WorldWideScience

Sample records for encouraging expressions affect

  1. Encouraging Self-Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Peter

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the importance of encouraging self-expression among students. He contends that allowing students to share their personal interests can be of benefit to all. The students' true personalities come out and they become more comfortable with one another as the year goes on.

  2. Encouragers and discouragers affecting medical graduates' choice of regional and rural practice locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillop, Ann; Webster, Craig; Bennett, Win; O'Connor, Barbara; Bagg, Warwick

    2017-12-01

    Access to health care as near to where people live as possible is desirable. However, not enough medical graduates choose to work in rural and regional areas, especially in general practice. The career decisions of recent medical graduates are known to be affected by a variety of professional, societal and personal factors. Internationally, medical programmes have exposed students to regional and rural experiences partly to encourage them to seek employment in these areas after graduation. As such, the Pūkawakawa Programme is a year-long regional and rural experience for selected Year 5 students from the University of Auckland‘s Medical Programme in New Zealand in partnership with the Northland District Health Board and two Primary Health Organisations. A lack of clarity about the drivers of rural and regional career decisions underpinned this study, which aimed to explore the barriers and encouragers for students of the programme to return as resident medical officers to the regional hospital where they had gained clinical experience. A mixed-method, descriptive design was used, including a short survey, followed by participation in a focus-group discussion or a one-on-one interview. Survey data were summarised in tabular form and inductive, thematic analysis was applied to transcripts of focus groups and interviews. Nineteen doctors in their first or second year following graduation participated: 15 who had returned to the hospital where they had clinical experience in the programme and four who were employed elsewhere. 'A match of personal goals and intended career intentions' was the reason most frequently selected for junior doctors’ choice of early career employment. Other frequently selected reasons were lifestyle, friends and family close by, and the reputation and experience of the Pūkawakawa Programme. Qualitative data revealed that the learning experience, the unique design of the curriculum and associated support from clinicians were identified as

  3. Affective Scaffolds, Expressive Arts, and Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eMaiese

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Some theorists have argued that cognitive agents engineer their environment to sustain and amply their cognitive abilities, and also that elements of the surrounding world sometimes play a crucial role in evoking and sustaining emotion. Such insights raise an interesting question about the relationship between cognitive and affective scaffolding: in addition to enabling the realization of specific affective states, can an affective niche also enable the realization of certain cognitive capacities? In order to gain a better understanding of this relationship between affective scaffolding and cognition, I will examine the use of expressive arts in the context of psychotherapy and peacebuilding. In these settings, environmental resources and interpersonal scaffolds not only evoke emotion and encourage the adoption of particular bodily-affective styles, but also support the development of capacities for self-awareness and interpersonal understanding. These affective scaffolds play a crucial role in therapy and peacebuilding, in fact, insofar as they facilitate the development of self-knowledge, enhance capacities associated with social cognition, and build positive rapport and trust among participants. I will argue that this is because affectivity is linked to the way that subjects frame and attend to their surroundings. Insofar as the regulation and modulation of emotion goes hand in hand with opening up new interpretive frames and establishing new habits of mind, affective scaffolds can contribute significantly to various modes of cognition.

  4. Affective Scaffolds, Expressive Arts, and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiese, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Some theorists have argued that elements of the surrounding world play a crucial role in sustaining and amplifying both cognition and emotion. Such insights raise an interesting question about the relationship between cognitive and affective scaffolding: in addition to enabling the realization of specific affective states, can an affective niche also enable the realization of certain cognitive capacities? In order to gain a better understanding of this relationship between affective niches and cognition, I will examine the use of expressive arts in the context of psychotherapy and peacebuilding. In these settings, environmental resources and interpersonal scaffolds not only evoke emotion and encourage the adoption of particular bodily affective styles, but also support the development of capacities for self-awareness and interpersonal understanding. These affective scaffolds play a crucial role in therapy and peacebuilding, in fact, insofar as they facilitate the development of self-knowledge, enhance capacities associated with social cognition, and build positive rapport and trust among participants. I will argue that this is because affectivity is linked to the way that subjects frame and attend to their surroundings. Insofar as the regulation and modification of emotion goes hand in hand with opening up new interpretive frames and establishing new habits of mind, the creation of an affective niche can contribute significantly to various modes of cognition.

  5. Encouraging Connections: Integrating Expressive Art and Drama into Therapeutic Social Skills Training with Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Holman, Rachel L.; Dominguez, Denise L.

    2010-01-01

    The effective use of social skills has been positively associated with career success, romantic involvement, academic achievement, and mood. In response, counselors often integrate social skills training into counseling interventions with adolescents to encourage authentic and effective interactions with others. We illustrate some therapeutic…

  6. Does inbreeding affect gene expression in birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Bengt; Naurin, Sara; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2014-09-01

    Inbreeding increases homozygosity, exposes genome-wide recessive deleterious alleles and often reduces fitness. The physiological and reproductive consequences of inbreeding may be manifested already during gene regulation, but the degree to which inbreeding influences gene expression is unknown in most organisms, including in birds. To evaluate the pattern of inbreeding-affected gene expression over the genome and in relation to sex, we performed a transcriptome-wide gene expression (10 695 genes) study of brain tissue of 10-day-old inbred and outbred, male and female zebra finches. We found significantly lower gene expression in females compared with males at Z-linked genes, confirming that dosage compensation is incomplete in female birds. However, inbreeding did not affect gene expression at autosomal or sex-linked genes, neither in males nor in females. Analyses of single genes again found a clear sex-biased expression at Z-linked genes, whereas only a single gene was significantly affected by inbreeding. The weak effect of inbreeding on gene expression in zebra finches contrasts to the situation, for example, in Drosophila where inbreeding has been found to influence gene expression more generally and at stress-related genes in particular. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Encouraging innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Anthony A

    2014-02-01

    Innovation is central to the scientific endeavor, and yet the current system of funding in the United States discourages innovation, especially in the young. Subtle alterations to the funding system, guided in part by the success of the European Research Council, could have major effects on encouraging innovation.

  8. Stability of Facial Affective Expressions in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fatouros-Bergman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two videorecorded interviews were conducted by two interviewers with eight patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Each patient was interviewed four times: three weekly interviews by the first interviewer and one additional interview by the second interviewer. 64 selected sequences where the patients were speaking about psychotic experiences were scored for facial affective behaviour with Emotion Facial Action Coding System (EMFACS. In accordance with previous research, the results show that patients diagnosed with schizophrenia express negative facial affectivity. Facial affective behaviour seems not to be dependent on temporality, since within-subjects ANOVA revealed no substantial changes in the amount of affects displayed across the weekly interview occasions. Whereas previous findings found contempt to be the most frequent affect in patients, in the present material disgust was as common, but depended on the interviewer. The results suggest that facial affectivity in these patients is primarily dominated by the negative emotions of disgust and, to a lesser extent, contempt and implies that this seems to be a fairly stable feature.

  9. Oxygen tension affects lubricin expression in chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, Taku; Kishimoto, Koshi N; Okuno, Hiroshi; Itoi, Eiji

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the effects of oxygen tension on lubricin expression in bovine chondrocytes and cartilage explants and a role for hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-1α in regulating lubricin expression was investigated using a murine chondroprogenitor cell line, ATDC5, and bovine chondrocytes isolated from superficial and middle/deep zones of femoral cartilage. ATDC5 cells and bovine chondrocytes were cultured in micromass under different oxygen tensions (21%, 5%, and 1%). ATDC5 cells and middle/deep zone chondrocytes that initially had low lubricin expression levels were also cultured with or without transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was used to determine lubricin and chondrogenic marker gene mRNA levels and immunohistochemistry was used to assess lubricin protein expression. Explant cartilage plugs cultured under different oxygen tensions were also subjected to immunohistological analysis for lubricin. HIF-1α gene silencing was achieved by electroporatic transfer into ATDC5 cells. A low oxygen tension reduced lubricin gene expression levels in bovine superficial chondrocytes, TGF-β1-treated middle/deep zone chondrocytes, and TGF-β1-treated ATDC5 cells. Lubricin expression in explant cartilage was also suppressed under hypoxia. HIF-1α gene silencing in ATDC5 cells attenuated the lubricin expression response to the oxygen tension. These results corroborate with previous studies that the oxygen tension regulates lubricin gene expression and suggest that HIF-1α plays an important role in this regulation. The normal distribution of lubricin in articular cartilage may be due to the hypoxic oxygen environment of cartilage as it is an avascular tissue. An oxygen tension gradient may be a key factor for engineering cartilage tissue with a layered morphology.

  10. Affective Processes in Therapy Sessions in relation to adaptive Affect Expression Between Sessions

    OpenAIRE

    Holmboe, Alexander Christian

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary data from the Intensive Mapping of Psychotherapy Process project (PROCMAP) at Modum Bad were used in this study. The aim was to investigate the relationship between affective processes inside therapy and affect expression between sessions. Affect expression outside therapy, also called new learning, is a relatively unexplored concept. Method: Activating affect, inhibitory affect (in session) and new learning (between sessions) were rated using Achievement of Therapeutic Objecti...

  11. Uncovering the Relationships Between Military Community Health and Affects Expressed in Social Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkova, Svitlana; Charles-Smith, Lauren E.; Harrison, Joshua J.; Corley, Courtney D.

    2017-06-08

    Recent literature has explored social media's ability to enhance influenza surveillance with encouraging results. We present a novel analysis of the relationships between in influenza-like illnesses (ILI) clinical data and affects (i.e., emotions and sentiments) extracted from social media around military facilities. Our analyses examine (1) differences in affects expressed by military and control populations, (2) affect changes over time by users, (3) differences in affects expressed during high and low ILI seasons, and (4) correlations and cross-correlations between ILI clinical visits and affects from an unprecedented scale -- 171M geo-tagged tweets across 31 global geolocations. Key findings include: Military and control populations differ in the way they express affects in social media over space and time. Control populations express more positive and less negative sentiments and less sadness, fear, disgust, and anger emotions than military. However, affects expressed in social media by both populations within the same area correlate similarly with ILI visits to military health facilities. We have identified potential responsible co-factors leading to location variability, e.g., region or state locale, military service type and/or the ratio of military to civilian populations. For most locations, ILI proportions positively correlate with sadness and neutral sentiment, which are the affects most often expressed during high ILI season. The ILI proportions negatively correlate with fear, disgust, surprise, and positive sentiment. These results are similar to the low ILI season where anger, surprise, and positive sentiment are highest. Finally, cross-correlation analysis shows that most affects lead ILI clinical visits, i.e. are predictive of ILI data, with affect-ILI leading intervals dependent on geolocation and affect type. Overall, information gained in this study exemplifies a usage of social media data to understand the correlation between psychological

  12. Categorical Perception of Affective and Linguistic Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Stephen; Emmorey, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated categorical perception (CP) effects for affective facial expressions and linguistic facial expressions from American Sign Language (ASL) for Deaf native signers and hearing non-signers. Facial expressions were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) or in an ASL verb context (Experiment 2). Participants performed ABX…

  13. The neural mechanism of imagining facial affective expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Eun; Kim, Ji-Woong; Kim, Jae-Jin; Jeong, Bum Seok; Choi, Eun Ae; Jeong, Young-Gil; Kim, Ji Hyung; Ku, Jeonghun; Ki, Seon Wan

    2007-05-11

    To react appropriately in social relationships, we have a tendency to simulate how others think of us through mental imagery. In particular, simulating other people's facial affective expressions through imagery in social situations enables us to enact vivid affective responses, which may be inducible from other people's affective responses that are predicted as results of our mental imagery of future behaviors. Therefore, this ability is an important cognitive feature of diverse advanced social cognition in humans. We used functional magnetic imaging to examine brain activation during the imagery of emotional facial expressions as compared to neutral facial expressions. Twenty-one right-handed subjects participated in this study. We observed the activation of the amygdala during the imagining of emotional facial affect versus the imagining of neutral facial affects. In addition, we also observed the activation of several areas of the brain, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, ventral premotor cortex, superior temporal sulcus, parahippocampal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and the midbrain. Our results suggest that the areas of the brain known to be involved in the actual perception of affective facial expressions are also implicated in the imagery of affective facial expressions. In particular, given that the processing of information concerning the facial patterning of different emotions and the enactment of behavioral responses, such as autonomic arousal, are central components of the imagery of emotional facial expressions, we postulate the central role of the amygdala in the imagery of emotional facial expressions.

  14. ENCOURAGEMENT PROVERBS AND THEIR DISCOURSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    following values in the minds of human beings, which include: cultural assimilation, encouragement, entertainment, contentment and sharing of various experiences of positive value. 2.0 Definition of Proverbs. Proverb is an adage, saying or maxim that expresses conventional truth. Such expressions are generally short and ...

  15. Expressive suppression and neural responsiveness to nonverbal affective cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrican, Raluca; Rosenbaum, R. Shayna; Grady, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Optimal social functioning occasionally requires concealment of one’s emotions in order to meet one’s immediate goals and environmental demands. However, because emotions serve an important communicative function, their habitual suppression disrupts the flow of social exchanges and, thus, incurs significant interpersonal costs. Evidence is accruing that the disruption in social interactions, linked to habitual expressive suppression use, stems not only from intrapersonal, but also from interpersonal causes, since the suppressors’ restricted affective displays reportedly inhibit their interlocutors’ emotionally expressive behaviors. However, expressive suppression use is not known to lead to clinically significant social impairments. One explanation may be that over the lifespan, individuals who habitually suppress their emotions come to compensate for their interlocutors’ restrained expressive behaviors by developing an increased sensitivity to nonverbal affective cues. To probe this issue, the present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan healthy older women while they viewed silent videos of a male social target displaying nonverbal emotional behavior, together with a brief verbal description of the accompanying context, and then judged the target’s affect. As predicted, perceivers who reported greater habitual use of expressive suppression showed increased neural processing of nonverbal affective cues. This effect appeared to be coordinated in a top-down manner via cognitive control. Greater neural processing of nonverbal cues among perceivers who habitually suppress their emotions was linked to increased ventral striatum activity, suggestive of increased reward value/personal relevance ascribed to emotionally expressive nonverbal behaviors. These findings thus provide neural evidence broadly consistent with the hypothesized link between habitual use of expressive suppression and compensatory development of increased

  16. Multimodal expression of emotion: affect programs or componential appraisal patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Klaus R; Ellgring, Heiner

    2007-02-01

    In earlier work, the authors analyzed emotion portrayals by professional actors separately for facial expression, vocal expression, gestures, and body movements. In a secondary analysis of the combined data set for all these modalities, the authors now examine to what extent actors use prototypical multimodal configurations of expressive actions to portray different emotions, as predicted by basic emotion theories claiming that expressions are produced by fixed neuromotor affect programs. Although several coherent unimodal clusters are identified, the results show only 3 multimodal clusters: agitation, resignation, and joyful surprise, with only the latter being specific to a particular emotion. Finding variable expressions rather than prototypical patterns seems consistent with the notion that emotional expression is differentially driven by the results of sequential appraisal checks, as postulated by componential appraisal theories. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Factors affecting delivery and transient expression of β ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the biolistic device parameters and other factors affecting delivery and expression of uidA gene in Dendrobium Sonia was investigated. Three week old protocorm like body (PLB) were bombarded with gold microparticles coated with pAHC25 plasmid harbouring the uidA gene which encodes β-glucuronidase.

  18. Children's Expression of Negative Affect: Reasons and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Janice; Shipman, Kimberly

    1996-01-01

    Examines the influence of socialization figures (parents, friends), emotion type (anger, sadness, physical pain), age, and gender on 66 second-grade and 71 fifth-grade children's reasons for and methods of affect expression. Found that girls reported using verbal means to communicate emotion, whereas boys cited mildly aggressive methods. (MDM)

  19. Facial Expression at Retrieval Affects Recognition of Facial Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng eChen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that memory can be modulated by emotional stimuli at the time of encoding and consolidation. For example, happy faces create better identity recognition than faces with certain other expressions. However, the influence of facial expression at the time of retrieval remains unknown in the literature. To separate the potential influence of expression at retrieval from its effects at earlier stages, we had participants learn neutral faces but manipulated facial expression at the time of memory retrieval in a standard old/new recognition task. The results showed a clear effect of facial expression, where happy test faces were identified more successfully than angry test faces. This effect is unlikely due to greater image similarity between the neutral learning face and the happy test face, because image analysis showed that the happy test faces are in fact less similar to the neutral learning faces relative to the angry test faces. In the second experiment, we investigated whether this emotional effect is influenced by the expression at the time of learning. We employed angry or happy faces as learning stimuli, and angry, happy, and neutral faces as test stimuli. The results showed that the emotional effect at retrieval is robust across different encoding conditions with happy or angry expressions. These findings indicate that emotional expressions affect the retrieval process in identity recognition, and identity recognition does not rely on emotional association between learning and test faces.

  20. High Salt Diet Affects Renal Sodium Excretion and ERRα Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Kidneys regulate the balance of water and sodium and therefore are related to blood pressure. It is unclear whether estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), an orphan nuclear receptor and transcription factor highly expressed in kidneys, affects the reabsorption of water and sodium. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the expressions of ERRα, Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) proteins affected the reabsorption of water and sodium in kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. SS.13BN rats, 98% homologous to the DS rats, were used as a normotensive control group. The 24 h urinary sodium excretion of the DS and SS.13BN rats increased after the 6-week high salt diet intervention, while sodium excretion was increased in DS rats with daidzein (agonist of ERRα) treatment. ERRα expression was decreased, while β- and γ-ENaC mRNA expressions were increased upon high sodium diet treatment in the DS rats. In the chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assay, positive PCR signals were obtained in samples treated with anti-ERRα antibody. The transcriptional activity of ERRα was decreased upon high salt diet intervention. ERRα reduced the expressions of β- and γ-ENaC by binding to the ENaC promoter, thereby increased Na+ reabsorption. Therefore, ERRα might be one of the factors causing salt-sensitive hypertension.

  1. Glycolipid transfer protein expression is affected by glycosphingolipid synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti A Kjellberg

    Full Text Available Members of the glycolipid transfer protein superfamily (GLTP are found from animals and fungi to plants and red micro-alga. Eukaryotes that encode the glucosylceramide synthase responsible for the synthesis of glucosylceramide, the precursor for most glycosphingolipids, also produce GLTPs. Cells that does not synthesize glucosylceramide neither express GLTPs. Based on this genetic relationship there must be a strong correlation between the synthesis of glucosylceramide and GLTPs. To regulate the levels of glycolipids we have used inhibitors of intracellular trafficking, glycosphingolipid synthesis and degradation, and small interfering RNA to down-regulate the activity of glucosylceramide synthase activity. We found that GLTP expression, both at the mRNA and protein levels, is elevated in cells that accumulate glucosylceramide. Monensin and brefeldin A block intracellular vesicular transport mechanisms. Brefeldin A treatment leads to accumulation of newly synthesized glucosylceramide, galactosylceramide and lactosylceramide in a fused endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi complex. On the other hand, inhibiting glycosphingolipid degradation with conduritol-B-epoxide, that generates glucosylceramide accumulation in the lysosomes, did not affect the levels of GLTP. However, glycosphingolipid synthesis inhibitors like PDMP, NB-DNJ and myriocin, all decreased glucosylceramide and GLTP below normal levels. We also found that an 80% loss of glucosylceramide due to glucosylceramide synthase knockdown resulted in a significant reduction in the expression of GLTP. We show here that interfering with membrane trafficking events and simple neutral glycosphingolipid synthesis will affect the expression of GLTP. We postulate that a change in the glucosylceramide balance causes a response in the GLTP expression, and put forward that GLTP might play a role in lipid directing and sensing of glucosylceramide at the ER-Golgi interface.

  2. Encouraging Classroom Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Joseph McKee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Classroom discussion has the potential to enhance the learning environment and encourages students to become active participants in the educational process. Student participation in classroom discussion has been shown to significantly improve the student learning experience. Research suggests that classroom discussion is an effective method for encouraging student classroom participation and for motivating student learning beyond the classroom. Participation in classroom discussion encourages students to become active collaborators in the learning process, while at the same time providing instructors with a practical method of assessing student learning. Classroom discussion is an effective tool for developing higher-level cognitive skills like critical thinking. Despite the potential discussion holds for student learning, many in academia lament the lack of participation in the classroom. The lack of student participation in classroom discussion is not a recent problem; it is one that has frustrated instructors for decades. Instructors report that some of the more current methods for encouraging classroom discussion can be exasperating and at times non-productive. This two-year study of 510 college and university students provides insight into the reasons why some students do not participate in classroom discussion. This study, which also elicited input from sixteen college and university professors and two high school teachers, offers some suggestions for creating and encouraging an environment conducive to student participation in the classroom.

  3. Encouraging Creativity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Creativity isn't formally assessed or evaluated on tests or report cards, so teachers rarely plan lessons that encourage it. In fact, many teachers unintentionally stifle children's creativity when they cut off student's oral responses or stop them from adding more to their work so that they can bring the class back to the task at hand. Instead,…

  4. Words That Encourage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbach, Brooke B.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers and education leaders are aware that their words can have a significant effect on their students. Words can build them up and encourage them to work hard or tear them down and lead them to despair. The language used in teacher evaluations is no different, says teacher Brooke Eisenbach. In this article, she shares stories of colleagues…

  5. Encouragement for Thinking Critically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Sonia; Saiz, Carlos; Rivas, Silvia F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Here we report the results obtained in an innovative teaching experience that encourages the development of Critical Thinking skills through motivational intervention. Understanding Critical Thinking as a theory of action, "we think to solve problems", and accompanying this concept with a program aimed at teaching/learning…

  6. Multiple controls affect arsenite oxidase gene expression in Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coppée Jean-Yves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both the speciation and toxicity of arsenic are affected by bacterial transformations, i.e. oxidation, reduction or methylation. These transformations have a major impact on environmental contamination and more particularly on arsenic contamination of drinking water. Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans has been isolated from an arsenic- contaminated environment and has developed various mechanisms for coping with arsenic, including the oxidation of As(III to As(V as a detoxification mechanism. Results In the present study, a differential transcriptome analysis was used to identify genes, including arsenite oxidase encoding genes, involved in the response of H. arsenicoxydans to As(III. To get insight into the molecular mechanisms of this enzyme activity, a Tn5 transposon mutagenesis was performed. Transposon insertions resulting in a lack of arsenite oxidase activity disrupted aoxR and aoxS genes, showing that the aox operon transcription is regulated by the AoxRS two-component system. Remarkably, transposon insertions were also identified in rpoN coding for the alternative N sigma factor (σ54 of RNA polymerase and in dnaJ coding for the Hsp70 co-chaperone. Western blotting with anti-AoxB antibodies and quantitative RT-PCR experiments allowed us to demonstrate that the rpoN and dnaJ gene products are involved in the control of arsenite oxidase gene expression. Finally, the transcriptional start site of the aoxAB operon was determined using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE and a putative -12/-24 σ54-dependent promoter motif was identified upstream of aoxAB coding sequences. Conclusion These results reveal the existence of novel molecular regulatory processes governing arsenite oxidase expression in H. arsenicoxydans. These data are summarized in a model that functionally integrates arsenite oxidation in the adaptive response to As(III in this microorganism.

  7. A Linguistic Approach to Identify the Affective Dimension Expressed in Textual Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Sandro José; da Rosa Alves, Isa Mara; Victória Barbosa, Jorge Luis

    2015-01-01

    The digital mediation resources used in Distance Education can hinder the teacher's perception about the student's state of mind. However, the textual expression in natural language is widely encouraged in most Distance Education courses, through the use of Virtual Learning Environments and other digital tools. This fact has motivated research…

  8. Socializing infants towards a cultural understanding of expressing negative affect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the socialization of emotion expression in infancy. It argues that in order to adequately understand emotion development we need to consider the appraisal of emotion expression through caregivers in mundane, everyday interactions. Drawing on sociocultural and Bakhtinian the...

  9. Perceptual, Categorical, and Affective Processing of Ambiguous Smiling Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G.; Fernandez-Martin, Andres; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Why is a face with a smile but non-happy eyes likely to be interpreted as happy? We used blended expressions in which a smiling mouth was incongruent with the eyes (e.g., angry eyes), as well as genuine expressions with congruent eyes and mouth (e.g., both happy or angry). Tasks involved detection of a smiling mouth (perceptual), categorization of…

  10. Altered expression of KLC3 may affect semen parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Kargar- Dastjerdy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: KLC3 protein as a member of the kinesin light-chain protein family plays an important role in spermatogenesis, during formation of mitochondrial sheath in the mid piece of the sperm tail. Objective: This study for the first time aims to compare the expression of the KLC3 gene between fertile and infertile individuals. Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from 19 fertile individuals who were selected from embryo-donor volunteers and 57 infertile individuals who had abnormal sperm parameters according to world health organization criteria. Sperm parameters using computer assisted sperm analysis and the quantitative KLC3-gene expression using the real-time PCR method were measured. Results: Our results revealed a significant correlations between sperm concentration with relative expression of KLC3 only in infertile groups (r=0.45, p=0.00. A significant correlation was not found between KLC3 expression and sperm motility; however, the relative expression of KLC3 was significantly higher in asthenozoospermic compared to non-asthenozoospermic individuals. Conclusion: Low expression of KLC3 may result in improper function of midpiece, which has important function in sperm motility. The results of this study show that aberrant expression of KLC3 might be associated with phenomena like oligozoospermia and asthenozoospermia. This article is extracted from student’s thesis.

  11. Interpretation of Statistical Data: The Importance of Affective Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Tamires; Monteiro, Carlos; Carvalho, Liliane; François, Karen

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, research on teaching and learning of statistics emphasized that the interpretation of data is a complex process that involves cognitive and technical aspects. However, it is a human activity that involves also contextual and affective aspects. This view is in line with research on affectivity and cognition. While the affective…

  12. Gene expression profiling of placentas affected by pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegh, Anne Mette; Borup, Rehannah; Nielsen, Finn Cilius

    2010-01-01

    Several studies point to the placenta as the primary cause of pre-eclampsia. Our objective was to identify placental genes that may contribute to the development of pre-eclampsia. RNA was purified from tissue biopsies from eleven pre-eclamptic placentas and eighteen normal controls. Messenger RNA...... expression from pooled samples was analysed by microarrays. Verification of the expression of selected genes was performed using real-time PCR. A surprisingly low number of genes (21 out of 15,000) were identified as differentially expressed. Among these were genes not previously associated with pre-eclampsia...... as bradykinin B1 receptor and a 14-3-3 protein, but also genes that have already been connected with pre-eclampsia, for example, inhibin beta A subunit and leptin. A low number of genes were repeatedly identified as differentially expressed, because they may represent the endpoint of a cascade of events...

  13. Culture Conditions Affect Expression of DUX4 in FSHD Myoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachchida Nand Pandey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is believed to be caused by aberrant expression of double homeobox 4 (DUX4 due to epigenetic changes of the D4Z4 region at chromosome 4q35. Detecting DUX4 is challenging due to its stochastic expression pattern and low transcription level. In this study, we examined different cDNA synthesis strategies and the sensitivity for DUX4 detection. In addition, we investigated the effects of dexamethasone and knockout serum replacement (KOSR on DUX4 expression in culture. Our data showed that DUX4 was consistently detected in cDNA samples synthesized using Superscript III. The sensitivity of DUX4 detection was higher in the samples synthesized using oligo(dT primers compared to random hexamers. Adding dexamethasone to the culture media significantly suppressed DUX4 expression in immortalized (1.3 fold, p < 0.01 and primary (4.7 fold, p < 0.01 FSHD myoblasts, respectively. Culture medium with KOSR increased DUX4 expression and the response is concentration dependent. The findings suggest that detection strategies and culture conditions should be carefully considered when studying DUX4 in cultured cells.

  14. Sex Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Skovbjerg Arildsen, Nicolai; Malander, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    in epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: Immunohistochemical stainings for ERα, ERβ, PR, and AR were assessed in relation to survival in 118 serous and endometrioid ovarian cancers. Expression of the genes encoding the four receptors was studied in relation to prognosis in the molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer...... in ovarian cancer and support that tumors should be stratified based on molecular as well as histological subtypes in future studies investigating the role of endocrine treatment in ovarian cancer.......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and androgen (AR) receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival...

  15. Oxygen and tissue culture affect placental gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, O; Sullivan, M H F

    2017-07-01

    Placental explant culture is an important model for studying placental development and functions. We investigated the differences in placental gene expression in response to tissue culture, atmospheric and physiologic oxygen concentrations. Placental explants were collected from normal term (38-39 weeks of gestation) placentae with no previous uterine contractile activity. Placental transcriptomic expressions were evaluated with GeneChip® Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 arrays (Affymetrix). We uncovered sub-sets of genes that regulate response to stress, induction of apoptosis programmed cell death, mis-regulation of cell growth, proliferation, cell morphogenesis, tissue viability, and protection from apoptosis in cultured placental explants. We also identified a sub-set of genes with highly unstable pattern of expression after exposure to tissue culture. Tissue culture irrespective of oxygen concentration induced dichotomous increase in significant gene expression and increased enrichment of significant pathways and transcription factor targets (TFTs) including HIF1A. The effect was exacerbated by culture at atmospheric oxygen concentration, where further up-regulation of TFTs including PPARA, CEBPD, HOXA9 and down-regulated TFTs such as JUND/FOS suggest intrinsic heightened key biological and metabolic mechanisms such as glucose use, lipid biosynthesis, protein metabolism; apoptosis, inflammatory responses; and diminished trophoblast proliferation, differentiation, invasion, regeneration, and viability. These findings demonstrate that gene expression patterns differ between pre-culture and cultured explants, and the gene expression of explants cultured at atmospheric oxygen concentration favours stressed, pro-inflammatory and increased apoptotic transcriptomic response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gene Expression Profiling of Placentas Affected by Pre-Eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mette Hoegh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies point to the placenta as the primary cause of pre-eclampsia. Our objective was to identify placental genes that may contribute to the development of pre-eclampsia. RNA was purified from tissue biopsies from eleven pre-eclamptic placentas and eighteen normal controls. Messenger RNA expression from pooled samples was analysed by microarrays. Verification of the expression of selected genes was performed using real-time PCR. A surprisingly low number of genes (21 out of 15,000 were identified as differentially expressed. Among these were genes not previously associated with pre-eclampsia as bradykinin B1 receptor and a 14-3-3 protein, but also genes that have already been connected with pre-eclampsia, for example, inhibin beta A subunit and leptin. A low number of genes were repeatedly identified as differentially expressed, because they may represent the endpoint of a cascade of events effectuated throughout gestation. They were associated with transcriptional regulation and vasoregulative pathways, along with a number of hypothetical proteins and gene sequences with unknown functions.

  17. Ionizing Radiation Affects Gene Expression in Mouse Skin and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Masahiro; Tahimic, Candice; Sowa, Marianne B.; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Shirazi-Fard, Yasaman; Alwood, Joshua; Globus, Ruth K.

    2017-01-01

    Future long-duration space exploration beyond low earth orbit will increase human exposure to space radiation and microgravity conditions as well as associated risks to skeletal health. In animal studies, radiation exposure (greater than 1 Gy) is associated with pathological changes in bone structure, enhanced bone resorption, reduced bone formation and decreased bone mineral density, which can lead to skeletal fragility. Definitive measurements and detection of bone loss typically require large and specialized equipment which can make their application to long duration space missions logistically challenging. Towards the goal of developing non-invasive and less complicated monitoring methods to predict astronauts' health during spaceflight, we examined whether radiation induced gene expression changes in skin may be predictive of the responses of skeletal tissue to radiation exposure. We examined oxidative stress and growth arrest pathways in mouse skin and long bones by measuring gene expression levels via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) after exposure to total body irradiation (IR). To investigate the effects of irradiation on gene expression, we used skin and femora (cortical shaft) from the following treatment groups: control (normally loaded, sham-irradiated), and IR (0.5 Gy 56Fe 600 MeV/n and 0.5 Gy 1H 150 MeV/n), euthanized at one and 11 days post-irradiation (IR). To determine the extent of bone loss, tibiae were harvested and cancellous microarchitecture in the proximal tibia quantified ex vivo using microcomputed tomography (microCT). Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test. At one day post-IR, expression of FGF18 in skin was significantly greater (3.8X) than sham-irradiated controls, but did not differ at 11 days post IR. Expression levels of other genes associated with antioxidant response (Nfe2l2, FoxO3 and Sod1) and the cell cycle (Trp53, Cdkn1a, Gadd45g) did not significantly differ between the control and IR groups

  18. Manipulation of hemoglobin expression affects Arabidopsis shoot organogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaping; Elhiti, Mohamed; Hebelstrup, Kim

    2011-01-01

    of hemoglobins during invitro morphogenesis. Shoot organogenesis was induced in Arabidopsis lines constitutively expressing class 1, 2 and 3 hemoglobins (GLB1, 2 and 3) and lines in which the respective genes were either downregulated by RNAi (GLB1) or knocked out (GLB2 and GLB3). The process was executed...... by culturing root explants on an initial auxin-rich callus induction medium (CIM) followed by a transfer onto a cytokinin-containing shoot induction medium (SIM). While the repression of GLB2 inhibited organogenesis the over-expression of GLB1 or GLB2 enhanced the number of shoots produced in culture...... to cytokinin allowing the 35S::GLB1 and 35S::GLB2 lines to produce shoots at low cytokinin concentrations which did not promote organogenesis in the WT line. These results show that manipulation of hemoglobin can modify shoot organogenesis in Arabidopsis and possibly in those systems partially or completely...

  19. The relation of expression recognition and affective experience in facial expression processing: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangheng Dong

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Guangheng Dong1, Shenglan Lu21Department of Psychology, 2Department of International Education, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, ChinaAbstract: The present study investigates the relationship of expression recognition and affective experience during facial expression processing by event-related potentials (ERP. Facial expressions used in the present study can be divided into three categories: positive (happy, neutral (neutral, and negative (angry. Participants were asked to finish two kinds of facial recognition tasks: one was easy, and the other was difficult. In the easy task, significant main effects were found for different valence conditions, meaning that emotions were evoked effectively when participants recognized the expressions in facial expression processing. However, no difference was found in the difficult task, meaning that even if participants had identified the expressions correctly, no relevant emotion was evoked during the process. The findings suggest that emotional experience was not simultaneous with expression identification in facial expression processing, and the affective experience process could be suppressed in challenging cognitive tasks. The results indicate that we should pay attention to the level of cognitive load when using facial expressions as emotion-eliciting materials in emotion studies; otherwise, the emotion may not be evoked effectively.Keywords: affective experience, expression recognition, cognitive load, event-related potential

  20. Arsenic affects inflammatory cytokine expression in Gallus gallus brain tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; He, Ying; Guo, Ying; Li, Siwen; Zhao, Hongjing; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Jingyu; Xing, Mingwei

    2017-06-05

    The heavy metal arsenic is widely distributed in nature and posses a serious threat to organism's health. However, little is known about the arsenic-induced inflammatory response in the brain tissues of birds and the relationship and mechanism of the inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of dietary arsenic on the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the brains of Gallus gallus. Seventy-two 1-day-old male Hy-line chickens were divided into a control group, a low arsenic trioxide (As2O3)-treated (7.5 mg/kg) group, a middle As2O3-treated (15 mg/kg) group, and a high As2O3-treated (30 mg/kg) group. Arsenic exposure caused obvious ultrastructural changes. The mRNA levels of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and prostaglandin E synthase (PTGEs), in chicken brain tissues (cerebrum, cerebellum, thalamus, brainstem and myelencephalon) on days 30, 60 and 90, respectively, were measured by real-time PCR. The protein expression of iNOS was detected by western blot. The results showed that after being treated with As2O3, the levels of inflammatory-related factor NF-κB and pro-inflammatory cytokines in chicken brain tissues increased (P Arsenic exposure in the chickens triggered host defence and induced an inflammatory response by regulating the expression of inflammatory-related genes in the cerebrum, cerebellum, thalamus, brainstem and myelencephalon. These data form a foundation for further research on arsenic-induced neurotoxicity in Gallus gallus.

  1. Models of Disability in Children's Pretend Play: Measurement of Cognitive Representations and Affective Expression Using the Affect in Play Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Stefano; Meloni, Fabio; Catarinella, Antonio; Mazzeschi, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Play is a natural mode of children's expression and constitutes a fundamental aspect of their life. Cognitive, affective, and social aspects can be assessed through play, considered as a "window" to observe a child's functioning. According to Russ's model, cognitive and affective components and their reciprocal connections can be assessed through the Affect in Play Scale (APS). The aim of the present study was to investigate children's representations of the three main models of disability (medical, social, and biopsychosocial) and how these models affected cognitive and affective components of children's play. Sixty-three children, aged 6-10 years, were assessed by means of the APS. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two APS task orders: the standard APS task followed by the modified APS task (including a wheelchair toy), or vice versa. The standard and modified APS sessions were coded according to the APS system. The modified APS sessions were also coded for the model of disability expressed by children. A one-way ANOVA conducted on the APS affective and cognitive indexes revealed an effect of condition on the affective components of play and no effect on cognitive components and variety of affect as assessed by the APS. In addition, when children are involved in pretend play from which concepts of disability emerge, these concepts are almost exclusively related to the medical model of disability. Results suggested implications for intervention with children in educational contexts that aim to teach children about disability.

  2. Psychopathic traits affect the visual exploration of facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Sabrina; Gamer, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Deficits in emotional reactivity and recognition have been reported in psychopathy. Impaired attention to the eyes along with amygdala malfunctions may underlie these problems. Here, we investigated how different facets of psychopathy modulate the visual exploration of facial expressions by assessing personality traits in a sample of healthy young adults using an eye-tracking based face perception task. Fearless Dominance (the interpersonal-emotional facet of psychopathy) and Coldheartedness scores predicted reduced face exploration consistent with findings on lowered emotional reactivity in psychopathy. Moreover, participants high on the social deviance facet of psychopathy ('Self-Centered Impulsivity') showed a reduced bias to shift attention towards the eyes. Our data suggest that facets of psychopathy modulate face processing in healthy individuals and reveal possible attentional mechanisms which might be responsible for the severe impairments of social perception and behavior observed in psychopathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. When emotions are expressed figuratively:psycholinguistic and affective norms of 619 idioms for German (PANIG)

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca M. M. Citron; Cacciari, Cristina; Kucharski, Michael; Beck, Luna; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite flourishing research on the relationship between emotion and literal language, and despite the pervasiveness of figurative expressions in communication, the role of figurative language in conveying affect has been under-investigated. This study provides affective and psycholinguistic norms for 619 German idiomatic expressions and explores the relationships between affective and psycholinguistic idiom properties. German native speakers rated each idiom for emotional valence, arousal, f...

