WorldWideScience

Sample records for end use sector

  1. End use energy consumption data base: transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, J.N.; Rose, A.B.; Greene, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    The transportation fuel and energy use estimates developed a Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the End Use Energy Consumption Data Base are documented. The total data base contains estimates of energy use in the United States broken down into many categories within all sectors of the economy: agriculture, mining, construction, manufacturing, commerce, the household, electric utilities, and transportation. The transportation data provided by ORNL generally cover each of the 10 years from 1967 through 1976 (occasionally 1977 and 1978), with omissions in some models. The estimtes are broken down by mode of transport, fuel, region and State, sector of the economy providing transportation, and by the use to which it is put, and, in the case of automobile and bus travel, by the income of the traveler. Fuel types include natural gas, motor and aviation gasoline, residual and diesel oil, liuqefied propane, liquefied butane, and naphtha- and kerosene-type jet engine fuels. Electricity use is also estimated. The mode, fuel, sector, and use categories themselves subsume one, two, or three levels of subcategories, resulting in a very detailed categorization and definitive accounting.

  2. End-use energy analysis in the Malaysian industrial sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidur, R.; Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rahim, N.A.; Mekhilef, S.; Ping, H.W. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jamaluddin, M.F. [Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB), Head Office, Bangsar, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2009-02-15

    The industrial sector is the second largest consumer of energy in Malaysia. In this energy audit, the most important parameters that have been collected are as follows: power rating and operation time of energy-consuming equipments/machineries; fossil fuel and other sources of energy use; production figure; peak and off-peak tariff usage behavior and power factor. These data were then analyzed to investigate the breakdown of end-use equipments/machineries energy use, the peak and off-peak usage behavior, power factor trend and specific energy use. The results of the energy audit showed that the highest electrical energy-using equipment was an electric motor followed by pumps and air compressors. The specific energy use has been estimated and compared with four Indonesian industries and it was found that three Malaysian industries were more efficient than the Indonesian counterpart. The study also found that about 64% electrical energy was used in peak hours by the industries and the average power factor ranged from 0.88 to 0.92. The study also estimated energy and bill savings using highly efficient electrical motors along with the payback period. (author)

  3. A new NAMA framework for dispersed energy end-use sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Chia-Chin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for a nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMA) framework that can unlock the huge potential for greenhouse gas mitigation in dispersed energy end-use sectors in developing countries; specifically, the building sector and the industrial sector. These two ...

  4. Energy and Water Consumption End-Use Survey in Commercial and Industrial Sectors in Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The objective of survey was to collect statistical energy and water end-use data for commercial and industrial sectors. The survey identified volumes of energy and...

  5. A new NAMA framework for dispersed energy end-use sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.-C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for a nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMA) framework that can unlock the huge potential for greenhouse gas mitigation in dispersed energy end-use sectors in developing countries; specifically, the building sector and the industrial sector. These two sectors make up the largest portions of energy consumption in developing countries. However, due to multiple barriers and lack of effective polices, energy efficiency in dispersed energy end-use sectors has not been effectively put into practice. The new NAMA framework described in this paper is designed to fulfill the demand for public policies and public sector investment in developing countries and thereby boost private sector investment through project based market mechanisms, such as CDM. The new NAMA framework is designed as a need-based mechanism which effectively considers the conditions of each developing country. The building sector is used as an example to demonstrate how NAMA measures can be registered and implemented. The described new NAMA framework has the ability to interface efficiently with Kyoto Protocol mechanisms and to facilitate a systematic uptake for GHG emission reduction investment projects. This is an essential step to achieve the global climate change mitigation target and support sustainable development in developing countries.

  6. Methodology for getting the end use of energy in the industrial sector from Parana State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag Filho, A.

    1990-03-01

    A methodology for a survey on the utilization of energy in the industrial sector from Parana state, at low costs, and aiming the supply of data with the desired reliability and disaggregation is presented. The obtained data shall provide elements for the adoption of short term actions as well as serve as a basis for the elaboration of medium and long terms scenarios. The survey shall be conducted throughout the state, comprising all fields of activity and having the following objectives: determine the state's energetic consumption profile by industrial segment and by end use of energy; determine the state's energetic profile with the spatial distribution of consumption and detect the industrial segments which are more sensitive to the energetic substitution programs and/or of energy conservation. (author)

  7. Sectoral energy demand studies: Application of the end-use approach to Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Events since August 1990 have shown that the world is still dependent on oil despite efforts to decrease that dependency since the oil crisis of 1973 and 1979. Thirteen countries participated in the REDP (UNDP-funded Regional Energy Development Programme) energy planning activities called ''Sectoral energy demand studies'' in which country teams benefited from training in energy data analysis, sectoral accounting of energy demand, and forecasting with the use of MEDEE-S model. This publication documents the training materials on sectoral energy demand series. It includes eight chapters which were indexed separately. Refs, figs, tabs

  8. Pathways to Carbon Neutral Industrial Sectors: Integrated Modelling Approach with High Level of Detail for End-use Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Industry constitutes a substantial share of the energy and fuel consumption in energy systems. Types and patterns of usage within different industrial sectors are diverse. In this paper, we illustrate the energy and fuel use in Danish industry by 24 end-uses and 20 fuels and provide hourly profiles...... for electricity, space and process heating. The heat profiles are based on measured natural gas consumption. While seasonal patterns are predominant for space heating, process heating and electricity consumption are found to follow sector-related activities on a temporal scale. Building on this data analysis...

  9. Measurement of electrical energy and typification of end uses in the domestic sector; Medicion de energia electrica y tipificacion de usos finales en el sector domestico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Juarez, Francisco; Maqueda Zamora, Martin Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In this work the advantages in using modern measuring equipment that allows the segregation of load curves of the domestic users using a single measuring equipment are presented, some samples of the measurements that have been obtained during measurements made to diverse domestic users are presented. Also, some other complementary technologies of recent development are mentioned that help in the application of power efficiency measures in the diverse sectors, the use of these equipment serves as a support for measuring the effectiveness of the programs of of energy saving and of the demand management that are desired to implement. The objective of this article is to demonstrate the use of the modern measuring equipment for the typification and measurement of the end uses in the domestic sector, and to present the advantages of using these equipment in the power efficiency studies. [Spanish] En este trabajo se exponen las ventajas de usar equipos de medicion modernos que permiten la desagregacion de curvas de carga de los usuarios domesticos utilizando un solo equipo de medicion, se presentan algunas muestras de las mediciones que se han obtenido durante mediciones realizadas a diversos usuarios domesticos. Tambien, se mencionan algunas otras tecnologias complementarias de reciente desarrollo que ayudan en la aplicacion de medidas de eficiencia energetica en los diversos sectores, el uso de estos equipos sirve de soporte para medir la efectividad de los programas de ahorro de energia y de administracion de la demanda que se desean implementar. El objetivo de este articulo es demostrar el uso de los equipos de medicion modernos para la tipificacion y medicion de usos finales en el sector domestico, y presentar las ventajas de usar estos equipos en los estudios de eficiencia energetica.

  10. Energy end use statistics and estimations in the Polish household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilecki, R.

    1997-01-01

    The energy statistics in Poland was in the past concentrated on energy production and industrial consumption, but little information was available on the households energy consumption. This data unavailability was an important barrier for the various analyses and forecasting of the energy balance developments. In the recent years some successful attempts were made to acquire a wider and more reliable picture of household energy consumption. The households surveys were made and some existing data were analyzed and verified. The better and more detailed picture of households energy use was in this way constructed. The breakdown of energy consumption by end-use categories (space heating, water heating, cooking, electrical appliances) was quite reliably estimated. Important international cooperation and guidance was used in the course of Polish households energy consumption research. (author). 6 refs

  11. Energy end use statistics and estimations in the Polish household sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilecki, R [Energy Information Centre, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-09-01

    The energy statistics in Poland was in the past concentrated on energy production and industrial consumption, but little information was available on the households energy consumption. This data unavailability was an important barrier for the various analyses and forecasting of the energy balance developments. In the recent years some successful attempts were made to acquire a wider and more reliable picture of household energy consumption. The households surveys were made and some existing data were analyzed and verified. The better and more detailed picture of households energy use was in this way constructed. The breakdown of energy consumption by end-use categories (space heating, water heating, cooking, electrical appliances) was quite reliably estimated. Important international cooperation and guidance was used in the course of Polish households energy consumption research. (author). 6 refs.

  12. End use technology choice in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS): An analysis of the residential and commercial building sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkerson, Jordan T.; Cullenward, Danny; Davidian, Danielle; Weyant, John P.

    2013-01-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is arguably the most influential energy model in the United States. The U.S. Energy Information Administration uses NEMS to generate the federal government's annual long-term forecast of national energy consumption and to evaluate prospective federal energy policies. NEMS is considered such a standard tool that other models are calibrated to its forecasts, in both government and academic practice. As a result, NEMS has a significant influence over expert opinions of plausible energy futures. NEMS is a massively detailed model whose inner workings, despite its prominence, receive relatively scant critical attention. This paper analyzes how NEMS projects energy demand in the residential and commercial sectors. In particular, we focus on the role of consumers' preferences and financial constraints, investigating how consumers choose appliances and other end-use technologies. We identify conceptual issues in the approach the model takes to the same question across both sectors. Running the model with a range of consumer preferences, we estimate the extent to which this issue impacts projected consumption relative to the baseline model forecast for final energy demand in the year 2035. In the residential sector, the impact ranges from a decrease of 0.73 quads (− 6.0%) to an increase of 0.24 quads (+ 2.0%). In the commercial sector, the impact ranges from a decrease of 1.0 quads (− 9.0%) to an increase of 0.99 quads (+ 9.0%). - Highlights: • This paper examines the impact of consumer preferences on final energy in the Commercial and Residential sectors of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). • We describe the conceptual and empirical basis for modeling consumer technology choice in NEMS. • We offer a range of alternative parameters to show the energy demand sensitivity to technology choice. • We show there are significant potential savings available in both building sectors. • Because the model uses its own

  13. Prediction of greenhouse gas reduction potential in Japanese residential sector by residential energy end-use model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, Yoshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Okamura, Tomo; Taniguchi, Ayako; Yamaguchi, Yohei

    2010-01-01

    A model is developed that simulates nationwide energy consumption of the residential sector by considering the diversity of household and building types. Since this model can simulate the energy consumption for each household and building category by dynamic energy use based on the schedule of the occupants' activities and a heating and cooling load calculation model, various kinds of energy-saving policies can be evaluated with considerable accuracy. In addition, the average energy efficiency of major electric appliances used in the residential sector and the percentages of housing insulation levels of existing houses is predicted by the 'stock transition model.' In this paper, energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in the Japanese residential sector until 2025 are predicted. For example, as a business - as-usual (BAU) case, CO 2 emissions will be reduced by 7% from the 1990 level. Also evaluated are mitigation measures such as the energy efficiency standard for home electric appliances, thermal insulation code, reduction of standby power, high-efficiency water heaters, energy-efficient behavior of occupants, and dissemination of photovoltaic panels.

  14. Pathways to Carbon Neutral Industrial Sectors: Integrated Modelling Approach with High Level of Detail for End-use Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Frauke; Baldini, Mattia

    for electricity, space and process heating. The heat profiles are based on measured natural gas consumption. While seasonal patterns are predominant for space heating, process heating and electricity consumption are found to follow sector-related activities on a temporal scale. Building on this data analysis...

  15. Comparing VA and private sector healthcare costs for end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Denise M; Stroupe, Kevin T; Fischer, Michael J; Reda, Domenic J; Manning, Willard; Browning, Margaret M; Huo, Zhiping; Saban, Karen; Kaufman, James S

    2012-02-01

    Healthcare for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is intensive, expensive, and provided in both the public and private sector. Using a societal perspective, we examined healthcare costs and health outcomes for Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) ESRD patients comparing those who received hemodialysis care at VA versus private sector facilities. Dialysis patients were recruited from 8 VA medical centers from 2001 through 2003 and followed for 12 months in a prospective cohort study. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, quality of life, healthcare use, and cost data were collected. Healthcare data included utilization (VA), claims (Medicare), and patient self-report. Costs included VA calculated costs, Medicare dialysis facility reports and reimbursement rates, and patient self-report. Multivariable regression was used to compare costs between patients receiving dialysis at VA versus private sector facilities. The cohort comprised 334 patients: 170 patients in the VA dialysis group and 164 patients in the private sector group. The VA dialysis group had more comorbidities at baseline, outpatient and emergency visits, prescriptions, and longer hospital stays; they also had more conservative anemia management and lower baseline urea reduction ratio (67% vs. 72%; Pprivate sector dialysis group (Pprivate sector settings is critical in informing health policy options for patients with complex chronic illnesses such as ESRD.

  16. Energy End-Use : Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, R.; Gong, Y; Gielen, D.J.; Januzzi, G.; Marechal, F.; McKane, A.T.; Rosen, M.A.; Es, D. van; Worrell, E.

    2012-01-01

    The industrial sector accounts for about 30% of the global final energy use and accounts for about 115 EJ of final energy use in 2005. 1Cement, iron and steel, chemicals, pulp and paper and aluminum are key energy intensive materials that account for more than half the global industrial use. There

  17. Healthcare Energy End-Use Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppy, M.; Pless, S.; Kung, F.

    2014-08-01

    NREL partnered with two hospitals (MGH and SUNY UMU) to collect data on the energy used for multiple thermal and electrical end-use categories, including preheat, heating, and reheat; humidification; service water heating; cooling; fans; pumps; lighting; and select plug and process loads. Additional data from medical office buildings were provided for an analysis focused on plug loads. Facility managers, energy managers, and engineers in the healthcare sector will be able to use these results to more effectively prioritize and refine the scope of investments in new metering and energy audits.

  18. The End-to-end Demonstrator for improved decision making in the water sector in Europe (EDgE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric; Wanders, Niko; Pan, Ming; Sheffield, Justin; Samaniego, Luis; Thober, Stephan; Kumar, Rohinni; Prudhomme, Christel; Houghton-Carr, Helen

    2017-04-01

    High-resolution simulations of water resources from hydrological models are vital to supporting important climate services. Apart from a high level of detail, both spatially and temporally, it is important to provide simulations that consistently cover a range of timescales, from historical reanalysis to seasonal forecast and future projections. In the new EDgE project commissioned by the ECMWF (C3S) we try to fulfill these requirements. EDgE is a proof-of-concept project which combines climate data and state-of-the-art hydrological modelling to demonstrate a water-oriented information system implemented through a web application. EDgE is working with key European stakeholders representative of private and public sectors to jointly develop and tailor approaches and techniques. With these tools, stakeholders are assisted in using improved climate information in decision-making, and supported in the development of climate change adaptation and mitigation policies. Here, we present the first results of the EDgE modelling chain, which is divided into three main processes: 1) pre-processing and downscaling; 2) hydrological modelling; 3) post-processing. Consistent downscaling and bias corrections for historical simulations, seasonal forecasts and climate projections ensure that the results across scales are robust. The daily temporal resolution and 5km spatial resolution ensure locally relevant simulations. With the use of four hydrological models (PCR-GLOBWB, VIC, mHM, Noah-MP), uncertainty between models is properly addressed, while consistency is guaranteed by using identical input data for static land surface parameterizations. The forecast results are communicated to stakeholders via Sectoral Climate Impact Indicators (SCIIs) that have been created in collaboration with the end-user community of the EDgE project. The final product of this project is composed of 15 years of seasonal forecast and 10 climate change projections, all combined with four hydrological

  19. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Ia Rue du Can, Stephane; Price, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Integrated assessment models have been used to project both baseline and mitigation greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. Results of these scenarios are typically presented for a number of world regions and end-use sectors, such as industry, transport, and buildings. Analysts interested in particular technologies and policies, however, require more detailed information to understand specific mitigation options in relation to business-as-usual trends. This paper presents sectoral trend for two of the scenarios produced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon dioxide emissions over the past 30 years are examined and contrasted with projections over the next 30 years. Macro-activity indicators are analyzed as well as trends in sectoral energy and carbon demand. This paper also describes a methodology to calculate primary energy and carbon dioxide emissions at the sector level, accounting for the full energy and emissions due to sectoral activities. (author)

  20. Embodied energy use in China's industrial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhu; Geng Yong; Lindner, Soeren; Zhao Hongyan; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Guan Dabo

    2012-01-01

    As the world’s top energy consumer, China is facing a great challenge to solve its energy supply issue. In this paper energy use from all industrial sectors in China’s economy of 2007 was explored by conducting an extended environmental input–output analysis. We compare the energy consumption embodied in the final demand for goods and services from 29 sectors with the energy demand required for the actual production process in each sector. Two different viewpoints for sectoral energy use have been presented: energy use is directly allocated to the producer entity, and energy use is reallocated to sector’s supply chain from consumption perspective. Our results show that considerable amount of energy use is embodied in the supply chain, especially for “Construction” and “Other Service Activities” sectors, which is not detected if energy use is allocated on a production basis. When further dividing embodied energy consumption into direct energy consumption and indirect energy consumption, total indirect energy consumption is much higher than that of total direct energy consumption, accounting for 80.6% of total embodied energy consumption in 2007. Our results provide a more holistic picture on sectoral energy consumption and therefore can help decision-makers make more appropriate policies. - Highlights: ► A hybrid IO-LCA model was employed to analyze China’s energy use at sectoral level. ► A case study on China’s sectoral energy consumption is done. ► Construction and service sectors are actually energy intensive from the supply chain perspectives. ► Upstream and downstream ectoral collaboration along the whole supply chain is necessary. ► Energy conservation policies should be based upon a comprehensive analysis on sectoral energy use.

  1. Sectoral use of climate information in Europe: A synoptic overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bruno Soares

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Society can benefit from usable climate information to better prepare and adapt to the risks and opportunities posed by climate variability and change. An adequate and effective provision of climate information – from historical observations through to seasonal forecasts, and multi-decadal climate change projections – is critical to inform planning and decision-making in climate-sensitive sectors. Central to this are the end-users of climate information and a growing emphasis on tailored climate information and services shaped by user needs. However, knowledge about the use of climate information across European economic sectors is limited. This paper identifies the spectrum of sectoral information requirements across a number of sectors including agriculture, forestry, energy, water, tourism, insurance, health, emergency services and transport sectors, drawing from an online survey (n = 462 and interviews with (potential users of climate information (n = 80. This analysis reveals shared opportunities across sectors including the potential application of decadal climate predictions. In addition, common barriers and enablers to the uptake of climate information were also noted including the format of the information provided, the need for compatibility with existing in-house systems, and the perceived credibility and trust of information providers. This analysis also points towards a perceived increasing fragmentation of available information and the desire amongst end-users for a European body able to centralise and coordinate climate data. We highlight some of the current factors that still need to be adequately addressed in order to enhance the uptake and application of climate information in decision-making across European economic sectors. Keywords: User needs, Climate information, Decision-making, Climate services, Europe

  2. Rational use of electricity in the sideromechanical sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perellada Gamio, Maria Rosa

    2017-01-01

    The present work summarizes the current actions in the sideromecanic sector in Cuba in order to achieve a rational use of the energy carriers and in particular of the Electric Energy, since this constitutes about 85% of the energy structure Of the Organization. It relates the concrete results obtained with the application of Total and Efficient Energy Management Technology in the entities and the projections that have to achieve a better end use of this carrier. (author)

  3. End of an era? Managerial losses of African American and Latinos in the public sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, George; Roscigno, Vincent

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we examine whether "new governance" reforms in public sector work over the last two decades have generated managerial wage losses for African Americans and Latinos. Findings from Integrated Public Use Micro-Series data across three time points indicate that the new "business logic" encompassing, most notably, increased employer discretion has progressively disadvantaged African American and Latino men and women relative to their White and gender counterparts. Indeed, for both African Americans and Latinos in the managerial ranks, relative parity in wages that were witnessed in the public sector progressively eroded between 2000 and 2010. Qualifications to these findings indicate that levels of inequality become pronounced for African Americans, and more so among men than women. We discuss the historical niche status of public sector work for racial and ethnic minorities in the U.S. and the importance of conducting further analyses of the public sector because of its fluid nature as a locus of racial stratification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Size and importance of small electrical end uses in households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, J R; Zogg, R A; Alberino, D L

    1998-07-01

    Miscellaneous end uses (an energy-consumption category in the residential sector) has recently emerged with more importance than ever before. Miscellaneous end uses are a collection of numerous end uses (often unrelated in technology or market characteristics) that individually are small consumers but when grouped together can become notable in size. The Annual Energy Outlook 1998, published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), suggests that about 32% of residential electricity use in 1996 is attributable to miscellaneous end uses (21% from the Other Uses category and 11% from other miscellaneous categories). The EIA predicts this consumption will grow to about 47% of residential electricity use by 2010. Other studies have shown substantial consumption in this category, and forecast substantial future growth as well. However, it is not clear that the current accounting structure of the miscellaneous category is the most appropriate one, nor that the forecast growth in consumption will materialize. A bottom-up study on a collection of miscellaneous electric end uses was performed to better understand this complex, ill-defined category. Initial results show that many end uses can be categorized more appropriately, such as furnace fans, which belong in Space Heating. A recommended categorization reduces the Other Uses category from 21% to 12% of electric consumption estimated in 1996. Thus, the consumption from miscellaneous end uses is not nearly as large as thought. Furthermore, the growth rate associated with small end uses is projected to be lower relative to projections from other sources.

  5. Towards an energy end use model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith Fontana, Raul

    2003-01-01

    The general equilibrium energy end use model proposed, uses linear programming as te basic and central element to optimization of variables defined in the economic and energy areas of the country related to a four factors structure: Energy, Raw Material, Capital and Labor, and related to the sectors: Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation and Import/Export. Input-Output coefficients are defined in an input-output matrix of processes representing the supply of Electricity (generated by nuclear- not available in Chile-hydro, gas, fuel-oil and coal), Petroleum, Imported Natural Gas (transported and distributed) National Natural Gas, LPG, Coal, Wood and representing a demand of Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation and Import/Export. There is an interaction of the final demand composition, the prices of capital, labor and taxes with the levels of operation for each process and the prices of goods and services. In addition to the prices of fuels for each annual period, to the supply and demand of energy and to the total demand it can forecast the optimum coefficients of the final demand. If the data to be collected result reasonably complete and consistent, the model will be useful for planning. A special effort should be placed in specifying a certain number of typical energy activities, the available options for fuels, the selection of them attending rational market decisions and conservation according to well known economical criteria of substitution. To simulate the process of options selection given by the activities and to allow substitutions, it is possible to introduce the logit function characterized by a Weibull distribution and the generalized substitution function characterized by the constant electricity. The model would allow, assuming differents scenario, to visualize general policies in the penetration of energy technologies. To study the penetration of electric energy generated by nuclear, in which the country does not have

  6. Analysis of energy end-use efficiency policy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collado, Rocío Román; Díaz, María Teresa Sanz

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of saving measures and energy efficiency entails the need to evaluate achievements in terms of energy saving and spending. This paper aims at analysing the effectiveness and economic efficiency of energy saving measures implemented in the Energy Savings and Efficiency Action Plan (2008–2012) (EAP4+) in Spain for 2010. The lack of assessment related to energy savings achieved and public spending allocated by the EAP4+ justifies the need of this analysis. The results show that the transport and building sectors seem to be the most important, from the energy efficiency perspective. Although they did not reach the direct energy savings that were expected, there is scope for reduction with the appropriate energy measures. For the effectiveness indicator, the best performance are achieved by public service, agricultural and fisheries and building sectors, while in terms of energy efficiency per monetary unit, the best results are achieved by transport, industry and agriculture sectors. Authors conclude that it is necessary that central, regional and local administrations will get involved, in order to get better estimates of the energy savings achieved and thus to affect the design of future energy efficiency measures at the lowest possible cost to the citizens. - Highlights: • Energy end-use efficiency policy is analysed in terms of energy savings and spending. • The energy savings achieved by some measures are not always provided. • The total energy savings achieved by transport and building sectors are large. • Different levels of administration should get involved in estimating energy savings.

  7. Plataforma productiva como fuerza del desarrollo endógeno del sector de manufacturas plásticas

    OpenAIRE

    Maryana Sandrea; Mariby Boscán

    2014-01-01

    La plataforma productiva de una localidad constituye un soporte a la actividad empresarial, en términos de infraestructura física y servicios conexos, que dependiendo de sus condiciones estimula o frena el desarrollo endógeno. En este contexto, el objetivo general de la investigación consiste en analizar las condiciones de la plataforma productiva como fomento al desarrollo endógeno, en el sector de manufacturas plásticas, utilizando básicamente los aportes de Vázquez (2005 y 2007). El estudi...

  8. Modelling of electricity savings in the Danish households sector: from the energy system to the end-user

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldini, Mattia; Trivella, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    sectors, has been extended in order to endogenously determine the best possible investments in more efficient home appliances. Second, we propose a method to relate the optimal energy system solution to the end-user choices by incorporating consumer behaviour and electricity price addition due to taxes...... of support to become profitable. The analysis quantifies energy and economic savings from the consumer side and reveals the impacts on the Danish power system and surrounding countries. Compared to a business-as-usual energy scenario, the end-user attains net economic savings in the range of 30–40 EUR per...

  9. End-Use Efficiency to Lower Carbon Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnay, Chris; Osborn, Julie; Webber, Carrie

    2001-01-01

    Compelling evidence demonstrating the warming trend in global temperatures and the mechanism behind it, namely the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases (GHG), has spurred an international effort to reduce emissions of these gases. Despite improving efficiency of the U.S. economy in terms of energy cost per dollar of GDP since the signing of the Kyoto Protocol, energy consumption and carbon emissions are continuing to rise as the economy expands. This growing gap further emphasizes the importance of improving energy use efficiency as a component in the U.S. climate change mitigation program. The end-use efficiency research activities at Berkeley Lab incorporate residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation sectors. This paper focuses on two successful U.S. programs that address end-use efficiency in residential and commercial demand: energy efficient performance standards established by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ENERGY STAR(registered trademark) program

  10. India Energy Outlook: End Use Demand in India to 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; McNeil, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-03-30

    Integrated economic models have been used to project both baseline and mitigation greenhouse gas emissions scenarios at the country and the global level. Results of these scenarios are typically presented at the sectoral level such as industry, transport, and buildings without further disaggregation. Recently, a keen interest has emerged on constructing bottom up scenarios where technical energy saving potentials can be displayed in detail (IEA, 2006b; IPCC, 2007; McKinsey, 2007). Analysts interested in particular technologies and policies, require detailed information to understand specific mitigation options in relation to business-as-usual trends. However, the limit of information available for developing countries often poses a problem. In this report, we have focus on analyzing energy use in India in greater detail. Results shown for the residential and transport sectors are taken from a previous report (de la Rue du Can, 2008). A complete picture of energy use with disaggregated levels is drawn to understand how energy is used in India and to offer the possibility to put in perspective the different sources of end use energy consumption. For each sector, drivers of energy and technology are indentified. Trends are then analyzed and used to project future growth. Results of this report provide valuable inputs to the elaboration of realistic energy efficiency scenarios.

  11. Using SIM for strong end-to-end Application Authentication

    OpenAIRE

    Lunde, Lars; Wangensteen, Audun

    2006-01-01

    Today the Internet is mostly used for services that require low or none security. The commercial and governmental applications have started to emerge but met problems since they require strong authentication, which is both difficult and costly to realize. The SIM card used in mobile phones is a tamper resistant device that contains strong authentication mechanisms. It would be very convenient and cost-efficient if Internet services could use authentication methods based on the SIM. This mast...

  12. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF AN ENTITY FROM CONSTRUCTION SECTOR USING DASHBOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN BRICIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper deals with the analysis of performances of economic entities from the construction sector from Romania. The necessary data for preparation and analysis up through dashboard of the economic entity are provided by managerial accounting through Target Costing method. The way of implementing and observing of stages which are completed in managerial accounting through Target Costing method are also presented in the paper based on the existing literature. For data analysis it was used a questionnaire based on three questions whose results were analyzed and which formed the basis of our entire course of scientific approach. The paper ends with the authors' conclusions about the performance analysis of economic entities in a construction project using dashboard showing the benefits of its long-term decisions.

  13. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gasemissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell, Ernst; Zhou, Nan; Sathaye, Jayant; Levine, Mark

    2006-07-24

    In 2000, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published a new set of baseline greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) (Nakicenovic et al., 2000). The SRES team defined four narrative storylines (A1, A2, B1 and B2) describing the relationships between the forces driving GHG and aerosol emissions and their evolution during the 21st century. The SRES reports emissions for each of these storylines by type of GHG and by fuel type to 2100 globally and for four world regions (OECD countries as of 1990, countries undergoing economic reform, developing countries in Asia, rest of world). Specific assumptions about the quantification of scenario drivers, such as population and economic growth, technological change, resource availability, land-use changes, and local and regional environmental policies, are also provided. End-use sector-level results for buildings, industry, or transportation or information regarding adoption of particular technologies and policies are not provided in the SRES. The goal of this report is to provide more detailed information on the SRES scenarios at the end use level including historical time series data and a decomposition of energy consumption to understand the forecast implications in terms of end use efficiency to 2030. This report focuses on the A1 (A1B) and B2 marker scenarios since they represent distinctly contrasting futures. The A1 storyline describes a future of very rapid economic growth, low population growth, and the rapid introduction of new and more efficient technologies. Major underlying themes are convergence among regions, capacity building, and increased cultural and social interactions, with a substantial reduction in regional differences in per capita income. The B2 storyline describes a world with an emphasis on economic, social, and environmental sustainability, especially at the local and regional levels. It is a world with moderate population growth

  14. Energy consultancy services for end-user in the housing sector in Poland. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, M; Prebensen, K

    1996-08-01

    The idea of establishing consulting service schemes is based on the Polish needs to introduce energy saving measures at different levels. In connection with the financing of energy saving measures whether this is carried out through private banks or Energy Saving Companies (ESCOs) there is a need for an institutional component responsible for standardized procedures for appraisal and supervision of energy saving projects. The objective of the project is to reduce the energy consumption in the municipal and housing sector in Warsaw, Gdansk and Katowice, and subsequently implement the results and experience to a large number of other towns in Poland. Education and training of more than thousand energy consultants within a period of 2 years is planned. The fundamental idea of the project is education and training of Polish professionals, who will perform the subsequent training of Polish consultants within the framework of a Polish National Energy Consultant Scheme. A comprehensive compendium (approximately 500 pages) was worked out in English language. The scope of work for the consultant covers all energy aspects in the housing sector: Individual heat generation; Control systems; Heat distribution in the building and local district heating network; Domestic Hot Water; Electricity; Thermal renovation of the Building Envelope; Energy management; Financial aspects and applications for finance of the energy saving measures. The first training course with 41 participants in Poland took place from 4 to 9 December 1995. (EG)

  15. Modeling the fate and end-of-life phase of engineered nanomaterials in the Japanese construction sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shinya; Part, Florian; Matsufuji, Yasushi; Huber-Humer, Marion

    2018-02-01

    To date construction materials that contain engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are available at the markets, but at the same time very little is known about their environmental fate. Therefore, this study aimed at modeling the potential fate of ENMs by using the example of the Japanese construction sector and by conducting a dynamic material flow analysis. Expert interviews and national reports revealed that about 3920-4660 tons of ENMs are annually used for construction materials in Japan. Nanoscale TiO 2 , SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and carbon black have already been applied for decades to wall paints, road markings or concrete. The dynamic material flow model indicates that in 2016 about 95% of ENMs, which have been used since their year of market penetration, remained in buildings, whereas only 5% ended up in the Japanese waste management system or were diffusely released into the environment. Considering the current Japanese waste management system, ENMs were predicted to end up in recycled materials (40-47%) or in landfills (36-41%). It was estimated that only a small proportion was used in agriculture (5-7%, as ENM-containing sewage sludges) or was diffusely released into soils, surface waters or the atmosphere (5-19%). The results indicate that ENM release predominantly depend on their specific applications and characteristics. The model also highlights the importance of adequate collection and treatment of ENM-containing wastes. In future, similar dynamic flow models for other countries should consider, inasmuch as available, historical data on ENM production (e.g. like declaration reports that are annually published by relevant public authorities or associations), as such input data is very important regarding data reliability in order to decrease uncertainties and to continuously improve model accuracy. In addition, more environmental monitoring studies that aim at the quantification of ENM release and inadvertent transfer, particularly triggered by waste treatment

  16. Using Sankey diagrams to map energy flow from primary fuel to end use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanyam, Veena; Paramshivan, Deepak; Kumar, Amit; Mondal, Md. Alam Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy flows from both supply and demand sides shown through Sankey diagrams. • Energy flows from reserves to energy end uses for primary and secondary fuels shown. • Five main energy demand sectors in Alberta are analyzed. • In residential/commercial sectors, highest energy consumption is in space heating. • In the industrial sector, highest energy use is in the mining subsector. - Abstract: The energy sector is the largest contributor to gross domestic product (GDP), income, employment, and government revenue in both developing and developed nations. But the energy sector has a significant environmental footprint due to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Efficient production, conversion, and use of energy resources are key factors for reducing the environmental footprint. Hence it is necessary to understand energy flows from both the supply and the demand sides. Most energy analyses focus on improving energy efficiency broadly without considering the aggregate energy flow. We developed Sankey diagrams that map energy flow for both the demand and supply sides for the province of Alberta, Canada. The diagrams will help policy/decision makers, researchers, and others to understand energy flow from reserves through to final energy end uses for primary and secondary fuels in the five main energy demand sectors in Alberta: residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation. The Sankey diagrams created for this study show total energy consumption, useful energy, and energy intensities of various end-use devices. The Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) model is used in this study. The model showed that Alberta’s total input energy in the five demand sectors was 189 PJ, 186 PJ, 828.5PJ, 398 PJ, and 50.83 PJ, respectively. On the supply side, the total energy input and output were found to be 644.84 PJ and 239 PJ, respectively. These results, along with the associated energy flows were depicted pictorially using

  17. Learning from the private sector: towards a keener understanding of the end-user for microbicide introduction planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Amy H; Breger, Tiffany L; Barnhart, Matthew; Kim, Ann; Vangsgaard, Charlotte; Harris, Emily

    2014-01-01

    In planning for the introduction of vaginal microbicides and other new antiretroviral (ARV)-based prevention products for women, an in-depth understanding of potential end-users will be critically important to inform strategies to optimize uptake and long-term adherence. User-centred private sector companies have contributed to the successful launch of many different types of products, employing methods drawn from behavioural and social sciences to shape product designs, marketing messages and communication channels. Examples of how the private sector has adapted and applied these techniques to make decisions around product messaging and targeting may be instructive for adaptation to microbicide introduction. In preparing to introduce a product, user-centred private sector companies employ diverse methods to understand the target population and their lifestyles, values and motivations. ReD Associates' observational research on user behaviours in the packaged food and diabetes fields illustrates how 'tag along' or 'shadowing' techniques can identify sources of non-adherence. Another open-ended method is self-documentation, and IDEO's mammography research utilized this to uncover user motivations that extended beyond health. Mapping the user journey is a quantitative approach for outlining critical decision-making stages, and Monitor Inclusive Markets applied this framework to identify toilet design opportunities for the rural poor. Through an iterative process, these various techniques can generate hypotheses on user drop-off points, quantify where drop-off is highest and prioritize areas of further research to uncover usage barriers. Although research constraints exist, these types of user-centred techniques have helped create effective messaging, product positioning and packaging of health products as well as family planning information. These methods can be applied to microbicide acceptability testing outside of clinical trials to design microbicide marketing

  18. Using climate information in the health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ghebreyesus

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Many infectious and chronic diseases are either directly or indirectly sensitive to the climate. Managing this climate sensitivity more effectively requires new working relationships between the health sector and the providers of climate data and information. In Africa, where communities are particularly vulnerable, Ministries of Health and National Meteorological Services need to collaborate to reduce the burden of climate related ill health. The Ministry of Health and the National Meteorological Agency of Ethiopia have made significant progress towards the development of a climate-informed early warning and response system for diseases such as malaria and other climate-sensitive diseases. An important enabling mechanism is a Climate and Health Working Group, which is a multi-sectoral partnership created to spearhead the use of climate information for health interventions. While this is a work in progress, the key ingredients necessary to sustain such a joint venture are described to encourage similar activities in other countries faced with a growing climate-sensitive disease burden, to facilitate networking and to increase the return from the investment.De nombreuses infections et maladies chroniques sont sensibles, directement ou indirectement, au climat. Une gestion plus efficace de cette sensibilité au climat passe par l’instauration d’une coopération entre le secteur de la santé et les fournisseurs de données et d’informations sur le climat. En Afrique, où les communautés sont particulièrement vulnérables, le ministère de la Santé et les Services de météorologie nationale doivent collaborer pour réduire le fardeau des maladies liées au climat.Le ministère de la Santé et l’Agence de météorologie nationale d’Ethiopie ont fait des progrès considérables dans le développement d’un système d’alerte et de réponse précoces basé sur les informations climatiques pour des maladies comme le paludisme et d

  19. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  20. Estrategias de financiamiento para el desarrollo endógeno del sector confección zuliano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariby Boscán

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Los cambios en el entorno empresarial experimentados a escala mundial en las últimas décadas, demandan para las firmas de reducido tamaño adquisición de tecnología actualizada, aprendizaje tecnológico y reestructuración de procesos, lo cual es clave para impulsar y consolidar el desarrollo endógeno local. Sin embargo, esto amerita disponibilidad de recursos financieros, siendo esta una necesidad apremiante para los empresarios zulianos. El objetivo del presente artículo, consiste en analizar las estrategias de financiamiento que faciliten el desarrollo endógeno en el sector confección zuliano. Con esta finalidad se diseñó un estudio descriptivo y de campo, utilizando una entrevista semiestructurada aplicada a diez gerentes. La investigación se basó fundamentalmente en los postulados de Brealey y Myers (1998, Diez y López (2001, Vázquez (2005 y Sunkel (1991. Entre los resultados destacan: las empresas, prefieren financiamiento privado, dado que los requisitos son sencillos y el acceso a la fuente es rápido. A corto plazo, los gerentes utilizan la estrategia pre-pago y en algunas oportunidades el crédito comercial, mientras que a largo plazo, han utilizado préstamos bancarios y manejo del patrimonio. Se concluye que, para lograr el desarrollo endógeno se requiere combinar fuentes públicas y privadas, por lo que se recomienda mejorar el acceso y tiempo para el otorgamiento de crédito de los programas públicos, por cuanto el financiamiento es uno de los factores más importantes para lograr el desarrollo económico del sector.

  1. Modernizing residential heating in Russia: End-use practices, legal developments, and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korppoo, Anna; Korobova, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the significance of modernization policies concerning Russia’s technically obsolete but socially important residential heating sector, focusing on the 2009 energy efficiency framework law and its prospects for implementation. Ownership and control structures are in flux throughout the heating sector chain. Inefficiencies, causing low service quality and rising prices, have already started eroding the market share of district heating, despite its potential benefits. End-use management practices – such as lack of metering, communal billing, and low prices that do not cover production costs – reduce consumer incentives to cut consumption. The diversity of end-users adds to the complexity of focused measures like energy-saving contracts. However, end-use sector reforms such as mandatory meter installation and increasing prices – even if socially acceptable and fully implemented – cannot alone provide the massive investments required. More appropriate is sector-wide reform with the government’s financial participation – especially if consumer efforts can yield better service quality. - Highlights: ► We analyze Russia’s energy efficiency policy on residential heating sector. ► Institutional structures and practices reduce incentives to cut consumption. ► Meter installation and increasing prices cannot deliver investments required. ► Government led sector-wide reform is required, linked to better service quality.

  2. Rare earth elements: end use and recyclability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Rare earth elements are used in mature markets (such as catalysts, glassmaking, lighting, and metallurgy), which account for 59 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements, and in newer, high-growth markets (such as battery alloys, ceramics, and permanent magnets), which account for 41 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements. In mature market segments, lanthanum and cerium constitute about 80 percent of rare earth elements used, and in new market segments, dysprosium, neodymium, and praseodymium account for about 85 percent of rare earth elements used. Regardless of the end use, rare earth elements are not recycled in large quantities, but could be if recycling became mandated or very high prices of rare earth elements made recycling feasible.

  3. The Use of Management Accounting Tools in Third Sector Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poueri do Carmo Mário

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to present the results of research about the use of management accounting tools by third sector entities. It was considered that the use of management tools assists in the management process and internal controls of the same, and consequently in its continuity. The literature discusses the importance of management accounting and its instruments for management purposes (Padoveze, 2004; Soutes, 2006; Pace, 2009 and presents relevant aspects of more traditional tools such as the Budget, Strategic Planning and Costing (Dubois, Kulpa and Souza, 2006; Martins, 2010; Padoveze, 2006. We tried to do a survey on a sample of NGOs in cities of Minas Gerais, which included at the end with 41 respondents institutions. The survey instrument for data collection was a questionnaire constructed from literature reviews related to objects of research (Third Sector and Management Accounting Instruments. The questionnaire had the purpose of gathering data from the entity and also know about of the respondent. In addition, interviews were conducted in some NGOs, complementing the research findings from the questionnaires. The results were divided into three topics: the respondent data, the organization and practices of management accounting. In general, although much progress has been made and success stories and effective improvements, most of these entities still need to develop their accounting information systems and the use of the instruments themselves. Causes of this may be the lack of knowledge about some of the entities management tools (maybe the respondents because of their formations, besides the reduced capacity of most of them have these "services" (controls and analyzes that run on its functional structure due lack of resources to do so.

  4. Exergy and environmental comparison of the end use of vehicle fuels: The Brazilian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flórez-Orrego, Daniel; Silva, Julio A.M.; Oliveira Jr, Silvio de

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Total and non-renewable exergy costs of Brazilian transportation service are evaluated. • Specific CO 2 emissions of the Brazilian transportation service are determined. • Overall exergy efficiency of the end use of vehicle fuels in transportation sector is calculated. • A comparative extended analysis of the production and end use of transportation fuels is presented. - Abstract: In this work, a comparative exergy and environmental analysis of the vehicle fuel end use is presented. This analysis comprises petroleum and natural gas derivatives (including hydrogen), biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel), and their mixtures, besides of the electricity generated in the Brazilian electricity mix, intended to be used in plug in electric vehicles. The renewable and non-renewable unit exergy costs and CO 2 emission cost are proposed as suitable indicators for assessing the renewable exergy consumption intensity and the environmental impact, and for quantifying the thermodynamic performance of the transportation sector. This allows ranking the energy conversion processes along the vehicle fuels production routes and their end use, so that the best options for the transportation sector can be determined and better energy policies may be issued. It is found that if a drastic CO 2 emissions abatement of the sector is pursued, a more intensive utilization of ethanol in the Brazilian transportation sector mix is advisable. However, as the overall exergy conversion efficiency of the sugar cane industry is still very low, which increases the unit exergy cost of ethanol, better production and end use technologies are required. Nonetheless, with the current scenario of a predominantly renewable Brazilian electricity mix, based on more than 80% of renewable sources, this source consolidates as the most promising energy source to reduce the large amount of greenhouse gas emissions which transportation sector is responsible for

  5. Plataforma productiva como fuerza del desarrollo endógeno del sector de manufacturas plásticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryana Sandrea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La plataforma productiva de una localidad constituye un soporte a la actividad empresarial, en términos de infraestructura física y servicios conexos, que dependiendo de sus condiciones estimula o frena el desarrollo endógeno. En este contexto, el objetivo general de la investigación consiste en analizar las condiciones de la plataforma productiva como fomento al desarrollo endógeno, en el sector de manufacturas plásticas, utilizando básicamente los aportes de Vázquez (2005 y 2007. El estudio realizado es descriptivo y de campo, con un diseño transversal, no experimental, incluyendo una entrevista a 30 empresas, guiada con un formato estructurado. Entre los resultados destacan: el 56,7% de los entrevistados presentan una posición desfavorable, en cuanto a las condiciones de la plataforma de apoyo al proceso productivo como estímulo al desarrollo del sector en la región, un 63,4% de los consultados afirman que la infraestructura física para el traslado de mercancías no favorecen la actividad del sector. La mayoría (76,7% de los entrevistados consideró que el funcionamiento de los servicios administrativos del gobierno, constituye un soporte valioso a las actividades empresariales, especialmente en cuanto a la posibilidad de realizar trámites vía Internet. Para la mayoría de las empresas consideradas (60%, el desarrollo urbano del territorio se presenta como una fuerza relativamente débil en el entorno productivo. Se concluye, que la relativa debilidad de ésta fuerza en la región, obedece a las deficiencias en las condiciones de la infraestructura económica, en particular al mantenimiento de la red de carreteras secundarias, así como en la prestación del servicio eléctrico, mientras que la infraestructura institucional resultó fortalecida, por tanto, para elevar el grado de desarrollo será necesario realizar intervenciones a fin de mejorar las condiciones de la infraestructura económica.

  6. Plataforma productiva como fuerza del desarrollo endógeno del sector de manufacturas plásticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryana Sandrea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La plataforma productiva de una localidad constituye un soporte a la actividad empresarial, en términos de infraestructura física y servicios conexos, que dependiendo de sus condiciones estimula o frena el desarrollo endógeno. En este contexto, el objetivo general de la investigación consiste en analizar las condiciones de la plataforma productiva como fomento al desarrollo endógeno, en el sector de manufacturas plásticas, utilizando básicamente los aportes de Vázquez (2005 y 2007. El estudio realizado es descriptivo y de campo, con un diseño transversal, no experimental, incluyendo una entrevista a 30 empresas, guiada con un formato estructurado. Entre los resultados destacan: el 56,7% de los entrevistados presentan una posición desfavorable, en cuanto a las condiciones de la plataforma de apoyo al proceso productivo como estímulo al desarrollo del sector en la región, un 63,4% de los consultados afirman que la infraestructura física para el traslado de mercancías no favorecen la actividad del sector. La mayoría(76,7% de los entrevistados consideró que el funcionamiento de los servicios administrativos del gobierno, constituye un soporte valioso a las actividades empresariales, especialmente en cuanto a la posibilidad de realizar trámites vía Internet.Para la mayoría de las empresas consideradas (60%, el desarrollo urbano del territorio se presenta como una fuerza relativamente débil en el entorno productivo.Se concluye, que la relativa debilidad de ésta fuerza en la región, obedece a las deficiencias en las condiciones de la infraestructura económica, en particular al mantenimiento de la red de carreteras secundarias, así como en la prestación del servicio eléctrico, mientras que la infraestructura institucional resultó fortalecida, por tanto, para elevar el grado de desarrollo será necesario realizar intervenciones a fin de mejorar las condiciones de la infraestructura económica.

  7. End-review of the development programme 'Strengthening the state petroleum administration of the upstream petroleum sector in Uganda'; Commissioned by Norad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this end-review is to review the overall results of the Petrad Capacity Building Programme for strengthening the State Petroleum Administration of the upstream petroleum sector in Uganda ('the Programme') and assess the extent to which the Programme has achieved its objectives. The Programme commenced in January 2006 and ended in June 2009. This end-review has been carried out in the period February-June 2011. (Author)

  8. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-09-01

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-01-01

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

  10. A calibrated energy end-use model for the U.S. chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozalp, N.; Hyman, B.

    2005-01-01

    The chemical industry is the second largest energy user after the petroleum industry in the United States. This paper provided a model for onsite steam and power generation in the chemical industry, as well as an end-use of the industrial gas manufacturing sector. The onsite steam and power generation model included the actual conversion efficiencies of prime movers in the sector. The energy end-use model also allocated combustible fuel and renewable energy inputs among generic end-uses including intermediate conversions through onsite power and steam generation. The model was presented in the form of a graphical depiction of energy flows. Results indicate that 35 per cent of the energy output from boilers is used for power generation, whereas 45 per cent goes directly to end-uses and 20 per cent to waste heat tanks for recovery in the chemical industry. The end-use model for the industrial gas manufacturing sector revealed that 42 per cent of the fuel input goes to onsite steam and power generation, whereas 58 per cent goes directly to end-uses. Among the end-uses, machine drive was the biggest energy user. It was suggested that the model is applicable to all other industries and is consistent with U.S. Department of Energy data for 1998. When used in conjunction with similar models for other years, it can be used to identify changes and trends in energy utilization at the prime mover level of detail. An analysis of the economic impact of energy losses can be based on the results of this model. Cascading of waste heat from high temperature processes to low temperature processes could be integrated into the model. 20 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs

  11. California Ocean Uses Atlas: Industrial sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  12. California Ocean Uses Atlas: Fishing sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  13. Knowledge is power: Customer load metering in the Victorian End-Use Measurement Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavin, G. [CitiPower Ltd., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    The Victorian End-Use Measurement Program is a sophisticated load metering program being conducted over 500 sites in Victoria, covering the major customer sectors of residential, commercial and industrial. Its goal is to gather sufficient data to determine with statistical accuracy the load profiles of these major sectors, together with the load profiles of selected customer end-uses in the residential and commercial sectors, and selected building types in the commercial sector. This paper discusses the major elements of the program, the history of its development, the design of the statistical and operational components of the program, and its implementation in the field. In the Victorian electricity industry, with the combination of contestable customer metering and the End-Use Measurement program metering for the franchise/non-contestable market, there is now a considerable flow of customer load data. The opportunity exists for an accurate understanding of customer load needs, and the minimization of risk in business operations in the retail and wholesale market. (author).

  14. Shelf stable meals for public sector uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmandt, J. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Meal System was developed with three simple concepts in mind: (1) nutritious, conventional foods are packaged in single-serving units and assembled into complete meals; (2) the meals have an extended shelf-life and can be transported and stored without need for refrigeration or freezing; (3) preparation of the meal by the consumer is an easy task which is accomplished in ten minutes or less. The meal system was tested in 1975 and 1976 by different groups of elderly individuals. NASA and the LBJ School of Public Affairs sponsored a national conference to report on the demonstration of the meal system for the elderly and to explore potential uses of the system for social services, institutional feeding programs, disaster relief, and international aid. The proceedings of the conference and how different groups assessed the potential of the meal system are reported.

  15. Land use change and forestry. Sector 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The land use change and forestry considers the following sub-modules in calculating GHG emission by sources or removal by sinks: 1)- Sub-module changes in forestry and other woody biomass stocks. This sub-module has presented considerable difficulties in the data collection activity since no information or records are available at the institutional level. Therefore, the data derived represents a large degree of uncertainty.The stocks of woody biomass, needed to calculate the carbon uptake or storage in Lebanon for 1994, were found to be made of: - 75.000 ha of forest trees (65.000 evergreen and 10.000 deciduous) - 50.280.000 non-forest trees which includes: 49.794.000 farm and village trees (21.980.000 of evergreen fruit and olive trees and 27.814.000 of deciduous fruit trees) 486.000 urban trees (450.000 evergreen urban trees and 36.000 deciduous urban trees). The total carbon uptake increment by these stocks of woody biomass is 169.800475 Kt. The loss of biomass fuelwood consumption and from timber production is 4170298 Kt. As a result the change in woody biomass stocks is considered a source of CO 2 emitting 142.4446 Kt of CO 2 . 2)- Sub-module forest and grassland conversion CO 2 from biomass: Natural and man fires are included in this sub-module. In 1994, around 1300 ha of woodland were affected by fires and the resulting CO)? 2 released was 57.968625 Gg. Forests in 1994 constitute a minor source of CO 2 rather than a sink due to the loss of woody biomass sticks and to forest fires. CO 2 emission from and use change and forestry is 200.413225 Kt

  16. Decision making in the electricity sector using performance indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingues, Nuno [ISEL-ADESPA, Lisbon (Portugal); FCT-UNL, Caparica (Portugal); Neves-Silva, Rui; Melo, Joao Joanaz de [FCT-UNL, Caparica (Portugal)

    2017-02-15

    The studies on the electricity sector are usually focused on the supply side, considering consumers as price-takers, i.e. assuming no demand elasticity. The present paper highlights the role of consumers on the electricity sector, assuming that consumers react to electricity prices and make decisions. Many studies focused on the demand side disaggregate consumers by activities, leading to a highly complex analyse. In the present paper, consumers are divided by three main types. In the present paper, the Government makes decisions on the measures to implement to influence the production and the consumption. To study the impact of the Government decisions, the present paper studies and implements a tool: a decision support system. This tool is based on a conceptual model and assists the task of test and analyse the electricity sector using scenarios to obtain a set of performance indicators that would allow to make quantitative balance and to eliminate unfeasible measures. The performance indicators quantify the technical, environmental, social and economical aspects of the electricity sector and help to understand the effect of consumer practices, production technology and Government measures on the electricity sector. Based on the scenarios produced, it is possible to conclude that the price signal is important for consumers and it is a way to guide their behaviour. It is also possible to conclude that is preferable to apply incentives on supporting energy-efficiency measures implementation than on reduce the price of electricity sold to consumers. (orig.)

  17. Decision making in the electricity sector using performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingues, Nuno; Neves-Silva, Rui; Melo, Joao Joanaz de

    2017-01-01

    The studies on the electricity sector are usually focused on the supply side, considering consumers as price-takers, i.e. assuming no demand elasticity. The present paper highlights the role of consumers on the electricity sector, assuming that consumers react to electricity prices and make decisions. Many studies focused on the demand side disaggregate consumers by activities, leading to a highly complex analyse. In the present paper, consumers are divided by three main types. In the present paper, the Government makes decisions on the measures to implement to influence the production and the consumption. To study the impact of the Government decisions, the present paper studies and implements a tool: a decision support system. This tool is based on a conceptual model and assists the task of test and analyse the electricity sector using scenarios to obtain a set of performance indicators that would allow to make quantitative balance and to eliminate unfeasible measures. The performance indicators quantify the technical, environmental, social and economical aspects of the electricity sector and help to understand the effect of consumer practices, production technology and Government measures on the electricity sector. Based on the scenarios produced, it is possible to conclude that the price signal is important for consumers and it is a way to guide their behaviour. It is also possible to conclude that is preferable to apply incentives on supporting energy-efficiency measures implementation than on reduce the price of electricity sold to consumers. (orig.)

  18. Parametric optimization of CNC end milling using entropy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parametric optimization of CNC end milling using entropy measurement technique combined with grey-Taguchi method. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... Keywords: CNC end milling, surface finish, material removal rate (MRR), entropy measurement technique, Taguchi method ...

  19. End-to-end tests using alanine dosimetry in scanned proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlino, A.; Gouldstone, C.; Kragl, G.; Traneus, E.; Marrale, M.; Vatnitsky, S.; Stock, M.; Palmans, H.

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes end-to-end test procedures as the last fundamental step of medical commissioning before starting clinical operation of the MedAustron synchrotron-based pencil beam scanning (PBS) therapy facility with protons. One in-house homogeneous phantom and two anthropomorphic heterogeneous (head and pelvis) phantoms were used for end-to-end tests at MedAustron. The phantoms were equipped with alanine detectors, radiochromic films and ionization chambers. The correction for the ‘quenching’ effect of alanine pellets was implemented in the Monte Carlo platform of the evaluation version of RayStation TPS. During the end-to-end tests, the phantoms were transferred through the workflow like real patients to simulate the entire clinical workflow: immobilization, imaging, treatment planning and dose delivery. Different clinical scenarios of increasing complexity were simulated: delivery of a single beam, two oblique beams without and with range shifter. In addition to the dose comparison in the plastic phantoms the dose obtained from alanine pellet readings was compared with the dose determined with the Farmer ionization chamber in water. A consistent systematic deviation of about 2% was found between alanine dosimetry and the ionization chamber dosimetry in water and plastic materials. Acceptable agreement of planned and delivered doses was observed together with consistent and reproducible results of the end-to-end testing performed with different dosimetric techniques (alanine detectors, ionization chambers and EBT3 radiochromic films). The results confirmed the adequate implementation and integration of the new PBS technology at MedAustron. This work demonstrates that alanine pellets are suitable detectors for end-to-end tests in proton beam therapy and the developed procedures with customized anthropomorphic phantoms can be used to support implementation of PBS technology in clinical practice.

  20. European scale climate information services for water use sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Donnelly, Chantal; Strömbäck, Lena; Capell, René; Ludwig, Fulco

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates a climate information service for pan-European water use sectors that are vulnerable to climate change induced hydrological changes, including risk and safety (disaster preparedness), agriculture, energy (hydropower and cooling water use for thermoelectric power) and

  1. Employability of offshore service sector workers in the Philippines: opportunities for upward labour mobility or dead-end jobs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerepoot, N.; Hendriks, M.

    2013-01-01

    Critical concerns have been raised about the quality of employment in the offshore service sector in developing countries, suggesting that many activities have an inherent paradox of highly educated workers performing low-skilled jobs. Based on empirical data collected in the offshore service sector

  2. Reconciling Means and Ends in Equity and Access through Further and Higher Education Sector Partnerships: An Australian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the educational implications of pursuing equity and access for adult learners across further and higher education sectors. It contextualizes some advantages and disadvantages in cross-sectoral arrangements by reference to a specific access and equity partnership program in Australia and analyses the impact on the equity aims of…

  3. Reconstruction of lower end of radius using vascularized upper end of fibula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koul Ashok

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Giant cell tumor is a fairly common locally invasive tumor in young adults. The lower end of the radius is the second commonest site for this tumor. The most common treatment for this tumor is curettage with or without bone grafting but it carries a significant rate of recurrence. Excision is the treatment of choice, especially for cases in which the cortex has been breached. After excision of the distal end of the radius, different procedures have been described to reconstruct the defect of distal radius. These include partial arthrodesis and hemiarthroplasty using the upper end of the fibula. The upper end of the fibula has a morphological resemblance to the lower end of the radius and has been used to replace the latter. Traditionally it was used as a ′free′ (non-vascularized graft. More recently the upper end of the fibula has been transferred as a vascularized transfer for the same purpose. Though vascularized transfer should be expected to be more physiological, its superiority over the technically simpler non-vascularized transfer has not been conclusively proven. Materials and Methods: Two patients are presented who had giant cell tumor of distal radius. They underwent wide local excision and reconstruction with free vascularized upper end of the fibula. Result: Follow-up period was two and a half years and 12 months respectively. Both patients have returned to routine work. One patient has excellent functional result and the other has a good result. Conclusion: Vascularized upper end of fibula transfer is a reliable method of reconstruction for loss of the distal end of the radius that restores local anatomy and physiology.

  4. Technology data characterizing water heating in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sezgen, O.; Koomey, J.G.

    1995-12-01

    Commercial-sector conservation analyses have traditionally focused on lighting and space conditioning because of their relatively-large shares of electricity and fuel consumption in commercial buildings. In this report we focus on water heating, which is one of the neglected end uses in the commercial sector. The share of the water-heating end use in commercial-sector electricity consumption is 3%, which corresponds to 0.3 quadrillion Btu (quads) of primary energy consumption. Water heating accounts for 15% of commercial-sector fuel use, which corresponds to 1.6 quads of primary energy consumption. Although smaller in absolute size than the savings associated with lighting and space conditioning, the potential cost-effective energy savings from water heaters are large enough in percentage terms to warrant closer attention. In addition, water heating is much more important in particular building types than in the commercial sector as a whole. Fuel consumption for water heating is highest in lodging establishments, hospitals, and restaurants (0.27, 0.22, and 0.19 quads, respectively); water heating`s share of fuel consumption for these building types is 35%, 18% and 32%, respectively. At the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and refined a base-year data set characterizing water heating technologies in commercial buildings as well as a modeling framework. We present the data and modeling framework in this report. The present commercial floorstock is characterized in terms of water heating requirements and technology saturations. Cost-efficiency data for water heating technologies are also developed. These data are intended to support models used for forecasting energy use of water heating in the commercial sector.

  5. Energy consumption of electricity end uses in Malaysian historic buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaruzzaman, Syahrul N.; Edwards, Rodger E.; Zawawi, Emma M.A.

