complex emotion such as empathy has also been detected. To validate the usefulness of this approach, a study involving forty-four people has been carried out, where they were exposed to a series of affective stimuli while their EEG activity, biometric signals, and eye position were synchronously recorded to detect self-regulation. The hypothesis of the work was that people who self-regulated would show significantly different results when analyzing their EEG data. Participants were divided into two groups depending on whether Electro Dermal Activity (EDA) data indicated they self-regulated or not. The comparison of the results obtained using different machine learning algorithms for emotion recognition shows that using EEG activity alone as a predictor for self-regulation does

  11. Method for Improving EEG Based Emotion Recognition by Combining It with Synchronized Biometric and Eye Tracking Technologies in a Non-invasive and Low Cost Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gil, Juan-Miguel; Virgili-Gomá, Jordi; Gil, Rosa; Guilera, Teresa; Batalla, Iolanda; Soler-González, Jorge; García, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Technical advances, particularly the integration of wearable and embedded sensors, facilitate tracking of physiological responses in a less intrusive way. Currently, there are many devices that allow gathering biometric measurements from human beings, such as EEG Headsets or Health Bracelets. The massive data sets generated by tracking of EEG and physiology may be used, among other things, to infer knowledge about human moods and emotions. Apart from direct biometric signal measurement, eye tracking systems are nowadays capable of determining the point of gaze of the users when interacting in ICT environments, which provides an added value research on many different areas, such as psychology or marketing. We present a process in which devices for eye tracking, biometric, and EEG signal measurements are synchronously used for studying both basic and complex emotions. We selected the least intrusive devices for different signal data collection given the study requirements and cost constraints, so users would behave in the most natural way possible. On the one hand, we have been able to determine basic emotions participants were experiencing by means of valence and arousal. On the other hand, a complex emotion such as empathy has also been detected. To validate the usefulness of this approach, a study involving forty-four people has been carried out, where they were exposed to a series of affective stimuli while their EEG activity, biometric signals, and eye position were synchronously recorded to detect self-regulation. The hypothesis of the work was that people who self-regulated would show significantly different results when analyzing their EEG data. Participants were divided into two groups depending on whether Electro Dermal Activity (EDA) data indicated they self-regulated or not. The comparison of the results obtained using different machine learning algorithms for emotion recognition shows that using EEG activity alone as a predictor for self-regulation does

  12. Eye tracking in Library and Information Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Haakon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic literature review of the application of eye-tracking technology within the field of library and information science. Eye-tracking technology has now reached a level of maturity, which makes the use of the technology more accessible....... Subsequently, a growing interest in employing eye tracking as a methodology within library and information science research must be anticipated. Design/methodology/approach The review follows the guidelines set in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations. Two...... reference databases are searched for relevant references: Library and Information Science Abstracts and Library, Information Science and Technology Abstracts. The main selection criteria are peer-reviewed literature that describes the experimental setting, including which eye-tracking equipment was used...

  13. ATLAS FTK Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Iizawa, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Fast TracKer (FTK) will perform global track reconstruction after each Level-1 trigger accept signal to enable the software-based higher level trigger to have early access to tracking information. FTK is a dedicated processor based on a mixture of advanced technologies. Modern, powerful Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) form an important part of the system architecture, and the large level of computing power required for pattern recognition is provided by incorporating standard-cell ASICs named Associative Memory (AM). Motivation and the architecture of the FTK system will be presented, and the status of hardware and simulation will be following.

  14. Solar tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-07-12

    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.

  15. The MAJORANA Parts Tracking Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, N. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Aguayo, E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F.T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Barabash, A.S. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bertrand, F.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brudanin, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Busch, M. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Byram, D. [Department of Physics, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Caldwell, A.S. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Chan, Y-D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Christofferson, C.D. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Combs, D.C. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J.A.; Doe, P.J. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Efremenko, Yu. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Egorov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Ejiri, H. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics and Department of Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan); Elliott, S.R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); and others

    2015-04-11

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is an ultra-low background physics experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. The MAJORANA Parts Tracking Database is used to record the history of components used in the construction of the DEMONSTRATOR. The tracking implementation takes a novel approach based on the schema-free database technology CouchDB. Transportation, storage, and processes undergone by parts such as machining or cleaning are linked to part records. Tracking parts provide a great logistics benefit and an important quality assurance reference during construction. In addition, the location history of parts provides an estimate of their exposure to cosmic radiation. A web application for data entry and a radiation exposure calculator have been developed as tools for achieving the extreme radio-purity required for this rare decay search.

  16. The MAJORANA Parts Tracking Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, J.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J. Diaz; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, L.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O`Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Petersburg, R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, A. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Soin, A.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2015-04-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is an ultra-low background physics experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. The MAJORANA Parts Tracking Database is used to record the history of components used in the construction of the DEMONSTRATOR. The tracking implementation takes a novel approach based on the schema-free database technology CouchDB. Transportation, storage, and processes undergone by parts such as machining or cleaning are linked to part records. Tracking parts provide a great logistics benefit and an important quality assurance reference during construction. In addition, the location history of parts provides an estimate of their exposure to cosmic radiation. A web application for data entry and a radiation exposure calculator have been developed as tools for achieving the extreme radio-purity required for this rare decay search.

  17. Real-time object detection, tracking and occlusion reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakaran, Ajay; Yu, Qian; Tamrakar, Amir; Sawhney, Harpreet Singh; Zhu, Jiejie; Javed, Omar; Liu, Jingen; Cheng, Hui; Eledath, Jayakrishnan

    2018-02-27

    A system for object detection and tracking includes technologies to, among other things, detect and track moving objects, such as pedestrians and/or vehicles, in a real-world environment, handle static and dynamic occlusions, and continue tracking moving objects across the fields of view of multiple different cameras.

  18. Magnetic Launch Assist Experimental Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In this photograph, a futuristic spacecraft model sits atop a carrier on the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly known as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) System, experimental track at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies that would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide, and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  19. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  20. A Multi-Case Study of Research Using Mobile Imaging, Sensing and Tracking Technologies to Objectively Measure Behavior: Ethical Issues and Insights to Guide Responsible Research Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebeker, Camille; Linares-Orozco, Rubi; Crist, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The increased availability of mobile sensing technologies is creating a paradigm shift for health research by creating new opportunities for measuring and monitoring behavior. For example, researchers can now collect objective information about a participant's daily activity using wearable devices that have: 1- Global Positioning…

  1. Underwater Acoustic Target Tracking: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Fan, Liying

    2018-01-01

    Advances in acoustic technology and instrumentation now make it possible to explore marine resources. As a significant component of ocean exploration, underwater acoustic target tracking has aroused wide attention both in military and civil fields. Due to the complexity of the marine environment, numerous techniques have been proposed to obtain better tracking performance. In this paper, we survey over 100 papers ranging from innovative papers to the state-of-the-art in this field to present underwater tracking technologies. Not only the related knowledge of acoustic tracking instrument and tracking progress is clarified in detail, but also a novel taxonomy method is proposed. In this paper, algorithms for underwater acoustic target tracking are classified based on the methods used as: (1) instrument-assisted methods; (2) mode-based methods; (3) tracking optimization methods. These algorithms are compared and analyzed in the aspect of dimensions, numbers, and maneuvering of the tracking target, which is different from other survey papers. Meanwhile, challenges, countermeasures, and lessons learned are illustrated in this paper. PMID:29301318

  2. A Review of Wearable Technologies for Elderly Care that Can Accurately Track Indoor Position, Recognize Physical Activities and Monitor Vital Signs in Real Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth of the aged population has caused an immense increase in the demand for healthcare services. Generally, the elderly are more prone to health problems compared to other age groups. With effective monitoring and alarm systems, the adverse effects of unpredictable events such as sudden illnesses, falls, and so on can be ameliorated to some extent. Recently, advances in wearable and sensor technologies have improved the prospects of these service systems for assisting elderly people. In this article, we review state-of-the-art wearable technologies that can be used for elderly care. These technologies are categorized into three types: indoor positioning, activity recognition and real time vital sign monitoring. Positioning is the process of accurate localization and is particularly important for elderly people so that they can be found in a timely manner. Activity recognition not only helps ensure that sudden events (e.g., falls will raise alarms but also functions as a feasible way to guide people’s activities so that they avoid dangerous behaviors. Since most elderly people suffer from age-related problems, some vital signs that can be monitored comfortably and continuously via existing techniques are also summarized. Finally, we discussed a series of considerations and future trends with regard to the construction of “smart clothing” system.

  3. A Review of Wearable Technologies for Elderly Care that Can Accurately Track Indoor Position, Recognize Physical Activities and Monitor Vital Signs in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihua; Yang, Zhaochu; Dong, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Rapid growth of the aged population has caused an immense increase in the demand for healthcare services. Generally, the elderly are more prone to health problems compared to other age groups. With effective monitoring and alarm systems, the adverse effects of unpredictable events such as sudden illnesses, falls, and so on can be ameliorated to some extent. Recently, advances in wearable and sensor technologies have improved the prospects of these service systems for assisting elderly people. In this article, we review state-of-the-art wearable technologies that can be used for elderly care. These technologies are categorized into three types: indoor positioning, activity recognition and real time vital sign monitoring. Positioning is the process of accurate localization and is particularly important for elderly people so that they can be found in a timely manner. Activity recognition not only helps ensure that sudden events (e.g., falls) will raise alarms but also functions as a feasible way to guide people’s activities so that they avoid dangerous behaviors. Since most elderly people suffer from age-related problems, some vital signs that can be monitored comfortably and continuously via existing techniques are also summarized. Finally, we discussed a series of considerations and future trends with regard to the construction of “smart clothing” system. PMID:28208620

  4. Report of the Central Tracking Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassel, D.G.; Hanson, G.G.

    1986-10-01

    Issues involved in building a realistic central tracking system for a general-purpose 4π detector for the SSC are addressed. Such a central tracking system must be capable of running at the full design luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 s -1 . Momentum measurement was required in a general-purpose 4π detector. Limitations on charged particle tracking detectors at the SSC imposed by rates and radiation damage are reviewed. Cell occupancy is the dominant constraint, which led us to the conclusion that only small cells, either wires or straw tubes, are suitable for a central tracking system at the SSC. Mechanical problems involved in building a central tracking system of either wires or straw tubes were studied, and our conclusion was that it is possible to build such a large central tracking system. Of course, a great deal of research and development is required. We also considered central tracking systems made of scintillating fibers or silicon microstrips, but our conclusion was that neither is a realistic candidate given the current state of technology. We began to work on computer simulation of a realistic central tracking system. Events from interesting physics processes at the SSC will be complex and will be further complicated by hits from out-of-time bunch crossings and multiple interactions within the same bunch crossing. Detailed computer simulations are needed to demonstrate that the pattern recognition and tracking problems can be solved

  5. Self-tracking as communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomborg, Stine; Frandsen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    that is predominantly about getting things done in ways that are possible, suitable and meaningful for the individual. To account for this, we propose to conceptualize self-tracking as a communicative phenomenon along three dimensions: communication with the system, the self and social networks of peers. We develop...... of an individual user who is situated in a broader web of everyday activities, and stimulated and augmented by communicative features provided by the technology....

  6. Attention to food and beverage advertisements as measured by eye-tracking technology and the food preferences and choices of youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Cayley E; Pasch, Keryn E

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how objective measures of attention to food/beverage advertising were associated with the unhealthy food/beverage preferences and choices of children and adolescents. A self-report survey and eye-tracking session were completed by 102 youth (mean age=11.6 years; 56.4% were white; 43.1% were female) between April and November 2010. Participants viewed 40 food/beverage advertisements on a computer and their eye movements were recorded. Objective attention measures included total viewing time, fixation length (time spent viewing characters/logos, unhealthy food/beverage items), and fixation count (number of times an individual stops to examine characters/logos, unhealthy food/beverage items). Food/beverage preferences and choices were measured by self-report. The preferences index summed responses to 12 questions measuring snack food and sugar-sweetened beverage preferences and the choices index summed responses to eight questions measuring consumption of snack foods and sugar-sweetened beverages. Regression models examined whether attention to food/beverage advertising was associated with food preferences and choices, controlling for sex, age, and body mass index z score. The length of time and number of times participants looked at unhealthy food and beverage items within advertisements were each significantly associated with unhealthy food/beverage preferences of youth (Ppurchase requests, given the important role of parents in the decision-making process surrounding food choice. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  8. Persistent Aerial Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc

  9. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  10. Forward tracking detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Forward tracking is an essential part of a detector at the international linear collider (ILC). The requirements for forward tracking are explained and the proposed solutions in the detector concepts are shown.

  11. Postsystolic Shortening by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography Is an Independent Predictor of Cardiovascular Events and Mortality in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brainin, Philip; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie Reumert; Møgelvang, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postsystolic shortening (PSS) has been proposed as a novel marker of contractile dysfunction in the myocardium. Our objective was to assess the prognostic potential of PSS on cardiovascular events and death in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study design consisted...... of a prospective cohort study of 1296 low-risk participants from the general population, who were examined by speckle tracking echocardiography. The primary end point was the composite of heart failure, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death, defined as major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs...... as having MACEs and 236 participants (18%) died. Increasing number of walls with PSS predicted both end points, an association that persisted after adjustment for age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate, global longitudinal strain, hypertension, heart rate, left ventricular ejection fraction, LV mass...

  12. Documenting outdoor activity and travel behaviour in persons with neurological conditions using travel diaries and GPS tracking technology: a pilot study in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, An; Janssens, Davy; Alders, Geert; Wets, Geert; Van Wijmeersch, Bart; Feys, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) experience several physical and cognitive problems which can influence their travel behaviour. This study aimed to document the number of activities, the activity type and the transport mode of the related trips that are daily made by PwMS. Their outdoor activity and travel behaviour was studied in relation to disease-related disability. Thirty six PwMS (Expanded Disability Status Scale, EDSS, 1.5-8.0, age 27-63) and 24 healthy controls (age 25-62) were studied, using activity-related travel diaries and GPS tracking devices. Information about overall disability characteristics was gained by standard clinical tests and questionnaires. PwMS were further divided in three subgroups based on EDSS cut-off scores 4.5 and 6.5. Persons with mild ambulatory dysfunction (EDSS 1.5-4.0, n = 17) showed similar travel characteristics to healthy controls, with few restrictions during travelling. Statistically significant changes in activity and travel behaviour were detected in the moderate (EDSS 4.5-6.5, n = 8) and severe MS subgroups (EDSS > 6.5-8.0, n = 11) compared with healthy controls: driving independently became less frequent, significant more trips were made with company and the duration of performed activities had increased. The combination of self-reported travel diaries and objective GPS loggers offered detailed information about the actual outdoor travel behaviour of PwMS, which was significantly changed in PwMS with EDSS greater than 4. Implications for Rehabilitation Activity and travel behaviour changes significantly in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) with moderate to severe disability (EDSS greater than 4). Behavioural therapy could help to develop better coping and problem-solving skills to overcome anxiety in the making of trips by persons with MS with a mild severity. Enhancing community environments could serve as a promising approach to increase the outdoor participation of persons with (more severe

  13. Advanced Tracking of Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Li, K.-J.; Pakalnis, Stardas

    2005-01-01

    efficient tracking techniques. More specifically, while almost all commercially available tracking solutions simply offer time-based sampling of positions, this paper's techniques aim to offer a guaranteed tracking accuracy for each vehicle at the lowest possible costs, in terms of network traffic...

  14. Bar Coding and Tracking in Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Matthew G; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-03-01

    Bar coding and specimen tracking are intricately linked to pathology workflow and efficiency. In the pathology laboratory, bar coding facilitates many laboratory practices, including specimen tracking, automation, and quality management. Data obtained from bar coding can be used to identify, locate, standardize, and audit specimens to achieve maximal laboratory efficiency and patient safety. Variables that need to be considered when implementing and maintaining a bar coding and tracking system include assets to be labeled, bar code symbologies, hardware, software, workflow, and laboratory and information technology infrastructure as well as interoperability with the laboratory information system. This article addresses these issues, primarily focusing on surgical pathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Advanced Alignment of the ATLAS Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Butti, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    In order to reconstruct the trajectories of charged particles, the ATLAS experiment exploits a tracking system built using different technologies, planar silicon modules or microstrips (PIX and SCT detectors) and gaseous drift tubes (TRT), all embedded in a 2T solenoidal magnetic field. Misalignments and deformations of the active detector elements deteriorate the track reconstruction resolution and lead to systematic biases on the measured track parameters. The alignment procedures exploits various advanced tools and techniques in order to determine for module positions and correct for deformations. For the LHC Run II, the system is being upgraded with the installation of a new pixel layer, the Insertable B-layer (IBL).

  16. Tracks: Nurses and the Tracking Network

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast highlights the utility of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network for nurses in a variety of work settings. It features commentary from the American Nurses Association and includes stories from a public health nurse in Massachusetts.

  17. Tracks: Nurses and the Tracking Network

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-06-06

    This podcast highlights the utility of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network for nurses in a variety of work settings. It features commentary from the American Nurses Association and includes stories from a public health nurse in Massachusetts.  Created: 6/6/2012 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH)/Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects (DEHHE)/Environmental Health Tracking Branch (EHTB).   Date Released: 6/6/2012.

  18. Aconitase and Developmental End Points as Early Indicators of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Vasyliovuch Lozinsky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, the toxicity of the different xenobiotics was tested on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster model system. Methods: Fly larvae were raised on food supplemented with xenobiotics at different concentrations (sodium nitroprusside (0.1-1.5 mM, S-nitrosoglutathione (0.5-4 mM, and potassium ferrocyanide (1 mM. Emergence of flies, food intake by larvae, and pupation height preference as well as aconitase activity (in 2-day old flies were measured. Results: Food supplementation with xenobiotics caused a developmental delay in the flies and decreased pupation height. Biochemical analyses of oxidative stress markers and activities of antioxidants and their associated enzymes were carried out on 2-day-old flies emerged from control larvae and larvae fed on food supplemented with chemicals. Larval exposure to chemicals resulted in lower activities of aconitase in flies of both sexes and perturbation in activities of antioxidant enzymes. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that among a variety of parameters tested, aconitase activity, developmental endpoints, and pupation height may be used as reliable early indicators of toxicity caused by different chemicals.