  4. Perceptual and affective mechanisms in facial expression recognition: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-09-01

    Facial expressions of emotion involve a physical component of morphological changes in a face and an affective component conveying information about the expresser's internal feelings. It remains unresolved how much recognition and discrimination of expressions rely on the perception of morphological patterns or the processing of affective content. This review of research on the role of visual and emotional factors in expression recognition reached three major conclusions. First, behavioral, neurophysiological, and computational measures indicate that basic expressions are reliably recognized and discriminated from one another, albeit the effect may be inflated by the use of prototypical expression stimuli and forced-choice responses. Second, affective content along the dimensions of valence and arousal is extracted early from facial expressions, although this coarse affective representation contributes minimally to categorical recognition of specific expressions. Third, the physical configuration and visual saliency of facial features contribute significantly to expression recognition, with "emotionless" computational models being able to reproduce some of the basic phenomena demonstrated in human observers. We conclude that facial expression recognition, as it has been investigated in conventional laboratory tasks, depends to a greater extent on perceptual than affective information and mechanisms.

  5. Modulation of GLO1 Expression Affects Malignant Properties of Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Hutschenreuther

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The energy metabolism of most tumor cells relies on aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect characterized by an increased glycolytic flux that is accompanied by the increased formation of the cytotoxic metabolite methylglyoxal (MGO. Consequently, the rate of detoxification of this reactive glycolytic byproduct needs to be increased in order to prevent deleterious effects to the cells. This is brought about by an increased expression of glyoxalase 1 (GLO1 that is the rate-limiting enzyme of the MGO-detoxifying glyoxalase system. Here, we overexpressed GLO1 in HEK 293 cells and silenced it in MCF-7 cells using shRNA. Tumor-related properties of wild type and transformed cells were compared and key glycolytic enzyme activities assessed. Furthermore, the cells were subjected to hypoxic conditions to analyze the impact on cell proliferation and enzyme activities. Our results demonstrate that knockdown of GLO1 in the cancer cells significantly reduced tumor-associated properties such as migration and proliferation, whereas no functional alterations where found by overexpression of GLO1 in HEK 293 cells. In contrast, hypoxia caused inhibition of cell growth of all cells except of those overexpressing GLO1. Altogether, we conclude that GLO1 on one hand is crucial to maintaining tumor characteristics of malignant cells, and, on the other hand, supports malignant transformation of cells in a hypoxic environment when overexpressed.

  6. The Change of Expression Configuration Affects Identity-Dependent Expression Aftereffect but Not Identity-Independent Expression Aftereffect

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Miao; Shinomori, Keizo; Qian, Qian; Yin, Jun; Zeng, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of expression configuration on cross-identity expression aftereffect. The expression configuration refers to the spatial arrangement of facial features in a face for conveying an emotion, e.g., an open-mouth smile vs. a closed-mouth smile. In the first of two experiments, the expression aftereffect is measured using a cross-identity/cross-expression configuration factorial design. The facial identities of test faces were the same or different from the ...

  7. A Survey of Affect Recognition Methods: Audio, Visual, and Spontaneous Expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Zhihong; Pantic, Maja; Roisman, Glenn I.; Huang, Thomas S.

    Automated analysis of human affective behavior has attracted increasing attention from researchers in psychology, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, and related disciplines. However, the existing methods typically handle only deliberately displayed and exaggerated expressions of

  8. Estrogen receptor expression in melasma: results from facial skin of affected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Robert; Moy, Lawrence

    2008-05-01

    Melasma is a commonly acquired hypermelanosis of the skin due to various etiological factors, including pregnancy and oral contraceptives. Estrogen receptor expression in affected skin has not yet been investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare estrogen receptor expression in hyperpigmented and normal facial skin of patients with melasma. Biopsies of 3 mm were taken from affected and unaffected forehead skin of 2 female patients with melasma. Frozen sections of the tissues were obtained and mouse monoclonal antibody against human estrogen receptors was tested at various dilutions to determine the optimum concentrations required for reproducible immunostaining with minimal background staining. Fluorescence was evaluated and compared qualitatively. The immunohistochemical staining of tissue from both patients reflected a qualitative increase in estrogen receptor expression in melasma-affected skin compared to unaffected skin. This study demonstrates the increased expression of estrogen receptors in melasma-affected skin and may establish the basis for exploring topical anti-estrogen therapies in melasma.

  9. Putting Yourself on the Line: Self-Esteem and Expressing Affection in Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luerssen, Anna; Jhita, Gugan Jote; Ayduk, Ozlem

    2017-07-01

    Although expressing affection is an important way to connect to a romantic partner, it also involves putting yourself on the line-revealing dependence on your partner. Extending the risk-regulation model, we hypothesized that individuals with lower self-esteem (SE), who are concerned about vulnerability in relationships, experience less rewarding reactions to expressing affection, and believe that their partners respond less positively to receiving affection. We assessed these predictions across two studies that measured retrospective reports, reactions to an in vivo exchange and responses in daily life. We found that participants with lower SE expressed less affection and experienced less positive emotional, cognitive, and physiological reactions when doing so. Participants with lower SE believed that their partners derived fewer benefits from their affection despite that their partners experienced normative boosts in positive emotion and relationship satisfaction during these exchanges. The consequences of these findings for relationship functioning and SE are discussed.

  10. N-glycosylation and disulfide bonding affects GPRC6A receptor expression, function, and dimerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov-Lauritsen, Lenea; Jørgensen, Stine; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2015-01-01

    expression and function is very limited. Herein, we show that the nutrient-sensing class C G protein-coupled receptor GPRC6A carries seven N-glycans and that one of these sites modulates surface expression whereas mutation of another site affects receptor function. GPRC6A has been speculated to form...

  11. Co-expression Network Approach Reveals Functional Similarities among Diseases Affecting Human Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Kavitha Mukund; Shankar Subramaniam

    2017-01-01

    Diseases affecting skeletal muscle exhibit considerable heterogeneity in intensity, etiology, phenotypic manifestation and gene expression. Systems biology approaches using network theory, allows for a holistic understanding of functional similarities amongst diseases. Here we propose a co-expression based, network theoretic approach to extract functional similarities from 20 heterogeneous diseases comprising of dystrophinopathies, inflammatory myopathies, neuromuscular, and muscle metabolic ...

  12. Facial Expression of Affect in Children with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, L.; Moss, J.; Jutley, J.; Cornish, K.; Oliver, C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) have been reported to show comparatively high levels of flat and negative affect but there have been no empirical evaluations. In this study, we use an objective measure of facial expression to compare affect in CdLS with that seen in Cri du Chat syndrome (CDC) and a group of…

  13. Adaptive Face Coding Contributes to Individual Differences in Facial Expression Recognition Independently of Affective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Romina; Jeffery, Linda; Lewandowsky, Jessica; Fiorentini, Chiara; Irons, Jessica L; Dawel, Amy; Burton, Nichola; McKone, Elinor; Rhodes, Gillian

    2017-08-21

    There are large, reliable individual differences in the recognition of facial expressions of emotion across the general population. The sources of this variation are not yet known. We investigated the contribution of a key face perception mechanism, adaptive coding, which calibrates perception to optimize discrimination within the current perceptual "diet." We expected that a facial expression system that readily recalibrates might boost sensitivity to variation among facial expressions, thereby enhancing recognition ability. We measured adaptive coding strength with an established facial expression aftereffect task and measured facial expression recognition ability with 3 tasks optimized for the assessment of individual differences. As expected, expression recognition ability was positively associated with the strength of facial expression aftereffects. We also asked whether individual variation in affective factors might contribute to expression recognition ability, given that clinical levels of such traits have previously been linked to ability. Expression recognition ability was negatively associated with self-reported anxiety but not with depression, mood, or degree of autism-like or empathetic traits. Finally, we showed that the perceptual factor of adaptive coding contributes to variation in expression recognition ability independently of affective factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Unstable Expression of Commonly Used Reference Genes in Rat Pancreatic Islets Early after Isolation Affects Results of Gene Expression Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Kosinová

    Full Text Available The use of RT-qPCR provides a powerful tool for gene expression studies; however, the proper interpretation of the obtained data is crucially dependent on accurate normalization based on stable reference genes. Recently, strong evidence has been shown indicating that the expression of many commonly used reference genes may vary significantly due to diverse experimental conditions. The isolation of pancreatic islets is a complicated procedure which creates severe mechanical and metabolic stress leading possibly to cellular damage and alteration of gene expression. Despite of this, freshly isolated islets frequently serve as a control in various gene expression and intervention studies. The aim of our study was to determine expression of 16 candidate reference genes and one gene of interest (F3 in isolated rat pancreatic islets during short-term cultivation in order to find a suitable endogenous control for gene expression studies. We compared the expression stability of the most commonly used reference genes and evaluated the reliability of relative and absolute quantification using RT-qPCR during 0-120 hrs after isolation. In freshly isolated islets, the expression of all tested genes was markedly depressed and it increased several times throughout the first 48 hrs of cultivation. We observed significant variability among samples at 0 and 24 hrs but substantial stabilization from 48 hrs onwards. During the first 48 hrs, relative quantification failed to reflect the real changes in respective mRNA concentrations while in the interval 48-120 hrs, the relative expression generally paralleled the results determined by absolute quantification. Thus, our data call into question the suitability of relative quantification for gene expression analysis in pancreatic islets during the first 48 hrs of cultivation, as the results may be significantly affected by unstable expression of reference genes. However, this method could provide reliable information

  15. Correlation between low FAT1 expression and early affected muscle in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariot, Virginie; Roche, Stephane; Hourdé, Christophe; Portilho, Debora; Sacconi, Sabrina; Puppo, Francesca; Duguez, Stephanie; Rameau, Philippe; Caruso, Nathalie; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Desnuelle, Claude; Bessières, Bettina; Collardeau, Sophie; Feasson, Leonard; Maisonobe, Thierry; Magdinier, Frederique; Helmbacher, Françoise; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Mouly, Vincent; Dumonceaux, Julie

    2015-09-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is linked to either contraction of D4Z4 repeats on chromosome 4 or to mutations in the SMCHD1 gene, both of which result in the aberrant expression of the transcription factor DUX4. However, it is still difficult to correlate these genotypes with the phenotypes observed in patients. Because we have recently shown that mice with disrupted Fat1 functions exhibit FSHD-like phenotypes, we have investigated the expression of the human FAT1 gene in FSHD. We first analyzed FAT1 expression in FSHD adult muscles and determined whether FAT1 expression was driven by DUX4. We next determined FAT1 expression levels in 64 muscles isolated from 16 control fetuses. These data were further complemented with analysis of Fat1 expression in developing mouse embryos. We demonstrated that FAT1 expression is independent of DUX4. Moreover, we observed that (1) in control fetal human biopsies or in developing mouse embryos, FAT1 is expressed at lower levels in muscles that are affected at early stages of FSHD progression than in muscles that are affected later or are nonaffected; and (2) in adult muscle biopsies, FAT1 expression is lower in FSHD muscles compared to control muscles. We propose a revised model for FSHD in which FAT1 levels might play a role in determining which muscles will exhibit early and late disease onset, whereas DUX4 may worsen the muscle phenotype. © 2015 American Neurological Association.

  16. Universal and culture-specific factors in the recognition and performance of musical affect expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukka, Petri; Eerola, Tuomas; Thingujam, Nutankumar S; Yamasaki, Teruo; Beller, Grégory

    2013-06-01

    We present a cross-cultural study on the performance and perception of affective expression in music. Professional bowed-string musicians from different musical traditions (Swedish folk music, Hindustani classical music, Japanese traditional music, and Western classical music) were instructed to perform short pieces of music to convey 11 emotions and related states to listeners. All musical stimuli were judged by Swedish, Indian, and Japanese participants in a balanced design, and a variety of acoustic and musical cues were extracted. Results first showed that the musicians' expressive intentions could be recognized with accuracy above chance both within and across musical cultures, but communication was, in general, more accurate for culturally familiar versus unfamiliar music, and for basic emotions versus nonbasic affective states. We further used a lens-model approach to describe the relations between the strategies that musicians use to convey various expressions and listeners' perceptions of the affective content of the music. Many acoustic and musical cues were similarly correlated with both the musicians' expressive intentions and the listeners' affective judgments across musical cultures, but the match between musicians' and listeners' uses of cues was better in within-cultural versus cross-cultural conditions. We conclude that affective expression in music may depend on a combination of universal and culture-specific factors.

  17. Increased FOXP3 expression in tumour-associated tissues of horses affected with equine sarcoid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mählmann, K; Hamza, E; Marti, E; Dolf, G; Klukowska, J; Gerber, V; Koch, C

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are associated with disease severity and progression in papilloma virus induced neoplasia. Bovine papilloma virus (BPV) is recognised as the most important aetiological factor in equine sarcoid (ES) disease. The aim of this study was to compare expression levels of Treg markers and associated cytokines in tissue samples of ES-affected equids with skin samples of healthy control horses. Eleven ES-affected, and 12 healthy horses were included in the study. Expression levels of forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3), interleukin 10 (IL10), interleukin 4 (IL4) and interferon gamma (IFNG) mRNA in lesional and tumour-distant samples from ES-affected horses, as well as in dermal samples of healthy control horses were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Expression levels were compared between lesional and tumour-distant as well as between tumour-distant and control samples. Furthermore, BPV-1 E5 DNA in samples of ES-affected horses was quantified using quantitative PCR, and possible associations of viral load, disease severity and gene expression levels were evaluated. Expression levels of FOXP3, IL10 and IFNG mRNA and BPV-1 E5 copy numbers were significantly increased in lesional compared to tumour-distant samples. There was no difference in FOXP3 and cytokine expression in tumour-distant samples from ES- compared with control horses. In tumour-distant samples viral load was positively correlated with IL10 expression and severity score. The increased expression of Treg markers in tumour-associated tissues of ES-affected equids indicates a local, Treg-induced immune suppression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. From Specificity to Sensitivity: Affective states modulate visual working memory for emotional expressive faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eMaran

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous findings suggest that visual working memory preferentially remembers angry looking faces. However, the meaning of facial actions is construed in relation to context. To date, there are no studies investigating the role of perceiver-based context when processing emotional cues in visual working memory. To explore the influence of affective context on visual working memory for faces, we conducted two experiments using both a visual working memory task for emotionally expressive faces and a mood induction procedure. Affective context was manipulated by unpleasant (Experiment 1 and pleasant (Experiment 2 IAPS pictures in order to induce an affect high in motivational intensity (defensive or appetitive, respectively compared to a low arousal control condition. Results indicated specifically increased sensitivity of visual working memory for angry looking faces in the neutral condition. Enhanced visual working memory for angry faces was prevented by inducing affects of high motivational intensity. In both experiments, affective states led to a switch from specific enhancement of angry expressions in visual working memory to an equally sensitive representation of all emotional expressions. Our findings demonstrate that emotional expressions are of different behavioral relevance for the receiver depending on the affective context, supporting a functional organization of visual working memory along with flexible resource allocation. In visual working memory, stimulus processing adjusts to situational requirements and transitions from a specifically prioritizing default mode in predictable environments to a sensitive, hypervigilant mode in exposure to emotional events.

  19. Amplification of attentional blink by distress-related facial expressions: relationships with alexithymia and affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynberg, Delphine; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Luminet, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    The present studies aimed to analyse the modulatory effect of distressing facial expressions on attention processing. The attentional blink (AB) paradigm is one of the most widely used paradigms for studying temporal attention, and is increasingly applied to study the temporal dynamics of emotion processing. The aims of this study were to investigate how identifying fear and pain facial expressions (Study 1) and fear and anger facial expressions (Study 2) would influence the detection of subsequent stimuli presented within short time intervals, and to assess the moderating influence of alexithymia and affectivity on this effect. It has been suggested that high alexithymia scorers need more attentional resources to process distressing facial expressions and that negative affectivity increases the AB. We showed that fear, anger and pain produced an AB and that alexithymia moderated it such that difficulty in describing feelings (Study 1) and externally oriented thinking (Study 2) were associated with higher interference after the processing of fear and anger at short time presentations. These studies provide evidence that distressing facial expressions modulate the attentional processing at short time intervals and that alexithymia influences the early attentional processing of fear and anger expressions. Controlling for state affect did not change these conclusions. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  20. The Child Affective Facial Expression (CAFE) set: validity and reliability from untrained adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoBue, Vanessa; Thrasher, Cat

    2014-01-01

    Emotional development is one of the largest and most productive areas of psychological research. For decades, researchers have been fascinated by how humans respond to, detect, and interpret emotional facial expressions. Much of the research in this area has relied on controlled stimulus sets of adults posing various facial expressions. Here we introduce a new stimulus set of emotional facial expressions into the domain of research on emotional development-The Child Affective Facial Expression set (CAFE). The CAFE set features photographs of a racially and ethnically diverse group of 2- to 8-year-old children posing for six emotional facial expressions-angry, fearful, sad, happy, surprised, and disgusted-and a neutral face. In the current work, we describe the set and report validity and reliability data on the set from 100 untrained adult participants.

  1. Age and diet affect gene expression profile in canine skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar S Middelbos

    Full Text Available We evaluated gene transcription in canine skeletal muscle (biceps femoris using microarray analysis to identify effects of age and diet on gene expression. Twelve female beagles were used (six 1-year olds and six 12-year olds and they were fed one of two experimental diets for 12 months. One diet contained primarily plant-based protein sources (PPB, whereas the second diet contained primarily animal-based protein sources (APB. Affymetrix GeneChip Canine Genome Arrays were used to hybridize extracted RNA. Age had the greatest effect on gene transcription (262 differentially expressed genes, whereas the effect of diet was relatively small (22 differentially expressed genes. Effects of age (regardless of diet were most notable on genes related to metabolism, cell cycle and cell development, and transcription function. All these genes were predominantly down-regulated in geriatric dogs. Age-affected genes that were differentially expressed on only one of two diets were primarily noted in the PPB diet group (144/165 genes. Again, genes related to cell cycle (22/35 and metabolism (15/19 had predominantly decreased transcription in geriatric dogs, but 6/8 genes related to muscle development had increased expression. Effects of diet on muscle gene expression were mostly noted in geriatric dogs, but no consistent patterns in transcription were observed. The insight these data provide into gene expression profiles of canine skeletal muscle as affected by age, could serve as a foundation for future research pertaining to age-related muscle diseases.

  2. Experimental results of affective valence and arousal to avatar's facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jeonghun; Jang, Hee Jeong; Kim, Kwang Uk; Kim, Jae Hun; Park, Sung Hyouk; Lee, Jang Han; Kim, Jae Jin; Kim, In Y; Kim, Sun I

    2005-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to propose a method of presenting dynamic facial expressions to experimental subjects, in order to investigate human perception of avatar's facial expressions of different levels of emotional intensity. The investigation concerned how perception varies according to the strength of facial expression, as well as according to an avatar's gender. To accomplish these goals, we generated a male and a female virtual avatar with five levels of intensity of happiness and anger using a morphing technique. We then recruited 16 normal healthy subjects and measured each subject's emotional reaction by scoring affective arousal and valence after showing them the avatar's face. Through this study, we were able to investigate human perceptual characteristics evoked by male and female avatars' graduated facial expressions of happiness and anger. In addition, we were able to identify that a virtual avatar's facial expression could affect human emotion in different ways according to the avatar's gender and the intensity of its facial expressions. However, we could also see that virtual faces have some limitations because they are not real, so subjects recognized the expressions well, but were not influenced to the same extent. Although a virtual avatar has some limitations in conveying its emotion using facial expressions, this study is significant in that it shows that a new potential exists to use or manipulate emotional intensity by controlling a virtual avatar's facial expression linearly using a morphing technique. Therefore, it is predicted that this technique may be used for assessing emotional characteristics of humans, and may be of particular benefit for work with people with emotional disorders through a presentation of dynamic expression of various emotional intensities.

  3. Effectiveness of Adaptive Pretend Play on Affective Expression and Imagination of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsieh-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have difficulty participating in role-pretending activities. The concept of adaptive play makes play accessible by modifying play materials for different needs or treatment goals for children with CP. This study examines the affective expressions and imagination in children with CP as a function of…

  4. Functional expression of the plant alternative oxidase affects growth of the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affourtit, C.; Albury, M.S.; Krab, K.; Moore, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the extent to which functional expression of the plant alternative oxidase (from Sauromatum guttatum) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe affects yeast growth. When cells are cultured on glycerol, the maximum specific growth rate is decreased from 0.13 to 0.11 h

  5. Problem-Solving Skills and Affective Expressions as Predictors of Change in Marital Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew D.; Cohan, Catherine L.; Davila, Joanne; Lawrence, Erika; Rogge, Ronald D.; Karney, Benjamin R.; Sullivan, Kieran T.; Bradbury, Thomas N.

    2005-01-01

    Specific skills and affective expressions coded from the problem-solving interactions of 172 newlywed couples were examined in relation to 8-wave, 4-year trajectories of marital satisfaction. Effects varied as a function of whether husbands' versus wives' topics were under discussion and whether husbands' versus wives' satisfaction was predicted,…

  6. Detection and expression of bovine papillomavirus in blood of healthy and papillomatosis-affected cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A R; De Albuquerque, B M F; Pontes, N E; Coutinho, L C A; Leitão, M C G; Reis, M C; Castro, R S; Freitas, A C

    2013-02-28

    Papillomaviruses (PV) are double-stranded DNA viruses that can cause benignant and malignant tumors in amniotes. There are 13 types of bovine papillomavirus (BPV-1 to -13); they have been found in reproductive tissues and body fluids. Normally these viruses are detected in epithelial tissue. We looked for BPV in the blood of healthy cattle and cattle with papillomatosis, using PCR and RT-PCR. BPV types 1 and 2 were detected in 8/12 blood samples of asymptomatic bovines and in 8/9 samples from cattle with papillomatosis. Six of 8 asymptomatic samples positive for BPV also showed expression for BPV. Five of 6 samples were positive for E2 expression, while 3/6 samples were positive for E5 expression. Five of 8 symptomatic samples positive for BPV also showed BPV expression. Five of 5 were positive for E2 expression, while 1/5 was positive for E5 expression. Two of 6 blood samples of asymptomatic cattle and 1/5 symptomatic blood samples scored positive for both E2 and E5 expression. This is the first study showing expression of BPV genes in the blood of asymptomatic and papillomatosis-affected animals.

  7. Eukaryotic expression system Pichia pastoris affects the lipase catalytic properties: a monolayer study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiha Bou Ali

    Full Text Available Recombinant DNA methods are being widely used to express proteins in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells for both fundamental and applied research purposes. Expressed protein must be well characterized to be sure that it retains the same properties as the native one, especially when expressed protein will be used in the pharmaceutical field. In this aim, interfacial and kinetic properties of native, untagged recombinant and tagged recombinant forms of a pancreatic lipase were compared using the monomolecular film technique. Turkey pancreatic lipase (TPL was chosen as model. A kinetic study on the dependence of the stereoselectivity of these three forms on the surface pressure was performed using three dicaprin isomers spread in the form of monomolecular films at the air-water interface. The heterologous expression and the N-His-tag extension were found to modify the pressure preference and decrease the catalytic hydrolysis rate of three dicaprin isomers. Besides, the heterologous expression was found to change the TPL regioselectivity without affecting its stereospecificity contrary to the N-tag extension which retained that regioselectivity and changed the stereospecificity at high surface pressures. The study of parameters, termed Recombinant expression Effects on Catalysis (REC, N-Tag Effects on Catalysis (TEC, and N-Tag and Recombinant expression Effects on Catalysis (TREC showed that the heterologous expression effects on the catalytic properties of the TPL were more deleterious than the presence of an N-terminal tag extension.

  8. Multi-level gene expression profiles affected by thymidylate synthase and 5-fluorouracil in colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Edward

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thymidylate synthase (TS is a critical target for cancer chemotherapy and is one of the most extensively studied biomarkers for fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy. In addition to its critical role in enzyme catalysis, TS functions as an RNA binding protein to regulate the expression of its own mRNA translation and other cellular mRNAs, such as p53, at the translational level. In this study, a comprehensive gene expression analysis at the levels of both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation was conducted to identify response markers using human genome array with TS-depleted human colon cancer HCT-C18 (TS- cells and HCT-C18 (TS+ cells stably transfected with the human TS cDNA expression plasmid. Results A total of 38 genes were found to be significantly affected by TS based on the expression profiles of steady state mRNA transcripts. However, based on the expression profiles of polysome associated mRNA transcripts, over 149 genes were affected by TS overexpression. This indicates that additional post-transcriptionally controlled genes can be captured with profiling polysome associated mRNA population. This unique approach provides a comprehensive overview of genes affected by TS. Additional novel post-transcriptionally regulated genes affected by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU treatment were also discovered via similar approach. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first time that a comprehensive gene expression profile regulated by TS and 5-FU was analyzed at the multiple steps of gene regulation. This study will provide candidate markers that can be potentially used for predicting therapeutic outcomes for fluoropyrimidine-based cancer chemotherapy.

  9. The Child Affective Facial Expression (CAFE Set: Validity and Reliability from Untrained Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eLoBue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional development is one of the largest and most productive areas of psychological research. For decades, researchers have been fascinated by how humans respond to, detect, and interpret emotional facial expressions. Much of the research in this area has relied on controlled stimulus sets of adults posing various facial expressions. Here we introduce a new stimulus set of emotional facial expressions into the domain of research on emotional development—The Child Affective Facial Expression set (CAFE. The CAFE set features photographs of a racially and ethnically diverse group of 2- to 8-year-old children posing for 6 emotional facial expressions—angry, fearful, sad, happy, surprised, and disgusted—and a neutral face. In the current work, we describe the set and report validity and reliability data on the set from 100 untrained adult participants.

  10. Sex differences in the perception of affective facial expressions: do men really lack emotional sensitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagne, Barbara; Kessels, Roy P C; Frigerio, Elisa; de Haan, Edward H F; Perrett, David I

    2005-06-01

    There is evidence that men and women display differences in both cognitive and affective functions. Recent studies have examined the processing of emotions in males and females. However, the findings are inconclusive, possibly the result of methodological differences. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of emotional facial expressions in men and women. Video clips of neutral faces, gradually morphing into full-blown expressions were used. By doing this, we were able to examine both the accuracy and the sensitivity in labelling emotional facial expressions. Furthermore, all participants completed an anxiety and a depression rating scale. Research participants were 40 female students and 28 male students. Results revealed that men were less accurate, as well as less sensitive in labelling facial expressions. Thus, men show an overall worse performance compared to women on a task measuring the processing of emotional faces. This result is discussed in relation to recent findings.

  11. Through the eyes of a child: preschoolers' identification of emotional expressions from the child affective facial expression (CAFE) set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoBue, Vanessa; Baker, Lewis; Thrasher, Cat

    2017-08-10

    Researchers have been interested in the perception of human emotional expressions for decades. Importantly, most empirical work in this domain has relied on controlled stimulus sets of adults posing for various emotional expressions. Recently, the Child Affective Facial Expression (CAFE) set was introduced to the scientific community, featuring a large validated set of photographs of preschool aged children posing for seven different emotional expressions. Although the CAFE set was extensively validated using adult participants, the set was designed for use with children. It is therefore necessary to verify that adult validation applies to child performance. In the current study, we examined 3- to 4-year-olds' identification of a subset of children's faces in the CAFE set, and compared it to adult ratings cited in previous research. Our results demonstrate an exceptionally strong relationship between adult ratings of the CAFE photos and children's ratings, suggesting that the adult validation of the set can be applied to preschool-aged participants. The results are discussed in terms of methodological implications for the use of the CAFE set with children, and theoretical implications for using the set to study the development of emotion perception in early childhood.

  12. Human Empathy, Personality and Experience Affect the Emotion Ratings of Dog and Human Facial Expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miiamaaria V Kujala

    Full Text Available Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people's perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions. We investigated how the subjects' personality (the Big Five Inventory, empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index and experience of dog behavior affect the ratings of dog and human faces. Ratings of both species followed similar general patterns: human subjects classified dog facial expressions from pleasant to threatening very similarly to human facial expressions. Subjects with higher emotional empathy evaluated Threatening faces of both species as more negative in valence and higher in anger/aggressiveness. More empathetic subjects also rated the happiness of Pleasant humans but not dogs higher, and they were quicker in their valence judgments of Pleasant human, Threatening human and Threatening dog faces. Experience with dogs correlated positively with ratings of Pleasant and Neutral dog faces. Personality also had a minor effect on the ratings of Pleasant and Neutral faces in both species. The results imply that humans perceive human and dog facial expression in a similar manner, and the perception of both species is influenced by psychological factors of the evaluators. Especially empathy affects both the speed and intensity of rating dogs' emotional facial expressions.

  13. Human Empathy, Personality and Experience Affect the Emotion Ratings of Dog and Human Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Miiamaaria V.; Somppi, Sanni; Jokela, Markus; Vainio, Outi; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people’s perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness) from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions. We investigated how the subjects’ personality (the Big Five Inventory), empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index) and experience of dog behavior affect the ratings of dog and human faces. Ratings of both species followed similar general patterns: human subjects classified dog facial expressions from pleasant to threatening very similarly to human facial expressions. Subjects with higher emotional empathy evaluated Threatening faces of both species as more negative in valence and higher in anger/aggressiveness. More empathetic subjects also rated the happiness of Pleasant humans but not dogs higher, and they were quicker in their valence judgments of Pleasant human, Threatening human and Threatening dog faces. Experience with dogs correlated positively with ratings of Pleasant and Neutral dog faces. Personality also had a minor effect on the ratings of Pleasant and Neutral faces in both species. The results imply that humans perceive human and dog facial expression in a similar manner, and the perception of both species is influenced by psychological factors of the evaluators. Especially empathy affects both the speed and intensity of rating dogs’ emotional facial expressions. PMID:28114335

  14. Human Empathy, Personality and Experience Affect the Emotion Ratings of Dog and Human Facial Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Miiamaaria V; Somppi, Sanni; Jokela, Markus; Vainio, Outi; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people's perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness) from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions. We investigated how the subjects' personality (the Big Five Inventory), empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index) and experience of dog behavior affect the ratings of dog and human faces. Ratings of both species followed similar general patterns: human subjects classified dog facial expressions from pleasant to threatening very similarly to human facial expressions. Subjects with higher emotional empathy evaluated Threatening faces of both species as more negative in valence and higher in anger/aggressiveness. More empathetic subjects also rated the happiness of Pleasant humans but not dogs higher, and they were quicker in their valence judgments of Pleasant human, Threatening human and Threatening dog faces. Experience with dogs correlated positively with ratings of Pleasant and Neutral dog faces. Personality also had a minor effect on the ratings of Pleasant and Neutral faces in both species. The results imply that humans perceive human and dog facial expression in a similar manner, and the perception of both species is influenced by psychological factors of the evaluators. Especially empathy affects both the speed and intensity of rating dogs' emotional facial expressions.

  15. Expressing the Sense of Congress That Public Schools Should Be Encouraged To Include a Study of the Holocaust in Their History Curriculums: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session on H. Con. Res. 121 (May 6, 1986).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    These proceedings of a congressional hearing express the sense of Congress that public schools should be encouraged to include a study of the holocaust in the history curricula. Included are texts of statements by: Sala Burton, member of the California Congressional delegation; Carol Rittner, producer of a film, "The Courage to Care,"…

  16. When emotions are expressed figuratively: Psycholinguistic and Affective Norms of 619 Idioms for German (PANIG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, Francesca M M; Cacciari, Cristina; Kucharski, Michael; Beck, Luna; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2016-03-01

    Despite flourishing research on the relationship between emotion and literal language, and despite the pervasiveness of figurative expressions in communication, the role of figurative language in conveying affect has been underinvestigated. This study provides affective and psycholinguistic norms for 619 German idiomatic expressions and explores the relationships between affective and psycholinguistic idiom properties. German native speakers rated each idiom for emotional valence, arousal, familiarity, semantic transparency, figurativeness, and concreteness. They also described the figurative meaning of each idiom and rated how confident they were about the attributed meaning. The results showed that idioms rated high in valence were also rated high in arousal. Negative idioms were rated as more arousing than positive ones, in line with results from single words. Furthermore, arousal correlated positively with figurativeness (supporting the idea that figurative expressions are more emotionally engaging than literal expressions) and with concreteness and semantic transparency. This suggests that idioms may convey a more direct reference to sensory representations, mediated by the meanings of their constituting words. Arousal correlated positively with familiarity. In addition, positive idioms were rated as more familiar than negative idioms. Finally, idioms without a literal counterpart were rated as more emotionally valenced and arousing than idioms with a literal counterpart. Although the meanings of ambiguous idioms were less correctly defined than those of unambiguous idioms, ambiguous idioms were rated as more concrete than unambiguous ones. We also discuss the relationships between the various psycholinguistic variables characterizing idioms, with reference to the literature on idiom structure and processing.

  17. Contaminant loading in remote Arctic lakes affects cellular stress-related proteins expression in feral charr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Steve; Jorgensen, Even H.; Maule, Alec G.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2011-01-01

    The remote Arctic lakes on Bjornoya Island, Norway, offer a unique opportunity to study possible affect of lifelong contaminant exposure in wild populations of landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). This is because Lake Ellasjoen has persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels that are significantly greater than in the nearby Lake Oyangen. We examined whether this differential contaminant loading was reflected in the expression of protein markers of exposure and effect in the native fish. We assessed the expressions of cellular stress markers, including cytochrome P4501A (Cyp1A), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in feral charr from the two lakes. The average polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load in the charr liver from Ellasjoen was approximately 25-fold higher than in individuals from Oyangen. Liver Cyp1A protein expression was significantly higher in individuals from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen, confirming differential PCB exposure. There was no significant difference in hsp70 protein expression in charr liver between the two lakes. However, brain hsp70 protein expression was significantly elevated in charr from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen. Also, liver GR protein expression was significantly higher in the Ellasjoen charr compared with Oyangen charr. Taken together, our results suggest changes to cellular stress-related protein expression as a possible adaptation to chronic-contaminant exposure in feral charr in the Norwegian high-Arctic.

  18. Changes in gravitational force affect gene expression in developing organ systems at different developmental times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moorman Stephen J

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the affect of microgravity on gene expression, particularly in vivo during embryonic development. Using transgenic zebrafish that express the gfp gene under the influence of a β-actin promoter, we examined the affect of simulated-microgravity on GFP expression in the heart, notochord, eye, somites, and rohon beard neurons. We exposed transgenic zebrafish to simulated-microgravity for different durations at a variety of developmental times in an attempt to determine periods of susceptibility for the different developing organ systems. Results The developing heart had a period of maximum susceptibility between 32 and 56 hours after fertilization when there was an approximately 30% increase in gene expression. The notochord, eye, somites, and rohon beard neurons all showed periods of susceptibility occurring between 24 and 72 hours after fertilization. In addition, the notochord showed a second period of susceptibility between 8 and 32 hours after fertilization. Interestingly, all organs appeared to be recovering by 80 hours after fertilization despite continued exposure to simulated-microgravity. Conclusion These results support the idea that exposure to microgravity can cause changes in gene expression in a variety of developing organ systems in live embryos and that there are periods of maximum susceptibility to the effects.

  19. Effects of Sirt1 on DNA methylation and expression of genes affected by dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ions, Laura J; Wakeling, Luisa A; Bosomworth, Helen J; Hardyman, Joy E J; Escolme, Suzanne M; Swan, Daniel C; Valentine, Ruth A; Mathers, John C; Ford, Dianne

    2013-10-01

    Changes in DNA methylation across the life course may contribute to the ageing process. We hypothesised that some effects of dietary restriction to extend lifespan and/or mitigate against features of ageing result from changes in DNA methylation, so we determined if genes that respond to dietary restriction also show age-related changes in DNA methylation. In support of our hypothesis, the intersection of lists of genes compiled from published sources that (1) were differentially expressed in response to dietary restriction and (2) showed altered methylation with increased age was greater than expected. We also hypothesised that some effects of Sirt1, which may play a pivotal role in beneficial effects of dietary restriction, are mediated through DNA methylation. We thus measured effects of Sirt1 overexpression and knockdown in a human cell line on DNA methylation and expression of a panel of eight genes that respond to dietary restriction and show altered methylation with age. Six genes were affected at the level of DNA methylation, and for six expressions were affected. In further support of our hypothesis, we observed by DNA microarray analysis that genes showing differential expression in response to Sirt1 knockdown were over-represented in the complied list of genes that respond to dietary restriction. The findings reveal that Sirt1 has effects on DNA methylation across the genome and affects, in particular, the expression of genes that respond to dietary restriction. Sirt1-mediated effects on DNA methylation and, consequently, gene expression may thus be one of the mechanisms underlying the response to dietary restriction.

  20. Osteochondrosis-Related Gene Expression in Equine Leukocytes Differs among Affected Joints in Foals

    OpenAIRE

    Serteyn, Didier; Piquemal, David; Mendoza García, Luis; Caudron, Isabelle; Noguier, F.; Bruno, R.; Sandersen, Charlotte; Lejeune, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Osteochondrosis (OC) is a developmental disease in horses with a significant impact on the horse’s welfare and performance. Previously, differentially expressed genes in leukocytes of OC-affected have been identified and were differentially expressed in horses of different ages when compared to their age-matched controls.As the time course of the development of OC lesions seems to be joint dependent,the aim of this study is to compare in young OCaffected horses (between 8 to 12 mo...