    2007-07-15

    Malaysia has inherited hundreds of heritage buildings from the past including those from the Indian, Chinese and Colonial eras apart from the indigenous traditional buildings. These buildings have the most unique ecstatic value from the viewpoint of architecture, culture, art, etc. Malaysian economy boom in 1980s spurred the need for more buildings especially in large cities. As a result, most of the historic buildings have been converted and transformed into commercial use. As reported by METP, Malaysian buildings energy uses are reflected by the energy consumption in the industrial and commercial sectors. Most of the buildings' energy consumption is electricity, used for running and operating the plants, lighting, lifts and escalators and other equipment in the buildings. These are amongst the factors that have resulted in the high demand for electricity in Malaysia. As outlined in the eighth Malaysia Plan, Malaysia is taking steps in conserving energy and reducing energy consumption on electricity consumption in building. This paper aims to present the breakdown of the major electricity end uses characteristics of historic buildings in Malaysia. The analysis was performed on annual data, allowing comparison with published benchmarks to give an indication of efficiency. Based on data collected a 'normalisation' calculated electricity consumption was established with the intention of improving the comparison between buildings in different climatic regions or with different occupancy patterns. This is useful for identifying where the design needed further attention and helped pinpoint problem areas within a building. It is anticipated that this study would give a good indication on the electricity consumption characteristics of historic buildings in Malaysia. (Author)

  6. Analysis of a DSM program using an end use model; End use model wo mochiita DSM program no bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, H.; Takahashi, M.; Okada, K. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    An end use model used in the United States who is advanced in demand-side management (DSM) was used to discuss possibilities of designing and evaluating Japan`s future DSM measures. The end use model assumes energy demand based on such factors as device characteristics, meteorological data, energy prices, user characteristics, market characteristics and DSM measures. The model calculates energy demand amount by end uses basically by multiplying assumptions on device unit requirement, device retention rate, and number of users. A representative tool as an end use model that handles load shapes is the hourly electric load model (HELM). It assumes an annual load curve and predicts a maximum system load. The present discussions have performed estimation on demand for consumer use air conditioners in a day in which a maximum summer load occurs in a reference year, estimation on load in a maximum load day in an estimated year, and estimation on weather sensitivity of loads. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Automatic detection of end-diastole and end-systole from echocardiography images using manifold learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gifani, Parisa; Behnam, Hamid; Shalbaf, Ahmad; Sani, Zahra Alizadeh

    2010-01-01

    The automatic detection of end-diastole and end-systole frames of echocardiography images is the first step for calculation of the ejection fraction, stroke volume and some other features related to heart motion abnormalities. In this paper, the manifold learning algorithm is applied on 2D echocardiography images to find out the relationship between the frames of one cycle of heart motion. By this approach the nonlinear embedded information in sequential images is represented in a two-dimensional manifold by the LLE algorithm and each image is depicted by a point on reconstructed manifold. There are three dense regions on the manifold which correspond to the three phases of cardiac cycle ('isovolumetric contraction', 'isovolumetric relaxation', 'reduced filling'), wherein there is no prominent change in ventricular volume. By the fact that the end-systolic and end-diastolic frames are in isovolumic phases of the cardiac cycle, the dense regions can be used to find these frames. By calculating the distance between consecutive points in the manifold, the isovolumic frames are mapped on the three minimums of the distance diagrams which were used to select the corresponding images. The minimum correlation between these images leads to detection of end-systole and end-diastole frames. The results on six healthy volunteers have been validated by an experienced echo cardiologist and depict the usefulness of the presented method

  8. End-of-Life in the railway sector: Analysis of recyclability and recoverability for different vehicle case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delogu, Massimo; Del Pero, Francesco; Berzi, Lorenzo; Pierini, Marco; Bonaffini, Davide

    2017-02-01

    The railway system represents one of the most resource-efficient answer to our ever-growing demand for transport service and the development trends for the following years forecast a substantial increase in this sector. Considering the European Union, rolling stock realizes a significant share of both goods and passengers carriage while it is responsible for a derisory quota of environmental impact and energy consumption involved by transportation. Contrary to the low environmental impact, the amount of End-of-Life (EoL) waste generated by rolling stocks in relation to the number of vehicles is notable, much greater than in the case of road vehicles. As railway vehicles are constituted by many heterogeneous components, the EoL rolling stock is a precious source of materials, whose recycling brings measurable economic benefits and needs to be appropriately debated. The paper presents calculation of recoverability/recyclability rate for different typologies of vehicles representative of railway transport; calculation is performed on the basis of primary data and according to the recyclability and recoverability calculation method issued by UNIFE in the context of Product Category Rules (PCR). The typologies of railway vehicles taken into account are electric metro, diesel commuter train and high-speed electric train. The analysis envisages also to replicate the calculation in case innovative materials and manufacturing technologies are adopted in the construction of car-body structure. Results show that recyclability/recoverability rates are abundantly over the quota of 90% for each one of the three trains, these latter being made in major part of metals that benefit from very efficient recovery processes. The adoption of innovative materials and manufacturing technologies for car-body structure involves a scarce reduction of recyclability and recoverability rates (about 2% and 0.2% respectively) due to the introduction of components and materials characterized by

  9. Efficient use of green taxes in the CHP sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skovsgaard Nielsen, L.; Mognesen, Martin Frank; Pade, L.L.

    2007-06-01

    Since 1977 green taxes have been used in the Danish power and heat sector. Green taxes principally assure an efficient, market-based reduction of pollution by reducing the energy consumption or increasing the share of renewable energy in power and heat production. This report takes its point of departure in four potential barriers which prevent a marketbased, cost-effective increase of the proportion of renewable energy in power and heat production. We primarily concentrate on three policy measures. 5. green and lessgreen taxes; 6. mandatory combined heat and power production; 7. fuel restrictions. Furthermore, we analyse a fourth characteristic in the law: 8. high transactions costs connected to the enlargement of renewable energy. The purpose of the report is to describe how the four potential barriers contradict the theoretically efficient application of green taxes in the power and heat sector. We do this: 1) by clarifying how legislation in the power and heat sector affects the extension of renewable energy; and 2) by evaluating the theoretically efficient application of green taxes in the power and heat sector in relation to legislation. (au)

  10. Dermal Exposure Associated with Occupational End Use of Pesticides and the Role of Protective Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewan MacFarlane

    2013-09-01

    Conclusions: Although international and national efforts to reduce pesticide exposure through regulatory means should continue, it is difficult in the agricultural sector to implement engineering or system controls. It is clear that use of PPE does reduce dermal pesticide exposure but compliance among the majority of occupationally exposed pesticide end users appears to be poor. More research is needed on higher-order controls to reduce pesticide exposure and to understand the reasons for poor compliance with PPE and identify effective training methods.

  11. Development of a global computable general equilibrium model coupled with detailed energy end-use technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Shinichiro; Masui, Toshihiko; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Detailed energy end-use technology information is considered within a CGE model. • Aggregated macro results of the detailed model are similar to traditional model. • The detailed model shows unique characteristics in the household sector. - Abstract: A global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model integrating detailed energy end-use technologies is developed in this paper. The paper (1) presents how energy end-use technologies are treated within the model and (2) analyzes the characteristics of the model’s behavior. Energy service demand and end-use technologies are explicitly considered, and the share of technologies is determined by a discrete probabilistic function, namely a Logit function, to meet the energy service demand. Coupling with detailed technology information enables the CGE model to have more realistic representation in the energy consumption. The proposed model in this paper is compared with the aggregated traditional model under the same assumptions in scenarios with and without mitigation roughly consistent with the two degree climate mitigation target. Although the results of aggregated energy supply and greenhouse gas emissions are similar, there are three main differences between the aggregated and the detailed technologies models. First, GDP losses in mitigation scenarios are lower in the detailed technology model (2.8% in 2050) as compared with the aggregated model (3.2%). Second, price elasticity and autonomous energy efficiency improvement are heterogeneous across regions and sectors in the detailed technology model, whereas the traditional aggregated model generally utilizes a single value for each of these variables. Third, the magnitude of emissions reduction and factors (energy intensity and carbon factor reduction) related to climate mitigation also varies among sectors in the detailed technology model. The household sector in the detailed technology model has a relatively higher reduction for both energy

  12. Reversible end-to-end assembly of gold nanorods using a disulfide-modified polypeptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, David A; Gupta, Vinay K

    2008-01-01

    Directing the self-assembly of colloidal particles into nanostructures is of great interest in nanotechnology. Here, reversible end-to-end assembly of gold nanorods (GNR) is induced by pH-dependent changes in the secondary conformation of a disulfide-modified poly(L-glutamic acid) (SSPLGA). The disulfide anchoring group drives chemisorption of the polyacid onto the end of the gold nanorods in an ethanolic solution. A layer of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) is adsorbed on the positively charged, surfactant-stabilized GNR to screen the surfactant bilayer charge and provide stability for dispersion of the GNR in ethanol. For comparison, irreversible end-to-end assembly using a bidentate ligand, namely 1,6-hexanedithiol, is also performed. Characterization of the modified GNR and its end-to-end linking behavior using SSPLGA and hexanedithiol is performed using dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Experimental results show that, in a colloidal solution of GNR-SSPLGA at a pH∼3.5, where the PLGA is in an α-helical conformation, the modified GNR self-assemble into one-dimensional nanostructures. The linking behavior can be reversed by increasing the pH (>8.5) to drive the conformation of the polypeptide to a random coil and this reversal with pH occurs rapidly within minutes. Cycling the pH multiple times between low and high pH values can be used to drive the formation of the nanostructures of the GNR and disperse them in solution.

  13. Use of Surrogate end points in HTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangiapane, Sandra

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The different actors involved in health system decision-making and regulation have to deal with the question which are valid parameters to assess the health value of health technologies.So called surrogate endpoints represent in the best case preliminary steps in the casual chain leading to the relevant outcome (e. g. mortality, morbidity and are not usually directly perceptible by patients. Surrogate endpoints are not only used in trials of pharmaceuticals but also in studies of other technologies. Their use in the assessment of the benefit of a health technology is however problematic. In this report we intend to answer the following research questions: Which criteria need to be fulfilled for a surrogate parameter to be considered a valid endpoint? Which methods have been described in the literature for the assessment of the validity of surrogate endpoints? Which methodological recommendations concerning the use of surrogate endpoints have been made by international HTA agencies? Which place has been given to surrogate endpoints in international and German HTA reports? For this purpose, we choose three different approaches. Firstly, we conduct a review of the methodological literature dealing with the issue of surrogate endpoints and their validation. Secondly, we analyse current methodological guidelines of HTA agencies members of the International network of agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA as well as of agencies concerned with assessments for reimbursement purposes. Finally, we analyse the outcome parameter used in a sample of HTA reports available for the public. The analysis of methodological guidelines shows a very cautious position of HTA institutions regarding the use of surrogate endpoints in technology assessment. Surrogate endpoints have not been prominently used in HTA reports. None of the analysed reports based its conclusions solely on the results of surrogate endpoints. The analysis of German HTA reports shows a

  14. Energy sector methane recovery and use: the importance of policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Kerr; Michelle Hershman

    2009-08-15

    To raise awareness about appropriate policy options to advance methane recovery and use in the energy sector, the IEA has conducted a series of analyses and studies over the past few years. This report continues IEA efforts by providing policy makers with examples and best practices in methane mitigation policy design and implementation. This report offers an overview of four types of methane mitigation projects that have the strongest links to the energy sector: oil and gas methane recovery and reduction of leaks and losses; coal mine methane; landfill methane; and manure methane recovery and use. It identifies successful policies that have been used to advance these important projects. This information is intended to guide policy makers as they search for low-cost, near-term solutions to climate change. 38 refs., 10 figs., 1 app.

  15. Interaction between supply and end-use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skytte, K.; Noergaard, P.; Togeby, M.

    2005-01-01

    In a future power system with a high proportion of distributed and intermittent generation, it will be difficult and costly to ensure short-term security of supply if demand is unable to react to fluctuations on the supply side. At present, most power consumers in the EU, with the exception of the largest consumers such as energy intensive industries, buy their power on fixed tariffs. Fixed tariffs provide no incentives for consumers to alter their patterns of power consumption. This calls for more interaction between the supply and demand sides, which in turn would allow better matching of demand to intermittent supply. The development of cheap and reliable electronic communication technologies has made this a realistic option, so we are left with the general question of how the demand side can become more active in the future power market. Liberalisation of the wholesale power markets has introduced market-based pricing for the marginal electricity supply. Prices are set hourly, or even more frequently, by reference to the balance between the expected demand and supply at the time. If the expected demand exceeds supply, prices increase until demand falls or more generation comes on line. If supply exceeds demand, prices fall. In this way, market prices are used to determine the balance level between generation and consumption. In liquid markets, the power price is a reliable indicator of the state of the electricity system. Price fluctuations reveal the cost of marginal production capacity; very high prices indicate that capacity is limited compared with demand. At present, it is mostly the generation side that adjust their supply in order to create balance between supply and expected demand. If demand, as well as supply, could respond to price signals from the market, the flexibility of the energy system would increase. This would make it easier to increase the proportion of intermittent renewable energy sources in the system. Demand response (DR) is the term

  16. How useful is consolidation of public sector entities' financial statements ?

    OpenAIRE

    Soguel, N.; Bucher, R.

    2013-01-01

    Whether or not to consolidate financial statements is dealt with in IPSAS#6. This standard is by and large based on IAS#27. It deals with the criterion according to which an entity's financial statements should be considered and which consolidation technique should be used. However, it remains silent when it comes to exposing the reason why a public sector entity should consolidate its financial statements. The literature is almost as silent as IPSAS on this issue. Which means that there is a...

  17. End-to-End Airplane Detection Using Transfer Learning in Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Airplane detection in remote sensing images remains a challenging problem due to the complexity of backgrounds. In recent years, with the development of deep learning, object detection has also obtained great breakthroughs. For object detection tasks in natural images, such as the PASCAL (Pattern Analysis, Statistical Modelling and Computational Learning VOC (Visual Object Classes Challenge, the major trend of current development is to use a large amount of labeled classification data to pre-train the deep neural network as a base network, and then use a small amount of annotated detection data to fine-tune the network for detection. In this paper, we use object detection technology based on deep learning for airplane detection in remote sensing images. In addition to using some characteristics of remote sensing images, some new data augmentation techniques have been proposed. We also use transfer learning and adopt a single deep convolutional neural network and limited training samples to implement end-to-end trainable airplane detection. Classification and positioning are no longer divided into multistage tasks; end-to-end detection attempts to combine them for optimization, which ensures an optimal solution for the final stage. In our experiment, we use remote sensing images of airports collected from Google Earth. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is highly accurate and meaningful for remote sensing object detection.

  18. Increasing operations profitability using an end-to-end, wireless internet, gas monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, M. [Northrock Resources Ltd., AB (Canada); Benterud, K. [zed.i solutions, inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-10-01

    Implementation by Northrock Resources Ltd., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Unocal Corporation, of a fully integrated end-to-end gas measurement and production analysis system, is discussed. The system, dubbed Smart-Alek(TM), utilizes public wireless communications and a web browser only delivery system to provide seamless well visibility to a desk-top computer. Smart-Alek(TM) is an example of a new type of end-to-end electronic gas flow measurement system, known as FINE(TM), which is an acronym for Field Intelligence Network and End-User Interface. The system delivers easy-to-use, complete, reliable and cost effective production information, far more effective than is possible to obtain with conventional SCADA technology. By installing the system, Northrock was able to increase gas volumes with more accurate electronic flow measurement in place of mechanical charts, with very low technical maintenance, and at a reduced operating cost. It is emphasized that deploying the technology alone will produce only partial benefits; to realize full benefits it is also essential to change grass roots operating practices, aiming at timely decision-making at the field level. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Mathematical Use Of Polynomials Of Different End Periods Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focused on how polynomials of different end period of random numbers can be used in the application of encryption and decryption of a message. Eight steps were used in generating information on how polynomials of different end periods of random numbers in the application of encryption and decryption of a ...

  20. Screening California Current fishery management scenarios using the Atlantis end-to-end ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Isaac C.; Horne, Peter J.; Levin, Phillip S.

    2012-09-01

    End-to-end marine ecosystem models link climate and oceanography to the food web and human activities. These models can be used as forecasting tools, to strategically evaluate management options and to support ecosystem-based management. Here we report the results of such forecasts in the California Current, using an Atlantis end-to-end model. We worked collaboratively with fishery managers at NOAA’s regional offices and staff at the National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS) to explore the impact of fishery policies on management objectives at different spatial scales, from single Marine Sanctuaries to the entire Northern California Current. In addition to examining Status Quo management, we explored the consequences of several gear switching and spatial management scenarios. Of the scenarios that involved large scale management changes, no single scenario maximized all performance metrics. Any policy choice would involve trade-offs between stakeholder groups and policy goals. For example, a coast-wide 25% gear shift from trawl to pot or longline appeared to be one possible compromise between an increase in spatial management (which sacrificed revenue) and scenarios such as the one consolidating bottom impacts to deeper areas (which did not perform substantially differently from Status Quo). Judged on a coast-wide scale, most of the scenarios that involved minor or local management changes (e.g. within Monterey Bay NMS only) yielded results similar to Status Quo. When impacts did occur in these cases, they often involved local interactions that were difficult to predict a priori based solely on fishing patterns. However, judged on the local scale, deviation from Status Quo did emerge, particularly for metrics related to stationary species or variables (i.e. habitat and local metrics of landed value or bycatch). We also found that isolated management actions within Monterey Bay NMS would cause local fishers to pay a cost for conservation, in terms of reductions in landed

  1. Technology data characterizing refrigeration in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting with COMMEND 4.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sezgen, O.; Koomey, J.G.

    1995-12-01

    In the United States, energy consumption is increasing most rapidly in the commercial sector. Consequently, the commercial sector is becoming an increasingly important target for state and federal energy policies and also for utility-sponsored demand side management (DSM) programs. The rapid growth in commercial-sector energy consumption also makes it important for analysts working on energy policy and DSM issues to have access to energy end-use forecasting models that include more detailed representations of energy-using technologies in the commercial sector. These new forecasting models disaggregate energy consumption not only by fuel type, end use, and building type, but also by specific technology. The disaggregation of the refrigeration end use in terms of specific technologies, however, is complicated by several factors. First, the number of configurations of refrigeration cases and systems is quite large. Also, energy use is a complex function of the refrigeration-case properties and the refrigeration-system properties. The Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Commercial End-Use Planning System (COMMEND 4.0) and the associated data development presented in this report attempt to address the above complications and create a consistent forecasting framework. Expanding end-use forecasting models so that they address individual technology options requires characterization of the present floorstock in terms of service requirements, energy technologies used, and cost-efficiency attributes of the energy technologies that consumers may choose for new buildings and retrofits. This report describes the process by which we collected refrigeration technology data. The data were generated for COMMEND 4.0 but are also generally applicable to other end-use forecasting frameworks for the commercial sector.

  2. Water Use in the US Electric Power Sector: Energy Systems ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation reviews the water demands of long-range electricity scenarios. It addresses questions such as: What are the aggregate water requirements of the U.S. electric power sector? How could water requirements evolve under different long-range regional generation mixes? It also looks at research addressing the electricity generation water demand from a life cycle perspective, such as water use for the fuel cycle (natural gas, coal, uranium, etc.) and water use for the materials/equipment/manufacturing of new power plants. The presentation is part of panel session on the Water-Energy Nexus at the World Energy Engineering Congress

  3. Energy Sector Development for 2010-2050 using Message Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.; Muhammed Zulfakar Mohd Zolkaffly; Alawiah Musa; Aisha Raihan Abdul Kadir

    2011-01-01

    Strengthening a country's energy supply security is vital in ensuring a long term electricity supply to fulfil the growing energy demand. With the increase of number and resiliency of energy supply options to create a balance energy mix, Malaysia can overcome the national energy security, environmental and sustainable development issues. Introducing nuclear power would increase the diversity of energy supplies as well as increases the efficient use of natural resources in energy sector. This paper presents the use of IAEA energy planning tool, MESSAGE to analyse, simulate and compare energy mix and nuclear option in Malaysia taking into account the national energy policies. (author)

  4. END-OF-USE PRODUCTS IN REVERSE LOGISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Starostka-Patyk

    2007-01-01

    Reverse logistics is a very useful tool for enterprises which have to deal with end-of-use products. Forward logistics is not able to manage them, because they show up on the beginning of reverse supply chain. That is the reason for growing importance of reverse flows. Reverse logistics is quite new logistics system. This paper presents the idea of reverse logistics and end-of-use products problems.

  5. Electrification and Decarbonization: Exploring U.S. Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Scenarios with Widespread Electrification and Power Sector Decarbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bielen, Dave [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eurek, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Logan, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McMillan, Colin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Parker, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-19

    Electrification of end-use services in the transportation, buildings, and industrial sectors coupled with decarbonization of electricity generation has been identified as one of the key pathways to achieving a low-carbon future in the United States. By lowering the carbon intensity of the electricity generation and substituting electricity for higher-emissions fossil fuels in end-use sectors, significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions can be achieved. This report describes a preliminary analysis that examines the potential impacts of widespread electrification on the U.S. energy sector. We develop a set of exploratory scenarios under which electrification is aggressively pursued across all end-use sectors and examine the impacts of achieving these electrification levels on electricity load patterns, total fossil energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, and the evolution of the U.S. power system.

  6. Controller design and implementation of a three-phase Active Front End using SiC based MOSFETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Frerk; Kouchaki, Alireza; Nymand, Morten

    2015-01-01

    The design and implementation of a three phase Active Front End for power factor correction purposes using fast switching SiC based MOSFETs is presented. Possible applications are within the drives- and renewable energy sector. The controller is designed and implemented in the synchronous rotating...

  7. Average regional end-use energy price projections to the year 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The energy prices shown in this report cover the period from 1991 through 2030. These prices reflect sector/fuel price projections from the Annual Energy Outlook 1991 (AEO) base case, developed using the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS) forecasting model. Projections through 2010 are AEO base case forecasts. Projections for the period from 2011 through 2030 were developed separately from the AEO for this report, and the basis for these projections is described in Chapter 3. Projections in this report include average energy prices for each of four Census Regions for the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation end-use sectors. Energy sources include electricity, distillate fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas, motor gasoline, residual fuel oil, natural gas, and steam coal. (VC)

  8. Why is energy use rising in the freight sector?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintz, M.; Vyas, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    Trends in transportation sector energy use and carbon dioxide emissions are analyzed with an emphasis on three freight modes -- rail, truck, and marine. A recent set of energy use projections is presented and freight mode energy characteristics are discussed. Transportation sector energy use, which nearly doubled between 1960 and 1985, is projected to grow more slowly during the period 1985 endash 2010. Most of the growth is projected to come from non-personal modes (freight and commercial air). Trends in freight mode energy intensities are discussed and a variety of factors behind these trends are analyzed. Rail and marine modes improved their energy intensities during sudden fuel price rises of the 1970s. Though there is room for further technological improvement, long power plant life cycles preclude rapid penetration of new technologies. Thus, energy intensities in these modes are more likely to improve through operational changes. Because of relatively stable fuel prices, the energy share of truck operating expenses is likely to remain low. Coupled with increasing labor costs, this portends only modest improvements in truck energy efficiency over the next two decades

  9. 5 CFR 300.503 - Conditions for using private sector temporaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions for using private sector... REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Use of Private Sector Temporaries § 300.503 Conditions for using private... help service firm for the brief or intermittent use of the skills of private sector temporaries, when...

  10. MRI simulation: end-to-end testing for prostate radiation therapy using geometric pelvic MRI phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jidi; Menk, Fred; Lambert, Jonathan; Martin, Jarad; Denham, James W; Greer, Peter B; Dowling, Jason; Rivest-Henault, David; Pichler, Peter; Parker, Joel; Arm, Jameen; Best, Leah

    2015-01-01

    To clinically implement MRI simulation or MRI-alone treatment planning requires comprehensive end-to-end testing to ensure an accurate process. The purpose of this study was to design and build a geometric phantom simulating a human male pelvis that is suitable for both CT and MRI scanning and use it to test geometric and dosimetric aspects of MRI simulation including treatment planning and digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) generation.A liquid filled pelvic shaped phantom with simulated pelvic organs was scanned in a 3T MRI simulator with dedicated radiotherapy couch-top, laser bridge and pelvic coil mounts. A second phantom with the same external shape but with an internal distortion grid was used to quantify the distortion of the MR image. Both phantoms were also CT scanned as the gold-standard for both geometry and dosimetry. Deformable image registration was used to quantify the MR distortion. Dose comparison was made using a seven-field IMRT plan developed on the CT scan with the fluences copied to the MR image and recalculated using bulk electron densities.Without correction the maximum distortion of the MR compared with the CT scan was 7.5 mm across the pelvis, while this was reduced to 2.6 and 1.7 mm by the vendor’s 2D and 3D correction algorithms, respectively. Within the locations of the internal organs of interest, the distortion was <1.5 and <1 mm with 2D and 3D correction algorithms, respectively. The dose at the prostate isocentre calculated on CT and MRI images differed by 0.01% (1.1 cGy). Positioning shifts were within 1 mm when setup was performed using MRI generated DRRs compared to setup using CT DRRs.The MRI pelvic phantom allows end-to-end testing of the MRI simulation workflow with comparison to the gold-standard CT based process. MRI simulation was found to be geometrically accurate with organ dimensions, dose distributions and DRR based setup within acceptable limits compared to CT. (paper)

  11. 48 CFR 37.112 - Government use of private sector temporaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... use of private sector temporaries. Contracting officers may enter into contracts with temporary help service firms for the brief or intermittent use of the skills of private sector temporaries. Services... part 300, subpart E, Use of Private Sector Temporaries, and agency procedures. [56 FR 55380, Oct. 25...

  12. Residential applliance data, assumptions and methodology for end-use forecasting with EPRI-REEPS 2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, R.J,; Johnson, F.X.; Brown, R.E.; Hanford, J.W.; Kommey, J.G.

    1994-05-01

    This report details the data, assumptions and methodology for end-use forecasting of appliance energy use in the US residential sector. Our analysis uses the modeling framework provided by the Appliance Model in the Residential End-Use Energy Planning System (REEPS), which was developed by the Electric Power Research Institute. In this modeling framework, appliances include essentially all residential end-uses other than space conditioning end-uses. We have defined a distinct appliance model for each end-use based on a common modeling framework provided in the REEPS software. This report details our development of the following appliance models: refrigerator, freezer, dryer, water heater, clothes washer, dishwasher, lighting, cooking and miscellaneous. Taken together, appliances account for approximately 70% of electricity consumption and 30% of natural gas consumption in the US residential sector. Appliances are thus important to those residential sector policies or programs aimed at improving the efficiency of electricity and natural gas consumption. This report is primarily methodological in nature, taking the reader through the entire process of developing the baseline for residential appliance end-uses. Analysis steps documented in this report include: gathering technology and market data for each appliance end-use and specific technologies within those end-uses, developing cost data for the various technologies, and specifying decision models to forecast future purchase decisions by households. Our implementation of the REEPS 2.1 modeling framework draws on the extensive technology, cost and market data assembled by LBL for the purpose of analyzing federal energy conservation standards. The resulting residential appliance forecasting model offers a flexible and accurate tool for analyzing the effect of policies at the national level.

  13. Using CSR to mitigate information asymmetry in the banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenescu Andreea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the power of corporate social responsibility to reduce information asymmetry and to act as a marketing instrument in the banking sector. Trust is the most important asset of a bank. Therefore, banks are motivated to use the most effective instruments to diminish information asymmetry with their stakeholders. The fact that cash disbursements in CSR actions are not directed towards shareholders makes them more valuable signals to other stakeholders regarding the financial soundness of the bank. The empirical study conducted based on limited dependent variable models supports the effectiveness of the CSR as marketing instrument in banking. It reveals the circumstances associated to a higher probability of an active CSR policy conducted by a banking institution. The results support the hypothesis that in the banking sector CSR is perceived as an instrument which helps stakeholders reduce information asymmetry. As marketing instrument, CSR contributes to increasing the tangibility of the banking products, decreasing their perceived variability and thus making them more attractive for the clients and allowing for differentiation between competitors.

  14. The Use of Energy in Malaysia: Tracing Energy Flows from Primary Source to End Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinhao Chong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is a rapidly developing country in Southeast Asia that aims to achieve high-income country status by 2020; its economic growth is highly dependent on its abundant energy resources, especially natural gas and crude oil. In this paper, a complete picture of Malaysia’s energy use from primary source to end use is presented by mapping a Sankey diagram of Malaysia’s energy flows, together with ongoing trends analysis of the main factors influencing the energy flows. The results indicate that Malaysia’s energy use depends heavily on fossil fuels, including oil, gas and coal. In the past 30 years, Malaysia has successfully diversified its energy structure by introducing more natural gas and coal into its power generation. To sustainably feed the rapidly growing energy demand in end-use sectors with the challenge of global climate change, Malaysia must pay more attention to the development of renewable energy, green technology and energy conservation in the future.

  15. Electrification Futures Study: End-Use Electric Technology Cost and Performance Projections through 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jadun, Paige [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McMillan, Colin A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steinberg, Daniel C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This report provides projected cost and performance assumptions for electric technologies considered in the Electrification Futures Study, a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the effects of widespread electrification of end-use service demands in all major economic sectors - transportation, residential and commercial buildings, and industry - for the contiguous United States through 2050. Using extensive literature searches and expert assessment, the authors identify slow, moderate, and rapid technology advancement sensitivities on technology cost and performance, and they offer a comparative analysis of levelized cost metrics as a reference indicator of total costs. The identification and characterization of these end-use service demand technologies is fundamental to the Electrification Futures Study. This report, the larger Electrification Futures Study, and the associated data and methodologies may be useful to planners and analysts in evaluating the potential role of electrification in an uncertain future. The report could be broadly applicable for other analysts and researchers who wish to assess electrification and electric technologies.

  16. Healthcare reforms in Cyprus 2013-2017: Does the crisis mark the end of the healthcare sector as we know it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Panagiotis; Vandoros, Sotiris

    2018-02-01

    As part of a bailout agreement with the International Monetary Fund, the European Commission and the European Central Bank (known as the Troika), Cyprus had to achieve a fiscal surplus through budget constraints and efficiency enhancement. As a result, a number of policy changes were implemented, including a reform of the healthcare sector, and major healthcare reforms are planned for the upcoming years, mainly via the introduction of a National Health System. This paper presents the healthcare sector, provides an overview of recent reforms, assesses the recently implemented policies and proposes further interventions. Recent reforms targeting the demand and supply side included the introduction of clinical guidelines, user charges, introduction of coding for Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) and the revision of public healthcare coverage criteria. The latter led to a reduction in the number of people with public healthcare coverage in a time of financial crises, when this is needed the most, while co-payments must be reassessed to avoid creating barriers to access. However, DRGs and clinical guidelines can help improve performance and efficiency. The changes so far are yet to mark the end of the healthcare sector as we know it. A universal public healthcare system must remain a priority and must be introduced swiftly to address important existing coverage gaps. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An end-to-end assessment of range uncertainty in proton therapy using animal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanshui; Kang, Yixiu; Zeidan, Omar; Schreuder, Niek

    2016-11-01

    Accurate assessment of range uncertainty is critical in proton therapy. However, there is a lack of data and consensus on how to evaluate the appropriate amount of uncertainty. The purpose of this study is to quantify the range uncertainty in various treatment conditions in proton therapy, using transmission measurements through various animal tissues. Animal tissues, including a pig head, beef steak, and lamb leg, were used in this study. For each tissue, an end-to-end test closely imitating patient treatments was performed. This included CT scan simulation, treatment planning, image-guided alignment, and beam delivery. Radio-chromic films were placed at various depths in the distal dose falloff region to measure depth dose. Comparisons between measured and calculated doses were used to evaluate range differences. The dose difference at the distal falloff between measurement and calculation depends on tissue type and treatment conditions. The estimated range difference was up to 5, 6 and 4 mm for the pig head, beef steak, and lamb leg irradiation, respectively. Our study shows that the TPS was able to calculate proton range within about 1.5% plus 1.5 mm. Accurate assessment of range uncertainty in treatment planning would allow better optimization of proton beam treatment, thus fully achieving proton beams’ superior dose advantage over conventional photon-based radiation therapy.

  18. End-to-End Multimodal Emotion Recognition Using Deep Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzirakis, Panagiotis; Trigeorgis, George; Nicolaou, Mihalis A.; Schuller, Bjorn W.; Zafeiriou, Stefanos

    2017-12-01

    Automatic affect recognition is a challenging task due to the various modalities emotions can be expressed with. Applications can be found in many domains including multimedia retrieval and human computer interaction. In recent years, deep neural networks have been used with great success in determining emotional states. Inspired by this success, we propose an emotion recognition system using auditory and visual modalities. To capture the emotional content for various styles of speaking, robust features need to be extracted. To this purpose, we utilize a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to extract features from the speech, while for the visual modality a deep residual network (ResNet) of 50 layers. In addition to the importance of feature extraction, a machine learning algorithm needs also to be insensitive to outliers while being able to model the context. To tackle this problem, Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks are utilized. The system is then trained in an end-to-end fashion where - by also taking advantage of the correlations of the each of the streams - we manage to significantly outperform the traditional approaches based on auditory and visual handcrafted features for the prediction of spontaneous and natural emotions on the RECOLA database of the AVEC 2016 research challenge on emotion recognition.

  19. Electrification Futures Study: End-Use Electric Technology Cost and Performance Projections through 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadun, Paige [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McMillan, Colin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steinberg, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This report is the first in a series of Electrification Futures Study (EFS) publications. The EFS is a multiyear research project to explore widespread electrification in the future energy system of the United States. More specifically, the EFS is designed to examine electric technology advancement and adoption for end uses in all major economic sectors as well as electricity consumption growth and load profiles, future power system infrastructure development and operations, and the economic and environmental implications of widespread electrification. Because of the expansive scope and the multiyear duration of the study, research findings and supporting data will be published as a series of reports, with each report released on its own timeframe.

  20. Evolving markets and new end use gas technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overall, J.

    1995-01-01

    End use gas technologies, and products for residential, commercial, and industrial uses were reviewed, and markets and market drivers needed for end use technologies in the different types of markets were summarized. The range of end use technologies included: gas fireplaces, combination heating/water heating systems, integrated appliance such as heating/ventilation units, gas cooling, and space cooling for commercial markets. The present and future status of each product market was discussed. Growing markets such as cogeneration, and gas turbine technology also received attention, along with regulatory and environmental concerns. The need to be knowledgeable about current market drivers and to introduce new ones, and the evolution of technology were emphasized as means by which the industry will continue to be able to exert a decisive influence on the direction of these markets

  1. Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill evaluated using an end-to-end ecosystem model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Cameron H; Paris, Claire B; Perlin, Natalie; Dornberger, Lindsey N; Patterson, William F; Chancellor, Emily; Murawski, Steve; Hollander, David; Daly, Kendra; Romero, Isabel C; Coleman, Felicia; Perryman, Holly

    2018-01-01

    We use a spatially explicit biogeochemical end-to-end ecosystem model, Atlantis, to simulate impacts from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and subsequent recovery of fish guilds. Dose-response relationships with expected oil concentrations were utilized to estimate the impact on fish growth and mortality rates. We also examine the effects of fisheries closures and impacts on recruitment. We validate predictions of the model by comparing population trends and age structure before and after the oil spill with fisheries independent data. The model suggests that recruitment effects and fishery closures had little influence on biomass dynamics. However, at the assumed level of oil concentrations and toxicity, impacts on fish mortality and growth rates were large and commensurate with observations. Sensitivity analysis suggests the biomass of large reef fish decreased by 25% to 50% in areas most affected by the spill, and biomass of large demersal fish decreased even more, by 40% to 70%. Impacts on reef and demersal forage caused starvation mortality in predators and increased reliance on pelagic forage. Impacts on the food web translated effects of the spill far away from the oiled area. Effects on age structure suggest possible delayed impacts on fishery yields. Recovery of high-turnover populations generally is predicted to occur within 10 years, but some slower-growing populations may take 30+ years to fully recover.

  2. Diagnosing Students’ conception on atomic structure using open ended questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriza, Z.; Gazali, F.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to diagnose students’ conception on atomic structure concepts using open ended questions. For this reason, a 7 items of assay test was administered to 135 senior high school students from different schools in West Sumatera. The data were collected using a an open ended test which is covering the concept used in the topic Atomic Structure. The open ended test of students’ conceptual was developed to identify the alternative conceptions that student might have regarding the concepts in Atomic Structure, to measure the level of students’ conceptions, and the way of students’ thinking concerning the concepts. The results showed that students find difficulties about some concepts of Atomic structure such as atom, atomic model, electron configuration, period and group.The result of this study illuminated the concepts to be underlined in developing teaching and learning approach concerning the topic of Atomic Structure.

  3. The Water-Use Implications of a Changing Power Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, R.; Sanders, K.

    2016-12-01

    Changing policies, declining natural gas prices due to shale production and, growing pressure for cleaner energy sources are causing significant shifts in the fuels and technologies utilized for US electricity generation. These shifts have already impacted the volumes of water required for cooling thermal power plants, imposing consequences for watersheds that have yet to be quantified. This research investigates how these regulatory, economic, and socially-driven changes in the power sector have impacted cooling water usage across the US, which currently represents nearly half of US water withdrawals. This study uses plant-specific fuel consumption, generation, and cooling water data to assess water usage trends in the power sector from 2008 to 2014 across HUC-8 hydrologic units. Over this period, transitions from steam-cycle coal and nuclear units towards combined-cycle natural gas units and renewables, as well as transitions from once-through cooling towards wet recirculating tower and dry cooling systems resulted in large shifts in water usage. Trends towards non-traditional cooling water sources such as recycled water reduced freshwater consumption in some watersheds. Although US cooling water withdrawals and consumption increased from 2008 to 2014 largely due to electricity demand growth, the average water withdrawn and consumed per unit of electricity generated decreased and remained similar in magnitude, respectively. Changes at the watershed scale were not uniform, with some experiencing significant water use reductions and environmental benefits, especially due to coal-fired power plant retirements. Results highlight the importance of evaluating both water withdrawals and consumption at local spatial scales, as these shifts have varying consequences on water availability and quality for downstream users and ecosystems. This analysis underscores the importance of prioritizing local water security in global climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts.

  4. Environmental benefits of electrification and end-use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMenamin, J.S.; Monforte, F.A.; Sioshansi, F.P.

    1997-01-01

    Significant reductions in greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants can be achieved through continued substitution of clean, efficient electrotechnologies for fossil fuel-based technologies. Continued improvements in the efficiency of electrical appliances already in use will further increase the environmental benefits of electricity. Over the last several decades, electricity use in the US has grown strongly. Over a 35 year period 1960-95, electric utility sales increased more than fourfold, from under 700 billion kWh (BkWh) to almost 3,000 BkWh. This increase was due, in part, to a growing economy, but it also reflects the increasingly broad application of electricity to provide comfort, convenience, entertainment, safety and productivity. Reflecting this expanding role, energy used for electricity generation by utilities has nearly doubled, increasing from 19 percent of US primary energy use in 1960 to about 36 percent in 1995. Environmental factors have also provided support to policies that promote improved end-use efficiency. More efficient end-use equipment allows consumers to obtain the same level of end-use services with less electricity. Reduced electricity consumption levels imply reduced generation requirements and therefore, lower levels of emissions associated with generation. Beginning in the mid-1970's, and stimulated by abrupt increases in fossil fuel prices, both government and utility policies began to emphasize end-use efficiency

  5. Basis for selecting soft wheat for end-use quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the United States, end-use quality of soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is determined by several genetically controlled components: milling yield, flour particle size, and baking characteristics related to flour water absorption caused by glutenin macropolymer, non-starch polysaccharides, and...

  6. Optimization of CNC end milling process parameters using PCA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of CNC end milling process parameters using PCA-based Taguchi method. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... To meet the basic assumption of Taguchi method; in the present work, individual response correlations have been eliminated first by means of Principal Component ...

  7. End-use quality of soft kernel durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernel texture is a major determinant of end-use quality of wheat. Durum wheat has very hard kernels. We developed soft kernel durum wheat via Ph1b-mediated homoeologous recombination. The Hardness locus was transferred from Chinese Spring to Svevo durum wheat via back-crossing. ‘Soft Svevo’ had SKC...

  8. Forecasting the Romanian sectoral economy using the input-output method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DUGULEANĂ

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to forecast the sectoral output in 2013 based on the input-output structure of Romanian economy in 2010. Considering that the economic linkage mechanisms do not easily change during certain time periods, the forecasting is possible, even if not in the sequence of the time passing. Using the technical matrix of the sectoral structure described for year 2010 and some known indicators of the economic sectors, as the value added for each sector in 2013, the sectoral output is projected for 2013. The Romanian GDP in 2013 is estimated based on the input-output model. From a managerial perspective, this study is useful to forecast the sectoral output and to understand the sectoral behaviour, based on the input-output analysis of the value added, the compensation for employees and the final demand, which were considered here.

  9. Energy and exergy use in public and private sector of Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dincer, I. E-mail: idincer@kfupm.edu.sa; Hussain, M.M.; Al-Zaharnah, I

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, we deal with the analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the public and private sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the energy and exergy flows for the years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses for the public and private sector are undertaken to study the energy and exergy efficiencies. These sectoral efficiencies are then compared, and energy and exergy flow diagrams for the public and private sector over the years are presented, respectively. Energy and exergy efficiencies of the public and private sector are compared for its six sub-sectors, namely commercial, governmental, streets, Mosques, hospitals and charity associations, particularly illustrated for the year 2000. Hospital sub-sector appears to be the most energy efficient sector and government sub-sector the most exergy efficient one. The results presented here provide insights into the sectoral energy use that may assist energy policy makers for the country. It is believed that the present techniques are useful for analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization, and that they provide Saudi Arabia with energy savings through energy efficiency and/or energy conservation measures. It is also be helpful to establish standards to facilitate application in industry and in other planning processes such as energy planning.

  10. Energy and exergy use in public and private sector of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, I.; Hussain, M.M.; Al-Zaharnah, I.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the public and private sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the energy and exergy flows for the years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses for the public and private sector are undertaken to study the energy and exergy efficiencies. These sectoral efficiencies are then compared, and energy and exergy flow diagrams for the public and private sector over the years are presented, respectively. Energy and exergy efficiencies of the public and private sector are compared for its six sub-sectors, namely commercial, governmental, streets, Mosques, hospitals and charity associations, particularly illustrated for the year 2000. Hospital sub-sector appears to be the most energy efficient sector and government sub-sector the most exergy efficient one. The results presented here provide insights into the sectoral energy use that may assist energy policy makers for the country. It is believed that the present techniques are useful for analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization, and that they provide Saudi Arabia with energy savings through energy efficiency and/or energy conservation measures. It is also be helpful to establish standards to facilitate application in industry and in other planning processes such as energy planning

  11. End-use energy consumption estimates for U.S. commercial buildings, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D.B.; Wrench, L.E.

    1997-03-01

    An accurate picture of how energy is used in the nation`s stock of commercial buildings can serve a variety of program planning and policy needs of the US Department of Energy, utilities, and other groups seeking to improve the efficiency of energy use in the building sector. This report describes an estimation of energy consumption by end use based upon data from the 1992 Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). The methodology used in the study combines elements of engineering simulations and statistical analysis to estimate end-use intensities for heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, refrigeration, hot water, cooking, and miscellaneous equipment. Statistical Adjusted Engineering (SAE) models were estimated by building type. The nonlinear SAE models used variables such as building size, vintage, climate region, weekly operating hours, and employee density to adjust the engineering model predicted loads to the observed consumption (based upon utility billing information). End-use consumption by fuel was estimated for each of the 6,751 buildings in the 1992 CBECS. The report displays the summary results for 11 separate building types as well as for the total US commercial building stock. 4 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. Use of scenarios in the planning of the energy sector; Uso de escenarios en la planeacion del sector energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacristan Roy, Antonio [Asociacion Mexicana para la Economia Energetica (AMEE), (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    A scenario is a logical and congruent narration on the future, which describes the future in terms of the consequences on the surroundings of tendency forces (descriptive scenario) or as a result of caused changes (normative scenario). Unlike an econometric projection, that fundamentally considers economic forces, a scenario takes into consideration the impact of political, technological, social and legal forces, in addition to the economic ones, and the uncertainty of the future can be covered using several different scenarios. The construction of scenarios constitutes an extremely useful tool for long term planning of and the design of governmental policies for the energy sector. In this work an investment to twenty-five years in the national energy sector, with a long term planning of using scenarios, the design of a policy of the possible savings and bases for the future technological development and investigation effort is estimated. [Spanish] Un escenario es una narracion logica y congruente sobre el futuro, la cual describe el futuro en terminos de las consecuencias sobre el entorno de fuerzas tendenciales (escenario descriptivo) o como resultado de cambios provocados (escenario normativo). A diferencia de una proyeccion econometrica, que fundamentalmente considera fuerzas economicos, un escenario toma en consideracion el impacto de fuerzas politicas, tecnologicas, sociales y juridicas, ademas de las economicas, la incertidumbre del futuro se puede cubrir utilizando varios escenarios distintos. La construccion de escenarios constituye una herramienta sumamente util para la planeacion de largo plazo y el diseno de politicas gubernamentales para el sector energetico. En este trabajo se estima una inversion a veinticinco anos en el sector energetico nacional, con una planeacion de largo plazo utilizando escenarios, el diseno de una politica los posibles ahorros y la base para el futuro desarrollo tecnologico y esfuerzo de investigacion.

  13. Functional properties of Mozzarella cheese for its end use application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ah, Jana; Tagalpallewar, Govind P

    2017-11-01

    Cheese is an extremely versatile food product that has a wide range of flavor, textures and end uses. The vast majority of cheese is eaten not by itself, but as part of another food. As an ingredient in foods, cheese is required to exhibit functional characteristics in the raw as well as cooked forms. Melting, stretching, free-oil formation, elasticity and browning are the functional properties considered to be significant for Mozzarella cheese. When a cheese is destined for its end use, some of its unique characteristics play a significant role in the products acceptability. For instance pH of cheese determines the cheese structure which in turn decides the cheese shredability and meltability properties. The residual galactose content in cheese mass determines the propensity of cheese to brown during baking. Development of 'tailor-made cheese' involves focusing on manipulation of such unique traits of cheese in order to obtain the desired characteristics for its end use application suiting the varied consumer's whims and wishes. This comprehensive review paper will provide an insight to the cheese maker regarding the factors determining the functional properties of cheese and also for the pizza manufacturers to decide which age of cheese to be used which will perform well in baking applications.

  14. Electricity End Uses, Energy Efficiency, and Distributed Energy Resources Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wei, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Deason, Jeff [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leow, Woei Ling [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Plotkin, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhou, Yan [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report was developed by a team of analysts at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with Argonne National Laboratory contributing the transportation section, and is a DOE EPSA product and part of a series of “baseline” reports intended to inform the second installment of the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER 1.2). QER 1.2 provides a comprehensive review of the nation’s electricity system and cover the current state and key trends related to the electricity system, including generation, transmission, distribution, grid operations and planning, and end use. The baseline reports provide an overview of elements of the electricity system. This report focuses on end uses, electricity consumption, electric energy efficiency, distributed energy resources (DERs) (such as demand response, distributed generation, and distributed storage), and evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) methods for energy efficiency and DERs.

  15. Use of Simulation in End-of-Life Care Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabow, Debra

    Death and dying encompasses the period when individuals present with a limited prognosis and are near death or have recently died. Using simulation to educate nurses on end-of-life (EOL) care helps focus more on the needs of the learner rather than the patient, and allows the learner to process feelings in preparation for a real experience. Incorporating simulation with a spiritual perspective is essential and needed in EOL nursing care.

  16. Uncovering the end uses of the rare earth elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Xiaoyue, E-mail: xiaoyue.du@empa.ch [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA), Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Yale University, 195 Prospect Street, New Haven CT 06511 (United States); Graedel, T.E. [Yale University, 195 Prospect Street, New Haven CT 06511 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging and conventional established technologies. However, quantitative knowledge of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in future availability of the resources. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supply vulnerable to short term disruption. We have drawn upon the published literature and unpublished materials in different languages to derive the first quantitative annual domestic production by end use of individual rare earth elements from 1995 to 2007. The information is illustrated in Sankey diagrams for the years 1995 and 2007. Other years are available in the supporting information. Comparing 1995 and 2007, the production of the rare earth elements in China, Japan, and the US changed dramatically in quantities and structure. The information can provide a solid foundation for industries, academic institutions and governments to make decisions and develop strategies. - Highlights: • We have derived the first quantitative end use information of the rare earths (REE). • The results are for individual REE from 1995 to 2007. • The end uses of REE in China, Japan, and the US changed dramatically in quantities and structure. • This information can provide solid foundation for decision and strategy making.

  17. Performance Enhancements of UMTS networks using end-to-end QoS provisioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haibo; Prasad, Devendra; Teyeb, Oumer

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the end-to-end(E2E) quality of service(QoS) provisioning approaches for UMTS networks together with DiffServ IP network. The effort was put on QoS classes mapping from DiffServ to UMTS, Access Control(AC), buffering and scheduling optimization. The DiffServ Code Point (DSCP......) was utilized in the whole UMTS QoS provisioning to differentiate different type of traffics. The overall algorithm was optimized to guarantee the E2E QoS parameters of each service class, especially for realtime applications, as well as to improve the bandwidth utilization. Simulation shows that the enhanced...

  18. An overview of recent end-to-end wireless medical video telemedicine systems using 3G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayides, A; Pattichis, M S; Pattichis, C S; Schizas, C N; Spanias, A; Kyriacou, E

    2010-01-01

    Advances in video compression, network technologies, and computer technologies have contributed to the rapid growth of mobile health (m-health) systems and services. Wide deployment of such systems and services is expected in the near future, and it's foreseen that they will soon be incorporated in daily clinical practice. This study focuses in describing the basic components of an end-to-end wireless medical video telemedicine system, providing a brief overview of the recent advances in the field, while it also highlights future trends in the design of telemedicine systems that are diagnostically driven.

  19. Modular construction: 30 years of experience in the naval sector, useful for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepelletier, P.; Danguy des Deserts, S.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the benefits of modular construction in the sector of submarines that was implemented in the mid eighties in French shipyards. The design of the submarine is cut in different longitudinal parts so that each part can be built and completely equipped independently from the other parts. The different parts are then joined and welded at the end of the process of fabrication to form the submarine. The main advantages of such a construction are shorter construction times, standardized construction and a higher quality standard. DCNS proposes to use modular construction for the design of Flexblue which is an immersed small modular reactor (SMR). More generally, modular construction will add economic competitiveness to SMR reactors that will be necessary to their full development on a worldwide scale

  20. Public sector administration of ecological economics systems using mediated modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Belt, Marjan; Kenyan, Jennifer R; Krueger, Elizabeth; Maynard, Alison; Roy, Matthew Galen; Raphael, Ian

    2010-01-01

    In today's climate of government outsourcing and multiple stakeholder involvement in public sector management and service delivery, it is more important than ever to rethink and redesign the structure of how policy decisions are made, implemented, monitored, and adapted to new realities. The traditional command-and-control approach is now less effective because an increasing amount of responsibility to deliver public goods and services falls on networks of nongovernment agencies. Even though public administrators are seeking new decision-making models in an increasingly more complex environment, the public sector currently only sparsely utilizes Mediated Modeling (MM). There is growing evidence, however, that by employing MM and similar tools, public interest networks can be better equipped to deal with their long-term viability while maintaining the short-term needs of their clients. However, it may require a shift in organizational culture within and between organizations to achieve the desired results. This paper explores the successes and barriers to implementing MM and similar tools in the public sector and offers insights into utilizing them through a review of case studies and interdisciplinary literature. We aim to raise a broader interest in MM and similar tools among public sector administrators at various administrative levels. We focus primarily, but not exclusively, on those cases operating at the interface of ecology and socio-economic systems.

  1. Effective Life Cycle Management in SMEs: Use of a Sector-Based Approach to Overcome Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Seidel-Sterzik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One approach to incorporate sustainability in organisations is the implementation of life cycle management (LCM. LCM involves sharing responsibility for addressing environmental impacts across the entire supply chain of products and services, extending from raw material extraction to end-of-life of the product. The New Zealand primary sector relies heavily on natural resources and provides about 70% of the country’s export revenue. Most companies in primary industry sectors in New Zealand are small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Successful sector-wide uptake of LCM can potentially facilitate effective measurement and management of environmental impacts caused by this sector. The aim of this research was to identify the barriers and enablers to successful LCM uptake by New Zealand primary sector SMEs within a sector-based context. An extensive review of the literature was undertaken in the areas of change management for SMEs and supply chain management. The main factors influencing successful LCM uptake include owner/manager influence, environmental culture, resource availability, future orientation, knowledge of environmental issues, market requirements, geographical separation of production and consumption, awareness of own environmental issues and communication/information sharing. This paper forms the basis for future research and development of tools for the effective implementation of sector based approaches to LCM in the primary industry. The results of this research include a capability maturity model and the development of a cloud based platform for collaboration and communication around LCM.

  2. Women Using Physics: Alternate Career Paths, The Private Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tams, Jessica

    2006-12-01

    For those who have spent their careers inside the safe walls of academia, the word is a little scary. Can I compete? Will I fit in? What do I need to know? Am I prepared? Will I succeed? While many would say: Yes! You are ready to excel! This isn’t actually the case. The private sector comes with many unanticipated shocks to many of us, especially women. This isn’t a group project. This session will discuss entering a quickly growing and competitive technical field and what one can do to prepare for continued success. Preparing and Entering the Private Sector * Women with technical skills are a desired part of the private workforcein general women posses stronger people skills, are more reliable and often more well rounded than their male counterparts. Key factors we will discuss to landing that first job: · Expand your knowledge base with current applications of technology · Preparing a solid employment pitch to highlight strengths: Overcoming stereotypes · Don’t show them your bad side: Why some student projects may hurt you · The private sector attitude toward performance and entry level expectations Excelling in the Private Sector * Now that we have landed a job * for better or worse we are now all about making money and exerting control. What to keep in mind while working in the private sector: · The formative first years: focus on your weaknesses and practice, practice, practice · Men & Women in the workplace: what women subconsciously do to hurt their careers · Politics: Working in a team environment · Polish & Detail & Reliabilit

  3. Identification of Dried Native Chili Markets in the International Tourism Sector in Peru: An Open-Ended Contingent Valuation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Garcia-Yi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many native chili varieties are becoming extinct due to the lack of economic incentives for farmers to their continued cultivation in Peru. A potential high value pro-poor market for selling native chilies is the international tourism segment. The objectives of this research were to assess the acceptability of the potential introduction of dried native chilies in the international tourism segment by identifying the motivations for buying dried chilies as souvenirs, and then by evaluating the factors influencing the price premiums’ magnitudes related to different label information conditions, such as information about the farmer community, traditional cooking recipes, organic certification, and Fairtrade certification. A face-to-face survey was conducted with 200 international tourists at the airport in Cuzco, Peru. The data were analyzed using a probit and tobit models with sample selection. The results suggest that dried native chilies would have a relatively good acceptance among international tourists. About 62% of the respondents indicated they would buy dried native chilies, and of them, 62%–74% would pay an average price premium ranging from S/1.16–1.58 for different label information conditions. Nevertheless specific marketing campaigns should be designed for different types of international tourists in order to maximize the economic benefits for small-holder farmers.

  4. Private sector malaria RDT initiative in Nigeria: lessons from an end-of-project stakeholder engagement meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odugbemi, Babatunde; Ezeudu, Chijioke; Ekanem, Anyiekere; Kolawole, Maxwell; Akanmu, Idowu; Olawole, Aderemi; Nglass, Nkabono; Nze, Chinwe; Idenu, Edward; Audu, Bala Mohammed; Ntadom, Godwin; Alemu, Wondimagegnehu; Mpazanje, Rex; Cunningham, Jane; Akubue, Augustine; Arowolo, Tolu; Babatunde, Seye

    2018-02-06

    The malaria rapid diagnosis testing (RDT) landscape is rapidly evolving in health care delivery in Nigeria with many stakeholders playing or having potential for critical roles. A recent UNITAID grant supported a pilot project on the deployment of quality-assured RDTs among formal and informal private service outlets in three states in Nigeria. This paper describes findings from a series of stakeholder engagement meetings held at the conclusion of the project. The agreed meeting structure was a combination of plenary presentations, structured facilitated discussions, and nominal group techniques to achieve consensus. Rapporteurs recorded the meeting proceeding and summaries of the major areas of discussion and consensus points through a retrospective thematic analysis of the submitted meeting reports. Key findings indicate that private providers were confident in the use of RDTs for malaria diagnosis and believed it has improved the quality of their services. However, concerns were raised about continued access to quality-assured RDT kits. Going forward, stakeholders recommended increasing client-driven demand, and continuous training and supervision of providers through integration with existing monitoring and supervision mechanisms.

  5. Torrefied biomass for use in power station sector; Torrefizierte Biomasse zum Einsatz im Kraftwerkssektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Janet; Schaubach, Kay [Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ) gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Bioenergiesysteme; Kiel, Jaap; Carbo, Michiel [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Wojcik, Magdalena [OFI Austrian Research Institute for Chemistry and Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-10-01

    In the torrefaction process biomass is heated up in the absence of oxygen to a temperature of at least 250 C. By combining torrefaction with pelletisation or briquetting, biomass materials can be converted into a high-energy-density bioenergy carrier with improved behaviour in (long-distance) transport, handling and storage. Torrefaction also creates superior properties for biomass in many major end-use applications. The process has the potential to provide a significant contribution to an enlarged raw material portfolio for sustainable biomass fuel production inside Europe by including both agricultural and forestry biomass (residues). The article will briefly introduce the concept and objectives of the project and the different torrefaction technologies involved and then focus on the results obtained within the first project phase of the EU-project SECTOR. This comprises production of torrefied biomass batches, subsequent densification (pelletisation and briquetting), characterisation and Round Robin testing of characterisation methods, initial logistics and end-use performance testing, material safety data sheet preparation and sustainability assessment along the value chain. (orig.)

  6. Mapping the Energy Flow from Supply to End Use in three Geographic Regions of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischke, Peggy; Xiong, Weiming

    China's past economic development policies resulted in different energy infrastructure patterns across China. There is a long tradition in analysing and discussing regional disparities of China's economy. For more than 20 years, regional differences in GDP, industrial outputs, household income...... and consumption were analysed across China's provincial units. Regional disparities in China's current energy flow are rarely visualised and quantified from a comprehensive, system-wide perspective that is tracing all major fuels and energy carriers in supply, transformation and final end-use in different sectors....... A few national and provincial energy flow diagrams of China were developed since 2000, althoug with limited detail on major regional disparities and inter-regional fuel flows. No regional energy flow charts are yet available for East-, Central- and West-China. This study maps and quantifies energy...

  7. Microwave corrosion detection using open ended rectangular waveguide sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qaddoumi, N.; Handjojo, L.; Bigelow, T.; Easter, J.; Bray, A.; Zoughi, R.

    2000-02-01

    The use of microwave and millimeter wave nondestructive testing methods utilizing open ended rectangular waveguide sensors has shown great potential for detecting minute thickness variations in laminate structures, in particular those backed by a conducting plate. Slight variations in the dielectric properties of materials may also be detected using a set of optimal parameters which include the standoff distance and the frequency of operation. In a recent investigation, on detecting rust under paint, the dielectric properties of rust were assumed to be similar to those of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder. These values were used in an electromagnetic model that simulates the interaction of fields radiated by a rectangular waveguide aperture with layered structures to obtain optimal parameters. The dielectric properties of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were measured to be very similar to the properties of paint. Nevertheless, the presence of a simulated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer under a paint layer was detected. In this paper the dielectric properties of several different rust samples from different environments are measured. The measurements indicate that the nature of real rust is quite diverse and is different from Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and paint, indicating that the presence of rust under paint can be easily detected. The same electromagnetic model is also used (with the newly measured dielectric properties of real rust) to obtain an optimal standoff distance at a frequency of 24 GHz. The results indicate that variations in the magnitude as well as the phase of the reflection coefficient can be used to obtain information about the presence of rust. An experimental investigation on detecting the presence of very thin rust layers (2.5--5 x 10{sup {minus}2} mm [09--2.0 x 10{sup {minus}3} in.]) using an open ended rectangular waveguide probe is also conducted. Microwave images of rusted specimens, obtained at 24 GHz, are also presented.