  19. Carcinogenesis as an end point in health impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneiderman, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    All sources of energy production, with perhaps the exception of falling water, wind, and geothermal sources, appear to have associated carcinogenic hazards. Epidemiological information does not allow us to pinpoint single ''causes,'' but urban dwellers, coal miners, and petroleum refinery workers all appear to be at increased risk of cancer. Radiation--cancer relationships have been shown in exposed populations, and work is currently under way assessing the risks of former Atomic Energy Commission workers. With the exception of radiation exposure, there are few human data for estimating dose--response relationships to environmental carcinogens. At very low doses for add-on type exposures, safety-oriented behavior leads us to assume no thresholds and to operate as if the dose--response curve in man is likely to be linear

  20. The Hot and Energetic Universe: End points of stellar evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motch, Christian; Wilms, Jörn; Barret, Didier; Becker, Werner; Bogdanov, Slavko; Boirin, Laurence; Corbel, Stéphane; Cackett, Ed; Campana, Sergio; de Martino, Domitilla; Haberl, Frank; in't Zand, Jean; Méndez, Mariano; Mignani, Roberto; Miller, Jon; Orio, Marina; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Rea, Nanda; Rodriguez, Jérôme; Rozanska, Agata; Schwope, Axel; Steiner, Andrew; Webb, Natalie; Zampieri, Luca; Zane, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    White dwarfs, neutron stars and stellar mass black holes are key laboratories to study matter in most extreme conditions of gravity and magnetic field. The unprecedented effective area of Athena+ will allow us to advance our understanding of emission mechanisms and accretion physics over a wide

  1. The End Point Tagger physics program at A2@MAMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    The A2-Collaboration uses a beam of real photons from the tagged photon facility at the electron accelerator MAMI in Mainz, Germany, to study photo-produced mesons. A new tagging device allows access to the higher photon beam energy range of 1.4 to 1.6 GeV. A large dataset containing more than 6 million η' and roughly 29 million ω decays has been obtained. Analyses are ongoing, including a study of the cusp effect and Dalitz plot in η' → ηπ0π0, giving insight to the ππ scattering length and the structure of the ηππ system, as well as the measurement of the electromagnetic transition form factor in η' → e+e-γ, a cross section measurement of γp → 3π0, and branching ratio analyses of η' → ωγ and ω → ηγ.

  2. Rf probe technology for the next generation of technological plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, V.J.; Kenyon, A.J.; Thornhill, N.F.; Seeds, A.J.; Batty, I.

    2001-01-01

    We describe radio frequency (rf) analysis of technological plasmas at the 13.56 MHz fundamental drive frequency and integer narrow-band harmonics up to n = 9. In particular, we demonstrate the use of harmonic amplitude information as a process end-point diagnostic. Using very high frequency (vhf) techniques, we construct non-invasive ex situ remote-coupled probes: a diplexer, an equal-ratio-arm bridge, and a dual directional coupler used as a single directional device. These probes bolt into the plasma-tool 50 Ω transmission-line between the rf generator and matching network, and hence do not require modification of the plasma tool. The 50 Ω probe environment produces repeatable measurements of the chamber capacitance and narrow-band harmonic amplitude with an end-point detection sensitivity corresponding to a 2 dB change in the harmonic amplitude with the removal of 1 cm 2 of photoresist. The methodology and design of an instrument for the measurement of the plasma-tool frequency response, and the plasma harmonic amplitude and phase response are examined. The instrument allows the monitoring of the plasma phase delay, plasma-tool short- and long-term ageing, and process end-point prediction. (author)

  3. Tracking Electromagnetic Energy With SQUIDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is a gadget used to measure extremely weak signals, specifically magnetic flux. It can detect subtle changes in energy, up to 100 billion times weaker than the electromagnetic energy required to move a compass needle. SQUIDs are used for a variety of testing procedures where extreme sensitivity is required and where the test instrument need not come into direct contact with the test subject. NASA uses SQUIDs for remote, noncontact sensing in a variety of venues, including monitoring the Earth s magnetic field and tracking brain activity of pilots. Scientists at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center have been making extensive use of this technology, from astrophysical research, to tracking the navigational paths of bees in flight to determine if they are using internal compasses. These very sensitive measurement devices have a wide variety of uses within NASA and even more uses within the commercial realm.

  4. Students paperwork tracking system (SPATRASE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, I. Y.; Othman, M. B.; Talib, Rahmat; Ilyas, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    This paper focused on a system for tracking the status of the paperwork using the Near Field Communication (NFC) technology and mobile apps. Student paperwork tracking system or known as SPATRASE was developed to ease the user to track the location status of the paperwork. The current problem faced by the user is the process of approval paperwork takes around a month or more. The process took around a month to get full approval from the department because of many procedures that need to be done. Nevertheless, the user cannot know the location status of the paperwork immediately because of the inefficient manual system. The submitter needs to call the student affairs department to get the information about the location status of the paperwork. Thus, this project was purposed as an alternative to solve the waiting time of the paperwork location status. The prototype of this system involved the hardware and software. The project consists of NFC tags, RFID Reader, and mobile apps. At each checkpoint, the RFID Reader was placed on the secretary desk. While the system involved the development of database using Google Docs that linked to the web server. After that, the submitter received the URL link and be directed to the web server and mobile apps. This system is capable of checking their location status tracking using mobile apps and Google Docs. With this system, it makes the tracking process become efficient and reliable to know the paperwork at the exact location. Thus, it is preventing the submitter to call the department all the time. Generally, this project is fully functional and we hope it can help Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) to overcome the problem of paperwork missing and location of the paperwork.

  5. Environmental Public Health Tracking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast series, CDC scientists address frequently asked questions about the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network, including using and applying data, running queries, and much more.

  6. Cross-Device Tracking: Measurement and Disclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brookman Justin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Internet advertising and analytics technology companies are increasingly trying to find ways to link behavior across the various devices consumers own. This cross-device tracking can provide a more complete view into a consumer’s behavior and can be valuable for a range of purposes, including ad targeting, research, and conversion attribution. However, consumers may not be aware of how and how often their behavior is tracked across different devices. We designed this study to try to assess what information about cross-device tracking (including data flows and policy disclosures is observable from the perspective of the end user. Our paper demonstrates how data that is routinely collected and shared online could be used by online third parties to track consumers across devices.

  7. Advanced alignment of the ATLAS tracking system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2085334; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In order to reconstruct the trajectories of charged particles, the ATLAS experiment exploits a tracking system built using different technologies, silicon planar modules or microstrips (PIX and SCT detectors) and gaseous drift tubes (TRT), all embedded in a 2T solenoidal magnetic field. Misalignments of the active detector elements and deformations of the structures (which can lead to \\textit{Weak Modes}) deteriorate resolution of the track reconstruction and lead to systematic biases on the measured track parameters. The applied alignment procedures exploit various advanced techniques in order to minimise track-hit residuals and remove detector deformations. For the LHC Run II, the Pixel Detector has been refurbished and upgraded with the installation of a new pixel layer, the Insertable B-layer (IBL).

  8. Advanced Alignment of the ATLAS Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Pedraza Lopez, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    In order to reconstruct trajectories of charged particles, ATLAS is equipped with a tracking system built using different technologies embedded in a 2T solenoidal magnetic field. ATLAS physics goals require high resolution, unbiased measurement of all charged particle kinematic parameters in order to assure accurate invariant mass reconstruction and interaction and decay vertex finding. These critically depend on the systematic effects related to the alignment of the tracking system. In order to eliminate malicious systematic deformations, various advanced tools and techniques have been put in place. These include information from known mass resonances, energy of electrons and positrons measured by the electromagnetic calorimeters, etc. Despite being stable under normal running conditions, ATLAS tracking system responses to sudden environ-mental changes (temperature, magnetic field) by small collective deformations. These have to be identified and corrected in order to assure uniform, highest quality tracking...

  9. Reviewing Automated Sensor-Based Visitor Tracking Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Lærke; Bentsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The method of timing and tracking has a long history within visitor studies and exhibition evaluation. With an increase in indoor tracking research, sensor-based positioning tool usage in museums has grown, as have expectations regarding the efficacy of technological sensing systems. This literat......The method of timing and tracking has a long history within visitor studies and exhibition evaluation. With an increase in indoor tracking research, sensor-based positioning tool usage in museums has grown, as have expectations regarding the efficacy of technological sensing systems...... methods in terms of obtained level of detail, accuracy, level of obtrusiveness, automation of data entry, ability to time concurrent behaviors, and amount of observer training needed. Although individual sensor-based and traditional, observational methods had both strengths and weaknesses, all sensor......-based timing and tracking methods provided automated data entry and the opportunity to track a number of visitors simultaneously regardless of the available personnel....

  10. Tabletop Experimental Track for Magnetic Launch Assist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Advanced Space Transportation Program has developed the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly known as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) technology that could give a space vehicle a running start to break free from Earth's gravity. A Magnetic Launch Assist system would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at speeds up to 600 mph. The vehicle would shift to rocket engines for launch into orbit. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would electromagnetically propel a space vehicle along the track. The tabletop experimental track for the system shown in this photograph is 44-feet long, with 22-feet of powered acceleration and 22-feet of passive braking. A 10-pound carrier with permanent magnets on its sides swiftly glides by copper coils, producing a levitation force. The track uses a linear synchronous motor, which means the track is synchronized to turn the coils on just before the carrier comes in contact with them, and off once the carrier passes. Sensors are positioned on the side of the track to determine the carrier's position so the appropriate drive coils can be energized. MSFC engineers have conducted tests on the indoor track and a 50-foot outdoor track. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  11. Can Tracking Improve Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duflo, Esther; Dupas, Pascaline; Kremer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tracking students into different classrooms according to their prior academic performance is controversial among both scholars and policymakers. If teachers find it easier to teach a homogeneous group of students, tracking could enhance school effectiveness and raise test scores of both low- and high-ability students. If students benefit from…

  12. Attitude and position tracking

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Candy, LP

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several applications require the tracking of attitude and position of a body based on velocity data. It is tempting to use direction cosine matrices (DCM), for example, to track attitude based on angular velocity data, and to integrate the linear...

  13. Solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, H.

    1976-11-01

    This paper gives a survey of the present state of the development and the application of solid state track detectors. The fundamentals of the physical and chemical processes of the track formation and development are explained, the different detector materials and their registration characteristics are mentioned, the possibilities of the experimental practice and the most variable applications are discussed. (author)

  14. Track Starter's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Charles H.; Rankin, Kelly D.

    This guide was developed to serve both the novice and experienced starter in track and field events. Each year in the United States, runners encounter dozens of different starters' mannerisms as they travel to track meets in various towns and states. The goal of any competent and conscientious starter is to insure that all runners receive a fair…

  15. GPS-Aided Video Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Feuerhake

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tracking moving objects is both challenging and important for a large variety of applications. Different technologies based on the global positioning system (GPS and video or radio data are used to obtain the trajectories of the observed objects. However, in some use cases, they fail to provide sufficiently accurate, complete and correct data at the same time. In this work we present an approach for fusing GPS- and video-based tracking in order to exploit their individual advantages. In this way we aim to combine the reliability of GPS tracking with the high geometric accuracy of camera detection. For the fusion of the movement data provided by the different devices we use a hidden Markov model (HMM formulation and the Viterbi algorithm to extract the most probable trajectories. In three experiments, we show that our approach is able to deal with challenging situations like occlusions or objects which are temporarily outside the monitored area. The results show the desired increase in terms of accuracy, completeness and correctness.

  16. Controlled ion track etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J.; Irkens, M.; Neumann, S.; Scherer, U. W.; Srivastava, A.; Sinha, D.; Fink, D.

    2006-03-01

    It is a common practice since long to follow the ion track-etching process in thin foils via conductometry, i.e . by measurement of the electrical current which passes through the etched track, once the track breakthrough condition has been achieved. The major disadvantage of this approach, namely the absence of any major detectable signal before breakthrough, can be avoided by examining the track-etching process capacitively. This method allows one to define precisely not only the breakthrough point before it is reached, but also the length of any non-transient track. Combining both capacitive and conductive etching allows one to control the etching process perfectly. Examples and possible applications are given.

  17. Why we are tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    In this short essay, concerning why we are tracking, I will try to frame tracking as an evolutionary developed skill that humans need to survive. From an evolutionary point zero life must reflect upon itself in regard to its surrounding world as a kind of societal self-synchronization in this reg......In this short essay, concerning why we are tracking, I will try to frame tracking as an evolutionary developed skill that humans need to survive. From an evolutionary point zero life must reflect upon itself in regard to its surrounding world as a kind of societal self......-synchronization in this regard (Spencer 1890, Luhmann 2000, Tække 2014, 2011). I was inspired by Jill Walker Rettberg’s book: “Seeing Ourselves through Technology” and her presentation at the seminar: “Tracking Culture” arranged by Anders Albrechtslund in Aarhus January 2015....

  18. Persistent Aerial Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-04-13

    In this thesis, we propose a new aerial video dataset and benchmark for low altitude UAV target tracking, as well as, a photo-realistic UAV simulator that can be coupled with tracking methods. Our benchmark provides the rst evaluation of many state of-the-art and popular trackers on 123 new and fully annotated HD video sequences captured from a low-altitude aerial perspective. Among the compared trackers, we determine which ones are the most suitable for UAV tracking both in terms of tracking accuracy and run-time. We also present a simulator that can be used to evaluate tracking algorithms in real-time scenarios before they are deployed on a UAV "in the field", as well as, generate synthetic but photo-realistic tracking datasets with free ground truth annotations to easily extend existing real-world datasets. Both the benchmark and simulator will be made publicly available to the vision community to further research in the area of object tracking from UAVs. Additionally, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by \\'handing over the camera\\' from one UAV to another. We integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  19. Track structure and dose: Alternative conceptual bases for nuclear therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.

    1987-01-01

    As one departs from the island of radiation quality encompassing photons and electrons of initial energy from about 100 keV to about 10 MeV toward increasingly higher LET particle irradiations, and from relatively uniform to inherently non-uniform radiation fields, dose and LET become less useful indices of radiation effect. Isodose profiles are not isoeffect profiles. RBEs vary with end point, with the state of oxygenation, with cell line, with tissue identity and with dose, and are multiple valued functions of LET. Dose, microdose and LET lack the descrimination needed to predict biological end points. RBE calculations made from cellular radiosensitivity parameters are consistent with RBEs measured both in vitro and in vivo. For such calculations, we must know the spectrum of particles and particle energies making up a high LET radiation field. To sharpen the calculations and make them directly relevant to therapy, we need to evaluate radiosensitivity parameters for human tissues. Both physical and biological data are needed for radiobiology and radiotherapy. For the question of hazard evaluation, we need to know the relation between transformations in vitro and cancer production in vivo. Using the same model as was used earlier for cellular inactivations, we have fitted tentative radiosensitivity parameters to recent data for cell transformations. The model is consistent with both gamma ray and fission neutron measurements. But a wider range of irradiations is needed to test these results. Delta rays play an important role in heavy ion radiobiology, but we do not now know either the cross-sections for delta ray production or the radial deposition of their energy with sufficient precision or generality. But it is this, the radial dose deposition, which is the physical basis for the calculation of action cross-sections. Studies for radiobiology and radiotherapy should also include the response of different physical detectors to a range of radiations, especially

  20. Coupling Between Doppler Radar Signatures and Tornado Damage Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Carey, Lawrence; Carcione, Brian; Smith, Matthew; Schultz, Elise V.; Schultz, Christopher; Lafontaine, Frank

    2011-01-01

    On April 27, 2011, the southeastern United States was raked with several episodes of severe weather. Numerous tornadoes caused extensive damage, and tragically, the deaths of over 300 people. In Alabama alone, there were 61 confirmed tornados, 4 of them produced EF5 damage, and several were on the ground an hour or more with continuous damage tracks exceeding 80km. The use of Doppler radars covering the region provided reflectivity and velocity signatures that allowed forecasters to monitors the severe storms from beginning to end issuing hundreds of severe weather warnings throughout the day. Meteorologists from the the NWS performed extensive surveys to assess the intensity, duration, and ground track of tornadoes reported during the event. Survey activities included site visits to the affected locations, analysis of radar and satellite data, aerial surveys, and interviews with eyewitnesses. Satellite data from NASA's MODIS and ASTER instruments played a helpful role in determining the location of tornado damage paths and in the assessment. High resolution multispectral and temporal composites helped forecasters corroborate their damage assessments, determine starting and ending points for tornado touchdowns, and helped to provide forecasters with a better big-picture view of the damage region. The imagery also helped to separate damage from the April 27th tornados from severe weather that occurred earlier that month. In a post analysis of the outbreak, tornado damage path signatures observed in the NASA satellite data have been correlated to "debris ball" signatures in the NWS Doppler radars and a special ARMOR dual-polarization radar operated by the University of Alabama Huntsville during the event. The Doppler radar data indicates a circular enhanced reflectivity signal and rotational couplet in the radial velocity likely associated with the tornado that is spatially correlated with the damage tracks in the observed satellite data. An algorithm to detect and

  1. Track structure theory in radiobiology and in radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.

    1978-01-01

    The response of biological cells, and many physical radiation and track detectors to ionizing radiations and to energetic heavily ionizing particles, results from the secondary and higher generation electrons ejected from the atoms and molecules of the detector by the incident primary radiation. The theory uses a calculation of the radial distribution of local dose deposited by secondary electrons (delta-rays) from an energetic heavy ion as a transfer function, relating the dose-response relation measured (or postulated) for a particular detector in a uniform radiation field (gamma-rays) to obtain the radial distribution in response about the ion's path, and thus the structure of the track of a particle. Subsequent calculations yield the response of the detector to radiation fields of arbitrary quality. The models which have been used for detector response arise from target theory, and are of the form of statistical models called multi-hit or multi-target detectors, in which it is assumed that there are sensitive elements (emulsion grains, or biological cell nuclei) which may require many hits (emulsion grains) or single hits in different targets (say, cellular chromosomes) in order to produce the observed end-point. Recent work has demonstrated that many-hit physical detectors do exist. From both emulsion sensitometry and from the structure of tracks of heavy ions, it can be shown that emulsion-developer combinations exist which yield many-hit response. There is also some evidence that the supralinearity in thermoluminescent dosimeters arises from a mixture of 1-hit and 2-hit response, perhaps of different trap structures within the same TLD crystal. These detectors can be expected to mimic the response of biological cells to radiations of different quality. Their patterns of response may help us to understand better the structure of particle tracks in SSNTD's. (author)

  2. Requirements for the Silicon Tracking System of CBM at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, Johann M.; Deveaux, M.; Muentz, C.; Stroth, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt will systematically study dense baryonic matter created in collisions of intense heavy-ion beams with nuclear targets. The research addresses current questions of strong-interaction physics as confinement in normal nuclear matter, chiral symmetry restoration in deconfined matter at high temperatures and densities, and the search for the critical end-point of the phase boundary. With beams of ions as heavy as Au and U, energies up to 45GeV/nucleon and intensities up to 10 12 ions per pulse, FAIR will enable CBM to probe the phase diagram of quantum chromo dynamics (QCD) in a region poorly known, while being complementary to current and future research programmes at RHIC and LHC. The CBM experiment is planned as a fixed-target spectrometer optimized for the detection of rare probes. Among these are open charm and low-mass vector mesons, important observables for the initial energetic and dense phase of the collisions. The experimental concept and challenge is to accomplish charged particle tracking in the high-multiplicity, high-radiation collision environment. This will be realized exclusively with a silicon tracking detector system installed in a strong magnetic dipole field directly behind the target. Key to the physics of CBM and benchmark for the tracking is the reconstruction of short-lived charmed mesons that puts high demands on the silicon detectors. The article presents a conceptual design of the CBM experiment with emphasis on the silicon tracking system. Requirements for silicon microstrip and pixel detectors and their arrangement in the tracker are discussed in relation to important physics observables addressed by CBM

  3. TAGGING, TRACKING AND LOCATING WITHOUT GPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordaro, J.; Coleman, T.; Shull, D.