  1. Trait correlated expression combined with expression QTL analysis reveals biological pathways and candidate genes affecting water holding capacity of muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Jonas, Elisabeth; Murani, Eduard; Phatsara, Chirawath; Srikanchai, Tiranun; Walz, Christina; Schwerin, Manfred; Schellander, Karl; Wimmers, Klaus

    2008-07-31

    Leakage of water and ions and soluble proteins from muscle cells occurs during prolonged exercise due to ischemia causing muscle damage. Also post mortem anoxia during conversion of muscle to meat is marked by loss of water and soluble components from the muscle cell. There is considerable variation in the water holding capacity of meat affecting economy of meat production. Water holding capacity depends on numerous genetic and environmental factors relevant to structural and biochemical muscle fibre properties a well as ante and post slaughter metabolic processes. Expression microarray analysis of M. longissimus dorsi RNAs of 74 F2 animals of a resource population showed 1,279 transcripts with trait correlated expression to water holding capacity. Negatively correlated transcripts were enriched in functional categories and pathways like extracellular matrix receptor interaction and calcium signalling. Transcripts with positive correlation dominantly represented biochemical processes including oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial pathways, as well as transporter activity. A linkage analysis of abundance of trait correlated transcripts revealed 897 expression QTL (eQTL) with 104 eQTL coinciding with QTL regions for water holding capacity; 96 transcripts had trans acting and 8 had cis acting regulation. The complex relationships between biological processes taking place in live skeletal muscle and meat quality are driven on the one hand by the energy reserves and their utilisation in the muscle and on the other hand by the muscle structure itself and calcium signalling. Holistic expression profiling was integrated with QTL analysis for the trait of interest and for gene expression levels for creation of a priority list of genes out of the orchestra of genes of biological networks relevant to the liability to develop elevated drip loss.

  2. Trait correlated expression combined with expression QTL analysis reveals biological pathways and candidate genes affecting water holding capacity of muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwerin Manfred

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leakage of water and ions and soluble proteins from muscle cells occurs during prolonged exercise due to ischemia causing muscle damage. Also post mortem anoxia during conversion of muscle to meat is marked by loss of water and soluble components from the muscle cell. There is considerable variation in the water holding capacity of meat affecting economy of meat production. Water holding capacity depends on numerous genetic and environmental factors relevant to structural and biochemical muscle fibre properties a well as ante and post slaughter metabolic processes. Results Expression microarray analysis of M. longissimus dorsi RNAs of 74 F2 animals of a resource population showed 1,279 transcripts with trait correlated expression to water holding capacity. Negatively correlated transcripts were enriched in functional categories and pathways like extracellular matrix receptor interaction and calcium signalling. Transcripts with positive correlation dominantly represented biochemical processes including oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial pathways, as well as transporter activity. A linkage analysis of abundance of trait correlated transcripts revealed 897 expression QTL (eQTL with 104 eQTL coinciding with QTL regions for water holding capacity; 96 transcripts had trans acting and 8 had cis acting regulation. Conclusion The complex relationships between biological processes taking place in live skeletal muscle and meat quality are driven on the one hand by the energy reserves and their utilisation in the muscle and on the other hand by the muscle structure itself and calcium signalling. Holistic expression profiling was integrated with QTL analysis for the trait of interest and for gene expression levels for creation of a priority list of genes out of the orchestra of genes of biological networks relevant to the liability to develop elevated drip loss.

  3. A survey of affect recognition methods: audio, visual, and spontaneous expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhihong; Pantic, Maja; Roisman, Glenn I; Huang, Thomas S

    2009-01-01

    Automated analysis of human affective behavior has attracted increasing attention from researchers in psychology, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, and related disciplines. However, the existing methods typically handle only deliberately displayed and exaggerated expressions of prototypical emotions despite the fact that deliberate behaviour differs in visual appearance, audio profile, and timing from spontaneously occurring behaviour. To address this problem, efforts to develop algorithms that can process naturally occurring human affective behaviour have recently emerged. Moreover, an increasing number of efforts are reported toward multimodal fusion for human affect analysis including audiovisual fusion, linguistic and paralinguistic fusion, and multi-cue visual fusion based on facial expressions, head movements, and body gestures. This paper introduces and surveys these recent advances. We first discuss human emotion perception from a psychological perspective. Next we examine available approaches to solving the problem of machine understanding of human affective behavior, and discuss important issues like the collection and availability of training and test data. We finally outline some of the scientific and engineering challenges to advancing human affect sensing technology.

  4. Genomic expression dominance in the natural allopolyploid Coffea arabica is massively affected by growth temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardil, Amélie; de Almeida, Juliana Dantas; Combes, Marie Christine; Lashermes, Philippe; Bertrand, Benoît

    2011-11-01

    • Polyploidy occurs throughout the evolutionary history of many plants and considerably impacts species diversity, giving rise to novel phenotypes and leading to ecological diversification and colonization of new niches. Recent studies have documented dynamic changes in plant polyploid gene expression, which reflect the genomic and functional plasticity of duplicate genes and genomes. • The aim of the present study was to describe genomic expression dominance between a relatively recently formed natural allopolyploid (Coffea arabica) and its ancestral parents (Coffea canephora and Coffea eugenioides) and to determine if the divergence was environment-dependent. Employing a microarray platform designed against 15,522 unigenes, we assayed unigene expression levels in the allopolyploid and its two parental diploids. For each unigene, we measured expression variations among the three species grown under two temperature conditions (26-22°C (day-night temperatures) and 30-26°C (day-night temperatures)). • More than 35% of unigenes were differentially expressed in each comparison at both temperatures, except for C. arabica vs C. canephora in the 30-26°C range, where an unexpectedly low unigene expression divergence (< 9%) was observed. • Our data revealed evidence of transcription profile divergence between the allopolyploid and its parental species, greatly affected by environmental conditions, and provide clues to the plasticity phenomenon in allopolyploids. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein expression in human periodontitis-affected gingival tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, T; Maruyama, S; Abe, D; Tomita, T; Morozumi, T; Nakasone, N; Saku, T; Yoshie, H

    2014-06-01

    Periodontitis involves periodontal tissue destruction and is associated with chronic inflammation and ageing. Periodontitis has recently been recognised as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We showed upregulation of molecules in the AD pathway including amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (APP), a key gene in AD, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and complement component 1 (q subcomponent, A chain) (C1QA) in periodontitis compared to healthy tissues. Here, we quantitatively analysed the expression levels of APP, IL-1β, and C1QA and determined the localisation of APP in gingival tissues. Fourteen chronic periodontitis patients and 14 healthy participants were enrolled. Six samples of total RNA from two distinct sites of healthy and periodontitis-affected gingival tissues from three randomly selected patients were used for microarray analyses, and significant biological pathways in periodontitis were identified. Differential gene expression of APP, IL-1β, and C1QA, which belong to the AD pathway, were analysed with quantitative reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using samples from these 14 chronic periodontitis patients and 14 healthy controls. APP localisation was analysed with immunohistochemistry. APP, IL-1β, and C1QA mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in periodontitis-affected gingival tissues. APP was mainly localised in macrophages in gingival connective tissues underneath the epithelial layers. An association between AD and periodontitis was detected with microarray and computer-aided data mining analyses. qRT-PCR identified differential gene expression in periodontitis-affected gingival tissue that may be related to AD pathogenesis. Elevated APP, IL-1β, and C1QA transcripts and APP-expressing macrophages in periodontitis-affected gingival tissues were observed, suggesting a relationship between periodontitis and AD pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mendelian and non-mendelian mutations affecting surface antigen expression in Paramecium tetraurelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, L.M.; Forney, J.D.

    1984-08-01

    A screening procedure was devised for the isolation of X-ray-induced mutations affecting the expression of the A immobilization antigen (i-antigen) in Paramecium tetraurelia. Two of the mutations isolated by this procedure proved to be in modifier genes. The two genes are unlinked to each other and unlinked to the structural A i-antigen gene. These are the first modifier genes identified in a Paramecium sp. that affect surface antigen expression. Another mutation was found to be a deletion of sequences just downstream from the A i-antigen gene. In cells carrying this mutation, the A i-antigen gene lies in close proximity to the end of a macronuclear chromosome. The expression of the A i-antigen is not affected in these cells, demonstrating that downstream sequences are not important for the regulation and expression of the A i-antigen gene. A stable cell line was also recovered which shows non-Mendelian inheritance of a macronuclear deletion of the A i-antigen gene. This mutant does not contain the gene in its macronucleus, but contains a complete copy of the gene in its micronucleus. In the cytoplasm of wild-type animals, the micronuclear gene is included in the developing macronucleus; in the cytoplasm of the mutant, the incorporation of the A i-antigen gene into the macronucleus is inhibited. This is the first evidence that a mechanism is available in ciliates to control the expression of a gene by regulating its incorporation into developing macronuclei.

  7. Mendelian and non-mendelian mutations affecting surface antigen expression in Paramecium tetraurelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, L M; Forney, J D

    1984-08-01

    A screening procedure was devised for the isolation of X-ray-induced mutations affecting the expression of the A immobilization antigen (i-antigen) in Paramecium tetraurelia. Two of the mutations isolated by this procedure proved to be in modifier genes. The two genes are unlinked to each other and unlinked to the structural A i-antigen gene. These are the first modifier genes identified in a Paramecium sp. that affect surface antigen expression. Another mutation was found to be a deletion of sequences just downstream from the A i-antigen gene. In cells carrying this mutation, the A i-antigen gene lies in close proximity to the end of a macronuclear chromosome. The expression of the A i-antigen is not affected in these cells, demonstrating that downstream sequences are not important for the regulation and expression of the A i-antigen gene. A stable cell line was also recovered which shows non-Mendelian inheritance of a macronuclear deletion of the A i-antigen gene. This mutant does not contain the gene in its macronucleus, but contains a complete copy of the gene in its micronucleus. In the cytoplasm of wild-type animals, the micronuclear gene is included in the developing macronucleus; in the cytoplasm of the mutant, the incorporation of the A i-antigen gene into the macronucleus is inhibited. This is the first evidence that a mechanism is available in ciliates to control the expression of a gene by regulating its incorporation into developing macronuclei.

  8. Can You Feel It?: Evaluation of Affective Expression in Music Generated by MetaCompose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scirea, Marco; Eklund, Peter; Togelius, Julian

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes an evaluation conducted on the MetaCompose music generator, which is based on evolutionary computation and uses a hybrid evolutionary technique that combines FI-2POP and multi-objective optimization. The main objective of MetaCompose is to create music in real-time that can...... express different mood-states. The experiment presented here aims to evaluate: (i) if the perceived mood experienced by the participants of a music score matches intended mood the system is trying to express and (ii) if participants can identify transitions in the mood expression that occur mid......-piece. Music clips including transitions and with static affective states were produced by MetaCompose and a quantitative user study was performed. Participants were tasked with annotating the perceived mood and moreover were asked to annotate in real-time changes in valence. The data collected confirms...

  9. Expression of cell cycle regulator p16 is not affected by diabetes during oral oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairaktaris, Eleftherios; Goutzanis, Lambros; Nkenke, Emeka; Spyridonidou, Sofia; Vassiliou, Stavros; Derka, Spyridoula; Vylliotis, Antonis; Yapijakis, Christos; Lazaris, Andreas; Patsouris, Efstratios

    2007-01-01

    The tumor suppressor protein p16 plays a vital role in the regulation of the cell cycle. The expression of p16 was investigated in an experimental model of chemically induced carcinogenesis in normal and diabetic (type I) Sprague-Dawley rats. Tissue sections ranging from normal oral mucosa to moderately differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) were studied immunohistochemically. In normal rats p16 expression increased gradually during oral oncogenesis, but a significant increase was observed only in moderately differentiated OSCC (p=0.038). On the contrary, in diabetic rats the detected gradual increase was significant in hyperplasia, dysplasia, early invasion and well-differentiated OSCC (panimals. It seems that the expression of cell cycle regulator p16 is not affected by diabetes in the studied animal model of oral oncogenesis.

  10. Cycle affects imidacloprid efficiency by mediating cytochrome P450 expression in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, K; Yang, P; Pang, R; Yue, L; Zhang, W

    2017-10-01

    Circadian clocks influence most behaviours and physiological activities in animals, including daily fluctuations in metabolism. However, how the clock gene cycle influences insects' responses to pesticides has rarely been reported. Here, we provide evidence that cycle affects imidacloprid efficacy by mediating the expression of cytochrome P450 genes in the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, a serious insect pest of rice. Survival bioassays showed that the susceptibility of BPH adults to imidacloprid differed significantly between the two time points tested [Zeitgeber Time 8 (ZT8) and ZT4]. After cloning the cycle gene in the BPH (Nlcycle), we found that Nlcycle was expressed at higher levels in the fat body and midgut, and its expression was rhythmic with two peaks. Knockdown of Nlcycle affected the expression levels and rhythms of cytochrome P450 genes as well as susceptibility to imidacloprid. The survival rates of BPH adults after treatment with imidacloprid did not significantly differ between ZT4 and ZT8 after double-stranded Nlcycle treatment. These findings can be used to improve pesticide use and increase pesticide efficiency in the field. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  11. TITER AND PRODUCT AFFECTS THE DISTRIBUTION OF GENE EXPRESSION AFTER INTRAPUTAMINAL CONVECTION-ENHANCED DELIVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emborg, Marina E.; Hurley, Samuel A.; Joers, Valerie; Tromp, Do P.M.; Swanson, Christine R.; Ohshima-Hosoyama, Sachiko; Bondarenko, Viktorya; Cummisford, Kyle; Sonnemans, Marc; Hermening, Stephan; Blits, Bas; Alexander, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Efficacy and safety of intracerebral gene therapy for brain disorders, like Parkinson’s disease, depends on appropriate distribution of gene expression. Objectives To assess if the distribution of gene expression is affected by vector titer and protein type. Methods Four adult macaque monkeys seronegative for adeno-associated virus 5 (AAV5) received in the right and left ventral postcommisural putamen 30μl inoculation of a high or low titer suspension of AAV5 encoding glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) or green fluorescent protein (GFP). Inoculations were performed using convection enhanced delivery and intraoperative MRI (IMRI). Results IMRI confirmed targeting and infusion cloud irradiating from the catheter tip into surrounding area. Postmortem analysis six weeks after surgery revealed GFP and GDNF expression ipsilateral to the injection side that had a titer-dependent distribution. GFP and GDNF expression was also observed in fibers in the Substantia Nigra (SN) pars reticulata (pr), demonstrating anterograde transport. Few GFP-positive neurons were present in the SN pars compacta (pc), possibly by direct retrograde transport of the vector. GDNF was present in many SNpc and SNpr neurons. Conclusions After controlling for target and infusate volume, intracerebral distribution of gene product is affected by vector titer and product biology. PMID:24943657

  12. Titer and product affect the distribution of gene expression after intraputaminal convection-enhanced delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emborg, Marina E; Hurley, Samuel A; Joers, Valerie; Tromp, Do P M; Swanson, Christine R; Ohshima-Hosoyama, Sachiko; Bondarenko, Viktorya; Cummisford, Kyle; Sonnemans, Marc; Hermening, Stephan; Blits, Bas; Alexander, Andrew L

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of intracerebral gene therapy for brain disorders like Parkinson's disease depends on the appropriate distribution of gene expression. To assess whether the distribution of gene expression is affected by vector titer and protein type. Four adult macaque monkeys seronegative for adeno-associated virus 5 (AAV5) received a 30-µl inoculation of a high- or a low-titer suspension of AAV5 encoding glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) or green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the right and left ventral postcommissural putamen. The inoculations were conducted using convection-enhanced delivery and intraoperative MRI (IMRI). IMRI confirmed targeting and infusion cloud irradiation from the catheter tip into the surrounding area. A postmortem analysis 6 weeks after surgery revealed GFP and GDNF expression ipsilateral to the injection site that had a titer-dependent distribution. GFP and GDNF expression was also observed in fibers in the substantia nigra (SN) pars reticulata (pr), demonstrating anterograde transport. Few GFP-positive neurons were present in the SN pars compacta (pc), possibly by direct retrograde transport of the vector. GDNF was present in many neurons of the SNpc and SNpr. After controlling for target and infusate volume, the intracerebral distribution of the gene product was affected by the vector titer and product biology.

  13. Azithromycin differentially affects the IL-13-induced expression profile in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Tinne C J; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Taube, Christian

    2016-08-01

    The T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine interleukin(IL)-13 is a central regulator in goblet cell metaplasia and induces the recently described Th2 gene signature consisting of periostin (POSTN), chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1) and serpin B2 (SERPINB2) in airway epithelial cells. This Th2 gene signature has been proposed as a biomarker to classify asthma into Th2-high and Th2-low phenotypes. Clinical studies have shown that the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin reduced clinical symptoms in neutrophilic asthma, but not in the classical Th2-mediated asthma despite the ability of azithromycin to reduce IL-13-induced mucus production. We therefore hypothesize that azithromycin differentially affects the IL-13-induced expression profile. To investigate this, we focus on IL-13-induced mucin and Th2-signature expression in human bronchial epithelial cells and how this combined expression profile is affected by azithromycin treatment. Primary bronchial epithelial cells were differentiated at air liquid interface in presence of IL-13 with or without azithromycin. Azithromycin inhibited IL-13-induced MUC5AC, which was accompanied by inhibition of IL-13-induced CLCA1 and SERPINB2 expression. In contrast, IL-13-induced expression of POSTN was further increased in cells treated with azithromycin. This indicates that azithromycin has a differential effect on the IL-13-induced Th2 gene signature. Furthermore, the ability of azithromycin to decrease IL-13-induced MUC5AC expression may be mediated by a reduction in CLCA1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Affected by Promoter Hypermethylation Induces Aberrant Gli2 Expression in Spina Bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Lin; Wang, Li; Chang, Shao-Yan; Shangguan, Shao-Fang; Wang, Zhen; Wu, Li-Hua; Zou, Ji-Zhen; Xiao, Ping; Li, Rui; Bao, Yi-Hua; Qiu, Z-Y; Zhang, Ting

    2016-10-01

    GLI2 is a key mediator of the sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway and plays an important role in neural tube development during vertebrate embryogenesis; however, the role of gli2 in human folate-related neural tube defects remains unclear. In this study, we compared methylation status and polymorphisms of gli2 between spina bifida patients and a control group to explore the underlying mechanisms related to folate deficiency in spina bifida. No single nucleotide polymorphism was found to be significantly different between the two groups, although gli2 methylation levels were significantly increased in spina bifida samples, accompanied by aberrant GLI2 expression. Moreover, a prominent negative correlation was found between the folate level in brain tissue and the gli2 methylation status (r = -0.41, P = 0.014), and gli2 hypermethylation increased the risk of spina bifida with an odds ratio of 12.45 (95 % confidence interval: 2.71-57.22, P = 0.001). In addition, we established a cell model to illustrate the effect of gli2 expression and the accessibility of chromatin affected by methylation. High gli2 and gli1 mRNA expression was detected in 5-Aza-treated cells, while gli2 hypermethylation resulted in chromatin inaccessibility and a reduced association with nuclear proteins containing transcriptional factors. More meaningful to the pathway, the effect gene of the Shh pathway, gli1, was found to have a reduced level of expression along with a decreased expression of gli2 in our cell model. Aberrant high methylation resulted in the low expression of gli2 in spina bifida, which was affected by the change in chromatin status and the capacity of transcription factor binding.

  15. Sustained striatal ciliary neurotrophic factor expression negatively affects behavior and gene expression in normal and R6/1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denovan-Wright, Eileen M; Attis, Marissa; Rodriguez-Lebron, Edgardo; Mandel, Ronald J

    2008-06-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by an elongation of CAG repeats in the HD gene, which encodes a mutant copy of huntingtin with an expanded polyglutatmine repeat. Individuals who are affected by the disease suffer from motor, cognitive, and emotional impairments. Levels of certain striatal-enriched mRNAs decrease in both HD patients and transgenic HD mice prior to the development of motor symptoms and neuronal cell death. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been shown to protect neurons against chemically induced toxic insults in vitro and in vivo. To test the hypothesis that CNTF might protect neurons from the negative effects of the mutant huntingtin protein in vivo, CNTF was continuously expressed following transduction of the striatum by recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAV2). Wild-type and R6/1 HD transgenic (R6/1) mice that received bilateral or unilateral intrastriatal injections of rAAV2-CNTF experienced weight loss. The CNTF-treated R6/1 HD transgenic mice experienced motor impairments at an earlier age than expected compared with age-matched control R6/1 HD transgenic animals. CNTF also caused abnormal behavior in WT mice. In addition to behavioral impairments, in situ hybridization showed that, in both WT and R6/1 mice, CNTF expression caused a significant decrease in the levels of striatal-enriched transcripts. Overall, continuous expression of striatal CNTF at the dose mediated by the expression cassette used in this study was detrimental to HD and wild-type mice. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Eutrophication and predation risk interact to affect sexual trait expression and mating success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothran, Rickey D; Stiff, Andy R; Jeyasingh, Punidan D; Relyea, Rick A

    2012-03-01

    Sexual traits are especially sensitive to low food resources. Other environmental parameters (e.g., predation) should also affect sexual trait expression by favoring investment in viability traits rather than sexual traits. We know surprisingly little about how predators alter investment in sexual traits, or how predator and resource environments interact to affect sexual trait investment. We explored how increasing phosphorous (P) availability, at a level mimicking cultural eutrophication, affects the development of sexual, nonsexual, and viability traits of amphipods in the presence and absence of predators. Sexual traits and growth were hypersensitive to low P compared to nonsexual traits. However, a key sexual trait responded to low P only when predator cues were absent. Furthermore, investment trade-offs between sexual traits and growth only occurred when P was low. The phenotypic changes caused by predator cues and increased P availability resulted in higher male mating success. Thus, eutrophication not only affects sexual trait expression but also masks the trade-off between traits with similar P demand. Sensitivity of sexually selected traits to changes in P, combined with the important roles these traits play in determining fitness and driving speciation, suggests that human-induced environmental change can greatly alter the evolutionary trajectories of populations. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Role of negative affects in pathophysiology and clinical expression of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Maria Rosaria A; Bruno, Antonio; Scimeca, Giuseppe; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco A

    2014-06-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is regarded as a multifactorial disease in which alterations in the brain-gut axis signaling play a major role. The biopsychosocial model applied to the understanding of IBS pathophysiology assumes that psychosocial factors, interacting with peripheral/central neuroendocrine and immune changes, may induce symptoms of IBS, modulate symptom severity, influence illness experience and quality of life, and affect outcome. The present review focuses on the role of negative affects, including depression, anxiety, and anger, on pathogenesis and clinical expression of IBS. The potential role of the autonomic nervous system, stress-hormone system, and immune system in the pathophysiology of both negative affects and IBS are taken into account. Psychiatric comorbidity and subclinical variations in levels of depression, anxiety, and anger are further discussed in relation to the main pathophysiological and symptomatic correlates of IBS, such as sensorimotor functions, gut microbiota, inflammation/immunity, and symptom reporting.

  18. Subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics affect stress and virulence gene expression in Listeria monocytogenes and cause enhanced stress sensitivity but do not affect Caco‐2 cell invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gitte Maegaard; Holch, Anne; Gram, Lone

    2012-01-01

    with promoter fusions, 14 of 16 antibiotics induced or repressed expression of one or more stress and/or virulence genes. Despite ampicillin‐induced up‐regulation of PinlA‐lacZ expression, Caco‐2 cell invasion was not affected. Subinhibitory concentrations of ampicillin and tetracycline caused up‐ and down...

  19. The BDNF Val66Met variant affects gene expression through miR-146b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pei-Ken; Xu, Bin; Mukai, Jun; Karayiorgou, Maria; Gogos, Joseph A

    2015-05-01

    Variation in gene expression is an important mechanism underlying susceptibility to complex disease and traits. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) account for a substantial portion of the total detected genetic variation in gene expression but how exactly variants acting in trans modulate gene expression and disease susceptibility remains largely unknown. The BDNF Val66Met SNP has been associated with a number of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia and related traits. Using global microRNA expression profiling in hippocampus of humanized BDNF Val66Met knock-in mice we showed that this variant results in dysregulation of at least one microRNA, which in turn affects downstream target genes. Specifically, we show that reduced levels of miR-146b (mir146b), lead to increased Per1 and Npas4 mRNA levels and increased Irak1 protein levels in vitro and are associated with similar changes in the hippocampus of hBDNF(Met/Met) mice. Our findings highlight trans effects of common variants on microRNA-mediated gene expression as an integral part of the genetic architecture of complex disorders and traits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term cognitive enrichment affects opioid receptor expression in the amygdala of domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbe, C; Puppe, B

    2010-02-01

    Enriching the housing environment by stimuli that challenge both reward and cognitive mechanisms may enhance behavioural experiences and can improve animal welfare, particularly in farm animals. A newly developed experimental feeding system for domestic pigs using food-rewarded learning of discriminatory and instrumental tasks enabled the animals to successfully master a cognitive challenge and to be rewarded ca. 30 times per day with small food portions. Reward-related behaviour is expected to be modulated by endogenous opioid systems. Furthermore, recent evidence supports a role for the amygdala in processing positive affects by stimulus-reward learning. Hence, the present study investigates mRNA expression of cerebral receptors, which are involved in these processes. In an initial step, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) provided the first evidence that transcripts of three different opioid receptors (MOR, DOR, KOR), as well as the neuropeptide Y 5 receptor (NPY5R), leptin receptor (LEPR) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC), are expressed in both the porcine amygdala and hypothalamus. Using real-time PCR we could show that the expression of two receptors of the opioid system (amygdala: KOR, DOR), in addition to the expression of NPY5R (hypothalamus) in eight enriched housed pigs was markedly downregulated compared to that of conventionally housed and fed pigs. Focusing on opioid receptors in the amygdala, the present study shows that long-term cognitive enrichment acts as a biologically relevant stimulus that causes modifications of gene expression of reward-sensitive cerebral receptors in domestic pigs.

  1. Altered placental expression of PAPPA2 does not affect birth weight in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christians Julian K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPPA2 is an insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP protease expressed in the placenta and upregulated in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia. The mechanism linking PAPPA2 expression and pre-eclampsia and the consequences of altered PAPPA2 expression remain unknown. We previously identified PAPPA2 as a candidate gene for a quantitative trait locus (QTL affecting growth in mice and in the present study examined whether this QTL affects placental PAPPA2 expression and, in turn, placental or embryonic growth. Methods Using a line of mice that are genetically homogenous apart from a 1 megabase QTL region containing the PAPPA2 gene, we bred mice homozygous for alternate QTL genotypes and collected and weighed placentae and embryos at E12.5. We used quantitative RT-PCR to measure the mRNA levels of PAPPA2, as well as mRNA levels of IGFBP-5 (PAPPA2's substrate, and PAPPA (a closely related IGFBP protease to examine potential feedback and compensation effects. Western blotting was used to quantify PAPPA2 protein. Birth weight was measured in pregnancies allowed to proceed to parturition. Results PAPPA2 mRNA and protein expression levels in the placenta differed by a factor of 2.5 between genotypes, but we did not find a significant difference between genotypes in embryonic PAPPA2 mRNA levels. Placental IGFBP-5 and PAPPA mRNA expression levels were not altered in response to PAPPA2 levels, and we could not detect IGFBP-5 protein in the placenta by Western blotting. The observed difference in placental PAPPA2 expression had no significant effect on placental or embryonic mass at mid-gestation, birth weight or litter size. Conclusions Despite a significant difference between genotypes in placental PAPPA2 expression similar in magnitude to the difference between pre-eclamptic and normal placentae previously reported, we observed no difference in embryonic, placental or birth weight

  2. Vitrification affects nuclear maturation and gene expression of immature human oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Shahedi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitrification of oocytes is a fast-freezing technique, which may affect the quality of the human oocyte, and consequently affects the embryo development, pregnancy and birth. The aim of the current study was to investigate the consequence of in-vitro vitrification on maturation status of immature human oocytes, additionally, expression levels of stress, and apoptosis related genes. Materials and Methods: The total of 213 human immature oocytes which routinely discarded from assisted reproduction clinics were collected and divided into two groups including: (I fresh germinal vesicle (GV oocytes (n=106 (matured in-vitro  (fIVM , and  (II GV oocytes (n=107 that initially vitrified, then matured in  in-vitro (vIVM. After 36 hours of incubation, the oocytes were evaluated for nuclear maturation and expression level of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1, stress related genes (Sod1 and Hsp70, and apoptotic related genes (Bax and Bcl-2 by quantitative Real-Time PCR. Results: Oocyte maturation rates were reduced in vIVM compared to fIVM oocytes (P=0.001. The expression of stress (Sod1 and Hsp70, and apoptotic-related genes (Bax and Bcl-2 in vIVM were significantly higher compared to the fIVM group. Additionally, pro-apoptotic gene up-regulated 4.3 times more than anti-apoptotic gene in vIVM oocyte. However, DNMT1 gene expression was reduced in vIVM oocyte (P = 0.047. Conclusions: The low survival rate of vitrified In-vitro matured GV oocytes could definitely be explained by the alterations of their gene expression profile. 

  3. Global Deletion of TSPO Does Not Affect the Viability and Gene Expression Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaishan Wang

    Full Text Available Translocator Protein (18kDa, TSPO is a mitochondrial outer membrane transmembrane protein. Its expression is elevated during inflammation and injury. However, the function of TSPO in vivo is still controversial. Here, we constructed a TSPO global knockout (KO mouse with a Cre-LoxP system that abolished TSPO protein expression in all tissues and showed normal phenotypes in the physiological condition. The birth rates of TSPO heterozygote (Het x Het or KO x KO breeding were consistent with Mendel's Law, suggesting a normal viability of TSPO KO mice at birth. RNA-seq analysis showed no significant difference in the gene expression profile of lung tissues from TSPO KO mice compared with wild type mice, including the genes associated with bronchial alveoli immune homeostasis. The alveolar macrophage population was not affected by TSPO deletion in the physiological condition. Our findings contradict the results of Papadopoulos, but confirmed Selvaraj's findings. This study confirms TSPO deficiency does not affect viability and bronchial alveolar immune homeostasis.

  4. Mastication markedly affects mandibular condylar cartilage growth, gene expression, and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Akiko; Watahiki, Junichi; Nampo, Tomoki; Irie, Tarou; Ichikawa, Yuuta; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Maki, Koutaro

    2014-09-01

    Mandibular growth is believed to be strongly related to mastication. Furthermore, mandibular condylar cartilage is known to be derived from neural crest cells. We examined whether the degree of chewing affects condylar cartilage growth of the mandible. Mice were fed diets with varying hardness. Genes specific to neural crest-derived cells were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction to compare the expression changes between the mandibular and tibia cartilages. The mandibular condylar cartilage was then evaluated histologically, and proliferation was evaluated using proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Immunostaining was conducted for osteopontin, type X collagen, and Musashi1, and real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the expression levels of osteopontin and type X collagen. Markers including P75, Wnt-1, Musashi1, and Nestin were upregulated in the mandibular condylar cartilage as compared with the tibial cartilage. Histologic assessment of the mandibular cartilage showed that the hypertrophic chondrocyte zone was statistically significantly thicker in mice fed a hard diet. Chondrocyte proliferation and Musashi1 expression were lower in mice fed a hard diet. After 4 weeks, numerous osteopontin and type X collagen-positive cells were observed in mice fed a mixed diet. Mastication affects the balance between differentiation and proliferation in the mandibular condylar cartilage. This phenomenon might be attributed to the presence of neural crest-derived cells. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Osteopontin, osteocalcin, and osteoprotegerin expression in human tissue affected by cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smane L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cleft lip and palate (CLP is a common congenital anomaly with a complex etiology which has not been elucidated yet. This study investigated whether expression of osteopontin (OPN, osteoprotegerin (OPG, and osteocalcin (OC, which are essential for the normal craniofacial bone remodelling, is not regulated in children with CLP. Alveolar bone tissue samples were obtained from patients with complete bilateral (CB CLP (n = 14 during corrective plastic surgery and unaffected control subjects (n = 9. OPN, OPG, and OC expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney test. OPN expression was observed only sporadically in the alveolar bone of 3 patients, in contrast to the control group (z = −2.962; P < 0.003. The number of OPG-positive bone cells varied from occasional to moderate, in contrast to the control group (z = −2.247; P = 0.025. OC-positive osteocytes were present in moderate to numerous numbers in both patients and controls, with no significant difference between them (z = −1.356; P < 0.175. The prominent expression of OC characteristic for CBCLP affected hard tissue indicates a high potential of bone mineralization. Few OPG-positive osteocytes in the bone tissue implicate the disregulation of osteoclast differentiation, maturation, and activity, but few OPN-containing cells may prove the common disregulation of bone remodelling during cleft morphopathogenesis.

  6. [Oral and written affective expression in children of low socioeconomic status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraguibel, M; Lolas Stepke, F

    1991-06-01

    Descriptive data on affective expression of 58 children (33 girls and 25 boys) of low socioeconomic status (Graffar index), with ages between 8 and 12 are presented. Intelligence was assessed by means of Raven Progressive Matrixes Test, all subjects exhibiting mean level. Evaluated were the six forms of anxiety and the four hostility forms defined by the Gottschalk method of verbal content analysis. Hope scores, positive and negative, were also obtained from the same verbal samples. The oral sample consisted in speech produced spontaneously during 5 minutes, in response to a standard instruction, and the written sample consisted in brief stories produced under standardized conditions during 15 minutes. The most frequently expressed form of anxiety was separation anxiety, while the most frequently expressed form of hostility was directed outwards covert hostility. "Positive" hope was expressed more frequently than "negative" hope. Data are discussed in terms of their contribution to the establishment of population norms in Spanish-speaking populations for the psychological constructs explored. It is concluded that the method of content analysis of verbal behavior may represent a useful tool for the study of child psychology in different contexts.

  7. [HIV-1 infection affects the expression of host cell factor TSG101 and Alix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui-liang; Meng, Zhe-feng; Zhang, Xiao-yan; Lu, Jian-xin

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the effects of HIV-1 infection on the expression of host factors TSG101 (Tumor Susceptibility Gene 101) and Alix (ALG-2-interacting protein X). HIV-1 infectious clone pNL4-3 was used to infect TZM-bl, PM1, Jurkat cell lines and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Twenty-four hours post-infection, the infected or uninfected cells were harvested respectively for extraction of total RNAs and total cellular proteins, which were subsequently used in RT-PCR and Western-blotting respectively to quantify TSG101 and Alix, respectively. Our data showed that HIV-1 infection resulted in various influences on the expression of TSG101 and Alix in the cell lines and the primary PBMC. A down-regulation was mainly observed in the cell lines, whereas an up-regulation of TSG101 was identified in primary PBMC. Three patterns were observed for down-regulation, including dual down-regulation of TSG101 and Alix for Jurkat cells, single down-regulation of Alix for TZM-bl cells and marginal or no influence on PM1 cells. The dual down-regulation of Alix and TSG101 in Jurkat cells coincided with less expression of HIV-1 p24 protein. This is the first-line evidence that HIV-1 infection affects the expression of host factors TSG101 and Alix, the down-regulation of these molecules may influence the HIV-1 replication. The underlying mechanism remains to be addressed.

  8. Promoter shape varies across populations and affects promoter evolution and expression noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schor, Ignacio E; Degner, Jacob F; Harnett, Dermot; Cannavò, Enrico; Casale, Francesco P; Shim, Heejung; Garfield, David A; Birney, Ewan; Stephens, Matthew; Stegle, Oliver; Furlong, Eileen E M

    2017-04-01

    Animal promoters initiate transcription either at precise positions (narrow promoters) or dispersed regions (broad promoters), a distinction referred to as promoter shape. Although highly conserved, the functional properties of promoters with different shapes and the genetic basis of their evolution remain unclear. Here we used natural genetic variation across a panel of 81 Drosophila lines to measure changes in transcriptional start site (TSS) usage, identifying thousands of genetic variants affecting transcript levels (strength) or the distribution of TSSs within a promoter (shape). Our results identify promoter shape as a molecular trait that can evolve independently of promoter strength. Broad promoters typically harbor shape-associated variants, with signatures of adaptive selection. Single-cell measurements demonstrate that variants modulating promoter shape often increase expression noise, whereas heteroallelic interactions with other promoter variants alleviate these effects. These results uncover new functional properties of natural promoters and suggest the minimization of expression noise as an important factor in promoter evolution.

  9. Transcriptional interference by RNA polymerase III affects expression of the Polr3e gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeganeh, Meghdad; Praz, Viviane; Cousin, Pascal; Hernandez, Nouria

    2017-02-15

    Overlapping gene arrangements can potentially contribute to gene expression regulation. A mammalian interspersed repeat (MIR) nested in antisense orientation within the first intron of the Polr3e gene, encoding an RNA polymerase III (Pol III) subunit, is conserved in mammals and highly occupied by Pol III. Using a fluorescence assay, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of the MIR in mouse embryonic stem cells, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we show that the MIR affects Polr3e expression through transcriptional interference. Our study reveals a mechanism by which a Pol II gene can be regulated at the transcription elongation level by transcription of an embedded antisense Pol III gene. © 2017 Yeganeh et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Age and diet affect gene expression profiles in canine liver tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yong Kil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The liver plays a central role in nutrient and xenobiotic metabolism, but its functionality declines with age. Senior dogs suffer from many of the chronic hepatic diseases as elderly humans, with age-related alterations in liver function influenced by diet. However, a large-scale molecular analysis of the liver tissue as affected by age and diet has not been reported in dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Liver tissue samples were collected from six senior (12-year old and six young adult (1-year old female beagles fed an animal protein-based diet (APB or a plant protein-based diet (PPB for 12 months. Total RNA in the liver tissue was extracted and hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip® Canine Genome Arrays. Using a 2.0-fold cutoff and false discovery rate <0.10, our results indicated that expression of 234 genes was altered by age, while 137 genes were differentially expressed by diet. Based on functional classification, genes affected by age and/or diet were involved in cellular development, nutrient metabolism, and signal transduction. In general, gene expression suggested that senior dogs had an increased risk of the progression of liver disease and dysfunction, as observed in aged humans and rodents. In particular for aged liver, genes related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and glycolysis were up-regulated, whereas genes related to regeneration, xenobiotic metabolism, and cholesterol trafficking were down-regulated. Diet-associated changes in gene expression were more common in young adult dogs (33 genes as compared to senior dogs (3 genes. CONCLUSION: Our results provide molecular insight pertaining to the aged canine liver and its predisposition to disease and abnormalities. Therefore, our data may aid in future research pertaining to age-associated alterations in hepatic function or identification of potential targets for nutritional management as a means to decrease incidence of age-dependent liver dysfunction.