  8. Use of opioids and sedatives at End-of-Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Wei Sim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite their proven efficacy and safety, opioid and sedative use for palliation in patients afflicted with cancer in Singapore have been shown to be a fraction of that in other countries. This paper explores the various psychosocial and system-related factors that appear to propagate this conservative approach to care in what is largely a western-influenced care practice. A search for publications relating to sedative and opioid usage in Asia was performed on PubMed, Google, Google Scholar, World Health Organization, and Singapore′s government agency websites using search terms such as "opioids," "sedatives," "palliation," "end-of-life-care," "pain management," "palliative care," "cancer pain," "Asia," "Singapore," and "morphine." Findings were classified into three broad groups - system-related, physician-related, and patient-related factors. A cautious medico-legal climate, shortage of physicians trained in palliative care, and lack of instruments for symptom assessment of patients at the end of life contribute to system-related barriers. Physician-related barriers include delayed access to palliative care due to late referrals, knowledge deficits in non-palliative medicine physicians, and sub-optimal care provided by palliative physicians. Patients′ under-reporting of symptoms and fear of addiction, tolerance, and side effects of opioids and sedatives may lead to conservative opioid use in palliative care as well. System-related, physician-related, and patient-related factors play crucial roles in steering the management of palliative patients. Addressing and increasing the awareness of these factors may help ensure patients receive adequate relief and control of distressing symptoms.

  9. Long term building energy demand for India: Disaggregating end use energy services in an integrated assessment modeling framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.; Shukla, Priyadarshi R.

    2014-01-01

    With increasing population, income, and urbanization, meeting the energy service demands for the building sector will be a huge challenge for Indian energy policy. Although there is broad consensus that the Indian building sector will grow and evolve over the coming century, there is little understanding of the potential nature of this evolution over the longer term. The present study uses a technologically detailed, service based building energy model nested in the long term, global, integrated assessment framework, GCAM, to produce scenarios of the evolution of the Indian buildings sector up through the end of the century. The results support the idea that as India evolves toward developed country per-capita income levels, its building sector will largely evolve to resemble those of the currently developed countries (heavy reliance on electricity both for increasing cooling loads and a range of emerging appliance and other plug loads), albeit with unique characteristics based on its climate conditions (cooling dominating heating and even more so with climate change), on fuel preferences that may linger from the present (for example, a preference for gas for cooking), and vestiges of its development path (including remnants of rural poor that use substantial quantities of traditional biomass). - Highlights: ► Building sector final energy demand in India will grow to over five times by century end. ► Space cooling and appliance services will grow substantially in the future. ► Energy service demands will be met predominantly by electricity and gas. ► Urban centers will face huge demand for floor space and building energy services. ► Carbon tax policy will have little effect on reducing building energy demands

  10. Use of Neutron Beams for Materials Research Relevant to the Nuclear Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear technologies such as fission and fusion reactors, including associated waste storage and disposal, rely on the availability of not only nuclear fuels but also advanced structural materials. In 2010–2013, the IAEA organized and implemented the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development, Characterization and Testing of Materials of Relevance to Nuclear Energy Sector Using Neutron Beams. A total of 19 institutions from 18 Member States (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation (two institutions), South Africa, Switzerland and United States of America) cooperated with the main objective to address the use of various neutron beam techniques for characterization, testing and qualification of materials and components produced or under development for applications in the nuclear energy sector. This CRP aimed to bring stakeholders and end users of research reactors and accelerator based neutron sources together for the enhanced use of available facilities and development of new infrastructures for applied materials research. Work envisioned under this CRP was related to the optimization and validation of neutron beam techniques, including facility and instrument modifications/optimizations as well as improved data acquisition, processing and analysis systems. Particular emphasis was placed on variable environments during material characterization and testing as required by some applications such as intensive irradiation load, high temperature and high pressure conditions, and the presence of strong magnetic fields. Targeted neutron beam techniques were neutron diffraction, small angle neutron scattering and digital neutron radiography/tomography. This publication is a compilation of the main results and findings of the CRP, and the CD-ROM accompanying this publication contains 19 reports with additional relevant technical details

  11. Straight ends for superconducting dipole magnet using constant perimeter geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royet, J.

    1989-01-01

    The ends of the SSC Dipole magnets are a very critical aspect of the superconducting cable windings needed for this large project. The internal coils, where the radius at the pole is as small as 3/10 of an inch for the first turn, are difficult to form with the very stiff cable, and a high tension is needed. The curing operation on the coils is performed in a heated forming press which applies an important additional stress on the superconducting wire and insulation. A new design of this sensitive region of the magnets was performed at LBL, and several prototypes were built and tested. In this paper the construction method used to solve some of the most critical problems is exposed along with a description of the experimental work in progress. 3 refs., 2 figs

  12. Users’ Perceptions Using Low-End and High-End Mobile-Rendered HMDs: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-Carmen Juan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, it is possible to combine Mobile-Rendered Head-Mounted Displays (MR HMDs with smartphones to have Augmented Reality platforms. The differences between these types of platforms can affect the user’s experiences and satisfaction. This paper presents a study that analyses the user’s perception when using the same Augmented Reality app with two MR HMD (low-end and high-end. Our study evaluates the user’s experience taking into account several factors (control, sensory, distraction, ergonomics and realism. An Augmalpha-lowerented Reality app was developed to carry out the comparison for two MR HMDs. The application had exactly the same visual appearance and functionality for both devices. Forty adults participated in our study. From the results, there were no statistically significant differences for the users’ experience for the different factors when using the two MR HMDs, except for the ergonomic factors in favour of the high-end MR HMD. Even though the scores for the high-end MR HMD were higher in nearly all of the questions, both MR HMDs provided a very satisfying viewing experience with very high scores. The results were independent of gender and age. The participants rated the high-end MR HMD as the best one. Nevertheless, when they were asked which MR HMD they would buy, the participants chose the low-end MR HMD taking into account its price.

  13. Impacts of climate mitigation strategies in the energy sector on global land use and carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Kerstin; Lindeskog, Mats; Olin, Stefan; Hassler, John; Smith, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions to limit damage to the global economy climate-change-induced and secure the livelihoods of future generations requires ambitious mitigation strategies. The introduction of a global carbon tax on fossil fuels is tested here as a mitigation strategy to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations and radiative forcing. Taxation of fossil fuels potentially leads to changed composition of energy sources, including a larger relative contribution from bioenergy. Further, the introduction of a mitigation strategy reduces climate-change-induced damage to the global economy, and thus can indirectly affect consumption patterns and investments in agricultural technologies and yield enhancement. Here we assess the implications of changes in bioenergy demand as well as the indirectly caused changes in consumption and crop yields for global and national cropland area and terrestrial biosphere carbon balance. We apply a novel integrated assessment modelling framework, combining three previously published models (a climate-economy model, a socio-economic land use model and an ecosystem model). We develop reference and mitigation scenarios based on the narratives and key elements of the shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs). Taking emissions from the land use sector into account, we find that the introduction of a global carbon tax on the fossil fuel sector is an effective mitigation strategy only for scenarios with low population development and strong sustainability criteria (SSP1 Taking the green road). For scenarios with high population growth, low technological development and bioenergy production the high demand for cropland causes the terrestrial biosphere to switch from being a carbon sink to a source by the end of the 21st century.

  14. Impacts of climate mitigation strategies in the energy sector on global land use and carbon balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Engström

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reducing greenhouse gas emissions to limit damage to the global economy climate-change-induced and secure the livelihoods of future generations requires ambitious mitigation strategies. The introduction of a global carbon tax on fossil fuels is tested here as a mitigation strategy to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations and radiative forcing. Taxation of fossil fuels potentially leads to changed composition of energy sources, including a larger relative contribution from bioenergy. Further, the introduction of a mitigation strategy reduces climate-change-induced damage to the global economy, and thus can indirectly affect consumption patterns and investments in agricultural technologies and yield enhancement. Here we assess the implications of changes in bioenergy demand as well as the indirectly caused changes in consumption and crop yields for global and national cropland area and terrestrial biosphere carbon balance. We apply a novel integrated assessment modelling framework, combining three previously published models (a climate–economy model, a socio-economic land use model and an ecosystem model. We develop reference and mitigation scenarios based on the narratives and key elements of the shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs. Taking emissions from the land use sector into account, we find that the introduction of a global carbon tax on the fossil fuel sector is an effective mitigation strategy only for scenarios with low population development and strong sustainability criteria (SSP1 Taking the green road. For scenarios with high population growth, low technological development and bioenergy production the high demand for cropland causes the terrestrial biosphere to switch from being a carbon sink to a source by the end of the 21st century.

  15. A housing stock model of non-heating end-use energy in England verified by aggregate energy use data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorimer, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a housing stock model of non-heating end-use energy for England that can be verified using aggregate energy use data available for small areas. These end-uses, commonly referred to as appliances and lighting, are a rapidly increasing part of residential energy demand. This paper proposes a model that can be verified using aggregated data of electricity meters in small areas and census data on housing. Secondly, any differences that open up between major collections of housing could potentially be resolved by using data from frequently updated expenditure surveys. For the year 2008, the model overestimated domestic non-heating energy use at the national scale by 1.5%. This model was then used on the residential sector with various area classifications, which found that rural and suburban areas were generally underestimated by up to 3.3% and urban areas overestimated by up to 5.2% with the notable exception of “professional city life” classifications. The model proposed in this paper has the potential to be a verifiable and adaptable model for non-heating end-use energy in households in England for the future. - Highlights: ► Housing stock energy model was developed for end-uses outside of heating for UK context. ► This entailed changes to the building energy model that serves as the bottom of the stock model. ► The model is adaptable to reflect rapid changes in consumption between major housing surveys. ► Verification was done against aggregated consumption data and for the first time uses a measured size of the housing stock. ► The verification process revealed spatial variations in consumption patterns for future research.

  16. Realizing directional cloning using sticky ends produced by 3ʹ-5ʹ ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Klenow fragment (KF) has been used to make the blunt end as a tool enzyme. Its 5′-3′ polymerase activity can extend the 5′ overhanging sticky end to the blunt end, and 3′-5′ exonuclease activity can cleave the 3′ overhanging sticky end to the blunt end. The blunt end is useful for cloning. Here, we for the first ...

  17. End-use matching for solar industrial process heat. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.C.; Hooker, D.W.; Rabl, A.; Stadjuhar, S.A.; West, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Because of the large energy demand of industry (37% of US demand) and the wide spectrum of temperatures at which heat is required, the industrial sector appears to be very suitable for the matching of solar thermal technology with industrial process heat (IPH) requirements. A methodology for end-use matching has been devised, complete with required data bases and an evaluation program PROSYS/ECONMAT. Six cities in the United States were selected for an analysis of solar applications to IPH. Typical process heat requirements for 70% of the industrial plants in each city were identified and evaluated in conjunction with meteorological and economic data for each site to determine lowest-cost solar systems for each application. The flexibility and scope of PROSYS/ECONMAT is shown in a variety of sensitivity studies that expand the results of the six-city analysis. Case studies of two industrial plants were performed to evaluate the end-use matching procedure; these results are reported.

  18. Argos: Residential end-use simulation model for load management strategy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capasso, A.; Lamedica, R.; Prudenzi, A.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, load management (LM) strategies, aimed at the optimization of available energy resources, as well as, the reduction of investments for new power plants, have been applied worldwide in residential end-use assessments. However, the forecasting of LM strategy impacts on the residential sector is very complex because it is based on a preliminary evaluation of the customers' proclivity to adapt their load characteristics to utility aims. In order to reduce load analysis requirements, which are substantial due to the need for thorough statistical analyses, complex field tests and measurements, the availability of models taking into account customer behavioural aspects is of paramount importance. This paper illustrates a simulation model which allows the performance of numerical evaluations concerning the effectiveness of some LM strategies applied to a residential end-use area load profile as previously determined by the aggregation of the contributions of individual households. This model enabled the evaluation of the impact, on the load profile, of a time-of-day tariff such as that recently introduced in Italy

  19. Energy in the market services sector in 2011: uses differentiated according to activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Jean-Philippe

    2015-04-01

    In 2011, average energy consumption in the market services sector (excluding transport) was 266 kWh/ m 2 . This is greater than the consumption for residential buildings, which reached 186 kWh/m2. Indeed, activities in certain service-sector establishments sometimes require specific uses that do not exist in the residential sector or are more intensive, such as cooking, intensive computing, laundering or refrigeration. Businesses employing at least one person could be divided into five groups depending on their energy mix and energy uses. (author)

  20. Energy sources consumption: end uses, efficiency and productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This document analyzes the impact of the choices made by all actors, from the energy producers to the process and infrastructure designers and the end users, in the evolution of energy consumptions. Some very little improvements made in the energy efficiency of appliances can become equivalent to the production of several oil fields or power plants at the world scale. More efficient energy uses will not replace the additional productions but they must be considered together to be compared. The energy files are first analyzed as a whole in order to show the hidden field of energy choices. In this framework, users, designers and fitters have to face very different choices because they consider efficiency improvements under different aspects: scientifical, technical, economical and social (public information and habits). These differences in efficiency uses have a time and spatial impact on the growth of energy consumption. The economical and social factors influence the collective way to consume energy and are expressed by the energy intensity of the economic activity. The last part of this document analyzes the influence of this notion on the world energy consumption scenarios at the 2050 prospects. (J.S.)

  1. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The DOE is conducting a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States -- that is, a system that could easily switch between petroleum and another fuel, depending on price and availability. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability, but covers a wide range of issues. This report examines environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with a switch to alternative- and flexible-fuel vehicles. Three potential alternatives to oil-based fuels in the transportation sector are considered: methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity. The objective is to describe and discuss qualitatively potential environmental, health, and safety issues that would accompany widespread use of these three fuels. This report presents the results of exhaustive literature reviews; discussions with specialists in the vehicular and fuel-production industries and with Federal, State, and local officials; and recent information from in-use fleet tests. Each chapter deals with the end-use and process emissions of air pollutants, presenting an overview of the potential air pollution contribution of the fuel --relative to that of gasoline and diesel fuel -- in various applications. Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, ozone precursors, and carbon dioxide are emphasized. 67 refs., 6 figs. , 8 tabs

  2. Tolerance analysis of null lenses using an end-use system performance criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, J. Michael

    2000-07-01

    An effective method of assigning tolerances to a null lens is to determine the effects of null-lens fabrication and alignment errors on the end-use system itself, not simply the null lens. This paper describes a method to assign null- lens tolerances based on their effect on any performance parameter of the end-use system.

  3. Multi physical simulations in the nuclear sector using ANSYS: uses and benefits; Simulaciones multifisicas en el sector nuclear usando ANYS: Aplicaciones y beneficios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, M.

    2014-07-01

    The numerical simulation as a tool of design and calculation for engineering has been widely used in the nuclear sector since the 1980s. The possibility of solving problems of great complexity, together with the rapid evolution of the computing power of computers has located these methods in the Centre of the activities of design and analysis.

  4. End-use energy characterization and conservation potentials at DoD Facilities: An analysis of electricity use at Fort Hood, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, H.; Konopacki, S.

    1995-05-01

    This report discusses the application of the LBL`s End-use Disaggregation Algorithm (EDA) to a DoD installation and presents hourly reconciled end-use data for all major building types and end uses. The project initially focused on achieving these objectives and pilot-testing the methodology at Fort Hood, Texas. Fort Hood, with over 5000 buildings was determined to have representative samples of nearly all of the major building types in use on DoD installations. These building types at Fort Hood include: office, administration, vehicle maintenance, shop, hospital, grocery store, retail store, car wash, church, restaurant, single-family detached housing, two and four-plex housings, and apartment building. Up to 11 end uses were developed for each prototype, consisting of 9 electric and 2 gas; however, only electric end uses were reconciled against known data and weather conditions. The electric end uses are space cooling, ventilation, cooking, miscellaneous/plugs, refrigeration, exterior lighting, interior lighting, process loads, and street lighting. The gas end uses are space heating and hot water heating. Space heating energy-use intensities were simulated only. The EDA was applied to 10 separate feeders from the three substations at Fort Hood. The results from the analyses of these ten feeders were extrapolated to estimate energy use by end use for the entire installation. The results show that administration, residential, and the bar-rack buildings are the largest consumers of electricity for a total of 250GWh per year (74% of annual consumption). By end use, cooling, ventilation, miscellaneous, and indoor lighting consume almost 84% of total electricity use. The contribution to the peak power demand is highest by residential sector (35%, 24 MW), followed by administration buildings (30%), and barrack (14%). For the entire Fort Hood installation, cooling is 54% of the peak demand (38 MW), followed by interior lighting at 18%, and miscellaneous end uses by 12%.

  5. Sector-wise midpoint characterization factors for impact assessment of regional consumptive and degradative water use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Chun; Lin, Jia-Yu; Lee, Mengshan; Chiueh, Pei-Te

    2017-12-31

    Water availability, resulting from either a lack of water or poor water quality is a key factor contributing to regional water stress. This study proposes a set of sector-wise characterization factors (CFs), namely consumptive and degradative water stresses, to assess the impact of water withdrawals with a life cycle assessment approach. These CFs consider water availability, water quality, and competition for water between domestic, agricultural and industrial sectors and ecosystem at the watershed level. CFs were applied to a case study of regional water management of industrial water withdrawals in Taiwan to show that both regional or seasonal decrease in water availability contributes to a high consumptive water stress, whereas water scarcity due to degraded water quality not meeting sector standards has little influence on increased degradative water stress. Degradative water stress was observed more in the agricultural sector than in the industrial sector, which implies that the agriculture sector may have water quality concerns. Reducing water intensity and alleviating regional scale water stresses of watersheds are suggested as approaches to decrease the impact of both consumptive and degradative water use. The results from this study may enable a more detailed sector-wise analysis of water stress and influence water resource management policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. End-to-End Deep Learning Model For Automatic Sleep Staging Using Raw PSG Waveforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Alexander Neergaard; Peppard, P. E.; Sorensen, H. B.

    2018-01-01

    Deep learning has seen significant progress over the last few years, especially in computer vision, where competitions such as the ImageNet challenge have been the driving factor behind many new model architectures far superior to humans in image recognition. We propose a novel method for automatic...... accuracy, precision and recall were 84.93%, 97.42% and 97.02%, respectively. Evaluating on the validation set yielded an overall accuracy of 85.07% and overall precision/recall of 98.54% and 95.72%, respectively. Conclusion: Preliminary results indicate that state of the art deep learning models can...... sleep staging, which relies on current advances in computer vision models eliminating the need for feature engineering or other transformations of input data. By exploiting the high capacity for complex learning in a state of the art object recognition model, we can effectively use raw PSG signals...

  7. A new technique for end-to-end ureterostomy in the rat, using an indwelling reabsorbable stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmignani, G; Farina, F P; De Stefani, S; Maffezzini, M

    1983-01-01

    The restoration of the continuity of the urinary tract represents one of the major problems in rat renal transplantation. End-to-end ureterostomy is the most physiologically effective technique; however, it involves noteworthy technical difficulties because of the extremely thin caliber of the ureter in the rat and the high incidence of postoperative hydronephrosis. We describe a new technique for end-to-end ureterostomy in the rat, where the use of an absorbable ureteral stent is recommended. A 5-0 plain catgut thread is used as a stent. The anastomosis is performed under an operating microscope at X 25-40 magnification with interrupted sutures of 11-0 Vicryl. The use of the indwelling stent facilitates the performance of the anastomosis and yields optimal results. The macroscopical, radiological, and histological controls in a group of rats operated on with this technique showed a very high percentage of success with no complications, a result undoubtedly superior to that obtained with conventional methods.

  8. Environmental impact study due to end use energy technologies; Estudio prospectivo del impacto ambiental debido a tecnologias de uso final de la energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzini Poli, Fabio

    1997-11-01

    Two thirds of the internal offer of energy in Mexico is consumed by end use sectors through end use technologies (TUF). Here is presented an integral conceptual frame for the environmental impact evaluation due to end use technologies, then the evolution of the interactions between technology-environment-fuel is analyzed in the long term (year 2025) according to three possible scenarios: business as usual, blocks and sustainable. [Spanish] Dos terceras partes de la oferta interna de energia en Mexico la utilizan los sectores de consumo final mediante tecnologias de uso final energetico. En el presente trabajo se introduce un marco conceptual integral para evaluar los impactos ambientales debidos a la utilizacion de tecnologias de uso final de la energia (TUF), luego se analiza la evolucion de las interacciones entre tecnologia-energetico-ambiente a largo plazo (ano 2025) de acuerdo a tres escenarios posibles: tendencial, bloques y sustentable.

  9. Use of communities of practice in business and health care sectors: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linda C; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Nielsen, Camilla; Judd, Maria; Coyte, Peter C; Graham, Ian D

    2009-05-17

    Since being identified as a concept for understanding knowledge sharing, management, and creation, communities of practice (CoPs) have become increasingly popular within the health sector. The CoP concept has been used in the business sector for over 20 years, but the use of CoPs in the health sector has been limited in comparison. First, we examined how CoPs were defined and used in these two sectors. Second, we evaluated the evidence of effectiveness on the health sector CoPs for improving the uptake of best practices and mentoring new practitioners. We conducted a search of electronic databases in the business, health, and education sectors, and a hand search of key journals for primary studies on CoP groups. Our research synthesis for the first objective focused on three areas: the authors' interpretations of the CoP concept, the key characteristics of CoP groups, and the common elements of CoP groups. To examine the evidence on the effectiveness of CoPs in the health sector, we identified articles that evaluated CoPs for improving health professional performance, health care organizational performance, professional mentoring, and/or patient outcome; and used experimental, quasi-experimental, or observational designs. The structure of CoP groups varied greatly, ranging from voluntary informal networks to work-supported formal education sessions, and from apprentice training to multidisciplinary, multi-site project teams. Four characteristics were identified from CoP groups: social interaction among members, knowledge sharing, knowledge creation, and identity building; however, these were not consistently present in all CoPs. There was also a lack of clarity in the responsibilities of CoP facilitators and how power dynamics should be handled within a CoP group. We did not find any paper in the health sector that met the eligibility criteria for the quantitative analysis, and so the effectiveness of CoP in this sector remained unclear. There is no dominant trend

  10. Level of satisfaction and issues with procurement systems used in the Malaysian public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastura Jaafar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the declaration of Malaysian independence, the public sector has significantly contributed to the country’s development. In the 1990s, a new procurement system was developed due to CIBD various changes in the construction industry. Since that period, the poor quality of public sector projects has started to attract public attention. This paper describes a study that was conducted to identify the dominant public procurement systems in place, the problems associated with these systems, and the satisfaction level of the industry players in the Malaysian construction industry. The results were drawn from 84 survey responses and interviews with industry players. The public sector is using a traditional system inherited from the British, with an intention to adopt new procurement systems. Aside from the disputes that are present in most systems, the public sector seems to encounter particular problems in relation to capabilities, time, and cost of the major procurement systems used. Traditional work culture and the industry environment influence public sector practice, which accounts for the modifications of each procurement system used. Thus, the full advantages of using an alternative procurement system may not be realised in public sector organizations. This produces an average level of satisfaction gained from the procurement system adopted. As a developing country, Malaysia needs to exert significant efforts to improve the public procurement system. 

  11. Level of satisfaction and issues with procurement systems used in the Malaysian public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastura Jaafar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the declaration of Malaysian independence, the public sector has significantly contributed to the country’s development. In the 1990s, a new procurement system was developed due to CIBD various changes in the construction industry. Since that period, the poor quality of public sector projects has started to attract public attention. This paper describes a study that was conducted to identify the dominant public procurement systems in place, the problems associated with these systems, and the satisfaction level of the industry players in the Malaysian construction industry. The results were drawn from 84 survey responses and interviews with industry players. The public sector is using a traditional system inherited from the British, with an intention to adopt new procurement systems. Aside from the disputes that are present in most systems, the public sector seems to encounter particular problems in relation to capabilities, time, and cost of the major procurement systems used. Traditional work culture and the industry environment influence public sector practice, which accounts for the modifications of each procurement system used. Thus, the full advantages of using an alternative procurement system may not be realised in public sector organizations. This produces an average level of satisfaction gained from the procurement system adopted. As a developing country, Malaysia needs to exert significant efforts to improve the public procurement system.

  12. Refining and end use study of coal liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Two direct coal liquids were evaluated by linear programming analysis to determine their value as petroleum refinery feedstock. The first liquid, DL1, was produced from bitiuminous coal using the Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc.(HTI) two-stage hydrogenation process in Proof of Concept Run No.1, POC-1. The second liquid, DL2,was produced from sub-bituminous coal using a three-stage HTI process in Proof of Concept Run No. 2, POC-2; the third stage being a severe hydrogenation process. A linear programming (LP) model was developed which simulates a generic 150,000 barrel per day refinery in the Midwest U.S. Data from upgrading tests conducted on the coal liquids and related petroleum fractions in the pilot plant testing phase of the Refining and End Use Study was inputed into the model. The coal liquids were compared against a generic petroleum crude feedstock. under two scenarios. In the first scenario, it was assumed that the refinery capacity and product slate/volumes were fixed. The coal liquids would be used to replace a portion of the generic crude. The LP results showed that the DL1 material had essentially the same value as the generic crude. Due to its higher quality, the DL2 material had a value of approximately 0.60 $/barrel higher than the petroleum crude. In the second scenario, it was assumed that a market opportunity exists to increase production by one-third. This requires a refinery expansion. The feedstock for this scenario could be either 100% petroleum crude or a combination of petroleum crude and the direct coal liquids. Linear programming analysis showed that the capital cost of the refinery expansion was significantly less when coal liquids are utilized. In addition, the pilot plant testing showed that both of the direct coal liquids demonstrated superior catalytic cracking and naphtha reforming yields. Depending on the coal liquid flow rate, the value of the DL1 material was 2.5-4.0 $/barrel greater than the base petroleum crude, while the DL2

  13. Disaggregation of sectors in Social Accounting Matrices using a customized Wolsky method

    OpenAIRE

    BARRERA-LOZANO Margarita; MAINAR CAUSAPÉ ALFREDO; VALLÉS FERRER José

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to enable the implementation of disaggregation processes for specific and homogeneous sectors in Social Accounting Matrices (SAMs), while taking into account the difficulties in data collection from these types of sectors. The method proposed is based on the Wolsky technique, customized for the disaggregation of Social Accounting Matrices, within the current-facilities framework. The Spanish Social Accounting Matrix for 2008 is used as a benchmark for the analysis, and...

  14. Testing the Rational Expectations Hypothesis on the Retail Trade Sector Using Survey Data from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Puah, Chin-Hong; Chong, Lucy Lee-Yun; Jais, Mohamad

    2011-01-01

    The rational expectations hypothesis states that when people are expecting things to happen, using the available information, the predicted outcomes usually occur. This study utilized survey data provided by the Business Expectations Survey of Limited Companies to test whether forecasts of the Malaysian retail sector, based on gross revenue and capital expenditures, are rational. The empirical evidence illustrates that the decision-makers expectations in the retail sector are biased and too o...

  15. An iterative method for the solution of nonlinear systems using the Faber polynomials for annular sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, N.J. [Univ. of Durham (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The author gives a hybrid method for the iterative solution of linear systems of equations Ax = b, where the matrix (A) is nonsingular, sparse and nonsymmetric. As in a method developed by Starke and Varga the method begins with a number of steps of the Arnoldi method to produce some information on the location of the spectrum of A. This method then switches to an iterative method based on the Faber polynomials for an annular sector placed around these eigenvalue estimates. The Faber polynomials for an annular sector are used because, firstly an annular sector can easily be placed around any eigenvalue estimates bounded away from zero, and secondly the Faber polynomials are known analytically for an annular sector. Finally the author gives three numerical examples, two of which allow comparison with Starke and Varga`s results. The third is an example of a matrix for which many iterative methods would fall, but this method converges.

  16. Evaluation of Techniques to Detect Significant Network Performance Problems using End-to-End Active Network Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, R.Les; Logg, Connie; Chhaparia, Mahesh; /SLAC; Grigoriev, Maxim; /Fermilab; Haro, Felipe; /Chile U., Catolica; Nazir, Fawad; /NUST, Rawalpindi; Sandford, Mark

    2006-01-25

    End-to-End fault and performance problems detection in wide area production networks is becoming increasingly hard as the complexity of the paths, the diversity of the performance, and dependency on the network increase. Several monitoring infrastructures are built to monitor different network metrics and collect monitoring information from thousands of hosts around the globe. Typically there are hundreds to thousands of time-series plots of network metrics which need to be looked at to identify network performance problems or anomalous variations in the traffic. Furthermore, most commercial products rely on a comparison with user configured static thresholds and often require access to SNMP-MIB information, to which a typical end-user does not usually have access. In our paper we propose new techniques to detect network performance problems proactively in close to realtime and we do not rely on static thresholds and SNMP-MIB information. We describe and compare the use of several different algorithms that we have implemented to detect persistent network problems using anomalous variations analysis in real end-to-end Internet performance measurements. We also provide methods and/or guidance for how to set the user settable parameters. The measurements are based on active probes running on 40 production network paths with bottlenecks varying from 0.5Mbits/s to 1000Mbit/s. For well behaved data (no missed measurements and no very large outliers) with small seasonal changes most algorithms identify similar events. We compare the algorithms' robustness with respect to false positives and missed events especially when there are large seasonal effects in the data. Our proposed techniques cover a wide variety of network paths and traffic patterns. We also discuss the applicability of the algorithms in terms of their intuitiveness, their speed of execution as implemented, and areas of applicability. Our encouraging results compare and evaluate the accuracy of our

  17. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of financial market efficiency: Comparison using Dow Jones sector ETF indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Aviral Kumar; Albulescu, Claudiu Tiberiu; Yoon, Seong-Min

    2017-10-01

    This study challenges the efficient market hypothesis, relying on the Dow Jones sector Exchange-Traded Fund (ETF) indices. For this purpose, we use the generalized Hurst exponent and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) methods, using daily data over the timespan from 2000 to 2015. We compare the sector ETF indices in terms of market efficiency between short- and long-run horizons, small and large fluctuations, and before and after the global financial crisis (GFC). Our findings can be summarized as follows. First, there is clear evidence that the sector ETF markets are multifractal in nature. We also find a crossover in the multifractality of sector ETF market dynamics. Second, the utilities and consumer goods sector ETF markets are more efficient compared with the financial and telecommunications sector ETF markets, in terms of price prediction. Third, there are noteworthy discrepancies in terms of market efficiency, between the short- and long-term horizons. Fourth, the ETF market efficiency is considerably diminished after the global financial crisis.

  18. End-to-End Trajectory for Conjunction Class Mars Missions Using Hybrid Solar-Electric/Chemical Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and solar-electric propulsion systems are used to deliver crew and cargo to exploration destinations. By combining chemical and solar-electric propulsion into a single spacecraft and applying each where it is most effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel efficient than an all chemical propulsion architecture without significant increases to trip time. The architecture calls for the aggregation of exploration assets in cislunar space prior to departure for Mars and utilizes high energy lunar-distant high Earth orbits for the final staging prior to departure. This paper presents the detailed analysis of various cislunar operations for the EMC Hybrid architecture as well as the result of the higher fidelity end-to-end trajectory analysis to understand the implications of the design choices on the Mars exploration campaign.

  19. Study of the development of solar energy in Rhone-Alpes. Presentation of the photovoltaic sector, Presentation of the solar thermal sector, Sunshine mapping, Assessment of installations by the end 2009, Development potential for solar thermal energy, Development potential for solar photovoltaic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    A first part proposes a wide presentation of the photovoltaic sector with an overview of largest plants, a market analysis (on the 2001-2009 period in the World, Europe and France, per technology, in terms of industrial tissue and R and D activity in France, evolution per region and per technology), a presentation of the different technologies (from the first to the third generation, in terms of costs, and of perspective for the different sectors), an environmental assessment of the different sectors (CO 2 emissions and avoided emissions), a presentation of the main actors of the photovoltaic sector (silicon producers, cell producers, thin layer producers, developers), a presentation of tracking technologies (trackers gains), and a perspective for the photovoltaic sector in Europe and in the World. In a same way, a second part presents the solar thermal sector: market analysis, active and passive technologies, solar concentration technology, environmental assessment, future perspective in Europe and in the World. A sunshine mapping is then proposed for the Rhone-Alpes region. The next part discusses various stakes: regulation for roof-based installations and for ground-based photovoltaic plants with respect to various issues (land planning, environment, biodiversity, agriculture, landscape, cultural heritage, natural risks). The next part proposes an assessment of solar thermal and photovoltaic installations at the end of 2009

  20. California Ocean Uses Atlas: Non-Consumptive sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  1. New Hampshire / Southern Maine Ocean Uses Atlas: Fishing sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Uses Atlas Project is an innovative partnership between the Coastal Response Research Center (CRRC) and NOAA's Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource...

  2. New Hampshire / Southern Maine Ocean Uses Atlas: Industrial sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Uses Atlas Project is an innovative partnership between the Coastal Response Research Center (CRRC) and NOAA's Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource...

  3. Effective use of the Internet by the SME sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Wach

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a part of series of publications on the effective use of the Internet in business activity by Small and Medium Enterprises (SME. This publication describes the issues that entrepreneurs face in the early stages of company development, like business registration, bookkeeping, billing, tax office, ZUS (social insurance and other entities of public administration in Poland.

  4. Determinants of use of social media tools in retailing sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzo Romero, Carlota; Alarcon-del-Amo, Maria-del-Carmen; Constantinides, Efthymios

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of Social Media as part of organizational processes has been explosive during the last years. While decisions related to the adoptions of such technologies seem to be taken under competitive pressure there is little known as to the management attitudes and perceptions in the use of

  5. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT STRATEGIES USED BY MANAGERS IN THE PRIVATE SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raþiu Patricia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: There are many situations in professional life when for various reasons we are employed in jobs that do not meet our emotional expectations our professional capabilities, our passions and therefore performance on that job will not be high. Analysis of the causes of under-utilization of human potential and adoption of appropriate strategies according to employee needs help reduce staff turnover costs. The main objective of the present paper consists in identifying managerial strategies which contribute to the improvement of the employees’ performances by stimulating their motivation, and the extent to which they are used in the managerial practice. Based on literature review we realized an integrated model and developed a classification, that present our own vision regarding performance improvement strategies. Our classification divides strategies for improving employees’ performances into four main groups: by employees’ development, by rewarding employees, by modifying the job description, by employee involvement in the organization. Starting from this model, through two types of questionnaires we have made an empirical research among managers as well as among office personnel, in order to capture both perspectives regarding the pursued objectives. For the present paper we will present only research results obtained for performance improvement strategies by employees’ development because support a higher degree of generality and do not depend on the organization characteristics. A quantitative data analize from the two samples show that there are differences between managers and employees perception when it comes to strategies used in their organizations and also manager did not know which determines employees to strive in order to improve their performance and obtain better results. The strategies to improve the employee’s performances, proposed within this article have the role to show the fact that managers cannot

  6. U Exploration Using Magnetic Method On Bubu Sector, West Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurdin, M.; Subardjo; Darmono, S.; Slamet, S.

    1996-01-01

    The exploration was based on the discovery of association of U mineralization with magnetite, ilmenite, pyrite and pyrrhotite minerals which are fill in the NW-SE fracturations The aim and objective of exploration is to find depth and size of sub surface mineralization zone Magnetic method was chosen because the method was good for metallic detection The measured and plotted as contour map is total magnetic field; from the contour map shown there are 4 NW-SE magnetic poles The result of the modelling body using Geosoft Software was gotten 2 dimension of mineralization. The result of stacking the model on the geological map is width of the zone; it is 25 meter and the depth about 3.5 meter in quartzite and pyrrhotite, has NW-SE direction and controlled by structure

  7. Models for forecasting energy use in the US farm sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, L. R.

    1981-07-01

    Econometric models were developed and estimated for the purpose of forecasting electricity and petroleum demand in US agriculture. A structural approach is pursued which takes account of the fact that the quantity demanded of any one input is a decision made in conjunction with other input decisions. Three different functional forms of varying degrees of complexity are specified for the structural cost function, which describes the cost of production as a function of the level of output and factor prices. Demand for materials (all purchased inputs) is derived from these models. A separate model which break this demand up into demand for the four components of materials is used to produce forecasts of electricity and petroleum is a stepwise manner.

  8. Use Of Ict In Smes Management Within The Sector Of Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plumb Ion

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how the use of ICT could contribute to the success of small and medium enterprises (SMEs within the sector of services. Within the knowledge-based economy, SMEs are facing both opportunities and challenges due to the information and communication technologies development. We consider that ICT should be used in small business management within the sector of services because ICT are key tools in management processes and could improve managerial practices. The study is based on evidence provided by articles and research reports. The research question was answered by analysing published sources and interpreting evidence. Another way of approaching this question could be collecting and analysing empirical data from the SMEs within the sector of services and comparing the results with the findings of this study.

  9. Motives and perceptions regarding electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) use among adults with mental health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Claire Adams; Jones, Dina M; Weaver, Scott R; Pechacek, Terry F; Eriksen, Michael P

    2018-05-01

    Smoking rates are disproportionately high among adults with mental health conditions (MHC), and recent research suggests that among former smokers, those with MHC are more likely to use electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). This study investigated reasons for ENDS use and related risk perceptions among individuals with versus without MHC. Among adult current ENDS users (n=550), associations between self-reported MHC diagnoses and motives for ENDS use and ENDS risk perceptions were examined, stratified by smoking status. There were no significant associations between MHC status and ENDS motives or perceptions in the overall sample. However, current smokers with MHC indicated thinking more about how ENDS might improve their health, and former smokers with MHC reported thinking less about how ENDS might harm their health, compared to their counterparts without MHC. Former smokers with MHC rated several reasons for ENDS use (e.g., less harmful than regular cigarettes; to quit smoking; appealing flavors) as more important than did those without MHC. Current and former smokers with MHC may be especially optimistic about health benefits of ENDS. However, they might also be prone to health risks of continued ENDS use or concurrent use with traditional cigarettes. It will be important for public health messaging to provide this population with accurate information about benefits and risks of ENDS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Using Life Cycle Assessment to identify potential environmental impacts of an agrifood sector: Application to the PDO Beaujolais and Burgundia wine sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penavayre Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts of the production system of emblematic French product under official quality marks was investigated using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology. The study looks at the PDO Beaujolais and Burgundy sector from a broad perspective, i.e. encompassing all steps linked with the products themselves but also complementary activities that belong to this wine sector. To build the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI, a methodology deriving from both product and organizational LCA was developed and applied. The LCI was built using a bottom-up approach. Inventories were first built for a sample of 17 representative companies. Then, these inventories were scaled-up to complete the global LCI at the agrifood sector level. Potential environmental impacts were assessed for 8 indicators. The LCA results show potential environmental impacts for each life cycle step: grape production, wine making and aging, packaging, distribution and activity of stakeholders belonging to the “close environment”. It provided two main outcomes: (i a methodology for the construction of an LCI adapted to the perimeter of an agrifood sector and composed by high quality data; and (ii the identification of potential environmental impacts of the studied agrifood sector, providing assistance for the definition of their strategic orientations for the future.

  11. The use of performance measurement systems in the public sector: effects on performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speklé, R.; Verbeeten, F.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    We study the use of performance measurement systems in the public sector. We hypothesize that the way in which these systems are being used affects organizational performance, and that these performance effects depend on contractibility. Contractibility encompasses clarity of goals, the ability to

  12. What determines whether top public sector executives actually use performance information?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Hammerschmid (Gerhard); S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven); V. Štimac (Vid)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Performance management has permeated public sector organizations worldwide over the last decades. At its core is the idea of using such information for decision making in a systematic form. Externally, performance information can be used to showcase performance, to

  13. Analysis of multi-pollutant policies for the U.S. power sector under technology and policy uncertainty using MARKAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Ming-Che; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2010-01-01

    Investments in power generation, pollution controls, and electricity end use equipment are made in the face of uncertainty. Unanticipated events can cause regret-commitments that in retrospect were the wrong choices. We analyze how three uncertainties-electricity demand growth, natural gas prices, and power sector greenhouse gas regulations-could affect electric power sector investment decisions and costs in the U.S. over the next four decades. The effect of multi-pollutant regulations such as the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) upon these decisions and costs is also considered. We use decision trees to structure the problem, defining multiple futures for each uncertainty and then simulating how the U.S. energy market responds to them. A two-stage stochastic version of the energy-economy model MARKAL simulates the market. Relative importance of the uncertainties is assessed using two indices: expected cost of ignoring uncertainty (ECIU) and expected value of perfect information (EVPI). We also calculate the value of policy coordination (VPC), the cost saved by avoiding surprise changes in policy. An example shows how a stochastic program can be used to compute these indices. The analysis shows that the possibility of greenhouse gas regulation is the most important uncertainty by these measures.

  14. A novel end-to-end classifier using domain transferred deep convolutional neural networks for biomedical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shuchao; Yu, Zhezhou; Orgun, Mehmet A

    2017-03-01

    Highly accurate classification of biomedical images is an essential task in the clinical diagnosis of numerous medical diseases identified from those images. Traditional image classification methods combined with hand-crafted image feature descriptors and various classifiers are not able to effectively improve the accuracy rate and meet the high requirements of classification of biomedical images. The same also holds true for artificial neural network models directly trained with limited biomedical images used as training data or directly used as a black box to extract the deep features based on another distant dataset. In this study, we propose a highly reliable and accurate end-to-end classifier for all kinds of biomedical images via deep learning and transfer learning. We first apply domain transferred deep convolutional neural network for building a deep model; and then develop an overall deep learning architecture based on the raw pixels of original biomedical images using supervised training. In our model, we do not need the manual design of the feature space, seek an effective feature vector classifier or segment specific detection object and image patches, which are the main technological difficulties in the adoption of traditional image classification methods. Moreover, we do not need to be concerned with whether there are large training sets of annotated biomedical images, affordable parallel computing resources featuring GPUs or long times to wait for training a perfect deep model, which are the main problems to train deep neural networks for biomedical image classification as observed in recent works. With the utilization of a simple data augmentation method and fast convergence speed, our algorithm can achieve the best accuracy rate and outstanding classification ability for biomedical images. We have evaluated our classifier on several well-known public biomedical datasets and compared it with several state-of-the-art approaches. We propose a robust

  15. Decoupling Economic Growth and Energy Use. An Empirical Cross-Country Analysis for 10 Manufacturing Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, P. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria); De Groot, H.L.F. [Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of decoupling economic growth and energy use and its various determinants by exploring trends in energy- and labour productivity across 10 manufacturing sectors and 14 OECD countries for the period 1970-1997. We explicitly aim to trace back aggregate developments in the manufacturing sector to developments at the level of individual subsectors. A cross-country decomposition analysis reveals that in some countries structural changes contributed considerably to aggregate manufacturing energy-productivity growth and, hence, to decoupling, while in other countries they partly offset energy-efficiency improvements. In contrast, structural changes only play a minor role in explaining aggregate manufacturing labour-productivity developments. Furthermore, we find labour-productivity growth to be higher on average than energy-productivity growth. Over time, this bias towards labour-productivity growth is increasing in the aggregate manufacturing sector, while it is decreasing in most manufacturing subsectors.

  16. Innovative strategy for effective critical laboratory result management: end-to-end process using automation and manual call centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Lian Kah; Ang, Sophia Bee Leng; Saw, Sharon; Sethi, Sunil Kumar; Yip, James W L

    2012-08-01

    Timely reporting and acknowledgement are crucial steps in critical laboratory results (CLR) management. The authors previously showed that an automated pathway incorporating short messaging system (SMS) texts, auto-escalation, and manual telephone back-up improved the rate and speed of physician acknowledgement compared with manual telephone calling alone. This study investigated if it also improved the rate and speed of physician intervention to CLR and whether utilising the manual back-up affected intervention rates. Data from seven audits between November 2007 and January 2011 were analysed. These audits were carried out to assess the robustness of CLR reporting process in the authors' institution. Comparisons were made in the rate and speed of acknowledgement and intervention between the audits performed before and after automation. Using the automation audits, the authors compared intervention data between communication with SMS only and when manual intervention was required. 1680 CLR were reported during the audit periods. Automation improved the rate (100% vs 84.2%; pautomation audits, the use of SMS only did not improve physician intervention rates. The automated communication pathway improved physician intervention rate and time in tandem with improved acknowledgement rate and time when compared with manual telephone calling. The use of manual intervention to augment automation did not adversely affect physician intervention rate, implying that an end-to-end pathway was more important than automation alone.

  17. SampleCNN: End-to-End Deep Convolutional Neural Networks Using Very Small Filters for Music Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongpil Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN have been applied to diverse machine learning tasks for different modalities of raw data in an end-to-end fashion. In the audio domain, a raw waveform-based approach has been explored to directly learn hierarchical characteristics of audio. However, the majority of previous studies have limited their model capacity by taking a frame-level structure similar to short-time Fourier transforms. We previously proposed a CNN architecture which learns representations using sample-level filters beyond typical frame-level input representations. The architecture showed comparable performance to the spectrogram-based CNN model in music auto-tagging. In this paper, we extend the previous work in three ways. First, considering the sample-level model requires much longer training time, we progressively downsample the input signals and examine how it affects the performance. Second, we extend the model using multi-level and multi-scale feature aggregation technique and subsequently conduct transfer learning for several music classification tasks. Finally, we visualize filters learned by the sample-level CNN in each layer to identify hierarchically learned features and show that they are sensitive to log-scaled frequency.

  18. Compilation of an Embodied CO2 Emission Inventory for China Using 135-Sector Input-Output Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A high-quality carbon dioxide (CO2 inventory is the cornerstone of climate change mitigation. Most of the previously reported embodied CO2 inventories in China have no more than 42 sectors, and this limitation may introduce apparent inaccuracy into the analysis at the sector level. To improve the quality of input-output (IO-based CO2 inventories for China, we propose a practical energy allocation approach to link the energy statistics to the 135-sector IO tables for China and compiled a detailed embodied CO2 intensity and inventory for 2007 using a single-region IO model. Interpretation of embodied CO2 intensities by fuel category, direct requirement, and total requirement in the sectors were conducted to identify, from different perspectives, the significant contributors. The total embodied CO2 emissions in 2007 was estimated to be 7.1 Gt and was separated into the industrial sector and final demand sector. Although the total CO2 estimations by the 42-sector and 135-sector analyses are equivalent, the allocations in certain groups of sectors differ significantly. Our compilation methodologies address indirect environmental impacts from industrial sectors, including the public utility and tertiary sectors. This method of interpretation could be utilized for better communication with stakeholders.

  19. Life Cycle Assessment Comparing the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in the Indian Road and Rail Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.

    2010-05-01

    This life cycle assessment of Jatropha biodiesel production and use evaluates the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emission (not considering land-use change), net energy value (NEV), and net petroleum consumption impacts of substituting Jatropha biodiesel for conventional petroleum diesel in India. Several blends of biodiesel with petroleum diesel are evaluated for the rail freight, rail passenger, road freight, and road-passenger transport sectors that currently rely heavily on petroleum diesel. For the base case, Jatropha cultivation, processing, and use conditions that were analyzed, the use of B20 results in a net reduction in GHG emissions and petroleum consumption of 14% and 17%, respectively, and a NEV increase of 58% compared with the use of 100% petroleum diesel. While the road-passenger transport sector provides the greatest sustainability benefits per 1000 gross tonne kilometers, the road freight sector eventually provides the greatest absolute benefits owing to substantially higher projected utilization by year 2020. Nevertheless, introduction of biodiesel to the rail sector might present the fewest logistic and capital expenditure challenges in the near term. Sensitivity analyses confirmed that the sustainability benefits are maintained under multiple plausible cultivation, processing, and distribution scenarios. However, the sustainability of any individual Jatropha plantation will depend on site-specific conditions.

  20. Vegetation dielectric characterization using an open-ended coaxial probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrovic, A.; Roy, A.; Royer, A.; Boone, F.; Pappas, C.; Filali, B.

    2017-12-01

    The detection of freeze/thaw (F/T) physical state of soil is one of the main objectives of the SMAP mission as well as one of the secondary objectives of the SMOS mission. Annual F/T cycles have substantial impacts on surface energy budgets, permafrost conditions, as well as forest water and carbon dynamics. It has been shown that spaceborne L-band passive radiometry is a promising tool to monitor F/T due to the substantial differences between the permittivity of water and ice at these frequencies. However, the decoupling of the signal between soil and vegetation components remains challenging for all microwave remote sensing applications at various spatial scales. Radiative transfer models in the microwave domain are generally poorly parameterized to consider the non-negligible contribution of vegetation. The main objective of this research is to assess the skill of a recently developed Open-Ended Coaxial Probe (OECP) to measure the complex microwave permittivity of vegetation and soils and to derive a relation between the impact of vegetation on the microwave signal and the vegetation permittivity that could serve as a validation tool for soil models especially in frozen state. Results show that the OECP is a suitable tool to infer the radial profile of the complex permittivity in L-band of trees. A clear distinction can be made between the dielectric characterization of the sapwood where the permittivity is high because of the high permittivity of water but decrease with depth, and the heartwood where the permittivity is low and relatively constant. The seasonal cycle of the F/T state of the vegetation can also be observed since it is strongly correlated with the permittivity of the wood. The permittivity of a tree over the winter season is very low and homogenous since the permittivity of ice is significantly lower than water and the sap flow is negligible. The fluctuation of the frozen and thawed permittivity for different tree species was evaluated, focusing

  1. Use of communities of practice in business and health care sectors: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coyte Peter C

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since being identified as a concept for understanding knowledge sharing, management, and creation, communities of practice (CoPs have become increasingly popular within the health sector. The CoP concept has been used in the business sector for over 20 years, but the use of CoPs in the health sector has been limited in comparison. Objectives First, we examined how CoPs were defined and used in these two sectors. Second, we evaluated the evidence of effectiveness on the health sector CoPs for improving the uptake of best practices and mentoring new practitioners. Methods We conducted a search of electronic databases in the business, health, and education sectors, and a hand search of key journals for primary studies on CoP groups. Our research synthesis for the first objective focused on three areas: the authors' interpretations of the CoP concept, the key characteristics of CoP groups, and the common elements of CoP groups. To examine the evidence on the effectiveness of CoPs in the health sector, we identified articles that evaluated CoPs for improving health professional performance, health care organizational performance, professional mentoring, and/or patient outcome; and used experimental, quasi-experimental, or observational designs. Results The structure of CoP groups varied greatly, ranging from voluntary informal networks to work-supported formal education sessions, and from apprentice training to multidisciplinary, multi-site project teams. Four characteristics were identified from CoP groups: social interaction among members, knowledge sharing, knowledge creation, and identity building; however, these were not consistently present in all CoPs. There was also a lack of clarity in the responsibilities of CoP facilitators and how power dynamics should be handled within a CoP group. We did not find any paper in the health sector that met the eligibility criteria for the quantitative analysis, and so the effectiveness

  2. Innovative Outdoor Fieldwork Pedagogies in the Higher Education Sector: Optimising the Use of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Glyn J.; Munge, Brendon

    2017-01-01

    Outdoor fieldwork has been a long-standing pedagogy in the higher education sector, across a range of disciplines. Based on a review of the literature, this paper explores the use of outdoor fieldwork in the 21st century university with particular reference to the way technology contributes to student learning. Research has indicated that…

  3. Evaluation of the effect of sector capital assets use efficiency on capital productivity ratio in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohdanskiy K. M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The real state of the capital assets’ disposal through the national economy sectors is determined in comparison with the result of capital assets use in the country’s economic complex in general in the time period of 1990-2012. It has been proved that the apparent total results regarding efficiency achieved in capital assets use through the sectors of economy do not demonstrate their real effect on the capital productivity ratio of the national economy in the whole. Analysis of the effect of the labor instruments concentrated in the national economy sectors on the national capital productivity ratio has been made. The sectors with their stuff which really determine the level of capital assets use in the country have been identified. Existence and development of the institute of economic initiatives have been proved. The fact is that the economic initiatives mentioned above concentrate their efforts on the improvement of capital assets use and the need to attract attention of the subjects of economic activities to the social development concept.

  4. Using the private rented sector as a form of social housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oxley, M.; Brown, T.; Haffner, M.; Hoekstra, J.; Lishman, R.

    2011-01-01

    The paper considers the role of the private rented sector in supplying housing that can be defined as social housing. It will do this by considering policy initiatives in Germany, France, the USA and England that use privately owned housing to meet social needs. The operation of these initiatives

  5. Use of modern information technologies for making budgetary sectors of the economy more energy-efficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Bobryakov, A. V.

    2010-12-01

    A strategy of administrative management and technological control of heat consumption and energy conservation processes in budgetary sectors of the economy is described together with a system of integrated indicators for estimating the efficiency of these processes and the main results obtained from putting the strategy in use in the system of the Russian Federal Agency for Education are presented.

  6. Modern principles used in conformity assessment of machinery from forestry sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonov Anca Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aiming to implement the general principles of risk prevention at employer’s level, with respect to occupational risks evaluation, the elimination of risk and accident factors, and information of workers which are using the machinery in the forestry sector. For the use of machinery in the forestry sector in terms of economic performance and a level of maximum safety, it is necessary to ensure the user guides set by the manufacturer in terms of commissioning, use and to provide appropriate safe working operations and interventions and to guarantee the technical and environmental requirements, including appropriate measures and means of protection against accidents and occupational disease. The impact of occupational risks for machinery used in this sector can be reduced through the application of modern principles in conformity assessment and certification and, where appropriate, through technical diagnostics and inspection, taking into account the provisions of the new Machinery Directive 2006/42 / EC which is imposing the obligation of manufacturer to implement conformity assessment procedures in accordance with the methods of assessment and verification of safety at the certification bodies, notified at the European Commission. The paper aims to develop modern technical tools for conformity assessment and verification of this category of machines used in the forestry sector that would provide prerequisite for increasing competitiveness of employers in the market economy. Applying these tools of modern technology for manufacturers and users of this category of machinery provides the necessary conditions for placing on the market of safe products with a appropriate safety level, in the intended using conditions, in order to guarantee the essential requirements for safety and health, technical and environmental conditions, including measures and means of protection. The result of this research is to develop technical tools needed to

  7. System dynamics analysis of strategies to reduce energy use in aluminum-intensive sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanes, Rebecca J.; Nicholson, Scott; 25-29 June 2017, Carpenter, Alberta

    2017-07-13

    Aluminum is one of the most widely used materials in industry, with applications in buildings, vehicles, aircraft, and consumer products. Its ubiquity is also on the rise: aluminum is beginning to supplant steel in lightweight vehicles and aircraft, and is used in many green or LEED-certified buildings. Although aluminum tends to be highly recycled, particularly by manufacturers of aluminum products, the sector as a whole is still far from a closed system. As a result, the increase in aluminum consumption also means an increase in primary aluminum production-an energy-intensive process-and an increase in consumption of the raw material bauxite, which in the U.S. is almost entirely imported. Our objectives for this study are to identify and analyze aluminum sector technologies and practices that reduce the energy required to manufacture aluminum products and reduce U.S. dependence on imported aluminum and bauxite. To accomplish these objectives, we will develop a system dynamics (SD) model of aluminum production, use and recycling in key application areas, including aerospace, ground vehicles and consumer products. The model will cover the entire aluminum supply chain as it exists in the U.S., from bauxite importing and refining, to the manufacture of products, to the product use phase and end-of-life processing steps. Aluminum flows throughout the model will be determined by the annual domestic demand for each application area as well as demand projections that extend to 2030. Energy consumption will be tracked based on the flows of aluminum through each step of the supply chain. Using the SD model, we will evaluate several technologies and practices that have the potential to reduce energy consumption and reliance on imported bauxite. These include implementation of advanced primary aluminum production technologies, increased recycling within and between application areas, increased material efficiency and increased product lifetimes. Each of these strategies

  8. Chinese Medical Question Answer Matching Using End-to-End Character-Level Multi-Scale CNNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on the problem of Chinese medical question answer matching, which is arguably more challenging than open-domain question answer matching in English due to the combination of its domain-restricted nature and the language-specific features of Chinese. We present an end-to-end character-level multi-scale convolutional neural framework in which character embeddings instead of word embeddings are used to avoid Chinese word segmentation in text preprocessing, and multi-scale convolutional neural networks (CNNs are then introduced to extract contextual information from either question or answer sentences over different scales. The proposed framework can be trained with minimal human supervision and does not require any handcrafted features, rule-based patterns, or external resources. To validate our framework, we create a new text corpus, named cMedQA, by harvesting questions and answers from an online Chinese health and wellness community. The experimental results on the cMedQA dataset show that our framework significantly outperforms several strong baselines, and achieves an improvement of top-1 accuracy by up to 19%.

  9. Estimating size and scope economies in the Portuguese water sector using the Bayesian stochastic frontier analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Pedro, E-mail: pedrocarv@coc.ufrj.br [Computational Modelling in Engineering and Geophysics Laboratory (LAMEMO), Department of Civil Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Pedro Calmon - Ilha do Fundão, 21941-596 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Center for Urban and Regional Systems (CESUR), CERIS, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Marques, Rui Cunha, E-mail: pedro.c.carvalho@tecnico.ulisboa.pt [Center for Urban and Regional Systems (CESUR), CERIS, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2016-02-15

    This study aims to search for economies of size and scope in the Portuguese water sector applying Bayesian and classical statistics to make inference in stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). This study proves the usefulness and advantages of the application of Bayesian statistics for making inference in SFA over traditional SFA which just uses classical statistics. The resulting Bayesian methods allow overcoming some problems that arise in the application of the traditional SFA, such as the bias in small samples and skewness of residuals. In the present case study of the water sector in Portugal, these Bayesian methods provide more plausible and acceptable results. Based on the results obtained we found that there are important economies of output density, economies of size, economies of vertical integration and economies of scope in the Portuguese water sector, pointing out to the huge advantages in undertaking mergers by joining the retail and wholesale components and by joining the drinking water and wastewater services. - Highlights: • This study aims to search for economies of size and scope in the water sector; • The usefulness of the application of Bayesian methods is highlighted; • Important economies of output density, economies of size, economies of vertical integration and economies of scope are found.

  10. Estimating size and scope economies in the Portuguese water sector using the Bayesian stochastic frontier analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to search for economies of size and scope in the Portuguese water sector applying Bayesian and classical statistics to make inference in stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). This study proves the usefulness and advantages of the application of Bayesian statistics for making inference in SFA over traditional SFA which just uses classical statistics. The resulting Bayesian methods allow overcoming some problems that arise in the application of the traditional SFA, such as the bias in small samples and skewness of residuals. In the present case study of the water sector in Portugal, these Bayesian methods provide more plausible and acceptable results. Based on the results obtained we found that there are important economies of output density, economies of size, economies of vertical integration and economies of scope in the Portuguese water sector, pointing out to the huge advantages in undertaking mergers by joining the retail and wholesale components and by joining the drinking water and wastewater services. - Highlights: • This study aims to search for economies of size and scope in the water sector; • The usefulness of the application of Bayesian methods is highlighted; • Important economies of output density, economies of size, economies of vertical integration and economies of scope are found.

  11. Coil End Parts Development Using BEND and Design for MQXF by LARP

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Miao; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Bossert, R; Ferracin, P; Krave, S

    2016-01-01

    End parts are critical components for saddle-shaped coils. They have a structural function where the cables are deformed in order to cross over the magnet aperture. Based on the previous design of the US LARP program for 90 mm aperture quadrupoles (TQ/LQ) and 120 mm aperture quadrupoles (HQ/LHQ) using BEND, the coil ends of the low-β quadruples (MQXF) for the HiLumi LHC upgrade were developed. This paper shows the design of the MQXF coil ends, the analysis of the coil ends during the coil fabrication, the autopsy analysis of the coil ends and the feedback to BEND parameters.