    2012-07-08

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to lead a Law Enforcement Working Group that was formed to collaborate on common operational needs. All agencies represented on the working group ranked their need to tag, track, and locate a witting or unwitting target as their highest priority. Specifically, they were looking for technologies more robust than Global Positioning Satellite (GPS), could communicate back to the owner, and worked where normal cell phone communications did not work or were unreliable. SRNL brought together multiple technologies in a demonstration that was held in in various Alaska venues, including metropolitan, wilderness, and at-sea that met the working group's requirements. Using prototypical technologies from Boeing, On Ramp, and Fortress, SRNL was able to demonstrate the ability to track personnel and material in all scenarios including indoors, in heavily wooden areas, canyons, and in parking garages. In all cases GPS signals were too weak to measure. Bi-directional communication was achieved in areas that Wi-Fi, cell towers, or traditional radios would not perform. The results of the exercise will be presented. These technologies are considered ideal for tracking high value material such has nuclear material with a platform that allows seamless tracking anywhere in the world, indoors or outdoors.

  4. The Complexities of Self-Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöklint, Mimmi; Constantiou, Ioanna; Trier, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The activity of self-tracking is an emerging trend that often involves adopting wearable technology. Vendors promise new personal insights and opportunities to optimize health and lifestyle by adopting such devices. Spurred by these promises, users are also driven by curiosity and exploration to ...... coping tactics, such as disregard, procrastination, selective attribution and neglect....

  5. USTC & TBA Guidelines for Tennis Court & Running Track Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Tennis Court & Track Builders Association.

    Guidelines are presented on tennis court and track and field construction that reflect the latest developments in construction technology, methodology, and practice. Based on contributions from experienced certified tennis court and track builders, material suppliers and design professionals, this manual examines each of the critical areas of…

  6. Eye-tracking research in computer-mediated language learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, Marije; Smith, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Though eye-tracking technology has been used in reading research for over 100 years, researchers have only recently begun to use it in studies of computer-assisted language learning (CALL). This chapter provides an overview of eye-tracking research to date, which is relevant to computer-mediated

  7. Roadmap to tracking based business and intelligent products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmström, J.; Kajosaari, R.; Främling, K.; Langius, E.A.F.

    2009-01-01

    Item-centric tracking is an opportunity to increase visibility and control in different operations of a company. The economical feasibility of item-centric tracking is based on recent technological developments for monitoring the material flow on the item-level instead of the material type-level. It

  8. Fast track-hoftealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Bæk; Gromov, Kirill; Kristensen, Billy B

    2017-01-01

    Fast-track surgery implies a coordinated perioperative approach aimed at reducing surgical stress and facilitating post-operative recovery. The fast-track programme has reduced post-operative length of stay and has led to shorter convalescence with more rapid functional recovery and decreased...... morbidity and mortality in total hip arthroplasty. It should now be a standard total hip arthroplasty patient pathway, but fine tuning of the multiple factors in the fast-track pathway is still needed in patients with special needs or high comorbidity burden....

  9. Solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, J.A.; Carvalho, M.L.C.P. de

    1992-12-01

    Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) are dielectric materials, crystalline or vitreous, which registers tracks of charged nuclear particles, like alpha particles or fission fragments. Chemical etching of the detectors origin tracks that are visible at the optical microscope: track etching rate is higher along the latent track, where damage due to the charged particle increase the chemical potential, and etching rate giving rise to holes, the etched tracks. Fundamental principles are presented as well as some ideas of main applications. (author)

  10. Decontamination and Decommissioning Equipment Tracking System (DDETS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, S.

    1994-07-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy (DOE)(EM-50), the Scientific Computing Unit developed a prototype system to track information and data relevant to equipment and tooling removed during decontamination and decommissioning activities. The DDETS proof-of-concept tracking system utilizes a one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) bar coding technology to retain and track information such as identification number, manufacturer, requisition information, and various contaminant information, etc. The information is encoded in a bar code, printed on a label and can be attached to corresponding equipment. The DDETS was developed using a proven relational database management system which allows the addition, modification, printing, and deletion of data. In addition, communication interfaces with bar code printers and bar code readers were developed. Additional features of the system include: (a) Four different reports available for the user (REAPS, transaction, and two inventory), (b) Remote automated inventory tracking capabilities, (c) Remote automated inventory tracking capability (2D bar codes allow equipment to be scanned/tracked without being linked to the DDETS database), (d) Edit, update, delete, and query capabilities, (e) On-line bar code label printing utility (data from 2D bar codes can be scanned directly into the data base simplifying data entry), and (f) Automated data backup utility. Compatibility with the Reportable Excess Automated Property System (REAPS) to upload data from DDETS is planned

  11. Track Loading Vehicle - TLV

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TLV is designed to apply forces close to the strength limits of the rails and other track structure components, such as ties, rail fasteners, and ballast, while...

  12. Procurement Tracking System (PTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Procurement Tracking System (PTS) is used solely by the procurement staff of the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) at the U.S. Office of Personnel Management...

  13. Financial Disclosure Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — USAID's FDTS identifies personal service contractors and local employees who should file disclosure reports. It tracks late filers and identifies those who must take...

  14. Case Analysis Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — CATS tracks Public and Federal Agency Reference Requests for OPF (Official Personnel Folder) , EMF (Employee Medical Folder), and eOPF (electronic Official Personnel...

  15. Matter Tracking Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Matter Tracking Information System (MTIS) principle function is to streamline and integrate the workload and work activity generated or addressed by our 300 plus...

  16. LHCb on track

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    On 7 and 8 June 2006, the last large component of the LHCb experiment was lowered into the cavern. This 10-tonne, 18-metre long metal structure known as 'the bridge' will support the LHCb tracking system.

  17. Human Capital Tracking Tool -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — AVS is now required to collect, track, and report on data from the following Flight, Business and Workforce Plan. The Human Resource Management’s Performance Target...

  18. Energy Tracking Software Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan Davis; Nathan Bird; Rebecca Birx; Hal Knowles

    2011-04-04

    Acceleration has created an interactive energy tracking and visualization platform that supports decreasing electric, water, and gas usage. Homeowners have access to tools that allow them to gauge their use and track progress toward a smaller energy footprint. Real estate agents have access to consumption data, allowing for sharing a comparison with potential home buyers. Home builders have the opportunity to compare their neighborhood's energy efficiency with competitors. Home energy raters have a tool for gauging the progress of their clients after efficiency changes. And, social groups are able to help encourage members to reduce their energy bills and help their environment. EnergyIT.com is the business umbrella for all energy tracking solutions and is designed to provide information about our energy tracking software and promote sales. CompareAndConserve.com (Gainesville-Green.com) helps homeowners conserve energy through education and competition. ToolsForTenants.com helps renters factor energy usage into their housing decisions.

  19. Jet Car Track Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located in Lakehurst, New Jersey, the Jet Car Track Site supports jet cars with J57 engines and has a maximum jet car thrust of 42,000 pounds with a maximum speed of...

  20. Tracking cellular telephones as an input for developing transport models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available in the Cape Town area. We discuss the technologies used to track participants and construct their travel routes, problems with recruiting participants, the ethical issues, and the results of the project...

  1. Function integrated track system

    OpenAIRE

    Hohnecker, Eberhard

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses a function integrated track system that focuses on the reduction of acoustic emissions from railway lines. It is shown that the combination of an embedded rail system (ERS), a sound absorbing track surface, and an integrated mini sound barrier has significant acoustic advantages compared to a standard ballast superstructure. The acoustic advantages of an embedded rail system are particularly pronounced in the case of railway bridges. Finally, it is shown that a...

  2. Temperature responsive track membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omichi, H.; Yoshido, M.; Asano, M.; Tamada, H.

    1994-01-01

    A new track membrane was synthesized by introducing polymeric hydrogel to films. Such a monomer as amino acid group containing acryloyl or methacryloyl was either co-polymerized with diethylene glycol-bis-ally carbonate followed by on beam irradiation and chemical etching, or graft co-polymerized onto a particle track membrane of CR-39. The pore size was controlled in water by changing the water temperature. Some films other than CR-39 were also examined. (author). 11 refs, 7 figs

  3. Material Tracking Using LANMAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, F.

    2010-01-01

    LANMAS is a transaction-based nuclear material accountability software product developed to replace outdated and legacy accountability systems throughout the DOE. The core underlying purpose of LANMAS is to track nuclear materials inventory and report transactions (movement, mixing, splitting, decay, etc.) to the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS). While LANMAS performs those functions well, there are many additional functions provided by the software product. As a material is received onto a site or created at a site, its entire lifecycle can be tracked in LANMAS complete to its termination of safeguards. There are separate functions to track material movements between and within material balance areas (MBAs). The level of detail for movements within a MBA is configurable by each site and can be as high as a site designation or as detailed as building/room/rack/row/position. Functionality exists to track the processing of materials, either as individual items or by modeling a bulk process as an individual item to track inputs and outputs from the process. In cases where sites have specialized needs, the system is designed to be flexible so that site specific functionality can be integrated into the product. This paper will demonstrate how the software can be used to input material into an account and track it to its termination of safeguards.

  4. Development of etched nuclear tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.

    1980-01-01

    The theoretical description of the evolution of etched tracks in solid state nuclear track detectors is considered for different initial conditions, for the cases of constant and varying track etch rates, isotropic and anisotropic bulk etching as well as for thick and thin detectors. It is summarized how one can calculate the main parameters of etch-pit geometry, the track length, the axes of a surface track opening, track profile and track contour. The application of the theory of etch-track evolution is demonstrated with selected practical problems. Attention is paid to certain questions related to the determination of unknown track parameters and calculation of surface track sizes. Finally, the theory is extended to the description of the perforation and etch-hole evolution process in thin detectors, which is of particular interest for track radiography and nuclear filter production. (orig.)

  5. Development of etched nuclear tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.

    1979-01-01

    The theoretical description of the evolution of etched tracks in solid state nuclear track detectors is considered for different initial conditions, for the cases of constant and varying track etch rates, isotopic and unisotropic bulk etching as well as for thick and thin detectors. It is summarized how the main parameters of etch-pit geometry, the track length, the axes of a surface track opening, the track profile and the track contour can be calculated. The application of the theory of etch-track evolution is demonstrated with selected practical problems. Attention is paid to certain questions related to the determination of unknown track parameters and calculation of surface track sizes. Finally, the theory is extended to the description of the perforation and etch-hole evolution process in thin detectors, which is of particular interest for track radiography and nuclear filter production. (author)

  6. A programmable associative memory for track finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardi, A.; Belforte, S.; Donati, S.; Galeotti, S.; Giannetti, P.; Morsani, F.; Passuello, D.; Spinella, F.; Cerri, A.; Punzi, G.; Ristori, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Meschi, E.; Leger, A.; Speer, T.; Wu, X.

    1998-01-01

    We present a device, based on the concept of associative memory for pattern recognition, dedicated to on-line track finding in high-energy physics experiments. A large pattern bank, describing all possible tracks, can be organized into field programmable gate arrays where all patterns are compared in parallel to data coming from the detector during readout. Patterns, recognized among 2 66 possible combinations, are output in a few 30 MHz clock cycles. Programmability results in a flexible, simple architecture and it allows to keep up smoothly with technology improvements. (orig.)

  7. Sub-μrad laser beam tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buske, Ivo; Riede, Wolfgang

    2006-09-01

    We compare active optical elements based on different technologies to accomplish the requirements of a 2-dim. fine tracking control system. A cascaded optically and electrically addressable spatial light modulator (OASLM) based on liquid crystals (LC) is used for refractive beam steering. Spatial light modulators provide a controllable phase wedge to generate a beam deflection. Additionally, a tip/tilt mirror approach operating with piezo-electric actuators is investigated. A digital PID controller is implemented for closed-loop control. Beam tracking with a root-mean-squared accuracy of Δα=30 nrad has been laboratory-confirmed.

  8. Face Recognition and Tracking in Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Vitthal Tathe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Advancement in computer vision technology and availability of video capturing devices such as surveillance cameras has evoked new video processing applications. The research in video face recognition is mostly biased towards law enforcement applications. Applications involves human recognition based on face and iris, human computer interaction, behavior analysis, video surveillance etc. This paper presents face tracking framework that is capable of face detection using Haar features, recognition using Gabor feature extraction, matching using correlation score and tracking using Kalman filter. The method has good recognition rate for real-life videos and robust performance to changes due to illumination, environmental factors, scale, pose and orientations.

  9. Large angle tracking and high discriminating tracking in nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Tomokazu; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Satoru; Fukuda, Tsutomu; Mikado, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a high resolution and re-analyzable detector. Conventional “Track Selector” which have angle acceptance |tan θ|<0.6 are widely used to find tracks in emulsion. We made a new track selector “Fine Track Selector” (FTS) which has large angle acceptance and high discriminating ability. The FTS reduces fake tracks using new algorithms, navigation etc. FTS also keeps finding efficiency of tracks around 90% in an angle range of |tan θ| < 3.5. FTS was applied to the τ candidate in OPERA and no additional tracks found. FTS will be useful to our new J-PARC emulsion experiment.

  10. Terascale Simulation Tools and Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaolin

    2007-03-09

    We report the development of front tracking method as a simulation tool and technology for the computation on several important SciDAC and SciDAC associated applications. The progress includes the extraction of an independent software library from the front tracking code, conservative front tracking, applications of front tracking to the simulation of fusion pellet injection in a magnetically confined plasma, the study of a fuel injection jet, and the study of fluid chaotic mixing, among other problems.

  11. Clean tracks for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    First cosmic ray tracks in the integrated ATLAS barrel SCT and TRT tracking detectors. A snap-shot of a cosmic ray event seen in the different layers of both the SCT and TRT detectors. The ATLAS Inner Detector Integration Team celebrated a major success recently, when clean tracks of cosmic rays were detected in the completed semiconductor tracker (SCT) and transition radiation tracker (TRT) barrels. These tracking tests come just months after the successful insertion of the SCT into the TRT (See Bulletin 09/2006). The cosmic ray test is important for the experiment because, after 15 years of hard work, it is the last test performed on the fully assembled barrel before lowering it into the ATLAS cavern. The two trackers work together to provide millions of channels so that particles' tracks can be identified and measured with great accuracy. According to the team, the preliminary results were very encouraging. After first checks of noise levels in the final detectors, a critical goal was to study their re...

  12. CWI and TU Delft at TREC 2013: Contextual Suggestion, Federated Web Search, KBA, and Web Tracks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bellogín Kouki (Alejandro); G.G. Gebremeskel (Gebre); J. He (Jiyin); J.J.P. Lin (Jimmy); A. Said (Alan); T. Samar (Thaer); A.P. de Vries (Arjen); J.B.P. Vuurens (Jeroen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThis paper provides an overview of the work done at the Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI) and Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) for different tracks of TREC 2013. We participated in the Contextual Suggestion Track, the Federated Web Search Track, the Knowledge Base

  13. Tracking Accuracy of a Real-Time Fiducial Tracking System for Patient Positioning and Monitoring in Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchory, Tal; Schifter, Dan; Lichtman, Rinat; Neustadter, David; Corn, Benjamin W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In radiation therapy there is a need to accurately know the location of the target in real time. A novel radioactive tracking technology has been developed to answer this need. The technology consists of a radioactive implanted fiducial marker designed to minimize migration and a linac mounted tracking device. This study measured the static and dynamic accuracy of the new tracking technology in a clinical radiation therapy environment. Methods and Materials: The tracking device was installed on the linac gantry. The radioactive marker was located in a tissue equivalent phantom. Marker location was measured simultaneously by the radioactive tracking system and by a Microscribe G2 coordinate measuring machine (certified spatial accuracy of 0.38 mm). Localization consistency throughout a volume and absolute accuracy in the Fixed coordinate system were measured at multiple gantry angles over volumes of at least 10 cm in diameter centered at isocenter. Dynamic accuracy was measured with the marker located inside a breathing phantom. Results: The mean consistency for the static source was 0.58 mm throughout the tested region at all measured gantry angles. The mean absolute position error in the Fixed coordinate system for all gantry angles was 0.97 mm. The mean real-time tracking error for the dynamic source within the breathing phantom was less than 1 mm. Conclusions: This novel radioactive tracking technology has the potential to be useful in accurate target localization and real-time monitoring for radiation therapy.

  14. EYE GAZE TRACKING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of performing eye gaze tracking of at least one eye of a user, by determining the position of the center of the eye, said method comprising the steps of: detecting the position of at least three reflections on said eye, transforming said positions to spanning...... a normalized coordinate system spanning a frame of reference, wherein said transformation is performed based on a bilinear transformation or a non linear transformation e.g. a möbius transformation or a homographic transformation, detecting the position of said center of the eye relative to the position...... of said reflections and transforming this position to said normalized coordinate system, tracking the eye gaze by tracking the movement of said eye in said normalized coordinate system. Thereby calibration of a camera, such as knowledge of the exact position and zoom level of the camera, is avoided...