  11. Affective Reactivity in Response to Criticism in Remitted Bipolar Disorder: A Laboratory Analog of Expressed Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Amy K.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Ruggero, Camilo J.

    2010-01-01

    Potential mechanisms to explain the relationship between Expressed Emotion (EE) and poor outcome within bipolar disorder are poorly understood. One possibility is that people with bipolar disorder have difficulty regulating their affect in response to criticism. The present study examined whether participants with bipolar disorder were more affectively dysregulated than control participants when presented with a criticism by a confederate. There was a trend for people with bipolar disorder to react more negatively to the criticism, but there was also evidence that they recovered as quickly as controls. Exploratory analyses found that female gender, the perception of the criticism as more negative, being disabled, and having fewer positive relationships predicted greater reactivity to criticism among people with bipolar disorder. PMID:19459195

  12. Management strategies for encouraging creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, P

    1998-01-01

    Change, chaos, and uncertainty touch every part of every institution. The laboratory is not immune. Managers content to continue on their familiar path soon will find themselves bypassed. To meet today's challenges, directors of technical operations, laboratory directors, team leaders, and coordinators need plenty of creativity--from everyone on their staff. It is no longer just "nice" to improve group output and problem-solving skills while staying within a "shoestring" budget. It is absolutely necessary. In this article, we explore strategies laboratory managers can use to tap the creative potential and commitment of their people. These strategies work. Whether it involves using humor, creating "idea centers," or "deconstructing the bureaucracy," the goal is the same: to encourage clinical managers to think beyond their technical and managerial experience. The examples in this article may not suit the needs, situations, or tastes of all laboratory managers. They are "food for thought." The concepts and strategies these examples illustrate are every laboratory manager's keys to adapting successfully to future challenges.

  13. Maternal obesity affects fetal neurodevelopmental and metabolic gene expression: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G Edlow

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: One in three pregnant women in the United States is obese. Their offspring are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental and metabolic morbidity. Underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We performed a global gene expression analysis of mid-trimester amniotic fluid cell-free fetal RNA in obese versus lean pregnant women. METHODS: This prospective pilot study included eight obese (BMI≥30 and eight lean (BMI<25 women undergoing clinically indicated mid-trimester genetic amniocentesis. Subjects were matched for gestational age and fetal sex. Fetuses with abnormal karyotype or structural anomalies were excluded. Cell-free fetal RNA was extracted from amniotic fluid and hybridized to whole genome expression arrays. Genes significantly differentially regulated in 8/8 obese-lean pairs were identified using paired t-tests with the Benjamini-Hochberg correction (false discovery rate of <0.05. Biological interpretation was performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and the BioGPS gene expression atlas. RESULTS: In fetuses of obese pregnant women, 205 genes were significantly differentially regulated. Apolipoprotein D, a gene highly expressed in the central nervous system and integral to lipid regulation, was the most up-regulated gene (9-fold. Apoptotic cell death was significantly down-regulated, particularly within nervous system pathways involving the cerebral cortex. Activation of the transcriptional regulators estrogen receptor, FOS, and STAT3 was predicted in fetuses of obese women, suggesting a pro-estrogenic, pro-inflammatory milieu. CONCLUSION: Maternal obesity affects fetal neurodevelopmental and metabolic gene expression as early as the second trimester. These findings may have implications for postnatal neurodevelopmental and metabolic abnormalities described in the offspring of obese women.

  14. Selenium status affects selenoprotein expression, reproduction, and F₁ generation locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penglase, Sam; Hamre, Kristin; Rasinger, Josef D; Ellingsen, Staale

    2014-06-14

    Se is an essential trace element, and is incorporated into selenoproteins which play important roles in human health. Mammalian selenoprotein-coding genes are often present as paralogues in teleost fish, and it is unclear whether the expression patterns or functions of these fish paralogues reflect their mammalian orthologues. Using the model species zebrafish (Danio rerio; ZF), we aimed to assess how dietary Se affects key parameters in Se metabolism and utilisation including glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, the mRNA expression of key Se-dependent proteins (gpx1a, gpx1b, sepp1a and sepp1b), oxidative status, reproductive success and F1 generation locomotor activity. From 27 d until 254 d post-fertilisation, ZF were fed diets with graded levels of Se ranging from deficient ( < 0·10 mg/kg) to toxic (30 mg/kg). The mRNA expression of gpx1a and gpx1b and GPX activity responded in a similar manner to changes in Se status. GPX activity and mRNA levels were lowest when dietary Se levels (0·3 mg/kg) resulted in the maximum growth of ZF, and a proposed bimodal mechanism in response to Se status below and above this dietary Se level was identified. The expression of the sepp1 paralogues differed, with only sepp1a responding to Se status. High dietary Se supplementation (30 mg/kg) decreased reproductive success, while the offspring of ZF fed above 0·3 mg Se/kg diet had lower locomotor activity than the other groups. Overall, the novel finding of low selenoprotein expression and activity coinciding with maximum body growth suggests that even small Se-induced variations in redox status may influence cellular growth rates.

  15. Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis: variable phenotypic expression in three affected sisters from Mexican ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, María E; Hunziker, Walter; Teo, Audrey S M; Hillmer, Axel M; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M

    2015-02-01

    Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis is a rare autosomal recessive renal disease caused by mutations in genes for the tight junction transmembrane proteins Claudin-16 (CLDN16) and Claudin-19 (CLDN19). We present the first case report of a Mexican family with three affected sisters carrying a p.Gly20Asp mutation in CLDN19 whose heterozygous mother showed evident hypercalciuria and normal low magnesemia without any other clinical, laboratory, and radiological symptoms of renal disease making of her an unsuitable donor. The affected sisters showed variable phenotypic expression including age of first symptoms, renal urinary tract infections, nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, and eye symptoms consisting in retinochoroiditis, strabismus, macular scars, bilateral anisocoria, and severe myopia and astigmatism. End stage renal disease due to renal failure needed kidney transplantation in the three of them. Interesting findings were a heterozygous mother with asymptomatic hypercalciuria warning on the need of carefully explore clinical, laboratory, kidney ultrasonograpy, and mutation status in first degree asymptomatic relatives to avoid inappropriate kidney donors; an evident variable phenotypic expression among patients; the identification of a mutation almost confined to Spanish cases and a 3.5 Mb block of genomic homozygosis strongly suggesting a common remote parental ancestor for the gene mutation reported.

  16. Interpretation of facial expressions of affect in children with learning disabilities with verbal or nonverbal deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrovsky, L; Spector, H; Levy-Shiff, R; Vakil, E

    1998-01-01

    The ability to identify facial expressions of happiness, sadness, anger, surprise,fear, and disgust was studied in 48 nondisabled children and 76 children with learning disabilities aged 9 through 12. On the basis of their performance on the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test and the Benton Visual Retention Test, the LD group was divided into three subgroups: those with verbal deficits (VD), nonverbal deficits (NVD), and both verbal and nonverbal (BD) deficits. The measure of ability to interpret facial expressions of affect was a shortened version of Ekman and Friesen's Pictures of Facial Affect. Overall, the nondisabled group had better interpretive ability than the three learning disabled groups and the VD group had better ability than the NVD and BD groups. Although the identification level of the nondisabled group differed from that of the VD group only for surprise, it was superior to that of the NVD and BD groups for four of the six emotions. Happiness was the easiest to identify, and the remaining emotions in ascending order of difficulty were anger, surprise, sadness, fear, and disgust. Older subjects did better than younger ones only for fear and disgust, and boys and girls did not differ in interpretive ability. These findings are discussed in terms of the need to take note of the heterogeneity of the learning disabled population and the particular vulnerability to social imperception of children with nonverbal deficits.

  17. Co-expression Network Approach Reveals Functional Similarities among Diseases Affecting Human Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Mukund

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diseases affecting skeletal muscle exhibit considerable heterogeneity in intensity, etiology, phenotypic manifestation and gene expression. Systems biology approaches using network theory, allows for a holistic understanding of functional similarities amongst diseases. Here we propose a co-expression based, network theoretic approach to extract functional similarities from 20 heterogeneous diseases comprising of dystrophinopathies, inflammatory myopathies, neuromuscular, and muscle metabolic diseases. Utilizing this framework we identified seven closely associated disease clusters with 20 disease pairs exhibiting significant correlation (p < 0.05. Mapping the diseases onto a human protein-protein interaction network enabled the inference of a common program of regulation underlying more than half the muscle diseases considered here and referred to as the “protein signature.” Enrichment analysis of 17 protein modules identified as part of this signature revealed a statistically non-random dysregulation of muscle bioenergetic pathways and calcium homeostasis. Further, analysis of mechanistic similarities of less explored significant disease associations [such as between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and cerebral palsy (CP] using a proposed “functional module” framework revealed adaptation of the calcium signaling machinery. Integrating drug-gene information into the quantitative framework highlighted the presence of therapeutic opportunities through drug repurposing for diseases affecting the skeletal muscle.

  18. Vanillin differentially affects azoxymethane-injected rat colon carcinogenesis and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ket Li; Chong, Pei Pei; Yazan, Latifah Saiful; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-12-01

    Vanillin is the substance responsible for the flavor and smell of vanilla, a widely used flavoring agent. Previous studies reported that vanillin is a good antimutagen and anticarcinogen. However, there are also some contradicting findings showing that vanillin was a comutagen and cocarcinogen. This study investigated whether vanillin is an anticarcinogen or a cocarcinogen in rats induced with azoxymethane (AOM). Rats induced with AOM will develop aberrant crypt foci (ACF). AOM-challenged rats were treated with vanillin orally and intraperitoneally at low and high concentrations and ACF density, multiplicity, and distribution were observed. The gene expression of 14 colorectal cancer-related genes was also studied. Results showed that vanillin consumed orally had no effect on ACF. However, high concentrations (300 mg/kg body weight) of vanillin administered through intraperitoneal injection could increase ACF density and ACF multiplicity. ACF were mainly found in the distal colon rather than in the mid-section and proximal colon. The expression of colorectal cancer biomarkers, protooncogenes, recombinational repair, mismatch repair, and cell cycle arrest, and tumor suppressor gene expression were also affected by vanillin. Vanillin was not cocarcinogenic when consumed orally. However, it was cocarcinogenic when being administered intraperitoneally at high concentration. Hence, the use of vanillin in food should be safe but might have cocarcinogenic potential when it is used in high concentration for therapeutic purposes.

  19. Transcription factor organic cation transporter 1 (OCT-1 affects the expression of porcine Klotho (KL gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Klotho (KL, originally discovered as an aging suppressor, is a membrane protein that shares sequence similarity with the β-glucosidase enzymes. Recent reports showed Klotho might play a role in adipocyte maturation and systemic glucose metabolism. However, little is known about the transcription factors involved in regulating the expression of porcine KL gene. Deletion fragment analysis identified KL-D2 (−418 bp to −3 bp as the porcine KL core promoter. MARC0022311SNP (A or G in KL intron 1 was detected in Landrace × DIV pigs using the Porcine SNP60 BeadChip. The pGL-D2-A and pGL-D2-G were constructed with KL-D2 and the intron fragment of different alleles and relative luciferase activity of pGL3-D2-G was significantly higher than that of pGL3-D2-A in the PK cells and ST cells. This was possibly the result of a change in KL binding ability with transcription factor organic cation transporter 1 (OCT-1, which was confirmed using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA and chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP. Moreover, OCT-1 regulated endogenous KL expression by RNA interference experiments. Our study indicates SNP MARC0022311 affects porcine KL expression by regulating its promoter activity via OCT-1.

  20. Paternal MHC expression on mouse trophoblast affects uterine vascularization and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeja, Zofia; Yadi, Hakim; Apps, Richard; Boulenouar, Selma; Roper, Stephen J; Gardner, Lucy; Moffett, Ashley; Colucci, Francesco; Hemberger, Myriam

    2011-03-08

    The mammalian fetus represents a semiallograft within the maternal uterus yet is not rejected. This situation is particularly pronounced in species with a hemochorial type of placentation, such as humans and rodents, where maternal tissues and blood are in direct contact with fetal trophoblast and thus potentially with paternal antigens. The main polymorphic antigens responsible for graft rejection are MHC antigens. In humans the trophoblast cells invading into the decidua have a unique pattern of MHC class I expression characterized by both classical (HLA-C) and nonclassical (HLA-G and HLA-E) molecules. Whether such an unusual MHC repertoire on the surface of trophoblast is a conserved feature between species with hemochorial placentation has not been resolved. Here we demonstrate, using a range of methods, that C57BL/6 mouse trophoblast predominantly expresses only one MHC class I antigen, H2-K, at the cell surface of giant cells but lacks expression of nonclassical MHC molecules. Antigenic disparity between parental MHCs affects trophoblast-induced transformation of the uterine vasculature and, consequently, placental and fetal gowth. Maternal uterine blood vessels were more dilated, allowing for increased blood supply, in certain combinations of maternal and paternal MHC haplotypes, and these allogeneic fetuses and placentas were heavier at term compared with syngeneic controls. Thus, maternal-fetal immune interactions are instrumental to optimize reproductive success. This cross-talk has important implications for human disorders of pregnancy, such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction.

  1. Reprogramming Methods Do Not Affect Gene Expression Profile of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Marta; Desole, Giovanna; Costanzi, Giulia; Lavezzo, Enrico; Palù, Giorgio; Barzon, Luisa

    2017-01-20

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are pluripotent cells derived from adult somatic cells. After the pioneering work by Yamanaka, who first generated iPSCs by retroviral transduction of four reprogramming factors, several alternative methods to obtain iPSCs have been developed in order to increase the yield and safety of the process. However, the question remains open on whether the different reprogramming methods can influence the pluripotency features of the derived lines. In this study, three different strategies, based on retroviral vectors, episomal vectors, and Sendai virus vectors, were applied to derive iPSCs from human fibroblasts. The reprogramming efficiency of the methods based on episomal and Sendai virus vectors was higher than that of the retroviral vector-based approach. All human iPSC clones derived with the different methods showed the typical features of pluripotent stem cells, including the expression of alkaline phosphatase and stemness maker genes, and could give rise to the three germ layer derivatives upon embryoid bodies assay. Microarray analysis confirmed the presence of typical stem cell gene expression profiles in all iPSC clones and did not identify any significant difference among reprogramming methods. In conclusion, the use of different reprogramming methods is equivalent and does not affect gene expression profile of the derived human iPSCs.

  2. The Tzs protein and exogenous cytokinin affect virulence gene expression and bacterial growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hau-Hsuan; Yang, Fong-Jhih; Cheng, Tun-Fang; Chen, Yi-Chun; Lee, Ying-Ling; Tsai, Yun-Long; Lai, Erh-Min

    2013-09-01

    The soil phytopathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease in a wide range of plant species. The neoplastic growth at the infection sites is caused by transferring, integrating, and expressing transfer DNA (T-DNA) from A. tumefaciens into plant cells. A trans-zeatin synthesizing (tzs) gene is located in the nopaline-type tumor-inducing plasmid and causes trans-zeatin production in A. tumefaciens. Similar to known virulence (Vir) proteins that are induced by the vir gene inducer acetosyringone (AS) at acidic pH 5.5, Tzs protein is highly induced by AS under this growth condition but also constitutively expressed and moderately upregulated by AS at neutral pH 7.0. We found that the promoter activities and protein levels of several AS-induced vir genes increased in the tzs deletion mutant, a mutant with decreased tumorigenesis and transient transformation efficiencies, in Arabidopsis roots. During AS induction and infection of Arabidopsis roots, the tzs deletion mutant conferred impaired growth, which could be rescued by genetic complementation and supplementing exogenous cytokinin. Exogenous cytokinin also repressed vir promoter activities and Vir protein accumulation in both the wild-type and tzs mutant bacteria with AS induction. Thus, the tzs gene or its product, cytokinin, may be involved in regulating AS-induced vir gene expression and, therefore, affect bacterial growth and virulence during A. tumefaciens infection.

  3. Variation in Dube3a expression affects neurotransmission at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Valdez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Changes in UBE3A expression levels in neurons can cause neurogenetic disorders ranging from Angelman syndrome (AS (decreased levels to autism (increased levels. Here we investigated the effects on neuronal function of varying UBE3A levels using the Drosophila neuromuscular junction as a model for both of these neurogenetic disorders. Stimulations that evoked excitatory junction potentials (EJPs at 1 Hz intermittently failed to evoke EJPs at 15 Hz in a significantly higher proportion of Dube3a over-expressors using the pan neuronal GAL4 driver C155-GAL4 (C155-GAL4>UAS-Dube3a relative to controls (C155>+ alone. However, in the Dube3a over-expressing larval neurons with no failures, there was no difference in EJP amplitude at the beginning of the train, or the rate of decrease in EJP amplitude over the course of the train compared to controls. In the absence of tetrodotoxin (TTX, spontaneous EJPs were observed in significantly more C155-GAL4>UAS-Dube3a larva compared to controls. In the presence of TTX, spontaneous and evoked EJPs were completely blocked and mEJP amplitude and frequency did not differ among genotypes. These data suggest that over-expression of wild type Dube3a, but not a ubiquitination defective Dube3a-C/A protein, compromises the ability of motor neuron axons to support closely spaced trains of action potentials, while at the same time increasing excitability. EJPs evoked at 15 Hz in the absence of Dube3a (Dube3a15b homozygous mutant larvae decayed more rapidly over the course of 30 stimulations compared to w1118 controls, and Dube3a15b larval muscles had significantly more negative resting membrane potentials (RMP. However, these results could not be recapitulated using RNAi knockdown of Dube3a in muscle or neurons alone, suggesting more global developmental defects contribute to this phenotype. These data suggest that reduced UBE3A expression levels may cause global changes that affect RMP and neurotransmitter release from

  4. Emotion expression of an affective state space; a humanoid robot displaying a dynamic emotional state during a soccer game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mey, A.; Smit, F; Droog, K.J.; Visser, A.

    2010-01-01

    Following a soccer game is an example where clear emotions are displayed. This example is worked out for a humanoid robot which can express emotions with body language. The emotions expressed by the robot are not just stimuli-response, but are based on an affective state which shows dynamic behavior

  5. Altered expression of pyrophosphate: fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase affects the growth of transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyemin; Cho, Man-Ho; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Bhoo, Seong Hee; Kwon, Yong-Kook; Hahn, Tae-Ryong

    2009-06-30

    Pyrophosphate: fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase (PFP) catalyzes the reversible interconversion of fructose-6-phosphate and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, a key step in the regulation of the metabolic flux toward glycolysis or gluconeogenesis. To examine the role of PFP in plant growth, we have generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants that either overexpress or repress Arabidopsis PFP sub-unit genes. The overexpressing lines displayed increased PFP activity and slightly faster growth relative to wild type plants, although their photosynthetic activities and the levels of metabolites appeared not to have significantly changed. In contrast, the RNAi lines showed significantly retarded growth in parallel with the reduced PFP activity. Analysis of photosynthetic activity revealed that the growth retardation phenotype of the RNAi lines was accompanied by the reduced rates of CO(2) assimilation. Microarray analysis of our transgenic plants further revealed that the altered expression of AtPFPbeta affects the expression of several genes involved in diverse physiological processes. Our current data thus suggest that PFP is important in carbohydrate metabolism and other cellular processes.

  6. Gene envY of Escherichia coli K-12 affects thermoregulation of major porin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundrigan, M D; Earhart, C F

    1984-01-01

    The temperature-dependent expression of OmpF and OmpC, the major channel-forming proteins of the Escherichia coli K-12 outer membrane, was studied. In wild-type cells, decreasing growth temperatures resulted in increased amounts of OmpF protein and correspondingly decreased quantities of OmpC protein. Bacteria deleted for the 13-min chromosomal region did not exhibit this temperature-dependent fluctuation in porin proteins. Plasmid pML22, which consists of pBR322 containing a 0.5-megadalton E. coli chromosomal DNA insert, complemented the thermoregulatory defect. The regulatory gene was named envY. In minicells, pML22 directed the synthesis of an envelope polypeptide (EnvY) having an apparent molecular weight of 25,000. The EnvY protein was synthesized in minicells in greater amounts at 27 degrees C than at 37 degrees C, and a reducing agent was necessary in the solubilization buffer for its subsequent detection on polyacrylamide gels. The results describe the initial characterization of a regulatory system which, along with proteins of the ompB operon, the cyclic AMP system, and the tolC gene product, is involved in a complex network affecting major porin expression. Images PMID:6317653

  7. Tranquilizing and Allaying Excitement Needling Method Affects BDNF and SYP Expression in Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disorder is a state of sleep loss caused by various reasons, which leads to a series of changes, such as emotion, learning and memory, and immune function. “Tranquilizing and allaying excitement” was widely used in clinical treatment of insomnia; however, the mechanism was still not very clear. We randomly divided rats into three groups: control group, sleep deprivation group, and acupuncture treatment group. We observed BDNF and SYP expression in hippocampus in these three groups. Both protein contents and mRNA contents of BDNF and SYP were measured by western blot, immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR analysis. The sleep deprivation model was established using modified multiple platform sleep deprivation method (MMPM. Our study explored the BDNF and SYP abnormality in hippocampus caused by sleep deprivation and “tranquilizing and allaying excitement” intervention regulated the abnormal expression of BDNF and SYP caused by sleep deprivation on the short run and the long run. Our study provided a molecular evidence that “tranquilizing and allaying excitement” treatment in rats with sleep disorder affects learning and memory ability.

  8. Functional dissection of sugar signals affecting gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Kunz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sugars modulate expression of hundreds of genes in plants. Previous studies on sugar signaling, using intact plants or plant tissues, were hampered by tissue heterogeneity, uneven sugar transport and/or inter-conversions of the applied sugars. This, in turn, could obscure the identity of a specific sugar that acts as a signal affecting expression of given gene in a given tissue or cell-type. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To bypass those biases, we have developed a novel biological system, based on stem-cell-like Arabidopsis suspension culture. The cells were grown in a hormone-free medium and were sustained on xylose as the only carbon source. Using functional genomics we have identified 290 sugar responsive genes, responding rapidly (within 1 h and specifically to low concentration (1 mM of glucose, fructose and/or sucrose. For selected genes, the true nature of the signaling sugar molecules and sites of sugar perception were further clarified using non-metabolizable sugar analogues. Using both transgenic and wild-type A. thaliana seedlings, it was shown that the expression of selected sugar-responsive genes was not restricted to a specific tissue or cell type and responded to photoperiod-related changes in sugar availability. This suggested that sugar-responsiveness of genes identified in the cell culture system was not biased toward heterotrophic background and resembled that in whole plants. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, our research strategy, using a combination of cell culture and whole plants, has provided an unequivocal evidence for the identity of sugar-responsive genes and the identity of the sugar signaling molecules, independently from their inter-conversions or use for energy metabolism.

  9. Social context-induced song variation affects female behavior and gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Woolley

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Social cues modulate the performance of communicative behaviors in a range of species, including humans, and such changes can make the communication signal more salient. In songbirds, males use song to attract females, and song organization can differ depending on the audience to which a male sings. For example, male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata change their songs in subtle ways when singing to a female (directed song compared with when they sing in isolation (undirected song, and some of these changes depend on altered neural activity from a specialized forebrain-basal ganglia circuit, the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP. In particular, variable activity in the AFP during undirected song is thought to actively enable syllable variability, whereas the lower and less-variable AFP firing during directed singing is associated with more stereotyped song. Consequently, directed song has been suggested to reflect a "performance" state, and undirected song a form of vocal motor "exploration." However, this hypothesis predicts that directed-undirected song differences, despite their subtlety, should matter to female zebra finches, which is a question that has not been investigated. We tested female preferences for this natural variation in song in a behavioral approach assay, and we found that both mated and socially naive females could discriminate between directed and undirected song-and strongly preferred directed song. These preferences, which appeared to reflect attention especially to aspects of song variability controlled by the AFP, were enhanced by experience, as they were strongest for mated females responding to their mate's directed songs. We then measured neural activity using expression of the immediate early gene product ZENK, and found that social context and song familiarity differentially modulated the number of ZENK-expressing cells in telencephalic auditory areas. Specifically, the number of ZENK-expressing cells in the

  10. Metformin induces PGC-1α expression and selectively affects hepatic PGC-1α functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aatsinki, Sanna-Mari; Buler, Marcin; Salomäki, Henriikka; Koulu, Markku; Pavek, Petr; Hakkola, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The objective of this study was to determine how the AMPK activating antidiabetic drug metformin affects the major activator of hepatic gluconeogenesis, PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and liver functions regulated by PGC-1α. Experimental Approach Mouse and human primary hepatocytes and mice in vivo were treated with metformin. Adenoviral overexpression, siRNA and reporter gene constructs were used for mechanistic studies. Key Results Metformin increased PGC-1α mRNA and protein expression in mouse primary hepatocytes. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) (another AMPK activator) had the opposite effect. Metformin also increased PGC-1α in human primary hepatocytes; this effect of metformin was abolished by AMPK inhibitor compound C and sirtuin 1 siRNA. AMPK overexpression by AMPK-Ad also increased PGC-1α. Whereas metformin increased PGC-1α, it down-regulated gluconeogenic genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase). Furthermore, metformin attenuated the increase in PEPCK and G6Pase mRNAs induced by PGC-1α overexpression, but did not affect PGC-1α-mediated induction of mitochondrial genes. Metformin down-regulated several key transcription factors that mediate the effect of PGC-1α on gluconeogenic genes including Krüppel-like factor 15, forkhead box protein O1 and hepatocyte NF 4α, whereas it increased nuclear respiratory factor 1, which is involved in PGC-1α-mediated regulation of mitochondrial proteins. Conclusions and Implications Down-regulation of PGC-1α is not necessary for suppression of gluconeogenic genes by metformin. Importantly, metformin selectively affects hepatic PGC-1α-mediated gene regulation and prevents activation of gluconeogenesis, but does not influence its regulation of mitochondrial genes. These results identify selective modulation of hepatic PGC-1α functions as a novel mechanism involved in the therapeutic action of metformin. PMID:24428821

  11. Metformin induces PGC-1α expression and selectively affects hepatic PGC-1α functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aatsinki, Sanna-Mari; Buler, Marcin; Salomäki, Henriikka; Koulu, Markku; Pavek, Petr; Hakkola, Jukka

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how the AMPK activating antidiabetic drug metformin affects the major activator of hepatic gluconeogenesis, PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and liver functions regulated by PGC-1α. Mouse and human primary hepatocytes and mice in vivo were treated with metformin. Adenoviral overexpression, siRNA and reporter gene constructs were used for mechanistic studies. Metformin increased PGC-1α mRNA and protein expression in mouse primary hepatocytes. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) (another AMPK activator) had the opposite effect. Metformin also increased PGC-1α in human primary hepatocytes; this effect of metformin was abolished by AMPK inhibitor compound C and sirtuin 1 siRNA. AMPK overexpression by AMPK-Ad also increased PGC-1α. Whereas metformin increased PGC-1α, it down-regulated gluconeogenic genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase). Furthermore, metformin attenuated the increase in PEPCK and G6Pase mRNAs induced by PGC-1α overexpression, but did not affect PGC-1α-mediated induction of mitochondrial genes. Metformin down-regulated several key transcription factors that mediate the effect of PGC-1α on gluconeogenic genes including Krüppel-like factor 15, forkhead box protein O1 and hepatocyte NF 4α, whereas it increased nuclear respiratory factor 1, which is involved in PGC-1α-mediated regulation of mitochondrial proteins. Down-regulation of PGC-1α is not necessary for suppression of gluconeogenic genes by metformin. Importantly, metformin selectively affects hepatic PGC-1α-mediated gene regulation and prevents activation of gluconeogenesis, but does not influence its regulation of mitochondrial genes. These results identify selective modulation of hepatic PGC-1α functions as a novel mechanism involved in the therapeutic action of metformin. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Silver nanoparticles administered to chicken affect VEGFA and FGF2 gene expression in breast muscle and heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotowy, Anna Malgorzata; Sawosz, Ewa; Pineda, Lane Manalili

    2012-01-01

    chickens as a water solution in two concentrations (10 and 20 ppm). After dissection of the birds, breast muscles and hearts were collected. Gene expression of FGF2 and VEGF on the mRNA and protein levels were evaluated using qPCR and ELISA methods. The results for gene expression in breast muscle revealed......Nanoparticles of colloidal silver (AgNano) can influence gene expression. Concerning trials of AgNano application in poultry as antimicrobial and metabolic agents, it is useful to reveal whether they affect the expression of genes crucial for bird development. AgNano were administered to broiler...... significant changes on the mRNA level (FGF2 was up-regulated) but not on the protein level. In the heart, 20 ppm of AgNano in drinking water increased the expression of VEGFA, at the same time decreasing FGF2 expression both on the transcriptional and translational levels. Changes in the expression...

  13. Expression of Selenoprotein Genes Is Affected by Obesity of Pigs Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua; Li, Ke; Tang, Jia-Yong; Zhou, Ji-Chang; Wang, Kang-Ning; Xia, Xin-Jie; Lei, Xin Gen

    2015-07-01

    Relations of the 25 mammalian selenoprotein genes with obesity and the associated inflammation remain unclear. This study explored impacts of high-fat diet-induced obesity on inflammation and expressions of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes in 10 tissues of pigs. Plasma and 10 tissues were collected from pigs (n = 10) fed a corn-soy-based control diet or that diet containing 3-7% lard from weanling to finishing (180 d). Plasma concentrations (n = 8) of cytokines and thyroid hormones and tissue mRNA abundance (n = 4) of 25 selenoprotein genes and 16 obesity-related genes were compared between the pigs fed the control and high-fat diets. Stepwise regression was applied to analyze correlations among all these measures, including the previously reported body physical and plasma biochemical variables. The high-fat diet elevated (P high-fat diet up-regulated 12 selenoprotein genes in 6 tissues, down-regulated 13 selenoprotein genes in 7 tissues, and exerted no effect on 5 genes in any tissue. Body weights and plasma triglyceride concentrations of pigs showed the strongest regressions to tissue mRNA abundances of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes. Among the selenoprotein genes, selenoprotein V and I were ranked as the strongest independent variables for the regression of phenotypic and plasma measures. Meanwhile, agouti signaling protein, adiponectin, and resistin genes represented the strongest independent variables of the obesity-related genes for the regression of tissue selenoprotein mRNA. The high-fat diet induced inflammation in pigs and affected their gene expression of selenoproteins associated with thioredoxin and oxidoreductase systems, local tissue thyroid hormone activity, endoplasmic reticulum protein degradation, and phosphorylation of lipids. This porcine model may be used to study interactive mechanisms between excess fat intake and selenoprotein function. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. [Recovery of genomic regions affecting lawc/Trf2 expression during Drosophila melanogaster development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonova, O B; Modestova, E A; Vorontsova, Iu E; Cherezov, R O

    2012-01-01

    Leg-arista-wing complex (lawc) mutations affect the expression of D. melanogaster proteins homologous to a human basic transcription factor, TBP (TATA-box binding protein) Related Factor 2 (TRF2), specifically involved in development. The paper for the first time reports the application of genetic screens for various genomic regions to recover genetic interactions between the lawc/Trf2 gene and other genes and genetic loci by using Deficiency Kit lines with small deletions in total providing maximal coverage of the genome. The deletion mapping allowed us to recover 26 genomic regions that, when deleted, are lethal or modify the mutant phenotype due to a decreased TRF2 expression level. These deletions could be useful in identifying both novel TRF2 targets and its positive and negative regulators. There is evidence that TRF2 can be a component of high molecular DNA Replication-related Element Factor (DREF)- and Nucleosome Remodeling Factor (NURF)-containing complexes. The present study for the first time reports new genetic interactions of lawc/Trf2 with genes that encode basic and specific transcription factors. In most cases, if mutated, those genes caused developmental defects or death of progeny. However, in the case of the e(y) 1 gene, coding for the Taf9 transcription factor, only the male reproductive system is impaired when the lawc/Trf2 phenotype is associated with a e(y)l gene mutation. Mutant lawc(p1)e(y)1(u1) males become infertile due to primary spermatocyte maturation arrest and impaired premeiotic chromosome condensation in germ cells.

  15. Models of Disability in Children’s Pretend Play: Measurement of Cognitive Representations and Affective Expression Using the Affect in Play Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Stefano; Meloni, Fabio; Catarinella, Antonio; Mazzeschi, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Play is a natural mode of children’s expression and constitutes a fundamental aspect of their life. Cognitive, affective, and social aspects can be assessed through play, considered as a “window” to observe a child’s functioning. According to Russ’s model, cognitive and affective components and their reciprocal connections can be assessed through the Affect in Play Scale (APS). The aim of the present study was to investigate children’s representations of the three main models of disability (medical, social, and biopsychosocial) and how these models affected cognitive and affective components of children’s play. Sixty-three children, aged 6–10 years, were assessed by means of the APS. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two APS task orders: the standard APS task followed by the modified APS task (including a wheelchair toy), or vice versa. The standard and modified APS sessions were coded according to the APS system. The modified APS sessions were also coded for the model of disability expressed by children. A one-way ANOVA conducted on the APS affective and cognitive indexes revealed an effect of condition on the affective components of play and no effect on cognitive components and variety of affect as assessed by the APS. In addition, when children are involved in pretend play from which concepts of disability emerge, these concepts are almost exclusively related to the medical model of disability. Results suggested implications for intervention with children in educational contexts that aim to teach children about disability. PMID:28572778

  16. Models of Disability in Children’s Pretend Play: Measurement of Cognitive Representations and Affective Expression Using the Affect in Play Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Federici

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Play is a natural mode of children’s expression and constitutes a fundamental aspect of their life. Cognitive, affective, and social aspects can be assessed through play, considered as a “window” to observe a child’s functioning. According to Russ’s model, cognitive and affective components and their reciprocal connections can be assessed through the Affect in Play Scale (APS. The aim of the present study was to investigate children’s representations of the three main models of disability (medical, social, and biopsychosocial and how these models affected cognitive and affective components of children’s play. Sixty-three children, aged 6–10 years, were assessed by means of the APS. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two APS task orders: the standard APS task followed by the modified APS task (including a wheelchair toy, or vice versa. The standard and modified APS sessions were coded according to the APS system. The modified APS sessions were also coded for the model of disability expressed by children. A one-way ANOVA conducted on the APS affective and cognitive indexes revealed an effect of condition on the affective components of play and no effect on cognitive components and variety of affect as assessed by the APS. In addition, when children are involved in pretend play from which concepts of disability emerge, these concepts are almost exclusively related to the medical model of disability. Results suggested implications for intervention with children in educational contexts that aim to teach children about disability.

  17. Carotenoid supplementation positively affects the expression of a non-visual sexual signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain J-M Van Hout

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are a class of pigments which are widely used by animals for the expression of yellow-to-red colour signals, such as bill or plumage colour. Since they also have been shown to promote immunocompetence and to function as antioxidants, many studies have investigated a potential allocation trade-off with respect to carotenoid-based signals within the context of sexual selection. Although an effect of carotenoids on non-visual (e.g. acoustic signals involved in sexual selection has been hypothesized, this has to date not been investigated. First, we examined a potential effect of dietary carotenoid supplementation on overall song rate during the non-breeding season in captive male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris. After only 3-7 days, we found a significant (body-mass independent positive effect of carotenoid availability on overall song rate. Secondly, as a number of studies suggest that carotenoids could affect the modulation of sexual signals by plasma levels of the steroid hormone testosterone (T, we used the same birds to subsequently investigate whether carotenoid availability affects the increase in (nestbox-oriented song rate induced by experimentally elevated plasma T levels. Our results suggest that carotenoids may enhance the positive effect of elevated plasma T levels on nestbox-oriented song rate. Moreover, while non-supplemented starlings responded to T-implantation with an increase in both overall song rate and nestbox-oriented song, carotenoid-supplemented starlings instead shifted song production towards (reproductively relevant nestbox-oriented song, without increasing overall song rate. Given that song rate is an acoustic signal rather than a visual signal, our findings therefore indicate that the role of carotenoids in (sexual signalling need not be dependent on their function as pigments.

  18. The lysine-peptoid hybrid LP5 maintain activity under physiological conditions and affects virulence gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschalk, Sanne; Ingmer, Hanne; Thomsen, Line E.

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide, LP5, is a lysine-peptoid hybrid, with antimicrobial activity against clinically relevant bacteria. Here, we investigated how various environmental conditions affect the antimicrobial activity of LP5 against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). We found that LP5 maintained...... to sub-inhibitory concentrations of LP5 affected the expression of the major virulence factors of S. aureus, revealing a potential as anti virulence compound. Thus, these results show how environmental factors affect the peptide efficiency and further add to the knowledge on how the peptide affects S...

  19. Discourse Analysis of Encouragement in Healthcare Manga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Rieko; Smith, Ian; Uchimura, Mari

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how healthcare professionals use encouragement. Focusing on GAMBARU ["to try hard"], forty-one scenes were collected from healthcare manga. Each scene of encouragement was analyzed from three perspectives; the contextual background of the communication, the relationship with the patients and the patients' response…

  20. Coaches' Encouragement of Athletes' Imagery Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlic, Brie; Hall, Nathan; Munroe-Chandler, Krista; Hall, Craig

    2007-01-01

    To investigate whether coaches encourage their athletes to use imagery, two studies were undertaken. In the first, 317 athletes completed the Coaches' Encouragement of Athletes' Imagery Use Questionnaire. In the second, 215 coaches completed a slightly modified version of this questionnaire. It was found that coaches and athletes generally agreed…

  1. Cigarette Smoke Affects ABCAl Expression via Liver X Receptor Nuclear Translocation in Human Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sticozzi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous tissue is the first barrier against outdoor insults. The outer most layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC, is formed by corneocytes embedded in a lipid matrix (cholesterol, ceramide and fatty acids. Therefore, the regulation of lipids and, in particular, of cholesterol homeostasis in the skin is of great importance. ABCA1 is a membrane transporter responsible for cholesterol efflux and plays a key role in maintaining cellular cholesterol levels. Among the many factors that have been associated with skin diseases, the environmental stressor cigarette smoke has been recently studied. In the present study, we demonstrate that ABCA1 expression in human cells (HaCaT was increased (both mRNA and protein levels after CS exposure. This effect was mediated by the inhibition of NFkB (aldehydes adducts formation that allows the translocation of liver X receptor (LXR. These findings suggest that passive smoking may play a role in skin cholesterol levels and thus affect cutaneous tissues functions.