  12. Coil End Parts Development Using BEND and Design for MQXF by LARP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Miao [Fermilab; Ambrosio, G. [Fermilab; Bermudez, S. Izquierdo [CERN; Bossert, R. [Fermilab; Ferracin, P. [CERN; Krave, S. [Fermilab

    2016-09-06

    End parts are critical components for saddle-shaped coils. They have a structural function where the cables are deformed in order to cross over the magnet aperture. Based on the previous design of the US LARP program for 90 mm aperture quadrupoles (TQ/LQ) and 120 mm aperture quadrupoles (HQ/LHQ) using BEND, the coil ends of the low-β quadruples (MQXF) for the HiLumi LHC upgrade were developed. This paper shows the design of the MQXF coil ends, the analysis of the coil ends during the coil fabrication, the autopsy analysis of the coil ends and the feedback to BEND parameters.

  13. Beneficial uses program. Progress report ending December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    Progress is reported in research on uses of irradiated sewage sludge, particularly as a cattle feed supplement and commercial fertilizer additive, on potential sites for irradiator demonstration plants, and on the inactivation of enteric bacteria by radiation treatment. (LCL)

  14. Beneficial uses program. Progress report, period ending June 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    The Beneficial Uses Program is a comprehensive program aimed at developing necessary technologies for cost/beneficial uses of existing and future surplus radioactive materials. The major portion of the work at Sandia has been concentrated in two subprograms: the Waste Resources Utilization Program and the Separation Technology and Source Development Program. Mutagenicity testing of sludge by the Ames method was initiated this quarter. Rats were procured and maintained on phenobarbital to enduce liver enzymes used in the preparation of the S-9 fraction for the Ames tests. Initial tests in the absence of S-9 metabolic activation did not show raw and digested sludges to be mutagenic. Settling studies using centrifugation techniques have confirmed that radiation treatment causes a significant increase in prompt settlability, while at longer times, the improvement is insignificant compared to the effectiveness of polymer-conditioning agents. The use of gamma irradiation to improve the settlability of sewage sludge will have limited application. The conveyor system for the dried sludge irradiation pilot plant was received from Gough Econ, Staffordshire, England. Both esophageal-fistulated and intact steers were fitted with fecal collection bags and used in grazing experiments. Supplementation with dried irradiated primary sewage solids improved not only the protein status of the steers, but also exerted measurable and important effects on the composition of forage selectively grazed

  15. Use of servo controlled weld head for end closure welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, S.K.; Setty, D.S.; Rameswara Rao, A.; Hemantha Rao, G.V.S.; Jayaraj, R.N. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Dept. of Atomic Energy, Hyderabad (India)

    2010-07-01

    In the PHWR fuel fabrication line resistance welding processes are used for joining various zirconium based alloy components to fuel tube of similar material. The quality requirement of these welding processes is very stringent and has to meet all the product requirements. At present these welding processes are being carried out by using standard resistance welding machines. In the resistance welding process in addition to current and time, force is one of the critical and important parameter, which influences the weld quality. At present advanced feed back type fast response medium frequency weld controllers are being used. This has upslope/down slope, constant and repetitive weld pattern selection features makes this critical welding process more reliable. Compared to weld controllers, squeeze force application devices are limited and normally standard high response pneumatic cylinders are used in the welding process. With this type of devices the force is constant during welding process and cannot be varied during welding process as per the material deformation characteristics. Similarly due to non-availability of feed back systems in the squeeze force application systems restricts the accuracy and quality of the welding process. In the present paper the influence of squeeze force pattern on the weld quality using advanced feed back type servo based force control system was studied. Different squeeze forces were used during pre and post weld heat periods along with constant force and compared with the weld quality. (author)

  16. 7 CFR 782.12 - Filing FSA-750, End-Use Certificate for Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing FSA-750, End-Use Certificate for Wheat. 782.12... Certificate Program § 782.12 Filing FSA-750, End-Use Certificate for Wheat. (a) Each entity that imports wheat originating in Canada shall, for each entry into the U.S., obtain form FSA-750, End-Use Certificate for Wheat...

  17. Increased use of antidepressants at the end of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Rosholm, Jens-Ulrik; Gichangi, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    of antidepressants increases steadily over time in all age groups. Among the 65+ year-olds it also increases with age and differs substantially between the youngest and the oldest. Very high prevalences are observed: 26.8% among females 85-89 years old and 17.5% among males 85 years and above in 2004. In all age......BACKGROUND: The new antidepressants are generally effective and safe for older people, but may have serious side-effects. The use has been rapidly increasing, but focus on upper age groups has been limited. The pattern of antidepressant use as death approaches has never been analysed. OBJECTIVE......: To analyse the use of antidepressants among individuals aged 65 years and above with respect to time trends, age and proximity to death. DESIGN: Population-based prescription study. SETTING: The County of Funen, Denmark, 1992-2004 (approximately 470,000 inhabitants). RESULTS: The 1-year prevalence...

  18. Removal of metal ions using dead-end filtration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-03

    Jul 3, 2005 ... The zeta potential of lecithin was determined to be -79 mV whilst the critical micelle ... been widely used in the medical, cosmetic and food industry. ..... lead ion copper ion cadmium ion. Figure 10. Effect of mixtures of Pb and ...

  19. New experimental electricity tariff systems for household end use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolsink, M.

    1997-01-01

    A significant tool in Demand Side Management is the structure of tariffs. Price incentives can be directed at different parts of the efficiency-concept: efficiency in capacity planning, efficiency in total electricity consumption, efficiency in total fossil fuel use, efficiency in total energy

  20. Beneficial uses program. Progress report, period ending June 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    Progress in research on the irradiation of sewage sludge, the potential use of dried sewage sludge as animal feed or soil conditioners, the inactivation of rotavirus in sewage sludge, fruit fly control by the irradiation of citrus fruits, and the production of /sup 137/Cs source pellets is reported. (LCL)

  1. Project management techniques used in the European Vacuum Vessel sectors procurement for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losasso, Marcello, E-mail: marcello.losasso@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona (Spain); Ortiz de Zuniga, Maria; Jones, Lawrence; Bayon, Angel; Arbogast, Jean-Francois; Caixas, Joan; Fernandez, Jose; Galvan, Stefano; Jover, Teresa [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona (Spain); Ioki, Kimihiro [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Lewczanin, Michal; Mico, Gonzalo; Pacheco, Jose Miguel [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona (Spain); Preble, Joseph [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Stamos, Vassilis; Trentea, Alexandru [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer File name contains the directory tree structure with a string of three-letter acronyms, thereby enabling parent directory location when confronted with orphan files. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The management of the procurement procedure was carried out in an efficient and timely manner, achieving precisely the contract placement date foreseen at the start of the process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The contract start-up has been effectively implemented and a flexible project management system has been put in place for an efficient monitoring of the contract. - Abstract: The contract for the seven European Sectors of the ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) was placed at the end of 2010 with a consortium of three Italian companies. The task of placing and the initial take-off of this large and complex contract, one of the largest placed by F4E, the European Domestic Agency for ITER, is described. A stringent quality controlled system with a bespoke Vacuum Vessel Project Lifecycle Management system to control the information flow, based on ENOVIA SmarTeam, was developed to handle the storage and approval of Documentation including links to the F4E Vacuum Vessel system and ITER International Organization System interfaces. The VV Sector design and manufacturing schedule is based on Primavera software, which is cost loaded thus allowing F4E to carry out performance measurement with respect to its payments and commitments. This schedule is then integrated into the overall Vacuum Vessel schedule, which includes ancillary activities such as instruments, preliminary design and analysis. The VV Sector Risk Management included three separate risk analyses from F4E and the bidders, utilizing two different methodologies. These efforts will lead to an efficient and effective implementation of this contract, vital to the success of the ITER machine, since the Vacuum Vessel is the biggest single work package of Europe's contribution to ITER and

  2. Beneficial uses program. Progress report, Period ending September 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-11-01

    Progress is reported in the development of a technology to utilize 137 Cs, a nuclear power plant by-product, as a γ source for the treatment of sewage sludge for use as a fertilizer or animal feed supplement. Results are reported from studies on the radiosensitivity of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in sewage sludge; the effects of ammonia on the survival of viruses in sludges; heat inactivation rates for bacteria in sludges; the combined effects of heat and radiation on odor from sludge; and the cost advantages of irradiation over heat treatment of sewage sludge. Animal studies demonstrated the nutritional advantages of the addition of sludge to animal feeds and plant studies demonstrated the beneficial effects on plant growth of the use of sludge as fertilizer

  3. Controlling front-end electronics boards using commercial solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Beneyton, R; Jost, B; Schmeling, S

    2002-01-01

    LHCb is a dedicated B-physics experiment under construction at CERN's large hadron collider (LHC) accelerator. This paper will describe the novel approach LHCb is taking toward controlling and monitoring of electronics boards. Instead of using the bus in a crate to exercise control over the boards, we use credit-card sized personal computers (CCPCs) connected via Ethernet to cheap control PCs. The CCPCs will provide a simple parallel, I2C, and JTAG buses toward the electronics board. Each board will be equipped with a CCPC and, hence, will be completely independently controlled. The advantages of this scheme versus the traditional bus-based scheme will be described. Also, the integration of the controls of the electronics boards into a commercial supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system will be shown. (5 refs).

  4. Energy use and CO2 emissions of China's industrial sector from a global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Sheng; Kyle, G. Page; Yu, Sha; Clarke, Leon E.; Eom, Jiyong; Luckow, Patrick; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Zhang, Xiliang; Edmonds, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The industrial sector has accounted for more than 50% of China's final energy consumption in the past 30 years. Understanding the future emissions and emissions mitigation opportunities depends on proper characterization of the present-day industrial energy use, as well as industrial demand drivers and technological opportunities in the future. Traditionally, however, integrated assessment research has handled the industrial sector of China in a highly aggregate form. In this study, we develop a technologically detailed, service-oriented representation of 11 industrial subsectors in China, and analyze a suite of scenarios of future industrial demand growth. We find that, due to anticipated saturation of China's per-capita demands of basic industrial goods, industrial energy demand and CO 2 emissions approach a plateau between 2030 and 2040, then decrease gradually. Still, without emissions mitigation policies, the industrial sector remains heavily reliant on coal, and therefore emissions-intensive. With carbon prices, we observe some degree of industrial sector electrification, deployment of CCS at large industrial point sources of CO 2 emissions at low carbon prices, an increase in the share of CHP systems at industrial facilities. These technological responses amount to reductions of industrial emissions (including indirect emission from electricity) are of 24% in 2050 and 66% in 2095. - Highlights: • Eleven industrial subsectors in China are detail analyzed from a global perspective. • Industrial energy use and CO 2 emissions will approach a plateau between 2030 and 2040. • Industrial CHP and CCS are truly encouraged by carbon tax. • Some degree of industrial sector electrification are observed by carbon tax

  5. Intelligent front-end sample preparation tool using acoustic streaming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooley, Erika J.; McClain, Jaime L.; Murton, Jaclyn K.; Edwards, Thayne L.; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Branch, Darren W.; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Anderson, John Mueller; James, Conrad D.; Smith, Gennifer; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel

    2009-09-01

    We have successfully developed a nucleic acid extraction system based on a microacoustic lysis array coupled to an integrated nucleic acid extraction system all on a single cartridge. The microacoustic lysing array is based on 36{sup o} Y cut lithium niobate, which couples bulk acoustic waves (BAW) into the microchannels. The microchannels were fabricated using Mylar laminates and fused silica to form acoustic-fluidic interface cartridges. The transducer array consists of four active elements directed for cell lysis and one optional BAW element for mixing on the cartridge. The lysis system was modeled using one dimensional (1D) transmission line and two dimensional (2D) FEM models. For input powers required to lyse cells, the flow rate dictated the temperature change across the lysing region. From the computational models, a flow rate of 10 {micro}L/min produced a temperature rise of 23.2 C and only 6.7 C when flowing at 60 {micro}L/min. The measured temperature changes were 5 C less than the model. The computational models also permitted optimization of the acoustic coupling to the microchannel region and revealed the potential impact of thermal effects if not controlled. Using E. coli, we achieved a lysing efficacy of 49.9 {+-} 29.92 % based on a cell viability assay with a 757.2 % increase in ATP release within 20 seconds of acoustic exposure. A bench-top lysing system required 15-20 minutes operating up to 58 Watts to achieve the same level of cell lysis. We demonstrate that active mixing on the cartridge was critical to maximize binding and release of nucleic acid to the magnetic beads. Using a sol-gel silica bead matrix filled microchannel the extraction efficacy was 40%. The cartridge based magnetic bead system had an extraction efficiency of 19.2%. For an electric field based method that used Nafion films, a nucleic acid extraction efficiency of 66.3 % was achieved at 6 volts DC. For the flow rates we tested (10-50 {micro}L/min), the nucleic acid extraction

  6. Agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The applications of nuclear technology in agriculture sector cover the use of the technology at every aspects of agricultural activity, starting from the seed to harvesting as well as the management of plantations itself. In this sector, a total of 55 entities comprising 17 public agencies and 38 private companies were selected for the study. Almost all, 91 % of them are located in Peninsular Malaysia; the rest operates in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study in the public agencies and private companies are presented in the next sections. (author)

  7. Beneficial uses program. Progress report, period ending 31 December 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    Progress is reported on studies designed to develop the necessary technologies for cost-beneficial uses of existing and future surplus radioactive materials. The purpose of the Waste Resources Utilization Program is to develop a technology to utilize cesium-137, a nuclear power plant by-product, to modify sewage sludge for safe application as a fertilizer or as an animal feed supplement. A major portion of the effort this quarter was directed toward establishment of thermoradiation treatment levels for elimination of pathogenic organisms in sludge. Three groups of pathogenic microorganisms are being studied: viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Other areas of study included physical-chemical properties of thermoradiation treated sewage sludge such as ''settling'' and ''filterability'' and pilot plant design for a plant to thermoradiate up to 75 kiloliters of sludge per day. In the Separation Technology and Source Development Program previous work has demonstrated the feasibility of applying the Sandia Solidification Process to the recovery of radiocesium from high-level liquid wastes. The influence of various parameters on 137 Cs source intensities was explored. A multiple ceramic 137 Cs source package was found to be essentially the same from a radiation process viewpoint as a single 137 Cs source. The tolerable impurity levels in the ceramic sources, in terms of perturbation of the gamma flux, are relatively high (a few percent)

  8. Evolution of residential electricity demand by end-use in Quebec 1979-1989: A conditional demand analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafrance, G.; Perron, D.

    1994-01-01

    Some of the main conclusions are presented from a temporal analysis of three large-scale electricity demand surveys (1979, 1984, and 1989) for the Quebec residential sector. A regression method called conditional demand analysis was used. The study allows a number of conclusions about certain electricity consumption trends by end-uses from 1979 to 1989 by household type and by vintage category. For example, the results indicate that decreasing electricity consumption between 1979 and 1984 for a typical dwelling equipped with electric space heating was mainly related to a large decline in net heating consumption. Overall, the results suggest that some permanent energy savings have been realized by a typical household equipped with an electric heating system due to improvements in standards and changes in customer behavior. These energy savings were partly offset by increased electricity consumption from the purchase of new appliances and an increase in the demand for hot water. 7 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs

  9. Analysis of Final Energy Demand by Sector in Malaysia using MAED Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.; Muhammed Zulfakar Mohd Zolkaffly; Alawiah Musa

    2011-01-01

    Energy supply security is important in ensuring a long term supply to fulfill the growing energy demand. This paper presents the use of IAEA energy planning tool, Model for Analysis of Energy Demand (MAED) to analyze, simulate and compare final energy demand by five different sectors in Malaysia under some assumptions, bounds and restrictions and the outcome can be used for planning of energy supply in future. (author)

  10. Comparative Analysis of Market Volatility in Indian Banking and IT Sectors by using Average Decline Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kirti AREKAR; Rinku JAIN

    2017-01-01

    The stock market volatility is depends on three major features, complete volatility, volatility fluctuations, and volatility attention and they are calculate by the statistical techniques. Comparative analysis of market volatility for two major index i.e. banking & IT sector in Bombay stock exchange (BSE) by using average decline model. The average degeneration process in volatility has being used after very high and low stock returns. The results of this study explain significant decline in...

  11. Analysis of the Syrian long-term energy and electricity demand projection using the end-use methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainoun, A.; Seif-Eldin, M.K.; Almoustafa, S.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the possible future long-term development of Syrian energy and electricity demand covering the period 1999-2030 is presented. The analysis was conducted using the IAEA's model MAED, which relies upon the end-use approach. This model has been validated during the last two decades through the successful application in many developing countries, even those having partial market economy and energy subsidy. Starting from the base year, final energy consumption distributed by energy forms and consumption sectors, the future energy and electricity demand has been projected according to three different scenarios reflecting the possible future demographic, socio-economic and technological development of the country. These scenarios are constructed to cover a plausible range, in which future evolution factors affecting energy demand are expected to lie. The first is a high economy scenario (HS) representing the reference case, which is characterized by high gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate (average annual about 6%) and moderate improved technologies in the various consumption sectors. The second is an energy efficiency scenario (ES), which is identical to HS in all main parameters except these relating to the efficiency improvement and conservation measures. Here, high technology improvement and more effective conservation measures in all consumption sectors are proposed and the role of solar to substitute fossil energy for heating purposes is considered effectively. The third is a low economy scenario (LS) with low GDP growth rate (average annual about 3.5%) and less technology improvement in the consumption sectors. As a consequence, the improvement in the energy efficiency is low and the influence of conservation measures is less effective. Starting from about 10.5mtoe final energy in the base year, the analysis shows that the projected energy demand will grow annually at average rates of 5%, 4.5% and 3% for the HS, ES and LS

  12. Using Financial Management Techniqueswith in Public Sector Organizations, Does Result Control Matter? A Heterogeneous Choice Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan WYNEN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a principal-agent framework and multi-country survey data of over 400 public sec-tor organizations, this article examines the effect of result control on the use of fnancial manage-ment techniques in public sector organizations. In order to avoid invalid conclusions, we test for heteroskedasticity and model residual vari-ance using a heterogeneous choice model. This model yields important insights into the effect of result control that would be overlooked in a mis-specifed ordered logit model. Our fndings reveal that result control matters, although size and pri-mary task of the organization also prove to be determinants of the use of fnancial management techniques. Within the context of the continuous attempts being made to improve public sector performance, policy makers should thus devel-op different strategies for different (individual agencies, while relying on a strong ex-post result control, when they want to stimulate the use of fnancial management techniques.

  13. 15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section 745.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745.2 End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note: The End-Use Certificate requirement of...

  14. Electricity Use in the Pacific Northwest: Utility Historical Sales by Sector, 1989 and Preceding Years.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-06-01

    This report officially releases the compilation of regional 1989 retail customer sector sales data by the Bonneville Power Administration. This report is intended to enable detailed examination of annual regional electricity consumption. It gives statistics covering the time period 1970--1989, and also provides observations based on statistics covering the 1983--1989 time period. The electricity use report is the only information source that provides data obtained from each utility in the region based on the amount of electricity they sell to consumers annually. Data is provided on each retail customer sector: residential, commercial, industrial, direct-service industrial, and irrigation. The data specifically supports forecasting activities, rate development, conservation and market assessments, and conservation and market program development and delivery. All of these activities require a detailed look at electricity use. 25 figs., 34 tabs.

  15. Energy use efficiency in the Indian manufacturing sector: An interstate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Kankana

    2008-01-01

    This paper approaches the measurement of energy efficiency from a production theoretic framework and uses Data Envelopment Analysis to measure energy efficiency in the Indian manufacturing sector. Using data from the Annual Survey of Industries for the years 1998-99 through 2003-04, the study compares the energy efficiency in manufacturing across states, based on several models. The results show considerable variation in energy efficiency across states. Comparing the results across our models, we find that the relative pricing of energy does not provide the appropriate incentives for energy conservation. A second-stage regression analysis reveals that states with a larger share of manufacturing output in energy-intensive industries have lower energy efficiency. Also, higher quality labor force associates with higher energy efficiency. Finally, the power sector reforms have not yet had any significant impact on achieving energy efficiency

  16. Supplier Selection Process Using ELECTRE I Decision Model and an Application in the Retail Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuzhan Yavuz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection problem is one of the main topic for the today’s businesses. The supplier selection problem within the supply chain management activities is very important for the businesses, particularly operating in the retail sector. Thus, in this study, the supplier selection problem was discussed in order of importance between energy drinks suppliers of food business in the retail sector. Costs, delivery, quality and flexibility variables were used to select suppliers, and ELECTRE I Method, one of the multiple decision methods, was used to ranking suppliers according to this variables. Which suppliers are more important for the food company was determined by ranking suppliers according to computing net superior values and net inferior values. Results obtained werepresented in tables and certain steps

  17. Massive use of photovoltaic systems on flat roofs in the utility sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomsma, H.; Borsboom, W.

    2000-09-01

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to give insight into the development of the market for photovoltaic power systems on flat roofs, as well as technical developments and building engineering aspects of such systems. The result of the study is an overview of the most successful product-market combinations to stimulate and introduce the use of solar energy in the fore-mentioned sector in the Netherlands. 11 refs

  18. Use of the formal and informal financial sectors : does gender matter? empirical evidence from rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    McKernan, Signe-Mary; Pitt, Mark M.; Moskowitz, David

    2005-01-01

    Access to transfers and credit, whether cash or in-kind, is a major source of poverty alleviation and income generation in many developing countries around the world. Women may especially benefit from transfers and credit in countries such as Bangladesh, where they often have few work alternatives. In this paper, the authors descriptively examine the formal and informal financial sectors of rural Bangladesh, placing special emphasis on differences between men and women. Their analysis uses un...

  19. Factors Affecting The Use and Development of Solar Energy in Iran's Agricultural Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mohammadi

    2017-03-01

    Keywords: Agriculture, Renewable Energy, Fossil, Fuel, Sustainability Article History: Received Nov 16th 2016; Received in revised form January 12nd 2017; Accepted 3rd February 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Mohammadi, M and Yavari, G. (2017 Factors affecting the use and development of solar energy in Iran's agricultural sector. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 6(1,45-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.1.45-53

  20. First Demonstration of Real-Time End-to-End 40 Gb/s PAM-4 System using 10-G Transmitter for Next Generation Access Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Jinlong; Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut

    We demonstrate the first known experiment of a real-time end-to-end 40-Gb/s PAM-4 system for next generation access applications using 10G class transmitters only. Up to 25-dB upstream link budget for 20 km SMF is achieved.......We demonstrate the first known experiment of a real-time end-to-end 40-Gb/s PAM-4 system for next generation access applications using 10G class transmitters only. Up to 25-dB upstream link budget for 20 km SMF is achieved....

  1. Institution, Financial Sector, and Economic Growth: Use The Institutions As An Instrument Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertus Girik Allo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Institution has been investigated having indirect role on economic growth. This paper aims to evaluate whether the quality of institution matters for economic growth. By applying institution as instrumental variable at Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, quality of institution significantly influence economic growth. This study applies two set of data period, namely 1985-2013 and 2000-2013, available online in the World Bank (WB. The first data set, 1985-2013 is used to estimate the role of financial sector on economic growth, focuses on 67 countries. The second data set, 2000-2013 determine the role of institution on financial sector and economic growth by applying 2SLS estimation method. We define institutional variables as set of indicators: Control of Corruption, Political Stability and Absence of Violence, and Voice and Accountability provide declining impact of FDI to economic growth.

  2. Energy efficiency in the industrial sector. Model based analysis of the efficient use of energy in the EU-27 with focus on the industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuder, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficiency is a highly important topic and currently omnipresent in the energy political discussion. Despite this high importance there's no common understanding even concerning the definition of the term energy efficiency. In addition, there are plenty so called energy efficiency targets and several indicators. Therefore this study should provide a deepened understanding of the efficient use of energy. The inconsistent definition of energy efficiency is related to the use of this term for a specific as well as an absolute reduction of energy consumption. Furthermore both static views on efficiency as a status and also dynamic views on efficiency as an improvement of a value compared to a reference number are used. Additional differences occur in the evaluation of the energy use and in the selection of a reference value in a key figure to assess energy efficiency. Moreover the focus of the current general understanding is mainly only on the consumption of energy. All other resources next to the energy input which are needed to provide energy services are not considered even though there are strong interactions and substitution possibilities among these resources. Hence the understanding of energy efficiency is extended in this study by these additional resources which were not considered yet. Based on this extension the efficient use of the resource energy is a result of an optimisation of the relation of these total costs of all resources to the related benefit. To determine the efficient use of energy in the industrial sector, a deeper understanding of the sector and its characteristics is necessary. The industrial sector is the largest consumer of electricity within the EU. Also a quarter of the final energy consumption and about 20 % of the CO 2 emissions are related to this sector. Typical for this sector are the heterogeneous and high temperature level of the heat demand and the process emissions which accrue in transformation processes. The subsectors

  3. Energy, cost, and emission end-use profiles of homes: An Ontario (Canada) case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydinalp Koksal, Merih; Rowlands, Ian H.; Parker, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hourly electricity consumption data of seven end-uses from 25 homes are analyzed. • Hourly load, cost, and emission profiles of end-uses are developed and categorized. • Side-by-side analysis of energy, cost, and environmental effects is conducted. • Behaviour and outdoor temperature based end-uses are determined. • Share of each end-use in the total daily load, cost, and emission is determined. - Abstract: Providing information on the temporal distributions of residential electricity end-uses plays a major role in determining the potential savings in residential electricity demand, cost, and associated emissions. While the majority of the studies on disaggregated residential electricity end-use data provided hourly usage profiles of major appliances, only a few of them presented analysis on the effect of hourly electricity consumption of some specific end-uses on household costs and emissions. This study presents side-by-side analysis of energy, cost, and environment effects of hourly electricity consumption of the main electricity end-uses in a sample of homes in the Canadian province of Ontario. The data used in this study are drawn from a larger multi-stakeholder project in which electricity consumption of major end-uses at 25 homes in Milton, Ontario, was monitored in five-minute intervals for six-month to two-year periods. In addition to determining the hourly price of electricity during the monitoring period, the hourly carbon intensity is determined using fuel type hourly generation and the life cycle greenhouse gas intensities specifically determined for Ontario’s electricity fuel mix. The hourly load, cost, and emissions profiles are developed for the central air conditioner, furnace, clothes dryer, clothes washer, dishwasher, refrigerator, and stove and then grouped into eight day type categories. The side-by-side analysis of categorized load, cost, and emission profiles of the seven electricity end-uses provided information on

  4. Estimating size and scope economies in the Portuguese water sector using the Bayesian stochastic frontier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2016-02-15

    This study aims to search for economies of size and scope in the Portuguese water sector applying Bayesian and classical statistics to make inference in stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). This study proves the usefulness and advantages of the application of Bayesian statistics for making inference in SFA over traditional SFA which just uses classical statistics. The resulting Bayesian methods allow overcoming some problems that arise in the application of the traditional SFA, such as the bias in small samples and skewness of residuals. In the present case study of the water sector in Portugal, these Bayesian methods provide more plausible and acceptable results. Based on the results obtained we found that there are important economies of output density, economies of size, economies of vertical integration and economies of scope in the Portuguese water sector, pointing out to the huge advantages in undertaking mergers by joining the retail and wholesale components and by joining the drinking water and wastewater services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of alternative fuels for the Greek road transport sector using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsita, Katerina G.; Pilavachi, Petros A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates alternative fuels for the Greek road transport sector, using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Seven different alternatives of fuel mode are considered in this paper: internal combustion engine (ICE) and its combination with petroleum and 1st and 2nd generation biofuels blends, fuel cells, hybrid vehicles, plug-in hybrids and electric vehicles. The evaluation of alternative fuel modes is performed according to cost and policy aspects. In order to evaluate each alternative fuel, one base scenario and ten alternative scenarios with different weight factors selection per criterion are presented. After deciding the alternative fuels’ scoring against each criterion and the criteria weights, their synthesis gives the overall score and ranking for all ten alternative scenarios. It is concluded that ICE blended with 1st and 2nd generation biofuels are the most suitable alternative fuels for the Greek road transport sector. - Highlights: ► Alternative fuels for the Greek road transport sector have been evaluated. ► The method of the AHP was used. ► Seven different alternatives of fuel mode are considered. ► The evaluation is performed according to cost and policy aspects. ► The ICE with 1st and 2nd generation biofuels are the most suitable fuels.

  6. Why is Design-Build Commonly Used in the Public Sector? An Illustration from Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmond Lam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Design and Build (D&B procurement method is one of the systems advocated to overcome inadequacies with the traditional procurement method. In recent years, this innovative procurement method has been put to practice in Hong Kong where a vast amount of infrastructure works is taking place. This paper aims to illustrate the applicability of design-build in the Hong Kong setting.As most D&B projects are undertaken by the public sector of Hong Kong, the main features of a public sector project and reasons for its wider use on D&B are fully examined in the paper. To further explore the benefits of D&B in actual practice, structured interviews have been conducted with clients, contractors and consultants running D&B projects in Hong Kong. Summary of major problems of running D&B projects from the previous study by the authors is also outlined. With the increasing use of D&B in the public sector of Hong Kong and worldwide, more research can be undertaken on the quantitative comparison of the traditional mode of procurement and how to carry out a D&B project successfully so as to develop a knowledge base for the D&B procurement method.

  7. Government and voluntary sector differences in organizational capacity to do and use evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, J Bradley; Goh, Swee C; Elliott, Catherine; Aubry, Tim; Gilbert, Nathalie

    2014-06-01

    Research on evaluation capacity is limited although a recent survey article on integrating evaluation into the organizational culture (Cousins, Goh, Clark, & Lee, 2004) revealed that interest in the topic is increasing. While knowledge about building the capacity to do evaluation has developed considerably, less is understood about building the organizational capacity to use evaluation. This article reports on the results of a pan-Canadian survey of evaluators working in organizations (internal evaluators or organization members with evaluation responsibility) conducted in 2007. Reliability across all constructs was high. Responses from government evaluators (N=160) were compared to responses from evaluators who work in the voluntary sector (N=89). The former were found to self-identify more highly as 'evaluators' (specialists) whereas the latter tended to identify as 'managers' (non-specialists). As a result, government evaluators had significantly higher self-reported levels of evaluation knowledge (both theory and practice); and they spent more time performing evaluation functions. However, irrespective of role, voluntary sector respondents rated their organizations more favorably than did their government sector counterparts with respect to the antecedents or conditions supporting evaluation capacity, and the capacity to use evaluation. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for evaluation practice and ongoing research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy use for economic growth: A trivariate analysis from Tunisian agriculture sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebri, Maamar; Abid, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Following the importance of energy in the agrarian economies, the investigation of the causal relationship between energy consumption in agriculture sector and economic growth has a fundamental role in implementing suitable policies. This paper examines the causal relationship between energy consumption and agricultural value added, controlling for trade openness, in Tunisia from 1980 to 2007. The relationship is investigated at aggregated as well as disaggregated components of energy consumption, including oil and electricity. Using Granger's technique, it is shown that various results are obtained regarding the direction of causality between competing variables. Nevertheless, the most common finding suggest that trade openness and both aggregated and disaggregated energy consumption Granger causes agricultural value added. Therefore, the energy-led growth and trade-led growth hypotheses are supported in the Tunisian agriculture sector. An important policy implication resulting from this study is that energy can be considered as a limiting factor to agriculture value added and, therefore, shocks to energy supply would have a negative impact onto agriculture performance. Furthermore, trade liberalization seems to be a stimulus factor to the Tunisian agriculture development. - Highlights: ► We study the energy consumption-economic growth nexus of Tunisian agriculture sector. ► We use Johansen's cointegration approach and Granger causality. ► Energy consumption can be considered as limiting factor to agricultural performance. ► Electrical energy will represent an important input to agricultural production growth.

  9. Improving the public health sector in South Africa: eliciting public preferences using a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Ayako; Ryan, Mandy; van Niekerk, Robert; McIntyre, Diane

    2015-06-01

    The introduction of national health insurance (NHI), aimed at achieving universal coverage, is the most important issue currently on the South African health policy agenda. Improvement in public sector health-care provision is crucial for the successful implementation of NHI as, regardless of whether health-care services become more affordable and available, if the quality of the services provided is not acceptable, people will not use the services. Although there has been criticism of the quality of public sector health services, limited research is available to identify what communities regard as the greatest problems with the services. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was undertaken to elicit public preferences on key dimensions of quality of care when selecting public health facilities in South Africa. Qualitative methods were applied to establish attributes and levels for the DCE. To elicit preferences, interviews with community members were held in two South African provinces: 491 in Western Cape and 499 in Eastern Cape. The availability of necessary medicine at health facilities has the greatest impact on the probability of attending public health facilities. Other clinical quality attributes (i.e. provision of expert advice and provision of a thorough examination) are more valued than non-clinical quality of care attributes (i.e. staff attitude, treatment by doctors or nurses, and waiting time). Treatment by a doctor was less valued than all other attributes. Communities are prepared to tolerate public sector health service characteristics such as a long waiting time, poor staff attitudes and lack of direct access to doctors if they receive the medicine they need, a thorough examination and a clear explanation of the diagnosis and prescribed treatment from health professionals. These findings prioritize issues that the South African government must address in order to meet their commitment to improve public sector health-care service provision. Published

  10. Understanding industrial energy use: Physical energy intensity changes in Indian manufacturing sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudhakara Reddy, B.; Kumar Ray, Binay

    2011-01-01

    This study develops and examines physical energy intensity indicators in five industrial sub-sectors-iron and steel, aluminum, textiles, paper, and cement-and investigates mitigation options for energy related CO 2 emissions (during 1991-2005). Decomposition analysis has been employed to separate the structural effect (share of different products in the sector) from pure intensity effect (efficiency increase through technical improvement) for each industry. The results show that the combined effect (considering both structural and intensity effects together) on both iron and steel and paper and pulp industries is negative while it is positive for aluminum and textiles. The intensity effect for all the industries, barring textiles, is negative showing improvement in energy efficiency; iron and steel in particular, has seen a decrease of 134 PJ in energy consumption owing to improvements in efficiency. However, energy intensity in textiles has risen by 47 PJ due to increased mechanization. Structural effect is positive in aluminum and iron and steel industries indicating a movement towards higher energy-intensive products. In the case of aluminum, positive structural effect dominates over negative intensive effect whereas negative intensive effect dominates iron and steel industry. The paper helps in designing policies for improving productivity and reduce energy consumption in India's manufacturing sector. - Highlights: → The study develops physical energy intensity indicators in industrial sub-sectors of India. → It identifies technological and other options for reduction in energy consumption. → The study quantifies savings in energy as well as CO 2 emissions. → The indicators are useful in examining structural changes.

  11. Development of a resource protection and waste strategy for water use by the agricultural sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligthelm, M E; Ranwedzi, R; Morokane, M; Senne, M

    2007-01-01

    The South African Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) has started developing a strategy to regulate activities and water uses by the agricultural sector that could impact on the water resource quality. The aim would not be to over-regulate the sector, but to protect the water resource where necessary. Most of these activities constitute diffuse sources of potential pollution. The strategic process will start with investigative discussions with major stakeholders and determining the strategic context and current situation. The latter will consist of a detailed literature and stakeholder survey, and an evaluation of existing agricultural activities. The next steps of determining a vision and the setting of strategic objectives will be done with active participation by the major players. An action plan will be developed to achieve the set objectives. Important components of the strategy will be to: classify activities according to their risk to the water resource, taking into account the sensitivity of the water resource; set regulatory measures in accordance with the risk posed by the activity (measures could include the promulgation of regulations, general authorisations and/or issuing of licenses); harmonise and link the process with existing relevant processes and guidelines within DWAF and other government departments; review existing guidelines; sign agreements with relevant government departments and the agricultural sector; and provide training, built capacity and raise awareness during and after the process.

  12. The Use of Energy in Malaysia: Tracing Energy Flows from Primary Source to End Use

    OpenAIRE

    Chinhao Chong; Weidou Ni; Linwei Ma; Pei Liu; Zheng Li

    2015-01-01

    Malaysia is a rapidly developing country in Southeast Asia that aims to achieve high-income country status by 2020; its economic growth is highly dependent on its abundant energy resources, especially natural gas and crude oil. In this paper, a complete picture of Malaysia’s energy use from primary source to end use is presented by mapping a Sankey diagram of Malaysia’s energy flows, together with ongoing trends analysis of the main factors influencing the energy flows. The results indicate t...

  13. Published assessments bearing on the future use of ceramic superconductors by the electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, R.F.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Much has been written about ceramic superconductors since their discovery in 1986. Most of this writing reports and describes scientific research. However, some authors have sought to put this research in context: to assess where the field stands, what might be technically feasible, what might be economically feasible, and what potential impacts ceramic superconductors will bring to the electric power sector. This report's purpose is to make the results of already published assessments readily available. To that end, this report lists and provides abstracts for various technical and economic assessments related to applications of High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) to the electric power sector. Those studies deemed most important are identified and summarized. These assessments were identified by two means. First, members of the Executive Committee identified some reports as worthy of consideration and forwarded them to Argonne National Laboratory. Twelve assessments were selected. Each of these is listed and summarized in the following section. Second, a bibliographic search was performed on five databases: INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, Energy Science ampersand Technology, and Electric Power Database. The search consisted of first selecting all papers related to High Temperature Superconductors. Then papers related to SMES, cables, generators, motors, fault current limiters, or electric utilities were selected. When suitable variants of the above terms were included, this resulted in a selection of 493 citations. These citations were subjected to review by the authors. A number of citations were determined to be inappropriate (e.g. a number referred to digital transmission lines for electronics and communications applications). The reduced list consisted of 200 entries. Each of these citations, with an abstract, is presented in the following sections

  14. Published assessments bearing on the future use of ceramic superconductors by the electric power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, R.F.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1992-08-25

    Much has been written about ceramic superconductors since their discovery in 1986. Most of this writing reports and describes scientific research. However, some authors have sought to put this research in context: to assess where the field stands, what might be technically feasible, what might be economically feasible, and what potential impacts ceramic superconductors will bring to the electric power sector. This report's purpose is to make the results of already published assessments readily available. To that end, this report lists and provides abstracts for various technical and economic assessments related to applications of High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) to the electric power sector. Those studies deemed most important are identified and summarized. These assessments were identified by two means. First, members of the Executive Committee identified some reports as worthy of consideration and forwarded them to Argonne National Laboratory. Twelve assessments were selected. Each of these is listed and summarized in the following section. Second, a bibliographic search was performed on five databases: INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, Energy Science Technology, and Electric Power Database. The search consisted of first selecting all papers related to High Temperature Superconductors. Then papers related to SMES, cables, generators, motors, fault current limiters, or electric utilities were selected. When suitable variants of the above terms were included, this resulted in a selection of 493 citations. These citations were subjected to review by the authors. A number of citations were determined to be inappropriate (e.g. a number referred to digital transmission lines for electronics and communications applications). The reduced list consisted of 200 entries. Each of these citations, with an abstract, is presented in the following sections.

  15. Published assessments bearing on the future use of ceramic superconductors by the electric power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, R.F.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1992-08-25

    Much has been written about ceramic superconductors since their discovery in 1986. Most of this writing reports and describes scientific research. However, some authors have sought to put this research in context: to assess where the field stands, what might be technically feasible, what might be economically feasible, and what potential impacts ceramic superconductors will bring to the electric power sector. This report`s purpose is to make the results of already published assessments readily available. To that end, this report lists and provides abstracts for various technical and economic assessments related to applications of High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) to the electric power sector. Those studies deemed most important are identified and summarized. These assessments were identified by two means. First, members of the Executive Committee identified some reports as worthy of consideration and forwarded them to Argonne National Laboratory. Twelve assessments were selected. Each of these is listed and summarized in the following section. Second, a bibliographic search was performed on five databases: INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, Energy Science & Technology, and Electric Power Database. The search consisted of first selecting all papers related to High Temperature Superconductors. Then papers related to SMES, cables, generators, motors, fault current limiters, or electric utilities were selected. When suitable variants of the above terms were included, this resulted in a selection of 493 citations. These citations were subjected to review by the authors. A number of citations were determined to be inappropriate (e.g. a number referred to digital transmission lines for electronics and communications applications). The reduced list consisted of 200 entries. Each of these citations, with an abstract, is presented in the following sections.

  16. Emissions from residential combustion considering end-uses and spatial constraints: Part I, methods and spatial distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winijkul, Ekbordin; Fierce, Laura; Bond, Tami C.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes a framework to attribute national-level atmospheric emissions in the year 2010 from the residential sector, one of the largest energy-related sources of aerosol emissions. We place special emphasis on end-uses, dividing usage into cooking, heating, lighting, and others. This study covers regions where solid biomass fuel provides more than 50% of total residential energy: Latin America, Africa, and Asia (5.2 billion people in 2010). Using nightlight data and population density, we classify five land types: urban, electrified rural with forest access, electrified rural without forest access, non-electrified rural with forest access, and non-electrified rural without forest access. We then apportion national-level residential fuel consumption among all land-types and end-uses, and assign end-use technologies to each combination. The resulting calculation gives spatially-distributed emissions of particulate matter, black carbon, organic carbon, nitrogen oxides, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. Within this study region, about 13% of the energy is consumed in urban areas, and 45% in non-urban land near forests. About half the energy is consumed in land without access to electricity. Cooking accounts for 54% of the consumption, heating for 9%, and lighting only 2%, with unidentified uses making up the remainder. Because biofuel use is assumed to occur preferentially where wood is accessible and electricity is not, our method shifts emissions to land types without electrification, compared with previous methods. The framework developed here is an important first step in acknowledging the role of household needs and local constraints in choosing energy provision. Although data and relationships described here need further development, this structure offers a more physically-based understanding of residential energy choices and, ultimately, opportunities for emission reduction.

  17. End to End Travel

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — E2 Solutions is a web based end-to-end travel management tool that includes paperless travel authorization and voucher document submissions, document approval...

  18. Prevalence and correlates of ENDS use among adults being treated for chronic lung disease

    OpenAIRE

    Meghan Moran; Shyam Biswal; Joanna Cohen; Robert Henderson; Janet Holbrook; Venkataramana Sidhaye; Robert Wise

    2018-01-01

    Background Chronic lung disease such as asthma or COPD may be exacerbated by electronic nicotine device (ENDS) use. Despite this, little is known about the extent to which adults with chronic lung disease use ENDS and what factors are associated with use. Methods We analyzed data from the second wave of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study. The PATH study recruited 28,362 U.S. adults over the age of 18 using a multi-stage randomized sampli...

  19. Financial and Real Sector Leading Indicators of Recessions in Brazil Using Probabilistic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Nascimento de Oliveira

    Full Text Available We examine the usefulness of various financial and real sector variables to forecast recessions in Brazil between one and eight quarters ahead. We estimate probabilistic models of recession and select models based on their outof-sample forecasts, using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC function. We find that the predictive out-of-sample ability of several models vary depending on the numbers of quarters ahead to forecast and on the number of regressors used in the model specification. The models selected seem to be relevant to give early warnings of recessions in Brazil.

  20. Logistic Regression Analysis of Operational Errors and Routine Operations Using Sector Characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pfleiderer, Elaine M; Scroggins, Cheryl L; Manning, Carol A

    2009-01-01

    Two separate logistic regression analyses were conducted for low- and high-altitude sectors to determine whether a set of dynamic sector characteristics variables could reliably discriminate between operational error (OE...

  1. Use of consumer insight in the new product development process in the meat sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Successful new product development requires input from the market throughout the product development process, from identification of opportunities via screening of ideas, development of concepts, development of physical prototypes and to launch. Drawing on work done in the EU FP6 projects...... PROSAFEBEEF and Q-PORKCHAINS and a Danish project, all dealing with new product development in the meat sector, it is shown how the use of consumer insight techniques can a) support the identification of market opportunities, b) make sure that technologies applied are acceptable to consumers, c) aid...... the selection and optimisation of new product concepts and related communication, and d) be used to test product prototypes before final launch....

  2. Comparative Analysis of Market Volatility in Indian Banking and IT Sectors by using Average Decline Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti AREKAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The stock market volatility is depends on three major features, complete volatility, volatility fluctuations, and volatility attention and they are calculate by the statistical techniques. Comparative analysis of market volatility for two major index i.e. banking & IT sector in Bombay stock exchange (BSE by using average decline model. The average degeneration process in volatility has being used after very high and low stock returns. The results of this study explain significant decline in volatility fluctuations, attention, and level between epochs of pre and post particularly high stock returns.

  3. Modeling climate change impact in hospitality sector, using building resources consumption signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Armando; Bernardino, Mariana; Silva Santos, António; Pimpão Silva, Álvaro; Espírito Santo, Fátima

    2016-04-01

    Hotels are one of building types that consumes more energy and water per person and are vulnerable to climate change because in the occurrence of extreme events (heat waves, water stress) same failures could compromise the hotel services (comfort) and increase energy cost or compromise the landscape and amenities due to water use restrictions. Climate impact assessments and the development of adaptation strategies require the knowledge about critical climatic variables and also the behaviour of building. To study the risk and vulnerability of buildings and hotels to climate change regarding resources consumption (energy and water), previous studies used building energy modelling simulation (BEMS) tools to study the variation in energy and water consumption. In general, the climate change impact in building is evaluated studying the energy and water demand of the building for future climate scenarios. But, hotels are complex buildings, quite different from each other and assumption done in simplified BEMS aren't calibrated and usually neglect some important hotel features leading to projected estimates that do not usually match hotel sector understanding and practice. Taking account all uncertainties, the use of building signature (statistical method) could be helpful to assess, in a more clear way, the impact of Climate Change in the hospitality sector and using a broad sample. Statistical analysis of the global energy consumption obtained from bills shows that the energy consumption may be predicted within 90% confidence interval only with the outdoor temperature. In this article a simplified methodology is presented and applied to identify the climate change impact in hospitality sector using the building energy and water signature. This methodology is applied to sixteen hotels (nine in Lisbon and seven in Algarve) with four and five stars rating. The results show that is expect an increase in water and electricity consumption (manly due to the increase in

  4. Market penetration analysis of the use of hydrogen in the road transport sector of the Madrid region, using MARKAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras, A.; Guervos, E.; Posso, F.

    2009-01-01

    Nobody can doubt today that hydrogen will, in the not-too-distant future, represent a very significant percentage of the total energy used by the transport sector. This study therefore consists of the modelling and simulation of energy consumption, by type of vehicle and fuel or energetic vector, in the road transport sector of the Madrid Region, during the period 2010-2050, using the MARKAL model. It has been necessary to complete this model by adding numerous specifications in order to determine the features of the Madrid Region, the richest Region in Spain. For the purpose of the study, three growth scenarios, based on short-term energy forecasts made by different official organizations, have been proposed for the energy consumption of the road transport sector in the Region. The results show a profound change in the current situation as there is a significant decrease in the consumption of fossil fuels and an increase in that of alternative non-fossil fuels and hydrogen. The latter, in particular, will rise from 0.1% in the year 2010, to around 50% in the year 2050, which will mean a drastic drop in the sector's CO 2 and atmospheric pollutant emissions. (author)

  5. Market penetration analysis of the use of hydrogen in the road transport sector of the Madrid region, using MARKAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, A.; Guervos, E. [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Posso, F. [Science Department, ULA - Tachira, San Cristobal 5001 (Venezuela)

    2009-01-15

    Nobody can doubt today that hydrogen will, in the not-too-distant future, represent a very significant percentage of the total energy used by the transport sector. This study therefore consists of the modelling and simulation of energy consumption, by type of vehicle and fuel or energetic vector, in the road transport sector of the Madrid Region, during the period 2010-2050, using the MARKAL model. It has been necessary to complete this model by adding numerous specifications in order to determine the features of the Madrid Region, the richest Region in Spain. For the purpose of the study, three growth scenarios, based on short-term energy forecasts made by different official organizations, have been proposed for the energy consumption of the road transport sector in the Region. The results show a profound change in the current situation as there is a significant decrease in the consumption of fossil fuels and an increase in that of alternative non-fossil fuels and hydrogen. The latter, in particular, will rise from 0.1% in the year 2010, to around 50% in the year 2050, which will mean a drastic drop in the sector's CO{sub 2} and atmospheric pollutant emissions. (author)

  6. Sectoral Innovation Watch electrical and Optical Equipment Sector. Final sector report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T. van den; Giessen, A.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The electrical and optical equipment sector is a high-tech manufacturing sector. It is one of the most innovative sectors in Europe with investments and advances in fundamental research, applied R&D and innovation in the actual use of equipment. This sector is also one of the most global sectors

  7. Inventory Funding Methods on Navy Ships: NWCF vs. End-use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    OPTAR Operating Target OSO Other Supply Officer POM Pre/Post-Overseas Movement R-Supply Relational Supply RoR Reorder Review SAC Service...process called other supply officer ( OSO ) transfer. Since end-use ships own their inventory, the supply officer can choose to transfer a part being...requested by another ship at their discretion, based on their ship’s anticipated requirements and their own goodwill. OSO transfers among end-use

  8. Commercial equipment loads: End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, R.G.; Williamson, M.A.; Richman, E.E.; Miller, N.E.

    1990-07-01

    The Office of Energy Resources of the Bonneville Power Administration is generally responsible for the agency's power and conservation resource planning. As associated responsibility which supports a variety of office functions is the analysis of historical trends in and determinants of energy consumption. The Office of Energy Resources' End-Use Research Section operates a comprehensive data collection program to provide pertinent information to support demand-side planning, load forecasting, and demand-side program development and delivery. Part of this on-going program is known as the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP), an effort designed to collect electricity usage data through direct monitoring of end-use loads in buildings. This program is conducted for Bonneville by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report provides detailed information on electricity consumption of miscellaneous equipment from the commercial portion of ELCAP. Miscellaneous equipment includes all commercial end-uses except heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and central lighting systems. Some examples of end-uses covered in this report are office equipment, computers, task lighting, refrigeration, and food preparation. Electricity consumption estimates, in kilowatt-hours per square food per year, are provided for each end-use by building type. The following types of buildings are covered: office, retail, restaurant, grocery, warehouse, school, university, and hotel/motel. 6 refs., 35 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Dual use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) and smoked tobacco: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay; Hoek, Janet; Blank, Mei-Ling; Richards, Rosalina; Ling, Pamela; Popova, Lucy

    2018-02-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) arguably pose fewer health risks than smoking, yet many smokers adopt ENDS without fully relinquishing smoking. Known as 'dual use', this practice is widespread and compromises the health benefits that ENDS may offer. To date, few studies have explored how dual use practices arise and manifest. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 20 current ENDS users from New Zealand who reported smoking tobacco at least once a month. We explored participants' smoking history, their recent and current smoking, trial, uptake and patterns of ENDS use, and future smoking and vaping intentions. We managed the data using NVivo V.11 and used a thematic analysis approach to interpret the transcripts. Dual use practices among participants evolved in four ways. First, as an attempt to manage the 'inauthenticity' of vaping relative to smoking and to retain meaningful rituals. Second, as complex rationalisations that framed decreased tobacco use, rather than smoking cessation, as 'success'. Third, as a means of alleviating the financial burden smoking imposed and to circumvent smoke-free policies. Lastly, dual use reflected attempts to comply with social group norms and manage stigma. Dual use reflects both social and physical cues. It assisted participants to navigate smoking restrictions and allowed them to manage divergent norms. Policies that discourage smoking, particularly excise tax increases on smoked tobacco and smoke-free space restrictions, appear important in prompting ENDS use. Future research could explore whether these policies also help foster complete transition from smoking to exclusive ENDS use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Within the framework of assessing the state of the environment in Lebanon, this chapter describes primary energy demand, the electricity generating sector and environmental impacts arising from the energy sector.Apart from hydropower and traditional energy sources, which together represent 1.7% of energy consumption, all energy in Lebanon derives from imported petroleum products and some coal.Tables present the imports of different petroleum products (Gasoil, Kerosene, fuel oil, coal etc...), their use, the energy balance and demand.Energy pricing and pricing policies, formal and informal electricity generations in Lebanon are described emphasized by tables. The main environmental impacts are briefly summarized. Thermal power stations give rise to emissions of Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), particulates, oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) and CO/CO 2 from combustion of primary fuel informally generated power from both industry and domestic consumption produce particulate materials and emissions of NO x and SO 2 projected emissions of SO 2 from the power sector with the present generating capacity and with the new combined cycle power plants in operation are shown. Other environmental impacts are described. Recommendations for supply and environment policy are presented

  11. Radiometric titration of officinal radiopharmaceuticals using radioactive kryptonates as end-point indicators. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harangozo, M.; Jombik, J.; Schiller, P.; Toelgyessy, J.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the determination of citric, tartaric and undecylenic acids based on radiometric titration with 0.1 or 0.05 mole.l -1 NaOH was developed. As an indicator of the end point, radioactive kryptonate of glass was used. Experimental technique, results of determinations as well as other possible applications of the radioactive kryptonate of glass for end point determination in alkalimetric analyses of officinal pharmaceuticals are discussed. (author)

  12. Model of Environmental Problems Priority Arising from the use of Environmental and Natural Resources in Machinery Sectors of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sutthichaimethee Pruethsan; Sawangdee Yothin

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to evaluate environmental impacts from the Machinery sectors of Thailand, leading to more sustainable consumption and production in this sector of the economy. The factors used to calculate the Forward Linkage, Backward Linkage and Real Benefit were the Total Environmental Costs. The highest total environmental cost was Railway Equipment which needs to be resolved immediately because it uses natural resources more than its carrying cap...

  13. Model of Environmental Problems Priority Arising from the use of Environmental and Natural Resources in Machinery Sectors of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutthichaimethee Pruethsan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to evaluate environmental impacts from the Machinery sectors of Thailand, leading to more sustainable consumption and production in this sector of the economy. The factors used to calculate the Forward Linkage, Backward Linkage and Real Benefit were the Total Environmental Costs. The highest total environmental cost was Railway Equipment which needs to be resolved immediately because it uses natural resources more than its carrying capacity, higher environmental cost than standard, and contributes low real benefit. Electric Accumulator & Battery, Secondary Special Industrial Machinery, Motorcycle, Bicycle & Other Carriages, and Engines and Turbines need to be monitored closely because they are able to link to other production sectors more than any other production sectors do, and they have high environmental cost. To decide a sustainable development strategy of the country, therefore, results of this research must be used to support decision-making.

  14. Model of Environmental Problems Priority Arising from the use of Environmental and Natural Resources in Machinery Sectors of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutthichaimethee, Pruethsan; Sawangdee, Yothin

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to evaluate environmental impacts from the Machinery sectors of Thailand, leading to more sustainable consumption and production in this sector of the economy. The factors used to calculate the Forward Linkage, Backward Linkage and Real Benefit were the Total Environmental Costs. The highest total environmental cost was Railway Equipment which needs to be resolved immediately because it uses natural resources more than its carrying capacity, higher environmental cost than standard, and contributes low real benefit. Electric Accumulator & Battery, Secondary Special Industrial Machinery, Motorcycle, Bicycle & Other Carriages, and Engines and Turbines need to be monitored closely because they are able to link to other production sectors more than any other production sectors do, and they have high environmental cost. To decide a sustainable development strategy of the country, therefore, results of this research must be used to support decision-making.

  15. Pathways and pitfalls of implementing the use of woodfuels in Germany's bioenergy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Thiel, Andreas; Bens, Oliver; Huettl, Reinhard F.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an empirical study on the use of woody biomass for energy supply in Germany and the federal state of Brandenburg. It aims to explain the role forestry enterprises have for bioenergy provision in this area. The 'Institutions of Sustainability' framework is used as an analytical tool to investigate the role of private and public actors in these transactions, respectively, in the governance structures they are subject to. Empirical evidence was gathered by in-depth interviews with actors from forestry and bioenergy practice. Triggered by favorable governance structures, i.e. strong support by national and regional policies, rising prices for fossil energy sources, and co-operation of committed individuals and groups, a new bioenergy industry has been successfully established. However, the forestry sector has so far been just a marginal fuel supplier for this industry. The study identifies pitfalls impeding a broad implementation of wood-energy supply in forestry: not cost-covering prices offered by the bioenergy sector, lacking market transparency and security of supply, lacking mobilization of forest wood, and a preference among forest managers to sell products to the wood-processing industry. In terms of the Institutions of Sustainability the properties of transactions (asset specificities, uncertainties, separability), characteristics of actors (values, rationality) and governance structures (long-term contractual obligations elsewhere) are decisive in explaining the current form of transaction. (author)

  16. The use of fuzzy logic in coordinating investment projects in the public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Benčina

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Politics and the professions often have different standpoints on development planning and investment decisions in the public sector. Opposing views, lack of understanding and an inability to accept compromises in the planning and execution of investments frequently cause deviations which ultimately reveal themselves in negativeeconomic consequences. Effective and successful planning and execution of investments in the public sector is one of the key development tasks in a state or local community. For this reason we have undertaken a detailed investigation of the issue with the goal of devising a tool in the form of a model of a system for supportin decision making. In order to make it easier for appraisers and decision makers to express their opinions in a natural and individual manner, we have introduced an appraisal with linguistic values through the use of fuzzy logic. The purpose of this article is to present the characteristics and structure of the fuzzy model for coordinating opinions, and the progress and results of its use in the case of two Slovenian municipalities.

  17. Agriculture Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  18. Using morbidity and income data to forecast the variation of growth and employment in the oral healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostwald, Dennis A; Klingenberger, David

    2016-12-01

    The perception of the health sector from an economic policy point of view is changing. In the past, health expenditure was mostly seen as a "cost" item, probably because many medical treatments are covered by public health insurance. However, policymakers are increasingly realizing that a growing health sector may be quite beneficial for an economy. It creates employment opportunities and it is relatively resistant to the fluctuations of the business cycle. Input-output analysis could be a useful tool to study the structural change resulting from the growth of the health sector. This paper quantifies for the first time the economic significance of the oral healthcare sector as a component of the German healthcare sector as a whole. The current data for the healthcare sector comes from Health Satellite Accounts, which while comprehensive do fail to answer important questions due to not incorporating certain sectors such as the oral healthcare sector. Therefore on the basis of the Health Satellite Account a specific Satellite Account for the oral healthcare sector is created by using billing data as well as epidemiological data, provided by several dental associations and the Institute of German Dentists. Based on this added information, gross value added data and the number of employees in the oral healthcare sector are computed. Gross value added in 2010 amounted to €13.4 billion, with around €4 billion being attributable to the secondary oral healthcare market; the market for solely out-of-pocket payments. In a second step the paper develops a model to forecast oral healthcare sector growth based on various explanatory variables such as demographic change, take-up behaviour, medical-technical progress, oral morbidity, aggregated supply (collective dental treatment times) as well as income levels and distribution, where the latter two are considered to be of particular importance. According to this model, by 2030 gross value added in the oral healthcare sector

  19. Decomposition of SO2, NOx and CO2 emissions from energy use of major economic sectors in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sue J. Lin; Tzu C. Chang

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we use the Divisia index approach to decompose emission changes of SO 2 , NO, and CO 2 from major economic sectors in Taiwan during 1980 to 1992. The study highlights the interrelationships between energy use and environmental quality, and provides insights for policy making. The emission changes are decomposed into five components-pollution coefficient, fuel mix, energy intensity, economic growth and industrial structure. Of all components analyzed, economic growth had the largest positive effect on emission changes for Taiwan's major economic sectors. Emissions of SO 2 in industry and other sectors showed a decreasing trend due to fuel quality improvements antipollution control. However, NO, and CO 2 emissions increased sharply in all sectors. Comparisons were also made with Germany, Japan and USA. This study has shown that improvement in energy efficiency, pollution control and fuel substitution are major options to reduce SO 2 , NO, and CO 2 emissions

  20. Potential emissions reduction in road transport sector using biofuel in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaquat, A. M.; Kalam, M. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Jayed, M. H.

    2010-10-01

    Use of biofuels as transport fuel has high prospect in developing countries as most of them are facing severe energy insecurity and have strong agricultural sector to support production of biofuels from energy crops. Rapid urbanization and economic growth of developing countries have spurred air pollution especially in road transport sector. The increasing demand of petroleum based fuels and their combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines have adverse effect on air quality, human health and global warming. Air pollution causes respiratory problems, adverse effects on pulmonary function, leading to increased sickness absenteeism and induces high health care service costs, premature birth and even mortality. Production of biofuels promises substantial improvement in air quality through reducing emission from biofuel operated automotives. Some of the developing countries have started biofuel production and utilization as transport fuel in local market. This paper critically reviews the facts and prospects of biofuel production and utilization in developing countries to reduce environmental pollution and petro dependency. Expansion of biofuel industries in developing countries can create more jobs and increase productivity by non-crop marginal lands and wastelands for energy crops plantation. Contribution of India and China in biofuel industry in production and utilization can dramatically change worldwide biofuel market and leap forward in carbon cut as their automotive market is rapidly increasing with a souring proportional rise of GHG emissions.