  15. Nanoscale measurements of proton tracks using fluorescent nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawakuchi, Gabriel O., E-mail: gsawakuchi@mdanderson.org; Sahoo, Narayan [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Ferreira, Felisberto A. [Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Sao Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); McFadden, Conor H. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Hallacy, Timothy M. [Biophysics Program, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Granville, Dal A. [Department of Medical Physics, The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8L6 (Canada); Akselrod, Mark S. [Crystal Growth Division, Landauer, Inc., Stillwater, Oklahoma 74074 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: The authors describe a method in which fluorescence nuclear track detectors (FNTDs), novel track detectors with nanoscale spatial resolution, are used to determine the linear energy transfer (LET) of individual proton tracks from proton therapy beams by allowing visualization and 3D reconstruction of such tracks. Methods: FNTDs were exposed to proton therapy beams with nominal energies ranging from 100 to 250 MeV. Proton track images were then recorded by confocal microscopy of the FNTDs. Proton tracks in the FNTD images were fit by using a Gaussian function to extract fluorescence amplitudes. Histograms of fluorescence amplitudes were then compared with LET spectra. Results: The authors successfully used FNTDs to register individual proton tracks from high-energy proton therapy beams, allowing reconstruction of 3D images of proton tracks along with delta rays. The track amplitudes from FNTDs could be used to parameterize LET spectra, allowing the LET of individual proton tracks from therapeutic proton beams to be determined. Conclusions: FNTDs can be used to directly visualize proton tracks and their delta rays at the nanoscale level. Because the track intensities in the FNTDs correlate with LET, they could be used further to measure LET of individual proton tracks. This method may be useful for measuring nanoscale radiation quantities and for measuring the LET of individual proton tracks in radiation biology experiments.

  16. Fast Compressive Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaihua; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Ming-Hsuan

    2014-10-01

    It is a challenging task to develop effective and efficient appearance models for robust object tracking due to factors such as pose variation, illumination change, occlusion, and motion blur. Existing online tracking algorithms often update models with samples from observations in recent frames. Despite much success has been demonstrated, numerous issues remain to be addressed. First, while these adaptive appearance models are data-dependent, there does not exist sufficient amount of data for online algorithms to learn at the outset. Second, online tracking algorithms often encounter the drift problems. As a result of self-taught learning, misaligned samples are likely to be added and degrade the appearance models. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective and efficient tracking algorithm with an appearance model based on features extracted from a multiscale image feature space with data-independent basis. The proposed appearance model employs non-adaptive random projections that preserve the structure of the image feature space of objects. A very sparse measurement matrix is constructed to efficiently extract the features for the appearance model. We compress sample images of the foreground target and the background using the same sparse measurement matrix. The tracking task is formulated as a binary classification via a naive Bayes classifier with online update in the compressed domain. A coarse-to-fine search strategy is adopted to further reduce the computational complexity in the detection procedure. The proposed compressive tracking algorithm runs in real-time and performs favorably against state-of-the-art methods on challenging sequences in terms of efficiency, accuracy and robustness.

  17. Tracking Your Development

    CERN Document Server

    Hennum, Kelly M

    2011-01-01

    This book provides you with the means to set development goals and to track your progress on achieving them. It can help you efficiently gather and make sense of information about your progress and avoid common pitfalls that can block your development. Tracking your development can be captures in a few steps: articulating your goal, creating an action plan, gathering information about your behavior, indentifying barriers and support, and revising your action plan. Taking these steps will greatly increase the likelihood of achieving your goals.

  18. Medical Imaging for the Tracking of Micromotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Diana; Cossío, Unai; Parmar, Jemish; Martínez-Villacorta, Angel M; Gómez-Vallejo, Vanessa; Llop, Jordi; Sánchez, Samuel

    2018-02-27

    Micro/nanomotors are useful tools for several biomedical applications, including targeted drug delivery and minimally invasive microsurgeries. However, major challenges such as in vivo imaging need to be addressed before they can be safely applied on a living body. Here, we show that positron emission tomography (PET), a molecular imaging technique widely used in medical imaging, can also be used to track a large population of tubular Au/PEDOT/Pt micromotors. Chemisorption of an iodine isotope onto the micromotor's Au surface rendered them detectable by PET, and we could track their movements in a tubular phantom over time frames of up to 15 min. In a second set of experiments, micromotors and the bubbles released during self-propulsion were optically tracked by video imaging and bright-field microscopy. The results from direct optical tracking agreed with those from PET tracking, demonstrating that PET is a suitable technique for the imaging of large populations of active micromotors in opaque environments, thus opening opportunities for the use of this mature imaging technology for the in vivo localization of artificial swimmers.

  19. Second sound tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jihee; Ihas, Gary G.; Ekdahl, Dan

    2017-10-01

    It is common that a physical system resonates at a particular frequency, whose frequency depends on physical parameters which may change in time. Often, one would like to automatically track this signal as the frequency changes, measuring, for example, its amplitude. In scientific research, one would also like to utilize the standard methods, such as lock-in amplifiers, to improve the signal to noise ratio. We present a complete He ii second sound system that uses positive feedback to generate a sinusoidal signal of constant amplitude via automatic gain control. This signal is used to produce temperature/entropy waves (second sound) in superfluid helium-4 (He ii). A lock-in amplifier limits the oscillation to a desirable frequency and demodulates the received sound signal. Using this tracking system, a second sound signal probed turbulent decay in He ii. We present results showing that the tracking system is more reliable than those of a conventional fixed frequency method; there is less correlation with temperature (frequency) fluctuation when the tracking system is used.

  20. Eye tracking social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Ting; Potters, Jan; Funaki, Yukihiko

    We hypothesize that if people are motivated by a particular social preference, then choosing in accordance with this preference will lead to an identifiable pattern of eye movements. We track eye movements while subjects make choices in simple three-person distribution experiments. We characterize

  1. Tracking, say, SKYPE Locations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Tracking, say, SKYPE Locations. Real Time Communication: Peer-to-Peer (P2P). Datagram flows between the two conversing partners; Exposes the IP addresses of all the participants to one another. If A knows B's VoIP ID, she can establish a call with Bob & obtain his current ...

  2. Energy Tracking Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis

    2016-01-01

    Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the "Next Generation Science Standards," the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they "track" the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of…

  3. Dust Devil Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 8 May 2002) The Science This image, centered near 50.0 S and 17.7 W displays dust devil tracks on the surface. Most of the lighter portions of the image likely have a thin veneer of dust settled on the surface. As a dust devil passes over the surface, it acts as a vacuum and picks up the dust, leaving the darker substrate exposed. In this image there is a general trend of many of the tracks running from east to west or west to east, indicating the general wind direction. There is often no general trend present in dust devil tracks seen in other images. The track patterns are quite ephemeral and can completely change or even disappear over the course of a few months. Dust devils are one of the mechanisms that Mars uses to constantly pump dust into the ubiquitously dusty atmosphere. This atmospheric dust is one of the main driving forces of the present Martian climate. The Story Vrrrrooooooooom. Think of a tornado, the cartoon Tasmanian devil, or any number of vacuum commercials that powerfully suck up swirls of dust and dirt. That's pretty much what it's like on the surface of Mars a lot of the time. Whirlpools of wind called

  4. Track Dynamics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    8 Track Bushing Research, . . . . . . . . . . . * . . . 8 Advanced frack Concept Development ..... . . . . . 9 TECHNICAL DISCUSSION...machine design effort was conducted. The design which was developed has separate servocontrolled hydraulic actuators to apply radial...back bending-but, in the order and magnitude of the way the torsional stress is incurred in service. This suggests a programable, hydraulically actuated

  5. Tracking Politics with POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  6. Transcom's next move: Improvements to DOE's transportation satellite tracking systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, L.H.; Harris, A.D. III; Driscoll, K.L.; Ellis, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    In today's society, the use of satellites is becoming the state-of-the-art method of tracking shipments. The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) has advanced technology in this area with its transportation tracking and communications system, TRANSCOM, which has been in operation for over one year. TRANSCOM was developed by DOE to monitor selected, unclassified shipments of radioactive materials across the country. With the latest technology in satellite communications, Long Range Navigation (Loran), and computer networks, TRANSCOM tracks shipments in near-real time, disseminates information on each shipment to authorized users of the system, and offers two-way communications between vehicle operators and TRANSCOM users anywhere in the country. TRANSCOM's successful tracking record, during fiscal year 1989, includes shipments of spent fuel, cesium, uranium hexafluoride, and demonstration shipments for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Plans for fiscal year 1990 include tracking additional shipments, implementing system enhancements designed to meet the users' needs, and continuing to research the technology of tracking systems so that TRANSCOM can provide its users with the newest technology available in satellite communications. 3 refs., 1 fig

  7. Effect of track etch rate on geometric track characteristics for polymeric track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Naby, A.A.; El-Akkad, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the variable track etch rate on geometric track characteristic for polymeric track detectors has been applied to the case of LR-155 II SSNTD. Spectrometric characteristics of low energy alpha particles response by the polymeric detector have been obtained. The track etching kinematics theory of development of minor diameter of the etched tracks has been applied. The calculations show that, for this type of detector, the energy dependence of the minor track diameter d is linear for small-etched removal layer h. The energy resolution gets better for higher etched removal layer

  8. The Future of Hazardous Waste Tracking: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The capability and performance of various RFID technologies to track hazardous wastes and materials (HAZMAT) across international borders will be verified in the El Paso, Texas-Ciudad Juarez, Mexico area under EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV)/Environmental and S...

  9. Vehicle track interaction safety standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-02

    Vehicle/Track Interaction (VTI) Safety Standards aim to : reduce the risk of derailments and other accidents attributable : to the dynamic interaction between moving vehicles and the : track over which they operate. On March 13, 2013, the Federal : R...

  10. Quality Assurance Training Tracking (QATTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is metadata documentation for the Quality Assurance Training Tracking System (QATTS) which tracks Quality Assurace training given by R7 QA staff to in-house...

  11. Launch vehicle tracking enhancement through Global Positioning System Metric Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T. C.; Li, Hanchu; Gray, T.; Doran, A.

    United Launch Alliance (ULA) initiated operational flights of both the Atlas V and Delta IV launch vehicle families in 2002. The Atlas V and Delta IV launch vehicles were developed jointly with the US Air Force (USAF) as part of the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) program. Both Launch Vehicle (LV) families have provided 100% mission success since their respective inaugural launches and demonstrated launch capability from both Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) on the Western Test Range and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) on the Eastern Test Range. However, the current EELV fleet communications, tracking, & control architecture & technology, which date back to the origins of the space launch business, require support by a large and high cost ground footprint. The USAF has embarked on an initiative known as Future Flight Safety System (FFSS) that will significantly reduce Test Range Operations and Maintenance (O& M) cost by closing facilities and decommissioning ground assets. In support of the FFSS, a Global Positioning System Metric Tracking (GPS MT) System based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite constellation has been developed for EELV which will allow both Ranges to divest some of their radar assets. The Air Force, ULA and Space Vector have flown the first 2 Atlas Certification vehicles demonstrating the successful operation of the GPS MT System. The first Atlas V certification flight was completed in February 2012 from CCAFS, the second Atlas V certification flight from VAFB was completed in September 2012 and the third certification flight on a Delta IV was completed October 2012 from CCAFS. The GPS MT System will provide precise LV position, velocity and timing information that can replace ground radar tracking resource functionality. The GPS MT system will provide an independent position/velocity S-Band telemetry downlink to support the current man-in-the-loop ground-based commanded destruct of an anomalous flight- The system

  12. Processing of plastic track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of some actual problems of the track processing methods available at this time for plastics is presented. In the case of the conventional chemical track-etching technique, mainly the etching situations related to detector geometry, and the relationship between registration sensitivity and the etching parameters are considered. Special attention is paid to the behaviour of track-revealing by means of electrochemical etching. Finally, some properties of a promising new track processing method based on graft polymerization are discussed. (author)

  13. Processing of plastic track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of some actual problems of the track processing methods available at this time for plastics is presented. In the case of the conventional chemical track etching technique mainly the etching situations related to detector geometry and the relationship of registration sensitivity and the etching parameters are considered. A special attention is paid to the behaviour of track revealing by means of electrochemical etching. Finally, some properties of a promising new track processing method based on graft polymerization is discussed. (orig.) [de

  14. Inner Detector Track Reconstruction and Alignment at the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Danninger, Matthias; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is responsible for reconstructing the trajectories of charged particles (‘tracks’) with high efficiency and accuracy. It consists of three subdetectors, each using a different technology to provide measurements points. An overview of the use of each of these subdetectors in track reconstruction, as well as the algorithmic approaches taken to the specific tasks of pattern recognition and track fitting, is given. The performance of the Inner Detector tracking will be summarised. Of crucial importance for optimal tracking performance is precise knowledge of the relative positions of the detector elements. ATLAS uses a sophisticated, highly granular software alignment procedure to determine and correct for the positions of the sensors, including time-dependent effects appearing within single data runs. This alignment procedure will be discussed in detail, and its effect on Inner Detector tracking for LHC Run 2 proton-proton collision data highlighted.

  15. Tracking change over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Landsat satellites capture images of Earth from space-and have since 1972! These images provide a long-term record of natural and human-induced changes on the global landscape. Comparing images from multiple years reveals slow and subtle changes as well as rapid and devastating ones. Landsat images are available over the Internet at no charge. Using the free software MultiSpec, students can track changes to the landscape over time-just like remote sensing scientists do! The objective of the Tracking Change Over Time lesson plan is to get students excited about studying the changing Earth. Intended for students in grades 5-8, the lesson plan is flexible and may be used as a student self-guided tutorial or as a teacher-led class lesson. Enhance students' learning of geography, map reading, earth science, and problem solving by seeing landscape changes from space.

  16. Structural Sparse Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu

    2015-06-01

    Sparse representation has been applied to visual tracking by finding the best target candidate with minimal reconstruction error by use of target templates. However, most sparse representation based trackers only consider holistic or local representations and do not make full use of the intrinsic structure among and inside target candidates, thereby making the representation less effective when similar objects appear or under occlusion. In this paper, we propose a novel Structural Sparse Tracking (SST) algorithm, which not only exploits the intrinsic relationship among target candidates and their local patches to learn their sparse representations jointly, but also preserves the spatial layout structure among the local patches inside each target candidate. We show that our SST algorithm accommodates most existing sparse trackers with the respective merits. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations on challenging benchmark image sequences demonstrate that the proposed SST algorithm performs favorably against several state-of-the-art methods.

  17. Thermal Tracking of Sports Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    We present here a real-time tracking algorithm for thermal video from a sports game. Robust detection of people includes routines for handling occlusions and noise before tracking each detected person with a Kalman filter. This online tracking algorithm is compared with a state-of-the-art offline...

  18. Minimum Tracking Error Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Luca RICCETTI

    2010-01-01

    Investors assign part of their funds to asset managers that are given the task of beating a benchmark. The risk management department usually imposes a maximum value of the tracking error volatility (TEV) in order to keep the risk of the portfolio near to that of the selected benchmark. However, risk management does not establish a rule on TEV which enables us to understand whether the asset manager is really active or not and, in practice, asset managers sometimes follow passively the corres...

  19. The fission track method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.

    1990-01-01

    During the last decade fission track (FT) analysis has evolved as an important tool in exploration for hydrocarbon resources. Most important is this method's ability to yield information about temperatures at different times (history), and thus relate oil generation and time independently of other maturity parameters. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the basics of the method and give an example from the author's studies. (AB) (14 refs.)

  20. Tracking environmental costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blahutova, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Tracking Environmental Costs and Investments in SAP will provide us with a managerial tool that will help us understand better the magnitude of the financial resources we are dedicating to environmental protection activities and investments. Environmental Cost Accounting is a new project in Slovenske Elektrarne that will be particularly valuable for the Company's environmental management initiatives, such as waste monitoring, cleaner production, eco-design and environmental management systems; its launch is expected in September. (author)

  1. Patient tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.J.; Hakimi, R.; Salehi, D.; McCord, T.; Zionczkowski, B.; Churchill, R.

    1987-01-01

    This exhibit describes computer applications in monitoring patient tracking in radiology and the collection of management information (technologist productivity, patient waiting times, repeat rate, room utilization) and quality assurance information. An analysis of the reports that assist in determining staffing levels, training needs, and patient scheduling is presented. The system is designed to require minimal information input and maximal information output to assist radiologists, quality assurance coordinators, and management personnel in departmental operations

  2. Maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enslin, J.H.R.

    1990-01-01

    A well engineered renewable remote energy system, utilizing the principal of Maximum Power Point Tracking can be m ore cost effective, has a higher reliability and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. This paper reports that a high-efficient power electronic converter, for converting the output voltage of a solar panel, or wind generator, to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input source under varying input and output parameters. Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm. Through practical field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved. A total cost saving of at least 10-15% on the capital cost of these systems are achievable for relative small rating Remote Area Power Supply systems. The advantages at larger temperature variations and larger power rated systems are much higher. Other advantages include optimal sizing and system monitor and control

  3. Discovering Activities to Recognize and Track in a Smart Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Parisa; Cook, Diane J; Holder, Lawrence B; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    The machine learning and pervasive sensing technologies found in smart homes offer unprecedented opportunities for providing health monitoring and assistance to individuals experiencing difficulties living independently at home. In order to monitor the functional health of smart home residents, we need to design technologies that recognize and track activities that people normally perform as part of their daily routines. Although approaches do exist for recognizing activities, the approaches are applied to activities that have been pre-selected and for which labeled training data is available. In contrast, we introduce an automated approach to activity tracking that identifies frequent activities that naturally occur in an individual's routine. With this capability we can then track the occurrence of regular activities to monitor functional health and to detect changes in an individual's patterns and lifestyle. In this paper we describe our activity mining and tracking approach and validate our algorithms on data collected in physical smart environments.