  2. Boric acid inhibits alveolar bone loss in rats by affecting RANKL and osteoprotegerin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağlam, M; Hatipoğlu, M; Köseoğlu, S; Esen, H H; Kelebek, S

    2014-08-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effects of systemic boric acid on the levels of expression of RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG) and on histopathologic and histometric changes in a rat periodontitis model. Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight animals each: nonligated (NL); ligature only (LO); and ligature plus treatment with boric acid (BA) (3 mg/kg per day for 11 d). A 4/0 silk suture was placed in a subgingival position around the mandibular right first molars; after 11 d the rats were killed, and alveolar bone loss in the first molars was histometrically determined. Periodontal tissues were examined histopathologically to assess the differences among the study groups. RANKL and OPG were detected immunohistochemically. Alveolar bone loss was significantly higher in the LO group than in the BA and NL groups (p boric acid may reduce alveolar bone loss by affecting the RANKL/OPG balance in periodontal disease in rats. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Spontaneous emotion regulation during evaluated speaking tasks: associations with negative affect, anxiety expression, memory, and physiological responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C; Burns, Lawrence R; Schwerdtfeger, Andreas

    2006-08-01

    In these studies, the correlates of spontaneously using expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal during stressful speeches were examined. Spontaneous emotion regulation means that there were no instructions of how to regulate emotions during the speech. Instead, participants indicated after the speech to what extent they used self-motivated expressive suppression or reappraisal during the task. The results show that suppression is associated with less anxiety expression, greater physiological responding, and less memory for the speech while having no impact on negative affect. In contrast, reappraisal has no impact on physiology and memory while leading to less expression and affect. Taken together, spontaneous emotion regulation in active coping tasks has similar consequences as experimentally induced emotion regulation in passive tasks. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Gene Expression Profiles in Paired Gingival Biopsies from Periodontitis-Affected and Healthy Tissues Revealed by Massively Parallel Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Båge, Tove; Lagervall, Maria; Jansson, Leif; Lundeberg, Joakim; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the soft tissue and bone that surrounds the teeth. Despite extensive research, distinctive genes responsible for the disease have not been identified. The objective of this study was to elucidate transcriptome changes in periodontitis, by investigating gene expression profiles in gingival tissue obtained from periodontitis-affected and healthy gingiva from the same patient, using RNA-sequencing. Gingival biopsies were obtained from a disease-affected and a healthy site from each of 10 individuals diagnosed with periodontitis. Enrichment analysis performed among uniquely expressed genes for the periodontitis-affected and healthy tissues revealed several regulated pathways indicative of inflammation for the periodontitis-affected condition. Hierarchical clustering of the sequenced biopsies demonstrated clustering according to the degree of inflammation, as observed histologically in the biopsies, rather than clustering at the individual level. Among the top 50 upregulated genes in periodontitis-affected tissues, we investigated two genes which have not previously been demonstrated to be involved in periodontitis. These included interferon regulatory factor 4 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18, which were also expressed at the protein level in gingival biopsies from patients with periodontitis. In conclusion, this study provides a first step towards a quantitative comprehensive insight into the transcriptome changes in periodontitis. We demonstrate for the first time site-specific local variation in gene expression profiles of periodontitis-affected and healthy tissues obtained from patients with periodontitis, using RNA-seq. Further, we have identified novel genes expressed in periodontitis tissues, which may constitute potential therapeutic targets for future treatment strategies of periodontitis. PMID:23029519

  5. Maternal protein restriction affects gene expression and enzyme activity of intestinal disaccharidases in adult rat offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, D.F.; Pacheco, P.D.G.; Alvarenga, P.V.; Buratini, J. Jr; Castilho, A.C.S.; Lima, P.F.; Sartori, D.R.S.; Vicentini-Paulino, M.L.M. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    This study investigated the consequences of intrauterine protein restriction on the gastrointestinal tract and particularly on the gene expression and activity of intestinal disaccharidases in the adult offspring. Wistar rat dams were fed isocaloric diets containing 6% protein (restricted, n = 8) or 17% protein (control, n = 8) throughout gestation. Male offspring (n = 5-8 in each group) were evaluated at 3 or 16 weeks of age. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy produced offspring with growth restriction from birth (5.7 ± 0.1 vs 6.3 ± 0.1 g; mean ± SE) to weaning (42.4 ± 1.3 vs 49.1 ± 1.6 g), although at 16 weeks of age their body weight was similar to control (421.7 ± 8.9 and 428.5 ± 8.5 g). Maternal protein restriction also increased lactase activity in the proximal (0.23 ± 0.02 vs 0.15 ± 0.02), medial (0.30 ± 0.06 vs 0.14 ± 0.01) and distal (0.43 ± 0.07 vs 0.07 ± 0.02 U·g{sup -1}·min{sup -1}) small intestine, and mRNA lactase abundance in the proximal intestine (7.96 ± 1.11 vs 2.38 ± 0.47 relative units) of 3-week-old offspring rats. In addition, maternal protein restriction increased sucrase activity (1.20 ± 0.02 vs 0.91 ± 0.02 U·g{sup -1}·min{sup -1}) and sucrase mRNA abundance (4.48 ± 0.51 vs 1.95 ± 0.17 relative units) in the duodenum of 16-week-old rats. In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that intrauterine protein restriction affects gene expression of intestinal enzymes in offspring.

  6. Changes in gravity affect gene expression, protein modulation and metabolite pools of arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampp, R.; Martzivanou, M.; Maier, R. M.; Magel, E.

    Callus cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana (cv. Columbia) in Petri dishes / suspension cultures were exposed to altered g-forces by centrifugation (1 to 10 g), klinorotation, and μ g (sounding rocket flights). Using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, transcripts of genes coding for metabolic key enzymes (ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, ADPG-PP; ß-amylase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, FBPase; glyceraldehyde-P dehydrogenase, GAPDH; hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase, HMG; phenylalanine-ammonium-lyase, PAL; PEP carboxylase, PEPC) were used to monitor threshold conditions for g-number (all) and time of exposure (ß-amylase) which led to altered amounts of the gene product. Exposure to approx. 5 g and higher for 1h resulted in altered transcript levels: transcripts of ß-amylase, PAL, and PEPC were increased, those of ADPG-PP decreased, while those of FBPase, GAPDH, and HMG were not affected. This probably indicates a shift from starch synthesis to starch degradation and increased rates of anaplerosis (PEPC: supply of ketoacids for amino acid synthesis). In order to get more information about g-related effects on gene expression, we used a 1h-exposure to 7 g for a microarray analysis. Transcripts of more than 200 genes were significantly increased in amount (ratio 7g / 1g control; 21.6 and larger). They fall into several categories. Transcripts coding for enzymes of major pathways form the largest group (25%), followed by gene products involved in cellular organisation and cell wall formation / rearrangement (17%), signalling, phosphorylation/dephosphorylation (12%), proteolysis and transport (10% each), hormone synthesis plus related events (8%), defense (4%), stress-response (2%), and gravisensing (2%). Many of the alterations are part of a general stress response, but some changes related to the synthesis / rearrangement of cell wall components could be more hyper-g-specific. Using macroarrays with selected genes according to our hypergravity study (metabolism / signalling

  7. Arabidopsis flower specific defense gene expression patterns affect resistance to pathogens

    KAUST Repository

    Ederli, Luisa

    2015-02-20

    We investigated whether the Arabidopsis flower evolved protective measures to increase reproductive success. Firstly, analyses of available transcriptome data show that the most highly expressed transcripts in the closed sepal (stage 12) are enriched in genes with roles in responses to chemical stimuli and cellular metabolic processes. At stage 15, there is enrichment in transcripts with a role in responses to biotic stimuli. Comparative analyses between the sepal and petal in the open flower mark an over-representation of transcripts with a role in responses to stress and catalytic activity. Secondly, the content of the biotic defense-associated phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) in sepals and petals is significantly higher than in leaves. To understand whether the high levels of stress responsive transcripts and the higher SA content affect defense, wild-type plants (Col-0) and transgenic plants defective in SA accumulation (nahG) were challenged with the biotrophic fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum, the causal agent of powdery mildew, and the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. NahG leaves were more sensitive than those of Col-0, suggesting that in leaves SA has a role in the defense against biotrophs. In contrast, sepals and petals of both genotypes were resistant to G. cichoracearum, indicating that in the flower, resistance to the biotrophic pathogen is not critically dependent on SA, but likely dependent on the up-regulation of stress-responsive genes. Since sepals and petals of both genotypes are equally susceptible to B. cinerea, we conclude that neither stress-response genes nor increased SA accumulation offers protection against the necrotrophic pathogen. These results are interpreted in the light of the distinctive role of the flower and we propose that in the early stages, the sepal may act as a chemical defense barrier of the developing reproductive structures against biotrophic pathogens.

  8. Nax loci affect SOS1-like Na+/H+ exchanger expression and activity in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Shabala, Lana; Cuin, Tracey A; Huang, Xin; Zhou, Meixue; Munns, Rana; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-02-01

    Salinity stress tolerance in durum wheat is strongly associated with a plant's ability to control Na(+) delivery to the shoot. Two loci, termed Nax1 and Nax2, were recently identified as being critical for this process and the sodium transporters HKT1;4 and HKT1;5 were identified as the respective candidate genes. These transporters retrieve Na(+) from the xylem, thus limiting the rates of Na(+) transport from the root to the shoot. In this work, we show that the Nax loci also affect activity and expression levels of the SOS1-like Na(+)/H(+) exchanger in both root cortical and stelar tissues. Net Na(+) efflux measured in isolated steles from salt-treated plants, using the non-invasive ion flux measuring MIFE technique, decreased in the sequence: Tamaroi (parental line)>Nax1=Nax2>Nax1:Nax2 lines. This efflux was sensitive to amiloride (a known inhibitor of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger) and was mirrored by net H(+) flux changes. TdSOS1 relative transcript levels were 6-10-fold lower in Nax lines compared with Tamaroi. Thus, it appears that Nax loci confer two highly complementary mechanisms, both of which contribute towards reducing the xylem Na(+) content. One enhances the retrieval of Na(+) back into the root stele via HKT1;4 or HKT1;5, whilst the other reduces the rate of Na(+) loading into the xylem via SOS1. It is suggested that such duality plays an important adaptive role with greater versatility for responding to a changing environment and controlling Na(+) delivery to the shoot. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Advanced glycation end products affect cholesterol homeostasis by impairing ABCA1 expression on macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtchueng Simo, Olivier; Ikhlef, Souade; Berrougui, Hicham; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2017-08-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), which is intimately linked to high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), plays a key role in cholesterol homeostasis and the prevention of atherosclerosis. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of aging and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on RCT as well as on other factors that may affect the antiatherogenic property of HDLs. The transfer of macrophage-derived cholesterol to the plasma and liver and then to the feces for elimination was significantly lower in aged mice than in young mice. Chronic injection of d -galactose (D-gal) or AGEs also significantly reduced RCT (65.3% reduction in [ 3 H]cholesterol levels in the plasma of D-gal-treated mice after 48 h compared with control mice, P < 0.01). The injection of both D-gal and aminoguanidine hydrochloride increased [ 3 H]cholesterol levels in the plasma, although the levels were lower than those of control mice. The in vitro incubation of HDLs with dicarbonyl compounds increased the carbonyl and conjugated diene content of HDLs and significantly reduced PON1 paraoxonase activity (87.4% lower than control HDLs, P < 0.0001). Treating J774A.1 macrophages with glycated fetal bovine serum increased carbonyl formation (39.5% increase, P < 0.003) and reduced ABCA1 protein expression and the capacity of macrophages to liberate cholesterol (69.1% decrease, P < 0.0001). Our results showed, for the first time, that RCT is altered with aging and that AGEs contribute significantly to this alteration.

  10. Inbreeding Affects Gene Expression Differently in Two Self-Incompatible Arabidopsis lyrata Populations with Similar Levels of Inbreeding Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Mandy; Sletvold, Nina; Ågren, Jon; Hansson, Bengt

    2015-08-01

    Knowledge of which genes and pathways are affected by inbreeding may help understanding the genetic basis of inbreeding depression, the potential for purging (selection against deleterious recessive alleles), and the transition from outcrossing to selfing. Arabidopsis lyrata is a predominantly self-incompatible perennial plant, closely related to the selfing model species A. thaliana. To examine how inbreeding affects gene expression, we compared the transcriptome of experimentally selfed and outcrossed A. lyrata originating from two Scandinavian populations that express similar inbreeding depression for fitness (∂ ≈ 0.80). The number of genes significantly differentially expressed between selfed and outcrossed individuals were 2.5 times higher in the Norwegian population (≈ 500 genes) than in the Swedish population (≈ 200 genes). In both populations, a majority of genes were upregulated on selfing (≈ 80%). Functional annotation analysis of the differentially expressed genes showed that selfed offspring were characterized by 1) upregulation of stress-related genes in both populations and 2) upregulation of photosynthesis-related genes in Sweden but downregulation in Norway. Moreover, we found that reproduction- and pollination-related genes were affected by inbreeding only in Norway. We conclude that inbreeding causes both general and population-specific effects. The observed common effects suggest that inbreeding generally upregulates rather than downregulates gene expression and affects genes associated with stress response and general metabolic activity. Population differences in the number of affected genes and in effects on the expression of photosynthesis-related genes show that the genetic basis of inbreeding depression can differ between populations with very similar levels of inbreeding depression. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For

  11. Encouraging political participation among the next generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Elizabeth

    2017-12-14

    Elizabeth Rosser, acting Executive Dean, Deputy Dean for Education and Professional Practice, and Professor of Nursing at Bournemouth University, discusses how nurses can be encouraged to be politically engaged.

  12. Epigenetic regulation of leptin affects MMP‐13 expression in osteoarthritic chondrocytes: possible molecular target for osteoarthritis therapeutic intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, D; Malizos, K N; Tsezou, A

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether epigenetic mechanisms can regulate leptin's expression and affect its downstream targets as metalloproteinases 3,9,13 in osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Methods DNA methylation in leptin promoter was measured by DNA bisulfite sequencing, and mRNA expression levels were measured by real‐time quantitative PCR in osteoarthritic as well as in normal cartilage. Osteoarthritic articular cartilage samples were obtained from two distinct locations of the knee (n = 15); from the main defective area of maximum load (advanced osteoarthritis (OA)) and from adjacent macroscopically intact regions (minimal OA). Using small interference RNA, we tested if leptin downregulation would affect matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‐13 activity. We also evaluated the effect of the demethylating agent, 5′‐Aza‐2‐deoxycytidine (AZA) and of the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) on leptin expression in chondrocyte cultures. Furthermore, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation in leptin's promoter area. Results We found a correlation between leptin expression and DNA methylation and also that leptin controls MMP‐13 activity in chondrocytes. Leptin's downregulation with small interference RNA inhibited MMP‐13 expression dramatically. After 5‐AZA application in normal chondrocytes, leptin's methylation was decreased, while its expression was upregulated, and MMP‐13 was activated. Furthermore, TSA application in normal chondrocyte cultures increased leptin's expression. Also, chromatin immunoprecipitation in leptin's promoter after TSA treatment revealed that histone H3 lysines 9 and 14 were acetylated. Conclusion We found that epigenetic mechanisms regulate leptin's expression in chondrocytes affecting its downstream target MMP‐13. Small interference RNA against leptin deactivated directly MMP‐13, which was upregulated after leptin's epigenetic reactivation, raising the issue of leptin's therapeutic potential for

  13. Epigenetic regulation of leptin affects MMP-13 expression in osteoarthritic chondrocytes: possible molecular target for osteoarthritis therapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, D; Malizos, K N; Tsezou, A

    2007-12-01

    To investigate whether epigenetic mechanisms can regulate leptin's expression and affect its downstream targets as metalloproteinases 3,9,13 in osteoarthritic chondrocytes. DNA methylation in leptin promoter was measured by DNA bisulfite sequencing, and mRNA expression levels were measured by real-time quantitative PCR in osteoarthritic as well as in normal cartilage. Osteoarthritic articular cartilage samples were obtained from two distinct locations of the knee (n = 15); from the main defective area of maximum load (advanced osteoarthritis (OA)) and from adjacent macroscopically intact regions (minimal OA). Using small interference RNA, we tested if leptin downregulation would affect matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 activity. We also evaluated the effect of the demethylating agent, 5'-Aza-2-deoxycytidine (AZA) and of the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) on leptin expression in chondrocyte cultures. Furthermore, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation in leptin's promoter area. We found a correlation between leptin expression and DNA methylation and also that leptin controls MMP-13 activity in chondrocytes. Leptin's downregulation with small interference RNA inhibited MMP-13 expression dramatically. After 5-AZA application in normal chondrocytes, leptin's methylation was decreased, while its expression was upregulated, and MMP-13 was activated. Furthermore, TSA application in normal chondrocyte cultures increased leptin's expression. Also, chromatin immunoprecipitation in leptin's promoter after TSA treatment revealed that histone H3 lysines 9 and 14 were acetylated. We found that epigenetic mechanisms regulate leptin's expression in chondrocytes affecting its downstream target MMP-13. Small interference RNA against leptin deactivated directly MMP-13, which was upregulated after leptin's epigenetic reactivation, raising the issue of leptin's therapeutic potential for osteoarthritis.

  14. Bicycle infrastructure: can good design encourage cycling?

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Hull; Craig O’Holleran

    2014-01-01

    This research posits the question that good design of the bicycle infrastructure in a city will encourage more people to cycle. Research is carried out to compare the cycle infrastructure in selected European cities against an adapted Level of Service concept using accompanied ride-alongs. The literature review on the factors that encourage/dissuade cycle use suggests that it is the potential rider’s perceptions on the safety of cycling in their neighbourhood that is the deciding feature. Mor...

  15. The BDNF Val66Met Variant Affects Gene Expression through miR-146b

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Pei-Ken; Xu, Bin; Mukai, Jun; Karayiorgou, Maria; Gogos, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Variation in gene expression is an important mechanism underlying susceptibility to complex disease and traits. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) account for a substantial portion of the total detected genetic variation in gene expression but how exactly variants acting in trans modulate gene expression and disease susceptibility remains largely unknown. The BDNF Val66Met SNP has been associated with a number of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia a...

  16. How Emotions Expressed by Adults' Faces Affect the Desire to Eat Liked and Disliked Foods in Children Compared to Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthomeuf, Laetitia; Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Rousset, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether or not pleasure, neutrality, and disgust expressed by eaters in photographs could affect the desire to eat food products to a greater extent in children than in adults. Children of 5 and 8 years of age, as well as adults, were presented with photographs of liked and disliked foods. These foods were…

  17. Common inversion polymorphism at 17q21.31 affects expression of multiple genes in tissue-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Simone; Chepelev, Iouri; Janson, Esther; Strengman, Eric; van den Berg, Leonard H; Veldink, Jan H; Ophoff, Roel A

    2012-09-06

    Chromosome 17q21.31 contains a common inversion polymorphism of approximately 900 kb in populations with European ancestry. Two divergent MAPT haplotypes, H1 and H2 are described with distinct linkage disequilibrium patterns across the region reflecting the inversion status at this locus. The MAPT H1 haplotype has been associated with progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, while the H2 is linked to recurrent deletion events associated with the 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome, a disease characterized by developmental delay and learning disability. In this study, we investigate the effect of the inversion on the expression of genes in the 17q21.31 region. We find the expression of several genes in and at the borders of the inversion to be affected; specific either to whole blood or different regions of the human brain. The H1 haplotype was found to be associated with an increased expression of LRRC37A4, PLEKH1M and MAPT. In contrast, a decreased expression of MGC57346, LRRC37A and CRHR1 was associated with H1. Studies thus far have focused on the expression of MAPT in the inversion region. However, our results show that the inversion status affects expression of other genes in the 17q21.31 region as well. Given the link between the inversion status and different neurological diseases, these genes may also be involved in disease pathology, possibly in a tissue-specific manner.

  18. Persistent expression of activated notch in the developing hypothalamus affects survival of pituitary progenitors and alters pituitary structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aujla, Paven K; Bogdanovic, Vedran; Naratadam, George T; Raetzman, Lori T

    2015-08-01

    As the pituitary gland develops, signals from the hypothalamus are necessary for pituitary induction and expansion. Little is known about the control of cues that regulate early signaling between the two structures. Ligands and receptors of the Notch signaling pathway are found in both the hypothalamus and Rathke's pouch. The downstream Notch effector gene Hes1 is required for proper pituitary formation; however, these effects could be due to the action of Hes1 in the hypothalamus, Rathke's pouch, or both. To determine the contribution of hypothalamic Notch signaling to pituitary organogenesis, we used mice with loss and gain of Notch function within the developing hypothalamus. We demonstrate that loss of Notch signaling by conditional deletion of Rbpj in the hypothalamus does not affect expression of Hes1 within the posterior hypothalamus or expression of Hes5. In contrast, expression of activated Notch within the hypothalamus results in ectopic Hes5 expression and increased Hes1 expression, which is sufficient to disrupt pituitary development and postnatal expansion. Taken together, our results indicate that Rbpj-dependent Notch signaling within the developing hypothalamus is not necessary for pituitary development, but persistent Notch signaling and ectopic Hes5 expression in hypothalamic progenitors affects pituitary induction and expansion. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Human endogenous retrovirus-FRD envelope protein (syncytin 2 expression in normal and trisomy 21-affected placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handschuh Karen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human trophoblast expresses two fusogenic retroviral envelope proteins, the widely studied syncytin 1, encoded by HERV-W and the recently characterized syncytin 2 encoded by HERV-FRD. Here we studied syncytin 2 in normal and Trisomy 21-affected placenta associated with abnormal trophoblast differentiation. Syncytin 2 immunolocalization was restricted throughout normal pregnancy to some villous cytotrophoblastic cells (CT. During the second trimester of pregnancy, syncytin 2 was immunolocalized in some cuboidal CT in T21 placentas, whereas in normal placentas it was observed in flat CT, extending into their cytoplasmic processes. In vitro, CT isolated from normal placenta fuse and differentiate into syncytiotrophoblast. At the same time, syncytin 2 transcript levels decreased significantly with syncytiotrophoblast formation. In contrast, CT isolated from T21-affected placentas fused and differentiated poorly and no variation in syncytin 2 transcript levels was observed. Syncytin 2 expression illustrates the abnormal trophoblast differentiation observed in placenta of fetal T21-affected pregnancies.

  20. Affective Evaluations of Objects Are Influenced by Observed Gaze Direction and Emotional Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Andrew P.; Frischen, Alexandra; Fenske, Mark J.; Tipper, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    Gaze direction signals another person's focus of interest. Facial expressions convey information about their mental state. Appropriate responses to these signals should reflect their combined influence, yet current evidence suggests that gaze-cueing effects for objects near an observed face are not modulated by its emotional expression. Here, we…

  1. A short synthetic MAR positively affects transgene expression in rice and Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, van der A.H.M.; Welter, M.E.; Woosley, A.T.; Pareddy, D.R.; Pavelko, S.E.; Skokut, M.; Ainley, W.M.

    2004-01-01

    Matrix Attachment Regions (MARs) are DNA elements that are thought to influence gene expression by anchoring active chromatin domains to the nuclear matrix. When flanking a construct in transgenic plants, MARs could be useful for enhancing transgene expression. Naturally occurring MARs have a number

  2. Genetic Variations in COMT and DRD2 Modulate Attentional Bias for Affective Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Pingyuan; Shen, Guomin; Li, She; Zhang, Guoping; Fang, Hongchao; Lei, Lin; Zhang, Peizhe; Zhang, Fuchang

    2013-01-01

    Studies have revealed that catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and dopaminegic receptor2 (DRD2) modulate human attention bias for palatable food or tobacco. However, the existing evidence about the modulations of COMT and DRD2 on attentional bias for facial expressions was still limited. In the study, 650 college students were genotyped with regard to COMT Val158Met and DRD2 TaqI A polymorphisms, and the attentional bias for facial expressions was assessed using the spatial cueing task. The results indicated that COMT Val158Met underpinned the individual difference in attentional bias for negative emotional expressions (P = 0.03) and the Met carriers showed more engagement bias for negative expressions than the Val/Val homozygote. On the contrary, DRD2 TaqIA underpinned the individual difference in attentional bias for positive expressions (P = 0.003) and individuals with TT genotype showed much more engagement bias for positive expressions than the individuals with CC genotype. Moreover, the two genes exerted significant interactions on the engagements for negative and positive expressions (P = 0.046, P = 0.005). These findings suggest that the individual differences in the attentional bias for emotional expressions are partially underpinned by the genetic polymorphisms in COMT and DRD2. PMID:24312552

  3. Socializing Infants toward a Cultural Understanding of Expressing Negative Affect: A Bakhtinian Informed Discursive Psychology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the socialization of emotion expression in infancy. It argues that in order to adequately understand emotion development we need to consider the appraisal of emotion expression through caregivers in mundane, everyday interactions. Drawing on sociocultural and Bakhtinian theorizing, it claims that caregivers' appraisals of…

  4. Detection of differentially expressed genes in broiler pectoralis major muscle affected by White Striping - Wooden Breast myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambonelli, Paolo; Zappaterra, Martina; Soglia, Francesca; Petracci, Massimiliano; Sirri, Federico; Cavani, Claudio; Davoli, Roberta

    2016-12-01

    White Striping and Wooden Breast (WS/WB) are abnormalities increasingly occurring in the fillets of high breast yield and growth rate chicken hybrids. These defects lead to consistent economic losses for poultry meat industry, as affected broiler fillets present an impaired visual appearance that negatively affects consumers' acceptability. Previous studies have highlighted in affected fillets a severely damaged muscle, showing profound inflammation, fibrosis, and lipidosis. The present study investigated the differentially expressed genes and pathways linked to the compositional changes observed in WS/WB breast muscles, in order to outline a more complete framework of the gene networks related to the occurrence of this complex pathological picture. The biochemical composition was performed on 20 pectoralis major samples obtained from high breast yield and growth rate broilers (10 affected vs. 10 normal) and 12 out of the 20 samples were used for the microarray gene expression profiling (6 affected vs. 6 normal). The obtained results indicate strong changes in muscle mineral composition, coupled to an increased deposition of fat. In addition, 204 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were found: 102 up-regulated and 102 down-regulated in affected breasts. The gene expression pathways found more altered in WS/WB muscles are those related to muscle development, polysaccharide metabolic processes, proteoglycans synthesis, inflammation, and calcium signaling pathway. On the whole, the findings suggest that a multifactorial and complex etiology is associated with the occurrence of WS/WB muscle abnormalities, contributing to further defining the transcription patterns associated with these myopathies. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Genome scan identifies a locus affecting gamma-globin expression in human beta-cluster YAC transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, S.D.; Cooper, P.; Fung, J.; Weier, H.U.G.; Rubin, E.M.

    2000-03-01

    Genetic factors affecting post-natal g-globin expression - a major modifier of the severity of both b-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia, have been difficult to study. This is especially so in mice, an organism lacking a globin gene with an expression pattern equivalent to that of human g-globin. To model the human b-cluster in mice, with the goal of screening for loci affecting human g-globin expression in vivo, we introduced a human b-globin cluster YAC transgene into the genome of FVB mice . The b-cluster contained a Greek hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) g allele resulting in postnatal expression of human g-globin in transgenic mice. The level of human g-globin for various F1 hybrids derived from crosses between the FVB transgenics and other inbred mouse strains was assessed. The g-globin level of the C3HeB/FVB transgenic mice was noted to be significantly elevated. To map genes affecting postnatal g-globin expression, a 20 centiMorgan (cM) genome scan of a C3HeB/F VB transgenics [prime] FVB backcross was performed, followed by high-resolution marker analysis of promising loci. From this analysis we mapped a locus within a 2.2 cM interval of mouse chromosome 1 at a LOD score of 4.2 that contributes 10.4% of variation in g-globin expression level. Combining transgenic modeling of the human b-globin gene cluster with quantitative trait analysis, we have identified and mapped a murine locus that impacts on human g-globin expression in vivo.

  6. HLA-G expression on blasts and tolerogenic cells in patients affected by acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locafaro, Grazia; Amodio, Giada; Tomasoni, Daniela; Tresoldi, Cristina; Ciceri, Fabio; Gregori, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Human Leukocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G) contributes to cancer cell immune escape from host antitumor responses. The clinical relevance of HLA-G in several malignancies has been reported. However, the role of HLA-G expression and functions in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is still controversial. Our group identified a subset of tolerogenic dendritic cells, DC-10 that express HLA-G and secrete IL-10. DC-10 are present in the peripheral blood and are essential in promoting and maintaining tolerance via the induction of adaptive T regulatory (Treg) cells. We investigated HLA-G expression on blasts and the presence of HLA-G-expressing DC-10 and CD4(+) T cells in the peripheral blood of AML patients at diagnosis. Moreover, we explored the possible influence of the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of HLA-G, which has been associated with HLA-G expression, on AML susceptibility. Results showed that HLA-G-expressing DC-10 and CD4(+) T cells are highly represented in AML patients with HLA-G positive blasts. None of the HLA-G variation sites evaluated was associated with AML susceptibility. This is the first report describing HLA-G-expressing DC-10 and CD4(+) T cells in AML patients, suggesting that they may represent a strategy by which leukemic cells escape the host's immune system. Further studies on larger populations are required to verify our findings.

  7. NF-κB inhibitor dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin suppresses osteoclastogenesis and expression of NFATc1 in mouse arthritis without affecting expression of RANKL, osteoprotegerin or macrophage colony-stimulating factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Tetsuo; Hoshino, Machiko; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Ohya, Keiichi; Komano, Yukiko; Nanki, Toshihiro; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    Inhibition of NF-κB is known to be effective in reducing both inflammation and bone destruction in animal models of arthritis. Our previous study demonstrated that a small cell-permeable NF-κB inhibitor, dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), suppresses expression of proinflammatory cytokines and ameliorates mouse arthritis. It remained unclear, however, whether DHMEQ directly affects osteoclast precursor cells to suppress their differentiation to mature osteoclasts in vivo. The effect of DHMEQ on human osteoclastogenesis also remained elusive. In the present study, we therefore examined the effect of DHMEQ on osteoclastogenesis using a mouse collagen-induced arthritis model, and using culture systems of fibroblast-like synovial cells obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and of osteoclast precursor cells from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. DHMEQ significantly suppressed formation of osteoclasts in arthritic joints, and also suppressed expression of NFATc1 along the inner surfaces of bone lacunae and the eroded bone surface, while serum levels of soluble receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin and macrophage colony-stimulating factor were not affected by the treatment. DHMEQ also did not suppress spontaneous expression of RANKL nor of macrophage colony-stimulating factor in culture of fibroblast-like synovial cells obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. These results suggest that DHMEQ suppresses osteoclastogenesis in vivo, through downregulation of NFATc1 expression, without significantly affecting expression of upstream molecules of the RANKL/receptor activator of NF-κB/osteoprotegerin cascade, at least in our experimental condition. Furthermore, in the presence of RANKL and macrophage colony-stimulating factor, differentiation and activation of human osteoclasts were also suppressed by DHMEQ, suggesting the possibility of future application of NF-κB inhibitors to rheumatoid arthritis therapy. PMID

  8. Glucocorticoids affect 24 h clock genes expression in human adipose tissue explant cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificación Gómez-Abellán

    Full Text Available to examine firstly whether CLOCK exhibits a circadian expression in human visceral (V and subcutaneous (S adipose tissue (AT in vitro as compared with BMAL1 and PER2, and secondly to investigate the possible effect of the glucocorticoid analogue dexamethasone (DEX on positive and negative clock genes expression.VAT and SAT biopsies were obtained from morbid obese women (body mass index ≥ 40 kg/m(2 (n = 6. In order to investigate rhythmic expression pattern of clock genes and the effect of DEX on CLOCK, PER2 and BMAL1 expression, control AT (without DEX and AT explants treated with DEX (2 hours were cultured during 24 h and gene expression was analyzed at the following times: 10:00 h, 14:00 h, 18:00 h, 22:00 h, 02:00 h and 06:00 h, using qRT-PCR.CLOCK, BMAL1 and PER2 expression exhibited circadian patterns in both VAT and SAT explants that were adjusted to a typical 24 h sinusoidal curve. PER2 expression (negative element was in antiphase with respect to CLOCK and in phase with BMAL1 expression (both positive elements in the SAT (situation not present in VAT. A marked effect of DEX exposure on both positive and negative clock genes expression patterns was observed. Indeed, DEX treatment modified the rhythmicity pattern towards altered patterns with a period lower than 24 hours in all genes and in both tissues.24 h patterns in CLOCK and BMAL1 (positive clock elements and PER2 (negative element mRNA levels were observed in human adipose explants. These patterns were altered by dexamethasone exposure.

  9. Affect-related synaesthesias: A prospective view on their existence, expression and underlying mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele eDael

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The literature on developmental synaesthesia has seen numerous sensory combinations, with surprisingly few reports on synaesthesias involving affect. On the one hand, emotion, or more broadly affect, might be of minor importance to the synaesthetic experience (e.g. Sinke et al., 2012. On the other hand, predictions on how affect could be relevant to the synaesthetic experience remain to be formulated, in particular those that are driven by emotion theories. In this theoretical paper, we hypothesize that a priori studies on synaesthesia involving affect will observe the following. Firstly, the synaesthetic experience is not merely about discrete emotion processing or overall valence (positive, negative but is determined by or even altered through cognitive appraisal processes. Secondly, the synaesthetic experience changes temporarily on a quantitative level according to i the affective appraisal of the inducing stimulus or ii the current affective state of the individual. These hypotheses are inferred from previous theoretical and empirical accounts on synaesthesia (including the few examples involving affect, different emotion theories, crossmodal processing accounts in synaesthetes and nonsynaesthetes, and the presumed stability of the synaesthetic experience. We hope that the current review will succeed in launching a new series of studies on affective synaesthesias. We particularly hope that such studies will apply the same creativity in experimental paradigms as we have seen and still see when assessing and evaluating traditional synaesthesias.

  10. Intervening on Affective Involvement and Expression of Emotions in an Adult with Congenital Deafblindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Marga A. W.; Janssen, Marleen J.; Ruijssenaars, Wied A. J. J. M.; Huisman, Mark; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a 20-week intervention to foster affective involvement during interaction and communication between an adult with congenital deafblindness (CDB) and his caregivers in a group home and a daytime activities center. Using a single-subject design, we examined whether the intervention increased affective involvement…

  11. MAPT Genetic Variation and Neuronal Maturity Alter Isoform Expression Affecting Axonal Transport in iPSC-Derived Dopamine Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevers, Joel E; Lai, Mang Ching; Collins, Emma; Booth, Heather D E; Zambon, Federico; Parkkinen, Laura; Vowles, Jane; Cowley, Sally A; Wade-Martins, Richard; Caffrey, Tara M

    2017-08-08

    The H1 haplotype of the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) locus is genetically associated with neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), and affects gene expression and splicing. However, the functional impact on neurons of such expression differences has yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we employ extended maturation phases during differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into mature dopaminergic neuronal cultures to obtain cultures expressing all six adult tau protein isoforms. After 6 months of maturation, levels of exon 3+ and exon 10+ transcripts approach those of adult brain. Mature dopaminergic neuronal cultures display haplotype differences in expression, with H1 expressing 22% higher levels of MAPT transcripts than H2 and H2 expressing 2-fold greater exon 3+ transcripts than H1. Furthermore, knocking down adult tau protein variants alters axonal transport velocities in mature iPSC-derived dopaminergic neuronal cultures. This work links haplotype-specific MAPT expression with a biologically functional outcome relevant for PD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. MAPT Genetic Variation and Neuronal Maturity Alter Isoform Expression Affecting Axonal Transport in iPSC-Derived Dopamine Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel E. Beevers

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The H1 haplotype of the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT locus is genetically associated with neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD, and affects gene expression and splicing. However, the functional impact on neurons of such expression differences has yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we employ extended maturation phases during differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs into mature dopaminergic neuronal cultures to obtain cultures expressing all six adult tau protein isoforms. After 6 months of maturation, levels of exon 3+ and exon 10+ transcripts approach those of adult brain. Mature dopaminergic neuronal cultures display haplotype differences in expression, with H1 expressing 22% higher levels of MAPT transcripts than H2 and H2 expressing 2-fold greater exon 3+ transcripts than H1. Furthermore, knocking down adult tau protein variants alters axonal transport velocities in mature iPSC-derived dopaminergic neuronal cultures. This work links haplotype-specific MAPT expression with a biologically functional outcome relevant for PD.

  13. Parental vitamin deficiency affects the embryonic gene expression of immune-, lipid transport- and apolipoprotein genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjærven, Kaja H.; Jakt, Lars Martin; Dahl, John Arne; Espe, Marit; Aanes, Håvard; Hamre, Kristin; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.

    2016-10-01

    World Health Organization is concerned for parental vitamin deficiency and its effect on offspring health. This study examines the effect of a marginally dietary-induced parental one carbon (1-C) micronutrient deficiency on embryonic gene expression using zebrafish. Metabolic profiling revealed a reduced 1-C cycle efficiency in F0 generation. Parental deficiency reduced the fecundity and a total of 364 genes were differentially expressed in the F1 embryos. The upregulated genes (53%) in the deficient group were enriched in biological processes such as immune response and blood coagulation. Several genes encoding enzymes essential for the 1-C cycle and for lipid transport (especially apolipoproteins) were aberrantly expressed. We show that a parental diet deficient in micronutrients disturbs the expression in descendant embryos of genes associated with overall health, and result in inherited aberrations in the 1-C cycle and lipid metabolism. This emphasises the importance of parental micronutrient status for the health of the offspring.