  1. Risks and financing decisions in the energy sector: An empirical investigation using firm-level data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of 102 UK energy firms over the period 1981–2009, this paper empirically examines the effects of uncertainty on firms' leverage decisions. The results indicate that both firms-specific and macroeconomic uncertainty have negative, sizeable, and statistically significant impacts on the UK energy sector firms' target leverage. The results also indicate that the profitability of energy firms plays an important role in uncertainty–leverage relationship by changing the (total) effect of uncertainty on leverage. While more profitable firms appear to reduce their leverage by a relatively large amount in response to increased macroeconomic uncertainty, they are less likely to be affected by firm-specific uncertainty. These results suggest that stability in macroeconomic conditions and business activity is important to the stability of the capital structure of firms in the energy sector which would in turn be conducive to stability in their investments and production. - Highlights: • I examine the effect of uncertainty on the UK energy firms' leverage decisions. • Both firm-specific and macroeconomic uncertainty have negative effects on leverage. • Firm profitability plays an important role in uncertainty–leverage relationships. • The total effect of uncertainty on leverage varies with changes in profitability

  2. Assessment of Technical Efficiency of Public Sector Banks in India Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna BHATIA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to analyze technical efficiency of Public Sector Banks (PSBs in India during the period 1990-91 to 2011-12. The paper also examines whether there is statistically significant difference in efficiency of PSBs in the reformatory era (1990-91 to 2000-01 as compared to the post reformatory era (2001-02 to 2011-12. Using CAMEL framework, the paper also investigates the determinants of efficiency of PSBs. The results show that PSBs exhibit higher mean of the efficiency parameters in post reformatory era (2001-02 to 2011-12 than in the reformatory era (1990-91 to 2000-01. PSBs inefficiency is attributed to Pure Technical Inefficiency in reformatory era whereas the same is accredited to scale inefficiency in the post reformatory era. Paired t test shows that there is significant difference in performance of Public Sector Banks in reformatory era and post reformatory in all the Efficiency parameters. The results of Panel Data TOBIT regression suggest that various CAMEL parameters have significant impact on the technical efficiency of PSBs.

  3. Analytical optimization of demand management strategies across all urban water use sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Kenneth; Heaney, James P.; Morales, Miguel; Palenchar, John

    2014-07-01

    An effective urban water demand management program can greatly influence both peak and average demand and therefore long-term water supply and infrastructure planning. Although a theoretical framework for evaluating residential indoor demand management has been well established, little has been done to evaluate other water use sectors such as residential irrigation in a compatible manner for integrating these results into an overall solution. This paper presents a systematic procedure to evaluate the optimal blend of single family residential irrigation demand management strategies to achieve a specified goal based on performance functions derived from parcel level tax assessor's data linked to customer level monthly water billing data. This framework is then generalized to apply to any urban water sector, as exponential functions can be fit to all resulting cumulative water savings functions. Two alternative formulations are presented: maximize net benefits, or minimize total costs subject to satisfying a target water savings. Explicit analytical solutions are presented for both formulations based on appropriate exponential best fits of performance functions. A direct result of this solution is the dual variable which represents the marginal cost of water saved at a specified target water savings goal. A case study of 16,303 single family irrigators in Gainesville Regional Utilities utilizing high quality tax assessor and monthly billing data along with parcel level GIS data provide an illustrative example of these techniques. Spatial clustering of targeted homes can be easily performed in GIS to identify priority demand management areas.

  4. From access to re-use: a user’s perspective on public sector information availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederika Welle Donker

    2016-11-01

    had a flywheel effect on companies within the same sector. By 2015, nearly all energy network administrators had published similar open data. The monitoring model developed in this project was assessed to be suitable to monitor the open data effects on the organisation of the data provider. The assessment model developed and tested in Chapter 7 proved to be suitable to monitor the effects of open data on organisational level. However, to provide a more complete picture of the effects of open data and to assess if there are other barriers for re-users, a more holistic approach was required to assess the maturity of open data. Therefore, a holistic open data assessment framework addressing the supplier side, the governance side, and the user side of the open data was developed and applied to the Dutch open data infrastructure in Chapter 8. This Holistic Open Data Maturity Assessment Framework was used to evaluate the State of the Open Data Nation in the Netherlands and to provide valuable information on (potential bottlenecks. The framework showed that geographic data scored significantly better than other types of government data. The standardisation and implementation rules laid down by INSPIRE Directive framework appear to have been a catalyst for moving geographic data to a higher level of maturity. The maturity assessment framework provided Dutch policy makers with useful inputs for further development of the open data ecosystem and development of well-founded strategies that will ensure the full potential of open data will be reached. Since the publication of the State of the Open Data Nation in 2014, a number of the recommendations have already been implemented. This dissertation demonstrated that many aspects that should facilitate accessibility, such as standardised metadata, have already been addressed for geodata. This research also showed that for other types of data, there is still a long way to go. There is a growing demand for other types of data, such as

  5. GridLAB-D Technical Support Document: Residential End-Use Module Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Zachary T.; Gowri, Krishnan; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2008-07-31

    1.0 Introduction The residential module implements the following end uses and characteristics to simulate the power demand in a single family home: • Water heater • Lights • Dishwasher • Range • Microwave • Refrigerator • Internal gains (plug loads) • House (heating/cooling loads) The house model considers the following four major heat gains/losses that contribute to the building heating/cooling load: 1. Conduction through exterior walls, roof and fenestration (based on envelope UA) 2. Air infiltration (based on specified air change rate) 3. Solar radiation (based on CLTD model and using tmy data) 4. Internal gains from lighting, people, equipment and other end use objects. The Equivalent Thermal Parameter (ETP) approach is used to model the residential loads and energy consumption. The following sections describe the modeling assumptions for each of the above end uses and the details of power demand calculations in the residential module.

  6. Toward a More Efficient and Innovative Electricity Sector in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Russia is in the process of one of the most ambitious electricity sector reforms ever undertaken, reflecting the importance of an efficient and reliable electricity sector for promoting economic activity, growth and community prosperity. The outcome of this process will have a substantial impact on Russia’s energy sector and longer-term economic performance. It will help to determine the nature and pace of investment and modernisation of the sector and will help to shape incentives for efficient, flexible and innovative operation and end-use.

  7. Examining the sectoral energy use in Turkish economy (1980-2000) with the help of decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ediger, Volkan S.; Huvaz, Ozkan

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the sectoral energy use in the Turkish economy for the 1980-2000 period when significant changes occurred in the economic and demographic structure of the country. These changes had several impacts on the energy use in the primary sectors such as agriculture, industry and services. Decomposition analysis is conducted on these sectors by using the additive version of the LMDI method due to its advantages over others. Although a close relationship exists between primary energy consumption and GDP, analyses show that significant variations occurred in the sectoral energy use during the 1982, 1988-1989, 1994 and 1998-2000 periods. Such variations are related to the economic policies of the governments. The Turkish economy has undergone a transformation from agricultural to industrial enhanced by rapid urbanization, especially after 1982. However, industrialization has not been completed yet, and the energy demand should be increasing faster than national income until the energy intensity of the country reaches a peak. This study is performed on three basic sectors; however, decomposition into secondary and tertiary sectors will provide detailed information for further investigations

  8. Developing Green GDP Accounting for Thai Agricultural Sector Using the Economic Input Output - Life Cycle Assessment to Assess Green Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Attavanich, Witsanu; Mungkung, Rattanawan; Mahathanaseth, Itthipong; Sanglestsawai, Santi; Jirajari, Athiwatr

    2016-01-01

    There is no indicator measuring Thailand’s green growth by valuing the resource degradation and environmental damage costs. This article aims to estimate Thailand’s green gross domestic (GDP) that takes into account environmental damage costs with the detailed analysis on the agricultural sector using the Economic Input Output - Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) approach. The representative product in each sector was selected based on the available life cycle inventory data, economic values and...

  9. Liquidity Analysis Using Cash Flow Ratios as Compared to Traditional Ratios in the Pharmaceutical Sector in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Sulayman H. Atieh

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the liquidity position of the Jordanian pharmaceutical sector using the traditional ratios as compared to the more recently developed cash flow ratios. The research involved the comparison between traditional ratios and cash flow ratios of the big seven companies of the pharmaceutical industry in Jordan over six years period (2007¨C2012). The companies were all from the same sector, and the data was obtained from the annual reports of these companies. T...

  10. PNGMDR 2013-2015. The management of liquid and gaseous tritium-containing wastes from the non-electronuclear sector. Progress status by the end of 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    After having briefly evoked the characteristics of tritium-containing radioactive wastes, and the associated issues for storage or warehousing, and also outlined that warehousing solutions are designed for solid wastes whereas tritium is often used under its liquid and gaseous form, this report addresses the case of these liquid and gaseous tritium-containing radioactive wastes. A first part addresses gaseous tritium-containing wastes, discusses their inventory without taking tritium-containing objects belonging to the National Defence. Thus, Tritium is present in lightning arresters, in radio-luminescent objects, in emergency exit panels. The present location of these wastes is commented, and the constraints related to their taking into charge by the Aube waste centre are discussed: issue of releases, regulatory requirements, acceptance technical specifications, determination of the gaseous Tritium LAS (limit of acceptance of a sealed source). The report proposes an overview of alternative pathways to storage in the Aube storage centre: destruction and discharge when authorized, use of new equipment developed by the ANDRA, taking over by the country of origin or recycling, decay warehousing. The next part of the report addresses liquid tritium-containing wastes, proposes a brief inventory, and briefly evokes two options: combustion, or discharge when authorized

  11. [The use of management contracts and professional incentives in the public health sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditterich, Rafael Gomes; Moysés, Simone Tetu; Moysés, Samuel Jorge

    2012-04-01

    Results-based management is a cornerstone of reform in public administration, including the health field, and has become the basis for other innovations such as the institutionalization of management contracts and the use of professional incentives. This review article aims to introduce and discuss the use of such management contracts in the public health sector. Management by results has developed means and tools that highlight the importance of shared responsibility and mutual commitment between workers and management-level directors. Thus, preset goals are negotiated among all the stakeholders and are evaluated periodically in order to grant professional incentives. It is necessary to improve the mechanisms for control and observation, to more precisely determine the healthcare and management indicators and their patterns, to train stakeholders in designing the plan, and to improve the use of professional incentives in order to effectively increase accountability vis-à-vis the desired results.

  12. Electric vehicles or use of hydrogen in the Danish transport sector in 2050?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus; Pizarro Alonso, Amalia Rosa; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    and calculates socio economic costs. It is used to model the different transport scenarios and their system integration with the electricity and heating sectors. The major findings of this paper are that an increased share of electric vehicles could significantly reduce the socio-economic cost of the system...... in 2050. Compared to the EV scenario, H2 generation from electrolysis is more flexible and the production can therefore to a larger degree be used to out-balance fluctuating electricity surplus from a high share of wind energy in the power system. H2 production may generate heat that can be used...... as district heating - replacing traditional heating plants, heat pumps and in some cases combined heat and power plants. Therefore the energy generation mix (electricity and heat) is more affected in the H2 scenario than in the EV scenario. Whether the H2 scenario is more costly to implement than the EV...

  13. Quantifying the influence of environmental and water conservation attitudes on household end use water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Rachelle M; Stewart, Rodney A; Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak; Williams, Philip R; Hollingsworth, Anna L

    2011-08-01

    Within the research field of urban water demand management, understanding the link between environmental and water conservation attitudes and observed end use water consumption has been limited. Through a mixed method research design incorporating field-based smart metering technology and questionnaire surveys, this paper reveals the relationship between environmental and water conservation attitudes and a domestic water end use break down for 132 detached households located in Gold Coast city, Australia. Using confirmatory factor analysis, attitudinal factors were developed and refined; households were then categorised based on these factors through cluster analysis technique. Results indicated that residents with very positive environmental and water conservation attitudes consumed significantly less water in total and across the behaviourally influenced end uses of shower, clothes washer, irrigation and tap, than those with moderately positive attitudinal concern. The paper concluded with implications for urban water demand management planning, policy and practice. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characteristics of novel root-end filling material using epoxy resin and Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Jin; Chung, Jin; Na, Hee-Sam; Park, Eun-Joo; Jeon, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical properties and cytotoxicity of a novel root-end filling material (EPC) which is made from epoxy resin and Portland cement as a mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) substitute. EPC, developed as a root-end filling material, was compared with MTA and a mixture of AH Plus sealer and MTA (AMTA) with regard to the setting time, radio-opacity, and microleakage. Setting times were evaluated using Vicat apparatus. Digital radiographs were taken to evaluate the aluminium equivalent radio-opacity using an aluminium step wedge. Extracted single-rooted teeth were used for leakage test using methylene blue dye. After canal shaping and obturation, the apical 3-mm root was resected, and a root-end cavity with a depth of 3 mm was prepared. The root-end cavities were filled with MTA, AMTA, and EPC for 15 specimens in each of three groups. After setting in humid conditions for 24 h, the specimens were tested for apical leakage. For evaluation of the biocompatibility of EPC, cell (human gingival fibroblast) viability was compared for MTA and Portland cement by MTT assay, and cell morphological changes were compared for MTA and AH Plus by fluorescence microscopy using DAPI and F-actin staining. The setting time, radio-opacity, and microleakage were compared using one-way ANOVA and Scheffe's post hoc comparison, and the cytotoxicity was compared using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. Statistical significance was set at 95%. EPC had a shorter setting time and less microleakage compared with MTA (p Portland cement, was found to be a useful material for root-end filling, with favourable radio-opacity, short setting time, low microleakage, and clinically acceptable low cytotoxicity. The novel root-end filling material would be a potentially useful material for a surgical endodontic procedure with favourable properties.

  15. Using an Artificial Neural Network Approach for Supplier Evaluation Process and a Sectoral Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yeşim Yayla

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a-three layered feed-forward backpropagation Artificial Neural Network (ANN model is developed for the supplier firms in ceramic sector on the bases of user effectiveness for using concurrent engineering method. The developed model is also questioned for its usability in the supplier evaluation process. The network's independent variables of the developed model are considered as input variables of the network and dependent variables are used as output variables. The values of these variables are determined with factor analysis. For obtaining the date set to be used in the analysis, a questionnaire form with 34 questions explaining the network's input and output variables are prepared and sent out to 52 firms active in related sector. For obtaining more accurate results from the network, the questions having factor load below 0,6 are eliminated from the analysis. With the elimination of the questions from the analysis, the answers given for 22 questions explaining 8 input variables are used for the evaluation the network's inputs, the answers given for 3 questions explaining output variables are used for the evaluation the network's outputs. The data set of the network's are divided into four equal groups with k-fold method in order to get four different alternative network structures. As a conclusion, the forecasted firm scores giving the minimum error from the network test simulation and real firm scores are found to be very close to each other, thus, it is concluded that the developed artificial neural network model can be used effectively in the supplier evaluation process.

  16. Use of electric vehicles or hydrogen in the Danish transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus; Pizarro Alonso, Amalia Rosa; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2015-01-01

    of the energy system in 2050. Electricity demand for H2 generation via electrolysis is more flexible than EV charging and the production can therefore, to a larger degree be used to out-balance variable electricity surplus from a high share of wind and solar energy in the power system. H2 production may...... compares a likely scenario with two alternative ways to achieve the goal - either with a high percentage of electric vehicles (EV) or with a high percentage of hydrogen (H2) use in the transport sector. The STREAM model - an energy scenario simulating tool - provides insight into different potential energy...... cost of the energy system than a lower level of electrolyser capital cost. Therefore, the major driver of a successful H2 scenario is a high efficient and flexible H2 production in 2050. In other words, from a socio-economic view point this paper International Conference on Energy, Environment...

  17. Pathways and pitfalls of implementing the use of woodfuels in Germany's bioenergy sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Thiel, Andreas; Bens, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an empirical study on the use of woody biomass for energy supply in Germany and the federal state of Brandenburg. It aims to explain the role forestry enterprises have for bioenergy provision in this area. The 'Institutions of Sustainability' framework is used as an analytical...... tool to investigate the role of private and public actors in these transactions, respectively, in the governance structures they are subject to. Empirical evidence was gathered by in-depth interviews with actors from forestry and bioenergy practice. Triggered by favorable governance structures, i.......e. strong support by national and regional policies, rising prices for fossil energy sources, and co-operation of committed individuals and groups, a new bioenergy industry has been successfully established. However, the forestry sector has so far been just a marginal fuel supplier for this industry...

  18. Performance Evaluation of Sub-manufacturing Sectors Using TOPSIS and ELECTRE Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri ÖMÜRBEK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Performance analysis is defined as a process of collecting, analyzing and reporting data systematically and regularly for a business to monitor its sources it has used, products and services it has produced, and the results it gained. For operators, it means quantitative expression of actions which are performed by a business or maintained in a program. In this study, financial performances of manufacture sectors are analyzed by the methods of TOPSIS and ELECTRE using current ratio, cash ratio, total debt / total assets, inventory turnover rate, equity turnover rate, net profit / equity, operating ıncome /net sales, net profit / sales and cost of good sold / net sales criteria. The findings suggest that coal and refined petroleum product manufacturing industry is in the first place in both methods.

  19. Poland - Electricity and gas market development study and practical guidelines for using EU funds. Electricity sector analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    The present report is the final electricity sector analysis report in the project 'Poland - Electricity and gas market development study and practical guidelines for using EU funds'. As part of the project a number of quantitative analyses have been carried out for the electricity sector. The report presents the results of those electricity sector analyses. The present project aims at: 1. Identifying major issues relating to the restructuring and liberalization process in the Polish electricity and the gas sector, 2. Setting up an overview of the Polish electricity and natural gas sector, 3. Setting up scenarios for development of electricity and gas markets in the period to 2020, 4. Updating the Balmorel model with recent data for the Polish electricity system, 5. Analyzing future consequences of liberalization of energy markets for the producers, consumers and the Polish economy and society as a whole, 6. Presenting the possibilities and preparing a practical guide for using EU funds and community programmes for large infrastructure projects in the energy sector. (BA)

  20. Using a service sector segmented approach to identify community stakeholders who can improve access to suicide prevention services for veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthieu, Monica M; Gardiner, Giovanina; Ziegemeier, Ellen; Buxton, Miranda

    2014-04-01

    Veterans in need of social services may access many different community agencies within the public and private sectors. Each of these settings has the potential to be a pipeline for attaining needed health, mental health, and benefits services; however, many service providers lack information on how to conceptualize where Veterans go for services within their local community. This article describes a conceptual framework for outreach that uses a service sector segmented approach. This framework was developed to aid recruitment of a provider-based sample of stakeholders (N = 70) for a study on improving access to the Department of Veterans Affairs and community-based suicide prevention services. Results indicate that although there are statistically significant differences in the percent of Veterans served by the different service sectors (F(9, 55) = 2.71, p = 0.04), exposure to suicidal Veterans and providers' referral behavior is consistent across the sectors. Challenges to using this framework include isolating the appropriate sectors for targeted outreach efforts. The service sector segmented approach holds promise for identifying and referring at-risk Veterans in need of services. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  1. Foresight Study on Transport, Distribution, Storage and End Use of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claver Cabrero, A.; Cabrera Jimenez, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Observatorio de Prospectiva Tecnologica Industrial (OPTI) is a Foundation supported by the Ministry of Industry and Energy, (MINER) and has as main objective to provide a basic information and knowledge on technology evolution. This information will be accessible to the Administration and to the Companies and can be taking into account in planning and decision making of technology policies. Ciemat is member of OPTI and also is the organism in charge of the actions in the Energy sector. CIEMAT has the responsibility on the realisation of the sector studies to get in three years (1998 to 2001) a future vision on critical technology topics. The OPTI integrated strategic plan undertake the analysis of other seven technology sectors, with the same criteria and methodological aspects. Delphi method was used for the realization of the studies using a survey conducted in two rounds with a questionnaire to check the experts opinion. The time frame of the studies was defined from 1999 to 2015. The study presented in this document has been performed by CIEMAT in the third stage of the OPTI activities. The main goal behind this study is to identify spanish position and existing barriers technological development together with recommended measures to be taken in order to facilitate their future performance. This basic information can be used by different S a and T actors as input to develop technology and innovation policies. Also, taken into account actual energetic situation with a foreseeable demand increase and fossil fuel dependence, the results of this study can be considered of general main interest. (Author)

  2. Agricultural, domestic and handicraft folk uses of plants in the Tyrrhenian sector of Basilicata (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guarrera Paolo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research was carried out into agricultural and domestic-handicraft uses in folk traditions in the Tyrrhenian sector of the Basilicata region (southern Italy, as it is typically representative of ethnobotanical applications in the Mediterranean area. From the point of view of furnishing a botanical support for the study of local "material culture" data was collected through field interviews of 49 informants, most of whom were farmers. Results The taxa cited are 60, belonging to 32 botanical families, of which 18 are employed for agricultural uses and 51 for domestic-handicraft folk uses. Data show a diffuse use of plants for many purposes, both in agricultural (present uses 14%; past uses 1% and for domestic-handicraft use (present uses 40%; past uses 45%; most of the latter are now in decline. Conclusion 60 data look uncommon or typical of the places studied. Some domestic-handicraft folk uses are typical of southern Italy (e.g. the use of Ampelodesmos mauritanicus for making ties, ropes, torches, baskets or that of Acer neapolitanum for several uses. Other uses (e.g. that of Inula viscosa and Calamintha nepeta for peculiar brooms, and of Origanum heracleoticum for dyeing wool red are previously unpublished.

  3. Experience curves in the wind energy sector use : analysis and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junginger, Martin

    2000-01-01

    The wind energy sector is one of the fastest-growing energy sectors in the world. Both prices of wind turbines and cost of wind-generated electricity have dropped significantly over the last twenty years. However, electricity from wind is not yet fully able to compete with fossil fuel based

  4. Using the Solution Space Diagram in Measuring the Effect of Sector Complexity During Merging Scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul Rahman, S.M.B.; Van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.

    2011-01-01

    When designing Air Traffic Control (ATC) sectors and procedures, traffic complexity and workload are important issues. For predicting ATC workload, metrics based on the Solution Space Diagram (SSD) have been proposed. This paper studies the effect of sector design on workload and SSD metrics. When

  5. Gas pricing in Europe. Pt. 2. End-use consumption markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donath, R.

    1996-01-01

    In the end-use consumption markets, gas is supplied to households, small consumers and industrial customers of retail distributors. As regards the delimitation of industrial customers receiving gas from retail distributors, there are great differences from one country to another, similarly to the market segmentation of wholesale markets.- First of all, the article points out structures and regulations in the investigated end-use consumption markets. The second part investigates cost-oriented and value-oriented pricing principles, followed by a comparison of price structures based on the Eurostat gas purchasing criteria for households and small consumers in the third part. A fourth part summarizes the results. (orig./UA) [de

  6. Using the cost distribution report in estimating private sector payments: what adjustments should researchers make?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Gary; Grippen, Glen; Parris, Y C; Mitchell, Mary

    2003-06-01

    To reapportion Veterans Health Administration (VA) annual expenditures into benefit categories for comparison with estimated payments by private sector providers. Total expenditures for six VA medical centers for federal fiscal year 1999 were reapportioned by benefit category using the cost distribution report (CDR). Health benefit categories were based on those of health care insurers. Cost reapportionment was based on CDR data and reviews of source accounting and payroll documents. Actual expenditures for many benefits can be accurately identified and reapportioned using CDR data, but other expenditures were not identifiable in the CDR and required inspection of source documents. Inpatient expenditures amounting to $75,110,094 US dollars and outpatient expenditures amounting to $73,594,284 US dollars were reapportioned into other benefit categories, primarily professional fees. Expenditures for some VA benefits could not be identified because of differences in accounting and clinical practice between the VA and the community. Revisions to bring the CDR more in line with private sector payment categories would improve effectiveness for internal VA analyses and external expenditure comparisons. CDR revisions would require changes in recording some clinical workload (eg, rehabilitation and extended care) and classifying residential and domiciliary programs separate from inpatient care. Benefits that were not assigned expenditures for comparison with payments represent a potential liability if the VA were to purchase health care services in the marketplace. Variation among hospitals on expenditures not clearly identified in the CDR was significant and raises questions about the effectiveness of capitated budget methodologies using either the CDR or the decision support system.

  7. Cognitive ergonomics: the use of mind mapping tool in maintaining productive sector of a Brazilian paper company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Diego; Mateus, José Roberto; Merino, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    The use of mind maps as a method of building knowledge, planning, organizing activities and ideas can be seen in the literature related to ergonomics. The results of such use are relevant and its use in academic area found. However, regarding to its use in industrial environments, studies can't not be found. With this scenario, and based on the perception of the ergonomist about the importance of using methods such as mind maps in support of human cognition, it seems pertinent to its use in industry sectors whose cognitive demand requires. Given these assumptions, this study aimed to apply the method of Mind Maps in Productive Maintenance sector of a Brazilian paper. The Productive Maintenance sector in the Paper Industry has an important contribution to operational performance. With practical Predictive Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance and Corrective Maintenance, the industry advocates to make the machines to produce paper is not to stop producing when they are programmed to do so. Among the practices cited, the Preventive Maintenance is one that leads to pre-determined intervals in order to reduce the possibility of placing the equipment in a condition below the required level of acceptance. Therefore, this article aims to propose using the tool "mental maps" in order to collaborate in planning and implementation of preventive maintenance activities in the sector of mechanical maintenance of a pulp and paper industry in southern Brazil. The study investigated the maintenance sector through its employees, who went through training about the tool and then use it and ergonomists company.

  8. Global emission projections for the transportation sector using dynamic technology modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, F.; Winijkul, E.; Streets, D. G.; Lu, Z.; Bond, T. C.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, global emissions of gases and particles from the transportation sector are projected from the year 2010 to 2050. The Speciated Pollutant Emission Wizard (SPEW)-Trend model, a dynamic model that links the emitter population to its emission characteristics, is used to project emissions from on-road vehicles and non-road engines. Unlike previous models of global emission estimates, SPEW-Trend incorporates considerable detail on the technology stock and builds explicit relationships between socioeconomic drivers and technological changes, such that the vehicle fleet and the vehicle technology shares change dynamically in response to economic development. Emissions from shipping, aviation, and rail are estimated based on other studies so that the final results encompass the entire transportation sector. The emission projections are driven by four commonly-used IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2). With global fossil-fuel use (oil and coal) in the transportation sector in the range of 128-171 EJ across the four scenarios, global emissions are projected to be 101-138 Tg of carbon monoxide (CO), 44-54 Tg of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 14-18 Tg of non-methane total hydrocarbons (THC), and 3.6-4.4 Tg of particulate matter (PM) in the year 2030. At the global level, a common feature of the emission scenarios is a projected decline in emissions during the first one or two decades (2010-2030), because the effects of stringent emission standards offset the growth in fuel use. Emissions increase slightly in some scenarios after 2030, because of the fast growth of on-road vehicles with lax or no emission standards in Africa and increasing emissions from non-road gasoline engines and shipping. On-road vehicles and non-road engines contribute the most to global CO and THC emissions, while on-road vehicles and shipping contribute the most to NOx and PM emissions. At the regional level, Latin America and East Asia are the two

  9. The Usefulness of Patent Stage and Sectoral Pattern in Open Innovation Licensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Young Kim

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The relative importance to the particular industry of licensing has not been done enough empirically to pursue the route of the open innovation. That is why the industrial level research on open innovation is more complicated than that of company level. This paper tries to survey industrial level licensing by combining the technology regime theory with NTB(National Technology Bank score model of KTTC(Korea Technology Transfer Center and tries to transform Likert score into general value proxy by using information of valuator’s organizations. This paper also introduces two new factors named as ‘patent authorization stage’ for classifying patent status and ‘technology regime based industrial innovation pattern’ for adopting sectoral level research in order to overcome drawbacks of score model in case of application to open innovation licensing.

  10. Detection of masses in mammograms by analysis of gradient vector convergence using sector filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhari, Y.; Karimian, A.; Mohammadbeigi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Although mammography is the main diagnostic method for breast cancer, but the interpretation of mammograms is a difficult task and depends on the experience and skill of the radiologists. Computer Aided Detection (CADe) systems have been proposed to help radiologist in interpretation of mammograms. In this paper a novel filter called Sector filter is proposed to detect masses. This filter works based on the analysis of convergence of gradient vectors toward the center of filter. Using this filter, rounded convex regions, which are more likely to be pertained to a mass, could be detected in a gray scale image. After applying this filter on the images with two scales and their linear combination suspicious points were selected by a specific process. After implementation of the proposed method, promising results were achieved. The performance of the proposed method in this research was competitive or in some cases even better than that of other suggested methods in the literature. (authors)

  11. Segmentation of Natural Gas Customers in Industrial Sector Using Self-Organizing Map (SOM) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masbar Rus, A. M.; Pramudita, R.; Surjandari, I.

    2018-03-01

    The usage of the natural gas which is non-renewable energy, needs to be more efficient. Therefore, customer segmentation becomes necessary to set up a marketing strategy to be right on target or to determine an appropriate fee. This research was conducted at PT PGN using one of data mining method, i.e. Self-Organizing Map (SOM). The clustering process is based on the characteristic of its customers as a reference to create the customer segmentation of natural gas customers. The input variables of this research are variable of area, type of customer, the industrial sector, the average usage, standard deviation of the usage, and the total deviation. As a result, 37 cluster and 9 segment from 838 customer data are formed. These 9 segments then employed to illustrate the general characteristic of the natural gas customer of PT PGN.

  12. The use of theory in qualitative approaches to research: application in end-of-life studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hung-Lan; Volker, Deborah L

    2009-12-01

    This paper is a report of an analysis of the use of theory in qualitative approaches to research as exemplified in qualitative end-of-life studies. Nurses researchers turn to theory to conceptualize research problems and guide investigations. However, researchers using qualitative approaches do not consistently articulate how theory has been applied, and no clear consensus exists regarding the appropriate application of theory in qualitative studies. A review of qualitative, end-of-life studies is used to illustrate application of theory to study design and findings. A review of theoretical literature was carried out, focusing on definitions and use of theory in qualitative end-of-life studies published in English between 1990 and 2008. The term 'theory' continues to be used in a variety of ways by theorists and researchers. Within the reviewed end-of-life studies, the use of theory included theory creation or provision of a comparative framework for data analysis and interpretation. Implications for nursing. Nurses who conduct qualitative studies should examine the philosophical and theoretical bases of their selected methodological approach, articulate a theoretical framework that fits the phenomenon being studied, and adopt a critical, flexible and creative attitude when applying theory to a study. Theory can be put to several uses in qualitative inquiry and should guide nurse researchers as they develop and implement their studies. Nurse educators who teach qualitative approaches to research should emphasize a variety of ways to incorporate theory in qualitative designs.

  13. TU-D-201-00: Use of End-Of-Life Brachytherapy Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Brachytherapy devices and software are designed to last for a certain period of time. Due to a number of considerations, such as material factors, wear-and-tear, backwards compatibility, and others, they all reach a date when they are no longer supported by the manufacturer. Most of these products have a limited duration for their use, and the information is provided to the user at time of purchase. Because of issues or concerns determined by the manufacturer, certain products are retired sooner than the anticipated date, and the user is immediately notified. In these situations, the institution is facing some difficult choices: remove these products from the clinic or perform tests and continue their usage. Both of these choices come with a financial burden: replacing the product or assuming a potential medicolegal liability. This session will provide attendees with the knowledge and tools to make better decisions when facing these issues. Learning Objectives: Understand the meaning of “end-of-life or “life expectancy” for brachytherapy devices and software Review items (devices and software) affected by “end-of-life” restrictions Learn how to effectively formulate “end-of-life” policies at your institution Learn about possible implications of “end-of-life” policy Review other possible approaches to “end-of-life” issue

  14. Experience of using MOSFET detectors for dose verification measurements in an end-to-end 192Ir brachytherapy quality assurance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Maria; Nilsson, Josef; Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa

    Establishment of an end-to-end system for the brachytherapy (BT) dosimetric chain could be valuable in clinical quality assurance. Here, the development of such a system using MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) detectors and experience gained during 2 years of use are reported with focus on the performance of the MOSFET detectors. A bolus phantom was constructed with two implants, mimicking prostate and head & neck treatments, using steel needles and plastic catheters to guide the 192 Ir source and house the MOSFET detectors. The phantom was taken through the BT treatment chain from image acquisition to dose evaluation. During the 2-year evaluation-period, delivered doses were verified a total of 56 times using MOSFET detectors which had been calibrated in an external 60 Co beam. An initial experimental investigation on beam quality differences between 192 Ir and 60 Co is reported. The standard deviation in repeated MOSFET measurements was below 3% in the six measurement points with dose levels above 2 Gy. MOSFET measurements overestimated treatment planning system doses by 2-7%. Distance-dependent experimental beam quality correction factors derived in a phantom of similar size as that used for end-to-end tests applied on a time-resolved measurement improved the agreement. MOSFET detectors provide values stable over time and function well for use as detectors for end-to-end quality assurance purposes in 192 Ir BT. Beam quality correction factors should address not only distance from source but also phantom dimensions. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimating end-use emissions factors for policy analysis: the case of space cooling and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Grant D

    2014-06-17

    This paper provides the first estimates of end-use specific emissions factors, which are estimates of the amount of a pollutant that is emitted when a unit of electricity is generated to meet demand from a specific end-use. In particular, this paper provides estimates of emissions factors for space cooling and heating, which are two of the most significant end-uses. The analysis is based on a novel two-stage regression framework that estimates emissions factors that are specific to cooling or heating by exploiting variation in cooling and heating demand induced by weather variation. Heating is associated with similar or greater CO2 emissions factor than cooling in all regions. The difference is greatest in the Midwest and Northeast, where the estimated CO2 emissions factor for heating is more than 20% larger than the emissions factor for cooling. The minor differences in emissions factors in other regions, combined with the substantial difference in the demand pattern for cooling and heating, suggests that the use of overall regional emissions factors is reasonable for policy evaluations in certain locations. Accurately quantifying the emissions factors associated with different end-uses across regions will aid in designing improved energy and environmental policies.

  16. Radiometric titration of officinal radiopharmaceuticals using radioactive kryptonates as end-point indicators. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Dillinger, P.; Harangozo, M.; Jombik, J.

    1980-01-01

    A method for the determination of salicylic, acetylsalicylic and benzoic acids in officinal pharmaceutical based on radiometric titration with 0.1 mol.l -1 NaOH was developed. The end-point was detected with the aid of radioactive glass kryptonate. After the end-point, the excess titrant attacks the glass surface layers and this results in releasing 85 Kr, and consequently, in decreasing the radioactivity of the kryptonate employed. The radioactive kryptonate used as an indicator was prepared by the bombardment of glass with accelerated 85 Kr ions. The developed method is simple, accurate and correct. (author)

  17. Using rapid prototyping to design a smoking cessation website with end-users

    OpenAIRE

    Ronquillo, C. E.; Currie, L.; Rowsell, D.; Phillips, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is an iterative approach to design involving cycles of prototype building, review by end-users, and refinement, and can be a valuable tool in user-centered website design. Informed by various user-centered approaches, we used rapid prototyping as a tool to collaborate with users in building a peer-support focused smoking-cessation website for gay men living with HIV. Rapid prototyping was effective in eliciting feedback on the needs of this group of potential end-users\\ud fr...

  18. Using Rapid Prototyping to Design a Smoking Cessation Website with End-Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquillo, Charlene; Currie, Leanne; Rowsell, Derek; Phillips, J Craig

    2016-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is an iterative approach to design involving cycles of prototype building, review by end-users and refinement, and can be a valuable tool in user-centered website design. Informed by various user-centered approaches, we used rapid prototyping as a tool to collaborate with users in building a peer-support focused smoking-cessation website for gay men living with HIV. Rapid prototyping was effective in eliciting feedback on the needs of this group of potential end-users from a smoking cessation website.

  19. Power sector investment risk and renewable energy: A Japanese case study using portfolio risk optimization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Anindya; Kojima, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    The conventional pricing mechanism used for electricity systematically hides huge investment risks which are embedded in the overall cost of production. Although consumers are often unaware of these risks, they present a large financial burden on the economy. This study applies the portfolio optimization concepts from the field of finance to demonstrate the scope of greater utilization of renewable energies (RE) while reducing the embedded investment risk in the conventional electricity sector and its related financial burden. This study demonstrates that RE investment can compensate for the risks associated with the total input costs; such costs being external volatilities of fossil fuel prices, capital costs, operating and maintenance costs and the carbon costs. By means of example, this case study shows that Japan could in theory obtain up to 9% of its electricity supply from green sources, as compared to the present 1.37%, based on the utilization of a portfolio risk-analysis evaluation. Explicit comparison of the monetary values of the investment risks of conventional and renewable energy sources shows that renewable energies have high market competitiveness. The study concludes with a recommendation that, as a business objective, investors would benefit by focusing on electricity supply portfolio risk minimization instead of cost. This could also inherently increase the supply of renewable energy in the market. - Research highlights: ►Energy sector investors should not be bothered only about the absolute cost figures of the input factors like fossil fuels but should also be careful about the fluctuation of their costs while making the investment decisions. ►Inclusion of renewable energy in the investment portfolio can increase the cost apparently but can reduce the risk hedging costs, too. ►International carbon price may not be a good factor to encourage renewable energy investment in the market.

  20. Electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) use during smoking cessation: a qualitative study of 40 Oklahoma quitline callers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerman, Katrina A; Beebe, Laura A; Schauer, Gillian L; Magnusson, Brooke; King, Brian A

    2017-04-01

    Approximately 10% (40 000) of US quitline enrollees who smoke cigarettes report current use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS); however, little is known about callers' ENDS use. Our aim was to describe why and how quitline callers use ENDS, their beliefs about ENDS and the impact of ENDS use on callers' quit processes and use of FDA-approved cessation medications. Qualitative interviews conducted 1-month postregistration. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, double-coded and analysed to identify themes. Oklahoma Tobacco Helpline. 40 callers aged ≥18 who were seeking help to quit smoking were using ENDS at registration and completed ≥1 programme calls. At 1-month postregistration interview, 80% of callers had smoked cigarettes in the last 7 days, almost two-thirds were using ENDS, and half were using cessation medications. Nearly all believed ENDS helped them quit or cut down on smoking; however, participants were split on whether they would recommend cessation medications, ENDS or both together for quitting. Confusion and misinformation about potential harms of ENDS and cessation medications were reported. Participants reported using ENDS in potentially adaptive ways (eg, using ENDS to cut down and nicotine replacement therapy to quit, and stepping down nicotine in ENDS to wean off ENDS after quitting) and maladaptive ways (eg, frequent automatic ENDS use, using ENDS in situations they did not previously smoke, cutting down on smoking using ENDS without a schedule or plan to quit), which could impact the likelihood of quitting smoking or continuing ENDS use. These qualitative findings suggest quitline callers who use ENDS experience confusion and misinformation about ENDS and FDA-approved cessation medications. Callers also use ENDS in ways that may not facilitate quitting smoking. Opportunities exist for quitlines to educate ENDS users and help them create a coordinated plan most likely to result in completely quitting combustible tobacco

  1. Modeling end-use quality in U. S. soft wheat germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    End-use quality in soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can be assessed by a wide array of measurements, generally categorized into grain, milling, and baking characteristics. Samples were obtained from four regional nurseries. Selected parameters included: test weight, kernel hardness, kernel size, ke...

  2. T-wave end detection using neural networks and Support Vector Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-León, Alexander Alexeis; Varon, Carolina; Willems, Rik; Van Huffel, Sabine; Vázquez-Seisdedos, Carlos Román

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we propose a new approach for detecting the end of the T-wave in the electrocardiogram (ECG) using Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines. Both, Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) neural networks and Fixed-Size Least-Squares Support Vector Machines (FS-LSSVM) were used as regression algorithms to determine the end of the T-wave. Different strategies for selecting the training set such as random selection, k-means, robust clustering and maximum quadratic (Rényi) entropy were evaluated. Individual parameters were tuned for each method during training and the results are given for the evaluation set. A comparison between MLP and FS-LSSVM approaches was performed. Finally, a fair comparison of the FS-LSSVM method with other state-of-the-art algorithms for detecting the end of the T-wave was included. The experimental results show that FS-LSSVM approaches are more suitable as regression algorithms than MLP neural networks. Despite the small training sets used, the FS-LSSVM methods outperformed the state-of-the-art techniques. FS-LSSVM can be successfully used as a T-wave end detection algorithm in ECG even with small training set sizes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Using intuition in fuzzy front-end decision-making : a conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eling, K.; Griffin, A.; Langerak, F.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of decision-making during the execution of the fuzzy front end (FFE) is to develop a creative new product concept. Although intuitive decision-making has been found to increase new product creativity, the theoretical knowledge base as to why and under which conditions intuition use during

  4. Structure and data requirements of an end-use model for residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    2004-07-03

    Jul 3, 2004 ... 2 Department of Civil and Urban Engineering, Rand Afrikaans University, PO Box 524, Auckland Park 2006, ... One such approach is end-use modelling, which has a ... chemistry and are not easily removed after being dissolved into the ..... with a rainfall of 12 mm/month for month m the same applies to all.

  5. Supporting end-to-end resource virtualization for Web 2.0 applications using Service Oriented Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papagianni, C.; Karagiannis, Georgios; Tselikas, N. D.; Sfakianakis, E.; Chochliouros, I. P.; Kabilafkas, D.; Cinkler, T.; Westberg, L.; Sjödin, P.; Hidell, M.; Heemstra de Groot, S.M.; Kontos, T.; Katsigiannis, C.; Pappas, C.; Antonakopoulou, A.; Venieris, I.S.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, technologies have been introduced offering a large amount of computing and networking resources. New applications such as Google AdSense and BitTorrent can profit from the use of these resources. An efficient way of discovering and reserving these resources is by using the Service

  6. Functional end-arterial circulation of the choroid assessed by using fat embolism and electric circuit simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Ahn, Ki Su; Park, Keun Heung; Pak, Kang Yeun; Kim, Hak Jin; Byon, Ik Soo; Park, Sung Who

    2017-05-30

    The discrepancy in the choroidal circulation between anatomy and function has remained unsolved for several decades. Postmortem cast studies revealed extensive anastomotic channels, but angiographic studies indicated end-arterial circulation. We carried out experimental fat embolism in cats and electric circuit simulation. Perfusion defects were observed in two categories. In the scatter perfusion defects suggesting an embolism at the terminal arterioles, fluorescein dye filled the non-perfused lobule slowly from the adjacent perfused lobule. In the segmental perfusion defects suggesting occlusion of the posterior ciliary arteries, the hypofluorescent segment became perfused by spontaneous resolution of the embolism without subsequent smaller infarction. The angiographic findings could be simulated with an electric circuit. Although electric currents flowed to the disconnected lobule, the level was very low compared with that of the connected ones. The choroid appeared to be composed of multiple sectors with no anastomosis to other sectors, but to have its own anastomotic arterioles in each sector. Blood flows through the continuous choriocapillaris bed in an end-arterial nature functionally to follow a pressure gradient due to the drainage through the collector venule.

  7. Estimation of Economic Value of Use of Wastewater at Agricultural Sector in South of Tehran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Sasouli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate use of non-conventional water resources including surface runoff and sewage is produced an issue that has emerged as a necessity particularly in Iran. This thread has been created specifically in Tehran. The current study was aimed to investigate the economic value of sewage at Agricultural Sector in South of Tehran with produced approach in the contaminated and clean area. From the results, the average yield of wheat production among the farmers from polluted water was 376 kg ha-1 more than farmers who used clean water. Moreover, the economic value of water was 110 Rials more than farmers who used clean water. According to the results, the total value of wastewater in Tehran in 1405 would be equivalent to 335,480 million Rials. The priorities for interests of irrigation using wastewater from an agricultural perspective suggests that availability and reliability of wastewater than other water sources and low cost of its use is the most important benefit. The next priority result of irrigation with wastewater is increasing crop yield and improving soil fertility. This explains why farmers despite the legal prohibition of the use of untreated sewage continue to utilize this source of irrigation water.

  8. Primary energy use for heating in the Swedish building sector-Current trends and proposed target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, P.; Nylander, A.; Johnsson, F.

    2007-01-01

    One goal of the Swedish energy policy is to reduce the amount of electricity used for heating in the building sector. This means to reduce the primary energy used for heating which in this paper is analyzed in the context of various heating technologies and CO 2 emissions. The analysis is applied to a region in Sweden (southern Sweden) for which detailed information on the energy infrastructure (the capital stock of the buildings and heating systems together with geographical variations in heat intensity) is available from a previous work [Johansson, P., Nylander, A., Johnsson, F., 2005. Electricity dependency and CO 2 emissions from heating in the Swedish building sector-current trends in conflict with governmental policy? Energy policy] and which is large enough to be assumed representative for Sweden as a whole. The detailed mapping of the energy infrastructure allows a good estimate on the rate at which the energy system can be expected to be replaced with respect to economical lifetime of the capital stock (the year 2025 in this case). Two scenarios are investigated; a target scenario for which energy savings are employed (e.g. improving climate shell in buildings) and oil and most of the electricity used for heating purposes are phased out and a second for which the current trend in the heating market continues. In the target scenario it is shown that although only applying commercially competitive heating technologies, it is possible to achieve a 47% reduction in primary energy use for heating with a 34% decrease in heat demand together with significant reduction in CO 2 emissions. However, the scenario which continues the current trends on the heating market instead yields an increase (of about 10%) in primary energy use (reduction in conversion efficiency) of the heating system of the region over the period studied, in spite of a slight decrease in heat demand (9%, mainly due to energy efficiency measures) as well as in CO 2 emissions. In light of the

  9. Effects of Low-Carbon Technologies and End-Use Electrification on Energy-Related Greenhouse Gases Mitigation in China by 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Guo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions in China have been increasing in line with its energy consumption and economic growth. Major means for energy-related greenhouse gases mitigation in the foreseeable future are transition to less carbon intensive energy supplies and structural changes in energy consumption. In this paper, a bottom-up model is built to examine typical projected scenarios for energy supply and demand, with which trends of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by 2050 can be analyzed. Results show that low-carbon technologies remain essential contributors to reducing emissions and altering emissions trends up to 2050. By pushing the limit of current practicality, emissions reduction can reach 20 to 28 percent and the advent of carbon peaking could shift from 2040 to 2030. In addition, the effect of electrification at end-use sectors is studied. Results show that electrifying transport could reduce emissions and bring the advent of carbon peaking forward, but the effect is less significant compared with low-carbon technologies. Moreover, it implies the importance of decarbonizing power supply before electrifying end-use sectors.

  10. End-Use Opportunity Analysis from Progress Indicator Results for ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This report and an accompanying spreadsheet (PNNL 2014a) compile the end use building simulation results for prototype buildings throughout the United States. The results represent he energy use of each edition of ASHRAE Standard 90.1, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (ASHRAE 2004, 2007, 2010, 2013). PNNL examined the simulation results to determine how the remaining energy was used.

  11. Second sector cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of July, cool-down is starting in the second LHC sector, sector 4-5. The cool down of sector 4-5 may occasionally generate mist at Point 4, like that produced last January (photo) during the cool-down of sector 7-8.Things are getting colder in the LHC. Sector 7-8 has been kept at 1.9 K for three weeks with excellent stability (see Bulletin No. 16-17 of 16 April 2007). The electrical tests in this sector have got opt to a successful start. At the beginning of July the cryogenic teams started to cool a second sector, sector 4-5. At Point 4 in Echenevex, where one of the LHC’s cryogenic plants is located, preparations for the first phase of the cool-down are underway. During this phase, the sector will first be cooled to 80 K (-193°C), the temperature of liquid nitrogen. As for the first sector, 1200 tonnes of liquid nitrogen will be used for the cool-down. In fact, the nitrogen circulates only at the surface in the ...

  12. Assessing the stock market volatility for different sectors in Malaysia by using standard deviation and EWMA methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Shakila; Ahmad, Noryati; Jaffar, Maheran Mohd

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, the study on volatility concept especially in stock market has gained so much attention from a group of people engaged in financial and economic sectors. The applications of volatility concept in financial economics can be seen in valuation of option pricing, estimation of financial derivatives, hedging the investment risk and etc. There are various ways to measure the volatility value. However for this study, two methods are used; the simple standard deviation and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA). The focus of this study is to measure the volatility on three different sectors of business in Malaysia, called primary, secondary and tertiary by using both methods. The daily and annual volatilities of different business sector based on stock prices for the period of 1 January 2014 to December 2014 have been calculated in this study. Result shows that different patterns of the closing stock prices and return give different volatility values when calculating using simple method and EWMA method.

  13. Finite element analysis of an extended end-plate connection using the T-stub approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muresan, Ioana Cristina; Balc, Roxana [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Civil Engineering. 15 C Daicoviciu Str., 400020, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-03-10

    Beam-to-column end-plate bolted connections are usually used as moment-resistant connections in steel framed structures. For this joint type, the deformability is governed by the deformation capacity of the column flange and end-plate under tension and elongation of the bolts. All these elements around the beam tension flange form the tension region of the joint, which can be modeled by means of equivalent T-stubs. In this paper a beam-to-column end-plate bolted connection is substituted with a T-stub of appropriate effective length and it is analyzed using the commercially available finite element software ABAQUS. The performance of the model is validated by comparing the behavior of the T-stub from the numerical simulation with the behavior of the connection as a whole. The moment-rotation curve of the T-stub obtained from the numerical simulation is compared with the behavior of the whole extended end-plate connection, obtained by numerical simulation, experimental tests and analytical approach.

  14. End-To-End Solution for Integrated Workload and Data Management using GlideinWMS and Globus Online

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhashilkar, Parag; Miller, Zachary; Weiss, Cathrin; Kettimuthu, Rajkumar; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Holzman, Burt; Duan, Xi; Lacinski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    Grid computing has enabled scientific communities to effectively share computing resources distributed over many independent sites. Several such communities, or Virtual Organizations (VO), in the Open Science Grid and the European Grid Infrastructure use the GlideinWMS system to run complex application work-flows. GlideinWMS is a pilot-based workload management system (WMS) that creates an on-demand, dynamically-sized overlay Condor batch system on Grid resources. While the WMS addresses the management of compute resources, however, data management in the Grid is still the responsibility of the VO. In general, large VOs have resources to develop complex custom solutions, while small VOs would rather push this responsibility to the infrastructure. The latter requires a tight integration of the WMS and the data management layers, an approach still not common in modern Grids. In this paper we describe a solution developed to address this shortcoming in the context of Center for Enabling Distributed Peta-scale Science (CEDPS) by integrating GlideinWMS with Globus Online (GO). Globus Online is a fast, reliable file transfer service that makes it easy for any user to move data. The solution eliminates the need for the users to provide custom data transfer solutions in the application by making this functionality part of the GlideinWMS infrastructure. To achieve this, GlideinWMS uses the file transfer plug-in architecture of Condor. The paper describes the system architecture and how this solution can be extended to support data transfer services other than Globus Online when used with Condor or GlideinWMS.

  15. End-To-End Solution for Integrated Workload and Data Management using glideinWMS and Globus Online

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Grid computing has enabled scientific communities to effectively share computing resources distributed over many independent sites. Several such communities, or Virtual Organizations (VO), in the Open Science Grid and the European Grid Infrastructure use the glideinWMS system to run complex application work-flows. GlideinWMS is a pilot-based workload management system (WMS) that creates on demand, dynamically-sized overlay Condor batch system on Grid resources. While the WMS addresses the management of compute resources, however, data management in the Grid is still the responsibility of the VO. In general, large VOs have resources to develop complex custom solutions, while small VOs would rather push this responsibility to the infrastructure. The latter requires a tight integration of the WMS and the data management layers, an approach still not common in modern Grids. In this paper we describe a solution developed to address this shortcoming in the context of Center for Enabling Distributed Petascale Scienc...

  16. Towards the development of a GHG emissions baseline for the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU sector, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanne B. Stevens

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC and as such is required to report on Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from the Energy, Transport, Waste and the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU sectors every two years in national inventories. The AFOLU sector is unique in that it comprises both sources and sinks for GHGs. Emissions from the AFOLU sector are estimated to contribute a quarter of the total global greenhouse gas emissions. GHG emissions sources from agriculture include enteric fermentation; manure management; manure deposits on pastures, and soil fertilization. Emissions sources from Forestry and Other Land Use (FOLU include anthropogenic land use activities such as: management of croplands, forests and grasslands and changes in land use cover (the conversion of one land use to another. South Africa has improved the quantification of AFOLU emissions and the understanding of the dynamic relationship between sinks and sources over the past decade through projects such as the 2010 GHG Inventory, the Mitigation Potential Analysis (MPA, and the National Terrestrial Carbon Sinks Assessment (NTCSA. These projects highlight key mitigation opportunities in South Africa and discuss their potentials. The problem remains that South Africa does not have an emissions baseline for the AFOLU sector against which the mitigation potentials can be measured. The AFOLU sector as a result is often excluded from future emission projections, giving an incomplete picture of South Africa’s mitigation potential. The purpose of this project was to develop a robust GHG emissions baseline for the AFOLU sector which will enable South Africa to project emissions into the future and demonstrate its contribution towards the global goal of reducing emissions.

  17. Noise Analysis of Single-Ended Input Differential Amplifier using Stochastic Differential Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Tarun Kumar Rawat; Abhirup Lahiri; Ashish Gupta

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the effect of noise in a single- ended input differential amplifier working at high frequencies. Both extrinsic and intrinsic noise are analyzed using time domain method employing techniques from stochastic calculus. Stochastic differential equations are used to obtain autocorrelation functions of the output noise voltage and other solution statistics like mean and variance. The analysis leads to important design implications and suggests changes in the device parame...

  18. Ending the use of animals in toxicity testing and risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Andrew N

    2015-10-01

    This article discusses the use of animals for the safety testing of chemicals, including pharmaceuticals, household products, pesticides, and industrial chemicals. It reviews changes in safety testing technology and what those changes mean from the perspective of industrial innovation, public policy and public health, economics, and ethics. It concludes that the continuing use of animals for chemical safety testing should end within the decade as cheaper, quicker, and more predictive technologies are developed and applied.

  19. Using and joining a franchised private sector provider network in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Kathryn; Hom, Mo; Aung, Tin; Theuss, Marc; Huntington, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Quality is central to understanding provider motivations to join and remain within a social franchising network. Quality also appears as a key issue from the client's perspective, and may influence why a client chooses to use a franchised provider over another type of provider. The dynamic relationships between providers of social franchising clinics and clients who use these services have not been thoroughly investigated in the context of Myanmar, which has an established social franchising network. This study examines client motivations to use a Sun Quality Health network provider and provider motivations to join and remain in the Sun Quality Health network. Taken together, these two aims provide an opportunity to explore the symbiotic relationship between client satisfaction and provider incentives to increase the utilization of reproductive health care services. Results from a series of focus group discussions with clients of reproductive health services and franchised providers shows that women chose health services provided by franchised private sector general practitioners because of its perceived higher quality, associated with the availability of effective, affordable, drugs. A key finding of the study is associated with providers. Provider focus group discussions indicate that a principle determinate for joining and remaining in the Sun Quality Health Network was serving the poor.

  20. Internet and international trade by manufacturers: An approach using industrial sectors data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Bernal-Jurado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Some evidences show how the potential generated by using the Internet as a tool able to open new commercial markets is not being fulfilled. The study´s purpose is to analyze the possible intensity with which the industrial sectors incorporate and take advantage of the Internet and the volume of business generated in international markets, based on statistical information referring to Spanish industry. Starting from the available statistical information on the incorporation and commercial use of ICT, the foreign trade and production of various Spanish industries are assigned different variables and the lineal relationships among them are contrasted. Those industries with the largest importing and exporting activities are, at the same time, those that get more and more business via electronic commerce, particularly through different communication channels, such as EDI, Minitel or Internet. However, it is interesting to note the absence of this kind of relationship when we look at the e-commerce carried out exclusively through the Internet. The results justify the necessity of taking more intensive actions to improve the use of the new electronic systems in the international commercialization, especially in the environment of the small and medium sized companies.

  1. Using and joining a franchised private sector provider network in Myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn O'Connell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Quality is central to understanding provider motivations to join and remain within a social franchising network. Quality also appears as a key issue from the client's perspective, and may influence why a client chooses to use a franchised provider over another type of provider. The dynamic relationships between providers of social franchising clinics and clients who use these services have not been thoroughly investigated in the context of Myanmar, which has an established social franchising network. This study examines client motivations to use a Sun Quality Health network provider and provider motivations to join and remain in the Sun Quality Health network. Taken together, these two aims provide an opportunity to explore the symbiotic relationship between client satisfaction and provider incentives to increase the utilization of reproductive health care services. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Results from a series of focus group discussions with clients of reproductive health services and franchised providers shows that women chose health services provided by franchised private sector general practitioners because of its perceived higher quality, associated with the availability of effective, affordable, drugs. A key finding of the study is associated with providers. Provider focus group discussions indicate that a principle determinate for joining and remaining in the Sun Quality Health Network was serving the poor.

  2. Using and Joining a Franchised Private Sector Provider Network in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Kathryn; Hom, Mo; Aung, Tin; Theuss, Marc; Huntington, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Background Quality is central to understanding provider motivations to join and remain within a social franchising network. Quality also appears as a key issue from the client's perspective, and may influence why a client chooses to use a franchised provider over another type of provider. The dynamic relationships between providers of social franchising clinics and clients who use these services have not been thoroughly investigated in the context of Myanmar, which has an established social franchising network. This study examines client motivations to use a Sun Quality Health network provider and provider motivations to join and remain in the Sun Quality Health network. Taken together, these two aims provide an opportunity to explore the symbiotic relationship between client satisfaction and provider incentives to increase the utilization of reproductive health care services. Methods and Findings Results from a series of focus group discussions with clients of reproductive health services and franchised providers shows that women chose health services provided by franchised private sector general practitioners because of its perceived higher quality, associated with the availability of effective, affordable, drugs. A key finding of the study is associated with providers. Provider focus group discussions indicate that a principle determinate for joining and remaining in the Sun Quality Health Network was serving the poor. PMID:22180781

  3. Double muscle innervation using end-to-side neurorrhaphy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Jeronymo Stipp-Brambilla

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: One of the techniques used for treating facial paralysis is double muscle innervation using end-to-end neurorrhaphy with sectioning of healthy nerves. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether double muscle innervation by means of end-to-side neurorrhaphy could occur, with maintenance of muscle innervation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental study developed at the Experimental Research Center, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Unesp. METHODS: One hundred rats were allocated to five groups as follows: G1, control group; G2, the peroneal nerve was sectioned; G3, the tibial nerve was transected and the proximal stump was end-to-side sutured to the intact peroneal nerve; G4, 120 days after the G3 surgery, the peroneal nerve was sectioned proximally to the neurorrhaphy; G5, 120 days after the G3 surgery, the peroneal and tibial nerves were sectioned proximally to the neurorrhaphy. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty days after the surgery, G3 did not show any change in tibial muscle weight or muscle fiber diameter, but the axonal fiber diameter in the peroneal nerve distal to the neurorrhaphy had decreased. Although G4 showed atrophy of the cranial tibial muscle 30 days after sectioning the peroneal nerve, the electrophysiological test results and axonal diameter measurement confirmed that muscle reinnervation had occurred. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that double muscle innervation did not occur through end-to-side neurorrhaphy; the tibial nerve was not able to maintain muscle innervation after the peroneal nerve had been sectioned, although muscle reinnervation was found to have occurred, 30 days after the peroneal nerve had been sectioned.

  4. Analysis of 'new physics' in the flavor sector using effective field theory methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassinger, Benjamin M.