  4. Eye tracking a comprehensive guide to methods and measures

    CERN Document Server

    Holmqvist, Kenneth; Andersson, Richard; Dewhurst, Richard; Jarodzka, Halszka; Weijer, Joost van de

    2011-01-01

    We make 3-5 eye movements per second, and these movements are crucial in helping us deal with the vast amounts of information we encounter in our everyday lives. In recent years, thanks to the development of eye tracking technology, there has been a growing interest in monitoring and measuring these movements, with a view to understanding how we attend to and process the visual information we encounter Eye tracking as a research tool is now more accessible than ever, and is growing in popularity amongst researchers from a whole host of different disciplines. Usability analysts, sports scientists, cognitive psychologists, reading researchers, psycholinguists, neurophysiologists, electrical engineers, and others, all have a vested interest in eye tracking for different reasons. The ability to record eye-movements has helped advance our science and led to technological innovations. However, the growth of eye tracking in recent years has also presented a variety of challenges - in particular the issue of how to d...

  5. Person and gesture tracking with smart stereo cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gaile; Chen, Xiangrong; Buck, Ron

    2008-02-01

    Physical security increasingly involves sophisticated, real-time visual tracking of a person's location inside a given environment, often in conjunction with biometrics and other security-related technologies. However, demanding real-world conditions like crowded rooms, changes in lighting and physical obstructions have proved incredibly challenging for 2D computer vision technology. In contrast, 3D imaging technology is not affected by constant changes in lighting and apparent color, and thus allows tracking accuracy to be maintained in dynamically lit environments. In addition, person tracking with a 3D stereo camera can provide the location and movement of each individual very precisely, even in a very crowded environment. 3D vision only requires that the subject be partially visible to a single stereo camera to be correctly tracked; multiple cameras are used to extend the system's operational footprint, and to contend with heavy occlusion. A successful person tracking system, must not only perform visual analysis robustly, but also be small, cheap and consume relatively little power. The TYZX Embedded 3D Vision systems are perfectly suited to provide the low power, small footprint, and low cost points required by these types of volume applications. Several security-focused organizations, including the U.S Government, have deployed TYZX 3D stereo vision systems in security applications. 3D image data is also advantageous in the related application area of gesture tracking. Visual (uninstrumented) tracking of natural hand gestures and movement provides new opportunities for interactive control including: video gaming, location based entertainment, and interactive displays. 2D images have been used to extract the location of hands within a plane, but 3D hand location enables a much broader range of interactive applications. In this paper, we provide some background on the TYZX smart stereo cameras platform, describe the person tracking and gesture tracking systems

  6. Long-range eye tracking: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaweera, S.K.; Lu, Shin-yee

    1994-08-24

    The design considerations for a long-range Purkinje effects based video tracking system using current technology is presented. Past work, current experiments, and future directions are thoroughly discussed, with an emphasis on digital signal processing techniques and obstacles. It has been determined that while a robust, efficient, long-range, and non-invasive eye tracking system will be difficult to develop, such as a project is indeed feasible.

  7. Space Time – Track Circuits with Trellis Code Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Enulescu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The track circuits are very important equipments used in the railway transportation system. Today these are used to send vital information, to the running train, in the same time with the integrity checking of the rail. The actual track circuits have a small problem due to the use of the same transmission medium by the signals containing vital information and the return traction current, the running track rails. But this small problem can produce big disturbances in the train circulation, especially in the rush hours. To improve the data transmission to the train on-board equipment, the implementation of new track circuits using new communication technology were studied. This technology is used by the mobile and satellite communications and applies the principle of diversity encoding both time and space through the use of multiple transmission points of the track circuit signal for telegram which is sent to the train. Since this implementation does not satisfy the intended purpose, other modern communication principles such as 8PSK signals modulation and encoding using Trellis Coded Modulation were developed. This new track circuit aims to solve the problems which appeared in the current operation of track circuits and theoretically manages to transmit vital information to the train on board equipment without being affected by disturbances in electric traction transport systems.

  8. Pennsylvania Source Term Tracking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Pennsylvania Source Term Tracking System tabulates surveys received from radioactive waste generators in the Commonwealth of radioactive waste is collected each quarter from generators using the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Quarterly Report Form (hereafter called the survey) and then entered into the tracking system data base. This personal computer-based tracking system can generate 12 types of tracking reports. The first four sections of this reference manual supply complete instructions for installing and setting up the tracking system on a PC. Section 5 presents instructions for entering quarterly survey data, and Section 6 discusses generating reports. The appendix includes samples of each report

  9. Simultaneous tracking and activity recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina Elena; Fleet, David J.; Hamilton, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    be used to improve the prediction step of the tracking, while, at the same time, tracking information can be used for online activity recognition. Experimental results in two different settings show that our approach 1) decreases the error rate and improves the identity maintenance of the positional......Many tracking problems involve several distinct objects interacting with each other. We develop a framework that takes into account interactions between objects allowing the recognition of complex activities. In contrast to classic approaches that consider distinct phases of tracking and activity...... tracking and 2) identifies the correct activity with higher accuracy than standard approaches....

  10. Radiology film tracking in a distributed clinical network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquette, D.D.; Arrildt, W.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a system for tracking radiology films designed and installed at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. The installation of database and network capabilities in a large hospital environment provide the opportunity to extend to all nursing units and clinics access to the hospital's film tracking system. Ethernet communication technology allows communication to remote libraries. The integration of film tracking with scheduling and order entry systems in radiology make it possible to attain a high level of automated database interface and film jacket label production

  11. Trigger and electronics issues for scintillating fiber tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbaugh, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    Scintillating Fiber technology has made great advances and has demonstrated great promise for high speed charged particle tracking and triggering. The small detector sizes and fast scintillation floors available, make them very promising for use at high luminosity experiments at today's and tomorrow's colliding and fixed target experiments where high rate capability is essential. This paper will discuss some of the system aspects which should be considered by anyone attempting to design a scintillating fiber tracking system and high speed tracking trigger. As the reader will see, seemingly simple decisions can have far reaching effects on overall system performance

  12. Kinect-Based Moving Human Tracking System with Obstacle Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Mehsen Ahmad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an extension of work originally presented and published in IEEE International Multidisciplinary Conference on Engineering Technology (IMCET. This work presents a design and implementation of a moving human tracking system with obstacle avoidance. The system scans the environment by using Kinect, a 3D sensor, and tracks the center of mass of a specific user by using Processing, an open source computer programming language. An Arduino microcontroller is used to drive motors enabling it to move towards the tracked user and avoid obstacles hampering the trajectory. The implemented system is tested under different lighting conditions and the performance is analyzed using several generated depth images.

  13. Quality of Slab Track Construction – Track Alignment Design and Track Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šestáková Janka

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The slab track superstructure design (without ballast is a perspective construction especially for building tunnels and bridges in the modernized sections of railway tracks in Slovakia. Monitoring of the structure described in this article is focused on the transition areas between standard structure with ballast and slab track construction.

  14. Quality of Slab Track Construction - Track Alignment Design and Track Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šestáková, Janka

    2015-05-01

    The slab track superstructure design (without ballast) is a perspective construction especially for building tunnels and bridges in the modernized sections of railway tracks in Slovakia. Monitoring of the structure described in this article is focused on the transition areas between standard structure with ballast and slab track construction.

  15. Adaptive block online learning target tracking based on super pixel segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yue; Li, Jianzeng

    2018-04-01

    Video target tracking technology under the unremitting exploration of predecessors has made big progress, but there are still lots of problems not solved. This paper proposed a new algorithm of target tracking based on image segmentation technology. Firstly we divide the selected region using simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC) algorithm, after that, we block the area with the improved density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) clustering algorithm. Each sub-block independently trained classifier and tracked, then the algorithm ignore the failed tracking sub-block while reintegrate the rest of the sub-blocks into tracking box to complete the target tracking. The experimental results show that our algorithm can work effectively under occlusion interference, rotation change, scale change and many other problems in target tracking compared with the current mainstream algorithms.

  16. Adaptive and accelerated tracking-learning-detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pengyu; Li, Xin; Ding, Shaowen; Tian, Zunhua; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2013-08-01

    An improved online long-term visual tracking algorithm, named adaptive and accelerated TLD (AA-TLD) based on Tracking-Learning-Detection (TLD) which is a novel tracking framework has been introduced in this paper. The improvement focuses on two aspects, one is adaption, which makes the algorithm not dependent on the pre-defined scanning grids by online generating scale space, and the other is efficiency, which uses not only algorithm-level acceleration like scale prediction that employs auto-regression and moving average (ARMA) model to learn the object motion to lessen the detector's searching range and the fixed number of positive and negative samples that ensures a constant retrieving time, but also CPU and GPU parallel technology to achieve hardware acceleration. In addition, in order to obtain a better effect, some TLD's details are redesigned, which uses a weight including both normalized correlation coefficient and scale size to integrate results, and adjusts distance metric thresholds online. A contrastive experiment on success rate, center location error and execution time, is carried out to show a performance and efficiency upgrade over state-of-the-art TLD with partial TLD datasets and Shenzhou IX return capsule image sequences. The algorithm can be used in the field of video surveillance to meet the need of real-time video tracking.

  17. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS PLANS for Phase I the INTERNATIONAL PILOT FOR Global Radiological source SORTING, Tracking, AND MONITORING (GradSStraM) Using eMERGING RFID AND WEB 2.0 TECHNOLOGIES TO PROVIDE TOTAL ASSET AND INFORMATION VISUALIZATIONA United States-European Union Lighthouse Priority Project for fostering trade and reducing regulatory burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Randy M.

    2009-01-01

    Thousands of shipments of radioisotopes developed in the United States (US) are transported domestically and internationally for medical and industrial applications, including to partner laboratories in European Union (EU) countries. Over the past five years, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Department of Energy (DOE), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have worked with state regulatory compliance personnel, key private sector shippers and carriers, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Department of Transportation (DOT), the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tracking and monitoring of medical and industrial radioisotopes in commerce. The EPA Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring (RadSTraM) project tested, evaluated, and integrated RFID technologies in laboratory settings, and at multiple private-sector shipping and distribution facilities (Perkin Elmer and DHL) using common radioisotopes used in everyday commerce. The RFID tracking was also tested in association with other deployed technologies including radiation detection, chemical/explosives detection, advanced imaging, lasers, and infrared scanning. At the 2007 EU-US Summit, the leaders of the US Department of Commerce (DOC) and EU European Commission (EC) committed to pursue jointly directed Lighthouse Priority Projects. These projects are intended to 'foster cooperation' and 'reduce regulatory burdens' with respect to transatlantic commerce. The Transatlantic Economic Council (TEC) Lighthouse Project on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has been directed to 'develop a joint framework for cooperation on identification and development of best practices for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technologies.' The RFID Lighthouse Priority Project commits both sides to endeavor to align U.S. and EU regulatory and policy approaches on RFID technologies, including pilot projects in the public sector

  18. Thermal Tracking of Sports Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Gade

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We present here a real-time tracking algorithm for thermal video from a sports game. Robust detection of people includes routines for handling occlusions and noise before tracking each detected person with a Kalman filter. This online tracking algorithm is compared with a state-of-the-art offline multi-target tracking algorithm. Experiments are performed on a manually annotated 2-minutes video sequence of a real soccer game. The Kalman filter shows a very promising result on this rather challenging sequence with a tracking accuracy above 70% and is superior compared with the offline tracking approach. Furthermore, the combined detection and tracking algorithm runs in real time at 33 fps, even with large image sizes of 1920 × 480 pixels.

  19. Thermal tracking of sports players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B

    2014-07-29

    We present here a real-time tracking algorithm for thermal video from a sports game. Robust detection of people includes routines for handling occlusions and noise before tracking each detected person with a Kalman filter. This online tracking algorithm is compared with a state-of-the-art offline multi-target tracking algorithm. Experiments are performed on a manually annotated 2-minutes video sequence of a real soccer game. The Kalman filter shows a very promising result on this rather challenging sequence with a tracking accuracy above 70% and is superior compared with the offline tracking approach. Furthermore, the combined detection and tracking algorithm runs in real time at 33 fps, even with large image sizes of 1920 × 480 pixels.

  20. Optical tracking of nanoscale particles in microscale environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, P. P.; Liddle, J. A.; Stavis, S. M.

    2016-03-01

    The trajectories of nanoscale particles through microscale environments record useful information about both the particles and the environments. Optical microscopes provide efficient access to this information through measurements of light in the far field from nanoparticles. Such measurements necessarily involve trade-offs in tracking capabilities. This article presents a measurement framework, based on information theory, that facilitates a more systematic understanding of such trade-offs to rationally design tracking systems for diverse applications. This framework includes the degrees of freedom of optical microscopes, which determine the limitations of tracking measurements in theory. In the laboratory, tracking systems are assemblies of sources and sensors, optics and stages, and nanoparticle emitters. The combined characteristics of such systems determine the limitations of tracking measurements in practice. This article reviews this tracking hardware with a focus on the essential functions of nanoparticles as optical emitters and microenvironmental probes. Within these theoretical and practical limitations, experimentalists have implemented a variety of tracking systems with different capabilities. This article reviews a selection of apparatuses and techniques for tracking multiple and single particles by tuning illumination and detection, and by using feedback and confinement to improve the measurements. Prior information is also useful in many tracking systems and measurements, which apply across a broad spectrum of science and technology. In the context of the framework and review of apparatuses and techniques, this article reviews a selection of applications, with particle diffusion serving as a prelude to tracking measurements in biological, fluid, and material systems, fabrication and assembly processes, and engineered devices. In so doing, this review identifies trends and gaps in particle tracking that might influence future research.

  1. Influence of tracks densities in solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes O, S.; Hadler N.; Lunes, P.; Saenz T, C.

    1996-01-01

    When Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD) is employed to measure nuclear tracks produced mainly by fission fragments and alpha particles, it is considered that the tracks observation work is performed under an efficiency, ε 0 , which is independent of the track density (number of tracks/area unit). There are not published results or experimental data supporting such an assumption. In this work the dependence of ε 0 with track density is studied basing on experimental data. To perform this, pieces of CR-39 cut from a sole 'mother sheet' were coupled to thin uranium films for different exposition times and the resulting ratios between track density and exposition time were compared. Our results indicate that ε 0 is constant for track densities between 10 3 and 10 5 cm -2 . At our etching conditions track overlapping makes impossible the counting for densities around 1.7 x 10 5 cm -2 . For track densities less than 10 3 cm -2 , ε 0 , was not observed to be constant. (authors). 4 refs., 2 figs

  2. Proton tracking in a high-granularity Digital Tracking Calorimeter for proton CT purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, H. E. S.; Alme, J.; Biegun, A.; van den Brink, A.; Chaar, M.; Fehlker, D.; Meric, I.; Odland, O. H.; Peitzmann, T.; Rocco, E.; Ullaland, K.; Wang, H.; Yang, S.; Zhang, C.; Röhrich, D.

    2017-07-01

    Radiation therapy with protons as of today utilizes information from x-ray CT in order to estimate the proton stopping power of the traversed tissue in a patient. The conversion from x-ray attenuation to proton stopping power in tissue introduces range uncertainties of the order of 2-3% of the range, uncertainties that are contributing to an increase of the necessary planning margins added to the target volume in a patient. Imaging methods and modalities, such as Dual Energy CT and proton CT, have come into consideration in the pursuit of obtaining an as good as possible estimate of the proton stopping power. In this study, a Digital Tracking Calorimeter is benchmarked for proof-of-concept for proton CT purposes. The Digital Tracking Calorimeter was originally designed for the reconstruction of high-energy electromagnetic showers for the ALICE-FoCal project. The presented prototype forms the basis for a proton CT system using a single technology for tracking and calorimetry. This advantage simplifies the setup and reduces the cost of a proton CT system assembly, and it is a unique feature of the Digital Tracking Calorimeter concept. Data from the AGORFIRM beamline at KVI-CART in Groningen in the Netherlands and Monte Carlo simulation results are used to in order to develop a tracking algorithm for the estimation of the residual ranges of a high number of concurrent proton tracks. High energy protons traversing the detector leave a track through the sensor layers. These tracks are spread out through charge diffusion processes. A charge diffusion model is applied for acquisition of estimates of the deposited energy of the protons in each sensor layer by using the size of the charge diffused area. A model fit of the Bragg Curve is applied to each reconstructed track and through this, estimating the residual range of each proton. The range of the individual protons can at present be estimated with a resolution of 4%. The readout system for this prototype is able to

  3. Proton tracking in a high-granularity Digital Tracking Calorimeter for proton CT purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, H.E.S., E-mail: helge.pettersen@helse-bergen.no [Department of Oncology and Medical Physics, Haukeland University Hospital, Postbox 1400, 5021 Bergen (Norway); Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Postbox 7803, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Alme, J. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Postbox 7803, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Biegun, A. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, NL-9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Brink, A. van den [Nikhef, Utrecht University, Postbox 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Chaar, M.; Fehlker, D. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Postbox 7803, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Meric, I. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Bergen University College, Postbox 7030, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Odland, O.H. [Department of Oncology and Medical Physics, Haukeland University Hospital, Postbox 1400, 5021 Bergen (Norway); Peitzmann, T.; Rocco, E. [Nikhef, Utrecht University, Postbox 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ullaland, K. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Postbox 7803, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Wang, H. [Nikhef, Utrecht University, Postbox 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Yang, S. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Postbox 7803, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Zhang, C. [Nikhef, Utrecht University, Postbox 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Röhrich, D. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Postbox 7803, 5020 Bergen (Norway)

    2017-07-11

    Radiation therapy with protons as of today utilizes information from x-ray CT in order to estimate the proton stopping power of the traversed tissue in a patient. The conversion from x-ray attenuation to proton stopping power in tissue introduces range uncertainties of the order of 2–3% of the range, uncertainties that are contributing to an increase of the necessary planning margins added to the target volume in a patient. Imaging methods and modalities, such as Dual Energy CT and proton CT, have come into consideration in the pursuit of obtaining an as good as possible estimate of the proton stopping power. In this study, a Digital Tracking Calorimeter is benchmarked for proof-of-concept for proton CT purposes. The Digital Tracking Calorimeter was originally designed for the reconstruction of high-energy electromagnetic showers for the ALICE-FoCal project. The presented prototype forms the basis for a proton CT system using a single technology for tracking and calorimetry. This advantage simplifies the setup and reduces the cost of a proton CT system assembly, and it is a unique feature of the Digital Tracking Calorimeter concept. Data from the AGORFIRM beamline at KVI-CART in Groningen in the Netherlands and Monte Carlo simulation results are used to in order to develop a tracking algorithm for the estimation of the residual ranges of a high number of concurrent proton tracks. High energy protons traversing the detector leave a track through the sensor layers. These tracks are spread out through charge diffusion processes. A charge diffusion model is applied for acquisition of estimates of the deposited energy of the protons in each sensor layer by using the size of the charge diffused area. A model fit of the Bragg Curve is applied to each reconstructed track and through this, estimating the residual range of each proton. The range of the individual protons can at present be estimated with a resolution of 4%. The readout system for this prototype is able to

  4. A 1.2 Gb/s Data Transmission Unit in CMOS 0.18 μm technology for the ALICE Inner Tracking System front-end ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, G.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Benotto, F.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Lattuca, A.; Lupi, M.; Ravasenga, I.