  14. Invited Review: How sleep deprivation affects gene expression in the brain: a review of recent findings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chiara Cirelli

    2002-01-01

    ..., and the functional consequences of sleep loss. To determine what molecular changes occur in the brain during the sleep-waking cycle and after sleep deprivation, our laboratory is performing a systematic screening of brain gene expression in rats...

  15. Calcium affecting protein expression in longan under simulated acid rain stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tengfei; Li, Yongyu; Ma, Cuilan; Qiu, Dongliang

    2015-08-01

    Longan (Dimocarpus longana Lour. cv. Wulongling) of uniform one-aged seedlings grown in pots were selected to study specific proteins expressed in leaves under simulated acid rain (SiAR) stress and exogenous Ca(2+) regulation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results showed that there was a protein band specifically expressed under SiAR of pH 2.5 stress for 15 days with its molecular weight of about 23 kD. A 17 kD protein band specifically expressed after SiAR stress 5 days. Compared with pH 2.5, the pH 3.5 of SiAR made a less influence to protein expression. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) results showed that six new specific proteins including C4 (20.2 kD pI 6.0), F (24 kD pI 6.35), B3 (22.3 kD pI 6.35), B4 (23.5 kD pI 6.5), C5 (21.8 kD pI 5.6), and C6 (20.2 kD pI 5.6) specifically expressed. C4 always expressed during SiAR stress. F expressed under the stress of pH 2.5 for 15 days and expressed in all pH SiAR stress for 20 days. The expression of proteins including B3, C5, and C6 was related to pH value and stress intensity of SiAR. The expression of B4 resulted from synergistic effects of SiAR and Ca. The expression of G1 (Mr 19.3 kD, pI 4.5), G2 (Mr 17.8 kD, pI 4.65), G3 (Mr 16.6 kD, pI 4.6), and G4 (Mr 14.7 kD, pI 4.4) enhanced under the treatment of 5 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and 2 mM chlorpromazine (CPZ). These proteins showed antagonistic effects and might be relative to the Ca-calmodulin (Ca-CaM) system of longan in response to SiAR stress.

  16. SK2 and SK3 Expression Differentially Affect Firing Frequency and Precision in Dopamine Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deignan, Jason; Luján, Rafael; Bond, Chris; Riegel, Arthur; Watanabe, Masahiko; Williams, John T.; Maylie, James; Adelman, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The firing properties of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta are strongly influenced by the activity of apamin-sensitive small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels. Of the three SK channel genes expressed in central neurons, only SK3 expression has been identified in DA neurons. The present findings show that SK2 was also expressed in DA neurons. Immuno-electron microscopy (iEM) showed that SK2 was primarily expressed in the distal dendrites, while SK3 was heavily expressed in the soma and, to a lesser extent, throughout the dendritic arbor. Electrophysiological recordings of the effects of the SK channel blocker apamin on DA neurons from wild type and SK−/− mice show that SK2-containing channels contributed to the precision of action potential (AP) timing, while SK3-containing channels influenced AP frequency. The expression of SK2 in DA neurons may endow distinct signaling and subcellular localization to SK2-containing channels. Keywords: Substantia Nigra, Dopamine, SK channels, spontaneous activity, pacemaker PMID:22554781

  17. Genetically altering the expression of neutral trehalase gene affects conidiospore thermotolerance of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Guoxiong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum has been used as an important biocontrol agent instead of insecticides for controlling crop pests throughout the world. However, its virulence varies with environmental factors, especially temperature. Neutral trehalase (Ntl hydrolyzes trehalose, which plays a role in environmental stress response in many organisms, including M. acridum. Demonstration of a relationship between Ntl and thermotolerance or virulence may offer a new strategy for enhancing conidiospore thermotolerance of entomopathogenic fungi through genetic engineering. Results We selected four Ntl over-expression and four Ntl RNA interference (RNAi transformations in which Ntl expression is different. Compared to the wild-type, Ntl mRNA expression was reduced to 35-66% in the RNAi mutants and increased by 2.5-3.5-fold in the over-expression mutants. The RNAi conidiospores exhibited less trehalase activity, accumulated more trehalose, and were much more tolerant of heat stress than the wild-type. The opposite effects were found in conidiospores of over-expression mutants compared to RNAi mutants. Furthermore, virulence was not altered in the two types of mutants compared to the wild type. Conclusions Ntl controlled trehalose accumulation in M. acridum by degrading trehalose, and thus affected conidiospore thermotolerance. These results offer a new strategy for enhancing conidiospore thermotolerance of entomopathogenic fungi without affecting virulence.

  18. Over-expression of XIST, the Master Gene for X Chromosome Inactivation, in Females With Major Affective Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohu Ji

    2015-08-01

    Research in context: Due to lack of biological markers, diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders are subjective. There is utmost urgency to identify biomarkers for clinics, research, and drug development. We found that XIST and KDM5C gene expression may be used as a biological marker for diagnosis of major affective disorders in a significantly large subset of female patients from the general population. Our studies show that over-expression of XIST and some X-linked escapee genes may be a common mechanism for development of psychiatric disorders between the patients with rare genetic diseases (XXY or XXX and the general population of female psychiatric patients.

  19. Instructed extinction differentially affects the emotional and cognitive expression of associative fear memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevenster, D.; Beckers, T.; Kindt, M.

    2012-01-01

    Instructed extinction after fear conditioning is relatively effective in attenuating electrodermal responding. Testing the single-process account of fear learning, we examined whether this manipulation similarly affects the startle response. Skin conductance responses (SCRs), startle responses, and

  20. Do GnRH analogues directly affect human endometrial epithelial cell gene expression?

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaomei

    2010-03-04

    We examined whether Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues [leuprolide acetate (LA) and ganirelix acetate (GA)] modulate gene expression in Ishikawa cells used as surrogate for human endometrial epithelial cells in vitro. The specific aims were: (i) to study the modulatory effect of GnRH analogues by RT-PCR [in the absence and presence of E2 and P4, and cyclic adenosine monophos-phate (cAMP)] on mRNA expression of genes modulated during the window of implantation in GnRH analogues/rFSH-treated assisted reproductive technology cycles including OPTINEURIN (OPTN), CHROMATIN MODIFYING PROTEIN (CHMP1A), PROSAPOSIN (PSAP), IGFBP-5 and SORTING NEXIN 7 (SNX7), and (ii) to analyze the 5\\'-flanking regions of such genes for the presence of putative steroid-response elements [estrogen-response elements (EREs) and P4-response element (PREs)]. Ishikawa cells were cytokeratin+/vimentin2 and expressed ERa,ERb, PR and GnRH-R proteins. At 6 and 24 h, neither LA nor GA alone had an effect on gene expression. GnRH analogues alone or following E2 and/or P4 co-incubation for 24 h also had no effect on gene expression, but P4 significantly increased expression of CHMP1A.E2 + P4 treatment for 4 days, alone or followed by GA, had no effect, but E2 + P4 treatment followed by LA significantly decreased IGFBP-5 expression. The addition of 8-Br cAMP did not modify gene expression, with the exception of IGFBP-5 that was significantly increased. The GnRH analogues did not modify intracellular cAMP levels. We identified conserved EREs for OPN, CHMP1A, SNX7 and PSAP and PREs for SNX7. We conclude that GnRH analogues appear not to have major direct effects on gene expression of human endo-metrial epithelial cells in vitro. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org.

  1. GmDREB1 overexpression affects the expression of microRNAs in GM wheat seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiyan Jiang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small regulators of gene expression that act on many different molecular and biochemical processes in eukaryotes. To date, miRNAs have not been considered in the current evaluation system for GM crops. In this study, small RNAs from the dry seeds of a GM wheat line overexpressing GmDREB1 and non-GM wheat cultivars were investigated using deep sequencing technology and bioinformatic approaches. As a result, 23 differentially expressed miRNAs in dry seeds were identified and confirmed between GM wheat and a non-GM acceptor. Notably, more differentially expressed tae-miRNAs between non-GM wheat varieties were found, indicating that the degree of variance between non-GM cultivars was considerably higher than that induced by the transgenic event. Most of the target genes of these differentially expressed miRNAs between GM wheat and a non-GM acceptor were associated with abiotic stress, in accordance with the product concept of GM wheat in improving drought and salt tolerance. Our data provided useful information and insights into the evaluation of miRNA expression in edible GM crops.

  2. Monoterpenoid-based preparations in beehives affect learning, memory, and gene expression in the bee brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnafé, Elsa; Alayrangues, Julie; Hotier, Lucie; Massou, Isabelle; Renom, Allan; Souesme, Guillaume; Marty, Pierre; Allaoua, Marion; Treilhou, Michel; Armengaud, Catherine

    2017-02-01

    Bees are exposed in their environment to contaminants that can weaken the colony and contribute to bee declines. Monoterpenoid-based preparations can be introduced into hives to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. The long-term effects of monoterpenoids are poorly investigated. Olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) has been used to evaluate the impact of stressors on cognitive functions of the honeybee such as learning and memory. The authors tested the PER to odorants on bees after exposure to monoterpenoids in hives. Octopamine receptors, transient receptor potential-like (TRPL), and γ-aminobutyric acid channels are thought to play a critical role in the memory of food experience. Gene expression levels of Amoa1, Rdl, and trpl were evaluated in parallel in the bee brain because these genes code for the cellular targets of monoterpenoids and some pesticides and neural circuits of memory require their expression. The miticide impaired the PER to odors in the 3 wk following treatment. Short-term and long-term olfactory memories were improved months after introduction of the monoterpenoids into the beehives. Chronic exposure to the miticide had significant effects on Amoa1, Rdl, and trpl gene expressions and modified seasonal changes in the expression of these genes in the brain. The decrease of expression of these genes in winter could partly explain the improvement of memory. The present study has led to new insights into alternative treatments, especially on their effects on memory and expression of selected genes involved in this cognitive function. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:337-345. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  3. First feed affects the expressions of microRNA and their targets in Atlantic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizuayehu, Teshome Tilahun; Furmanek, Tomasz; Karlsen, Ørjan; van der Meeren, Terje; Edvardsen, Rolf Brudvik; Rønnestad, Ivar; Hamre, Kristin; Johansen, Steinar D; Babiak, Igor

    2016-04-14

    To our knowledge, there is no report on microRNA (miRNA) expression and their target analysis in relation to the type of the first feed and its effect on the further growth of fish. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae have better growth and development performance when fed natural zooplankton as a start-feed, as compared with those fed typical aquaculture start-feeds. In our experiment, two groups of Atlantic cod larvae were fed reference feed (zooplankton, mostly copepods, filtered from a seawater pond) v. aquaculture feeds: enriched rotifers (Brachionus sp.) and later brine shrimp (Artemia salina). We examined the miRNA expressions of six defined developmental stages as determined and standardised by body length from first feeding for both diet groups. We found eight miRNA (miR-9, miR-19a, miR-130b, miR-146, miR-181a, miR-192, miR-206 and miR-11240) differentially expressed between the two feeding groups in at least one developmental stage. We verified the next-generation sequencing data using real-time RT-PCR. We found 397 putative targets (mRNA) to the differentially expressed miRNA; eighteen of these mRNA showed differential expression in at least one stage. The patterns of differentially expressed miRNA and their putative target mRNA were mostly inverse, but sometimes also concurrent. The predicted miRNA targets were involved in different pathways, including metabolic, phototransduction and signalling pathways. The results of this study provide new nutrigenomic information on the potential role of miRNA in mediating nutritional effects on growth during the start-feeding period in fish larvae.

  4. Changes in expression of klotho affect physiological processes, diseases, and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Xuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Klotho (KL encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein and is predominantly expressed in the kidney, parathyroid glands, and choroid plexus. Genetic studies on the KL gene have revealed that DNA hypermethylation is one of the major risk factors for aging, diseases, and cancer. Besides, KL exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects by regulating signaling pathways and the expression of target genes. KL participates in modulation of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 signaling, which induces the growth hormone (GH secretion. Accordingly, KL mutant mice display multiple aging-like phenotypes, which are ameliorated by overexpression of KL. Therefore, KL is an important contributor to lifespan. KL is further identified as a regulator of calcium (Ca2+ channel-dependent cell physiological processes. KL has been also shown to induce cancer cell apoptosis, thus, it is considered as a potential tumor suppressor. Our recent studies have indicated that KL modulates an influx of Ca2+ from the extracellular space, leading to a change in CCL21-dependent migration in dendritic cells (DCs. Interestingly, the regulation of the expression of KL was mediated through a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K pathway in DCs. Moreover, downregulating of KL expression by using siRNA knockdown technique, we observed that the expression of Ca2+ channels including Orai3, but not Orai1, Orai2, TRPV5 and TRPV6 was significantly reduced in KL-silenced as compared to control BMDCs. Clearly, additional research is required to define the role of KL in the regulation of organismic and cellular functions through the PI3K signaling and the expression of the Ca2+ channels.

  5. Inhibition of p53-induced apoptosis without affecting expression of p53-regulated genes

    OpenAIRE

    Lotem, Joseph; Gal, Hilah; Kama, Rachel; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon; Domany, Eytan; Sachs, Leo; Givol, David

    2003-01-01

    Using DNA microarray and clustering of expressed genes we have analyzed the mechanism of inhibition of wild-type p53-induced apoptosis by the cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) and the calcium mobilizer thapsigargin (TG). Clustering analysis of 1,786 genes, the expression level of which changed after activation of wild-type p53 in the absence or presence of IL-6 or TG, showed that these compounds did not cause a general inhibition of the ability of p53 to up-regulate or down-regulate gene ex...

  6. Direct plasma irradiation affects expression of RNAs in cultured mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Mime; Tokaji, Hideto; Kumagai, Shinya

    2016-12-01

    The expression of RNAs in mouse NIH3T3 cells was altered by low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma irradiation. Cell culture liquid media were removed before plasma irradiation so that direct plasma effects can be assessed. After 5 s irradiation, the cells were cultured in media for 1 or 3 h and RNA expression was analyzed using a microarray. When analyzed 1 and 3 h after plasma irradiation, the upregulation of hypothetical transmembrane proteins and U3 small nucleolar RNAs was detected at both time points. Our results provide a basic principle for understanding the molecular mechanisms of plasma effects on mammalian cells.

  7. Encouraging Creativity in the Science Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyster, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Although science is a creative endeavor (NRC 1996, p. 46), many students think they are not encouraged--or even allowed--to be creative in the laboratory. When students think there is only one correct way to do a lab, their creativity is inhibited. Park and Seung (2008) argue for the importance of creativity in science classrooms and for the…

  8. Do markets encourage risk-seeking behaviour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengel, F.; Peeters, R.J.A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive risk taking in markets can have devastating consequences as recent financial crises have high-lighted. In this paper we ask whether markets as an institution encourage such excessive risk taking. To establish causality, we isolate the effects of market interaction in a laboratory

  9. Using Emoticons to Encourage Students to Recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Matthew D.; Trudel, Remi

    2017-01-01

    Uncovering inexpensive, simple techniques to encourage students to act in a pro-environmental manner is of critical importance. Through a four-week field study at a large, environmentally focused elementary school, it was found that placing negatively valenced emoticons (i.e., red frowny faces) on trash cans increased the proportion of recycled…

  10. Reasons encouraging adolescents to take up smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orosova, Olga; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To understand adolescents' smoking behavior by analyzing retrospective self-ratings of the reasons encouraging them to take up smoking. Method: Participating in the study were 883 students (373 boys) of elementary and secondary schools in Kosice, Slovak Republic (74.9% of adolescents in the

  11. Factors affecting the accuracy of a class prediction model in gene expression data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novianti, Putri W; Jong, Victor L; Roes, Kit C B; Eijkemans, Marinus J C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Class prediction models have been shown to have varying performances in clinical gene expression datasets. Previous evaluation studies, mostly done in the field of cancer, showed that the accuracy of class prediction models differs from dataset to dataset and depends on the type of

  12. Factors affecting the accuracy of a class prediction model in gene expression data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. Novianti (Putri W.); V.L. Jong (Victor L.); K.C. Roes (Kit); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Class prediction models have been shown to have varying performances in clinical gene expression datasets. Previous evaluation studies, mostly done in the field of cancer, showed that the accuracy of class prediction models differs from dataset to dataset and depends on the

  13. Luciferase expression and bioluminescence does not affect tumor cell growth in vitro or in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasko John EJ

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Live animal imaging is becoming an increasingly common technique for accurate and quantitative assessment of tumor burden over time. Bioluminescence imaging systems rely on a bioluminescent signal from tumor cells, typically generated from expression of the firefly luciferase gene. However, previous reports have suggested that either a high level of luciferase or the resultant light reaction produced upon addition of D-luciferin substrate can have a negative influence on tumor cell growth. To address this issue, we designed an expression vector that allows simultaneous fluorescence and luminescence imaging. Using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS, we generated clonal cell populations from a human breast cancer (MCF-7 and a mouse melanoma (B16-F10 cell line that stably expressed different levels of luciferase. We then compared the growth capabilities of these clones in vitro by MTT proliferation assay and in vivo by bioluminescence imaging of tumor growth in live mice. Surprisingly, we found that neither the amount of luciferase nor biophotonic activity was sufficient to inhibit tumor cell growth, in vitro or in vivo. These results suggest that luciferase toxicity is not a necessary consideration when designing bioluminescence experiments, and therefore our approach can be used to rapidly generate high levels of luciferase expression for sensitive imaging experiments.

  14. Interplay of gene expression noise and ultrasensitive dynamics affects bacterial operon organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J Christian J; Igoshin, Oleg A

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial chromosomes are organized into polycistronic cotranscribed operons, but the evolutionary pressures maintaining them are unclear. We hypothesized that operons alter gene expression noise characteristics, resulting in selection for or against maintaining operons depending on network architecture. Mathematical models for 6 functional classes of network modules showed that three classes exhibited decreased noise and 3 exhibited increased noise with same-operon cotranscription of interacting proteins. Noise reduction was often associated with a decreased chance of reaching an ultrasensitive threshold. Stochastic simulations of the lac operon demonstrated that the predicted effects of transcriptional coupling hold for a complex network module. We employed bioinformatic analysis to find overrepresentation of noise-minimizing operon organization compared with randomized controls. Among constitutively expressed physically interacting protein pairs, higher coupling frequencies appeared at lower expression levels, where noise effects are expected to be dominant. Our results thereby suggest an important role for gene expression noise, in many cases interacting with an ultrasensitive switch, in maintaining or selecting for operons in bacterial chromosomes.

  15. Interplay of gene expression noise and ultrasensitive dynamics affects bacterial operon organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Christian J Ray

    Full Text Available Bacterial chromosomes are organized into polycistronic cotranscribed operons, but the evolutionary pressures maintaining them are unclear. We hypothesized that operons alter gene expression noise characteristics, resulting in selection for or against maintaining operons depending on network architecture. Mathematical models for 6 functional classes of network modules showed that three classes exhibited decreased noise and 3 exhibited increased noise with same-operon cotranscription of interacting proteins. Noise reduction was often associated with a decreased chance of reaching an ultrasensitive threshold. Stochastic simulations of the lac operon demonstrated that the predicted effects of transcriptional coupling hold for a complex network module. We employed bioinformatic analysis to find overrepresentation of noise-minimizing operon organization compared with randomized controls. Among constitutively expressed physically interacting protein pairs, higher coupling frequencies appeared at lower expression levels, where noise effects are expected to be dominant. Our results thereby suggest an important role for gene expression noise, in many cases interacting with an ultrasensitive switch, in maintaining or selecting for operons in bacterial chromosomes.

  16. Cultivation in different growth media affects the expression of the cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental factors may greatly influence the expression of cell surface components of bacterial pathogens. Few studies have described the effect of growth conditions on the cell surface hydrophobicity of bacterial isolates of certain Gramnegative and Gram-positive bacteria. The present study describes the effects of ...

  17. The JIL-1 kinase affects telomere expression in the different telomere domains of Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute Silva-Sousa

    Full Text Available In Drosophila, the non-LTR retrotransposons HeT-A, TART and TAHRE build a head-to-tail array of repetitions that constitute the telomere domain by targeted transposition at the end of the chromosome whenever needed. As a consequence, Drosophila telomeres have the peculiarity to harbor the genes in charge of telomere elongation. Understanding telomere expression is important in Drosophila since telomere homeostasis depends in part on the expression of this genomic compartment. We have recently shown that the essential kinase JIL-1 is the first positive regulator of the telomere retrotransposons. JIL-1 mediates chromatin changes at the promoter of the HeT-A retrotransposon that are necessary to obtain wild type levels of expression of these telomere transposons. With the present study, we show how JIL-1 is also needed for the expression of a reporter gene embedded in the telomere domain. Our analysis, using different reporter lines from the telomere and subtelomere domains of different chromosomes, indicates that JIL-1 likely acts protecting the telomere domain from the spreading of repressive chromatin from the adjacent subtelomere domain. Moreover, the analysis of the 4R telomere suggests a slightly different chromatin structure at this telomere. In summary, our results strongly suggest that the action of JIL-1 depends on which telomere domain, which chromosome and which promoter is embedded in the telomere chromatin.

  18. Pulsatile atheroprone shear stress affects the expression of transient receptor potential channels in human endothelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Vorderwülbecke, Bernd J; Marki, Alex

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the study was to assess whether pulsatile atheroprone shear stress modulates the expression of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, TRPC3, TRPC6, TRPM7, and TRPV1 mRNA, in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. Exposure of cultured vascular endothelial cells to defined...

  19. Leukocyte count affects expression of reference genes in canine whole blood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.; Brinkhof, B.; Rothuizen, J.; Dekker, A.; Penning, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The dog is frequently used as a model for hematologic human diseases. In this study the suitability of nine potential reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in canine whole blood was investigated. Findings The expression of these genes was measured in whole blood samples of 263

  20. Maternal High Fat Diet Affects Offspring's Vitamin K-Dependent Proteins Expression Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Lanham

    Full Text Available Studies suggest bone growth & development and susceptibility to vascular disease in later life are influenced by maternal nutrition, during intrauterine and early postnatal life. There is evidence for a role of vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs including Osteocalcin, Matrix-gla protein, Periostin, and Gas6, in bone and vascular development. This study extends the analysis of VKDPs previously conducted in 6 week old offspring, into offspring of 30 weeks of age, to assess the longer term effects of a maternal and postnatal high fat (HF diet on VKDP expression. Overall a HF maternal diet and offspring diet exacerbated the bone changes observed. Sex specific and tissue specific differences were observed in VKDP expression for both aorta and femoral tissues. In addition, significant correlations were observed between femoral OCN, Periostin Gas6, and Vkor expression levels and measures of femoral bone structure. Furthermore, MGP, OCN, Ggcx and Vkor expression levels correlated to mass and fat volume, in both sexes. In summary the current study has highlighted the importance of the long-term effects of maternal nutrition on offspring bone development and the correlation of VKDPs to bone structure.

  1. Critical Factors Affecting the Success of Cloning, Expression, and Mass Production of Enzymes by Recombinant E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakruddin, Md; Mohammad Mazumdar, Reaz; Bin Mannan, Khanjada Shahnewaj; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Hossain, Md Nur

    2013-01-01

    E. coli is the most frequently used host for production of enzymes and other proteins by recombinant DNA technology. E. coli is preferable for its relative simplicity, inexpensive and fast high-density cultivation, well-known genetics, and large number of compatible molecular tools available. Despite all these advantages, expression and production of recombinant enzymes are not always successful and often result in insoluble and nonfunctional proteins. There are many factors that affect the success of cloning, expression, and mass production of enzymes by recombinant E. coli. In this paper, these critical factors and approaches to overcome these obstacles are summarized focusing controlled expression of target protein/enzyme in an unmodified form at industrial level.

  2. Mesoderm-specific Stat3 deletion affects expression of Sox9 yielding Sox9-dependent phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Hall

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To date, mutations within the coding region and translocations around the SOX9 gene both constitute the majority of genetic lesions underpinning human campomelic dysplasia (CD. While pathological coding-region mutations typically result in a non-functional SOX9 protein, little is known about what mechanism(s controls normal SOX9 expression, and subsequently, which signaling pathways may be interrupted by alterations occurring around the SOX9 gene. Here, we report the identification of Stat3 as a key modulator of Sox9 expression in nascent cartilage and developing chondrocytes. Stat3 expression is predominant in tissues of mesodermal origin, and its conditional ablation using mesoderm-specific TCre, in vivo, causes dwarfism and skeletal defects characteristic of CD. Specifically, Stat3 loss results in the expansion of growth plate hypertrophic chondrocytes and deregulation of normal endochondral ossification in all bones examined. Conditional deletion of Stat3 with a Sox9Cre driver produces palate and tracheal irregularities similar to those described in Sox9+/- mice. Furthermore, mesodermal deletion of Stat3 causes global embryonic down regulation of Sox9 expression and function in vivo. Mechanistic experiments ex vivo suggest Stat3 can directly activate the expression of Sox9 by binding to its proximal promoter following activation. These findings illuminate a novel role for Stat3 in chondrocytes during skeletal development through modulation of a critical factor, Sox9. Importantly, they further provide the first evidence for the modulation of a gene product other than Sox9 itself which is capable of modeling pathological aspects of CD and underscore a potentially valuable therapeutic target for patients with the disorder.

  3. Serotonin and ionizing radiation synergistically affect proliferation and adhesion molecule expression of malignant melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kerstin; Gilbertz, Klaus-Peter; Meineke, Viktor

    2012-11-01

    Mast cells are key effectors of the immune system and are involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Dermal mast cells have been demonstrated to degranulate as a consequence of ionizing radiation exposure. Mast cells accumulate at the periphery of skin tumours including malignant melanoma. Melanoma cells thus represent a potential target for the action of mediators released from irradiated mast cells. In this study, we evaluated the effects of serotonin and ionizing radiation on the proliferation and the adhesion molecule expression of malignant melanoma cells. Human mast cells (HMC-1) were examined for serotonin release after irradiation using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Protein expression of serotonin receptors and adhesion molecules on human melanoma cells (IPC-298) was investigated by flow cytometry. Cell attachment to fibronectin was determined by an adhesion assay. Proliferation and cell cycle kinetics were analysed by proliferation assay and 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)/DNA dual parameter flow cytometry, respectively. Ionizing radiation exposure resulted in serotonin release by HMC-1 cells. Expression of serotonin receptors was detected on IPC-298 cells. Serotonin enhanced the radiation-induced reduction in melanoma cell proliferation. Serotonin and ionizing radiation synergistically increased the expression of adhesion molecules on melanoma cells and improved cell adhesion to fibronectin. The up-regulation of cellular adhesion molecule expression was attenuated by inhibitors to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) ERK kinase and protein kinase C. Our data suggest that serotonin released from irradiated dermal mast cells modulates the radiation response of human melanoma cells. We postulate that radiation-induced mast cell degranulation and mediator release have a great impact on malignant melanoma cell development. Copyright © 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology

  4. Letrozole induced low estrogen levels affected the expressions of duodenal and renal calcium-processing gene in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiao; Zhao, Xingkai; Wang, Shujie; Zhou, Zhenlei

    2017-10-14

    Estrogen regulates the calcium homeostasis in hens, but the mechanisms involved are still unclear fully. In this study, we investigated whether letrozole (LZ) induced low estrogen levels affected the calcium absorption and transport in layers. In the duodenum, we observed a significant decrease of mRNA expressions of Calbindin-28k (CaBP-28k) and plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA 1b) while CaBP-28k protein expression was declined in birds with LZ treatment, and the mRNA levels of duodenal transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 (TRPV6) and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger 1 (NCX1) were not affected. Interestingly, we observed the different changes in the kidney. The renal mRNA expressions of TRPV6 and NCX1 were unregulated while the PMCA1b was down-regulated in low estrogen layers, however, the CaBP-28k gene and protein expressions were no changed in the kidney. Furthermore, it showed that the duodenal estradiol receptor 2 (ESR2) transcripts rather than parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1R) and calcitonin receptor (CALCR) played key roles to down-regulate calcium transport in LZ-treated birds. In conclusion, CaBP-28k, PMCA 1b and ESR2 genes in the duodenum may be primary targets for estrogen regulation in order to control calcium homeostasis in hens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fructose intake during gestation and lactation differentially affects the expression of hippocampal neurosteroidogenic enzymes in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Genki; Munetsuna, Eiji; Yamada, Hiroya; Ando, Yoshitaka; Yamazaki, Mirai; Murase, Yuri; Kondo, Kanako; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Teradaira, Ryoji; Suzuki, Koji; Ohashi, Koji

    2017-02-01

    Neurosteroids, steroidal hormones synthesized de novo from cholesterol within the brain, stimulate hippocampal functions such as neuron protection and synapse formation. Previously, we examined the effect of maternal fructose on the transcriptional regulation of neurosteroidogenic enzymes. We found that the mRNA expression level of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), cytochrome P450(11β), 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), and 17β-HSD was altered. However, we could not determine whether maternal fructose intake played a role in the gestation or lactation period because the dam rats were fed fructose solution during both periods. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the hippocampi of the offspring of dams fed fructose during the gestation or lactation period. Maternal fructose consumption during either the gestation or lactation period did not affect the mRNA levels of StAR, P450(17α), 11β-HSD-2, and 17β-HSD-1. PBR expression was down-regulated, even when rats consumed fructose during the lactation period only, while fructose consumption during gestation tended to activate the expression of P450(11β)-2. We found that maternal fructose intake during gestation and lactation differentially affected the expression of hippocampal neurosteroidogenic enzymes in the offspring.

  6. GnRH-agonist implants suppress reproductive function and affects ovarian LHR and FSHR expression in prepubertal female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, N S; Srisuwatanasagul, S; Swangchan-Uthai, T; Sirivaidyapong, S; Khalid, M

    2017-01-01

    Effect of a GnRH-agonist (deslorelin) was studied on reproductive function and ovarian luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) expression in prepubertal female cats that were either implanted with 4.7-mg deslorelin (implanted: n = 6) or not (controls: n = 18) or ovariohysterectomized at prepubertal age (prepubertal OVH: n = 6). Body weights, fecal estradiol, and sexual behavior of implanted and control cats were monitored for 48 weeks followed by collection of ovaries and uteri. Ovaries and uteri were collected from control cats at follicular, luteal, and inactive stage (n = 6/group) and from prepubertal OVH cats at prepubertal age. Ovaries and uteri were analyzed for anatomical/histological characteristics. Ovaries were also analyzed for LHR and FSHR expression. Statistical analysis showed higher (P ≤ 0.05) body weight in control than implanted cats only during 22nd to 26th weeks of the study. Estrus was observed in control cats only. Deslorelin reduced (P ≤ 0.05) ovarian weight and number of antral follicles but did not affect endometrial thickness and gland diameter. However, myometrial thickness of implanted cats was significantly lower than control cats at follicular and luteal stage. Ovarian LHR mRNA expression was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in implanted cats than control cats at follicular stage. FSHR mRNA and LHR protein expression did not differ among the three groups. FSHR protein expression was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in prepubertal OVH cats and was not affected by deslorelin. In conclusion, deslorelin suppresses reproductive function in prepubertal female cats for at least 48 weeks possibly through a change in the ovarian mRNA expression of LHR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sex differences in the perception of affective facial expressions: Do men really lack emotional sensitivity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montagne, B.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Frigerio, E.; Haan, E.H.F. de; Perrett, D.I.

    2005-01-01

    There is evidence that men and women display differences in both cognitive and affective functions. Recent studies have examined the processing of emotions in males and females. However, the findings are inconclusive, possibly the result of methodological differences. The aim of this study was to

  8. Dietary Protein Affects Gene Expression and Prevents Lipid Accumulation in the Liver in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, J.; Tome, D.G.; Baars, A.; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J.; Müller, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: High protein (HP) diets are suggested to positively modulate obesity and associated increased prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) disease in humans and rodents. The aim of our study was to detect mechanisms by which a HP diet affects hepatic lipid accumulation.

  9. Large-Scale Identification of Common Trait and Disease Variants Affecting Gene Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Mads Engel; Zhang, Wen; Giambartolomei, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a multitude of genetic loci involved with traits and diseases. However, it is often unclear which genes are affected in such loci and whether the associated genetic variants lead to increased or decreased gene function. To mitigate this, we ...

  10. How a tolerant past affects the present: historical tolerance and the acceptance of Muslim expressive rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeekes, Anouk; Verkuyten, Maykel; Poppe, Edwin

    2012-11-01

    Three studies, conducted in The Netherlands, examined the relationship between a tolerant representation of national history and the acceptance of Muslim expressive rights. Following self-categorization theory, it was hypothesized that historical tolerance would be associated with greater acceptance of Muslim expressive rights, especially for natives who strongly identify with their national in-group. Furthermore, it was predicted that the positive effect of representations of historical tolerance on higher identifiers' acceptance could be explained by reduced perceptions of identity incompatibility. The results of Study 1 confirmed the first hypothesis, and the results of Study 2 and Study 3 supported the second hypothesis. These findings underline the importance of historical representations of the nation for understanding current reactions toward immigrants. Importantly, the results show that a tolerant representation of national history can elevate acceptance of immigrants, especially among natives who feel a relatively strong sense of belonging to their nation.

  11. Visual search for facial expressions of emotion is less affected in simultanagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegna, Alan J; Caldara-Schnetzer, Anne-Sarah; Khateb, Asaid

    2008-01-01

    Evidence in healthy human subjects has suggested that angry faces may be enhanced during spatial processing, perhaps even "popping-out" of a crowd. These contentions have remained controversial, but two recent reports in patients suffering from unilateral spatial neglect have lent some support to these views, suggesting that emotional faces capture attention more efficiently than neutral stimuli in the neglected field. Here, we investigate this phenomenon in a patient suffering from severe Balint's syndrome and consequent simultanagnosia. Using a visual search paradigm, we studied differences in the detection of angry, happy and neutral faces, as well as non-emotional stimuli. Results revealed that emotionally expressive faces, in particular anger, were detected more efficiently than other stimuli. These findings corroborate claims that facial expressions of emotion constitute a specific category of stimuli that attract attention more effectively, and are processed prior to attentional engagement.

  12. Herbivory and competition interact to affect reproductive traits and mating system expression in Impatiens capensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steets, Janette A; Salla, Rhiannon; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2006-04-01

    As a step toward understanding how community context shapes mating system evolution, we investigated the combined role of two plant antagonisms, vegetative herbivory and intraspecific competition, for reproduction and mating system expression (relative production of selfing, cleistogamous and facultatively outcrossing, chasmogamous flowers and fruits) of Impatiens capensis. In a survey of I. capensis populations, we found that vegetative herbivory and intraspecific competition were positively correlated. In a greenhouse experiment where leaf damage and plant density were manipulated, multispecies interactions had dramatic effects on reproductive and mating system traits. Despite having additive effects on growth, herbivory and competition had nonadditive effects for mating system expression, chasmogamous fruit production, flower number and size, and cleistogamous flower production. Our results demonstrate that competitive interactions influence the effect of herbivory (and vice versa) on fitness components and mating system, and thus antagonisms may have unforeseen consequences for mating system evolution, population genetic diversity, and persistence.

  13. Early Exercise Affects Mitochondrial Transcription Factors Expression after Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongshan Hu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that exercise training is neuroprotective after stroke, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. To clarify this critical issue, the current study investigated the effects of early treadmill exercise on the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors. Adult rats were subjected to ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. Expression of two genes critical for transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1 (PGC-1 and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1, were examined by RT-PCR after five days of exercise starting at 24 h after ischemia. Mitochondrial protein cytochrome C oxidase subunit IV (COX IV was detected by Western blot. Neurological status and cerebral infarct volume were evaluated as indices of brain damage. Treadmill training increased levels of PGC-1 and NRF-1 mRNA, indicating that exercise promotes rehabilitation after ischemia via regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis.

  14. Zinc Affects Differently Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Phytochelatin Synthase Expression of Four Marine Diatoms

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Le Nhung Nguyen-Deroche; Aurore Caruso; Thi Trung Le; Trang Viet Bui; Benoît Schoefs; Gérard Tremblin; Annick Morant-Manceau

    2012-01-01

    Zinc-supplementation (20  μ M) effects on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase), and the expression of phytochelatin synthase gene were investigated in four marine diatoms (Amphora acutiuscula, Nitzschia palea, Amphora coffeaeformis and Entomoneis paludosa). Zn-supplementation reduced the maximum cell density. A linear relationship was found between the evolution of gross photosynthesis and total chlorophyll content. The Z...

  15. Growth condition-dependent Esp expression by Enterococcus faecium affects initial adherence and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wamel, Willem J B; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Bonten, Marc J M; Top, Janetta; Posthuma, George; Willems, Rob J L

    2007-02-01

    A genetic subpopulation of Enterococcus faecium, called clonal complex 17 (CC-17), is strongly associated with hospital outbreaks and invasive infections. Most CC-17 strains contain a putative pathogenicity island encoding the E. faecium variant of enterococcal surface protein (Esp). Western blotting, flow cytometric analyses, and electron microscopy showed that Esp is expressed and exposed on the surface of E. faecium, though Esp expression and surface exposure are highly varied among different strains. Furthermore, Esp expression depends on growth conditions like temperature and anaerobioses. When grown at 37 degrees C, five of six esp-positive E. faecium strains showed significantly increased levels of surface-exposed Esp compared to bacteria grown at 21 degrees C, which was confirmed at the transcriptional level by real-time PCR. In addition, a significant increase in surface-exposed Esp was found in half of these strains when grown at 37 degrees C under anaerobic conditions compared to the level in bacteria grown under aerobic conditions. Finally, amounts of surface-exposed Esp correlated with initial adherence to polystyrene (R(2) = 0.7146) and biofilm formation (R(2) = 0.7535). Polystyrene adherence was competitively inhibited by soluble recombinant N-terminal Esp. This study demonstrates that Esp expression on the surface of E. faecium (i) varies consistently between strains, (ii) is growth condition dependent, and (iii) is quantitatively correlated with initial adherence and biofilm formation. These data indicate that E. faecium senses and responds to changing environmental conditions, which might play a role in the early stages of infection when bacteria transit from oxygen-rich conditions at room temperature to anaerobic conditions at body temperature. In addition, variation of surface exposure may explain the contrasting findings reported on the role of Esp in biofilm formation.