    2010-01-01

    The enormous amount of data collected by the B factories as well as the perspective concerning the upcoming experiments at the LHC provide us with the opportunity to perform high precision tests of the standard model. This dissertation presents two model independent precision tests of the weak sector of the standard model using extensions of the weak currents which are set up using effective field theory methods in order to control the size of the different contributions. Constraints on the coefficients of the terms can then be obtained by comparison with experimental results. The first analysis incorporates a test of the lefthandedness of the weak interaction in the quark sector. By introducing additional weak couplings the differential and total decay rates of the inclusive semileptonic decay anti B → X c l anti ν l are calculated. The calculation includes the computation of the heavy-quark expansion which describes the interaction of the decaying b quark with respect to the background field of the B meson, up to order 1/m b 4 . This has been done in a new, systematic way which does not involve the calculation of gluon matrix elements. Furthermore, radiative corrections have been included up to order O(α s ) including renormalization group running. The second part deals with the introduction of lepton flavor violating operators in the context of leptonic τ decays. These operators give rise to the effective four-fermion vertex τ→ll ' l'' as well as the subsequent radiative decay τ→lγ * →ll '+ l '- . The resulting Dalitz distributions turn out to predict completely different signatures for the radiative and the effective four-fermion vertices and provide the opportunity to check, whether the decay is induced either by a radiative or by an effective four-fermion vertex. Since different models which contain lepton flavor violation are normally more sensitive to one of those decay modes than to the other, the analysis therefore allows the comparison of

  5. Analysis of ''new physics'' in the flavor sector using effective field theory methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassinger, Benjamin M

    2010-02-05

    The enormous amount of data collected by the B factories as well as the perspective concerning the upcoming experiments at the LHC provide us with the opportunity to perform high precision tests of the standard model. This dissertation presents two model independent precision tests of the weak sector of the standard model using extensions of the weak currents which are set up using effective field theory methods in order to control the size of the different contributions. Constraints on the coefficients of the terms can then be obtained by comparison with experimental results. The first analysis incorporates a test of the lefthandedness of the weak interaction in the quark sector. By introducing additional weak couplings the differential and total decay rates of the inclusive semileptonic decay anti B {yields} X{sub c}l anti {nu}{sub l} are calculated. The calculation includes the computation of the heavy-quark expansion which describes the interaction of the decaying b quark with respect to the background field of the B meson, up to order 1/m{sub b}{sup 4}. This has been done in a new, systematic way which does not involve the calculation of gluon matrix elements. Furthermore, radiative corrections have been included up to order O({alpha}{sub s}) including renormalization group running. The second part deals with the introduction of lepton flavor violating operators in the context of leptonic {tau} decays. These operators give rise to the effective four-fermion vertex {tau}{yields}ll{sup '}l'' as well as the subsequent radiative decay {tau}{yields}l{gamma}{sup *}{yields}ll{sup '+}l{sup '-}. The resulting Dalitz distributions turn out to predict completely different signatures for the radiative and the effective four-fermion vertices and provide the opportunity to check, whether the decay is induced either by a radiative or by an effective four-fermion vertex. Since different models which contain lepton flavor violation are normally more sensitive to one of those

  6. Motives for Volunteering: Categorization of Volunteers' Motivations Using Open-ended Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Chacón

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies of volunteers’ motivations use standardized questionnaires with one of the most commonly-used being the Volunteer Function Inventory. Open-ended questions about what drives individuals to be volunteers are seldom used. We hypothesize that questionnaires tend to overestimate the number of motivations and to underestimate their variety. Therefore, in this paper we analyze the answers of 1515 volunteers to an open-ended question and categorize these answers. Results show that volunteers give an average of 2 motivations, fewer than the questionnaires, and that the Value motivation is the most frequently mentioned and the most important for volunteers. In addition, this motivation coexists with other motivations, which are lacking in the standard questionnaires, such as Organizational Commitment, Personal Development, Religiosity, Social Change or Interest in the Activity.

  7. Regulatory Framework for the Maintenance of the Relevant Knowledge in the Atomic Energy Use Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapozhnikov, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: In accordance with the Atomic Act of the Russian Federation the employees and workers (personnel) of nuclear industry organisations, who occupy certain positions or perform specific activities in the field of atomic energy use can start to fulfil their duties only after getting a special permit issued by the state safety regulatory authority. Rostechnadzor issues permits for the specified kinds of activities to personal of nuclear facilities, organizations engaged in transportation of nuclear and radioactive materials, and enterprises performing physical protection and account of nuclear materials and radioactive substances. To enforce the provisions of the Atomic Act Rostechnadzor has developed a regulatory system (requirements, procedures and methodology) for continued supervision over the maintenance of the required level of knowledge and adequate understanding of the nuclear safety requirements by the nuclear personnel, depending on the nature of their job duties and work in the sphere of nuclear energy use. The report presents a long-term experience of Rostechnadzor in implementing an effective regulatory system for maintaining an adequate level of knowledge and expertise of personnel of nuclear industry organisations and ensuring a competent workforce in the nuclear energy sector. (author

  8. Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Electricity Sector Using Smart Electric Grid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiaa Abdallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 40% of global CO2 emissions are emitted from electricity generation through the combustion of fossil fuels to generate heat needed to power steam turbines. Burning these fuels results in the production of carbon dioxide (CO2—the primary heat-trapping, “greenhouse gas” responsible for global warming. Applying smart electric grid technologies can potentially reduce CO2 emissions. Electric grid comprises three major sectors: generation, transmission and distribution grid, and consumption. Smart generation includes the use of renewable energy sources (wind, solar, or hydropower. Smart transmission and distribution relies on optimizing the existing assets of overhead transmission lines, underground cables, transformers, and substations such that minimum generating capacities are required in the future. Smart consumption will depend on the use of more efficient equipment like energy-saving lighting lamps, enabling smart homes and hybrid plug-in electric vehicles technologies. A special interest is given to the Egyptian case study. Main opportunities for Egypt include generating electricity from wind and solar energy sources and its geographical location that makes it a perfect center for interconnecting electrical systems from the Nile basin, North Africa, Gulf, and Europe. Challenges include shortage of investments, absence of political will, aging of transmission and distribution infrastructure, and lack of consumer awareness for power utilization.

  9. Mitigating secondary aerosol generation potentials from biofuel use in the energy sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Abhishek; Colls, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates secondary aerosol generation potential of biofuel use in the energy sector from the photochemical interactions of precursor gases on a life cycle basis. The paper is divided into two parts-first, employing life cycle analysis (LCA) to evaluate the extent of the problem for a typical biofuel based electricity production system using five baseline scenarios; second, proposing adequate mitigation options to minimise the secondary aerosol generation potential on a life cycle basis. The baseline scenarios cover representative technologies for 2010 utilising energy crop (miscanthus), short rotation coppiced chips and residual/waste wood in different proportions. The proposed mitigation options include three approaches-biomass gasification prior to combustion, delaying the harvest of biomass, and increasing the geographical distance between the biomass plant and the harvest site (by importing the biofuels). Preliminary results indicate that the baseline scenarios (assuming all the biomass is sourced locally) bear significant secondary aerosol formation potential on a life cycle basis from photochemical neutralisation of acidic emissions (hydrogen chloride and sulphur dioxide) with ammonia. Our results suggest that gasification of miscanthus biomass would provide the best option by minimising the acidic emissions from the combustion plant whereas the other two options of delaying the harvest or importing biofuels from elsewhere would only lead to marginal reduction in the life cycle aerosol loadings of the systems.

  10. High-resolution analysis of the 5'-end transcriptome using a next generation DNA sequencer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-ichi Hashimoto

    Full Text Available Massively parallel, tag-based sequencing systems, such as the SOLiD system, hold the promise of revolutionizing the study of whole genome gene expression due to the number of data points that can be generated in a simple and cost-effective manner. We describe the development of a 5'-end transcriptome workflow for the SOLiD system and demonstrate the advantages in sensitivity and dynamic range offered by this tag-based application over traditional approaches for the study of whole genome gene expression. 5'-end transcriptome analysis was used to study whole genome gene expression within a colon cancer cell line, HT-29, treated with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5Aza. More than 20 million 25-base 5'-end tags were obtained from untreated and 5Aza-treated cells and matched to sequences within the human genome. Seventy three percent of the mapped unique tags were associated with RefSeq cDNA sequences, corresponding to approximately 14,000 different protein-coding genes in this single cell type. The level of expression of these genes ranged from 0.02 to 4,704 transcripts per cell. The sensitivity of a single sequence run of the SOLiD platform was 100-1,000 fold greater than that observed from 5'end SAGE data generated from the analysis of 70,000 tags obtained by Sanger sequencing. The high-resolution 5'end gene expression profiling presented in this study will not only provide novel insight into the transcriptional machinery but should also serve as a basis for a better understanding of cell biology.

  11. Decomposing final energy use for heating in the residential sector in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzmann, Angela; Adensam, Heidelinde; Kratena, Kurt; Schmid, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    In Austria a considerable number of measures have been implemented to reduce final energy use for residential heating since the 1990s. The aim of this analysis is to investigate, why – despite these implemented measures – final energy use for heating has not decreased in the expected way. The impact of eight factors on final energy use for heating is quantified by applying the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I) method. The dataset covers the sector of private households in Austria for the period from 1993 to 2009. The main findings of the analysis are: (1) while technical improvements reduce final energy use for heating significantly, rising comfort needs nearly outweigh these savings. (2) Consumer behaviour reduces calculated final energy use considerably. (3) The extent of this reduction is declining significantly in the period observed. (4) The growing share of single-family houses has increased energy demand for heating in the observed period, though a reversal of this trend is detected from 2007 onwards. (5) The impact of growing floor space per person is the major effect revealed by the analysis. (6) Weather conditions have a major impact on annual fluctuations of energy consumption. -- Highlights: •We did an Index decomposition analysis of the Austrian residential heating demand. •Eight impact factors on heating demand have been identified. •Rising comfort needs outweigh savings caused by technical improvements. •Consumer behaviour has a major impact on residential final energy use for heating. •Weather changes play a major role when analysing annual changes in energy use

  12. A MEMS AC current sensor for residential and commercial electricity end-use monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leland, E S; Wright, P K; White, R M

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel prototype MEMS sensor for alternating current designed for monitoring electricity end-use in residential and commercial environments. This new current sensor design is comprised of a piezoelectric MEMS cantilever with a permanent magnet mounted on the cantilever's free end. When placed near a wire carrying AC current, the magnet is driven sinusoidally, producing a voltage in the cantilever proportional to the current being measured. Analytical models were developed to predict the applicable magnetic forces and piezoelectric voltage output in order to guide the design of a sensor prototype. This paper also details the fabrication process for this sensor design. Released piezoelectric MEMS cantilevers have been fabricated using a four-mask process and aluminum nitride as the active piezoelectric material. Dispenser-printed microscale composite permanent magnets have been integrated, resulting in the first MEMS-scale prototypes of this current sensor design

  13. Robust Spectrum Sensing Demonstration Using a Low-Cost Front-End Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Borio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectrum Sensing (SS is an important function in Cognitive Radio (CR to detect primary users. The design of SS algorithms is one of the most challenging tasks in CR and requires innovative hardware and software solutions to enhance detection probability and minimize low false alarm probability. Although several SS algorithms have been developed in the specialized literature, limited work has been done to practically demonstrate the feasibility of this function on platforms with significant computational and hardware constraints. In this paper, SS is demonstrated using a low cost TV tuner as agile front-end for sensing a large portion of the Ultra-High Frequency (UHF spectrum. The problems encountered and the limitations imposed by the front-end are analysed along with the solutions adopted. Finally, the spectrum sensor developed is implemented on an Android device and SS implementation is demonstrated using a smartphone.

  14. Marginalization of end-use technologies in energy innovation for climate protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Charlie; Grubler, Arnulf; Gallagher, Kelly S.; Nemet, Gregory F.

    2012-11-01

    Mitigating climate change requires directed innovation efforts to develop and deploy energy technologies. Innovation activities are directed towards the outcome of climate protection by public institutions, policies and resources that in turn shape market behaviour. We analyse diverse indicators of activity throughout the innovation system to assess these efforts. We find efficient end-use technologies contribute large potential emission reductions and provide higher social returns on investment than energy-supply technologies. Yet public institutions, policies and financial resources pervasively privilege energy-supply technologies. Directed innovation efforts are strikingly misaligned with the needs of an emissions-constrained world. Significantly greater effort is needed to develop the full potential of efficient end-use technologies.

  15. The use of genetic information in the insurance sector--a German perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrüster, Christian; Obal, Monika

    2013-01-01

    The following paper offers an introduction to the legal framework concerning the use of genetic information in the insurance sector in Germany. The main contents and the controversial issues of the key regulation are examined. The aim of this rule being to secure human dignity by respecting the right to informational self-determination regarding genetic data, including the individual's right not to know about their genetic characteristics, there are a number of open issues which are being addressed. For instance, the influence of the prohibition to ask for genetic testing and to use the results of any such testing by the insurer is examined. This examination leads to some explicit results, such as the assumption that in addition to the ban on the use of genetic testing no questions about family medical history are admissible. The authors embark on the definition of genetic testing and the question to what extent the results of diagnostic genetic testing may still be made use of in the context of the insured person's obligation to display pre-existing conditions and diseases when the contract is concluded. In this respect distinctions between diagnostic and predictive genetic testing as well as between disease and disposition are drawn. Furthermore, the exceptions from the prohibition to use results of genetic testing are examined, and the scope of the prohibition of acceptance of results of genetic testing even if performed at the instigation of the insured is explored. Finally the consequences, encompassing criminal liability and private law ramifications, of the violation of the prohibition are presented. In this context, a narrow understanding of the aggravated criminal offence of using results of genetic testing with the intent to personal enrichment or in return for payments is developed. Finally the effects on the validity of the insurance contract and the question whether the insurer may be forced to conclude a contract are examined.

  16. Refractive index sensor based on optical fiber end face using pulse reference-based compensation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Qiang; Song, Zhangqi; Zhang, Xueliang; Yu, Yang; Chen, Yuzhong

    2018-03-01

    We proposed a refractive index sensor based on optical fiber end face using pulse reference-based compensation technique. With good compensation effect of this compensation technique, the power fluctuation of light source, the change of optic components transmission loss and coupler splitting ratio can be compensated, which largely reduces the background noise. The refractive index resolutions can achieve 3.8 × 10-6 RIU and1.6 × 10-6 RIU in different refractive index regions.

  17. Economic Analysis of Solar Energy Using in Oil Sector Economy in Republic of Tatarstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, L. I.; Goshunova, A. V.; Nutfullina, D. I.

    2017-11-01

    In the current economic conditions further increase of the profit or maintenance of its current level on the base of extensive development factors is no longer possible. The example of the oil-extracting company in the Republic of Tatarstan demonstrates that in the future it will be possible to replace traditional energy sources with solar energy; it will reduce energy costs for oil extraction, production costs and provide an increase of corporate efficiency. The economic analysis results show that the use of solar electricity can lead to 4.68% reduction in total electricity costs. In addition, the energy consumption per ton of oil produced is reduced. The share of electricity costs in the oil cost is reducing from 12.13% to 11.56%. Consequently, in the long term, the impact of total energy costs reduction can become more significant. In this way solar energy can become quite a real alternative in ensuring the energy needs of the economy of the oil-extracting sector of the Republic of Tatarstan and become a driver of intensive economic development.

  18. Comparison between state & private bank sectors using the COBIT4.1 framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahdi Ghazanfari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In current dynamic and often turbulent work environment, information technology becomes an effective competitive advantage that organizations largely rely on it. Due to this affiliation, the importance of integrity and accommodation between the information technology strategies and business strategies in organizations has been increased. This alliance is the initial aim of the governance of information technology. The purpose of this study is evaluating and comparing the maturity of information technology governance of organization that are active in financial services sector (state and private banks. In order to measure and compare the maturity of IT governance of Iranian banks in adaption of business strategies, IT governance and COBIT4.1 framework has been used. In this study, data have been collected from 17 large state and private banks. The results suggest that private banks, due to structure type and maturity of IT governance and organizational strategies, have higher degree of maturity (1.98 in applying the technology and compliance with IT compare to state banks (1.60

  19. Development of a protocol and catalogue for existing end-use metered data from Canadian utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robillard, P.; Lopes, J.

    1994-12-01

    Reasons for collection of end-use metering (EUM) data by electrical utilities were cited as: (1) demand-side management (DSM); (2) class end-use load research; (3) technology assessment; and (4) marketing and customer support. The emergence of DSM evaluation has served to focus on EUM as a strategic tool. The combination of DSM- related load research and other load data requirements has resulted in diverse means of end-use data collection, most of them involving frequent data collection. EUM technology was considered costly, and time consuming to implement. Also, the intrusive character of EUM can sometimes strain customer relations. Electric utilities were found to be interested in pursuing options for sharing of EUM data. An expert service function should be developed to provide EUM study design, implementation, and data analysis services to participating utilities. A planning process for coordinating projects among utilities was recommended to reduce single party costs. Organizational mechanisms for providing EUM services were identified. A number of recommendations were made directed toward the CEA for the realization of an EUM service

  20. Using motivational interviewing to facilitate death talk in end-of-life care: an ethical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Isra; Helgason, Ásgeir Rúnar

    2018-03-21

    Morbidity arising from unprepared bereavement is a problem that affects close personal relations of individuals at the end-of-life. The bereavement studies literature demonstrates that a lack of preparedness for a loved one's death is a risk factor for secondary psychological morbidity among survivors. Short awareness time of death negatively correlates to preparedness for bereavement. The absence of disclosure of end-of-life diagnosis and prognosis to close personal relations ('death talk') between patients and loved ones, or health professionals and loved ones, may contribute to short awareness time of death. To increase awareness time of death, we might attempt to increase patient first-personal disclosure of end-of-life diagnosis and prognosis to loved-ones, and/or patient consent to health professional disclosure of the same. Interventions based on motivational interviewing in end-of-life care whose aim is to facilitate death talk, either by the patient directly, or by a health professional with the patient's consent, may offer a part solution to the problem of unprepared bereavement. This paper evaluates the ethical permissibility of such interventions. We consider two ethical objections to using motivational interviewing in this way: first, that it is inappropriate for practitioners to seek disclosure as an outcome in this setting; second, that aiming at disclosure risks manipulating individuals into death talk. While it need not be impermissible to direct individuals toward disclosure of end-of-life diagnosis/prognosis, the objection from manipulation implies that it is pro tanto ethically preferable to use motivational interviewing in a non-directive mode in death talk conversations. However, insofar as non-directive motivational interviewing requires more advanced skills, and thus may be more difficult to learn and to practise, we advance that it may be ethically permissible, all things considered, to employ directional, or specific outcome

  1. End users heat energy savings using thermostat regulation valves radiators, v. 16(64)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakimovska, Emilija Misheva; Potsev, Eftim

    2008-01-01

    Billing the used heat energy offers the opportunity to motivate end users to use the heat energy rationally and to save the energy. Installing the thermostat valves on the radiators it is possible frequently to regulate the room temperature and to use the heat gains, obtaining comfortable climate in the apartments and saving the energy. Thermostat valves give the possibility to use the heat energy rationally and save the energy, and these way and users can regulate the heat energy consumption according to their own level of thermal comfort. (Author)

  2. End users heat energy savings using thermostat regulation valves radiators, v. 16(63)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakimovska, Emilija Misheva; Potsev, Eftim

    2008-01-01

    Billing the used heat energy offers the opportunity to motivate end users to use the heat energy rationally and to save the energy. Installing the thermostat valves on the radiators it is possible frequently to regulate the room temperature and to use the heat gains, obtaining comfortable climate in the apartments and saving the energy. Thermostat valves give the possibility to use the heat energy rationally and save the energy, and these way and users can regulate the heat energy consumption according to their own level of thermal comfort. (Author)

  3. Environmental Quality and the U.S. Power Sector: Air Quality, Land Use and Environmental Justice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massetti, Emanuele [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Brown, Marilyn Ann [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sharma, Isha [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bradbury, James [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Cunliff, Colin [American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC (United States); Li, Yufei [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-01-04

    This baseline report summarizes key environmental quality issues associated with electricity generation, transmission, distribution, and end use in the United States. Its scope includes non-greenhouse gas air pollution (i.e., sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and hazardous air pollutants), land use, water pollution, ecological impacts, human health, and environmental justice. The discussion characterizes both current impacts and recent trends, as well as assessments of key drivers of change. For example, the air emissions section includes a quantitative decomposition analysis of the drivers of change in sulfur dioxide emissions reductions from coal-fired power plants. The report is divided into four topical sections: air emissions, land use and ecology, water quality, and environmental justice.

  4. Modeling of electricity savings in the Danish household sector using Balmorel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trivella, Alessio; Baldini, Mattia

    In this paper we examine the investments in energy-efficient household appliances from an energy system perspective. We consider a set of ten appliances constituting the majority of the electricity consumption in the private household sector, and investigate whether investing in improved energy...... efficiency can compete with the cost of electricity supply from existing or new power plants. To assess the analysis, Balmorel, a linear optimization model for heat and power sectors, has been extended in order to assess the best possible investments in more efficient household appliances. The model is non......-exclusively tested on the Danish energy system under different scenarios, and computational experiments show that several energy efficiency measures in the household sector should be regarded as valuable investments, while others would require some form of support to become profitable. The analysis also reveals...

  5. Natural Zeolite Sample and Investigation Its Use in Oil Bleaching Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Oyku

    2017-12-01

    In the sector of oil bleaching, the stored raw oil is subjected to physical and chemical methods such as degumming, neutralization, bleaching, deodorization and winterization. In the process of oil bleaching, the selection of correct bleaching earth in accordance with oil characteristics matters so much. Bleaching earth is an inorganic product used in removing impurities being available within the structures of vegetable, animal oil (sunflower, soya, corn, palm, tallow, rapeseed, fish oils…etc.) and fatty acids, mineral oils (glycerine, paraffin, mineral motor oils. etc.) with the adsorption process. The factors such as low cost of oil bleaching earth, low ratio of oil retaining, high bleaching capacity in spite of using them in small amounts, filter’s delayed blocking by the earth and non-increase of the free acidity of the oil should be taken into consideration. Bleaching earths are processed with some acids in order to widen their surface areas. During this process, a certain amount of acid is left within oil bleaching earths even if it is very little. These acids also increase oil’s acidity by oxidizing oil in the course of bleaching process. In this study, zeolite sample taken from Manisa -Demirci region was used. Following the processes of crushing and sieving, zeolite sample was subjected to chemical analyses according to their grain thickness, microscopic examination, the analyses of XRD and cation exchange capacity and their ore characteristics were determined. Afterwards, it was searched whether zeolite sample has oil bleaching ability or not or whether it can be used as oil bleaching earth or not.

  6. Healthcare sector efficiency in Gujarat (India: an exploratory study using data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh C. Purohit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of efficiency in resource utilization in healthcare sector has been recognized globally. In this paper we focus on efficiency of healthcare system at sub-state level (i.e., district level in India using Gujarat state and its district level data for 2012-13. In spite of being an economically advanced state, in terms of infant mortality rate (IMR the state is not the lowest. We explore the reasons for relative performance of different districts with data envelopment analysis (DEA. We used IMR as output variables. Using principal component analysis we tried a sub-set of variables, which had low correlations. Thus, four factor scores relating to medical officer, lady medical officer, Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy doctor, pharmacist, were used for DEA. We have focused on Charnes, Cooper, and Rhodes scores (or constant returns to scale technical efficiency score, and discussed efficiency rankings based on these. Thus, our results pertaining to district level health system efficiency in Gujarat State indicate that some of the districts have low efficiency in utilization of inputs like doctors, beds and workload per health institutions. There are also other districts, which need more of these inputs, which may enhance their output and efficiency. Thus, it is suggested that the efficiency in Valsad needs an improvement much more than other districts, whereas districts like Ahmadabad and Surat need more of both medical manpower and facilities. Even in case of Vadodara and Rajkot, the ranking in terms of most of medical manpower and facilities is low and thus these districts may also be benefitted by additional inputs. Hence, there is a mix of both inefficiency and inadequacy of inputs, which is reflected in our results.

  7. Use of antibacterial fixed-dose combinations in the private sector in eight Latin American Countries between 1999 and 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirtz, Veronika J.; Mol, Peter G. M.; Verdijk, Jonneke; Stichele, Robert H. Vander; Taxis, Katja

    OBJECTIVE: To assesses the safety and rationale of antibacterial fixed-dose combinations in the private sector in Latin America and determine the extent of their use. METHODS: Analysis of FDCs was based on retail sales data for eight Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia,

  8. Relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in a water-scarce area in China: A quantitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; Gao, Lei; Liu, Pin; Hailu, Atakelty

    2014-07-01

    Northern China has been facing severe water scarcity as a result of vigorous economic growth, population expansion and changing lifestyles. A typical case is Shandong province whose water resources per capita is approximately only a sixth of the national average and a twentieth of the global average. It is useful to assess the implications of the province’s growth and trade patterns for water use and water conservation strategies. This study quantitatively analyses relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in Shandong using an input-output model for virtual water resources. The changes in key indicators for 1997-2007 are tracked and the effects of water-saving policies on these changes are examined. The results highlight the benefits of applying a virtual water trade analysis on a water-scarce region where water resources exhibit highly heterogeneous temporal and geographical distributions. The net export of virtual water in Shandong was initially large, but this declined over the years and the province has recently become a net importer. Between 1997 and 2002, water use in most sectors increased due to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. Since then, water use in all Shandong economic sectors exhibit a downward trend despite continued increases in goods and services net exports, a trend which can be attributed to the vigorous implementation of water-saving policies and measures, especially water use quotas. Economic sectors consume water directly and indirectly and understanding the pattern of virtual water trade implied by sectoral relationships is important for managing water scarcity problems. This study fills the knowledge gap in the existing literature created by the lack of case studies that dynamically assess virtual water trade and analyse the effects of water-saving policies and measures. The study draws policy recommendations that are relevant for future water planning in Shandong and other regions in northern China.

  9. The use of ethanol from sugar cane in the Brazilian transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Suzana Kahn

    1999-01-01

    The use of Ethanol as a fuel is a significant contribution to the efforts for reducing greenhouse effect related to gas emissions. The main objective of the present work, is to assess Brazil's performance regarding activities aimed at reducing harmful gas emissions, in the global context of the intensification of the greenhouse effect, assumed as a working hypothesis. Brazil's estimated emissions of greenhouse effect related to gases are far less than those of developed countries. The per capita consumption of energy and of fossil fuels is still quite low in Brazil. However, the means for reducing harmful gas emissions and the initiatives to control the greenhouse effect should not be directed to the maintenance of the present low level of energy consumption, for this would have negative repercussion on the economic development of the country. Developed countries have focused on the more rational uses of energy, i.e. more efficient and less polluting fuels, so as to reduce their own levels of greenhouse effect related to gas emissions. In this connection, the use of ethanol in Brazil for the transportation sector may prove to be an important alternative furthering the efforts to stabilised the actual level of gases in the atmosphere. The energy derived from biomass, and in this case, from a renewable, clean source, i.e., from sugar cane, has the unquestionable advantage of permitting the almost complete reabsorption of Carbon Dioxide emitted through the combustion of fuel alcohol. This closed cycle allows, in principle, to increase the energy supply, essential for sustained economic growth, without hazards to the environment. Furthermore, the Brazilian Fuel Alcohol Program has the potential to attract international interest as an important alternative relative to the efforts for controlling the global dangers of the greenhouse effect, as will be discussed in greater detail further on in this paper. (Author)

  10. Use of the ''MURA'' transformation to generate the fields and calculate the motion of protons in the designed Argonne Mini-ASPUN FFAG Spiral Sector Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    As a long range goal for the production of high intensity neutrons, Argonne National Laboratory has proposed the construction of a 1.5 GeV FFAG Spiral Sector Accelerator called ASPUN. The 500-MeV injector for this proposed accelerator is a smaller FFAG Spiral Sector Accelerator named Mini-ASPUN. Until such a time as the larger machine could be built, it was planned that Mini-ASPUN would replace the present RCS now being used for the IPNS program at Argonne. In order to obtain an accurate estimation of the orbits and betatron oscillations in such a machine, it is necessary that realistic field values be used in the equations of motion. Obtaining these fields from 3-dimensional relaxation calculations is both time consuming and costly. However, because of the required scaling of the machine, the field-generating potential of three variables can be separated into a known function of the radius and a function of two variables. The second order differential equation satisfied by this function can be solved by ordinary relaxation methods. The fields generated from a mesh of values for this function will be accurate except for the extreme inside and outside orbits, which will be affected by the necessary termination of the inside and outside ends of the magnet. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. Energy use in the Greek manufacturing sector: A methodological framework based on physical indicators with aggregation and decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salta, Myrsine; Polatidis, Heracles; Haralambopoulos, Dias

    2009-01-01

    A bottom-up methodological framework was developed and applied for the period 1985-2002, to selected manufacturing sub-sectors in Greece namely, food, beverages and tobacco, iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, non-metallic minerals and paper. Disaggregate physical data were aggregated according to their specific energy consumption (SEC) values and physical energy efficiency indicators were estimated. The Logarithmic Mean Divisia index method was also used and the effects of the production, structure and energy efficiency to changes in sub-sectoral manufacturing energy use were further assessed. Primary physical energy efficiency improved by 28% for the iron and steel and by 9% for the non-metallic minerals industries, compared to the base year 1990. For the food, beverages and tobacco and the paper sub-sectors, primary efficiency deteriorated by 20% and by 15%, respectively; finally electricity efficiency deteriorated by 7% for the non-ferrous metals. Sub-sectoral energy use is mainly driven by production output and energy efficiency changes. Sensitivity analysis showed that alternative SEC values do not influence the results whereas the selected base year is more critical for this analysis. Significant efficiency improvements refer to 'heavy' industry; 'light' industry needs further attention by energy policy to modernize its production plants and improve its efficiency

  12. Energy use in the Greek manufacturing sector: A methodological framework based on physical indicators with aggregation and decomposition analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salta, Myrsine; Polatidis, Heracles; Haralambopoulos, Dias [Energy Management Laboratory, Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, University Hill, Mytilene 81100 (Greece)

    2009-01-15

    A bottom-up methodological framework was developed and applied for the period 1985-2002, to selected manufacturing sub-sectors in Greece namely, food, beverages and tobacco, iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, non-metallic minerals and paper. Disaggregate physical data were aggregated according to their specific energy consumption (SEC) values and physical energy efficiency indicators were estimated. The Logarithmic Mean Divisia index method was also used and the effects of the production, structure and energy efficiency to changes in sub-sectoral manufacturing energy use were further assessed. Primary physical energy efficiency improved by 28% for the iron and steel and by 9% for the non-metallic minerals industries, compared to the base year 1990. For the food, beverages and tobacco and the paper sub-sectors, primary efficiency deteriorated by 20% and by 15%, respectively; finally electricity efficiency deteriorated by 7% for the non-ferrous metals. Sub-sectoral energy use is mainly driven by production output and energy efficiency changes. Sensitivity analysis showed that alternative SEC values do not influence the results whereas the selected base year is more critical for this analysis. Significant efficiency improvements refer to ''heavy'' industry; ''light'' industry needs further attention by energy policy to modernize its production plants and improve its efficiency. (author)

  13. How do third sector organisations use research and other knowledge? A systematic scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, Rebecca; Anderson, Rob; Cooper, Chris

    2015-06-06

    Third sector organisations (TSOs) are a well-established component of health care provision in the UK's NHS and other health systems, but little is known about how they use research and other forms of knowledge in their work. There is an emerging body of evidence exploring these issues but there is no review of this literature. This scoping review summarises what is known about how health and social care TSOs use research and other forms of knowledge in their work. A systematic search of electronic databases was carried out with initial exploratory searching of knowledge mobilisation websites, contacting authors, and hand searching of journals. The literature was narratively summarised to describe how TSOs use knowledge in decision making. Ten qualitative and mixed methods studies were retrieved. They show that TSOs wish to be "evidence-informed" in their decision making, and organisational context influences the kinds of research and knowledge they prefer, as well as how they use it. Barriers to research use include time, staff skill, resources and the acontextual nature of some academic research. Appropriate approaches to knowledge mobilisation may include using research intermediaries, involving TSOs in research, and better description of interventions and contexts in academic publications to aid applying it in the multi-disciplinary contexts of TSOs. TSOs identified specific benefits of using research, such as confidence that services were good quality, ability to negotiate with stakeholders and funders, and saving time and resources through implementing interventions shown to be effective. The small number of included studies means the findings need further confirmation through primary research. As the contribution of health and social care TSOs to service delivery is growing, the need to understand how they mobilise research and other forms of knowledge will continue. The research community could 1) develop relationships with TSOs to support the design and

  14. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 744 - Military End-Use Examples for § 744.17

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military End-Use Examples for § 744.17 No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 744 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... End-Use Examples for § 744.17 (a) Examples of military end-uses (as described in § 744.17 (d) of this...

  15. Using Co-innovation to Stimulate Innovation in the New Zealand Agricultural Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botha, N.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Small, B.; Turner, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    A recently implemented research and development program; Co-learning and Coinnovation to Achieve Impact in New Zealand’s Biological Industries (Primary Innovation for short) aims to stimulate innovation in the New Zealand agricultural sector, which is an important contributor to the New Zealand

  16. The exclusion of 'public undertakings' from the re-use of public sector information regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricolfi, M.; Drexl, J.; van Eechoud, M.; Salmeron, M.; Sappa, C.; Tziavos, P.; Valero, J.; Pavoni, F.; Patrito, P.

    2011-01-01

    Should public undertakings be covered by the PSI Directive? The definitions of public sector bodies and bodies governed by public law, to which the PSI Directive applies, are currently taken from the public procurement Directives and public undertakings are not covered by these definitions. Should

  17. PRICING STRATEGY USED AS A TOOL FOR BUILDING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN THE RETAIL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Sorin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of pricing strategy in the retail sector and the power of their influence on consumer behavior. Merchants should consider the price generates perceptions and can influence consumer behavior and buying customers. They must also understand how to participate in the price of consumer satisfaction.

  18. Using CASE-technologies in the simulation of business organization in the agricultural sector

    OpenAIRE

    Karpov, Valery; Mozzherina, Nadezhda; Andreeva, Elena

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose the organization of the structural analysis of the business processes of small businesses and agricultural cooperatives agricultural sector. The content of the business processes in these economic entities at the time of the study, an assessment is the effectiveness of their interactions revealed negative aspects, offers an effective organizational structure that combines business processes entrepreneurs and agricultural cooperatives.

  19. Mitigation of end flux peaking in CANDU fuel bundles using neutron absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, D.; Chan, P.K., E-mail: dylan.pierce@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston ON, (Canada); Shen, W. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa ON, (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    End flux peaking (EFP) is a phenomenon where a region of elevated neutron flux occurs between two adjoining fuel bundles. These peaks lead to an increase in fission rate and therefore greater heat generation. It is known that addition of neutron absorbers into fuel bundles can help mitigate EFP, yet implementation in Canada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) type reactors using natural uranium fuel has not been pursued. Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP) 6.1 was used to simulate the addition of a small amount of neutron absorbers strategically within the fuel pellets. This paper will present some preliminary results collected thus far. (author)

  20. Smart Metering and Water End-Use Data: Conservation Benefits and Privacy Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien P. Giurco

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Smart metering technology for residential buildings is being trialed and rolled out by water utilities to assist with improved urban water management in a future affected by climate change. The technology can provide near real-time monitoring of where water is used in the home, disaggregated by end-use (shower, toilet, clothes washing, garden irrigation, etc.. This paper explores questions regarding the degree of information detail required to assist utilities in targeting demand management programs and informing customers of their usage patterns, whilst ensuring privacy concerns of residents are upheld.

  1. Use of family planning and child health services in the private sector: an equity analysis of 12 DHS surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Nirali M; Sprockett, Andrea

    2018-04-24

    A key component of universal health coverage is the ability to access quality healthcare without financial hardship. Poorer individuals are less likely to receive care than wealthier individuals, leading to important differences in health outcomes, and a needed focus on equity. To improve access to healthcare while minimizing financial hardships or inequitable service delivery we need to understand where individuals of different wealth seek care. To ensure progress toward SDG 3, we need to specifically understand where individuals seek reproductive, maternal, and child health services. We analyzed Demographic and Health Survey data from Bangladesh, Cambodia, DRC, Dominican Republic, Ghana, Haiti, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal and Zambia. We conducted weighted descriptive analyses on current users of modern FP and the youngest household child under age 5 to understand and compare country-specific care seeking patterns in use of public or private facilities based on urban/rural residence and wealth quintile. Modern contraceptive prevalence rate ranged from 8.1% to 52.6% across countries, generally rising with increasing wealth within countries. For relatively wealthy women in all countries except Ghana, Liberia, Mali, Senegal and Zambia, the private sector was the dominant source. Source of FP and type of method sought across facilities types differed widely across countries. Across all countries women were more likely to use the public sector for permanent and long-acting reversible contraceptive methods. Wealthier women demonstrated greater use of the private sector for FP services than poorer women. Overall prevalence rates for diarrhea and fever/ARI were similar, and generally not associated with wealth. The majority of sick children in Haiti did not seek treatment for either diarrhea or fever/ARI, while over 40% of children with cough or fever did not seek treatment in DRC, Haiti, Mali, and Senegal. Of all children who sought care for diarrhea, more

  2. Design of a Corporate SDI in Power Sector Using a Formal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo L. Oliveira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial data are essential for the decision-making process. However, obtaining and keeping such data up to date usually require much time and many financial resources. In order to minimize the production costs and incentivize sharing these data, countries are promoting the implementation of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI at the different public administration levels. The International Cartographic Association (ICA proposes a formal model that describes the main concepts of an SDI based on three of the five viewpoints of the Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP. Afterwards, researchers extended ICA’s model to describe, more properly, the actors, hierarchical relationship and interactions related to the policies that drive an SDI. However, the proposed extensions are semantically inconsistent with the original proposal. Moreover, the use of ICA’s formal model and its extensions has not been assessed yet to specify a corporate-level SDI. This study describes the merger of actors and policies proposed by the ICA and its extensions in order to eliminate differences in the semantics or terminology among them. This unified model was applied to specify a corporate SDI for a large Brazilian corporation, the Minas Gerais Power Company (Companhia Energética de Minas Gerais (Cemig, which is comprised of about 200 companies in the power sector. The case study presents part of the specification of the five RM-ODP viewpoints, i.e., the three viewpoints featured in ICA’s formal model (Enterprise, Information, and Computation and the other two viewpoints that make up the RM-ODP (Engineering and Technology. The adapted ICA’s model proved adequate to describe SDI-Cemig. In addition, the case study may serve as an example of the specification and implementation of new SDIs, not only corporate ones, but also of public agencies at any hierarchical level.

  3. Use of intravenous acetaminophen (paracetamol) in a pediatric patient at the end of life: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Adam D; Keefer, Patricia; Saul, D'Anna

    2013-12-01

    For the better part of 100 years, acetaminophen (or paracetamol as it is known outside of the United States) has been a common first-line analgesic in pediatrics and is typically well tolerated with minimal side effects. Its use as an anti-pyretic is also well-documented and thus it is used broadly for symptom control in the general pediatric population. In pediatric palliative care, acetaminophen is also used as an adjuvant to opioid therapy for pain as well as an anti-pyretic. For many pediatric patients near end-of-life, however, the ability to tolerate oral intake is diminished and rectal suppository administration can be distressing or contraindicated as in the setting of neutropenia, thus limiting use of acetaminophen by its usual routes. In Europe and Australia, an intravenous formulation of acetaminophen has been used for many years and has only recently become available in the United States. Here, we describe a case using intravenous acetaminophen in a pediatric patient at the end of life.

  4. Sonography of the chest using linear-array versus sector transducers: Correlation with auscultation, chest radiography, and computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasci, Ozlem; Hatipoglu, Osman Nuri; Cagli, Bekir; Ermis, Veli

    2016-07-08

    The primary purpose of our study was to compare the efficacies of two sonographic (US) probes, a high-frequency linear-array probe and a lower-frequency phased-array sector probe in the diagnosis of basic thoracic pathologies. The secondary purpose was to compare the diagnostic performance of thoracic US with auscultation and chest radiography (CXR) using thoracic CT as a gold standard. In total, 55 consecutive patients scheduled for thoracic CT were enrolled in this prospective study. Four pathologic entities were evaluated: pneumothorax, pleural effusion, consolidation, and interstitial syndrome. A portable US scanner was used with a 5-10-MHz linear-array probe and a 1-5-MHz phased-array sector probe. The first probe used was chosen randomly. US, CXR, and auscultation results were compared with the CT results. The linear-array probe had the highest performance in the identification of pneumothorax (83% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and 99% diagnostic accuracy) and pleural effusion (100% sensitivity, 97% specificity, and 98% diagnostic accuracy); the sector probe had the highest performance in the identification of consolidation (89% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and 95% diagnostic accuracy) and interstitial syndrome (94% sensitivity, 93% specificity, and 94% diagnostic accuracy). For all pathologies, the performance of US was superior to those of CXR and auscultation. The linear probe is superior to the sector probe for identifying pleural pathologies, whereas the sector probe is superior to the linear probe for identifying parenchymal pathologies. Thoracic US has better diagnostic performance than CXR and auscultation for the diagnosis of common pathologic conditions of the chest. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:383-389, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Comparison of rates of potentially inappropriate medication use according to the Zhan criteria for VA versus private sector medicare HMOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Mitchell J; Perry, Paul J; Langstaff, Jodi D; Kaboli, Peter J

    2006-06-01

    Inappropriate prescribing in the elderly is common, but rates across different health care systems and the impact of formulary restrictions are not well described. To determine if rates of inappropriate medication use in the elderly differ between the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system and the private sector Medicare health maintenance organization (HMO) patients. A cross-sectional study design compared administrative pharmacy claims from 10 distinct geographic regions in the United States in the VA health care system and 10 analogous regions for patients enrolled in Medicare HMOs. The cohorts included 123,633 VA and 157,517 Medicare HMO patients aged 65 years and older. Inappropriate medication use was identified using the Zhan modification of the Beers criteria, which categorizes 33 potentially inappropriate drugs into 3 major classifications: "always avoid," "rarely appropriate," and "some indications." Comparisons between the VA health care system and the private sector Medicare HMO were performed for overall differences and stratified by gender and age. The drug formulary status of the Zhan-criteria drugs was known for the VA health system but not for the Medicare HMO patients. Compared with private sector patients, VA patients were less likely to receive any inappropriate medication (21% vs. 29%, P private sector for males (21% vs. 24%, P private sector Medicare HMOs, elderly VA patients were less likely to receive medications defined by the Zhan criteria as potentially inappropriate. A restrictive formulary that excludes 12 of the 33 Zhan criteria drugs may be a factor in the reduction of undesired prescribing patterns in elderly populations.

  6. Efficient use of green taxes in the CHP sector; Effektiv brug af groenne afgifter i kraft- og varmesektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skovsgaard Nielsen, L.; Mognesen, Martin Frank; Pade, L.L.

    2007-06-15

    Since 1977 green taxes have been used in the Danish power and heat sector. Green taxes principally assure an efficient, market-based reduction of pollution by reducing the energy consumption or increasing the share of renewable energy in power and heat production. This report takes its point of departure in four potential barriers which prevent a marketbased, cost-effective increase of the proportion of renewable energy in power and heat production. We primarily concentrate on three policy measures. 5. green and lessgreen taxes; 6. mandatory combined heat and power production; 7. fuel restrictions. Furthermore, we analyse a fourth characteristic in the law: 8. high transactions costs connected to the enlargement of renewable energy. The purpose of the report is to describe how the four potential barriers contradict the theoretically efficient application of green taxes in the power and heat sector. We do this: 1) by clarifying how legislation in the power and heat sector affects the extension of renewable energy; and 2) by evaluating the theoretically efficient application of green taxes in the power and heat sector in relation to legislation. (au)

  7. Materiality in Public Sector Financial Audit: International Practice and the Opinion of Brazilian Experts

    OpenAIRE

    Juliane Madeira Leitão; José Alves Dantas

    2016-01-01

    Materiality in private sector financial audit is a topic that has been relatively well developed in the literature. Specific research in this regard in public sector auditing, on the other hand, is scarce at the international level and absent in Brazil. In view of this, the purpose of this study was to identify the parameters used to determine materiality in public sector financial audit. To this end, we sent questionnaires to the 192 Supreme Audit Institutions that are members of INTOSAI and...

  8. Prediction of Surface Roughness in End Milling Process Using Intelligent Systems: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Badie Sharkawy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study is presented to model surface roughness in end milling process. Three types of intelligent networks have been considered. They are (i radial basis function neural networks (RBFNs, (ii adaptive neurofuzzy inference systems (ANFISs, and (iii genetically evolved fuzzy inference systems (G-FISs. The machining parameters, namely, the spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut have been used as inputs to model the workpiece surface roughness. The goal is to get the best prediction accuracy. The procedure is illustrated using experimental data of end milling 6061 aluminum alloy. The three networks have been trained using experimental training data. After training, they have been examined using another set of data, that is, validation data. Results are compared with previously published results. It is concluded that ANFIS networks may suffer the local minima problem, and genetic tuning of fuzzy networks cannot insure perfect optimality unless suitable parameter setting (population size, number of generations etc. and tuning range for the FIS, parameters are used which can be hardly satisfied. It is shown that the RBFN model has the best performance (prediction accuracy in this particular case.

  9. Crowd-Sourcing Management Activity Data to Drive GHG Emission Inventories in the Land Use Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paustian, K.; Herrick, J.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the land use sector constitute the largest source category for many countries in Africa. Enhancing C sequestration and reducing GHG emissions on managed lands in Africa has to potential to attract C financing to support adoption of more sustainable land management practices that, in addition to GHG mitigation, can provide co-benefits of more productive and climate-resilient agroecosystems. However, robust systems to measure and monitor C sequestration/GHG reductions are currently a significant barrier to attracting more C financing to land use-related mitigation efforts.Anthropogenic GHG emissions are driven by a variety of environmental factors, including climate and soil attributes, as well as human-activities in the form of land use and management practices. GHG emission inventories typically use empirical or process-based models of emission rates that are driven by environmental and management variables. While a lack of field-based flux and C stock measurements are a limiting factor for GHG estimation, we argue that an even greater limitation may be availabiity of data on the management activities that influence flux rates, particularly in developing countries in Africa. In most developed countries there is a well-developed infrastructure of agricultural statistics and practice surveys that can be used to drive model-based GHG emission estimations. However, this infrastructure is largely lacking in developing countries in Africa. While some activity data (e.g. land cover change) can be derived from remote sensing, many key data (e.g., N fertilizer practices, residue management, manuring) require input from the farmers themselves. The explosive growth in cellular technology, even in many of the poorest parts of Africa, suggests the potential for a new crowd-sourcing approach and direct engagement with farmers to 'leap-frog' the land resource information model of developed countries. Among the many benefits of this approach

  10. Management of carbon across sectors and scales: Insights from land use decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilling, L.; Failey, E. L.

    2008-12-01

    Carbon management is increasingly becoming a topic of interest among policy circles and business entrepreneurs alike. In the United States, while no binding regulatory framework exists, carbon management is nonetheless being pursued both by voluntary actions at a variety of levels, from the individual to the national level, and through mandatory policies at state and local levels. Controlling the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere for climate purposes will ultimately require a form of governance that will ensure that the actions taken and being rewarded financially are indeed effective with respect to the global atmosphere on long time scales. Moreover, this new system of governance will need to interface with existing governance structures and decision criteria that have been established to arbitrate among various societal values and priorities. These existing institutions and expressed values will need to be examined against those proposed for effective carbon governance, such as the permanence of carbon storage, the additionality of credited activities, and the prevention of leakage, or displacement of prohibited activities to another region outside the governance boundary. The latter issue suggests that interactions among scales of decision making and governance will be extremely important in determining the ultimate success of any future system of carbon governance. The goal of our study is to understand the current context of land use decision making in different sectors and examine the potential for future carbon policy to be effective given this context. This study examined land use decision making in the U.S. state of Colorado from a variety of ownership perspectives, including US Federal land managers, individual private owners, and policy makers involved in land use at a number of different scales. This paper will report on the results of interviews with land managers and provide insight into the policy context for carbon management through land

  11. Biomethane storage: Evaluation of technologies, end uses, business models, and sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzianowski, Wojciech M.; Brodacka, Marlena

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomethane storage integrates the different energy subsystems. • It facilitates adoption of solar and wind energy sources. • It is essential to adequately match storages with their end uses and business models. • Business models must propose, create, and capture value linked with gas storage. • Sustainable is economically viable, environmentally benign, and socially beneficial. - Abstract: Biomethane is a renewable gas that can be turned into dispatchable resource through applying storage techniques. The storage enables the discharge of stored biomethane at any time and place it is required as gas turbine power, heat or transport fuel. Thus the stored biomethane could more efficiently serve various energy applications in the power, transport, heat, and gas systems as well as in industry. Biomethane storage may therefore integrate the different energy subsystems making the whole energy system more efficient. This work provides an overview and evaluation of biomethane storage technologies, end uses, business models and sustainability. It is shown that storage technologies are versatile, have different costs and efficiencies and may serve different end uses. Business models may be created or selected to fit regional spatial contexts, realistic demands for gas storage related services, and the level of available subsidies. By applying storage the sustainability of biomethane is greatly improved in terms of economic viability, reduced environmental impacts and greater social benefits. Stored biomethane may greatly facilitate adoption of intermittent renewable energy sources such as solar and wind. Other findings show that biomethane storage needs to be combined with grid services and other similar services to reduce overall storage costs.

  12. FLOOD RISK ASSESSMENT IN RIVER TIMIS BASIN - THE CARANSEBES - LUGOJ SECTOR- USING GIS TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAI VALENTIN HERBEI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk assessment in Timis River basin - the Caransebes -Lugoj sector- using GIS technique. Over time freshets, thus floods constituted and constitute a particularly important issue that requires attention. In many cases, flood damages are extensive to the environment, to the economy and also socially. The purpose of this paper is to identify flood-prone areas between Caransebes and Lugoj, land that is part of the Timis river basin. This paper is based on a theoretical model in which we considered the building elements of the flood produced on the Timis river in April 2005 (levels and flows. to represent the zones flood – prone, we used the numerical model of the terrain, created for the abovementioned area. On this model , according to levels measured at hydrometric stations, were defined those flood prone areas. The Timis river hydrographic basin includes a varied terrain (mountains, hills and plains, with pronounced differences in altitude and massiveness, resulting from tectonic movements that have affected the region, this fact has affected water flow processes, both directly through fragmentation and slope, and indirectly, by creating the vertical climate, vegetation and soils zones. Using GIS technology to study hydrological phenomena and their impact on the geographic area are of particular importance due to the complexity of these techniques, which enables detailed analysis and analytical precision as well as an increased speed of the analysis. Creating theoretical models that give scale to the hydrological phenomena, in this case representing the flood areas, is of great practical importance because based on these models the areas can be defined and viewed, having the possibility of taking measures to prevent environmental effects on the natural and / or anthropogenic environment. In the studied area review of the flood of 2005, were represented flood areas, therefore, according with the researches, several villages, located in

  13. Using integrated control methodology to optimize energy performance for the guest rooms in UAE hospitality sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlFaris, Fadi; Abu-Hijleh, Bassam; Abdul-Ameer, Alaa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy efficiency in 4 and 5 star luxury hotels in the United Arab Emirates. • The normalized energy use index (EUI) ranges between 241.5 and 348.4 kWh/m"2/year for post 2003 hotels. • The normalized energy use index (EUI) ranges between 348.4 and 511.1 kWh/m"2/year for pre 2003 hotels. • Integrated HVAC and lighting control strategies can reduce total energy consumption by up to 31.5%. - Abstract: The hospitality sector is growing rapidly in the UAE and especially in Dubai. As a result, it contributes substantially in the UAE's carbon footprint. This research was conducted to measure, evaluate and increase the energy efficiency in 4 and 5 star luxury hotels in UAE. Energy benchmarking analysis was used to analyze the energy data of 19 hotel buildings to differentiate between usual and best practice of energy performance. Moreover, the normalized energy use index (EUI) kWh/m"2/year has been identified for the best, usual and poor practice hotels. It was found that the normalized EUI ranges between 241.5 kWh/m"2/year or less as a best practice to more than 361.3 kWh/m"2/year of the poor energy practice for the hotels constructed after the year of 2003. Whereas the hotels' energy data showed higher values for those constructed before 2003, as the normalized EUI varies between 348.4 kWh/m"2/year as best practice to more than 511.1 kWh/m"2/year. An integrated control strategy has been employed to improve the energy performance and assess the energy saving for the guestroom. This technique showed that the overall energy performance improvement reached to 31.5% out of entire energy consumption of the hotel including electricity and gas. This reduction resulted in 43.2% savings from the cooling system and 13.2% from the lighting system due to the installing of the integrated control system in the guestrooms.

  14. Identifying changes in the support networks of end-of-life carers using social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Rosemary; Horsfall, Debbie; Noonan, Kerrie

    2015-06-01

    End-of-life caring is often associated with reduced social networks for both the dying person and for the carer. However, those adopting a community participation and development approach, see the potential for the expansion and strengthening of networks. This paper uses Knox, Savage and Harvey's definitions of three generations social network analysis to analyse the caring networks of people with a terminal illness who are being cared for at home and identifies changes in these caring networks that occurred over the period of caring. Participatory network mapping of initial and current networks was used in nine focus groups. The analysis used key concepts from social network analysis (size, density, transitivity, betweenness and local clustering) together with qualitative analyses of the group's reflections on the maps. The results showed an increase in the size of the networks and that ties between the original members of the network strengthened. The qualitative data revealed the importance between core and peripheral network members and the diverse contributions of the network members. The research supports the value of third generation social network analysis and the potential for end-of-life caring to build social capital. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Resource acquisition, distribution and end-use efficiencies and the growth of industrial society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, A. J.; Jarvis, S. J.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2015-10-01

    A key feature of the growth of industrial society is the acquisition of increasing quantities of resources from the environment and their distribution for end-use. With respect to energy, the growth of industrial society appears to have been near-exponential for the last 160 years. We provide evidence that indicates that the global distribution of resources that underpins this growth may be facilitated by the continual development and expansion of near-optimal directed networks (roads, railways, flight paths, pipelines, cables etc.). However, despite this continual striving for optimisation, the distribution efficiencies of these networks must decline over time as they expand due to path lengths becoming longer and more tortuous. Therefore, to maintain long-term exponential growth the physical limits placed on the distribution networks appear to be counteracted by innovations deployed elsewhere in the system, namely at the points of acquisition and end-use of resources. We postulate that the maintenance of the growth of industrial society, as measured by global energy use, at the observed rate of ~ 2.4 % yr-1 stems from an implicit desire to optimise patterns of energy use over human working lifetimes.

  16. Updating the Slovak strategy of back-end of peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzer, P.; Timulak, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this work authors present the Slovak strategy of back-end of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Slovak Government approved the Strategy by Governmental decision No. 328/2008 in May 21, 2008. Decree of the Government solves the problem of historical debt by payments of operators of the electricity transmission network and of the distribution network, according the provisions of the Act on the National Nuclear Fund. Financing of the management of institutional radioactive waste after its centralized collection performed by JAVYS, a.s. Economic aspects of reactors decommissioning as well as the sources of financing are presented.

  17. The Use of Open-Ended Questions with Giving Feedback (OEQGF) for Effective Mathematic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabilah, I.; Manoy, J. T.

    2018-01-01

    Feedback deals with giving information to students related to their task which is done through score of their achievement, reaction, and comments. Considering its hierarchy, task difficulty level consists of low, middle and high levels. The difficulty level of open-ended questions is middle to high. Open-ended question is a good way to train students’ knowledge. This research is a descriptive research which aims at describing teacher’s learning management, students’ activities, students’ learning achievement, and students’ responses in mathematic learning using OEQGF. The subject was a teacher of mathematics who teaches eighth graders, and students themselves. The research design used is one shot case study. The result shows that: management learning has been very well implemented by the teacher; every students’ activity has been carried out by students; the students’ learning achievement have reached the criteria of completeness, and the students’ responses can be considered as positive. Therefore, it can be concluded that mathematic learning using OEQGF is effective.

  18. Geography and end use drive the diversification of worldwide winter rye populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parat, Florence; Schwertfirm, Grit; Rudolph, Ulrike; Miedaner, Thomas; Korzun, Viktor; Bauer, Eva; Schön, Chris-Carolin; Tellier, Aurélien

    2016-01-01

    To meet the current challenges in human food production, improved understanding of the genetic diversity of crop species that maximizes the selection efficacy in breeding programs is needed. The present study offers new insights into the diversity, genetic structure and demographic history of cultivated rye (Secale cereale L.). We genotyped 620 individuals from 14 global rye populations with a different end use (grain or forage) at 32 genome-wide simple sequence repeat markers. We reveal the relationships among these populations, their sizes and the timing of domestication events using population genetics and model-based inference with approximate Bayesian computation. Our main results demonstrate (i) a high within-population variation and genetic diversity, (ii) an unexpected absence of reduction in diversity with an increasing improvement level and (iii) patterns suggestive of multiple domestication events. We suggest that the main drivers of diversification of winter rye are the end use of rye in two early regions of cultivation: rye forage in the Mediterranean area and grain in northeast Europe. The lower diversity and stronger differentiation of eastern European populations were most likely due to more intensive cultivation and breeding of rye in this region, in contrast to the Mediterranean region where it was considered a secondary crop or even a weed. We discuss the relevance of our results for the management of gene bank resources and the pitfalls of inference methods applied to crop domestication due to violation of model assumptions and model complexity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Provincial Water Resource Allocation in Agricultural Sector Using Conflict Resolution Methods in Atrak Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Parvaneh KazemiMeresht; Shahab Araghinejad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In spite of improving the water productivity due to development in water infrastructure systems, population increasing causing the water withdrawal is triple in the last fifty years. In this situation competition on water consumption especially in the agricultural sector which is the biggest consumer in the world and also in Iran is a severe problem. Water allocation has been assessed widely in the recent past. Additionally, several studies have explored methods to incorporate c...

  20. The use of disruptive information technologies for competitive advantage in the banking sector of South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Windell, Anneke C.; Kroeze, Jan H.

    2009-01-01

    The main focus of this paper is to determine the impact of disruptive technology in the ICT environment and how new technologies can be managed in a secured architecture framework of organisations in the banking sector. Change management has a specific role to play as any introduction of new technology in the workplace is dependent on a successful change management process. Furthermore, the purpose of the research is to provide insight and principles when companies need to make informat...

  1. Accurate fault location algorithm on power transmission lines with use of two-end unsynchronized measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Dine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to fault location on power transmission lines. This approach uses two-end unsynchronised measurements of the line and benefits from the advantages of digital technology and numerical relaying, which are available today and can easily be applied for off-line analysis. The approach is to modify the apparent impedance method using a very simple first-order formula. The new method is independent of fault resistance, source impedances and pre-fault currents. In addition, the data volume communicated between relays is sufficiently small enough to be transmitted easily using a digital protection channel. The proposed approach is tested via digital simulation using MATLand the applied test results corroborate the superior performance of the proposed approach.

  2. En Route Descent Advisor Multi-Sector Planning Using Active and Provisional Controller Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Robert; Green, Steven

    2003-01-01

    As decision support tools are developed to support controllers in complex air traffic control environments, new approaches to maintaining situation awareness and managing traffic planning must be developed to handle the ever-increasing amounts of alerting and advisory data. Within high-density metering and other environments where flight path changes are the rule, not the exception, and where interactions between these changes are required, current trial planning approaches are limited by potential increases in workload. The Enroute Descent Advisor (EDA) is a set of decision support tool capabilities for managing high-density en route traffic subject to metering restrictions. The EDA system s novel approach builds aircraft plans from combinations of user intent data and builds controller plans from combinations of aircraft plans to effectively maintain situation awareness during traffic planning. By maintaining both active (current) and provisional (proposed) controller plans, EDA supports controllers in coordinated traffic planning both within and between sectors. Ultimately, EDA s multi-sector planning approach will facilitate a transition from current sector-oriented operations to a new trajectory-oriented paradigm, enabling new levels of efficiency and collaboration in air traffic control.