    2017-02-01

    The upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System is based on a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor and ASIC designed in a CMOS 0.18 μ m process. In order to provide the required output bandwidth (1.2 Gb/s for the inner layers and 400 Mb/s for the outer ones) on a single high speed serial link, a custom Data Transmission Unit (DTU) has been developed in the same process. The DTU includes a clock multiplier PLL, a double data rate serializer and a pseudo-LVDS driver with pre-emphasis and is designed to be SEU tolerant.

  5. Pyrometer with tracking balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, D. B.; Zakharenko, V. A.; Shkaev, A. G.

    2018-04-01

    Currently, one of the main metrological noncontact temperature measurement challenges is the emissivity uncertainty. This paper describes a pyrometer with emissivity effect diminishing through the use of a measuring scheme with tracking balancing in which the radiation receiver is a null-indicator. In this paper the results of the prototype pyrometer absolute error study in surfaces temperature measurement of aluminum and nickel samples are presented. There is absolute error calculated values comparison considering the emissivity table values with errors on the results of experimental measurements by the proposed method. The practical implementation of the proposed technical solution has allowed two times to reduce the error due to the emissivity uncertainty.

  6. Patrol car and agent tracking/suspect tagging and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Steven C.

    1997-01-01

    Emerging technologies in the field of law enforcement are providing today's law enforcement personnel with the advantage of an innovative and faster means of providing safety and service to the public. The use of open such technology, the Automatic Vehicle Locator (AVL) tracking device, is fast becoming a commonplace and cost-effective solution for agencies to efficiently command and control their 'officer' assets. Through the use of AVL's global positioning satellite-based system, the response time of law enforcement is greatly enhanced by permitting a dispatcher to visually identify and assign the officer closest to the location of an accident or incident. The system is effective in reducing delays due to highway blockages, improving the level of protection to the motoring public, and promoting the flow of traffic on busy freeways. Likewise, an officer or agent in distress can be assured that a dispatcher will be constantly aware of his or her location in the field. In the 1990's the demands on law enforcement agencies have grown tremendously. this is due primarily to population increases, limited funding or resources, and increases in drug, property and violent crimes. Frequently, the automobile is used for escape after the commission of these crimes. This often results in high speed pursuits involving law enforcement agencies. In California, by statute, the California Highway Patrol is the central repository for data regarding all pursuits involving state and local law enforcement agencies. Statistics show that more than 10 percent of pursuits result in injuries to the violator and/or innocent bystanders. Most pursuits last less than 10 minutes, and the AVL system provides a tremendous advantage to law enforcement's ability to immediately deploy and direct units into pursuits for rapid closure of the incident. AVL systems not only reduce the risk of personal injury by minimizing public exposure to the unsafe incident, but also enhance officer safety during the

  7. Track reconstruction at the ILC: the ILD tracking software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaede, Frank; Aplin, Steven; Rosemann, Christoph; Voutsinas, Georgios; Glattauer, Robin

    2014-01-01

    One of the key requirements for Higgs physics at the International Linear Collider ILC is excellent track reconstruction with very good momentum and impact parameter resolution. ILD is one of the two detector concepts at the ILC. Its central tracking system comprises of an outer Si-tracker, a highly granular TPC, an intermediate silicon tracker and a pixel vertex detector, and it is complemented by silicon tracking disks in the forward direction. Large hit densities from beam induced coherent electron-positron pairs at the ILC pose an additional challenge to the pattern recognition algorithms. We present the recently developed new ILD tracking software, the pattern recognition algorithms that are using clustering techniques, Cellular Automatons and Kalman filter based track extrapolation. The performance of the ILD tracking system is evaluated using a detailed simulation including dead material, gaps and imperfections.

  8. Feasibility studies for a wireless 60 GHz tracking detector readout

    CERN Document Server

    Dittmeier, Sebastian; Soltveit, Hans Kristian; Wiedner, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The amount of data produced by highly granular silicon tracking detectors in high energy physics experiments poses a major challenge to readout systems. At high collision rates, e.g. at LHC experiments, only a small fraction of data can be read out with currently used technologies. To cope with the requirements of future or upgraded experiments new data transfer techniques are required which offer high data rates at low power and low material budget. Wireless technologies operating in the 60 GHz band or at higher frequencies offer high data rates and are thus a promising upcoming alternative to conventional data transmission via electrical cables or optical fibers. Using wireless technology, the amount of cables and connectors in detectors can be significantly reduced. Tracking detectors profit most from a reduced material budget as fewer secondary particle interactions (multiple Coulomb scattering, energy loss, etc.) improve the tracking performance in general. We present feasibility studies regarding the in...

  9. In vivo cell tracking with bioluminescence imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Kalimuthu, Senthilkumar; Ahn, Byeong Cheol [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine and Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Molecular imaging is a fast growing biomedical research that allows the visual representation, characterization and quantification of biological processes at the cellular and subcellular levels within intact living organisms. In vivo tracking of cells is an indispensable technology for development and optimization of cell therapy for replacement or renewal of damaged or diseased tissue using transplanted cells, often autologous cells. With outstanding advantages of bioluminescence imaging, the imaging approach is most commonly applied for in vivo monitoring of transplanted stem cells or immune cells in order to assess viability of administered cells with therapeutic efficacy in preclinical small animal models. In this review, a general overview of bioluminescence is provided and recent updates of in vivo cell tracking using the bioluminescence signal are discussed.

  10. Low Cost Eye Tracking: The Current Panorama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ferhat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of accurate, commercial gaze tracker devices working with infrared (IR technology, visible light gaze tracking constitutes an interesting alternative by allowing scalability and removing hardware requirements. Over the last years, this field has seen examples of research showing performance comparable to the IR alternatives. In this work, we survey the previous work on remote, visible light gaze trackers and analyze the explored techniques from various perspectives such as calibration strategies, head pose invariance, and gaze estimation techniques. We also provide information on related aspects of research such as public datasets to test against, open source projects to build upon, and gaze tracking services to directly use in applications. With all this information, we aim to provide the contemporary and future researchers with a map detailing previously explored ideas and the required tools.

  11. Classifications of track structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paretzke, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    When ionizing particles interact with matter they produce random topological structures of primary activations which represent the initial boundary conditions for all subsequent physical, chemical and/or biological reactions. There are two important aspects of research on such track structures, namely their experimental or theoretical determination on one hand and the quantitative classification of these complex structures which is a basic pre-requisite for the understanding of mechanisms of radiation actions. This paper deals only with the latter topic, i.e. the problems encountered in and possible approaches to quantitative ordering and grouping of these multidimensional objects by their degrees of similarity with respect to their efficiency in producing certain final radiation effects, i.e. to their ''radiation quality.'' Various attempts of taxonometric classification with respect to radiation efficiency have been made in basic and applied radiation research including macro- and microdosimetric concepts as well as track entities and stopping power based theories. In this paper no review of those well-known approaches is given but rather an outline and discussion of alternative methods new to this field of radiation research which have some very promising features and which could possibly solve at least some major classification problems

  12. Acquisition and tracking for underwater optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew J.; Laycock, Leslie L.; Griffith, Michael S.; McCarthy, Andrew G.; Rowe, Duncan P.

    2017-10-01

    There is a growing requirement to transfer large volumes of data between underwater platforms. As seawater is transmissive in the visible band, underwater optical communications is an active area of interest since it offers the potential for power efficient, covert and high bandwidth datalinks at short to medium ranges. Short range systems have been successfully demonstrated using sources with low directionality. To realise higher data rates and/or longer ranges, the use of more efficient directional beams is required; by necessity, these must be sufficiently aligned to achieve the required link margin. For mobile platforms, the acquisition and tracking of each node is therefore critical in order to establish and maintain an optical datalink. This paper describes work undertaken to demonstrate acquisition and tracking in a 3D underwater environment. A range of optical sources, beam steering technologies, and tracking sensors have been assessed for suitability. A novel scanning strategy exploiting variable beam divergence was developed to provide robust acquisition whilst minimising acquisition time. A prototype system was assembled and demonstrated in a large water tank. This utilised custom quadrant detectors based on Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) arrays for fine tracking, and a Wide Field of View (WFoV) sCMOS camera for link acquisition. Fluidic lenses provided dynamic control of beam divergence, and AC modulation/filtering enabled background rejection. The system successfully demonstrated robust optical acquisition and tracking between two nodes with only nanowatt received optical powers. The acquisition time was shown to be dependent on the initial conditions and the transmitted optical power.

  13. A neural tracking and motor control approach to improve rehabilitation of upper limb movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Maurizio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restoration of upper limb movements in subjects recovering from stroke is an essential keystone in rehabilitative practices. Rehabilitation of arm movements, in fact, is usually a far more difficult one as compared to that of lower extremities. For these reasons, researchers are developing new methods and technologies so that the rehabilitative process could be more accurate, rapid and easily accepted by the patient. This paper introduces the proof of concept for a new non-invasive FES-assisted rehabilitation system for the upper limb, called smartFES (sFES, where the electrical stimulation is controlled by a biologically inspired neural inverse dynamics model, fed by the kinematic information associated with the execution of a planar goal-oriented movement. More specifically, this work details two steps of the proposed system: an ad hoc markerless motion analysis algorithm for the estimation of kinematics, and a neural controller that drives a synthetic arm. The vision of the entire system is to acquire kinematics from the analysis of video sequences during planar arm movements and to use it together with a neural inverse dynamics model able to provide the patient with the electrical stimulation patterns needed to perform the movement with the assisted limb. Methods The markerless motion tracking system aims at localizing and monitoring the arm movement by tracking its silhouette. It uses a specifically designed motion estimation method, that we named Neural Snakes, which predicts the arm contour deformation as a first step for a silhouette extraction algorithm. The starting and ending points of the arm movement feed an Artificial Neural Controller, enclosing the muscular Hill's model, which solves the inverse dynamics to obtain the FES patterns needed to move a simulated arm from the starting point to the desired point. Both position error with respect to the requested arm trajectory and comparison between curvature factors

  14. Tracking fuzzy borders using geodesic curves with application to liver segmentation on planning CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Yading; Chao, Ming; Sheu, Ren-Dih; Rosenzweig, Kenneth; Lo, Yeh-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This work aims to develop a robust and efficient method to track the fuzzy borders between liver and the abutted organs where automatic liver segmentation usually suffers, and to investigate its applications in automatic liver segmentation on noncontrast-enhanced planning computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: In order to track the fuzzy liver–chestwall and liver–heart borders where oversegmentation is often found, a starting point and an ending point were first identified on the coronal view images; the fuzzy border was then determined as a geodesic curve constructed by minimizing the gradient-weighted path length between these two points near the fuzzy border. The minimization of path length was numerically solved by fast-marching method. The resultant fuzzy borders were incorporated into the authors’ automatic segmentation scheme, in which the liver was initially estimated by a patient-specific adaptive thresholding and then refined by a geodesic active contour model. By using planning CT images of 15 liver patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy, the liver contours extracted by the proposed computerized scheme were compared with those manually delineated by a radiation oncologist. Results: The proposed automatic liver segmentation method yielded an average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.930 ± 0.015, whereas it was 0.912 ± 0.020 if the fuzzy border tracking was not used. The application of fuzzy border tracking was found to significantly improve the segmentation performance. The mean liver volume obtained by the proposed method was 1727 cm 3 , whereas it was 1719 cm 3 for manual-outlined volumes. The computer-generated liver volumes achieved excellent agreement with manual-outlined volumes with correlation coefficient of 0.98. Conclusions: The proposed method was shown to provide accurate segmentation for liver in the planning CT images where contrast agent is not applied. The authors’ results also clearly demonstrated

  15. Development of nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, Gyoergy

    1985-01-01

    The birth and development of two decades of a new nuclear detection method is briefly summarized by one of the first inventors. The main steps of the development and broadening application of nuclear solid state track detectors are described underlying the contribution and main results of the research group of ATOMKI, Hungary (i.e. the finding of the proper plastic materials for track detectors, the discovery of correlations between the track diameter and the particle energy, the increasing of energy resolution, explanation of the track developing process, elaboration of new electrochemical track analyzing methods and automatic track analyzers). Recently, this detecting technique has grown to the phase of the industrial mass production and broad application in radiogeochemistry, mining, radioecology, personal monitoring in nuclear power plants, etc. (D.Gy.)

  16. Identifying elemental genomic track types and representing them uniformly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundersen Sveinung

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the recent advances and availability of various high-throughput sequencing technologies, data on many molecular aspects, such as gene regulation, chromatin dynamics, and the three-dimensional organization of DNA, are rapidly being generated in an increasing number of laboratories. The variation in biological context, and the increasingly dispersed mode of data generation, imply a need for precise, interoperable and flexible representations of genomic features through formats that are easy to parse. A host of alternative formats are currently available and in use, complicating analysis and tool development. The issue of whether and how the multitude of formats reflects varying underlying characteristics of data has to our knowledge not previously been systematically treated. Results We here identify intrinsic distinctions between genomic features, and argue that the distinctions imply that a certain variation in the representation of features as genomic tracks is warranted. Four core informational properties of tracks are discussed: gaps, lengths, values and interconnections. From this we delineate fifteen generic track types. Based on the track type distinctions, we characterize major existing representational formats and find that the track types are not adequately supported by any single format. We also find, in contrast to the XML formats, that none of the existing tabular formats are conveniently extendable to support all track types. We thus propose two unified formats for track data, an improved XML format, BioXSD 1.1, and a new tabular format, GTrack 1.0. Conclusions The defined track types are shown to capture relevant distinctions between genomic annotation tracks, resulting in varying representational needs and analysis possibilities. The proposed formats, GTrack 1.0 and BioXSD 1.1, cater to the identified track distinctions and emphasize preciseness, flexibility and parsing convenience.

  17. Tracking by Machine Learning Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Jofrehei, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Current track reconstructing methods start with two points and then for each layer loop through all possible hits to find proper hits to add to that track. Another idea would be to use this large number of already reconstructed events and/or simulated data and train a machine on this data to find tracks given hit pixels. Training time could be long but real time tracking is really fast Simulation might not be as realistic as real data but tacking has been done for that with 100 percent efficiency while by using real data we would probably be limited to current efficiency.

  18. Tracks: EPHT Massachusetts Case Study

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast highlights the Massachusetts Environmental Public Health Tracking Network and features commentary from Massachusetts Department of Public Health Associate Health Commissioner Suzanne Condon.

  19. Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System (RAITS) is a case management system that allows the National Reasonable Accommodation Coordinator (NRAC) and...

  20. Applications of nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medveczky, L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a scientific research-work are summarized. Nuclear track detectors were used for new applications or in unusual ways. Photographic films, nuclear emulsions and dielectric track detectors were investigated. The tracks were detected by optical microscopy. Empirical formulation has been derived for the neutron sensitivity of certain dielectric materials. Methods were developed for leak testing of closed alpha emitting sources. New procedures were found for the application and evaluation of track detector materials. The results were applied in the education, personnel dosimetry, radon dosimetry etc. (R.J.)

  1. Official Union Time Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Official Union Time Tracking System captures the reporting and accounting of the representational activity for all American Federation of Government Employees (AFGE)...

  2. Solar tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P. R.; Scott, D. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar tracker for a solar collector is described in detail. The collector is angularly oriented by a motor wherein the outputs of two side-by-side photodetectors are discriminated as to three ranges: a first corresponding to a low light or darkness condition; a second corresponding to light intensity lying in an intermediate range; and a third corresponding to light above an intermediate range, direct sunlight. The first output drives the motor to a selected maximum easterly angular position; the second enables the motor to be driven westerly at the Earth rotational rate; and the third output, the separate outputs of the two photodetectors, differentially controls the direction of rotation of the motor to effect actual tracking of the Sun.

  3. MetaTracker: integration and abstraction of 3D motion tracking data from multiple hardware systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecky, Ken; Winer, Eliot

    2014-06-01

    Motion tracking has long been one of the primary challenges in mixed reality (MR), augmented reality (AR), and virtual reality (VR). Military and defense training can provide particularly difficult challenges for motion tracking, such as in the case of Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) and other dismounted, close quarters simulations. These simulations can take place across multiple rooms, with many fast-moving objects that need to be tracked with a high degree of accuracy and low latency. Many tracking technologies exist, such as optical, inertial, ultrasonic, and magnetic. Some tracking systems even combine these technologies to complement each other. However, there are no systems that provide a high-resolution, flexible, wide-area solution that is resistant to occlusion. While frameworks exist that simplify the use of tracking systems and other input devices, none allow data from multiple tracking systems to be combined, as if from a single system. In this paper, we introduce a method for compensating for the weaknesses of individual tracking systems by combining data from multiple sources and presenting it as a single tracking system. Individual tracked objects are identified by name, and their data is provided to simulation applications through a server program. This allows tracked objects to transition seamlessly from the area of one tracking system to another. Furthermore, it abstracts away the individual drivers, APIs, and data formats for each system, providing a simplified API that can be used to receive data from any of the available tracking systems. Finally, when single-piece tracking systems are used, those systems can themselves be tracked, allowing for real-time adjustment of the trackable area. This allows simulation operators to leverage limited resources in more effective ways, improving the quality of training.

  4. Tracks: A National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network Overview

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Mike McGeehin, Director of CDC's Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, provides an overview of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network. It highlights the Tracking Network's goal, how it will improve public health, its audience, and much more.