  16. Linker length affects expression and bioactivity of the onconase fusion protein in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G G; Xu, X Y; Ding, Y; Cui, Q Q; Wang, Z; Zhang, Q Y; Shi, S H; Lv, Z Y; Wang, X Y; Zhang, J H; Zhang, R G; Xu, C S

    2015-12-29

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of linker length on the expression and biological activity of recombinant protein onconase (ONC) in fusion with human serum albumin (HSA) in Pichia pastoris. Four flexible linkers with different lengths namely Linker L0, L1: (GGGGS)1, L2: (GGGGS)2, and L3:(GGGGS)3 were inserted into the fusion gene and referred to as HSA-n-ONC, where N = 0, 5, 10, or 15. The sequence of the fusion gene HSA-ONC was designed based on the GC content and codon bias in P. pastoris; the signal peptide of albumin was used as the secretion signal. Gene sequences coding for the fusion protein with different linkers were inserted into pPICZα-A to form recombinant plasmids pPICZα-A/HSA-n-ONC, which were then transformed into P. pastoris X-33 for protein expression. Ideal conditions for expression of the fusion proteins were optimized at a small scale, using shake flasks before proceeding to mass production in 10-L fermenters. The recombinant fusion proteins were purified by aqueous two-phase extraction coupled with DEAE anion exchange chromatography, and their cytotoxic effect on the tumor cell was evaluated by the sulforhodamine B assay. The results showed that the expressed amount of fusion proteins had no significant relationship with the length of different linkers and rHSA-0-ONC had no cytotoxic effect on the tumor cells. While rHSA-5-ONC and rHSA-10-ONC had a weak cytotoxic effect, rHSA-15-ONC could kill various tumor cells in vitro. In summary, the biological activity of the fusion protein gradually improved with increasing length of the linker.

  17. Advanced sleep schedules affect circadian gene expression in young adults with delayed sleep schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Fu, Alan; Hoffman, Aaron E; Figueiro, Mariana G; Carskadon, Mary A; Sharkey, Katherine M; Rea, Mark S

    2013-05-01

    Human circadian rhythms are regulated by the interplay between circadian genes and environmental stimuli. The influence of altered sleep-wake schedules or light on human circadian gene expression patterns is not well characterized. Twenty-one young adults were asked to keep to their usual sleep schedules and two blood samples were drawn at the end of the first week from each subject based on estimated time of dim light melatonin onset (DLMO); the first sample was obtained one and a half hours before the estimated DLMO and the second three hours later, at one and a half hours after the estimated DLMO. During the second week, participants were randomized into two groups, one that received a one hour blue-light (λmax=470 nm) exposure in the morning and one that received a comparable morning dim-light exposure. Two blood samples were obtained at the same clock times as the previous week at the end of the second week. We measured the expression of 10 circadian genes in response to sleep-wake schedule advancement and morning blue-light stimulation in the peripheral blood of 21 participants during a two-week field study. We found that nine of the 10 circadian genes showed significant expression changes from the first to the second week for participants in both the blue-light and dim-light groups, likely reflecting significant advances in circadian phase. This wholesale change in circadian gene expression may reflect considerable advances in circadian phase (i.e., advance in DLMO) from the first to the second week resulting from the advanced, daily personal light exposures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cathepsin D expression level affects alpha-synuclein processing, aggregation, and toxicity in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cullen Valerie

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated SNCA gene expression and intracellular accumulation of the encoded α-synuclein (aSyn protein are associated with the development of Parkinson disease (PD. To date, few enzymes have been examined for their ability to degrade aSyn. Here, we explore the effects of CTSD gene expression, which encodes the lysosomal protease cathepsin D (CathD, on aSyn processing. Results Over-expression of human CTSD cDNA in dopaminergic MES23.5 cell cultures induced the marked proteolysis of exogenously expressed aSyn proteins in a dose-dependent manner. Unexpectedly, brain extractions, Western blotting and ELISA quantification revealed evidence for reduced levels of soluble endogenous aSyn in ctsd knock-out mice. However, these CathD-deficient mice also contained elevated levels of insoluble, oligomeric aSyn species, as detected by formic acid extraction. In accordance, immunohistochemical studies of ctsd-mutant brain from mice, sheep and humans revealed selective synucleinopathy-like changes that varied slightly among the three species. These changes included intracellular aSyn accumulation and formation of ubiquitin-positive inclusions. Furthermore, using an established Drosophila model of human synucleinopathy, we observed markedly enhanced retinal toxicity in ctsd-null flies. Conclusion We conclude from these complementary investigations that: one, CathD can effectively degrade excess aSyn in dopaminergic cells; two, ctsd gene mutations result in a lysosomal storage disorder that includes microscopic and biochemical evidence of aSyn misprocessing; and three, CathD deficiency facilitates aSyn toxicity. We therefore postulate that CathD promotes 'synucleinase' activity, and that enhancing its function may lower aSyn concentrations in vivo.

  19. Acid environments affect biofilm formation and gene expression in isolates of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Denis; McCabe, Evonne M; McCusker, Matthew P; Martins, Marta; Fanning, Séamus; Duffy, Geraldine

    2015-08-03

    The aim of this study was to examine the survival and potential virulence of biofilm-forming Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 under mild acid conditions. Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 employs an acid tolerance response (ATR) allowing it to adapt to acidic environments. The threat that these acid adapted cells pose to food safety could be enhanced if they also produce biofilms in acidic conditions. The cells were acid-adapted by culturing them in 1% glucose and their ability to form biofilms on stainless steel and on the surface of Luria Bertani (LB) broth at pH7 and pH5 was examined. Plate counts were performed to examine cell survival. RNA was isolated from cells to examine changes in the expression of genes associated with virulence, invasion, biofilm formation and global gene regulation in response to acid stress. Of the 4 isolates that were examined only one (1481) that produced a rigid biofilm in LB broth at pH7 also formed this same structure at pH5. This indicated that the lactic acid severely impeded the biofilm producing capabilities of the other isolates examined under these conditions. Isolate 1481 also had higher expression of genes associated with virulence (hilA) and invasion (invA) with a 24.34-fold and 13.68-fold increase in relative gene expression respectively at pH5 compared to pH7. Although genes associated with biofilm formation had increased expression in response to acid stress for all the isolates this only resulted in the formation of a biofilm by isolate 1481. This suggests that in addition to the range of genes associated with biofilm production at neutral pH, there are genes whose protein products specifically aid in biofilm production in acidic environments. Furthermore, it highlights the potential for the use of lactic acid for the inhibition of Salmonella biofilms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ADAM17 deletion in thymic epithelial cells alters aire expression without affecting T cell developmental progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Gravano

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cellular interactions between thymocytes and thymic stromal cells are critical for normal T cell development. Thymic epithelial cells (TECs are important stromal niche cells that provide essential growth factors, cytokines, and present self-antigens to developing thymocytes. The identification of genes that mediate cellular crosstalk in the thymus is ongoing. One candidate gene, Adam17, encodes a metalloprotease that functions by cleaving the ectodomain of several transmembrane proteins and regulates various developmental processes. In conventional Adam17 knockout mice, a non-cell autonomous role for ADAM17 in adult T cell development was reported, which strongly suggested that expression of ADAM17 in TECs was required for normal T cell development. However, knockdown of Adam17 results in multisystem developmental defects and perinatal lethality, which has made study of the role of Adam17 in specific cell types difficult. Here, we examined T cell and thymic epithelial cell development using a conditional knockout approach.We generated an Adam17 conditional knockout mouse in which floxed Adam17 is deleted specifically in TECs by Cre recombinase under the control of the Foxn1 promoter. Normal T cell lineage choice and development through the canonical αβ T cell stages was observed. Interestingly, Adam17 deficiency in TECs resulted in reduced expression of the transcription factor Aire. However, no alterations in the patterns of TEC phenotypic marker expression and thymus morphology were noted.In contrast to expectation, our data clearly shows that absence of Adam17 in TECs is dispensable for normal T cell development. Differentiation of TECs is also unaffected by loss of Adam17 based on phenotypic markers. Surprisingly, we have uncovered a novel genetic link between Adam17and Aire expression in vivo. The cell type in which ADAM17 mediates its non-cell autonomous impact and the mechanisms by which it regulates intrathymic T cell development

  1. Heat Stress Affects Pi-related Genes Expression and Inorganic Phosphate Deposition/Accumulation in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacak, Andrzej; Barciszewska-Pacak, Maria; Swida-Barteczka, Aleksandra; Kruszka, Katarzyna; Sega, Pawel; Milanowska, Kaja; Jakobsen, Iver; Jarmolowski, Artur; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) in plants is taken from soil as an inorganic phosphate (Pi) and is one of the most important macroelements in growth and development. Plants actively react to Pi starvation by the induced expression of Pi transporters, MIR399, MIR827, and miR399 molecular sponge - IPS1 genes and by the decreased expression of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 (PHOSPHATE2 - PHO2) and Pi sensing and transport SPX-MFS genes. The PHO2 protein is involved in the degradation of Pi transporters PHT1;1 (from soil to roots) and PHO1 (from roots to shoots). The decreased expression of PHO2 leads to Pi accumulation in shoots. In contrast, the pho1 mutant shows a decreased level of Pi concentration in shoots. Finally, Pi starvation leads to decreased Pi concentration in all plant tissues. Little is known about plant Pi homeostasis in other abiotic stress conditions. We found that, during the first hour of heat stress, Pi accumulated in barley shoots but not in the roots, and transcriptomic data analysis as well as RT-qPCR led us to propose an explanation for this phenomenon. Pi transport inhibition from soil to roots is balanced by lower Pi efflux from roots to shoots directed by the PHO1 transporter. In shoots, the PHO2 mRNA level is decreased, leading to an increased Pi level. We concluded that Pi homeostasis in barley during heat stress is maintained by dynamic changes in Pi-related genes expression.

  2. Curcumin Affects Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Aging Through TERT Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirmoradi, Samaneh; Fathi, Ezzatollah; Farahzadi, Raheleh; Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Younes; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2017-10-10

    Aging and losing cell survival is one of the main problems in cell therapy. Aging of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) is associated with a rise in intracellular reactive oxygen species, decrease in telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression and finally eroded telomere ends. Given that the production of free radicals in the aging process is effective, the use of antioxidants can help in scavenging free radicals and prevent the aging of cells. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of curcumin on proliferation, aging and TERT expression of rat adipose tissue-derived stem cells (rADSC). rADSCs were isolated from inguinal rat adipose tissue and their viabilities were assessed by MTT after exposure to different concentrations of curcumin. Flow-cytometry was performed for investigating the cell surface markers. Adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation were carried out to evaluate the pluripotency of rADSCs. Telomerase expression and percentage of senescent cells were evaluated using real-time PCR and senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, respectively. The results demonstrated significant proliferation of rADSCs after 48 h treatment with 1 and 5 µM curcumin. Additionally, these concentrations could significantly reduce the population doubling time and aging of rADSCs at different passages. The findings of SA-ß-gal staining showed that curcumin significantly decreased the number of senescent cells in the 5 and 7 cell passages. Moreover, expression levels of TERT increased in the presence of 1 and 5 µM curcumin than control group (Pexpression. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Gene expression in gut symbiotic organ of stinkbug affected by extracellular bacterial symbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futahashi, Ryo; Tanaka, Kohjiro; Tanahashi, Masahiko; Nikoh, Naruo; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Lee, Bok Luel; Fukatsu, Takema

    2013-01-01

    The bean bug Riptortus pedestris possesses a specialized symbiotic organ in a posterior region of the midgut, where numerous crypts harbor extracellular betaproteobacterial symbionts of the genus Burkholderia. Second instar nymphs orally acquire the symbiont from the environment, and the symbiont infection benefits the host by facilitating growth and by occasionally conferring insecticide resistance. Here we performed comparative transcriptomic analyses of insect genes expressed in symbiotic and non-symbiotic regions of the midgut dissected from Burkholderia-infected and uninfected R. pedestris. Expression sequence tag analysis of cDNA libraries and quantitative reverse transcription PCR identified a number of insect genes expressed in symbiosis- or aposymbiosis-associated patterns. For example, genes up-regulated in symbiotic relative to aposymbiotic individuals, including many cysteine-rich secreted protein genes and many cathepsin protease genes, are likely to play a role in regulating the symbiosis. Conversely, genes up-regulated in aposymbiotic relative to symbiotic individuals, including a chicken-type lysozyme gene and a defensin-like protein gene, are possibly involved in regulation of non-symbiotic bacterial infections. Our study presents the first transcriptomic data on gut symbiotic organ of a stinkbug, which provides initial clues to understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the insect-bacterium gut symbiosis and sheds light on several intriguing commonalities between endocellular and extracellular symbiotic associations.

  4. Mammographic extent of microcalcifications and oestrogen receptor expression affect preoperative breast carcinoma in situ size estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernet-Tomas, Maria; Mojal, Sergi; Gamero, Rocío; Nicolau, Pau; Rodríguez-Arana, Ana; Plancarte, Francisco; Corominas, Josep M; Serrano-Munne, Laia; Carreras, Ramon; Sabadell, Dolors

    2017-05-01

    The aim of our study was to establish which clinical, radiologic and pathologic factors could predict the risk of under- and overestimation of the breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) size when preoperatively measuring the maximum mammographic extent of microcalcifications (MEM). We made a retrospective review of patients with a DCIS treated in our Breast Unit between May 2005 and May 2012. Clinical, pathologic and radiologic data were evaluated as possible predictive factors for over- or underestimation of DCIS size when measuring MEM. We obtained precise measurements of MEM in 82 patients (84 DCIS lesions). Maximum MEM measurement correctly estimated maximum pathology size in 57 lesions (68.7 %). Patients with a correctly estimated DCIS, with an underestimated DCIS and with an overestimated DCIS significantly differed in DCIS ER expression (p = 0.022) and in maximum MEM measurement (p = 0.000). Constructing two ROC curves, we found that a maximum MEM measurement ≥25 mm and ER expression ≥90 % were both discrimination points for overestimation and ER ≤ 45 % was a discrimination point for underestimation. Using these cutoff points, we defined four groups of patients with different risks of over- and underestimation. Risk of over- or underestimation of DCIS size through MEM measurement depends on DCIS ER expression and MEM itself. Identifying which patients are at a significant risk of over- or underestimation could help the breast surgeon when discussing the surgical options with the patient.

  5. Heat Stress Affects Pi-related Genes Expression and Inorganic Phosphate Deposition/Accumulation in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacak, Andrzej; Barciszewska-Pacak, Maria; Swida-Barteczka, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    and by the decreased expression of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 (PHOSPHATE2 - PHO2) and Pi sensing and transport SPX-MFS genes. The PHO2 protein is involved in the degradation of Pi transporters PHT1;1 (from soil to roots) and PHO1 (from roots to shoots). The decreased expression of PHO2 leads to Pi......Phosphorus (P) in plants is taken from soil as an inorganic phosphate (Pi) and is one of the most important macroelements in growth and development. Plants actively react to Pi starvation by the induced expression of Pi transporters, MIR399, MIR827, and miR399 molecular sponge - IPS1 genes...... of heat stress, Pi accumulated in barley shoots but not in the roots, and transcriptomic data analysis as well as RT-qPCR led us to propose an explanation for this phenomenon. Pi transport inhibition from soil to roots is balanced by lower Pi efflux from roots to shoots directed by the PHO1 transporter...

  6. Modification of AtGRDP1 gene expression affects silique and seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Aída Araceli; Muro-Medina, Carlos Vladimir; Ramírez-Alonso, Jocelin Itzel; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2017-04-29

    Glycine Rich Proteins (GRPs) are induced at different developmental stages and in specific plant tissues. Recently, we described a novel Arabidopsis gene encoding a short glycine-rich domain protein (AtGRDP1). This gene is involved in abiotic stress responsiveness; the Atgrdp1-null mutant seeds were more sensitive to stress, while the opposite phenotype was achieved by AtGRDP1 overexpression. In this study, we analyzed the phenotype of the fruits produced by Arabidopsis Atgrdp1 mutants and 35S::AtGRDP1 overexpression lines. Our analyses revealed important changes in silique length, seed number, seed weight and morphology in the analyzed lines. In particular, Atgrdp1 mutant lines exhibited several defects including short siliques, a diminished number of seeds per silique, and a reduction in seed size and weight as compared to Col-0. The overexpression of the AtGRDP1 gene also generated phenotypes with alterations in size of silique, number of seeds per silique, and size and weight of the seed. In addition, the expression analysis of AtGRDP1 gene showed that it was expressed in floral and fruit organs, with the highest expression level in mature siliques. The alterations in the siliques and seeds traits in the Atgrdp1 mutant line, as well as the phenotypes observed in AtGRDP1 overexpression lines, suggest a role of the AtGRDP1 gene in the Arabidopsis fruit development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Paternal obesity in a rodent model affects placental gene expression in a sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Natalie K; Beard, Sally A; Kaitu'u-Lino, Tu'uhevaha J; Tong, Stephen; Hannan, Natalie J; Gardner, David K

    2015-05-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a major obstetric complication stemming from poor placental development. We have previously demonstrated that paternal obesity in mice is associated with impaired embryo development and significantly reduced fetal and placental weights. We hypothesised that the FGR observed in our rodent model of paternal diet-induced obesity is associated with alterations in metabolic, cell signalling and stress pathways. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed either a normal or high-fat diet for 10 weeks before sperm collection for IVF and subsequent embryo transfer. On embryonic day 14, placentas were collected and RNA extracted from both male and female placentas to assess mRNA expression of 24 target genes using custom RT-qPCR arrays. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (Ppara) and caspase-12 (Casp12) expression were significantly altered in male placentas from obese fathers compared with normal (Pobese fathers compared with normal (Pobesity is associated with changes in gene expression and methylation status of extraembryonic tissue in a sex-specific manner. These findings reinforce the negative consequences of paternal obesity before conception, and emphasise the need for more lifestyle advice for prospective fathers. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  8. Methyl jasmonate affects phenolic metabolism and gene expression in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocetta, Giacomo; Rossoni, Mara; Gardana, Claudio; Mignani, Ilaria; Ferrante, Antonio; Spinardi, Anna

    2015-02-01

    Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) is a fruit very much appreciated by consumers for its antioxidant potential and health-promoting traits. Its beneficial potential properties are mainly due to a high content of anthocyanins and their amount can change after elicitation with methyl jasmonate. The aim of this work is to evaluate the changes in expression of several genes, accumulation of phenolic compounds and alterations in antioxidant potential in two different blueberry cultivars ('Duke' and 'Blueray') in response to methyl jasmonate (0.1 mM). Results showed that 9 h after treatment, the expression of phenylalanine ammonium lyase, chalcone synthase and anthocyanidin synthase genes was stimulated more in the 'Blueray' variety. Among the phenols measured an increase was recorded also for epicatechin and anthocyanin concentrations. 'Duke' is a richer sourche of anthocyanins compared to 'Blueray', treatment with methyl jasmonate promoted in 'Blueray' an increase in pigments as well as in the antioxidant potential, especially in fully ripe berries, but treated 'Duke' berries had greater levels, which were not induced by methyl jasmonate treatment. In conclusion, methyl jasmonate was, in some cases, an effective elicitor of phenolic metabolism and gene expression in blueberry, though with different intensity between cultivars. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  9. Photodynamic therapy affects the expression of IL-6 and IL-10 in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollnick, Sandra O.; Musser, David A.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    1998-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), which can effectively destroy malignant tissue, also induces a complex immune response which potentiates anti-tumor immunity, but also inhibits skin contact hypersensitivity (CHS) and prolongs skin graft survival. The underlying mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood, but are likely to involve meditation by cytokines. We demonstrate in a BALB/c mouse model that PDT delivered to normal and tumor tissue in vivo causes marked changes in the expression of cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10. IL-6 mRNA and protein are rapidly and strongly enhanced in the PDT treated EMT6 tumor. Previous studies have shown that intratumoral injection of IL- 6 or transduction of the IL-6 gene into tumor cells can enhance tumor immunogenicity and inhibit tumor growth in experimental murine tumor systems. Thus, PDT may enhance local anti-tumor immunity by up-regulating IL-6. PDT also results in an increase in IL-10 mRNA and protein in the skin. The same PDT regime which enhances IL-10 production in the skin has been shown to strongly inhibit the CHS response. The kinetics of IL-10 expression coincide with the known kinetics of PDT induced CHS suppression and we propose that the enhanced IL-10 expression plays a role in the observed suppression of cell mediated responses seen following PDT.

  10. Intestinal microbiota differentially affect brush border enzyme activity and gene expression in the neonatal gnotobiotic pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willing, B P; Van Kessel, A G

    2009-10-01

    To study microbial influence on intestinal development pertaining to nutrient digestion, two separate gnotobiotic experiments were performed, each with 16 piglets allocated to four treatment groups: germfree (GF), monoassociation with Escherichia coli, monoassociation with Lactobacillus fermentum or conventionalization with faecal bacteria (CV). Enzyme activity and gene expression of lactase phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) and aminopeptidase N (APN) were measured in isolated enterocytes, harvested on day 14, using specific substrates and quantitative PCR respectively. Enterocytes of CV pigs had reduced APN activity, but had increased gene expression relative to GF, making the specific activity:mRNA (A:G) ratio dramatically lower (p pigs as compared with GF. The results of co-incubation of L. fermentum, E. coli and faecal bacteria with APN indicate a direct relationship between enzyme inactivation and specific A:G ratio in enterocytes. We conclude that enterocyte up-regulation of APN expression occurs as either a direct response to microbial colonization or as a feedback mechanism in response to reduced enzyme activity through microbial degradation. This mechanism may play a role in ensuring effective competition of the host with the intestinal microbiota for available nutrients.

  11. The duration of gastrin treatment affects global gene expression and molecular responses involved in ER stress and anti-apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvik, Linn-Karina M; Fjeldbo, Christina S; Flatberg, Arnar; Steigedal, Tonje S; Misund, Kristine; Anderssen, Endre; Doseth, Berit; Langaas, Mette; Tripathi, Sushil; Beisvag, Vidar; Lægreid, Astrid; Thommesen, Liv; Bruland, Torunn

    2013-06-28

    How cells decipher the duration of an external signal into different transcriptional outcomes is poorly understood. The hormone gastrin can promote a variety of cellular responses including proliferation, differentiation, migration and anti-apoptosis. While gastrin in normal concentrations has important physiological functions in the gastrointestine, prolonged high levels of gastrin (hypergastrinemia) is related to pathophysiological processes. We have used genome-wide microarray time series analysis and molecular studies to identify genes that are affected by the duration of gastrin treatment in adenocarcinoma cells. Among 403 genes differentially regulated in transiently (gastrin removed after 1 h) versus sustained (gastrin present for 14 h) treated cells, 259 genes upregulated by sustained gastrin treatment compared to untreated controls were expressed at lower levels in the transient mode. The difference was subtle for early genes like Junb and c-Fos, but substantial for delayed and late genes. Inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide was used to distinguish between primary and secondary gastrin regulated genes. The majority of gastrin upregulated genes lower expressed in transiently treated cells were primary genes induced independently of de novo protein synthesis. This indicates that the duration effect of gastrin treatment is mainly mediated via post-translational signalling events, while a smaller fraction of the differentially expressed genes are regulated downstream of primary transcriptional events. Indeed, sustained gastrin treatment specifically induced prolonged ERK1/2 activation and elevated levels of the AP-1 subunit protein JUNB. Enrichment analyses of the differentially expressed genes suggested that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and survival is affected by the duration of gastrin treatment. Sustained treatment exerted an anti-apoptotic effect on serum starvation-induced apoptosis via a PKC-dependent mechanism. In accordance with this

  12. GLUCOSE DEPRIVATION AFFECTS THE EXPRESSION OF LONP1 AND CATHEPSINS IN IRE1 KNOCKDOWN U87 GLIOMA CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. Minchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of glucose deprivation on the expression of genes encoding for LONP1/PRSS15 and cathepsins in U87 glioma cells in relation to inhibition of inositol requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1 was the aim of the research. It was shown that glucose deprivation up-regulated the expression of CTSA, CTSB, CTSD, CTSK, CTSL, CTSO, and LONP1 genes and did not change the expression of CTSC, CTSF, and CTSS genes in control glioma cells (transfected by empty vector. Inhibition of ІRE1 signaling enzyme function in U87 glioma cells modified effect of glucose deprivation on the expression of most studied genes: removed the effect of glucose deprivation on CTSA and CTSO genes, introduces on CTSC and CTSS genes, reduced – on CTSK gene, and enhanced – on CTSL gene. Therefore, glucose deprivation affect the expression level of most studied genes in relation to the functional activity of IRE1 enzyme, a central mediator of endoplasmic reticulum stress, which control cell proliferation and tumor growth.

  13. Neonatal local noxious insult affects gene expression in the spinal dorsal horn of adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubner Ronald

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neonatal noxious insult produces a long-term effect on pain processing in adults. Rats subjected to carrageenan (CAR injection in one hindpaw within the sensitive period develop bilateral hypoalgesia as adults. In the same rats, inflammation of the hindpaw, which was the site of the neonatal injury, induces a localized enhanced hyperalgesia limited to this paw. To gain an insight into the long-term molecular changes involved in the above-described long-term nociceptive effects of neonatal noxious insult at the spinal level, we performed DNA microarray analysis (using microarrays containing oligo-probes for 205 genes encoding receptors and transporters for glutamate, GABA, and amine neurotransmitters, precursors and receptors for neuropeptides, and neurotrophins, cytokines and their receptors to compare gene expression profiles in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn (LDH of adult (P60 male rats that received neonatal CAR treatment within (at postnatal day 3; P3 and outside (at postnatal 12; P12 of the sensitive period. The data were obtained both without inflammation (at baseline and during complete Freund's adjuvant induced inflammation of the neonatally injured paw. The observed changes were verified by real-time RT-PCR. This study revealed significant basal and inflammation-associated aberrations in the expression of multiple genes in the LDH of adult animals receiving CAR injection at P3 as compared to their expression levels in the LDH of animals receiving either no injections or CAR injection at P12. In particular, at baseline, twelve genes (representing GABA, serotonin, adenosine, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin, opioid, tachykinin and interleukin systems were up-regulated in the bilateral LDH of the former animals. The baseline condition in these animals was also characterized by up-regulation of seven genes (encoding members of GABA, cholecystokinin, histamine, serotonin, and neurotensin systems in the LDH ipsilateral to the

  14. Non-Gaussian Distributions Affect Identification of Expression Patterns, Functional Annotation, and Prospective Classification in Human Cancer Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, Nicholas F.; Weil, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Gene expression data is often assumed to be normally-distributed, but this assumption has not been tested rigorously. We investigate the distribution of expression data in human cancer genomes and study the implications of deviations from the normal distribution for translational molecular oncology research. Methods We conducted a central moments analysis of five cancer genomes and performed empiric distribution fitting to examine the true distribution of expression data both on the complete-experiment and on the individual-gene levels. We used a variety of parametric and nonparametric methods to test the effects of deviations from normality on gene calling, functional annotation, and prospective molecular classification using a sixth cancer genome. Results Central moments analyses reveal statistically-significant deviations from normality in all of the analyzed cancer genomes. We observe as much as 37% variability in gene calling, 39% variability in functional annotation, and 30% variability in prospective, molecular tumor subclassification associated with this effect. Conclusions Cancer gene expression profiles are not normally-distributed, either on the complete-experiment or on the individual-gene level. Instead, they exhibit complex, heavy-tailed distributions characterized by statistically-significant skewness and kurtosis. The non-Gaussian distribution of this data affects identification of differentially-expressed genes, functional annotation, and prospective molecular classification. These effects may be reduced in some circumstances, although not completely eliminated, by using nonparametric analytics. This analysis highlights two unreliable assumptions of translational cancer gene expression analysis: that “small” departures from normality in the expression data distributions are analytically-insignificant and that “robust” gene-calling algorithms can fully compensate for these effects. PMID:23118863

  15. Non-gaussian distributions affect identification of expression patterns, functional annotation, and prospective classification in human cancer genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas F Marko

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Gene expression data is often assumed to be normally-distributed, but this assumption has not been tested rigorously. We investigate the distribution of expression data in human cancer genomes and study the implications of deviations from the normal distribution for translational molecular oncology research. METHODS: We conducted a central moments analysis of five cancer genomes and performed empiric distribution fitting to examine the true distribution of expression data both on the complete-experiment and on the individual-gene levels. We used a variety of parametric and nonparametric methods to test the effects of deviations from normality on gene calling, functional annotation, and prospective molecular classification using a sixth cancer genome. RESULTS: Central moments analyses reveal statistically-significant deviations from normality in all of the analyzed cancer genomes. We observe as much as 37% variability in gene calling, 39% variability in functional annotation, and 30% variability in prospective, molecular tumor subclassification associated with this effect. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer gene expression profiles are not normally-distributed, either on the complete-experiment or on the individual-gene level. Instead, they exhibit complex, heavy-tailed distributions characterized by statistically-significant skewness and kurtosis. The non-Gaussian distribution of this data affects identification of differentially-expressed genes, functional annotation, and prospective molecular classification. These effects may be reduced in some circumstances, although not completely eliminated, by using nonparametric analytics. This analysis highlights two unreliable assumptions of translational cancer gene expression analysis: that "small" departures from normality in the expression data distributions are analytically-insignificant and that "robust" gene-calling algorithms can fully compensate for these effects.

  16. Genes Affecting the Regulation of SUC2 Gene Expression by Glucose Repression in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    OpenAIRE

    Neigeborn, Lenore; Carlson, Marian

    1984-01-01

    Mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with defects in sucrose or raffinose fermentation were isolated. In addition to mutations in the SUC2 structural gene for invertase, we recovered 18 recessive mutations that affected the regulation of invertase synthesis by glucose repression. These mutations included five new snf1 (sucrose nonfermenting) alleles and also defined five new complementation groups, designated snf2, snf3, snf4, snf5 and snf6. The snf2, snf4 and snf5 mutants produced little or...

  17. Incentives to Encourage Scientific Web Contribution (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    We suggest improvements to citation standards and creation of remuneration opportunities to encourage career scientist contributions to Web2.0 and social media science channels. At present, agencies want to accomplish better outreach and engagement with no funding, while scientists sacrifice their personal time to contribute to web and social media sites. Securing active participation by scientists requires career recognition of the value scientists provide to web knowledge bases and to the general public. One primary mechanism to encourage participation is citation standards, which let a contributor improve their reputation in a quantifiable way. But such standards must be recognized by their scientific and workplace communities. Using case studies such as the acceptance of web in the workplace and the growth of open access journals, we examine what agencies and individual can do as well as the time scales needed to secure increased active contribution by scientists. We also discuss ways to jumpstart this process.

  18. Helicobacter pylori virulence factors affecting gastric proton pump expression and acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Charles E; Beeson, Craig; Suarez, Giovanni; Peek, Richard M; Backert, Steffen; Smolka, Adam J

    2015-08-01

    Acute Helicobacter pylori infection of gastric epithelial cells and human gastric biopsies represses H,K-ATPase α subunit (HKα) gene expression and inhibits acid secretion, causing transient hypochlorhydria and supporting gastric H. pylori colonization. Infection by H. pylori strains deficient in the cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI) genes cagL, cagE, or cagM, which do not transfer CagA into host cells or induce interleukin-8 secretion, does not inhibit HKα expression, nor does a cagA-deficient strain that induces IL-8. To test the hypothesis that virulence factors other than those mediating CagA translocation or IL-8 induction participate in HKα repression by activating NF-κB, AGS cells transfected with HKα promoter-Luc reporter constructs containing an intact or mutated NF-κB binding site were infected with wild-type H. pylori strain 7.13, isogenic mutants lacking cag PAI genes responsible for CagA translocation and/or IL-8 induction (cagA, cagζ, cagε, cagZ, and cagβ), or deficient in genes encoding two peptidoglycan hydrolases (slt and cagγ). H. pylori-induced AGS cell HKα promoter activities, translocated CagA, and IL-8 secretion were measured by luminometry, immunoblotting, and ELISA, respectively. Human gastric biopsy acid secretion was measured by microphysiometry. Taken together, the data showed that HKα repression is independent of IL-8 expression, and that CagA translocation together with H. pylori transglycosylases encoded by slt and cagγ participate in NF-κB-dependent HKα repression and acid inhibition. The findings are significant because H. pylori factors other than CagA and IL-8 secretion are now implicated in transient hypochlorhydria which facilitates gastric colonization and potential triggering of epithelial progression to neoplasia. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Maternal Nodal inversely affects NODAL and STOX1 expression in the fetal placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Krishna Thulluru

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nodal, a secreted signaling protein from the TGFβ-super family plays a vital role during early embryonic development. Recently, it was found that maternal decidua-specific Nodal knockout mice show intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and preterm birth. As the chromosomal location of NODAL is in the same linkage area as the susceptibility gene STOX1, associated with the familial form of early-onset, IUGR-complicated pre-eclampsia, their potential maternal-fetal interaction was investigated. Pre-eclamptic mothers with children who carried the STOX1 susceptibility allele themselves all carried the NODAL H165R SNP, which causes a 50% reduced activity. Surprisingly, in decidua Nodal knockout mice the fetal placenta showed up-regulation of STOX1 and NODAL expression. Conditioned media of human first trimester decidua and a human endometrial stromal cell line (T-HESC treated with siRNAs against NODAL or carrying the H165R SNP were also able to induce NODAL and STOX1 expression when added to SGHPL-5 first trimester extravillous trophoblast cells. Finally, a human TGFß-BMP-Signaling-Pathway PCR-Array on decidua and the T-HESC cell line with Nodal knockdown revealed upregulation of Activin-A, which was confirmed in conditioned media by ELISA. We show that maternal decidua Nodal knockdown gives upregulation of NODAL and STOX1 mRNA expression in fetal extravillous trophoblast cells, potentially via upregulation of Activin-A in the maternal decidua. As both Activin-A and Nodal have been implicated in pre-eclampsia, being increased in serum of pre-eclamptic women and upregulated in pre-eclamptic placentas respectively, this interaction at the maternal-fetal interface might play a substantial role in the development of pre-eclampsia.

  20. A Genetic Variant in the Distal Enhancer Region of the Human Renin Gene Affects Renin Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Yasukazu; Konoshita, Tadashi; Omori, Atsuhito; Maegawa, Nobuhiro; Nakaya, Takahiro; Ichikawa, Mai; Yamamoto, Katsushi; Wakahara, Shigeyuki; Ishizuka, Tamotsu; Onoe, Tamehito; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The high heritability of plasma renin activity was confirmed in recent investigations. A variation located near the strong enhancer of the human renin gene (REN), C-5312T, has been shown to have different transcription activity levels depending on its allele: the 5312T allele shows transcription levels that are 45% greater than those of the 5312C allele. The purpose of this study was to confirm the hypothesis that variations in the enhancer region of the REN gene are involved in regulating renal expression of renin. Sixty-four subjects with biopsy-proven renal diseases were included in this study (male/female: 35/29, age 41.9 ± 20.9 years, SBP/DBP 123.1 ± 23.7/73.4 ± 14.8 mmHg, s-Cr 0.93 ± 0.63 mg/dl). A genetic variant of REN, C-5312T, was assayed by PCR-RFLP and the TaqMan method. Total RNAs from a small part of the renal cortex were reverse-transcribed and amplified for REN and GAPDH with a real-time PCR system. Logarithmically transformed expression values of the relative ratio of REN to GAPDH (10-3) were as follows (mean ± SE): CC (26 cases), 0.016 ± 0.005; CT (33 cases), 0.047 ± 0.021 (p = 0.41 vs. CC); TT (5 cases), 0.198 ± 0.194 (p = 0.011 vs. CC, p renin gene have an effect on the expression levels of renin in renal tissue; this observation is in good accordance with the results of the transcriptional assay.

  1. Encouraging Critical Thinking in Online Threaded Discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Bridget Arend

    2009-01-01

    Critical thinking is a highly desirable goal of online higher education courses. This article presents qualitative data from a mixed-method study that explores how asynchronous discussions within online courses influence critical thinking among students. In this study, online discussions were related to higher levels of critical thinking, but qualitative data indicate that the way discussions are used and facilitated is vital for encouraging critical thinking. Online discussions typically hav...

  2. Expression profiling of the RPE in zebrafish smarca4 mutant revealed altered signals that potentially affect RPE and retinal differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ping; Collery, Ross; Trowbridge, Sara; Zhong, Wenxuan; Leung, Yuk Fai

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop a framework for analyzing retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) expression profiles from zebrafish eye mutants. Methods The fish model we used was SWI/SNF-related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 4 (smarca4), a retinal dystrophic mutant with a previously described retinal phenotype and expression profiles. Histological and Affymetrix GeneChip analyses were conducted to characterize the RPE defects and underlying differential expression, respectively. Results Histological analysis revealed that smarca4 RPE was formed, but its differentiation was abnormal. In particular, ultrastructural analysis of smarca4 RPE by transmission electron microscopy demonstrated several defects in melanogenesis. The nature of these defects also suggests that the cytoskeletal dynamics, which are tightly linked with melanogenesis, were impaired in smarca4 RPE. To compare the expression profile of normal wild-type (WT) and smarca4 RPE, the gene expression profiles of microdissected retinas and RPE-attached retinas were measured with Affymetrix GeneChip analysis. The RPE expression values were then estimated from these samples by subtracting the retinal expression values from the expression values of the RPE-attached retinas. A factorial analysis was conducted using the expression values of the RPE, retinal, and whole-embryo samples. Specific rules (contrasts) were built using the coefficients of the resulting fitted models to select for three groups of genes: 1) smarca4-regulated RPE genes, 2) smarca4-regulated retinal genes, and 3) smarca4-regulated RPE genes that are not differentially expressed in the retina. Interestingly, the third group consists of 39 genes that are highly related to cytoskeletal dynamics, melanogenesis, and paracrine and intracellular signal transduction. Conclusions Our analytical framework provides an experimental approach to identify differentially-regulated genes in the

  3. Phenotypic heterogeneity affects Stenotrophomonas maltophilia K279a colony morphotypes and β-lactamase expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Mama Abda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic heterogeneity on the cellular level in response to various stresses e.g. antibiotic treatment has been reported for a number of bacteria. In a clonal population, cell-to-cell variation may result in phenotypic heterogeneity that is a mechanism to survive changing environments including antibiotic therapy. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has been frequently isolated from cystic fibrosis patients, can cause numerous infections in other organs and tissues, and is difficult to treat due to antibiotic resistances. S. maltophilia K279a produces the L1 and L2 β-lactamases in response to β-lactam treatment. Here we report that the patient isolate S. maltophilia K279a diverges into cellular subpopulations with distinct but reversible morphotypes of small and big colonies when challenged with ampicillin. This observation is consistent with the formation of elongated chains of bacteria during exponential growth phase and the occurrence of mainly rod-shaped cells in liquid media. RNA-seq analysis of small versus big colonies revealed differential regulation of at least seven genes among the colony morphotypes. Among those, blaL1 and blaL2 were transcriptionally the most strongly upregulated genes. Promoter fusions of blaL1 and blaL2 genes indicated that expression of both genes is also subject to high levels of phenotypic heterogeneous expression on a single cell level. Additionally, the comE homologue was found to be differentially expressed in homogenously versus heterogeneously blaL2 expressing cells as identified by RNA-seq analysis. Overexpression of comE in S. maltophilia K279a reduced the level of cells that were in a blaL2-ON mode to 1 % or lower. Taken together, our data provide strong evidence that S. maltophilia K279a populations develop phenotypic heterogeneity in an ampicillin challenged model. This cellular variability is triggered by regulation networks including blaL1, blaL2 and comE.