  3. Criteria for use of composite end points for competing risks-a systematic survey of the literature with recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manja, Veena; AlBashir, Siwar; Guyatt, Gordon

    2017-02-01

    Composite end points are frequently used in reports of clinical trials. One rationale for the use of composite end points is to account for competing risks. In the presence of competing risks, the event rate of a specific event depends on the rates of other competing events. One proposed solution is to include all important competing events in one composite end point. Clinical trialists require guidance regarding when this approach is appropriate. To identify publications describing criteria for use of composite end points for competing risk and to offer guidance regarding when a composite end point is appropriate on the basis of competing risks. We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, The Cochrane's Central & Systematic Review databases including the Health Technology Assessment database, and the Cochrane's Methodology register from inception to April 2015, and candidate textbooks, to identify all articles providing guidance on this issue. Eligible publications explicitly addressed the issue of a composite outcome to address competing risks. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts for full-text review; independently reviewed full-text publications; and abstracted specific criteria authors offered for use of composite end points to address competing risks. Of 63,645 titles and abstracts, 166 proved potentially relevant of which 43 publications were included in the final review. Most publications note competing risks as a reason for using composite end points without further elaboration. None of the articles or textbook chapters provide specific criteria for use of composite end points for competing risk. Some advocate using composite end points to avoid bias due to competing risks and others suggest that composite end points seldom or never be used for this purpose. We recommend using composite end points for competing risks only if the competing risk is plausible and if it occurs with sufficiently high frequency to influence the interpretation

  4. Industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The industrial sector is categorized as related to among others, the provision of technical and engineering services, supply of products, testing and troubleshooting of parts, systems and industrial plants, quality control and assurance as well as manufacturing and processing. A total of 161 entities comprising 47 public agencies and 114 private companies were selected for the study in this sector. The majority of the public agencies, 87 %, operate in Peninsular Malaysia. The remainders were located in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study on both public agencies and private companies are presented in subsequent sections of this chapter. (author)

  5. Investigation of the effect of cutting speed on the Surface Roughness parameters in CNC End Milling using Artificial Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Hazza, Muataz H F; Adesta, Erry Y T

    2013-01-01

    This research presents the effect of high cutting speed on the surface roughness in the end milling process by using the Artificial Neural Network (ANN). An experimental investigation was conducted to measure the surface roughness for end milling. A set of sparse experimental data for finish end milling on AISI H13 at hardness of 48 HRC have been conducted. The artificial neural network (ANN) was applied to simulate and study the effect of high cutting speed on the surface roughness

  6. Provincial Water Resource Allocation in Agricultural Sector Using Conflict Resolution Methods in Atrak Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh KazemiMeresht

    2017-03-01

    monotonic solution in water allocation between beneficiary's provinces in Atrak basin. The performances of these methods are compared with each other and also with the common water allocation model. Materials and Methods: In the last decades, Atrak river basin located at the eastern north of Iran, shared between three provinces; Razavi Khorasan, northern Khorasan and Golestan, has a tense conflict between upstream and downstream beneficiaries. It is predictable that this conflict will be more tense in the near future due to development of upstream and increasing the water withdrawal. Because of the venial role of the Razavi Khorasan province in the Atrak basin, this province is considered as a coalition with northern Khorasan. Related data for 41 years time series and other information were gathered. Due to Hydrology studies, wet and dry periods in the two regions have not differences. As a fact that the main problem of water allocation belongs to the agricultural sector and it is the biggest consumer in the region, supply of the municipal, industrial and environmental requirement is assumed.To begin, a linear programming model is developed to optimize the agricultural water resource allocation using the LINGO® which is a comprehensive tool designed to make building and solving Linear, Nonlinear (convex &nonconvex/Global, Quadratic, Quadratically Constrained, Second Order Cone, Stochastic, and Integer optimization models faster, easier and more efficient. In the second place, conflict resolution methods such as symmetric Nash, non symmetric Nash, Kalai-Smorodinsky, equal loss, uniform area solutions are applied as an object function of water allocation models one by one. In all of these methods the stakeholder preferences should be defined with their weights in the object function. Moreover, the mentioned models are assessed with performance criteria such as reliability in time and in volume and also the resiliency. Results and Discussion: Comparison of the results of 4

  7. Method and apparatus for shape and end position determination using an optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jason P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of determining the shape of an unbound optical fiber includes collecting strain data along a length of the fiber, calculating curvature and bending direction data of the fiber using the strain data, curve-fitting the curvature and bending direction data to derive curvature and bending direction functions, calculating a torsion function using the bending direction function, and determining the 3D shape from the curvature, bending direction, and torsion functions. An apparatus for determining the 3D shape of the fiber includes a fiber optic cable unbound with respect to a protective sleeve, strain sensors positioned along the cable, and a controller in communication with the sensors. The controller has an algorithm for determining a 3D shape and end position of the fiber by calculating a set of curvature and bending direction data, deriving curvature, bending, and torsion functions, and solving Frenet-Serret equations using these functions.

  8. Using sociodrama and psychodrama to teach communication in end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baile, Walter F; De Panfilis, Ludovica; Tanzi, Silvia; Moroni, Matteo; Walters, Rebecca; Biasco, Guido

    2012-09-01

    End-of-life discussions can be stressful and can elicit strong emotions in the provider as well as the patient and family. In palliative care, understanding and effectively addressing emotions is a key skill that can enhance professional competency and patient/family satisfaction with care. We illustrate how in coursework for a Master's degree in palliative medicine we used dramatic "action methods" derived from sociodrama and psychodrama in the portrayal of two challenging cases to train providers in the emotional aspects of caring for patients with advanced cancer. We describe the specific techniques of constructing and enacting case scenarios using warm-ups, role-creation, doubling and role-reversal. In particular, we illustrate how these techniques and others were used to reveal and address the "hidden" emotions, attitudes, and values that were central to the communication dilemma. Finally, we present an evaluation completed by the 26 participants who attended the course.

  9. A Crosswalk of Mineral Commodity End Uses and North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, James J.; Matos, Grecia R.; Menzie, W. David

    2015-09-14

    This crosswalk is based on the premise that there is a connection between the way mineral commodities are used and how this use is reflected in the economy. Raw mineral commodities are the basic materials from which goods, finished products, or intermediate materials are manufactured or made. Mineral commodities are vital to the development of the U.S. economy and they impact nearly every industrial segment of the economy, representing 12.2 percent of the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) in 2010 (U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, 2014). In an effort to better understand the distribution of mineral commodities in the economy, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) attempts to link the end uses of mineral commodities to the corresponding North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes.

  10. A filtering method to generate high quality short reads using illumina paired-end technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, A Murat; Vineis, Joseph H; Morrison, Hilary G; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2013-01-01

    Consensus between independent reads improves the accuracy of genome and transcriptome analyses, however lack of consensus between very similar sequences in metagenomic studies can and often does represent natural variation of biological significance. The common use of machine-assigned quality scores on next generation platforms does not necessarily correlate with accuracy. Here, we describe using the overlap of paired-end, short sequence reads to identify error-prone reads in marker gene analyses and their contribution to spurious OTUs following clustering analysis using QIIME. Our approach can also reduce error in shotgun sequencing data generated from libraries with small, tightly constrained insert sizes. The open-source implementation of this algorithm in Python programming language with user instructions can be obtained from https://github.com/meren/illumina-utils.

  11. A filtering method to generate high quality short reads using illumina paired-end technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Murat Eren

    Full Text Available Consensus between independent reads improves the accuracy of genome and transcriptome analyses, however lack of consensus between very similar sequences in metagenomic studies can and often does represent natural variation of biological significance. The common use of machine-assigned quality scores on next generation platforms does not necessarily correlate with accuracy. Here, we describe using the overlap of paired-end, short sequence reads to identify error-prone reads in marker gene analyses and their contribution to spurious OTUs following clustering analysis using QIIME. Our approach can also reduce error in shotgun sequencing data generated from libraries with small, tightly constrained insert sizes. The open-source implementation of this algorithm in Python programming language with user instructions can be obtained from https://github.com/meren/illumina-utils.

  12. End-Effector Position Analysis Using Forward Kinematics For 5 Dof Pravak Robot Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Atit Shah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Automatic control of the robotic manipulator involves study of kinematics and dynamics as a major issue. This paper involves the kinematic analysis of a Pravak Robot arm which is used for doing successful robotic manipulation task in its workspace. The Pravak Robot Arm is a 5-DOF robot having all the joints revolute. The kinematics problem is defined as the transformation from the Cartesian space to the joint space and vice versa. In this study the Denavit- Hartenberg (D-H model is used to model robot links and joints. Pravak Robot Arm is a simple and safe robotic system designed for laboratory training and research applications. This robot allows to gain theoretical and practical experience in robotics, automation and control systems. The MATLAB R2007 is used to analyse end effectors position for a set of joint parameter.

  13. Assessing isocyanate exposures in polyurethane industry sectors using biological and air monitoring methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creely, K S; Hughson, G W; Cocker, J; Jones, K

    2006-08-01

    Isocyanates, as a chemical group, are considered to be the biggest cause of occupational asthma in the UK. Monitoring of airborne exposures to total isocyanate is costly, requiring considerable expertise, both in terms of sample collection and chemical analysis and cannot be used to assess the effectiveness of protection from wearing respiratory protective equipment (RPE). Biological monitoring by analysis of metabolites in urine can be a relatively simple and inexpensive way to assess exposure to isocyanates. It may also be a useful way to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures in place. In this study biological and inhalation monitoring were undertaken to assess exposure in a variety of workplaces in the non-motor vehicle repair sector. Companies selected to participate in the survey included only those judged to be using good working practices when using isocyanate formulations. This included companies that used isocyanates to produce moulded polyurethane products, insulation material and those involved in industrial painting. Air samples were collected by personal monitoring and were analysed for total isocyanate content. Urine samples were collected soon after exposure and analysed for the metabolites of different isocyanate species, allowing calculation of the total metabolite concentration. Details of the control measures used and observed contamination of exposed skin were also recorded. A total of 21 companies agreed to participate in the study, with exposure measurements being collected from 22 sites. The airborne isocyanate concentrations were generally very low (range 0.0005-0.066 mg m(-3)). A total of 50 of the 70 samples were polyurethane foam insulation (0.023 mg m(-3)). The most commonly detected isocyanate in the urine was hexamethylene diisocyanate, which was detected in 21 instances. The geometric mean total isocyanate metabolite concentration for the dataset was 0.29 micromol mol(-1) creatinine (range 0.05-12.64 micromol mol(-1

  14. 50 CFR Table 47a to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Catcher/Processor Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-out Allocation and... Catcher/Processor Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-out... pollock Column E Number of Chinook salmon for the opt-out allocation (8,093) Column F Number of Chinook...

  15. Prevalence of Use of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) to Vape Recreational Drugs by Club Patrons in South London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurtle, Natalie; Abouchedid, Rachelle; Archer, John R H; Ho, James; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Dargan, Paul I; Wood, David M

    2017-03-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, often called e-cigarettes) are nicotine delivery devices that heat nicotine into vapour that is inhaled, a process called 'vaping'. Use eclipsed nicotine-replacement therapy (NRT) in 2014 but ENDS role in smoking cessation remains controversial. Safety has not been proven and there have been reports to US poison centres regarding potential ENDS-related nicotine toxicity. A further concern is use of ENDS to vape recreational drugs, but there is limited data to substantiate this. The aim of this study was to report on ENDS use to vape recreational drugs in patrons of a South London nightclub where high prevalence of recreational drug use has previously been shown. A convenience sample of 101 participants was surveyed in March 2015 as part of a larger survey on drug use. Individuals were asked if they used ENDS to vape nicotine and/or other substances (and if so which substances). Ninety (89.1 %) of respondents were male with median age of 28 years (IQR 23-34). Eighty (79.2 %) currently smoked cigarettes; 20 (19.8 %) currently used ENDS for nicotine. Six (5.9 %) reported using ENDS to take other substances: 2 for 'liquid cannabis' and 4 did not elaborate on the substance(s) used. Of these 6, 3 were using ENDS to vape nicotine and 3 had never used them for nicotine. 5.9 % of individuals in this sample reported using ENDS to vape substances other than nicotine. Further work is required in larger populations to determine how common this is, evaluate which agents are being vaped and to inform appropriate public education.

  16. The Effect of Tariff Reduction in Agricultural Sector on Macroeconomic Variables: Using Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Heidari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Economic effects of membership in the WTO in recent years, has been one of the most important issues for Iranian economy. If Iran joins the WTO, in this process, tariff reduction in agricultural sector will be one of the policies which has to be employed. Therefore, investigating economic effects of tariff reduction or even its elimination in this sector will be necessary in running effective policies to minimize the probabilistic losses of accession. Tariffs on agricultural products in Iran are determined merely on the basis of annual country economy, and have no long term strategy. Government is just obliged to impose effective tariffs on agricultural products imports, in order to protect local productions. On the other hand, according to the census of population and housing, the share of agricultural sector in employment has reduced during the past decade. Moreover, Iran central bank information indicated the reduction in the share of agricultural sector in GDP for the past decade. Declining the share of agriculture in production and employment, considering the high number of university graduates in the field of agriculture along with rising unemployment rate of this group, motivated this study to investigate the effect of tariff reduction in this sector on macroeconomic variables. Materials and Methods: This study analyzed the welfare effects of import tariffs reduction in agricultural sector from Iran most important commercial partners and vice versa, using the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP, based on computable general equilibrium (CGE model. Moreover, the effects of tariffs reduction, is investigated on output, price level and transfer of production factors between different economic sectors. In order to simulate the above model, we used GTAP version 8 which covers 57 commodities and 113 regions with economic information of these regions. This model uses Social Accounting Matrix of countries as data information. Our

  17. Electricity demand for South Korean residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa'ad, Suleiman

    2009-01-01

    This study estimates the electricity demand function for the residential sector of South Korea with the aim of examining the effects of improved energy efficiency, structural factors and household lifestyles on electricity consumption. In the study, time series data for the period from 1973 to 2007 is used in a structural time series model to estimate the long-term price and income elasticities and annual growth of underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) at the end of the estimation period. The result shows a long-term income elasticity of 1.33 and a long-term price elasticity of -0.27% with -0.93% as the percentage growth of UEDT at the end of the estimation period. This result suggests that, in order to encourage energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government should complement the market based pricing policies with non-market policies such as minimum energy efficiency standards and public enlightenment.

  18. Electricity demand for South Korean residential sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa' ad, Suleiman [Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), Department of Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    This study estimates the electricity demand function for the residential sector of South Korea with the aim of examining the effects of improved energy efficiency, structural factors and household lifestyles on electricity consumption. In the study, time series data for the period from 1973 to 2007 is used in a structural time series model to estimate the long-term price and income elasticities and annual growth of underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) at the end of the estimation period. The result shows a long-term income elasticity of 1.33 and a long-term price elasticity of -0.27% with -0.93% as the percentage growth of UEDT at the end of the estimation period. This result suggests that, in order to encourage energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government should complement the market based pricing policies with non-market policies such as minimum energy efficiency standards and public enlightenment. (author)

  19. CARRYING CAPACITY MODEL OF FOOD MANUFACTURING SECTORS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FROM USING ENVIRONMENTAL AND NATURAL RESOURCES OF THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruethsan Sutthichaimethee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to assess and rank environmental problems caused by production within the food manufacturing sector of Thailand. The factors used to calculate the real benefit included the costs of natural resources, energy and transportation, fertilizer and pesticides, and sanitary and similar service. The highest environmental cost in terms of both natural resources materials and energy and transportation was ice, while the highest environmental cost for fertilizer and pesticides was coconut and palm oil. Confectionery had the highest environmental cost for sanitary and similar services. Overall, real estate gained the highest real benefit, while repair not classified elsewhere had the lowest real benefit for the company. If Thailand uses an indicator of environmental harm, especially within the food manufacturing sector, it could help to formulate efficient policies and strategies for the country in three areas of development, which are social, economic, and environmental development.

  20. Evaluation of root-end microcrack formation following retropreparation using different ultrasonic instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlKahtani, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated differences among various ultrasonic instruments in the development of root-end cracks following retropreparation of endodontically treated teeth. Three ultrasonic tips were compared: stainless steel, zirconium nitride and diamond. Fifty-seven single rooted extracted teeth were cleaned, shaped and obturated. Their crowns were removed. A 3 mm resection of the root-tip was completed using a straight fissure bur. The teeth were examined under a light microscope. The teeth that developed cracks after resection were discarded. The teeth were divided into three groups of 19 teeth each and a retropreparation was completed with one of the ultrasonic tips for each group. Teeth were again examined under a light microscope. The photomicrographs of the teeth before and after were compared. Examination of the specimens revealed that in the stainless steel group, 26% (5/19) of teeth developed cracks, in the zirconium nitride group, 10.5% (2/19) of teeth developed cracks and in the diamond group, 10.5% (2/19) of teeth developed cracks. The differences in crack formation among the three groups were not statistically significant. The results of the study suggested that more cracks may be evident microscopically in root-ends prepared with stainless steel ultrasonic instruments although this was not statistically significant. (author)

  1. Listening to firms : how to use firm-level surveys to assess constraints on private sector development

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Andrew H.W.

    1992-01-01

    Firm-level surveys elicit information important to formulating sound policy advice and designing projects to promote private sector development. Drawing on recent World Bank experience in eight countries, the author advises why and how to implement targeted field surveys by answering the following questions: Why use targeted field surveys? How should surveys be focused and designed? What types of questions work best in surveys? How can surveys be oriented toward their target population? How s...

  2. Commercial-sector energy-consumption data-base-development project. Volume II. Survey of available energy use data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    A compilation of data on energy consumption in the commercial sector that have been published elsewhere is presented. Readily available information was collected on the structural, equipment, and energy use characteristics of the following: store and other mercantile buildings; warehouses; finance, insurance, real estate, and services industries; schools and colleges; hospitals and nursing homes; and government buildings. Energy data are shown in terms of Btu/ft/sup 2/. (MCW)

  3. Energy and Exergy Analyses of the Danish Industry Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the Danish industry is presented in this paper using the energy and exergy methods. For the 22 most energy-intensive process industries, which represent about 80% of the total primary energy use of the industrial sector, detailed end-use models were created and analysed...... of using electricity and district heat in the industry is shown. The exergy efficiencies for each process industry were found to be in the range of 12% to 56% in 2012. However variations in the efficiencies within the sectors for individual process industries occur, underlining the need for detailed......, by determining the sectors losses and exergy destruction. In addition the importance of applying a system analysis is shown, which corrects the site efficiencies for electricity and district heating use. The use of 22 industries,further highlights differences amongst industries belonging to the same sector....

  4. ROBUST CONTROL OF END-TIDAL CO2 USING THE H∞ LOOP-SHAPING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anake Pomprapa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanically ventilated patients require appropriate settings of respiratory control variables to maintain acceptable gas exchange. To control the carbon dioxide (CO2 level effectively and automatically, system identification based on a human subject was performed using a linear affine model and a nonlinear Hammerstein structure. Subsequently, a robust controller was designed using the H∞ loop-shaping approach, which synthesizes the optimal controller based on a specific objective by achieving stability with guaranteed performance. For demonstration purposes, the closed-loop control ventilation system was successfully tested in a human volunteer. The experimental results indicate that the blood CO2 level may indeed be controlled noninvasively by measuring end-tidal CO2 from expired air. Keeping the limited amount of experimental data in mind, we conclude that H∞ loop-shaping may be a promising technique for control of mechanical ventilation in patients with respiratory insufficiency.

  5. Prototype ATLAS IBL Modules using the FE-I4A Front-End Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, J; Alimonti, Gianluca; Allport, Phil; Altenheiner, Silke; Ancu, Lucian; Andreazza, Attilio; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arutinov, David; Backhaus, Malte; Bagolini, Alvise; Ballansat, Jacques; Barbero, Marlon; Barbier, Gérard; Bates, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Baudin, Patrick; Beau, Tristan; Beccherle, Roberto; Beck, Hans Peter; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, Jim; Bomben, Marco; Borri, Marcello; Boscardin, Maurizio; Botelho Direito, Jose Antonio; Bousson, Nicolas; Boyd, George Russell Jr; Breugnon, Patrick; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buchholz, Peter; Buttar, Craig; Cadoux, Franck; Calderini, Giovanni; Caminada, Leah; Capeans, Mar; Casse, Gianluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Chauveau, Jacques; Chu, Ming-Lee; Ciapetti, Marco; Cindro, Vladimir; Citterio, Mauro; Clark, Allan; Cobal, Marina; Coelli, Simone; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Colin, Daly; Collot, Johann; Crespo-Lopez, Olivier; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Darbo, Giovanni; DaVia, Cinzia; David, Pierre-Yves; Debieux, Stéphane; Delebecque, Pierre; Devetak, Erik; DeWilde, Burton; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Dinu, Nicoleta; Dittus, Fridolin; Diyakov, Denis; Djama, Fares; Dobos, Daniel Adam; Doonan, Kate; Dopke, Jens; Dorholt, Ole; Dube, Sourabh; Dushkin, Andrey; Dzahini, Daniel; Egorov, Kirill; Ehrmann, Oswin; Elldge, David; Elles, Sabine; Elsing, Markus; Eraud, Ludovic; Ereditato, Antonio; Eyring, Andreas; Falchieri, Davide; Falou, Aboud; Fang, Xiaochao; Fausten, Camille; Favre, Yannick; Ferrere, Didier; Fleta, Celeste; Fleury, Julien; Flick, Tobias; Forshaw, Dean; Fougeron, Denis; Fritzsch, Thomas; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gaglione, Renaud; Gallrapp, Christian; Gan, K; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gariano, Giuseppe; Gastaldi, Thibaut; Gemme, Claudia; Gensolen, Fabrice; George, Matthias; Ghislain, Patrick; Giacomini, Gabriele; Gibson, Stephen; Giordani, Mario Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Gjersdal, Håvard; Glitza, Karl Walter; Gnani, Dario; Godlewski, Jan; Gonella, Laura; Gorelov, Igor; Gorišek, Andrej; Gössling, Claus; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gray, Heather; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gromov, Vladimir; Grondin, Denis; Grosse-Knetter, Jörn; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Hansson, Per; Harb, Ali; Hartman, Neal; Hasi, Jasmine; Hegner, Franziska; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Hemperek, Tomasz; Hessey, Nigel; Hetmánek, Martin; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hügging, Fabian; Husi, Coralie; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Idarraga, John; Ikegami, Yoichi; Janoška, Zdenko; Jansen, Jens; Jansen, Luc; Jensen, Frank; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Joseph, John; Kagan, Harris; Karagounis, Michael; Kass, Richard; Kenney, Christopher J; Kersten, Susanne; Kind, Peter; Klingenberg, Reiner; Kluit, Ruud; Kocian, Martin; Koffeman, Els; Kok, Angela; Korchak, Oleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Krieger, Nina; Krüger, Hans; Kruth, Andre; Kugel, Andreas; Kuykendall, William; La Rosa, Alessandro; Lai, Chung-Hang; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laporte, Didier; Lapsien, Tobias; Lounis, abdenour; Lozano, Manuel; Lu, Yunpeng; Lubatti, Henry; Macchiolo, Anna; Mallik, Usha; Mandić, Igor; Marchand, Denis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Massol, Nicolas; Matthias, Wittgen; Mättig, Peter; Mekkaoui, Abderrazak; Menouni, Mohsine; Menu, Johann; Meroni, Chiara; Mesa, Javier; Micelli, Andrea; Michal, Sébastien; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mikuž, Marko; Mitsui, Shingo; Monti, Mauro; Moore, J; Morettini, Paolo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Murray, Peyton; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, David J; Nessi, Marzio; Neumann, Manuel; Nisius, Richard; Nordberg, Markus; Nuiry, Francois-Xavier; Oppermann, Hermann; Oriunno, Marco; Padilla, Cristobal; Parker, Sherwood; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pelleriti, Gabriel; Pernegger, Heinz; Piacquadio, Nicola Giacinto; Picazio, Attilio; Pohl, David; Polini, Alessandro; Popule, Jiří; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Povoli, Marco; Puldon, David; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Quadt, Arnulf; Quirion, David; Ragusa, Francesco; Rambure, Thibaut; Richards, Erik; Ristic, Branislav; Røhne, Ole; Rothermund, Mario; Rovani, Alessandro; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rummler, André; Ruscino, Ettore; Salek, David; Salzburger, Andreas; Sandaker, Heidi; Schipper, Jan-David; Schneider, Basil; Schorlemmer, Andre; Schroer, Nicolai; Schwemling, Philippe; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Šícho, Petr; Skubic, Patrick; Sloboda, Michal; Smith, D; Sood, Alex; Spencer, Edwin; Strang, Michael; Stugu, Bjarne; Stupak, John; Su, Dong; Takubo, Yosuke; Tassan, Jean; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Todorov, Theodore; Tomášek, Michal; Toms, Konstantin; Travaglini, Riccardo; Trischuk, William; Troncon, Clara; Troska, Georg; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsurin, Ilya; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Unno, Yoshinobu; Vacavant, Laurent; Verlaat, Bart; Vianello, Elisa; Vigeolas, Eric; von Kleist, Stephan; Vrba, Václav; Vuillermet, Raphaël; Wang, Rui; Watts, Stephen; Weber, Michele; Weber, Marteen; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Welch, Steven David; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Wiese, Andreas; Wittig, Tobias; Yildizkaya, Tamer; Zeitnitz, Christian; Ziolkowski, Michal; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zorzi, Nicola; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration will upgrade its semiconductor pixel tracking detector with a new Insertable B-layer (IBL) between the existing pixel detector and the vacuum pipe of the Large Hadron Collider. The extreme operating conditions at this location have necessitated the development of new radiation hard pixel sensor technologies and a new front-end readout chip, called the FE-I4. Planar pixel sensors and 3D pixel sensors have been investigated to equip this new pixel layer, and prototype modules using the FE-I4A have been fabricated and characterized using 120 GeV pions at the CERN SPS and 4 GeV positrons at DESY, before and after module irradiation. Beam test results are presented, including charge collection efficiency, tracking efficiency and charge sharing.

  6. Regional ozone impacts of increased natural gas use in the Texas power sector and development in the Eagle Ford shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacsi, Adam P; Kimura, Yosuke; McGaughey, Gary; McDonald-Buller, Elena C; Allen, David T

    2015-03-17

    The combined emissions and air quality impacts of electricity generation in the Texas grid and natural gas production in the Eagle Ford shale were estimated at various natural gas price points for the power sector. The increased use of natural gas in the power sector, in place of coal-fired power generation, drove reductions in average daily maximum 8 h ozone concentration of 0.6-1.3 ppb in northeastern Texas for a high ozone episode used in air quality planning. The associated increase in Eagle Ford upstream oil and gas production nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions caused an estimated local increase, in south Texas, of 0.3-0.7 ppb in the same ozone metric. In addition, the potential ozone impacts of Eagle Ford emissions on nearby urban areas were estimated. On the basis of evidence from this work and a previous study on the Barnett shale, the combined ozone impact of increased natural gas development and use in the power sector is likely to vary regionally and must be analyzed on a case by case basis.

  7. Role of the private sector in childbirth care: cross-sectional survey evidence from 57 low- and middle-income countries using Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benova, Lenka; Macleod, David; Footman, Katharine; Cavallaro, Francesca; Lynch, Caroline A; Campbell, Oona M R

    2015-12-01

    Maternal mortality rates have decreased globally but remain off track for Millennium Development Goals. Good-quality delivery care is one recognised strategy to address this gap. This study examines the role of the private (non-public) sector in providing delivery care and compares the equity and quality of the sectors. The most recent Demographic and Health Survey (2000-2013) for 57 countries was used to analyse delivery care for most recent birth among >330 000 women. Wealth quintiles were used for equity analysis; skilled birth attendant (SBA) and Caesarean section rates served as proxies for quality of care in cross-sectoral comparisons. The proportion of women who used appropriate delivery care (non-facility with a SBA or facility-based births) varied across regions (49-84%), but wealth-related inequalities were seen in both sectors in all regions. One-fifth of all deliveries occurred in the private sector. Overall, 36% of deliveries with appropriate care occurred in the private sector, ranging from 9% to 46% across regions. The presence of a SBA was comparable between sectors (≥93%) in all regions. In every region, Caesarean section rate was higher in the private compared to public sector. The private sector provided between 13% (Latin America) and 66% (Asia) of Caesarean section deliveries. This study is the most comprehensive assessment to date of coverage, equity and quality indicators of delivery care by sector. The private sector provided a substantial proportion of delivery care in low- and middle-income countries. Further research is necessary to better understand this heterogeneous group of providers and their potential to equitably increase the coverage of good-quality intrapartum care. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Canada's hydrogen energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    Canada produces the most hydrogen per capita of any Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) country. The majority of this hydrogen is produced by steam methane reforming for industrial use (predominantly oil upgrading and fertilizer production). Canada also has a world leading hydrogen and fuel cell sector. This sector is seeking new methods for making hydrogen for its future energy needs. The paper will discuss Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell sector in the context of its capabilities, its demonstration and commercialization activities and its stature on the world stage. (author)

  9. 40 CFR 63.495 - Back-end process provisions-procedures to determine compliance using stripping technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Back-end process provisions-procedures to determine compliance using stripping technology. 63.495 Section 63.495 Protection of Environment...: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.495 Back-end process provisions—procedures to determine compliance...

  10. The impact and societal benefits of using earth observation for ground water policies in the agricultural sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Francoise; Bernknopf, Richard; Pearlman, Jay; Rigby, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Assessment of the impact and societal benefit of Earth Observation (EO) is a multidisciplinary task that involves the social, economic and environmental knowledge to formulate indicators and methods. The value of information (VOI) of EO is based on case studies that document the value in use of the information in a specific decision. A case study is an empirical inquiry investigating a phenomenon. It emphasizes detailed contextual analysis of a limited number of events or conditions and their relationships. Quantitative estimates of the benefits and costs of the geospatial information derived from EO data document and demonstrate its economic value. A case study was completed to examine some of the technical perspectives of adapting and coupling satellite imagery and in situ water quality measurements to forecast changes in groundwater quality in the agricultural sector in Iowa. The analysis was conducted to identify the ability of EO to assist in improving agricultural land management and regulation of balancing production and groundwater contamination. The Iowa case study described the application of Landsat data in a land adaptation strategy to maintain agricultural production and groundwater water quality. Results demonstrated that Landsat information facilitates spatiotemporal analysis of the impact of nitrates (fertilizer application) on groundwater resources and that crop production could be retained while groundwater quality is maintained. To transition to the operational use of the geospatial information, the Landsat data should be applied in a use case where Interaction of various stakeholders within a decision process are addressed. The objective is to design implementation experiments of a system from the user's and contributor's perspective, and to communicate system behavior in their terms. A use case requires communication of system requirements, how the system operates and may be used, the roles that all participants play and what value the user

  11. Residential Lighting End-Use Consumption Study: Estimation Framework and Initial Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gifford, Will R.; Goldberg, Miriam L.; Tanimoto, Paulo M.; Celnicker, Dane R.; Poplawski, Michael E.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. DOE Residential Lighting End-Use Consumption Study is an initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Solid-State Lighting Program that aims to improve the understanding of lighting energy usage in residential dwellings. The study has developed a regional estimation framework within a national sample design that allows for the estimation of lamp usage and energy consumption 1) nationally and by region of the United States, 2) by certain household characteristics, 3) by location within the home, 4) by certain lamp characteristics, and 5) by certain categorical cross-classifications (e.g., by dwelling type AND lamp type or fixture type AND control type).

  12. Review of input stages used in front end electronics for particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplon, J

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present noise analysis of the input stages most commonly used in front end electronics for particle detectors. Analysis shows the calculation of the input referenced noise related to the active devices. It identifies the type, parallel or series, of the equivalent noise sources related to the input transistors, which is the important input for the further choice of the signal processing method. Moreover we calculate the input impedance of amplifiers employed in applications where the particle detector is connected to readout electronics by means of transmission line. We present schematics, small signal models,a complete set of equations, and results of the major steps of calculations for all discussed circuits.

  13. Determination of the Acidity of Oils Using Paraformaldehyde as a Thermometric End-Point Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro Mário J. D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the acidity of oils by catalytic thermometric titrimetry using paraformaldehyde as the thermometric end-point indicator was investigated. The sample solvent was a 1:1 (v/v mixture of toluene and 2-propanol and the titrant was 0.1 mol L-1 aqueous sodium hydroxide. Paraformaldehyde, being insoluble in the sample solvent, does not present the inconvenience of other indicators that change the properties of the solvent due to composition changes. The titration can therefore be done effectively in the same medium as the standard potentiometric and visual titration methods. The results of the application of the method to both non-refined and refined oils are presented herein. The proposed method has advantages in relation to the potentiometric method in terms of speed and simplicity.

  14. Energy conservation: policy issues and end-use scenarios of savings potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The enclosed work is based on previous research during this fiscal year, contained in Construction of Energy Conservation Scenarios: Interim Report of Work in Progress, June 1978. Five subjects were investigated and summaries were published for each subject in separate publications. This publication summarizes policy issues on the five subjects: tradeoffs of municipal solid-waste-processing alternatives (economics of garbage collection; mechanical versus home separation of recyclables); policy barriers and investment decisions in industry (methodology for identification of potential barriers to industrial energy conservation; process of industrial investment decision making); energy-efficient recreational travel (information system to promote energy-efficient recreational travel; recreational travel; national importance and individual decision making); energy-efficient buildings (causes of litigation against energy-conservation building codes; description of the building process); and end-use energy-conservation data base and scenaerios (residential; commercial; transportation; and industrial).

  15. Flank wear analysing of high speed end milling for hardened steel D2 using Taguchi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazza Faizi Al-Hazza, Muataz; Ibrahim, Nur Asmawiyah bt; Adesta, Erry T. Y.; Khan, Ahsan Ali; Abdullah Sidek, Atiah Bt.

    2017-03-01

    One of the main challenges for any manufacturer is how to decrease the machining cost without affecting the final quality of the product. One of the new advanced machining processes in industry is the high speed hard end milling process that merges three advanced machining processes: high speed milling, hard milling and dry milling. However, one of the most important challenges in this process is to control the flank wear rate. Therefore a analyzing the flank wear rate during machining should be investigated in order to determine the best cutting levels that will not affect the final quality of the product. In this research Taguchi method has been used to investigate the effect of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut and determine the best level s to minimize the flank wear rate up to total length of 0.3mm based on the ISO standard to maintain the finishing requirements.

  16. Milling damage on Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer using TiAlN coated End mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konneh, Mohamed; Izman, Sudin; Rahman Kassim, Abdullah Abdul

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports on the damage caused by milling Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composite (CFRP) with 2-flute 4 mm-diameter solid carbide end mills, coated with titanium aluminium nitride. The machining parameters considered in work are, rotation speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Experiments were designed based on Box-Behnken design and the experiments conducted on a Mikrotool DT-110 CNC micro machine. A laser tachometer was used to ascertain a rotational speed for conducting any machining trial. Optical microscopy examination reveals minimum delamination value of 4.05 mm at the spindle speed of 25,000 rpm, depth of cut of 50μm and feed rate of 3 mm/min and the maximum delamination value of 5.04 mm at the spindle speed of 35000 rpm, depth of cut of 150μm and feed rate of 9 mm/min A mathematical model relating the milling parameters and delamination has been established.

  17. Using Negotiated Joining to Construct and Fill Open-ended Roles in Elite Culinary Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Vaughn

    2015-03-01

    This qualitative study examines membership processes in groups operating in an uncertain environment that prevents them from fully predefining new members' roles. I describe how nine elite high-end, cutting-edge culinary groups in the U.S. and Europe, ranging from innovative restaurants to culinary R&D groups, use negotiated joining-a previously undocumented process-to systematically construct and fill these emergent, open-ended roles. I show that negotiated joining is a consistently patterned, iterative process that begins with a role that both aspirant and target group explicitly understand to be provisional. This provisional role is then jointly modified and constructed by the aspirant and target group through repeated iterations of proposition, validation through trial and evaluation, and selective integration of validated role components. The initially provisional role stabilizes and the aspirant achieves membership if enough role components are validated; otherwise the negotiated joining process is abandoned. Negotiated joining allows the aspirant and target group to learn if a mutually desirable role is likely and, if so, to construct such a role. In addition, the provisional roles in negotiated joining can support absorptive capacity by allowing novel role components to enter target groups through aspirants' efforts to construct stable roles for themselves, while the internal adjustment involved in integrating newly validated role components can have the unintended side effect of supporting adaptation by providing opportunities for the groups to use these novel role components to modify their role structure and goals to suit a changing and uncertain environment. Negotiated joining thus reveals role ambiguity's hitherto unexamined beneficial consequences and provides a foundation for a contingency theory of new-member acquisition.

  18. Rapid development of microsatellite markers for Callosobruchus chinensis using Illumina paired-end sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can-Xing Duan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adzuki bean weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis L., is one of the most destructive pests of stored legume seeds such as mungbean, cowpea, and adzuki bean, which usually cause considerable loss in the quantity and quality of stored seeds during transportation and storage. However, a lack of genetic information of this pest results in a series of genetic questions remain largely unknown, including population genetic structure, kinship, biotype abundance, and so on. Co-dominant microsatellite markers offer a great resolving power to determine these events. Here, we report rapid microsatellite isolation from C. chinensis via high-throughput sequencing. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, 94,560,852 quality-filtered and trimmed reads were obtained for the assembly of genome using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. In total, the genome with total length of 497,124,785 bp, comprising 403,113 high quality contigs was generated with de novo assembly. More than 6800 SSR loci were detected and a suit of 6303 primer pair sequences were designed and 500 of them were randomly selected for validation. Of these, 196 pair of primers, i.e. 39.2%, produced reproducible amplicons that were polymorphic among 8 C. chinensis genotypes collected from different geographical regions. Twenty out of 196 polymorphic SSR markers were used to analyze the genetic diversity of 18 C. chinensis populations. The results showed the twenty SSR loci were highly polymorphic among these populations. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents a first report of genome sequencing and de novo assembly for C. chinensis and demonstrates the feasibility of generating a large scale of sequence information and SSR loci isolation by Illumina paired-end sequencing. Our results provide a valuable resource for C. chinensis research. These novel markers are valuable for future genetic mapping, trait association, genetic structure and kinship among C. chinensis.

  19. A scenario analysis of investment options for the Cuban power sector using the MARKAL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Evelyn L.; Belt, Juan A.B.; Chambers, Adam; Delaquil, Pat; Goldstein, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The Cuban power sector faces a need for extensive investment in new generating capacity, under a large number of uncertainties regarding future conditions, including: rate of demand growth, fluctuations in fuel prices, access to imported fuel, and access to investment capital for construction of new power plants and development of fuel import infrastructure. To identify cost effective investment strategies under these uncertainties, a supply and power sector MARKAL model was assembled, following an extensive review of available data on the Cuban power system and resource potentials. Two scenarios were assessed, a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario assuming continued moderate electricity load growth and domestic fuel production growth, and a high growth (HI) scenario assuming rapid electricity demand growth, rapid increase in domestic fuel production, and a transition to market pricing of electricity. Within these two scenarios sets, sensitivity analyses were conducted on a number of variables. The implications of least-cost investment strategies for new capacity builds, investment spending requirements, electricity prices, fuel expenditures, and carbon dioxide emissions for each scenario were assessed. Natural gas was found to be the cost effective fuel for new generation across both scenarios and most sensitivity cases, suggesting that access to natural gas, through increased domestic production and LNG import, is a clear priority for further analysis in the Cuban context.

  20. A scenario analysis of investment options for the Cuban power sector using the MARKAL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Evelyn L.; Chambers, Adam; Delaquil, Pat; Goldstein, Gary [International Resources Group, 1211 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 700, Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Belt, Juan A.B. [US Agency for International Development, 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20523-3800 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The Cuban power sector faces a need for extensive investment in new generating capacity, under a large number of uncertainties regarding future conditions, including: rate of demand growth, fluctuations in fuel prices, access to imported fuel, and access to investment capital for construction of new power plants and development of fuel import infrastructure. To identify cost effective investment strategies under these uncertainties, a supply and power sector MARKAL model was assembled, following an extensive review of available data on the Cuban power system and resource potentials. Two scenarios were assessed, a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario assuming continued moderate electricity load growth and domestic fuel production growth, and a high growth (HI) scenario assuming rapid electricity demand growth, rapid increase in domestic fuel production, and a transition to market pricing of electricity. Within these two scenarios sets, sensitivity analyses were conducted on a number of variables. The implications of least-cost investment strategies for new capacity builds, investment spending requirements, electricity prices, fuel expenditures, and carbon dioxide emissions for each scenario were assessed. Natural gas was found to be the cost effective fuel for new generation across both scenarios and most sensitivity cases, suggesting that access to natural gas, through increased domestic production and LNG import, is a clear priority for further analysis in the Cuban context. (author)

  1. An end-to-end examination of geometric accuracy of IGRT using a new digital accelerator equipped with onboard imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Kielar, Kayla N; Mok, Ed; Hsu, Annie; Dieterich, Sonja; Xing, Lei

    2012-02-07

    The Varian's new digital linear accelerator (LINAC), TrueBeam STx, is equipped with a high dose rate flattening filter free (FFF) mode (6 MV and 10 MV), a high definition multileaf collimator (2.5 mm leaf width), as well as onboard imaging capabilities. A series of end-to-end phantom tests were performed, TrueBeam-based image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), to determine the geometric accuracy of the image-guided setup and dose delivery process for all beam modalities delivered using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and RapidArc. In these tests, an anthropomorphic phantom with a Ball Cube II insert and the analysis software (FilmQA (3cognition)) were used to evaluate the accuracy of TrueBeam image-guided setup and dose delivery. Laser cut EBT2 films with 0.15 mm accuracy were embedded into the phantom. The phantom with the film inserted was first scanned with a GE Discovery-ST CT scanner, and the images were then imported to the planning system. Plans with steep dose fall off surrounding hypothetical targets of different sizes were created using RapidArc and IMRT with FFF and WFF (with flattening filter) beams. Four RapidArc plans (6 MV and 10 MV FFF) and five IMRT plans (6 MV and 10 MV FFF; 6 MV, 10 MV and 15 MV WFF) were studied. The RapidArc plans with 6 MV FFF were planned with target diameters of 1 cm (0.52 cc), 2 cm (4.2 cc) and 3 cm (14.1 cc), and all other plans with a target diameter of 3 cm. Both onboard planar and volumetric imaging procedures were used for phantom setup and target localization. The IMRT and RapidArc plans were then delivered, and the film measurements were compared with the original treatment plans using a gamma criteria of 3%/1 mm and 3%/2 mm. The shifts required in order to align the film measured dose with the calculated dose distributions was attributed to be the targeting error. Targeting accuracy of image-guided treatment using TrueBeam was found to be within 1 mm. For irradiation of the 3 cm target, the gammas (3%, 1

  2. The vacuum pyrolysis of used tires. End-uses for oil and carbon black products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, C.; Chaala, A.; Darmstadt, H. [Institut Pyrovac Inc., Parc Technologique du Quebec Metropolitain, rue Franquet, Sainte-Foy (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    By vacuum pyrolysis, the rubber portion of used tires is transformed into oil and gas and the carbon black filler is recovered as pyrolytic carbon black (CB{sub P}). Several commercial applications for the different products have been investigated and are reported in this article. CB{sub P} surface chemistry and activity are similar to those of commercial carbon blacks. Therefore, CB{sub P} has the potential to replace commercial carbon black grades in certain rubber applications. CB{sub P} was successfully tested as a filler in road pavement. The total pyrolytic oil can be used as a liquid fuel. The oil can also be distilled into different fractions: a light, a middle distillate and a heavy fraction. The light fraction was positively tested as a gasoline additive. Furthermore, this fraction contains valuable chemicals such as d,l-limonene. The middle fraction was successfully tested as a plasticizer in rubbers. The heavy fraction represents a good-quality feedstock for the production of coke and can also be used in road pavements. The pyrolytic gas can be used as a make-up heat source for the pyrolysis process

  3. Assessing End-Of-Supply Risk of Spare Parts Using the Proportional Hazard Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Li (Xishu); R. Dekker (Rommert); C. Heij (Christiaan); M. Hekimoğlu (Mustafa)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractOperators of long field-life systems like airplanes are faced with hazards in the supply of spare parts. If the original manufacturers or suppliers of parts end their supply, this may have large impacts on operating costs of firms needing these parts. Existing end-of-supply evaluation

  4. Analytical Model for the End-Bearing Capacity of Tapered Piles Using Cavity Expansion Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Manandhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of evidence from model tests on increasing the end-bearing behavior of tapered piles at the load-settlement curve, this paper proposes an analytical spherical cavity expansion theory to evaluate the end-bearing capacity. The angle of tapering is inserted in the proposed model to evaluate the end-bearing capacity. The test results of the proposed model in different types of sands and different relative densities show good effects compared to conventional straight piles. The end-bearing capacity increases with increases in the tapering angle. The paper then propounds a model for prototypes and real-type pile tests which predicts and validates to evaluate the end-bearing capacity.

  5. End-stage hindfoot arthrosis: outcomes of tibiocalcaneal fusion using internal and Ilizarov fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Brooke; Watson, J Tracy; Jackman, James; Fissel, Brian; Karges, David E

    2014-01-01

    End-stage post-traumatic pantalar arthrosis from ankle, pilon, and talus fractures has often been complicated by infection, bone loss, and a soft tissue deficit. Patients can present with neuropathy, diabetes, tobacco use, and previously failed arthrodesis. Fusion in this population has been challenging, with nonunion rates up to 30%, often leading to amputation. We reviewed the results of a standardized protocol that combined simultaneous internal fixation with the Ilizarov technique to achieve fusion in high-risk patients. With institutional review board approval, a retrospective review of the patients treated with simultaneous internal fixation and an Ilizarov frame was undertaken. The records and radiographs allowed identification of the comorbidities and the presence or absence of successful fusion. Complications were acknowledged and treated. Fifteen patients had undergone the procedure. The mean follow-up period was 27.9 (range 9 to 67) months. Thirteen patients (86.67%) had had previous fusion failure. Twelve patients (80%) had developed post-traumatic arthrosis, 5 (33.33%) of whom had open injuries. All patients had 1 comorbidity, and 10 (66.67%) had multiple, including rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes (types 1 and 2), and smoking. Four patients (26.67%) presented with deep infection and bone loss. Union was achieved in 11 (73.33%), with 12 (80%) patients experiencing profound pain relief. Seven patients (46.67%) required symptomatic hardware removal. Three patients (20%) eventually underwent below-the-knee amputation for recalcitrant nonunion. Statistically significant correlations were found between smoking and wound infection and revision and between nonunion and amputation. Our results have indicated that combined internal fixation with Ilizarov application can provide a strong surgical option for the management of end-stage, pantalar arthritis. More studies are needed to compare the cohort outcomes and gait analysis in these patients with those who have

  6. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurjeet S. Birdee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD, few studies have examined the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM and patients’ interest in learning mind-body interventions to address health issues. We surveyed 89 adult patients (response rate 84% at an outpatient hemodialysis center in Brookline, MA, USA regarding the utilization of CAM, including mind-body practices, and willingness to learn mind-body practices. Of respondents, 47% were female, 63% were black, and mean age was 62 years. 61% reported using CAM for health in their lifetime, and 36% reported using CAM within a month of the survey. The most frequent CAM modalities reported in ones’ lifetime and in the last month were mind-body practices (42% and 27%, resp.. Overall lifetime CAM use did not differ significantly by sex, race, dialysis vintage, diagnosis of ESRD, employment status, or education level. Subjects reported that mind-body interactions were very important to health with a median score of 9 on a 10-point Likert scale (ranging from 0 for not important to 10 for extremely important. Most patients (74% reported interest in learning mind-body practices during maintenance hemodialysis. In summary, CAM use, particularly mind-body practice, is frequent among patients with ESRD providing opportunities for future clinical research.

  7. Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the U.S. Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, Colin A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center; Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The industrial sector was the third-largest source of direct U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2014 behind electricity generation and transportation and accounted for roughly 20% of total emissions (EPA 2016). The Energy Information Administration (EIA) projects that total U.S. energy consumption will grow to about 108 exajoules (1 EJ = 1018 J) or 102 quads (1 quad = 1015 British thermal units) in 2025, with nearly all of the growth coming from the industrial sector (DOE 2015b). Energy consumption in the industrial sector is forecast to increase to 39.5 EJ (37.4 quads)—a 22% increase, exceeding 36% of total energy consumption in the United States. Therefore, it is imperative that industrial GHG emissions be considered in any strategy intent on achieving deep decarbonization of the energy sector as a whole. It is important to note that unlike the transportation sector and electrical grid, energy use by industry often involves direct conversion of primary energy sources to thermal and electrical energy at the point of consumption. About 52% of U.S. industrial direct GHG emissions are the result of fuel combustion (EPA 2016) to produce hot gases and steam for process heating, process reactions, and process evaporation, concentration, and drying. The heterogeneity and variations in scale of U.S. industry and the complexity of modern industrial firms’ global supply chains are among the sector’s unique challenges to minimizing its GHG emissions. A combination of varied strategies—such as energy efficiency, material efficiency, and switching to low-carbon fuels—can help reduce absolute industrial GHG emissions. This report provides a complement to process-efficiency improvement to consider how clean energy delivery and use by industry could reduce GHG emissions. Specifically, it considers the possibility of replacing fossil-fuel combustion in industry with nuclear (specifically small modular reactors [SMRs]), solar thermal (referred to

  8. Study regarding seat’s rigidity during rear end collisions using a MADYMO occupant model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionut Radu, Alexandru; Cofaru, Corneliu; Tolea, Bogan; Popescu, Mihaela

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the effects of different front occupant backseat’s rigidities in the case of a rear end collision using a multibody virtual model of an occupant. Simulation will be conducted in PC Crash, the most common accident reconstruction software using a MADYMO multibody occupant to simulate kinematics and dynamic of the passenger. Different backseat torques will be used to see how this will influence the acceleration in the head and torso of the occupant. Also, a real crash test is made to analyze the kinematics of the occupant. We believe that the softer seat’s rigidity will reduce not only the head’s acceleration but also reduces the effect of „whiplash” upon the neck due to the fact that the backseat will rotate backwards increasing its displacement and absorb some of the energy generated by the collision. Although a softer seat could reduce the head’s acceleration, a broken seat will increase it due to the fact that the impact of the backseat with the vehicle’s rear seats will generate a second collision. So, in order to achieve a lower acceleration, a controlled torque is recommended and a controlled angular displacement of the backseat is to be used.

  9. The potential of natural gas use including cogeneration in large-sized industry and commercial sector in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales Palomino, Raul; Nebra, Silvia A.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there have been several discussions on a greater use of natural gas nationwide. Moreover, there have been several announcements by the private and public sectors regarding the construction of new pipelines to supply natural gas to the Peruvian southern and central-north markets. This paper presents future scenarios for the use of natural gas in the large-sized industrial and commercial sectors of the country based on different hypotheses on developments in the natural gas industry, national economic growth, energy prices, technological changes and investment decisions. First, the paper estimates the market potential and characterizes the energy consumption. Then it makes a selection of technological alternatives for the use of natural gas, and it makes an energetic and economic analysis and economic feasibility. Finally, the potential use of natural gas is calculated through nine different scenarios. The natural gas use in cogeneration systems is presented as an alternative to contribute to the installed power capacity of the country. Considering the introduction of the cogeneration in the optimistic–advanced scenario and assuming that all of their conditions would be put into practice, in 2020, the share of the cogeneration in electricity production in Peru would be 9.9%. - Highlights: ► This paper presents future scenarios for the use of natural gas in the large-sized industrial and commercial sectors of Peru. ► The potential use of natural gas is calculated through nine different scenarios.► The scenarios were based on different hypotheses on developments in the natural gas industry, national economic growth, energy prices, technological changes and investment decisions. ► We estimated the market potential and characterized the energy consumption, and made a selection of technological alternatives for the use of natural gas.

  10. IT GOVERNANCE ADOPTION IN BANKING AND INSURANCE SECTOR: LONGITUDINAL CASE STUDY OF COBIT USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Suša Vugec

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For achieving business success and sustainability, companies should increase their focus on aligning business strategy with information technology (IT governance. Consequently, there has been an increase of interest in IT governance adoption and the usage of COBIT framework. In order to investigate the reasons, ways and differences of COBIT framework implementation in financial sector companies, we have conducted a longitudinal research in form of case studies within two banks and two insurance companies. The results reveal an increase in COBIT maturity levels for all observed companies during the five year period, but with significant differences in the level and speed of its adoption. This research indicate the importance of true strategic IT and business alignment for increasing IT governance maturity and opportunities for business model innovation, which makes the practical contribution of the paper.

  11. Policy Analysis of Poverty Alleviation in Semarang City Using Spatial and Sectoral Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muktiali, M.

    2018-02-01

    Poverty is a multidimensional problem. Therefore, poverty reduction policy is not only related to the increase of income, but also various other dimensions such as improvement of education, health, quality of life, access to electricity, access to sanitation and water supply. Semarang City Government in 2012 initiated a policy of poverty reduction synergy program called “Gerdu Kempling”. Gerdu Kempling is an integrated policy which gives priority to addressing poverty in each village and sub-district in Semarang based on aspects of health, economy, education, infrastructure, and environment. Based on the results of Budget Allocation Analysis and Analysis of Geographic Information Systems (Poverty Mapping), it can be concluded that the program and budget allocation for poverty alleviation in Semarang City are not synchronized either spatially or sectorally.

  12. Regulation of non-point phosphorus emissions from the agricultural sector by use of economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block

    critical source areas taking spatial parameters into account. With reference to the joint findings of all four papers it is concluded that a tax on P surplus can be a core element in a close-to-efficient policy regulating P losses from the agricultural sector. However, the general tax fails to regulate...... P stocks to build up in fields and, over time, this increases the risk of losing P to the aquatic environment. The first paper identifies the most important parameters to include in a dynamic model where farm profit is maximized over time whilst taking soil-P dynamics into account. The second paper...... completes the modelling framework from paper 1 and analyses how a tax on P surpluses motivates the different farmer types to utilize the soil-P stock and implement measures to reduce P loss. The third and fourth papers are empirical, where a farm profit maximization model is developed for an area...

  13. Improving Information Exchange in the Chicken Processing Sector Using Standardised Data Lists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Kathryn Anne-Marie; van der Roest, Joop; Höskuldsson, Stefán Torfi; Olsen, Petter; Karlsen, Kine Mari

    Research has shown that to improve electronic communication between companies, universal standardised data lists are necessary. In food supply chains in particular there is an increased need to exchange data in the wake of food safety incidents. Food supply chain companies already record numerous measurements, properties and parameters. These records are necessary for legal reasons, labelling, traceability, profiling desirable characteristics, showing compliance and for meeting customer requirements. Universal standards for name and content of each of these data elements would improve information exchange between buyers, sellers, authorities, consumers and other interested parties. A case study, carried out for the chicken sector, attempted to identify the most relevant parameters including which of these were already communicated to external bodies.

  14. Cross-sector Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz Jessen, Søren; Linnet, Andreas; Tscherning, Rasmus Wiinstedt

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this handbook is to help improve your opportunities for getting started on innovative and business development projects that reach beyond your own sector, commonly known as ’Cross-sector innovation’, or ’Cross innovation’ for short. We believe that there is a need for an easily read...... innovation handbook that can reach out to all sectors and potential partners whose point of departure, language use and understanding of customers is often very different to that of businesses. These differences constitute a resource for business development. If exploited they can lead to new ways of doing...... things and help us breakaway from the lull of the modes of expression and methods ‘customarily’ employed in business development. The handbook focuses on the interaction of “traditional’ businesses and sectors that belong to those known as the creative and the experience industries, i.e. designers...

  15. Forecasting long-term energy demand of Croatian transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Krajačić, Goran; Lulić, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    predictions for the Croatian transport sector are presented. Special emphasis is given to different influencing mechanisms, both legal and financial. The energy demand predictions presented in this paper are based on an end-use simulation model developed and tested with Croatia as a case study. The model...

  16. Reflections on using biographical approaches in end-of-life care: dignity therapy as example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Olav; Threlkeld, Guinever; Street, Annette F; Tishelman, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of nonpharmacologic interventions using biographical approaches at the end of life (EoL) is being increasingly recognized, but less attention is paid to processes impeding realization of this potential. In this article, Swedish and Australian researchers reflect on and problematize experiences using one biographical approach, dignity therapy (DT), in EoL care in Sweden. We use this as an example, focusing on critical examination of the process of applying DT in practice, examining frictions experienced in recruiting participants, collecting the data, and creating a biography. We discuss issues regarding agency, which became evident in the recruitment process and choices made about participation, and the power differentials manifested in the interactive process of eliciting stories and crafting them into a final product. We also raise salient questions about how research and practice with biographical approaches in EoL care might better build on and further existing knowledge to better reflect the complexities of everyday life. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Center variation in the use of nonstandardized model for end-stage liver disease exception points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, David S; Makar, George; Bittermann, Therese; French, Benjamin

    2013-12-01

    The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score is an imperfect prognosticator of waitlist dropout, so transplant centers may apply for exception points to increase a waitlist candidate's priority on the waitlist. Exception applications are categorized as recognized exceptional diagnoses (REDs; eg, hepatocellular carcinoma) and non-REDs (eg, cholangitis). Although prior work has demonstrated regional variation in the use of exceptions, no work has examined the between-center variability. We analyzed all new waitlist candidates from February 27, 2002 to June 3, 2011 to explore variations in the use of non-REDs, for which no strict exception criteria exist. There were 58,641 new waitlist candidates, and 4356 (7.4%) applied for a non-RED exception. The number of applications increased steadily over time, as did the approval rates for such applications: from variation to ensure the appropriate and equitable use of non-RED exceptions. © 2013 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. Analysis of the Risk of Company's Bankruptcy in Polish Food and Beverage Production Sector Using the Cox Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Dominiak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the risk of a company’s bankruptcy in Polish food and beverages production sector (NACE, No. 15 has been carried out using econometric modelling in the form of the Cox regression. The purpose of this paper was to find factors (models describing the risk of a company’s bankruptcy. The described approach to modelling of the risk of bankruptcy is – in the case of quantitative variables – the use of “raw” positions from financial accounts. (original abstract

  19. Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the U.S. Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, Colin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report quantifies greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the industrial sector and identifies opportunities for non-GHG-emitting thermal energy sources to replace the most significant GHG-emitting U.S. industries based on targeted, process-level analysis of industrial heat requirements. The intent is to provide a basis for projecting opportunities for clean energy use. This provides a prospectus for small modular nuclear reactors (including nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems), solar industrial process heat, and geothermal energy. This report provides a complement to analysis of process-efficiency improvement by considering how clean energy delivery and use by industry could reduce GHG emissions.

  20. Assessment of end-use electricity consumption and peak demand by Townsville's housing stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Zhengen; Paevere, Phillip; Grozev, George; Egan, Stephen; Anticev, Julia

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a comprehensive model to estimate annual end-use electricity consumption and peak demand of housing stock, considering occupants' use of air conditioning systems and major appliances. The model was applied to analyse private dwellings in Townsville, Australia's largest tropical city. For the financial year (FY) 2010–11 the predicted results agreed with the actual electricity consumption with an error less than 10% for cooling thermostat settings at the standard setting temperature of 26.5 °C and at 1.0 °C higher than the standard setting. The greatest difference in monthly electricity consumption in the summer season between the model and the actual data decreased from 21% to 2% when the thermostat setting was changed from 26.5 °C to 27.5 °C. Our findings also showed that installation of solar panels in Townville houses could reduce electricity demand from the grid and would have a minor impact on the yearly peak demand. A key new feature of the model is that it can be used to predict probability distribution of energy demand considering (a) that appliances may be used randomly and (b) the way people use thermostats. The peak demand for the FY estimated from the probability distribution tracked the actual peak demand at 97% confidence level. - Highlights: • We developed a model to estimate housing stock energy consumption and peak demand. • Appliances used randomly and thermostat settings for space cooling were considered. • On-site installation of solar panels was also considered. • Its' results agree well with the actual electricity consumption and peak demand. • It shows the model could provide the probability distribution of electricity demand

  1. Water End-Uses in Low-Income Houses in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kelly Marinoski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowing water consumption patterns in buildings is key information for water planning. This article aims to characterize the water consumption pattern and water end-uses in low-income houses in the region of Florianópolis, Southern Brazil. Data were collected by interviewing householders, as well as by measuring the flow rate of existing water fixtures and appliances. The results indicated that the shower was the fixture with the largest water consumption in households, i.e., about 30%–36% of total water consumption on average, followed by the toilet (18%–20%. The surveyed households consumed from 111 to 152 L/capita·day on average, based on different income ranges. No correlation was found between income and water consumption. The results of this study can be used to estimate the consumption of water for new buildings, as well as to develop integrated water management strategies in low-income developments, in Florianópolis, such as water-saving plumbing fixtures, rainwater harvesting, and greywater reuse. Likely, there would be a deferral of capital investments in new water assets for enhancing water and wastewater services by saving water in low-income houses.