  5. The GLAST silicon-strip tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Robert P.

    2000-01-01

    The GLAST instrument concept is a gamma-ray pair conversion telescope that uses silicon microstrip detector technology to track the electron-positron pairs resulting from gamma-ray conversions in thin lead foils. A cesium iodide calorimeter following the tracker is used to measure the gamma-ray energy. Silicon strip technology is mature and robust, with an excellent heritage in space science and particle physics. It has many characteristics important for optimal performance of a pair conversion telescope, including high efficiency in thin detector planes, low noise, and excellent resolution and two-track separation. The large size of GLAST and high channel count in the tracker puts demands on the readout technology to operate at very low power, yet with sufficiently low noise occupancy to allow self triggering. A prototype system employing custom-designed ASIC's has been built and tested that meets the design goal of approximately 200 W per channel power consumption with a noise occupancy of less than one hit per trigger per 10,000 channels. Detailed design of the full-scale tracker is well advanced, with non-flight prototypes built for all components, and a complete 50,000 channel engineering demonstration tower module is currently under construction and will be tested in particle beams in late 1999. The flight-instrument conceptual design is for a 4x4 array of tower modules with an aperture of 2.9 m2 and an effective area of greater than 8000 cm2

  6. The GLAST Silicon-Strip Tracking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R

    2004-01-01

    The GLAST instrument concept is a gamma-ray pair conversion telescope that uses silicon microstrip detector technology to track the electron-positron pairs resulting from gamma ray conversions in thin lead foils. A cesium iodide calorimeter following the tracker is used to measure the gamma-ray energy. Silicon strip technology is mature and robust, with an excellent heritage in space science and particle physics. It has many characteristics important for optimal performance of a pair conversion telescope, including high efficiency in thin detector planes, low noise, and excellent resolution and two-track separation. The large size of GLAST and high channel count in the tracker puts demands on the readout technology to operate at very low power, yet with sufficiently low noise occupancy to allow self triggering. A prototype system employing custom-designed ASIC's has been built and tested that meets the design goal of approximately 200 (micro)W per channel power consumption with a noise occupancy of less than one hit per trigger per 10,000 channels. Detailed design of the full-scale tracker is well advanced, with non-flight prototypes built for all components, and a complete 50,000 channel engineering demonstration tower module is currently under construction and will be tested in particle beams in late 1999. The flight-instrument conceptual design is for a 4 x 4 array of tower modules with an aperture of 2.9 m 2 and an effective area of greater than 8000 cm 2

  7. MODERN POSSIBILITIES OF SPECKLE TRACKING ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY IN CLINICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Nikiforov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Speckle-tracking echocardiography is promising modern technique for evaluation of structural and functional changes in the myocardium. It evaluates the indicator of global longitudinal myocardial deformation, which is more sensitive than ejection fraction to early changes of left ventricular contractility. The diagnostic capabilities of speckle tracking echocardiography are reflected in clinical recommendations and consensus statements of European Society of Cardiology (ESC, European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI and American Society of Echocardiography (ASE. The aim of this paper is describe basic principles of speckle tracking echocardiography and clinical applications of this new technology. Attention is paid to the use of speckle tracking echocardiography in such heart pathologies as heart failure, coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction, left ventricular hypertrophy in arterial hypertension, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and amyloidosis of the heart, valvular heart disease, constrictive pericarditis and cancer therapy-induced cardiotoxicity.

  8. Patient exposure tracking: the IAEA smart card project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehani, Madan M; Frush, Donald P

    2011-09-01

    The existing approach of radiation protection is largely based on the collective dose to the population with provisions for protection at an individual level through justification and optimisation. With the individual patient dose now exceeding the life-long occupational dose to a worker in a typical radiology practice, there is a need to establish approaches based on the protection of an individual patient. Radiation exposure tracking seems a way forward in this respect. Technological advances in recent years have provided opportunities for tracking to becoming a reality. The IAEA project on Smart Card/SmartRadTrack is described in this paper. The tracking is now a reality in a few dozen centres in many countries connected by picture archiving and communication systems, and there is hope that this will extend to cover other countries and continents.

  9. Patient exposure tracking: The IAEA smart card project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, M. M.; Frush, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    The existing approach of radiation protection is largely based on the collective dose to the population with provisions for protection at an individual level through justification and optimisation. With the individual patient dose now exceeding the life-long occupational dose to a worker in a typical radiology practice, there is a need to establish approaches based on the protection of an individual patient. Radiation exposure tracking seems a way forward in this respect. Technological advances in recent years have provided opportunities for tracking to becoming a reality. The IAEA project on Smart Card/SmartRadTrack is described in this paper. The tracking is now a reality in a few dozen centres in many countries connected by picture archiving and communication systems, and there is hope that this will extend to cover other countries and continents. (authors)

  10. USING EYE TRACKING TO MEASURE ONLINE INTERACTIVITY: A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana-Emilia ROBU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding that each and every company, even the sweetshop around the corner has found its way to the Internet, some customers still hesitate to shop online or to shop from one site and ignore the other. In order to build an online effective communication between the participants, one of the most important factors is interactivity. In the last decade it received extensive attention in the marketing literature, but few are the studies which have seen new methods to measure it. Eye tracking technology has been broadly used in the cognitive sciences. The purpose of this study is to investigate the existing literature in order to give insights into the eye tracking methodology when measuring the online interactivity. It also describes the eye tracking technology in general, extracts various examples from the eye tracking research field, with different applications, highlights its importance when analyzing the online consumer behavior, giving examples from various studies and finds the key points of the methodological difficulties. Finally, this work has an important merit for the future studies when taking into consideration the eye tracking technology in the online interactivity research and further, it is relevant for marketers, regarding the enhancement of online interactive interfaces and web or mobile applications.

  11. Silicon detectors for tracking and vertexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomerotski, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    This review covers recent developments in silicon detectors used for particle physics experiments for the tracking and vertexing systems. After a general introduction the main focus of the report is on new challenges for this field posed by requirements of the future generation machines. Technologies reviewed in more detail are column parallel CCDs, DEPFET, vertical integration of sensors and electronics and several others which allow fast readout and low mass design. Important system issues such as mechanical arrangements for the sensors and power distribution, which are critical for the low mass design, are also discussed.

  12. Topological track reconstruction in liquid scintillator and LENA as a far-detector in an LBNO experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    Unsegmented liquid scintillator (LSc) neutrino detectors have proven to be successful instruments of neutrino physics. They usually measure terrestrial and astrophysical low-energy (LE) neutrinos and antineutrinos with energies up to some tens of MeV. Designs for next-generation detectors based on this technology intend to use several tens of kilotons of LSc. Two examples are the Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy (LENA) project with 50 kt considered in Europe and the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) with 20 kt already under construction in China. A key factor to reach the scientific goals of these projects, e.g., the determination of the neutrino mass ordering (MO) in the case of JUNO, will be the efficient rejection of background from radioisotopes produced by cosmogenic muons. This requires accurate reconstructions of extended muon event topologies in the LSc volume.The first part of this work is about the implementation of a novel, iterative track reconstruction procedure for unsegmented LSc detectors and a basic evaluation of its performance with the LENA detector simulation. The ultimate goal of the new method is to reconstruct the spatial number density distribution of optical photon emissions. This will give access to a charged particle's differential energy loss dE/dx in LSc and resolve details of an event's topology, e.g., induced particle showers. Visual comparisons of reconstruction outcomes with Monte Carlo (MC) truths already provide evidence for this capability. First quantitative results were extracted from the 3D reconstruction data of fully-contained muons in the kinetic energy range from 1 to 10 GeV: Despite some well understood systematic effects in the current method to find start and end point of a track, resolutions < or similar 25 cm lateral to the reconstructed track were ascertained for these spots. The determined angular resolution of ∝1.4 at 1 GeV improves to ∝0.3 with rising muon energy. With the current analysis method

  13. Topological track reconstruction in liquid scintillator and LENA as a far-detector in an LBNO experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Sebastian

    2016-12-15

    Unsegmented liquid scintillator (LSc) neutrino detectors have proven to be successful instruments of neutrino physics. They usually measure terrestrial and astrophysical low-energy (LE) neutrinos and antineutrinos with energies up to some tens of MeV. Designs for next-generation detectors based on this technology intend to use several tens of kilotons of LSc. Two examples are the Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy (LENA) project with 50 kt considered in Europe and the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) with 20 kt already under construction in China. A key factor to reach the scientific goals of these projects, e.g., the determination of the neutrino mass ordering (MO) in the case of JUNO, will be the efficient rejection of background from radioisotopes produced by cosmogenic muons. This requires accurate reconstructions of extended muon event topologies in the LSc volume.The first part of this work is about the implementation of a novel, iterative track reconstruction procedure for unsegmented LSc detectors and a basic evaluation of its performance with the LENA detector simulation. The ultimate goal of the new method is to reconstruct the spatial number density distribution of optical photon emissions. This will give access to a charged particle's differential energy loss dE/dx in LSc and resolve details of an event's topology, e.g., induced particle showers. Visual comparisons of reconstruction outcomes with Monte Carlo (MC) truths already provide evidence for this capability. First quantitative results were extracted from the 3D reconstruction data of fully-contained muons in the kinetic energy range from 1 to 10 GeV: Despite some well understood systematic effects in the current method to find start and end point of a track, resolutions track were ascertained for these spots. The determined angular resolution of ∝1.4 at 1 GeV improves to ∝0.3 with rising muon energy. With the current analysis

  14. Tracking in Object Action Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Volker; Herzog, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    the space of the object affordances, i.e., the space of possible actions that are applied on a given object. This way, 3D body tracking reduces to action tracking in the object (and context) primed parameter space of the object affordances. This reduces the high-dimensional joint-space to a low...

  15. Graph Model Based Indoor Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Lu, Hua; Yang, Bin

    2009-01-01

    The tracking of the locations of moving objects in large indoor spaces is important, as it enables a range of applications related to, e.g., security and indoor navigation and guidance. This paper presents a graph model based approach to indoor tracking that offers a uniform data management...

  16. Making Sense of Dinosaur Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ann Haley; McDowell, Brian

    2012-01-01

    What do paleontologists, dinosaur tracks, and the nature of science have in common? They're combined here in an inquiry activity where students use methods of observation and inference to devise evidence-based explanations for the data they collect about dinosaur tracks, much like the methods used by paleontologists. Students then debate the…

  17. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  18. Satellite and acoustic tracking device

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2014-02-20

    The present invention relates a method and device for tracking movements of marine animals or objects in large bodies of water and across significant distances. The method and device can track an acoustic transmitter attached to an animal or object beneath the ocean surface by employing an unmanned surface vessel equipped with a hydrophone array and GPS receiver.

  19. Satellite and acoustic tracking device

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.; De la Torre, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates a method and device for tracking movements of marine animals or objects in large bodies of water and across significant distances. The method and device can track an acoustic transmitter attached to an animal or object beneath the ocean surface by employing an unmanned surface vessel equipped with a hydrophone array and GPS receiver.

  20. Using tracking software for writing instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sane M. Yagi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Writing is a complex skill that is hard to teach. Although the written product is what is often evaluated in the context of language teaching, the process of giving thought to linguistic form is fascinating. For almost forty years, language teachers have found it more effective to help learners in the writing process than in the written product; it is there that they could find sources of writing problems. Despite all controversy evoked by post-process approaches with respect to process writing, information technology has lately offered tools that can shed new light on how writing takes place. Software that can record keyboard, mouse, and screen activities is capable of unraveling mysteries of the writing process. Technology has given teachers and learners the option of examining the writing process as it unfolds, enabling them to diagnose strategy as well as wording problems, thus empowering teachers to guide learners individually in how to think about each of their trouble spots in the context of a specific product of writing. With these advances in information technology, metacognitive awareness and strategy training begin to acquire new dimensions of meaning. Technology lays open aspects of the writing process, offering unprecedented insight into creative text production as well. This paper attempts to explain how tracking software can influence writing instruction. It briefly examines the process and post-process approaches to assess their viability, explains the concept of tracking software, proposes methodology needed for the adoption of this technology, and then discusses the pedagogical implications of these issues.

  1. Symplectic multi-particle tracking on GPUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhicong; Qiang, Ji

    2018-05-01

    A symplectic multi-particle tracking model is implemented on the Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) using the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) language. The symplectic tracking model can preserve phase space structure and reduce non-physical effects in long term simulation, which is important for beam property evaluation in particle accelerators. Though this model is computationally expensive, it is very suitable for parallelization and can be accelerated significantly by using GPUs. In this paper, we optimized the implementation of the symplectic tracking model on both single GPU and multiple GPUs. Using a single GPU processor, the code achieves a factor of 2-10 speedup for a range of problem sizes compared with the time on a single state-of-the-art Central Processing Unit (CPU) node with similar power consumption and semiconductor technology. It also shows good scalability on a multi-GPU cluster at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility. In an application to beam dynamics simulation, the GPU implementation helps save more than a factor of two total computing time in comparison to the CPU implementation.

  2. Particle Filter Tracking without Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ortegon-Aguilar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available People tracking is an interesting topic in computer vision. It has applications in industrial areas such as surveillance or human-machine interaction. Particle Filters is a common algorithm for people tracking; challenging situations occur when the target's motion is poorly modelled or with unexpected motions. In this paper, an alternative to address people tracking is presented. The proposed algorithm is based in particle filters, but instead of using a dynamical model, it uses background subtraction to predict future locations of particles. The algorithm is able to track people in omnidirectional sequences with a low frame rate (one or two frames per second. Our approach can tackle unexpected discontinuities and changes in the direction of the motion. The main goal of the paper is to track people from laboratories, but it has applications in surveillance, mainly in controlled environments.

  3. NucliTrack: an integrated nuclei tracking application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sam; Barr, Alexis R; Glen, Robert; Bakal, Chris

    2017-10-15

    Live imaging studies give unparalleled insight into dynamic single cell behaviours and fate decisions. However, the challenge of reliably tracking single cells over long periods of time limits both the throughput and ease with which such studies can be performed. Here, we present NucliTrack, a cross platform solution for automatically segmenting, tracking and extracting features from fluorescently labelled nuclei. NucliTrack performs similarly to other state-of-the-art cell tracking algorithms, but NucliTrack's interactive, graphical interface makes it significantly more user friendly. NucliTrack is available as a free, cross platform application and open source Python package. Installation details and documentation are at: http://nuclitrack.readthedocs.io/en/latest/ A video guide can be viewed online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J6e0D9F-qSU Source code is available through Github: https://github.com/samocooper/nuclitrack. A Matlab toolbox is also available at: https://uk.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/61479-samocooper-nuclitrack-matlab. sam@socooper.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Combining people, processes, and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Julia

    2017-06-01

    Julia Fishman, managing director and vice-President, Clinical Strategy, at TeleTracking Technologies, discusses the in-use benefits of patient, staff, and asset tracking and flow technologies, arguing that their effective deployment across an NHS under considerable pressure on many fronts can free up more time to care, bring considerable cost and wider efficiencies, and help to address the perennial issue of 'bed blocking'.

  5. A Mobile GPS Application: Mosque Tracking with Prayer Time Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Rathiah; Ikhmatiar, Mohammad Sibghotulloh; Surip, Miswan; Karmin, Masiri; Herawan, Tutut

    Global Positioning System (GPS) is a popular technology applied in many areas and embedded in many devices, facilitating end-users to navigate effectively to user's intended destination via the best calculated route. The ability of GPS to track precisely according to coordinates of specific locations can be utilized to assist a Muslim traveler visiting or passing an unfamiliar place to find the nearest mosque in order to perform his prayer. However, not many techniques have been proposed for Mosque tracking. This paper presents the development of GPS technology in tracking the nearest mosque using mobile application software embedded with the prayer time's synchronization system on a mobile application. The prototype GPS system developed has been successfully incorporated with a map and several mosque locations.

  6. Alignment of the ALICE Inner Tracking System with cosmic-ray tracks

    CERN Document Server

    Aamodt, K; Abeysekara, U; Abrahantes Quintana, A; Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agocs, A G; Aguilar Salazar, S; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, A; Ahmad, N; Ahn, S U; Akimoto, R; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Almaráz Aviña, E; Alme, J; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Alt, T; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anelli, G; Angelov, V; Anson, C; Anticic, T; Antinori, F; Antinori, S; Antipin, K; Antonczyk, D; Antonioli, P; Anzo, A; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arcelli, S; Arceo, R; Arend, A; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Asryan, A; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Äystö, J; Azmi, M D; Bablok, S; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldisseri, A; Baldit, A; Bán, J; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Basmanov, V; Bastid, N; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batyunya, B; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Becker, B; Belikov, I; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Belogianni, A; Benhabib, L; Beolé, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdermann, E; Berdnikov, Y; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bianchi, L; Bianchin, C; Bianchi, N; Bielcík, J; Bielcíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Bimbot, L; Biolcati, E; Blanc, A; Blanco, F; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Boccioli, M; Bock, N; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Bohm, J; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Bombonati, C; Bondila, M; Borel, H; Borshchov, V; Bortolin, C; Bose, S; Bosisio, L; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Böttger, S; Bourdaud, G; Boyer, B; Braun, M; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bravina, L; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Bruckner, G; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Brun, R; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bugaev, K; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caffarri, D; Caines, H; Cai, X; Camacho, E; Camerini, P; Campbell, M; Canoa Roman, V; Capitani, G P; Cara Romeo, G; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carminati, F; Casanova Díaz, A; Caselle, M; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castillo Hernandez, J F; Catanescu, V; Cattaruzza, E; Cavicchioli, C; Cerello, P; Chambert, V; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charpy, A; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Choi, K; Chojnacki, M; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chuman, F; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Cobanoglu, O; Coffin, J P; Coli, S; Colla, A; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa del Valle, Z; Conner, E S; Constantin, P; Contin, G; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortese, P; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Cotallo, M E; Crescio, E; Crochet, P; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Cussonneau, J; Dainese, A; Dalsgaard, H H; Danu, A; Dash, A; Dash, S; Das, I; Das, S; de Barros, G O V; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gaspari, M; de Groot, J; De Gruttola, D; de Haas, A P; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; De Remigis, R; de Rooij, R; de Vaux, G; Delagrange, H; Dellacasa, G; Deloff, A; Demanov, V; Dénes, E; Deppman, A; D'Erasmo, G; Derkach, D; Devaux, A; Di Bari, D; Di Giglio, C; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Dialinas, M; Díaz, L; Díaz, R; Dietel, T; Ding, H; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; do Amaral Valdiviesso, G; Dobretsov, V; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Dönigus, B; Domínguez, I; Dordic, O; Dubey, A K; Dubuisson, J; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Dutta Majumdar, A K; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Elia, D; Emschermann, D; Enokizono, A; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Evans, D; Evrard, S; Eyyubova, G; Fabjan, C W; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fearick, R; Fedunov, A; Fehlker, D; Fekete, V; Felea, D; Fenton-Olsen, B; Feofilov, G; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferreiro, E G; Ferretti, A; Ferretti, R; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Fini, R; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floris, M; Fodor, Z; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Formenti, F; Fragiacomo, E; Fragkiadakis, M; Frankenfeld, U; Frolov, A; Fuchs, U; Furano, F; Furget, C; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gadrat, S; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A; Gallio, M; Ganoti, P; Ganti, M S; Garabatos, C; García Trapaga, C; Gebelein, J; Gemme, R; Germain, M; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Giraudo, G; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glasow, R; Glässel, P; Glenn, A; Gomez, R; González Santos, H; González-Trueba, L H; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Gorbunov, Y; Gotovac, S; Gottschlag, H; Grabski, V; Grajcarek, R; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gros, P; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J Y; Grosso, R; Guarnaccia, C; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerzoni, B; Gulbrandsen, K; Gulkanyan, H; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Gustafsson, H A; Gutbrod, H; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Hamblen, J; Han, B H; Harris, J W; Hartig, M; Harutyunyan, A; Hasch, D; Hasegan, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayrapetyan, A; Heide, M; Heinz, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Hernández, C; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, N; Hetland, K F; Hicks, B; Hiei, A; Hille, P T; Hippolyte, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hristov, P; Hrivnácová, I; Huber, S; Humanic, T J; Hu, S; Hutter, D; Hwang, D S; Ichou, R; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Innocenti, P G; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivan, C; Ivanov, A; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Iwasaki, T; Jachokowski, A; Jacobs, P; Jancurová, L; Jangal, S; Janik, R; Jayananda, K; Jena, C; Jena, S; Jirden, L; Jones, G T; Jones, P G; Jovanovic, P; Jung, H; Jung, W; Jusko, A; Kaidalov, A B; Kalcher, S; Kalinák, P; Kalliokoski, T; Kalweit, A; Kamal, A; Kamermans, R; Kanaki, K; Kang, E; Kang, J H; Kapitan, J; Kaplin, V; Kapusta, S; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kazantsev, A; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Khan, M M; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kikola, D; Kileng, B; Kim, D J; Kim, D S; Kim, D W; Kim, H N; Kim, J H; Kim, J; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S H; Kim, S; Kim, Y; Kirsch, S; Kiselev, S; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Klay, J L; Klein-Bösing, C; Klein, J; Kliemant, M; Klovning, A; Kluge, A; Kniege, S; Koch, K; Kolevatov, R; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskih, A; Kornas, E; Kour, R; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Kozlov, K; Králik, I; Kral, J; Kramer, F; Kraus, I; Kravcáková, A; Krawutschke, T; Krivda, M; Krumbhorn, D; Krus, M; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucheriaev, Y; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kumar, L; Kumar, N; Kupczak, R; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A N; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kushpil, V; Kutouski, M; Kvaerno, H; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Lackner, F; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Lafage, V; Lal, C; Lara, C; La Rocca, P; Larsen, D T; Laurenti, G; Lazzeroni, C; Le Bornec, Y; Le Bris, N; Lee, H; Lee, K S; Lee, S C; Lefèvre, F; Lehnert, J; Leistam, L; Lenhardt, M; Lenti, V; León, H; León Monzón, I; León Vargas, H; Lévai, P; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Listratenko, O; Liu, L; Li, Y; Loginov, V; Lohn, S; López Noriega, M; López-Ramírez, R; López Torres, E; Lopez, X; Løvhøiden, G; Lozea Feijo Soares, A; Lunardon, M; Luparello, G; Luquin, L; Lu, S; Lutz, J R; Luvisetto, M; Madagodahettige-Don, D M; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahajan, A; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Makhlyueva, I; Ma, K; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malek, M; Mal'Kevich, D; Malkiewicz, T; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Mangotra, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Mares, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marín, A; Martashvili, I; Martinengo, P; Martínez Davalos, A; Martínez García, G; Martínez, M I; Maruyama, Y; Ma, R; Marzari Chiesa, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masetti, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastromarco, M; Mastroserio, A; Matthews, Z L; Mattos Tavares, B; Matyja, A; Mayani, D; Mazza, G; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Mendez Lorenzo, P; Meoni, M; Mercado Pérez, J; Mereu, P; Miake, Y; Michalon, A; Miftakhov, N; Milosevic, J; Minafra, F; Mischke, A; Miskowiec, D; Mitu, C; Mizoguchi, K; Mlynarz, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Mondal, M M; Montaño Zetina, L; Monteno, M; Montes, E; Morando, M; Moretto, S; Morsch, A; Moukhanova, T; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Muhuri, S; Müller, H; Munhoz, M G; Munoz, J; Musa, L; Musso, A; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Navach, F; Navin, S; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nazarov, G; Nedosekin, A; Nendaz, F; Newby, J; Nianine, A; Nicassio, M; Nielsen, B S; Nikolaev, S; Nikolic, V; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Nilsen, B S; Nilsson, M S; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Novitzky, N; Nyatha, A; Nygaard, C; Nyiri, A; Nystrand, J; Ochirov, A; Odyniec, G; Oeschler, H; Oinonen, M; Okada, K; Okada, Y; Oldenburg, M; Oleniacz, J; Oppedisano, C; Orsini, F; Ortíz Velázquez, A; Ortona, G; Oskamp, C; Oskarsson, A; Osmic, F; Österman, L; Ostrowski, P; Otterlund, I; Otwinowski, J; Øvrebekk, G; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pachmayer, Y; Pachr, M; Padilla, F; Pagano, P; Paic, G; Painke, F; Pajares, C; Palaha, A; Palmeri, A; Pal, S K; Pal, S; Panse, R; Pappalardo, G S; Park, W J; Pastircák, B; Pastore, C; Paticchio, V; Pavlinov, A; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Pepato, A; Pereira, H; Peressounko, D; Pérez, C; Perini, D; Perrino, D; Peryt, W; Peschek, J; Pesci, A; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Peters, A J; Petrácek, V; Petridis, A; Petris, M; Petrovici, M; Petrov, P; Petta, C; Peyré, J; 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Roukoutakis, F; Rousseau, S; Roy, C; Roy, P; Rubio-Montero, A J; Rui, R; Rusanov, I; Russo, G; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Safarík, K; Sahoo, R; Saini, J; Saiz, P; Sakata, D; Salgado, C A; Salgueiro Dominques da Silva, R; Salur, S; Samanta, T; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Sano, S; Santo, R; Santoro, R; Sarkamo, J; Saturnini, P; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schindler, H; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schossmaier, K; Schreiner, S; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Segato, G; Semenov, D; Senyukov, S; Seo, J; Serci, S; Serkin, L; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Sgura, I; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Sharkov, G; Sharma, N; Sharma, S; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siciliano, M; Sicking, E; Siddi, E; Siemiarczuk, T; Silenzi, A; Silvermyr, D; Simili, E; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singhal, V; Singh, R; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; 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Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zenin, A; Zepeda, A; Zgura, I; Zhalov, M; Zhang, X; Zhou, D; Zhou, S; Zhu, J; Zichichi, A; Zinchenko, A; Zinovjev, G; Zinovjev, M; Zoccarato, Y; Zychácek, V

    2010-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiment devoted to investigating the strongly interacting matter created in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC energies. The ALICE ITS, Inner Tracking System, consists of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors with three different technologies; in the outward direction: two layers of pixel detectors, two layers each of drift, and strip detectors. The number of parameters to be determined in the spatial alignment of the 2198 sensor modules of the ITS is about 13,000. The target alignment precision is well below 10 micron in some cases (pixels). The sources of alignment information include survey measurements, and the reconstructed tracks from cosmic rays and from proton-proton collisions. The main track-based alignment method uses the Millepede global approach. An iterative local method was developed and used as well. We present the results obtained for the ITS alignment using about 10^5 charged tracks from cosmic rays that h...

  7. Maximum-power-point tracking control of solar heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2012-11-01

    The present study developed a maximum-power point tracking control (MPPT) technology for solar heating system to minimize the pumping power consumption at an optimal heat collection. The net solar energy gain Q net (=Q s-W p/η e) was experimentally found to be the cost function for MPPT with maximum point. The feedback tracking control system was developed to track the optimal Q net (denoted Q max). A tracking filter which was derived from the thermal analytical model of the solar heating system was used to determine the instantaneous tracking target Q max(t). The system transfer-function model of solar heating system was also derived experimentally using a step response test and used in the design of tracking feedback control system. The PI controller was designed for a tracking target Q max(t) with a quadratic time function. The MPPT control system was implemented using a microprocessor-based controller and the test results show good tracking performance with small tracking errors. It is seen that the average mass flow rate for the specific test periods in five different days is between 18.1 and 22.9kg/min with average pumping power between 77 and 140W, which is greatly reduced as compared to the standard flow rate at 31kg/min and pumping power 450W which is based on the flow rate 0.02kg/sm 2 defined in the ANSI/ASHRAE 93-1986 Standard and the total collector area 25.9m 2. The average net solar heat collected Q net is between 8.62 and 14.1kW depending on weather condition. The MPPT control of solar heating system has been verified to be able to minimize the pumping energy consumption with optimal solar heat collection. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Markerless Motion Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis; Czarowicz, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the Associated Technologies aspect of the ICDVRAT event. Two industry leading markerless motion capture systems are examined that offer advancement in the field of rehabilitation. Residing at each end of the cost continuum, technical differences such as 3D versus 360 ...

  9. An interface tracking model for droplet electrocoalescence.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Lindsay Crowl

    2013-09-01

    This report describes an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to develop an interface tracking model for droplet electrocoalescence. Many fluid-based technologies rely on electrical fields to control the motion of droplets, e.g. microfluidic devices for high-speed droplet sorting, solution separation for chemical detectors, and purification of biodiesel fuel. Precise control over droplets is crucial to these applications. However, electric fields can induce complex and unpredictable fluid dynamics. Recent experiments (Ristenpart et al. 2009) have demonstrated that oppositely charged droplets bounce rather than coalesce in the presence of strong electric fields. A transient aqueous bridge forms between approaching drops prior to pinch-off. This observation applies to many types of fluids, but neither theory nor experiments have been able to offer a satisfactory explanation. Analytic hydrodynamic approximations for interfaces become invalid near coalescence, and therefore detailed numerical simulations are necessary. This is a computationally challenging problem that involves tracking a moving interface and solving complex multi-physics and multi-scale dynamics, which are beyond the capabilities of most state-of-the-art simulations. An interface-tracking model for electro-coalescence can provide a new perspective to a variety of applications in which interfacial physics are coupled with electrodynamics, including electro-osmosis, fabrication of microelectronics, fuel atomization, oil dehydration, nuclear waste reprocessing and solution separation for chemical detectors. We present a conformal decomposition finite element (CDFEM) interface-tracking method for the electrohydrodynamics of two-phase flow to demonstrate electro-coalescence. CDFEM is a sharp interface method that decomposes elements along fluid-fluid boundaries and uses a level set function to represent the interface.

  10. Double Tracks closure report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the remediation activities performed and the results of postremediation radiation surveys conducted at the Double Tracks site, located on Range 71 North, of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in southern Nevada. This remediation was conducted from June to August 1996 in accordance with the Interim Corrective Action Plan (ICAP) to remediate the site to an acceptable risk to human health and the environment. Soil with a total transuranic activity greater than 200 picoCuries per gram (pCi/g) was excavated, shipped to the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and disposed at the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). A total of 52.3 grams of plutonium (Pu) with an activity of 5.12 Curies was disposed. The concrete pad at ground zero (GZ) was broken up, placed in a Sealand reg-sign container, and shipped to the NTS Area 6 decontamination pad. Additionally, approximately 10 m 3 (350 ft 3 ) of soil containing small chips of concrete was shipped to the NTS Area 6 decontamination pad. The concrete and soil/concrete mixture will be further characterized prior to disposal. At the time this report was written, characterization samples were being collected, with analytical results expected in January 1997. It is anticipated that the material will be disposed in mid-1997. This remediation is an interim action because final cleanup levels have not been established

  11. Surveillance, Self and Smartphones: Tracking Practices in the Nightlife

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timan, Tjerk; Albrechtslund, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the result of the EMERGING ICT FOR CITIZEN VEILLANCE-workshop organized by the JRC, Ispra, Italy, March 2014. The aim of this paper is to explore how the subject participates in surveillance situations with a particular focus on how users experience everyday tracking technologies and

  12. State of the Art in Tracking Based Business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kajosaari, R.; Langius, E.; Holmström, J.

    2007-01-01

    Item-centric control and information management is a potential solution to establish economically and practically feasible Concurrent Enterprises. The economical feasibility of item-centric tracking is based on recent technological developments for monitoring the material flow on the item-level

  13. Accelerated Performance Testing on the 2006 NCAT Pavement Test Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The original National Center for Asphalt Technology (NCAT) Pavement Test Track was built in 2000 in Opelika, Alabama where it has served as a state-of-the-art, full-scale, closed-loop accelerated loading facility. The construction, operation, and res...

  14. Online tracking: questioning the power of informed consent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Helberger, N.; Kool, L.; van der Plas, A.; van der Sloot, B.

    2011-01-01

    Online tracking technologies have raised considerable concerns regarding privacy and the protection of personal data of users. In order to help users to regain control over their personal data, Europe has amended its ePrivacy directive towards an opt-in regime. There are however many open questions

  15. Design and Implementation of Dual Axis Solar Tracking system

    OpenAIRE

    Sirigauri N,; Raghav S

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy is a promising technology that can have huge long term benefits. Solar cells convert the solar energy into electrical energy. Solar tracking system is the most suited technology to improve the efficiency and enhance the performance by utilizing maximum solar energy through the solar cell. In hardware development we utilize LDR’s as sensors and two servomotors to direct the position of the solar panel. The software part is implemented on a code written using an Arduino...

  16. The DOe Silicon Track Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbrueck, Georg

    2003-01-01

    We describe a trigger preprocessor to be used by the DOe experiment for selecting events with tracks from the decay of long-lived particles. This Level 2 impact parameter trigger utilizes information from the Silicon Microstrip Tracker to reconstruct tracks with improved spatial and momentum resolutions compared to those obtained by the Level 1 tracking trigger. It is constructed of VME boards with much of the logic existing in programmable processors. A common motherboard provides the I/O infrastructure and three different daughter boards perform the tasks of identifying the roads from the tracking trigger data, finding the clusters in the roads in the silicon detector, and fitting tracks to the clusters. This approach provides flexibility for the design, testing and maintenance phases of the project. The track parameters are provided to the trigger framework in 25 μs. The effective impact parameter resolution for high-momentum tracks is 35 μm, dominated by the size of the Tevatron beam

  17. Alternate Double Single Track Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraga Contreras, P.; Grande Andrade, Z.; Castillo Ron, E.

    2016-07-01

    The paper discusses the advantages and shortcomings of alternate double single track (ADST) lines with respect to double track lines for high speed lines. ADST lines consists of sequences of double and single track segments optimally selected in order to reduce the construction and maintenance costs of railway lines and to optimize the timetables used to satisfy a given demand. The single tracks are selected to coincide with expensive segments (tunnels and viaducts) and the double tracks are chosen to coincide with flat areas and only where they are necessary. At the same time, departure times are adjusted for trains to cross at the cheap double track segments. This alternative can be used for new lines and also for existing conventional lines where some new tracks are to be constructed to reduce travel time (increase speed). The ADST proposal is illustrated with some examples of both types (new lines and where conventional lines exist), including the Palencia-Santander, the Santiago-Valparaíso-Viña del Mar and the Dublin-Belfast lines, where very important reductions (90 %) are obtained, especially where a railway infrastructure already exist. (Author)

  18. ANNOTATION SUPPORTED OCCLUDED OBJECT TRACKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devinder Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tracking occluded objects at different depths has become as extremely important component of study for any video sequence having wide applications in object tracking, scene recognition, coding, editing the videos and mosaicking. The paper studies the ability of annotation to track the occluded object based on pyramids with variation in depth further establishing a threshold at which the ability of the system to track the occluded object fails. Image annotation is applied on 3 similar video sequences varying in depth. In the experiment, one bike occludes the other at a depth of 60cm, 80cm and 100cm respectively. Another experiment is performed on tracking humans with similar depth to authenticate the results. The paper also computes the frame by frame error incurred by the system, supported by detailed simulations. This system can be effectively used to analyze the error in motion tracking and further correcting the error leading to flawless tracking. This can be of great interest to computer scientists while designing surveillance systems etc.

  19. A systematic review of patient tracking systems for use in the pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Ian; Doan, Quynh; Hung, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Patient safety is of great importance in the pediatric emergency department (PED). The combination of acutely and critically ill patients and high patient volumes creates a need for systems to support physicians in making accurate and timely diagnoses. Electronic patient tracking systems can potentially improve PED safety by reducing overcrowding and enhancing security. To enhance our understanding of current electronic tracking technologies, how they are implemented in a clinical setting, and resulting effect on patient care outcomes including patient safety. Nine databases were searched. Two independent reviewers identified articles that contained reference to patient tracking technologies in pediatrics or emergency medicine. Quantitative studies were assessed independently for methodological strength by two reviewers using an external assessment tool. Of 2292 initial articles, 22 were deemed relevant. Seventeen were qualitative, and the remaining five quantitative articles were assessed as being methodologically weak. Existing patient tracking systems in the ED included: infant monitoring/abduction prevention; barcode identification; radiofrequency identification (RFID)- or infrared (IR)-based patient tracking. Twenty articles supported the use of tracking technology to enhance patient safety or improve efficiency. One article failed to support the use of IR patient sensors due to study design flaws. Support exists for the use of barcode-, IR-, and RFID-based patient tracking systems to improve ED patient safety and efficiency. A lack of methodologically strong studies indicates a need for further evidence-based support for the implementation of patient tracking technology in a clinical or research setting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies in Online Search: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingming; Ren, Jing

    2016-01-01

    This study used eye-tracking technology to track students' eye movements while searching information on the web. The research question guiding this study was "Do students with different search performance levels have different visual attention distributions while searching information online? If yes, what are the patterns for high and low…