  2. Modified titrimetric determination of plutonium using photometric end-point detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baughman, W.J.; Dahlby, J.W.

    1980-04-01

    A method used at LASL for the accurate and precise assay of plutonium metal was modified for the measurement of plutonium in plutonium oxides, nitrate solutions, and in other samples containing large quantities of plutonium in oxidized states higher than +3. In this modified method, the plutonium oxide or other sample is dissolved using the sealed-reflux dissolution method or other appropriate methods. Weighed aliquots, containing approximately 100 mg of plutonium, of the dissolved sample or plutonium nitrate solution are fumed to dryness with an HC1O 4 -H 2 SO 4 mixture. The dried residue is dissolved in dilute H 2 SO 4 , and the plutonium is reduced to plutonium (III) with zinc metal. The excess zinc metal is dissolved with HCl, and the solution is passed through a lead reductor column to ensure complete reduction of the plutonium to plutonium (III). The solution, with added ferroin indicator, is then titrated immediately with standardized ceric solution to a photometric end point. For the analysis of plutonium metal solutions, plutonium oxides, and nitrate solutions, the relative standard deviation are 0.06, 0.08, and 0.14%, respectively. Of the elements most likely to be found with the plutonium, only iron, neptunium, and uranium interfere. Small amounts of uranium and iron, which titrate quantitatively in the method, are determined by separate analytical methods, and suitable corrections are applied to the plutonium value. 4 tables, 4 figures

  3. Patient adaptive control of end-effector based gait rehabilitation devices using a haptic control framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Sami; Kruger, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Robot assisted training has proven beneficial as an extension of conventional therapy to improve rehabilitation outcome. Further facilitation of this positive impact is expected from the application of cooperative control algorithms to increase the patient's contribution to the training effort according to his level of ability. This paper presents an approach for cooperative training for end-effector based gait rehabilitation devices. Thereby it provides the basis to firstly establish sophisticated cooperative control methods in this class of devices. It uses a haptic control framework to synthesize and render complex, task specific training environments, which are composed of polygonal primitives. Training assistance is integrated as part of the environment into the haptic control framework. A compliant window is moved along a nominal training trajectory compliantly guiding and supporting the foot motion. The level of assistance is adjusted via the stiffness of the moving window. Further an iterative learning algorithm is used to automatically adjust this assistance level. Stable haptic rendering of the dynamic training environments and adaptive movement assistance have been evaluated in two example training scenarios: treadmill walking and stair climbing. Data from preliminary trials with one healthy subject is provided in this paper. © 2011 IEEE

  4. Prospects of using a permanent magnetic end effector to despin and detumble an uncooperative target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Lu, Yong; Zhou, Yu; Yin, Yuanhao

    2018-04-01

    Space debris, such as defunct satellites and upper stages of rockets, becomes an uncooperative target after losing its attitude control and communication ability. In addition, tumbling motion can occur due to environmental perturbations and residual angular momentum prior to the object's end-of-mission. To minimize the collision risk during docking and capturing of the tumbling target, a non-contact method based on the eddy current effect is put forward to transmit the control torque to the tumbling target. The main idea is to induce a controllable torque on the conducting surface of the tumbling target using a rotational magnetic field generated by a Halbach rotor. The radial and axial Halbach rotors are used to damp the spinning and nutation motions of the target, respectively. The normal and tangential force are evaluated concerning the relative pose between the chaser and the target. A simplified dynamic model of the nutation damping and despinning processes is developed and the influences of the asymmetrical principal moments of inertia and transverse angular velocity are discussed. The numerical simulation results show that the designed Halbach rotor stabilized the target attitude within an acceptable time. The electromagnetic nutation damping and despinning method provides new solutions for the development of on-orbit capture technology.

  5. Irradiation studies of multimode optical fibres for use in ATLAS front-end links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahout, G.; Pearce, M.; Andrieux, M-L.; Arvidsson, C-B.; Charlton, D.G.; Dinkespiler, B.; Dowell, J.D.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Homer, R.J.; Jovanovic, P.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kuyt, G.; Lundquist, J.; Mandic, I.; Martin, O.; Shaylor, H.R.; Stroynowski, R.; Troska, J.; Wastie, R.L.; Weidberg, A.R.; Wilson, J.A.; Ye, J.

    2000-01-01

    The radiation tolerance of three multimode optical fibres has been investigated to establish their suitability for the use in the front-end data links of the ATLAS experiment. Both gamma and neutron irradiation studies are reported. A step-index fibre with a pure silica core showed an induced attenuation of ∼0.05 dB/m at 330 kGy(Si) and 1x10 15 n(1 MeV Si)/cm 2 and is suitable for use with the inner detector links which operate at 40-80 Mb/s. A graded-index fibre with a predominantly germanium-doped core exhibits an induced attenuation of ∼0.1 dB/m at 800 Gy(Si) and 2x10 13 n(1 MeV Si)/cm 2 and is suitable for the calorimeter links which operate at 1.6 Gb/s. Measurements of the dose rate dependence of the induced attenuation indicate that the attenuation in ATLAS will be lower

  6. CaFE: a tool for binding affinity prediction using end-point free energy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Hou, Tingjun

    2016-07-15

    Accurate prediction of binding free energy is of particular importance to computational biology and structure-based drug design. Among those methods for binding affinity predictions, the end-point approaches, such as MM/PBSA and LIE, have been widely used because they can achieve a good balance between prediction accuracy and computational cost. Here we present an easy-to-use pipeline tool named Calculation of Free Energy (CaFE) to conduct MM/PBSA and LIE calculations. Powered by the VMD and NAMD programs, CaFE is able to handle numerous static coordinate and molecular dynamics trajectory file formats generated by different molecular simulation packages and supports various force field parameters. CaFE source code and documentation are freely available under the GNU General Public License via GitHub at https://github.com/huiliucode/cafe_plugin It is a VMD plugin written in Tcl and the usage is platform-independent. tingjunhou@zju.edu.cn. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE USE OF A PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM, ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND THE PERFORMANCE OF PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ahyaruddin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the accountability and performance of public sector organizations. It provides empirical evidence about the relationship between the use of a performance measurement system and the organizational factors of accountability and organizational performance. We investigate the three roles of a performance measurement system (its operational use, incentive use, and exploratory use, and three organizational factors (contractibility, the legislative mandate, and management commitment. A mixed method approach with sequential explanatory design was used to answer the research question. The hypotheses testing used Structural Equation Modelling-Partial Least Square (SEM-PLS. Our findings were based on survey data from 137 SKPD officers in the local government of Yogyakarta Province, and showed that management commitment had a positive association with accountability and organizational performance. We also found a positive association between the legislative mandate and accountability. However, this research did not find any significant association among the three roles of the performance measurement system with accountability and organizational performance. Based on the institutional theory, our findings show substantial contributions by the institutional isomorphism, which was used in an appropriate manner to explain the context of public sector organizations, especially in the local government of Yogyakarta Province.

  8. Barriers to use of oral rehydration salts for child diarrhea in the private sector: evidence from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Zachary; Shah, Manan; Sood, Neeraj

    2015-02-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of child mortality in India. Most deaths are cheaply preventable with the use of oral rehydration salts (ORS), yet many health providers still fail to provide ORS to children seeking diarrheal care. In this study, we use survey data to assess whether children visiting private providers for diarrheal care were less likely to use ORS than those visiting public providers. Results suggest that children who visited private providers were 9.5 percentage points less likely to have used ORS than those who visited public providers (95% CI 5-14). We complimented these results with in-depth interviews of 21 public and 17 private doctors in Gujarat, India, assessing potential drivers of public-private disparities in ORS use. Interview results suggested that lack of direct medication dispensing in the private sector might be a key barrier to ORS use in the private sector. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Development of pixel front-end electronics using advanced deep submicron CMOS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havranek, Miroslav

    2014-09-01

    The content of this thesis is oriented on the R and D of microelectronic integrated circuits for processing the signal from particle sensors and partially on the sensors themselves. This work is motivated by ongoing upgrades of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at CERN laboratory and by exploration of new technologies for the future experiments in particle physics. Evolution of technologies for the fabrication of microelectronic circuits follows Moore's laws. Transistors become smaller and electronic chips reach higher complexity. Apart from this, silicon foundries become more open to smaller customers and often provide non-standard process options. Two new directions in pixel technologies are explored in this thesis: design of pixel electronics using ultra deep submicron (65 nm) CMOS technology and Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS). An independent project concerning the measurement of pixel capacitance with a dedicated measurement chip is a part of this thesis. Pixel capacitance is one of the key parameters for design of the pixel front-end electronics and thus it is closely related to the content of the thesis. The theoretical background, aspects of chip design, performance of chip prototypes and prospect for design of large pixel chips are comprehensively described in five chapters of the thesis.

  10. Feasibility of evaluating the integrity of FTR duct to end fixture welds using acoustic emission monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trantow, R.L.

    1975-11-01

    A method of applying real-time acoustic emission (AE) source location to evaluate the integrity of duct-to-end fixture welds was developed and evaluated using the HEDL R8-4 AE monitor coupled with a PDP-8e minicomputer. Operational software was developed to control the system's data acquisition, storage, and display functions. Performance was evaluated on the basis of comparisons between AE source location data and subsequent destructive examination of six duct-to-transition ring qualification welds. Ten separate discontinuities seen in the metallography performed at 35 locations along these welds correlated with the averaged acoustic emission activity revealed by the AE source location maps. This relationship is not presently considered to be usable as a system calibration method however, because of the limited range of discontinuity lengths (from 0.0003 to 0.004 in. long) that were correlated. The presence of six other discontinuities, found in regions showing low levels of emission activity, indicated that significant stress risers can go undetected under the conditions investigated

  11. Recovery of diverse microbes in high turbidity surface water samples using dead-end ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mull, Bonnie; Hill, Vincent R

    2012-12-01

    Dead-end ultrafiltration (DEUF) has been reported to be a simple, field-deployable technique for recovering bacteria, viruses, and parasites from large-volume water samples for water quality testing and waterborne disease investigations. While DEUF has been reported for application to water samples having relatively low turbidity, little information is available regarding recovery efficiencies for this technique when applied to sampling turbid water samples such as those commonly found in lakes and rivers. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a DEUF technique for recovering MS2 bacteriophage, enterococci, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in surface water samples having elevated turbidity. Average recovery efficiencies for each study microbe across all turbidity ranges were: MS2 (66%), C. parvum (49%), enterococci (85%), E. coli (81%), and C. perfringens (63%). The recovery efficiencies for MS2 and C. perfringens exhibited an inversely proportional relationship with turbidity, however no significant differences in recovery were observed for C. parvum, enterococci, or E. coli. Although ultrafilter clogging was observed, the DEUF method was able to process 100-L surface water samples at each turbidity level within 60 min. This study supports the use of the DEUF method for recovering a wide array of microbes in large-volume surface water samples having medium to high turbidity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Massive Parallelism of Monte-Carlo Simulation on Low-End Hardware using Graphic Processing Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mburu, Joe Mwangi; Hah, Chang Joo Hah [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Within the past decade, research has been done on utilizing GPU massive parallelization in core simulation with impressive results but unfortunately, not much commercial application has been done in the nuclear field especially in reactor core simulation. The purpose of this paper is to give an introductory concept on the topic and illustrate the potential of exploiting the massive parallel nature of GPU computing on a simple monte-carlo simulation with very minimal hardware specifications. To do a comparative analysis, a simple two dimension monte-carlo simulation is implemented for both the CPU and GPU in order to evaluate performance gain based on the computing devices. The heterogeneous platform utilized in this analysis is done on a slow notebook with only 1GHz processor. The end results are quite surprising whereby high speedups obtained are almost a factor of 10. In this work, we have utilized heterogeneous computing in a GPU-based approach in applying potential high arithmetic intensive calculation. By applying a complex monte-carlo simulation on GPU platform, we have speed up the computational process by almost a factor of 10 based on one million neutrons. This shows how easy, cheap and efficient it is in using GPU in accelerating scientific computing and the results should encourage in exploring further this avenue especially in nuclear reactor physics simulation where deterministic and stochastic calculations are quite favourable in parallelization.

  13. Development of pixel front-end electronics using advanced deep submicron CMOS technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havranek, Miroslav

    2014-09-15

    The content of this thesis is oriented on the R and D of microelectronic integrated circuits for processing the signal from particle sensors and partially on the sensors themselves. This work is motivated by ongoing upgrades of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at CERN laboratory and by exploration of new technologies for the future experiments in particle physics. Evolution of technologies for the fabrication of microelectronic circuits follows Moore's laws. Transistors become smaller and electronic chips reach higher complexity. Apart from this, silicon foundries become more open to smaller customers and often provide non-standard process options. Two new directions in pixel technologies are explored in this thesis: design of pixel electronics using ultra deep submicron (65 nm) CMOS technology and Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS). An independent project concerning the measurement of pixel capacitance with a dedicated measurement chip is a part of this thesis. Pixel capacitance is one of the key parameters for design of the pixel front-end electronics and thus it is closely related to the content of the thesis. The theoretical background, aspects of chip design, performance of chip prototypes and prospect for design of large pixel chips are comprehensively described in five chapters of the thesis.

  14. Massive Parallelism of Monte-Carlo Simulation on Low-End Hardware using Graphic Processing Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mburu, Joe Mwangi; Hah, Chang Joo Hah

    2014-01-01

    Within the past decade, research has been done on utilizing GPU massive parallelization in core simulation with impressive results but unfortunately, not much commercial application has been done in the nuclear field especially in reactor core simulation. The purpose of this paper is to give an introductory concept on the topic and illustrate the potential of exploiting the massive parallel nature of GPU computing on a simple monte-carlo simulation with very minimal hardware specifications. To do a comparative analysis, a simple two dimension monte-carlo simulation is implemented for both the CPU and GPU in order to evaluate performance gain based on the computing devices. The heterogeneous platform utilized in this analysis is done on a slow notebook with only 1GHz processor. The end results are quite surprising whereby high speedups obtained are almost a factor of 10. In this work, we have utilized heterogeneous computing in a GPU-based approach in applying potential high arithmetic intensive calculation. By applying a complex monte-carlo simulation on GPU platform, we have speed up the computational process by almost a factor of 10 based on one million neutrons. This shows how easy, cheap and efficient it is in using GPU in accelerating scientific computing and the results should encourage in exploring further this avenue especially in nuclear reactor physics simulation where deterministic and stochastic calculations are quite favourable in parallelization

  15. Pathogenic characterization of lasiodplodia causing stem end rot of mango and its control using botanicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, S. F.; Hussain, Y.; Iram, S.

    2017-01-01

    Two widely cultivated mango fruit varieties White chounsa and Sindhri were collected from two major mango growing areas of Punjab and Sindh Provinces of Pakistan. This study was focused on pathological characterization of predominant postharvest diseases such as stem end rot of mango (Mangifera indica) caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae, and evaluation of bio-control activity by different plant extracts. L. theobromae aggressiveness of isolates was tested by artificial inoculations under controlled conditions, all isolates proved pathogenic in varying degree of aggressiveness on (Sindhri and White chounsa) with reference to control. Calculated standard error mean varied in lesion area produced by pathogens 6-63cm/sup 2/ (Sindhri) and 60-170 cm/sup 2/ (White chounsa). Re-isolation of respective fungi verified the Koch's postulates. Plant extract of Datura stramonium, Aloe-vera, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, were used to control the radial growth of L. theobromae. Comparative analysis showed D. Stramonium and E. camaldulensis extracts most efficiently reduced the growth of Lasiodiplodia isolates, in comparison to Aloe-vera extract, restrict the 15-20% growth. All pathological results and treatments were significant at p<0.05 through ANOVA. This study emphasizes the behavior of pathogens which could be helpful in mango breeding to introduce resistance toward Lasiodiplodia and referred plants provide the best alternative of chemical fungicides. (author)

  16. Milling damage on Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer using TiAlN coated End mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konneh, Mohamed; Kassim, Abdullah Abdul Rahman; Izman, Sudin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the damage caused by milling Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composite (CFRP) with 2-flute 4 mm-diameter solid carbide end mills, coated with titanium aluminium nitride. The machining parameters considered in work are, rotation speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Experiments were designed based on Box-Behnken design and the experiments conducted on a Mikrotool DT-110 CNC micro machine. A laser tachometer was used to ascertain a rotational speed for conducting any machining trial. Optical microscopy examination reveals minimum delamination value of 4.05 mm at the spindle speed of 25,000 rpm, depth of cut of 50μm and feed rate of 3 mm/min and the maximum delamination value of 5.04 mm at the spindle speed of 35000 rpm, depth of cut of 150μm and feed rate of 9 mm/min A mathematical model relating the milling parameters and delamination has been established. (paper)

  17. Public Health Benefits of End-Use Electrical Energy Efficiency in California: An Exploratory Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Lobscheid, A.B.

    2006-06-01

    This study assesses for California how increasing end-use electrical energy efficiency from installing residential insulation impacts exposures and disease burden from power-plant pollutant emissions. Installation of fiberglass attic insulation in the nearly 3 million electricity-heated homes throughout California is used as a case study. The pollutants nitrous oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), benzo(a)pyrene, benzene, and naphthalene are selected for the assessment. Exposure is characterized separately for rural and urban environments using the CalTOX model, which is a key input to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemicals and other environmental Impacts (TRACI). The output of CalTOX provides for urban and rural populations emissions-to-intake factors, which are expressed as an individual intake fraction (iFi). The typical iFi from power plant emissions are on the order of 10{sup -13} (g intake per g emitted) in urban and rural regions. The cumulative (rural and urban) product of emissions, population, and iFi is combined with toxic effects factors to determine human damage factors (HDFs). HDF are expressed as disability adjusted life years (DALYs) per kilogram pollutant emitted. The HDF approach is applied to the insulation case study. Upgrading existing residential insulation to US Department of Energy (DOE) recommended levels eliminates over the assmned 50-year lifetime of the insulation an estimated 1000 DALYs from power-plant emissions per million tonne (Mt) of insulation installed, mostly from the elimination of PM2.5 emissions. In comparison, the estimated burden from the manufacture of this insulation in DALYs per Mt is roughly four orders of magnitude lower than that avoided.

  18. Significant ELCAP analysis results: Summary report. [End-use Load and Consumer Assessment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, R.G.; Conner, C.C.; Drost, M.K.; Miller, N.E.; Cooke, B.A.; Halverson, M.A.; Lebaron, B.A.; Lucas, R.G.; Jo, J.; Richman, E.E.; Sandusky, W.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Ritland, K.G. (Ritland Associates, Seattle, WA (USA)); Taylor, M.E. (USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (USA)); Hauser, S.G. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA))

    1991-02-01

    The evolution of the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) since 1983 at Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has been eventful and somewhat tortuous. The birth pangs of a data set so large and encompassing as this have been overwhelming at times. The early adolescent stage of data set development and use has now been reached and preliminary results of early analyses of the data are becoming well known. However, the full maturity of the data set and the corresponding wealth of analytic insights are not fully realized. This document is in some sense a milestone in the brief history of the program. It is a summary of the results of the first five years of the program, principally containing excerpts from a number of previous reports. It is meant to highlight significant accomplishments and analytical results, with a focus on the principal results. Many of the results have a broad application in the utility load research community in general, although the real breadth of the data set remains largely unexplored. The first section of the document introduces the data set: how the buildings were selected, how the metering equipment was installed, and how the data set has been prepared for analysis. Each of the sections that follow the introduction summarize a particular analytic result. A large majority of the analyses to date involve the residential samples, as these were installed first and had highest priority on the analytic agenda. Two exploratory analyses using commercial data are included as an introduction to the commercial analyses that are currently underway. Most of the sections reference more complete technical reports which the reader should refer to for details of the methodology and for more complete discussion of the results. Sections have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  19. Using benchmarking for the primary allocation of EU allowances. An application to the German power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Cremer, C.

    2007-07-01

    Basing allocation of allowances for existing installations under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme on specific emission values (benchmarks) rather than on historic emissions may have several advantages. Benchmarking may recognize early ac-tion, provide higher incentives for replacing old installations and result in fewer distortions in case of updating, facilitate EU-wide harmonization of allocation rules or allow for simplified and more efficient closure rules. Applying an optimization model for the German power sector, we analyze the distributional effects of vari-ous allocation regimes across and within different generation technologies. Re-sults illustrate that regimes with a single uniform benchmark for all fuels or with a single benchmark for coal- and lignite-fired plants imply substantial distributional effects. In particular, lignite- and old coal-fired plants would be made worse off. Under a regime with fuel-specific benchmarks for gas, coal, and lignite 50 % of the gas-fired plants and 4 % of the lignite and coal-fired plants would face an allow-ance deficit of at least 10 %, while primarily modern lignite-fired plants would benefit. Capping the surplus and shortage of allowances would further moderate the distributional effects, but may tarnish incentives for efficiency improvements and recognition of early action. (orig.)

  20. Analysis of energy use and efficiency in Turkish manufacturing sector SMEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuet, Semih; Soner, Selin

    2007-01-01

    Small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) have an important role in the Turkish economy because of the workforce involved. According to the size of the industrial facilities, there are different cost components related to the total production costs. Energy cost is usually a small portion of the total production cost, but the Turkish industrial sector comprises approximately 35% of Turkey's total energy consumption and 98.8% of the total number of enterprises in Turkey constitutes the SMEs. Because of the uncertainty of energy costs in the world, it is important to take preventive measures to reduce energy costs and increase efficiencies in industry and consequently in SMEs. In this paper, medium sized enterprises are taken into consideration essentially. Because of getting homogeneity, enterprises with the number of workers between 100 and 200 in the metallic goods industry have been considered in the survey. Energy management includes increasing the profitability by reduced operational costs, and it is also a potential for improving market share. Many different evaluation models have been published in the energy management literature. However, there have not been so many systematic approaches to compare the relative efficiency of the systems. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is a special linear programming model for deriving the comparative efficiency of multiple-input multiple-output decision making units (DMUs). An evaluation of energy efficiency in 20 medium sized companies has been conducted, and the results are discussed in this paper

  1. How to use the clean development mechanism in the residential sector? The case of Brazilian refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Helioui; Cohen, Claude; Salem Szklo, Alexandre

    2006-01-01

    The definition of simple and reliable emission baselines is crucial to foster clean development mechanism (CDM) projects. This paper assesses a project methodology that could boost large-scale energy-efficiency projects in the sector of domestic appliances. The baseline appliance is defined a priori in a 'conservative' manner as the design option minimizing life-cycle social costs. The project methodology consists in a program which rebates new appliances according to their emission savings compared to the baseline. Is the proposed baseline acceptable? What could be the impact of such project on emissions? To address these questions, we look for insights from a hypothetical case on Brazilian refrigerators. A rational choice model is developed which assumes that households select design options minimizing life-cycle private costs. Results suggest that electricity tariff distortions and financial constraints might hamper project performances and allow significant free-riding. Low income households remain trapped into low-efficiency choices and high income households adopt outperforming appliances, whether rebated or not. However, simple solutions likely to improve the project methodology do exist

  2. SU-E-J-25: End-To-End (E2E) Testing On TomoHDA System Using a Real Pig Head for Intracranial Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, N; Leick, M; Bonetti, M; Negretti, L [Clinica Luganese, Radiotherapy Center, Lugano (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the MVCT imaging uncertainty on the TomoHDA system for intracranial radiosurgery treatments. To determine the end-to-end (E2E) overall accuracy of the TomoHDA system for intracranial radiosurgery. Methods: A pig head was obtained from the butcher, cut coronally through the brain, and preserved in formaldehyde. The base of the head was fixed to a positioning plate allowing precise movement, i.e. translation and rotation, in all 6 axes. A repeatability test was performed on the pig head to determine uncertainty in the image bone registration algorithm. Furthermore, the test studied images with MVCT slice thicknesses of 1 and 3 mm in unison with differing scan lengths. A sensitivity test was performed to determine the registration algorithm’s ability to find the absolute position of known translations/rotations of the pig head. The algorithm’s ability to determine absolute position was compared against that of manual operators, i.e. a radiation therapist and radiation oncologist. Finally, E2E tests for intracranial radiosurgery were performed by measuring the delivered dose distributions within the pig head using Gafchromic films. Results: The repeatability test uncertainty was lowest for the MVCTs of 1-mm slice thickness, which measured less than 0.10 mm and 0.12 deg for all axes. For the sensitivity tests, the bone registration algorithm performed better than human eyes and a maximum difference of 0.3 mm and 0.4 deg was observed for the axes. E2E test results in absolute position difference measured 0.03 ± 0.21 mm in x-axis and 0.28 ± 0.18 mm in y-axis. A maximum difference of 0.32 and 0.66 mm was observed in x and y, respectively. The average peak dose difference between measured and calculated dose was 2.7 cGy or 0.4%. Conclusion: Our tests using a pig head phantom estimate the TomoHDA system to have a submillimeter overall accuracy for intracranial radiosurgery.

  3. SU-E-J-25: End-To-End (E2E) Testing On TomoHDA System Using a Real Pig Head for Intracranial Radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, N; Leick, M; Bonetti, M; Negretti, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the MVCT imaging uncertainty on the TomoHDA system for intracranial radiosurgery treatments. To determine the end-to-end (E2E) overall accuracy of the TomoHDA system for intracranial radiosurgery. Methods: A pig head was obtained from the butcher, cut coronally through the brain, and preserved in formaldehyde. The base of the head was fixed to a positioning plate allowing precise movement, i.e. translation and rotation, in all 6 axes. A repeatability test was performed on the pig head to determine uncertainty in the image bone registration algorithm. Furthermore, the test studied images with MVCT slice thicknesses of 1 and 3 mm in unison with differing scan lengths. A sensitivity test was performed to determine the registration algorithm’s ability to find the absolute position of known translations/rotations of the pig head. The algorithm’s ability to determine absolute position was compared against that of manual operators, i.e. a radiation therapist and radiation oncologist. Finally, E2E tests for intracranial radiosurgery were performed by measuring the delivered dose distributions within the pig head using Gafchromic films. Results: The repeatability test uncertainty was lowest for the MVCTs of 1-mm slice thickness, which measured less than 0.10 mm and 0.12 deg for all axes. For the sensitivity tests, the bone registration algorithm performed better than human eyes and a maximum difference of 0.3 mm and 0.4 deg was observed for the axes. E2E test results in absolute position difference measured 0.03 ± 0.21 mm in x-axis and 0.28 ± 0.18 mm in y-axis. A maximum difference of 0.32 and 0.66 mm was observed in x and y, respectively. The average peak dose difference between measured and calculated dose was 2.7 cGy or 0.4%. Conclusion: Our tests using a pig head phantom estimate the TomoHDA system to have a submillimeter overall accuracy for intracranial radiosurgery

  4. WE-DE-BRA-11: A Study of Motion Tracking Accuracy of Robotic Radiosurgery Using a Novel CCD Camera Based End-To-End Test System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L; M Yang, Y [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Nelson, B [Logos Systems Intl, Scotts Valley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: A novel end-to-end test system using a CCD camera and a scintillator based phantom (XRV-124, Logos Systems Int’l) capable of measuring the beam-by-beam delivery accuracy of Robotic Radiosurgery (CyberKnife) was developed and reported in our previous work. This work investigates its application in assessing the motion tracking (Synchrony) accuracy for CyberKnife. Methods: A QA plan with Anterior and Lateral beams (with 4 different collimator sizes) was created (Multiplan v5.3) for the XRV-124 phantom. The phantom was placed on a motion platform (superior and inferior movement), and the plans were delivered on the CyberKnife M6 system using four motion patterns: static, Sine- wave, Sine with 15° phase shift, and a patient breathing pattern composed of 2cm maximum motion with 4 second breathing cycle. Under integral recording mode, the time-averaged beam vectors (X, Y, Z) were measured by the phantom and compared with static delivery. In dynamic recording mode, the beam spots were recorded at a rate of 10 frames/second. The beam vector deviation from average position was evaluated against the various breathing patterns. Results: The average beam position of the six deliveries with no motion and three deliveries with Synchrony tracking on ideal motion (sinewave without phase shift) all agree within −0.03±0.00 mm, 0.10±0.04, and 0.04±0.03 in the X, Y, and X directions. Radiation beam width (FWHM) variations are within ±0.03 mm. Dynamic video record showed submillimeter tracking stability for both regular and irregular breathing pattern; however the tracking error up to 3.5 mm was observed when a 15 degree phase shift was introduced. Conclusion: The XRV-124 system is able to provide 3D and 4D targeting accuracy for CyberKnife delivery with Synchrony. The experimental results showed sub-millimeter delivery in phantom with excellent correlation in target to breathing motion. The accuracy was degraded when irregular motion and phase shift was introduced.

  5. Design of electron beam bending magnet system using three sector magnets for electron and photon therapy: a simulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, A.A.; Bhoraskar, V.N.; Dhole, S.D.

    2013-01-01

    The 270 degree doubly achromatic beam bending magnet system using three sector magnets has been designed mainly for treating cancer and skin diseases. The main requirements of the design of three magnet system is to focus an electron beam having a spot size less than 3mm x 3mm, energy spread within 3% and divergence angle ≤ 3 mrad at the target. To achieve these parameters the simulation was carried out using Lorentz-3EM software. The beam spot, divergence angle and energy spread were observed with respect to the variation in angles of sector magnets and drift distances. From the simulated results, it has been optimized that all the three sector magnets has an angle of 62 degree and the drift distance 68 mm. It is also observed that at the 1637, 2425, 3278, 4165 and 5690 Amp-turn, the optimized design produces 3851, 5754, 7434, 9356 and 11425 Gauss of magnetic field at median plane require to bend 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 MeV energy of electron respectively for electron therapy. The output parameters of the optimized design are energy spread 3%, divergence angle ∼ 3 mrad and spot size 2.8 mm. Moreover, for 6 MV and 15 MV photon therapy application, an electron beam of energy 6.5 MeV and 15.5 MeV extracted from magnet system and focussed on the Bremsstrahlung target. For the photon therapy the 1780, and 4456 amp-turn, an optimized design produces 4148 and 9682 Gauss of magnetic field at median plane require to bend 6.5 and 15.5 MeV energy of electron respectively, which further produces Bremsstrahlung in Tungsten target. (author)

  6. Radiometric titration of officinal radiopharmaceuticals using radioactive kryptonates as end-point indicators. II. Citric, tartaric, undecylenic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harangozo, M.; Jombik, J.; Schiller, P. (Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Farmaceuticka Fakulta); Toelgyessy, J. (Slovenska Vysoka Skola Technicka, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Chemickotechnologicka Fakulta)

    1981-01-01

    A method for the determination of citric, tartaric and undecylenic acids based on radiometric titration with 0.1 or 0.05 mole.l/sup -1/ NaOH was developed. As an indicator of the end point, radioactive kryptonate of glass was used. Experimental technique, results of determinations as well as other possible applications of the radioactive kryptonate of glass for end point determination in alkalimetric analyses of officinal pharmaceuticals are discussed.

  7. A STRATEGIC APPROACH OF THE CONSTRUCTION SECTOR IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUDOR NISTORESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction, one of the major economic sector of activity in Europe, was severely affected by the actual global recession, although the impact of the crisis and the moment when it occurred varied widely between the EU Member States. In Romania, the first effects of the economic crisis in the construction sector occurred since early 2009, being visible both in physical volume of construction works and in the volume and value of investments in this sector. The crisis in the construction works had a strong impact on the entire Romanian economy. With the present research paper „A strategic approach of the construction sector in Romania” we aim to highlight the competitive advantage the companies in the field have on the national market. To this end we will use the SWOT model of strategic analysis and M. Porter’s five competitive forces model, in order to highlight the main problems faced by these companies.

  8. Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillan, Colin; Boardman, Richard; McKellar, Michael; Sabharwall, Piyush; Ruth, Mark; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Changes are occurring throughout the U.S. economy, especially in regard to how energy is generated and used in the electricity, buildings, industrial, and transportation sectors. These changes are being driven by environmental and energy security concerns and by economics. The electric-sector market share of natural gas and variable renewable generation, such as wind and solar photovoltaics (PV), continues to grow. The buildings sector is evolving to meet efficiency standards, the transportation sector is evolving to meet efficiency and renewable fuels standards, and the industrial sector is evolving to reduce emissions. Those changes are driving investment and utilization strategies for generation and other assets. Nuclear and renewable energy sources are important to consider in the energy sector’s evolution because both are considered to be clean and non-carbon-emitting energy sources. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are jointly investigating potential synergies between technologies exploiting nuclear and renewable energy sources. The two laboratories have held several joint workshops since 2011. Those workshops brought together experts in both areas to identify synergies and potential opportunities to work together. Workshop participants identified nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs) as one of the opportunities and recommended investigating whether N-R HESs could both generate dispatchable electricity without carbon emissions and provide clean energy to industrial processes. They also recommended analyzing the potential for N-R HESs to provide dispatchable capacity to a grid with high penetrations of non-dispatchable resources and to investigate whether real inertia provided by thermal power cycles within N-R HESs provides value to the grid. This report is one of a series of reports INL and NREL are producing to investigate the technical and economic aspects of N-R HESs. Previous reports

  9. Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, Colin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Changes are occurring throughout the U.S. economy, especially in regard to how energy is generated and used in the electricity, buildings, industrial, and transportation sectors. These changes are being driven by environmental and energy security concerns and by economics. The electric-sector market share of natural gas and variable renewable generation, such as wind and solar photovoltaics (PV), continues to grow. The buildings sector is evolving to meet efficiency standards, the transportation sector is evolving to meet efficiency and renewable fuels standards, and the industrial sector is evolving to reduce emissions. Those changes are driving investment and utilization strategies for generation and other assets. Nuclear and renewable energy sources are important to consider in the energy sector’s evolution because both are considered to be clean and non-carbon-emitting energy sources. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are jointly investigating potential synergies between technologies exploiting nuclear and renewable energy sources. The two laboratories have held several joint workshops since 2011. Those workshops brought together experts in both areas to identify synergies and potential opportunities to work together. Workshop participants identified nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs) as one of the opportunities and recommended investigating whether N-R HESs could both generate dispatchable electricity without carbon emissions and provide clean energy to industrial processes. They also recommended analyzing the potential for N-R HESs to provide dispatchable capacity to a grid with high penetrations of non-dispatchable resources and to investigate whether real inertia provided by thermal power cycles within N-R HESs provides value to the grid. This report is one of a series of reports INL and NREL are producing to investigate the technical and economic aspects of N-R HESs. Previous reports

  10. Dynamics of final sectoral energy demand and aggregate energy intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescaroux, Francois

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a regional and sectoral model of global final energy demand. For the main end-use sectors of consumption (industrial, commercial and public services, residential and road transportation), per-capita demand is expressed as an S-shaped function of per-capita income. Other variables intervene as well, like energy prices, temperatures and technological trends. This model is applied on a panel of 101 countries and 3 aggregates (covering the whole world) and it explains fairly well past variations in sectoral, final consumption since the beginning of the 2000s. Further, the model is used to analyze the dynamics of final energy demand, by sector and in total. The main conclusion concerns the pattern of change for aggregate energy intensity. The simulations performed show that there is no a priori reason for it to exhibit a bell-shape, as reported in the literature. Depending on initial conditions, the weight of basic needs in total consumption and the availability of modern commercial energy resources, various forms might emerge. - Research Highlights: → The residential sector accounts for most of final energy consumption at low income levels. → Its share drops at the benefit of the industrial, services and road transportation sectors in turn. → Sectoral shares' pattern is affected by changes in geographic, sociologic and economic factors. → Final energy intensity may show various shapes and does not exhibit necessarily a bell-shape.

  11. Simultaneous measurements of ion and electron currents using a novel compact electrostatic end-loss-current detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, M.; Miyake, Y.; Cho, T.; Kohagura, J.; Numakura, T.; Shimizu, K.; Ito, M.; Kiminami, S.; Morimoto, N.; Hirai, K.; Yamagishi, T.; Miyata, Y.; Nakashima, Y.; Miyoshi, S.; Ogura, K.; Kondoh, T.; Kariya, T.

    2006-10-01

    For the purpose of end-loss-ion and -electron analyses in open-field plasmas, a compact-sized electrostatic end-loss-current detector is proposed on the basis of a self-collection principle for suppressing the effects of secondary-electron emission from a metal collector. For employing this specific method, it is worth noting that no further additional magnetic systems except the ambient open-ended magnetic fields are required in the detector operation. This characteristic property provides a compactness of the total detection system and availability for its use in plasma confinement devices without disturbing plasma-confining magnetic fields. The detector consists of a set of parallel metal plates with respect to lines of ambient magnetic forces of a plasma device for analyzing incident ion currents along with a grid for shielding the collector against strays due to the metal-plate biasing. The characterization experiments are carried out by the use of a test-ion-beam line along with an additional use of a Helmholtz coil system for the formation of open magnetic fields similar to those in the GAMMA 10 end region. The applications of the developed end-loss-current detector in the GAMMA 10 plasma experiments are demonstrated under the conditions with simultaneous incidence of energetic electrons produced by electron-cyclotron heatings for end-loss-plugging potential formation.

  12. Admixture mapping of end stage kidney disease genetic susceptibility using estimated mutual information ancestry informative markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geiger Dan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question of a genetic contribution to the higher prevalence and incidence of end stage kidney disease (ESKD among African Americans (AA remained unresolved, until recent findings using admixture mapping pointed to the association of a genomic locus on chromosome 22 with this disease phenotype. In the current study we utilize this example to demonstrate the utility of applying a multi-step admixture mapping approach. Methods A multi-step case only admixture mapping study, consisted of the following steps was designed: 1 Assembly of the sample dataset (ESKD AA; 2 Design of the estimated mutual information ancestry informative markers (n = 2016 screening panel 3; Genotyping the sample set whose size was determined by a power analysis (n = 576 appropriate for the initial screening panel; 4 Inference of local ancestry for each individual and identification of regions with increased AA ancestry using two different ancestry inference statistical approaches; 5 Enrichment of the initial screening panel; 6 Power analysis of the enriched panel 7 Genotyping of additional samples. 8 Re-analysis of the genotyping results to identify a genetic risk locus. Results The initial screening phase yielded a significant peak using the ADMIXMAP ancestry inference program applying case only statistics. Subgroup analysis of 299 ESKD patients with no history of diabetes yielded peaks using both the ANCESTRYMAP and ADMIXMAP ancestry inference programs. The significant peak was found on chromosome 22. Genotyping of additional ancestry informative markers on chromosome 22 that took into account linkage disequilibrium in the ancestral populations, and the addition of samples increased the statistical significance of the finding. Conclusions A multi-step admixture mapping analysis of AA ESKD patients replicated the finding of a candidate risk locus on chromosome 22, contributing to the heightened susceptibility of African Americans to develop non

  13. SU-F-P-39: End-To-End Validation of a 6 MV High Dose Rate Photon Beam, Configured for Eclipse AAA Algorithm Using Golden Beam Data, for SBRT Treatments Using RapidArc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreyra, M; Salinas Aranda, F; Dodat, D; Sansogne, R; Arbiser, S [Vidt Centro Medico, Ciudad Autonoma De Buenos Aires, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aire (Argentina)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To use end-to-end testing to validate a 6 MV high dose rate photon beam, configured for Eclipse AAA algorithm using Golden Beam Data (GBD), for SBRT treatments using RapidArc. Methods: Beam data was configured for Varian Eclipse AAA algorithm using the GBD provided by the vendor. Transverse and diagonals dose profiles, PDDs and output factors down to a field size of 2×2 cm2 were measured on a Varian Trilogy Linac and compared with GBD library using 2% 2mm 1D gamma analysis. The MLC transmission factor and dosimetric leaf gap were determined to characterize the MLC in Eclipse. Mechanical and dosimetric tests were performed combining different gantry rotation speeds, dose rates and leaf speeds to evaluate the delivery system performance according to VMAT accuracy requirements. An end-to-end test was implemented planning several SBRT RapidArc treatments on a CIRS 002LFC IMRT Thorax Phantom. The CT scanner calibration curve was acquired and loaded in Eclipse. PTW 31013 ionization chamber was used with Keithley 35617EBS electrometer for absolute point dose measurements in water and lung equivalent inserts. TPS calculated planar dose distributions were compared to those measured using EPID and MapCheck, as an independent verification method. Results were evaluated with gamma criteria of 2% dose difference and 2mm DTA for 95% of points. Results: GBD set vs. measured data passed 2% 2mm 1D gamma analysis even for small fields. Machine performance tests show results are independent of machine delivery configuration, as expected. Absolute point dosimetry comparison resulted within 4% for the worst case scenario in lung. Over 97% of the points evaluated in dose distributions passed gamma index analysis. Conclusion: Eclipse AAA algorithm configuration of the 6 MV high dose rate photon beam using GBD proved efficient. End-to-end test dose calculation results indicate it can be used clinically for SBRT using RapidArc.

  14. Using Artificial Intelligence and Web Media Data to Evaluate the Growth Potential of Companies in Emerging Industry Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Droll

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe our efforts to adapt and validate a web search and analytics tool – the Gnowit Cognitive Insight Engine – to evaluate the growth and competitive potential of new technology startups and existing firms in the newly emerging precision medicine sector. The results are based on two different search ontologies and two different samples of firms. The first sample includes established drug companies operating in the precision medicine field and was used to estimate the relationship between the firms’ innovativeness and the extent of online discussions focusing on their potential growth. The second sample includes new technology firms in the same sector. The firms in the second sample were used as test cases to determine whether their growth-related web search scores would relate to the degree of their innovativeness. The second part of the study applied the same methodology to the real-time monitoring of the firms’ competitive actions. In our findings, we see that our methodology reveals a moderate degree of correlation between the Insight Engine’s algorithmically computed relevance scores and independent measures of innovation potential. The existence of such correlations invites future work in attempting to analyze company growth potential using techniques founded in web content scraping, natural language processing, and machine learning.

  15. [Use of data display screens and ocular hypertension in local public sector workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán Torró, Rosana; Merelles Tormo, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to examine the association between work with data display screens (DDS) and ocular hypertension (OHT). A cross-sectional study among local public sector workers (Diputación Provincial de Valencia). Data from 620 people were collected over 25 months, from periodic medical examinations performed at an occupational health unit. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was obtained with a portable puff tonometer validated for screening, establishing the cut-off point for OHT at 22 mmHg. Both biological characteristics and other work-related variables were taken into account as covariates. Descriptive statistics of the data were obtained, together with nonparametric tests with a level of significance of 95% and logistic regression with p 〈0.1 as the level of significance of the likelihood test. The average age of the study population is 52.8 years. The prevalence of OHT was 3.5% (5.1% among men and 1.2% among women; p=0.012). No significant associations were found between hours of DDS-related work and OHT were found (p=0.395). Logistic regression corroborated the association between gender and OHT, with women less affected (OR = 0.234; 95%CI: 0.068 - 0.799; p=0.020). In our study, no associations were found between time of exposure to data display screens and ocular hypertension. Logistic regression points to a certain association between ocular hypertension and gender, with men being more predisposed. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  16. Family Physicians' Perceived Prevalence, Safety, and Screening for Cigarettes, Marijuana, and Electronic-Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) Use during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, Thomas F; Klawans, Michelle R; Villarreal, Yolanda R; Abramovici, Adi; Suter, Melissa A; Mastrobattista, Joan M; Moreno, Carlos A; Aagaard, Kjersti M; Stotts, Angela L

    2017-01-01

    Assess perceptions of prevalence, safety, and screening practices for cigarettes and secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe), marijuana (and synthetic marijuana), electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS; eg, e-cigarettes), nicotine-replacement therapy (NRT), and smoking-cessation medications during pregnancy, among primary care physicians (PCPs) providing obstetric care. A web-based, cross-sectional survey was e-mailed to 3750 US physicians (belonging to organizations within the Council of Academic Family Medicine Educational Research Alliance). Several research groups' questions were included in the survey. Only physicians who reported providing "labor and delivery" obstetric care responded to questions related to the study objectives. A total of 1248 physicians (of 3750) responded (33.3%) and 417 reported providing labor and delivery obstetric care. Obstetric providers (N = 417) reported cigarette (54%), marijuana (49%), and ENDS use (24%) by "Some (6% to 25%)" pregnant women, with 37% endorsing that "Very Few (1% to 5%)" pregnant women used ENDS. Providers most often selected that very few pregnant women used NRT (45%), cessation medications (ie, bupropion or varenicline; 37%), and synthetic marijuana (23%). Significant proportions chose "Do not Know" for synthetic marijuana (58%) and ENDS (27%). Over 90% of the sample perceived that use of or exposure to cigarettes (99%), synthetic marijuana (99%), SHS (97%), marijuana (92%), or ENDS (91%) were unsafe during pregnancy, with the exception of NRT (44%). Providers most consistently screened for cigarette (85%) and marijuana use (63%), followed by SHSe in the home (48%), and ENDS (33%) and synthetic marijuana use (28%). Fewer than a quarter (18%) screened consistently for all substances and SHSe. One third (32%) reported laboratory testing for marijuana and 3% reported laboratory testing for smoking status. This sample of PCPs providing obstetric care within academic settings perceived cigarettes, marijuana, and ENDS

  17. Sectoral assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J M; Fenhann, J; Gorham, R; Makundi, W; Sathaye, J

    1999-09-01

    This publication contains five papers that were written as a part of the GEF project, The Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations. The main goal of the project was to assess the greenhouse gas reductions and incremental costs of mitigation option sin Ecuador, Argentina, Senegal, Mauritius, Vietnam, Indonesia, Estonia and Hungary. In addition, regional studies were conducted for the Andean Pact nations and Southern Africa to assess various aspects of regional co-operation in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The GEF study also involved the development of a methodological framework for climate change assessment, with a special emphasis on developing countries. These guidelines have been published in a separate document, Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations: Methodological Guidelines. The papers in this publication focus on various methodological and policy aspects of greenhouse gas mitigation at the sectoral level, and are outgrowth of work performed on other parts of the GEF project. (au)

  18. The End

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2016-01-01

    Operaen THE END af den japanske komponist og DJ, Keiichiro Shibuya, skubber radikalt til publikums forventninger om, hvad en opera kan og skal være. THE END byder på 3D animation, surround sound, elektronisk glitch og syntetiske stemmer i en kompromisløs virtuel forestilling med det japanske...

  19. Optimal allocation of bulk water supplies to competing use sectors based on economic criterion - An application to the Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakar, L.; Babel, M. S.; Perret, S. R.; Gupta, A. Das

    2011-04-01

    SummaryThe study develops a model for optimal bulk allocations of limited available water based on an economic criterion to competing use sectors such as agriculture, domestic, industry and hydropower. The model comprises a reservoir operation module (ROM) and a water allocation module (WAM). ROM determines the amount of water available for allocation, which is used as an input to WAM with an objective function to maximize the net economic benefits of bulk allocations to different use sectors. The total net benefit functions for agriculture and hydropower sectors and the marginal net benefit from domestic and industrial sectors are established and are categorically taken as fixed in the present study. The developed model is applied to the Chao Phraya basin in Thailand. The case study results indicate that the WAM can improve net economic returns compared to the current water allocation practices.

  20. A guide to the sources of energy use statistics for the industrial, commercial, agricultural and institutional sectors of the Canadian economy. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The intent of this report is to provide a detailed and comprehensive description of the current data available on energy consumption in selected sectors in Canada. These sectors are the industrial sector--mainly fishing/trapping, logging/forestry, mining, manufacturing, and construction--agriculture (including all types of farm operations and agricultural service industries) and the commerical/institutional sector (excluding government or public administration). Summaries of the sources of energy use information are presented according to source agency and individual energy commodity. Data bases are assessed according to the kinds of data collected, collection methods, availability, quality, coverage, format of presentation and units used, timeliness, and usefulness for analysis and forecasting. A separate section of the report discusses some of the problems with the data available, such as standardization of data codes, data gaps, lack of detail, and reconciliation of different data sources. 36 tabs.

  1. Isotopic ratio measurement using a double focusing magnetic sector mass analyser with an inductively coupled plasma as an ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, A.J.; Freedman, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma source was coupled to a magnetic sector mass analyser equipped with seven Faraday detectors. An electrostatic filter located between the plasma source and the magnetic sector was used to create a double focusing system. Isotopic ratio measurements of uranium and lead standards revealed levels of internal and external precision comparable to those obtained using thermal inonization mass spectrometry. An external precision of 0.014% was obtained from the 235 U: 238 U measurement of six samples of a National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Standard Reference Material (SRM) U-500, while an RSD of 0.022% was obtained from the 206 Pb: 204 Pb measurement of six samples of NBS SRM Pb-981. Measured isotopic ratios deviated from the NBS value by approximately 0.9% per atomic mass unit. This deviation approximates to a linear function of mass bias and can therefore be corrected for by the analysis of standards. The analysis of NBS SRM Sr-987 revealed superior levels of internal and external precision. The normalization of the 87 Sr: 86 Sr ratio to the 86 Sr: 88 Sr ratio reduced the RSD to approximately 0.008%. The measured ratio was within 0.01% of the NBS value and the day-to-day reproducibility was consistent within one standard deviation. (author)

  2. Development of the Manpower Demand Forecast Model of Nuclear Industry Using the System Dynamics Method - Operation Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Suk; Ahn, Nam Sung

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the resource management of nuclear engineering manpower has become an important issue in Korean nuclear industry. The government's plan for increasing the number of domestic nuclear power plants and the recent success of nuclear power plant export to UAE (United Arab Emirates) will increase demand for nuclear engineers in Korea. Accordingly, the Korean government decided to supplement 2,246 engineers in the public sector of nuclear industry in the year 2010 to resolve the manpower shortage problem in the short term. However, the experienced engineers which are essentially important in the nuclear industry cannot be supplied in the short term. Therefore, development of the long term manpower demand forecast model of nuclear industry is needed. The system dynamics (SD) is useful method for forecasting nuclear manpower demand. It is because the time-delays which is important in constructing plants and in recruiting and training of engineers, and the feedback effect including the qualitative factor can be effectively considered in the SD method. Especially, the qualitative factor like 'Productivity' is very important concept in Human Resource Management (HRM) but it cannot be easily considered in the other methods. In this paper, the concepts of the nuclear manpower demand forecast model using the SD method are presented and the some simulation results are being discussed especially for the 'Operation Sector'

  3. Using a network-based approach to identify interactions structure for innovation in a low-technology intensive sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aouinait, C.; Lepori, B.; Christen, D.; Carlen, C.; Foray, D.

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge transfer in the agricultural network is realized through interactions between stakeholders, inducing innovation development and diffusion. The aim of the paper was to trace interactions in the Swiss apricot sector. Identification of collaborations using face-toface interviews of knowledge producers and knowledge users were conducted. The study showed that informal collaborations are exclusively used to transfer knowledge and create innovation. Personal ties have been established between internal actors of the value chain (e.g. professionals like producers, transformers and wholesalers). External partners like public research organizations have created strong ties with agricultural stakeholders. However, the spatial proximity does not guarantee higher rate of collaborations. The links with the Universities of Applied Sciences, closely located, are sparse. Hence, in order to warrant innovation success, spatial proximity has to be balanced with organizational proximity. Despite the educational background of producers, there are a few connections with universities. Human capital formation and education in the agricultural sector should be examined to design innovation policy. Besides, the public research center for agriculture catalyzes knowledge transfer and facilitates innovation adoption. A suitable ecology of actors through the value chain from research to application is necessary. Furthermore, productive interactions should be investigated to identify the efficiency of knowledge and innovation transfer mechanisms and potential gaps in this process. (Author)

  4. Development of the Manpower Demand Forecast Model of Nuclear Industry Using the System Dynamics Method - Operation Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Suk [Future and Challenges Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Nam Sung [SolBridge International School of Business, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Recently, the resource management of nuclear engineering manpower has become an important issue in Korean nuclear industry. The government's plan for increasing the number of domestic nuclear power plants and the recent success of nuclear power plant export to UAE (United Arab Emirates) will increase demand for nuclear engineers in Korea. Accordingly, the Korean government decided to supplement 2,246 engineers in the public sector of nuclear industry in the year 2010 to resolve the manpower shortage problem in the short term. However, the experienced engineers which are essentially important in the nuclear industry cannot be supplied in the short term. Therefore, development of the long term manpower demand forecast model of nuclear industry is needed. The system dynamics (SD) is useful method for forecasting nuclear manpower demand. It is because the time-delays which is important in constructing plants and in recruiting and training of engineers, and the feedback effect including the qualitative factor can be effectively considered in the SD method. Especially, the qualitative factor like 'Productivity' is very important concept in Human Resource Management (HRM) but it cannot be easily considered in the other methods. In this paper, the concepts of the nuclear manpower demand forecast model using the SD method are presented and the some simulation results are being discussed especially for the 'Operation Sector'

  5. Synthesis, characterization and use of ATRP bifunctional initiator with trichloromethyl end-groups

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Toman, Luděk; Janata, Miroslav; Spěváček, Jiří; Masař, Bohumil; Vlček, Petr; Látalová, Petra

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 2 (2002), s. 18-19 ISSN 0032-3934 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/01/0513 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : bifunctional initiator * ATRP polymerization * trichloromethyl end-groups Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  6. Quantitative assessment of material composition of end-of-life ships using onboard documentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, K.P.; Pruyn, J.F.J.; Hopman, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Ship recycling yards around the world offer a price to the ship owners for buying an obsolete vessel to demolish and recycle based on the ship's end-of-life weight. The offer price is mainly based on the type of ship and the estimated quantity of steel available. The steel weight estimation, in

  7. Putting the use of intuition for fuzzy front end decision making on the research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eling, K.; Langerak, F.

    2011-01-01

    Decision making literature suggests that intuitive decision making is more appropriate than the established rational decision making approaches to handle the specific information processing needs of the fuzzy front end (FFE) of new product development. However, these earlier studies cannot be

  8. Sustainable environmental practices used in the post-sales sector for small vehicles: A multi-case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Bôlla Viegas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, concern for the environment leads companies to be globally concerned about their interaction in their area of operations, which brings the need to adapt, using measures to reduce or even eliminate any environmental impacts from their activities. This article aims to analyze the environmental sustainability practices used in the post-sales sector of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State. We used descriptive and bibliographic research,, opting for multicase studies on a sample of five dealerships that have headquarters or a branch in this city. Among the main results, it is noteworthy that all the dealers analyzed make use of some sort of sustainable practice, applying methods and tools in their activities. Among such practices is the use of separation boxes, soil impermeability, energy saving, waste sorting, etc. It is necessary to highlight that these sustainable environmental initiatives are adopted among the business activities despite high costs and implementation difficulties

  9. Government policy on privatization of power in Nigeria: end-users ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the privatization of the power sector in Nigeria in 1999, the cost impact to end-users have not received adequate empirical evaluation. Using data from consumers of privatized electricity power in Enugu State, this paper sought to evaluate the significant effect of privatization on end-users of electricity product.

  10. Safety in the Transport Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    In EU the transport sector has an incident rate of accidents at work at 40 pr 1000 employees. The Danish insurance company CODAN has insured a big part of this sector concerning transport of gods on shore. The purpose of the project is to document the safety problems in the sector and to develop...... a strategy for a preventive intervention in transport enterprises. The results will in the end be included in a new strategy for the insurance company and the transport sectores organization towards a better safety performance. The safety problems for the employees are the activities carried out by loading......, unloading or work with transport equipment carried out at many different work places. The main safety problems are falls, heavy lifting, poor ergonomic working conditions, hits or collisions with gods, equipments or falling objects, the traffic risk situations, work with animals and finally the risk...

  11. Effect of a home-based end-of-life nursing service on hospital use at the end of life and place of death: a study using administrative data and matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitnis, X A; Georghiou, T; Steventon, A; Bardsley, M J

    2013-12-01

    To assess the effect of routinely delivered home-based end-of-life care on hospital use at the end of life and place of death. Retrospective analysis using matched controls and administrative data. Community-based care in England. 29,538 people aged over 18 who received Marie Curie nursing support compared with 29,538 controls individually matched on variables including: age, socioeconomic deprivation, prior hospital use, number of chronic conditions and prior diagnostic history. Home-based end-of-life nursing care delivered by the Marie Curie Nursing Service (MCNS), compared with end-of-life care available to those who did not receive MCNS care. Proportion of people who died at home; numbers of emergency and elective inpatient admissions, outpatient attendances and attendances at emergency departments in the period until death; and notional costs of hospital care. Intervention patients were significantly more likely to die at home and less likely to die in hospital than matched controls (unadjusted OR 6.16, 95% CI 5.94 to 6.38, pnursing for longer. Home-based end-of-life care offers the potential to reduce demand for acute hospital care and increase the number of people able to die at home.

  12. Environmental and economic analysis of end of life management options for an HDPE product using a life cycle thinking approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Carla L; Pinto, Lígia M Costa; Bernardo, C A

    2014-05-01

    Manufacturers have been increasingly considering the implication of materials used in commercial products and the management of such products at the end of their useful lives (as waste or as post-consumer secondary materials). The present work describes the application of the life cycle thinking approach to a plastic product, specifically an anti-glare lamellae (used for road safety applications) made with high-density polyethylene (HDPE). This study shows that optimal environmental and economic outcomes associated with this product can be realized by recovering the material at the end of its useful life (end of life, EoL) and by using the recycled HDPE as a raw material in the production of new similar products. The study confirmed the applicability of the life cycle thinking approach by industry in sustainable products development, supporting the development of robust environmental and economic guidelines.

  13. Potential commercial use of the International Space Station by the biotechnology/pharmaceutical/biomedical sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Stodieck, Louis

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the linch-pin of NASA's future space plans. It emphasizes scientific research by providing a world-class scientific laboratory in which to perform long-term basic science experiments in the space environment of microgravity, radiation, vacuum, vantage-point, etc. It will serve as a test-bed for determining human system response to long-term space flight and for developing the life support equipment necessary for NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. The ISS will also provide facilities (up to 30% of the U.S. module) for testing material, agricultural, cellular, human, aquatic, and plant/animal systems to reveal phenomena heretofore shrouded by the veil of 1-g. These insights will improve life on Earth and will provide a commercial basis for new products and services. In fact, some products, e.g., rare metal-alloys, semiconductor chips, or protein crystals that cannot now be produced on Earth may be found to be sufficiently valuable to be manufactured on-orbit. Biotechnology, pharmaceutical and biomedical experiments have been regularly flown on 10-16 day Space Shuttle flights and on three-month Mir flights for basic science knowledge and for life support system and commercial product development. Since 1985, NASA has created several Commercial Space Centers (CSCs) for the express purpose of bringing university, government and industrial researchers together to utilize space flight and space technology to develop new industrial products and processes. BioServe Space Technologies at the University of Colorado at Boulder and Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, is such a NASA sponsored CSC that has worked with over 65 companies and institutions in the Biotech Sector in the past 11 years and has successfully discovered and transferred new product and process information to its industry partners. While tests in the space environment have been limited to about two weeks on Shuttle or a few

  14. Harnessing the private health sector by using prices as a policy instrument: Lessons learned from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah L; Kumar, Ankit; Roubal, Tomas; Colombo, Francesca; Lorenzoni, Luca

    2018-05-01

    Governments frequently draw upon the private health care sector to promote sustainability, optimal use of resources, and increased choice. In doing so, policy-makers face the challenge of harnessing resources while grappling with the market failures and equity concerns associated with private financing of health care. The growth of the private h