  4. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles affect the growth and microRNA expression of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Taylor P; Burklew, Caitlin E; Zhang, Baohong

    2014-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is one of the most widely used pigments in the world. Due to its heavy use in industry and daily life, such as food additives, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and paints, many residues are released into the environment and currently TiO(2) nanoparticles are considered an emerging environmental contaminant. Although several studies have shown the effect of TiO(2) nanoparticles on a wide range of organisms including bacteria, algae, plankton, fish, mice, and rats, little research has been performed on land plants. In this study, we investigated the effect of TiO(2) nanoparticles on the growth, development, and gene expression of tobacco, an important economic and agricultural crop in the southeastern USA as well as around the world. We found that TiO(2) nanoparticles significantly inhibited the germination rates, root lengths, and biomasses of tobacco seedlings after 3 weeks of exposure to 0.1, 1, 2.5, and 5 % TiO(2) nanoparticles and that overall growth and development of the tobacco seedlings significantly decreased as TiO(2) nanoparticle concentrations increased. Overall, tobacco roots were the most sensitive to TiO(2) nanoparticle exposure. Nano-TiO(2) also significantly influenced the expression profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs), a recently discovered class of small endogenous noncoding RNAs (∼20-22 nt) that are considered important gene regulators and have been shown to play an important role in plant development as well as plant tolerance to abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, cold, and heavy metal. Low concentrations (0.1 and 1 %) of TiO(2) nanoparticles dramatically induced miRNA expression in tobacco seedlings with miR395 and miR399 exhibiting the greatest fold changes of 285-fold and 143-fold, respectively. The results of this study show that TiO(2) nanoparticles have a negative impact on tobacco growth and development and that miRNAs may play an important role in tobacco response to heavy metals/nanoparticles by regulating

  5. Creativity and Innovation Encouraged in Hospital X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Bogovič

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Are creativity and innovation encouraged in Hospital X? Does satisfaction of employees at the workplace depend on the length of their employment? Does employee satisfaction depend on innovation? Purpose: It is important that creativity and innovation of employees are noticed in Hospital X in a timely manner. Various approaches can be used to motivate their creative thinking (using different professional factors. Method: Qualitative method, questionnaire with 8 questions and processing of results with χ2 test and frequency distribution. Results: The results of the research showed that 60% of employees at Hospital X were encouraged to be creative and innovative, whereas satisfaction at the workplace in connection with the period of employment did not have an effect on their satisfaction within the organization. Organization: The research results will give the management a clearer idea of employees’ opinions concerning their creativity and innovation. Society: Opinion of workers in a certain organization can encourage other organizations to be more creative and innovative. Originality: It is a small organization and results of the research refer to its originality. Limitations/Future Research: The limitation of this study was with regard to time and for this reason data collection was carried out only in the surgical unit of Hospital X.

  6. Aging affects epidermal Langerhans cell development and function and alters their miRNA gene expression profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying-Ping; Qi, Rui-Qun; Chen, Wenbin; Shi, Yuling; Cui, Zhi-Zhong; Gao, Xing-Hua; Chen, Hong-Duo; Zhou, Li; Mi, Qing-Sheng

    2012-11-01

    Immunosenescence is a result of progressive decline in immune system function with advancing age. Epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs), belonging to the dendritic cell (DC) family, act as sentinels to play key roles in the skin immune responses. However, it has not been fully elucidated how aging affects development and function of LCs. Here, we systemically analyzed LC development and function during the aging process in C57BL/6J mice, and performed global microRNA (miRNA) gene expression profiles in aged and young LCs. We found that the frequency and maturation of epidermal LCs were significantly reduced in aged mice starting at 12 months of age, while the Langerin expression and ability to phagocytose Dextran in aged LCs were increased compared to LCs from aged and young mice. Functionally, aged LCs were impaired in their capacity to induce OVA-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation. Furthermore, the expression of miRNAs in aged epidermal LCs showed a distinct profile compared to young LCs. Most interestingly, aging-regulated miRNAs potentially target TGF-β-dependent and non- TGF-β-dependent signal pathways related to LCs. Overall, our data suggests that aging affects LCs development and function, and that age-regulated miRNAs may contribute to the LC developmental and functional changes in aging.

  7. Paclitaxel and trastuzumab treatment affects insulin growth factor I expression in breast cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xian Qian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common type of cancers and second primary cause of death among women. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1 signaling pathway plays a vital role in cancer cell survival, proliferation, chemotaxis and angiogenesis. In this study, the effect of combination of two drugs, paclitaxel and trastuzumab on IGF signaling and cell cycle arrest in breast cancer cell lines, T47D and Hs0578T were explored. The interaction of paclitaxel and trastuzumab on IGF-1 signaling pathway was studied with IGF-1 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002. The protein expression of IGF signaling molecules were reduced in the drug treated cancer cells. LY294002 and IGF-1 with paclitaxel and trastuzumab treatment inhibited phosphorylated Akt. During G0/G1 phase, cell cycle arrest and accumulation of apoptotic cells were observed in drug treated cancer cells. The synergistic effect of paclitaxel and trastuzumab decreased the multiplication of breast cancer cells by altering the expression of IGF-I signaling molecules. This combination proves to be one of the useful methods to treat breast cancer.

  8. Species by environment interactions affect pyrrolizidine alkaloid expression in Senecio jacobaea, Senecio aquaticus, and their hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Heather; Vrieling, Klaas; Van Der Meijden, Eddy; Klinkhamer, Peter G L

    2010-04-01

    We examined the effects of water and nutrient availability on the expression of the defense pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in Senecio jacobaea and S. aquaticus. Senecio jacobaea, and S. aquaticus are adapted to different natural habitats, characterized by differing abiotic conditions and different selection pressures from natural enemies. We tested if PA concentration and diversity are plastic over a range of water and nutrient treatments, and also whether such plasticity is dependent on plant species. We also tested the hypothesis that hybridization may contribute to PA diversity within plants, by comparing PA expression in parental species to that in artificially generated F(1) hybrids, and also in later generation natural hybrids between S. jacobaea and S. aquaticus. We showed that total PA concentration in roots and shoots is not dependent on species, but that species determines the pattern of PA diversification. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid diversity and concentration are both dependent on environmental factors. Hybrids produce a putatively novel PA, and this PA is conserved in natural hybrids, that are backcrossed to S. jacobaea. Natural hybrids that are backcrossed several times to S. jacobaea are with regard to PA diversity significantly different from S. jacobaea but not from S. aquaticus, while F(1) hybrids are in all cases more similar to S. jacobaea. These results collectively suggest that PA diversity is under the influence of natural selection.

  9. Zinc affects differently growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and phytochelatin synthase expression of four marine diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Deroche, Thi Le Nhung; Caruso, Aurore; Le, Thi Trung; Bui, Trang Viet; Schoefs, Benoît; Tremblin, Gérard; Morant-Manceau, Annick

    2012-01-01

    Zinc-supplementation (20 μM) effects on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase), and the expression of phytochelatin synthase gene were investigated in four marine diatoms (Amphora acutiuscula, Nitzschia palea, Amphora coffeaeformis and Entomoneis paludosa). Zn-supplementation reduced the maximum cell density. A linear relationship was found between the evolution of gross photosynthesis and total chlorophyll content. The Zn treatment decreased the electron transport rate except in A. coffeaeformis and in E. paludosa at high irradiance. A linear relationship was found between the efficiency of light to evolve oxygen and the size of the light-harvesting antenna. The external carbonic anhydrase activity was stimulated in Zn-supplemented E. paludosa but was not correlated with an increase of photosynthesis. The total activity of the antioxidant enzymes did not display any clear increase except in ascorbate peroxidase activity in N. palea. The phytochelatin synthase gene was identified in the four diatoms, but its expression was only revealed in N. palea, without a clear difference between control and Zn-supplemented cells. Among the four species, A. paludosa was the most sensitive and A. coffeaeformis, the most tolerant. A. acutiuscula seemed to be under metal starvation, whereas, to survive, only N. palea developed several stress responses.

  10. Nuclear orphan receptor TLX affects gene expression, proliferation and cell apoptosis in beta cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xiaoli; Xiong, Xiaokan; Dai, Zhe; Deng, Haohua; Sun, Li; Hu, Xuemei; Zhou, Feng; Xu, Yancheng, E-mail: oxyccc@163.com

    2015-12-04

    Nuclear orphan receptor TLX is an essential regulator of the growth of neural stem cells. However, its exact function in pancreatic islet cells is still unknown. In the present study, gene expression profiling analysis revealed that overexpression of TLX in beta cell line MIN6 causes suppression of 176 genes and upregulation of 49 genes, including a cadre of cell cycle, cell proliferation and cell death control genes, such as Btg2, Ddit3 and Gadd45a. We next examined the effects of TLX overexpression on proliferation, apoptosis and insulin secretion in MIN6 cells. Proliferation analysis using EdU assay showed that overexpression of TLX increased percentage of EdU-positive cells. Cell cycle and apoptosis analysis revealed that overexpression of TLX in MIN6 cells resulted in higher percentage of cells exiting G1 into S-phase, and a 58.8% decrease of cell apoptosis induced by 0.5 mM palmitate. Moreover, TLX overexpression did not cause impairment of insulin secretion. Together, we conclude that TLX is among factors capable of controlling beta cell proliferation and survival, which may serve as a target for the development of novel therapies for diabetes. - Highlights: • TLX overexpression in MIN6 cell causes significant expression changes of 225 genes. • TLX overexpression promotes MIN6 cell proliferation and decreases cell apoptosis. • TLX overexpression does not cause impairment of insulin secretion.

  11. Differential calreticulin expression affects focal contacts via the calmodulin/CaMK II pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Eva; Papp, Sylvia; Opas, Michal

    2007-10-01

    Calreticulin is an ER calcium-storage protein, which influences gene expression and cell adhesion. In this study, we analysed the differences in adhesive properties of calreticulin under- and overexpressing fibroblasts in relation to the calmodulin- and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMK II)-dependent signalling pathways. Cells stably underexpressing calreticulin had elevated expression of calmodulin, activated CaMK II, activated ERK and activated c-src. Inhibition of calmodulin by W7, and CaMK II by KN-62, caused the otherwise weekly adhesive calreticulin underexpressing cells to behave like the overexpressing cells, via induction of increased cell spreading. Increased vinculin, activated paxillin, activated focal adhesion kinase and fibronectin levels were observed upon inhibition of either the calmodulin or the CaMK II signalling pathways, which was accompanied by an increase in cell spreading and focal contact formation. Both KN-62 and W7 treatment increased cell motility in underexpressing cells, but W7 treatment led to loss of directionality. Thus, both the calmodulin and CaMK II signalling pathways influence cellular spreading and motility, but subtle differences exist in their distal effects on motility effectors. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Forced chondrocyte expression of sonic hedgehog impairs joint formation affecting proliferation and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavella, S; Biticchi, R; Morello, R; Castagnola, P; Musante, V; Costa, D; Cancedda, R; Garofalo, S

    2006-09-01

    Proliferation and apoptosis are two fundamental processes that occur during limb development, and in particular in joint formation. To study the role of hedgehog proteins in limbs, we have misexpressed Sonic Hedgehog specifically in chondrocytes. We found that the appendicular skeleton was severely misshapen while pelvic and shoulder girdles developed normally. In particular, we detected fusion of the elbow/knee joint, no definite carpal/tarsal, metacarpal/metatarsal bones and absence of distinct phalanges, fused in a continuous cartilaginous rod. Molecular markers of joints, such as Gdf5 and sFrp2 were absent at presumptive joint sites and Tenascin C, a molecule associated with joint formation and expressed in permanent cartilage, was expressed in a wider region in transgenic animals as compared to the wild type. The ratio of proliferating to non-proliferating chondrocytes was about two times higher in transgenic developing cartilage as compared to the wild type. Accordingly, the proapoptotic gene Bax was barely detectable in the growth plate of transgenic mice and Tunel assay showed the absence of apoptosis in presumptive joints at E15.5. Taken together, these results suggest that misexpression of Sonic Hedgehog causes apoptosis and proliferation defects leading to the lack of joint cavity and fusion of selected limb skeletal elements.

  13. Environmental, genetic and social factors affecting the expression of estrus in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landaeta-Hernández, Antonio J; Yelich, Joel V; Lemaster, J Willard; Fields, Michael J; Tran, Than; Chase, Chad C; Rae, D Owen; Chenoweth, Peter J

    2002-03-01

    Genetic, social and environmental factors affecting behavioral estrus were evaluated in Angus (n = 10), Brahman (n = 10) and Senepol (n = 10) cows during a PGF2alpha synchronized estrus and subsequent spontaneous estrus. Cows were equally stratified by breed to two groups of 15. Both groups were pre-synchronized with a modified two-injection PGF2alpha protocol. At the start of the experiment, cows were treated with 25 mg PGF2alpha followed by a second and third administration of 12.5 mg PGF2alpha, 11 and 12 days later to induce synchronized estrus. The subsequent estrus was designated as spontaneous estrus. Behavioral estrus data including the onset and end of estrus, estrous duration and the total number of mounts received for the synchronized and spontaneous estruses were collected using HeatWatch". Interval from the third PGF2alpha, treatment to the onset of a HeatWatch" estrus occurred earlier (P Senepol (53 +/- 4 h) cows, with dominant Senepol and Brahman cows taking longer to exhibit estrus after PGF2alpha than subordinate cows. The duration of the synchronized estrus tended to be shorter (P Senepol (12 +/- 3 h) than in Angus (19 +/- 2 h) or Brahman (17 +/- 2 h) cows. Behavioral estrus data between the two periods were confounded by greater temperature-humidity index (THI) values during spontaneous estrus. The THI during spontaneous estrus appeared (P = 0.09) to affect the duration of estrus (9 +/- 1 h versus 16 +/- 1 h) and did affect (P 0.10) on the duration and total number of mounts received during synchronized and spontaneous estruses. In conclusion, type of estrus (synchronized or spontaneous), THI, social dominance and breed exerted significant effects on characteristics associated with behavioral estrus in beef cattle in subtropical environments.

  14. Design of a Virtual Reality System for Affect Analysis in Facial Expressions (VR-SAAFE); Application to Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, E; Bian, D; Peterman, J; Park, S; Sarkar, N

    2017-06-01

    Schizophrenia is a life-long, debilitating psychotic disorder with poor outcome that affects about 1% of the population. Although pharmacotherapy can alleviate some of the acute psychotic symptoms, residual social impairments present a significant barrier that prevents successful rehabilitation. With limited resources and access to social skills training opportunities, innovative technology has emerged as a potentially powerful tool for intervention. In this paper, we present a novel virtual reality (VR)-based system for understanding facial emotion processing impairments that may lead to poor social outcome in schizophrenia. We henceforth call it a VR System for Affect Analysis in Facial Expressions (VR-SAAFE). This system integrates a VR-based task presentation platform that can minutely control facial expressions of an avatar with or without accompanying verbal interaction, with an eye-tracker to quantitatively measure a participants real-time gaze and a set of physiological sensors to infer his/her affective states to allow in-depth understanding of the emotion recognition mechanism of patients with schizophrenia based on quantitative metrics. A usability study with 12 patients with schizophrenia and 12 healthy controls was conducted to examine processing of the emotional faces. Preliminary results indicated that there were significant differences in the way patients with schizophrenia processed and responded towards the emotional faces presented in the VR environment compared with healthy control participants. The preliminary results underscore the utility of such a VR-based system that enables precise and quantitative assessment of social skill deficits in patients with schizophrenia.

  15. Small RNA cloning and sequencing strategy affects host and viral microRNA expression signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stik, Grégoire; Muylkens, Benoît; Coupeau, Damien; Laurent, Sylvie; Dambrine, Ginette; Messmer, Mélanie; Chane-Woon-Ming, Béatrice; Pfeffer, Sébastien; Rasschaert, Denis

    2014-07-10

    The establishment of the microRNA (miRNA) expression signatures is the basic element to investigate the role played by these regulatory molecules in the biology of an organism. Marek's disease virus 1 (MDV-1) is an avian herpesvirus that naturally infects chicken and induces T cells lymphomas. During latency, MDV-1, like other herpesviruses, expresses a limited subset of transcripts. These include three miRNA clusters. Several studies identified the expression of virus and host encoded miRNAs from MDV-1 infected cell cultures and chickens. But a high discrepancy was observed when miRNA cloning frequencies obtained from different cloning and sequencing protocols were compared. Thus, we analyzed the effect of small RNA library preparation and sequencing on the miRNA frequencies obtained from the same RNA samples collected during MDV-1 infection of chicken at different steps of the oncoviral pathogenesis. Qualitative and quantitative variations were found in the data, depending on the strategy used. One of the mature miRNA derived from the latency-associated-transcript (LAT), mdv1-miR-M7-5p, showed the highest variation. Its cloning frequency was 50% of the viral miRNA counts when a small scale sequencing approach was used. Its frequency was 100 times less abundant when determined through the deep sequencing approach. Northern blot analysis showed a better correlation with the miRNA frequencies found by the small scale sequencing approach. By analyzing the cellular miRNA repertoire, we also found a gap between the two sequencing approaches. Collectively, our study indicates that next-generation sequencing data considered alone are limited for assessing the absolute copy number of transcripts. Thus, the quantification of small RNA should be addressed by compiling data obtained by using different techniques such as microarrays, qRT-PCR and NB analysis in support of high throughput sequencing data. These observations should be considered when miRNA variations are studied

  16. Long non-coding RNA MEG3 inhibits NSCLC cells proliferation and induces apoptosis by affecting p53 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kai-hua; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiang-hua; Sun, Ming; Zhang, Mei-ling; Wu, Wei-qin; Xie, Wei-ping; Hou, Ya-yi

    2013-10-07

    Long non-coding RNAs play an important role in tumorigenesis, hence, identification of cancer-associated lncRNAs and investigation of their biological functions and molecular mechanisms are important for understanding the development and progression of cancer. Recently, the downregulation of lncRNA MEG3 has been observed in various human cancers. However, its role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the expression pattern of MEG3 in NSCLC and to evaluate its biological role and clinical significance in tumor progression. Expression of MEG3 was analyzed in 44 NSCLC tissues and 7 NSCLC cell lines by qRT-PCR. Over-expression approaches were used to investigate the biological functions of MEG3 in NSCLC cells. Bisulfite sequencing was used to investigate DNA methylation on MEG3 expression. The effect of MEG3 on proliferation was evaluated by MTT and colony formation assays, and cell apoptosis was evaluated by Hoechst staining and Flow-cytometric analysis. NSCLC cells transfected with pCDNA-MEG3 were injection into nude mice to study the effect of MEG3 on tumorigenesis in vivo . Protein levels of MEG3 targets were determined by western blot analysis. Differences between groups were tested for significance using Student's t-test (two-tailed). MEG3 expression was decreased in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor tissues compared with normal tissues, and associated with advanced pathologic stage, and tumor size. Moreover, patients with lower levels of MEG3 expression had a relatively poor prognosis. Overexpression of MEG3 decreased NSCLC cells proliferation and induced apoptosis in vitro and impeded tumorigenesis in vivo. MDM2 and p53 protein levels were affected by MEG3 over-expression in vitro. Our findings indicate that MEG3 is significantly down-regulated in NSCLC tissues that could be affected by DNA methylation, and regulates NSCLC cell proliferation and apoptosis, partially via the activition of p53. Thus, MEG3

  17. Microcystin-degrading bacteria affect mcyD expression and microcystin synthesis in Microcystis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Zuo, Jun; Song, Lirong; Gan, Nanqin

    2016-03-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms occur increasingly often and cause ecological, economic and human health problems worldwide. Microcystins (MCs) are the dominant toxins produced by cyanobacteria and are implicated in epidemic disease and environmental problems. Extensive research has been reported on the various regulating factors, e.g., light, temperature, nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, pH, iron, xenobiotics, and predators, that influence microcystin (MC) synthesis, but little is known about the effects of cyanobacteria-associated bacteria on MC synthesis. A considerable number of studies have focused on interactions between Microcystis species and their associated bacteria. In this study, we evaluated the effects of MC-degrading bacteria (MCDB) on MC synthesis gene mcyD expression and MC synthesis in axenic strain PCC7806, non-axenic strain FACHB905, and colony strain FACHB1325 of Microcystis by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We demonstrate for the first time that MCDB can induce and up-regulate the MC production and transcriptional response of the mcyD gene of toxic Microcystis. On day 4 of the culturing experiment, the intracellular MC concentration and transcriptional response of mcyD of FACHB1325 were up-regulated 1.9 and 5.3-fold over that of the control, and for FACHB905 were up-regulated 1.8 and 4.2-fold over that of the control, respectively. On day 10, the transcriptional response of mcyD was up-regulated 21.3-fold in PCC7806. These results indicate that there are interactions between toxic Microcystis and MCDB, and MCDB may play a role in regulating mcyD expression in toxic Microcystis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Heterologous expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) and cultivation conditions affect the alkaloid profile of Hyoscyamus muticus hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmson, Annika; Häkkinen, Suvi T; Kallio, Pauli T; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Nuutila, Anna Maria

    2006-01-01

    Fast-growing hairy root cultures of Hyoscyamus muticus induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes offer a potential production system for tropane alkaloids. Oxygen deficiency has been shown to limit growth and biomass accumulation of hairy roots, whereas little experimental data is available on the effect of oxygen on alkaloid production. We have investigated the effect of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) expression and cultivation conditions on the complete alkaloid profile of H. muticus hairy roots in shake flasks and in a laboratory scale bioreactor. We optimized the growth medium composition and studied the effects of sucrose, ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate on growth and alkaloid production. Maximum biomass accumulation was achieved with the highest and maximum hyoscyamine content with the lowest sucrose concentration. The optimum nitrate concentration for growth was higher for the VHb line than the control. Neither VHb expression nor aeration improved the hyoscyamine content significantly, thus suggesting that hyoscyamine biosynthesis is not limited by oxygen availability. Interestingly, the effect of VHb expression on the alkaloid profile was slightly different from that of aeration. VHb expression did not affect the concentrations of cuscohygrine, which was increased by aeration. Therefore, the effect of VHb is probably not related only to its ability to increase the intracellular effective oxygen concentration.

  19. Alpha-phellandrene-induced DNA damage and affect DNA repair protein expression in WEHI-3 murine leukemia cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jen-Jyh; Wu, Chih-Chung; Hsu, Shu-Chun; Weng, Shu-Wen; Ma, Yi-Shih; Huang, Yi-Ping; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-11-01

    Although there are few reports regarding α-phellandrene (α-PA), a natural compound from Schinus molle L. essential oil, there is no report to show that α-PA induced DNA damage and affected DNA repair associated protein expression. Herein, we investigated the effects of α-PA on DNA damage and repair associated protein expression in murine leukemia cells. Flow cytometric assay was used to measure the effects of α-PA on total cell viability and the results indicated that α-PA induced cell death. Comet assay and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride staining were used for measuring DNA damage and condensation, respectively, and the results indicated that α-PA induced DNA damage and condensation in a concentration-dependent manner. DNA gel electrophoresis was used to examine the DNA damage and the results showed that α-PA induced DNA damage in WEHI-3 cells. Western blotting assay was used to measure the changes of DNA damage and repair associated protein expression and the results indicated that α-PA increased p-p53, p-H2A.X, 14-3-3-σ, and MDC1 protein expression but inhibited the protein of p53, MGMT, DNA-PK, and BRCA-1. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Water availability and population origin affect the expression of the tradeoff between reproduction and growth in Plantago coronopus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. F.; Garcia, M. B.; Ehlers, B. K.

    2013-01-01

    temperature and precipitation. We found that water availability affected the expression of the tradeoff (both phenotypic and genetic) between reproduction and growth, being most accentuated under dry condition. However, populations responded very differently to water treatments. Plants from annual populations...... showed a similar response to drought condition with little variation among maternal families, suggesting a history of selection favouring genotypes with high allocation to reproduction when water availability is low. Plants from annual populations also expressed the highest level of plasticity...... values similar to those of the annuals, although it was significantly less plastic. We stress the importance of considering intraspecific variation in response to environmental change such as drought, as conspecific plants exhibited very different abilities and strategies to respond to high versus low...

  1. Sequencing and transcriptional analysis of the Streptococcus thermophilus histamine biosynthesis gene cluster: factors that affect differential hdcA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calles-Enríquez, Marina; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Andersen, Pia Skov

    2010-01-01

    acquisition through a horizontal transfer mechanism. Transcriptional analysis of the hdc cluster revealed the existence of a polycistronic mRNA covering the three genes. The histidine-decarboxylating gene (hdcA) of S. thermophilus demonstrated maximum expression during the stationary growth phase, with high...... to produce histamine. The hdc clusters of S. thermophilus CHCC1524 and CHCC6483 were sequenced, and the factors that affect histamine biosynthesis and histidine-decarboxylating gene (hdcA) expression were studied. The hdc cluster began with the hdcA gene, was followed by a transporter (hdcP), and ended...... with the hdcB gene, which is of unknown function. The three genes were orientated in the same direction. The genetic organization of the hdc cluster showed a unique organization among the lactic acid bacterial group and resembled those of Staphylococcus and Clostridium species, thus indicating possible...

  2. Genetic and environmental factors affecting allergen-related gene expression in apple fruit (Malus domestica L. Borkh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botton, Alessandro; Lezzer, Paolo; Dorigoni, Alberto; Barcaccia, Gianni; Ruperti, Benedetto; Ramina, Angelo

    2008-08-13

    Freshly consumed apples can cause allergic reactions because of the presence of four classes of allergens, namely, Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3, and Mal d 4, and their cross-reactivity with sensitizing allergens of other species. Knowledge of environmental and endogenous factors affecting the allergenic potential of apples would provide important information to apple breeders, growers, and consumers for the selection of hypoallergenic genotypes, the adoption of agronomical practices decreasing the allergenic potential, and the consumption of fruits with reduced amount of allergens. In the present research, expression studies were performed by means of real-time PCR for all the known allergen-encoding genes in apple. Fruit samples were collected from 15 apple varieties and from fruits of three different trials, set up to assess the effect of shadowing, elevation, storage, and water stress on the expression of allergen genes. Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed for the classification of varieties according to gene expression values, pointing out that the cultivars Fuji and Brina were two good hypoallergenic candidates. Shadowing, elevation, and storage significantly affected the transcription of the allergen-encoding genes, whereas water stress slightly influenced the expression of only two genes, in spite of the dramatic effect on both fruit size and vegetative growth of the trees. In particular, shadowing may represent an important cultural practice aimed at reducing apple cortex allergenicity. Moreover, elevation and storage may be combined to reduce the allergenic potential of apple fruits. The possible implications of the results for breeders, growers, and consumers are discussed critically.

  3. A high protein diet during pregnancy affects hepatic gene expression of energy sensing pathways along ontogenesis in a porcine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oster

    Full Text Available In rodent models and in humans the impact of gestational diets on the offspring's phenotype was shown experimentally and epidemiologically. The underlying programming of fetal development was shown to be associated with an increased risk of degenerative diseases in adulthood, including the metabolic syndrome. There are clues that diet-dependent modifications of the metabolism during fetal life can persist until adulthood. This leads to the hypothesis that the offspring's transcriptomes show short-term and long-term changes depending on the maternal diet. To this end pregnant German landrace gilts were fed either a high protein diet (HP, 30% CP or an adequate protein diet (AP, 12% CP throughout pregnancy. Hepatic transcriptome profiles of the offspring were analyzed at prenatal (94 dpc and postnatal stages (1, 28, 188 dpn. Depending on the gestational dietary exposure, mRNA expression levels of genes related to energy metabolism, N-metabolism, growth factor signaling pathways, lipid metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism and stress/immune response were affected either in a short-term or in a long-term manner. Gene expression profiles at fetal stage 94 dpc were almost unchanged between the diets. The gestational HP diet affected the hepatic expression profiles at prenatal and postnatal stages. The effects encompassed a modulation of the genome in terms of an altered responsiveness of energy and nutrient sensing pathways. Differential expression of genes related to energy production and nutrient utilization contribute to the maintenance of development and growth performance within physiological norms, however the modulation of these pathways may be accompanied by a predisposition for metabolic disturbances up to adult stages.

  4. A high protein diet during pregnancy affects hepatic gene expression of energy sensing pathways along ontogenesis in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Michael; Murani, Eduard; Metges, Cornelia C; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    In rodent models and in humans the impact of gestational diets on the offspring's phenotype was shown experimentally and epidemiologically. The underlying programming of fetal development was shown to be associated with an increased risk of degenerative diseases in adulthood, including the metabolic syndrome. There are clues that diet-dependent modifications of the metabolism during fetal life can persist until adulthood. This leads to the hypothesis that the offspring's transcriptomes show short-term and long-term changes depending on the maternal diet. To this end pregnant German landrace gilts were fed either a high protein diet (HP, 30% CP) or an adequate protein diet (AP, 12% CP) throughout pregnancy. Hepatic transcriptome profiles of the offspring were analyzed at prenatal (94 dpc) and postnatal stages (1, 28, 188 dpn). Depending on the gestational dietary exposure, mRNA expression levels of genes related to energy metabolism, N-metabolism, growth factor signaling pathways, lipid metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism and stress/immune response were affected either in a short-term or in a long-term manner. Gene expression profiles at fetal stage 94 dpc were almost unchanged between the diets. The gestational HP diet affected the hepatic expression profiles at prenatal and postnatal stages. The effects encompassed a modulation of the genome in terms of an altered responsiveness of energy and nutrient sensing pathways. Differential expression of genes related to energy production and nutrient utilization contribute to the maintenance of development and growth performance within physiological norms, however the modulation of these pathways may be accompanied by a predisposition for metabolic disturbances up to adult stages.

  5. The benefits of expressive writing after the Madrid terrorist attack: Implications for emotional activation and positive affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Itziar; Páez, Darío

    2008-02-01

    This study examined the effects of expressive narrative writing in 607 participants. Compared with a control group, the participants randomly assigned to write about their feelings and thoughts after the Madrid train attack on M11 report less negative emotions related to the recall of the collective trauma at a 2-month follow-up after the attacks. However, no effects were found on positive affect, probably because the study had only one writing session of brief duration. Stronger feelings of joy, use of positive words, and low use of negative words in the narratives predicted low emotional activation at follow-up.

  6. Analysis of xanthine dehydrogenase mRNA levels in mutants affecting the expression of the rosy locus.

    OpenAIRE

    Covington, M; Fleenor, D; Devlin, R B

    1984-01-01

    Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) mRNA levels were measured in a number of mutants and natural variants affecting XDH gene expression. Two variants, ry+4 and ry+10, contain cis-acting elements which map to a region flanking the 5' end of the XDH gene. Ry+4, which has 2-3 times more XDH protein than a wild type strain, has 3.2 times more XDH mRNA. Ry+10 has 50% of the wild type XDH level and 54% of the wild type XDH mRNA level. Three rosy mutants which map within the structural gene were also exami...

  7. Early life stress affects mortality rate more than social behavior, gene expression or oxidative damage in honey bee workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueppell, Olav; Yousefi, Babak; Collazo, Juan; Smith, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Early life stressors can affect aging and life expectancy in positive or negative ways. Individuals can adjust their behavior and molecular physiology based on early life experiences but relatively few studies have connected such mechanisms to demographic patterns in social organisms. Sociality buffers individuals from environmental influences and it is unclear how much early life stress affects later life history. Workers of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) were exposed to two stressors, Varroa parasitism and Paraquat exposure, early in life. Consequences were measured at the molecular, behavioral, and demographic level. While treatments did not significantly affect levels of oxidative damage, expression of select genes, and titers of the common deformed wing virus, most of these measures were affected by age. Some of the age effects, such as declining levels of deformed wing virus and oxidative damage, were opposite to our predictions but may be explained by demographic selection. Further analyses suggested some influences of worker behavior on mortality and indicated weak treatment effects on behavior. The latter effects were inconsistent among the two experiments. However, mortality rate was consistently reduced by Varroa mite stress during development. Thus, mortality was more responsive to early life stress than our other response variables. The lack of treatment effects on these measures may be due to the social organization of honey bees that buffers the individual from the impact of stressful developmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. What would encourage blood donation in Ireland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, M; Sweeney, M R; Bailie, K; Morris, K; Kennedy, A; Boilson, A; O'Riordan, J; Staines, A

    2007-05-01

    Recent changes have resulted in the loss of 4% of the donor panel in the Republic of Ireland and 3% in Northern Ireland. In order to increase the number of donors in these two regions, it is important that transfusion service providers explore and understand the reasons, which prevent individuals from donating. The aim of this study was to explore these issues particularly in non-donors and those who had lapsed. This 7-month all-Ireland study was conducted by computer-assisted telephone interview. Data collected included sociodemographic history, donation status, as well as barriers/deterrents to donation. There were 4166 completed questionnaires (44% donors; 56% non-donors). Of the donors, 13% had donated blood within the last 2 years. Current donors cited 'awareness of patients needs' (88%), 'trust in the blood transfusion service' (70%), and 'an advertising campaign' (70%) as reasons encouraging them to donate blood. Lapsed donors and non-donors cited 'more frequent mobile clinics/sessions' (30% lapsed donors; 53% non-donors), 'if I was asked' (28% lapsed donors; 53% non-donors), and 'more flexible opening hours' (23% lapsed donors; 44% non-donors) as reasons that would encourage them to donate. The main reasons cited by non-donors for never having donated included 'medical reasons' (41% Republic of Ireland; 43% Northern Ireland), 'lack of information' (20% Republic of Ireland; 22% Northern Ireland), 'fear of needles' (15% Republic of Ireland; 17% Northern Ireland), and 'time constraints' (12% Republic of Ireland; 13% Northern Ireland). Among the non-donor group, 10% (Republic of Ireland) and 6% (Northern Ireland) claimed that they are not permitted to donate. Replacing regular donors is a major challenge for the transfusion service providers. This study shows that by facilitating the general public by introducing more mobile clinics/sessions, more flexible opening hours and having a better level of knowledge in the community about blood donation may encourage

  9. Down-regulation of GhADF1 gene expression affects cotton fibre properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Yun; Wang, Juan; Gao, Peng; Jiao, Gai-Li; Zhao, Pi-Ming; Li, Yan; Wang, Gui-Ling; Xia, Gui-Xian

    2009-01-01

    Cotton fibre is the most important natural fibres for textile industry. To date, the mechanism that governs the development of fibre traits is largely unknown. In this study, we have characterized the function of a member of the actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) family in Gossypium hirsutum by down-regulation of the gene (designated as GhADF1) expression in the transgenic cotton plants. We observed that both the fibre length and strength of the GhADF1-underexpressing plants increased as compared to the wild-type fibre, and transgenic fibres contained more abundant F-actin filaments in the cortical region of the cells. Moreover, the secondary cell wall of the transgenic fibre appeared thicker and the cellulose content was higher than that of the control fibre. Our results suggest that organization of actin cytoskeleton regulated by actin-associated proteins such as GhADF1 plays a critical role in the processes of elongation and secondary cell wall formation during fibre development. Additionally, our study provided a candidate intrinsic gene for the improvement of fibre traits via genetic engineering.

  10. [The express diagnostic of microorganisms affecting respiratory tract of patients with mucoviscidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, O L; Kunda, M S; Aksenova, E I; Orlova, A A; Chernukha, M Iu; Lunin, V G; Amelina, E L; Chuchalin, A G; Gintsburg, A L

    2013-11-01

    The shared bacteria Burkholderia capacia complex and Achromobacter sp. infect the respiratory tract of patients with mucoviscidosis brining on disorders of respiratory patency. Burkholderia capacia complex is characterized by transmissivity and higher lethality of patients infected by Burkholderia. Hence, the importance of differentiation of these phenotypically similar microorganisms is obvious. The developed express technique of diagnostic includes the separation of DNA from phlegm amplification and sequenation was fragments of genes recA, gltB, gyrB, 16S rDNA. The evaluation of products of amplification of genes recA, gltB makes it possible to differentiate Burkholderia capacia complex and Achromobacter sp. The analysis of successions of recA, gltB, gyrB makes it possible to identify genotype of Burkholderia capacia complex on the basis of data of allele profiles of strains of Burkholderia capacia complex circulating in Russia. The succession of gene 16S rDNA makes it possible to determine the taxonomic position of microorganism dominating in phlegm and not belonging to Burkholderia capacia complex or Achromobacter sp. The real time polymerase chain reaction in presence of intercalating dye Sybr Green I, DMSO and D(+)-trehalose makes it possible to differentiate Burkholderia capacia complex from other microorganisms infecting respiratory tract of patients with mucoviscidosis. This approach provides additional reduction of diagnostic duration and decrease possibility of contamination.

  11. Xrn1/Pacman affects apoptosis and regulates expression of hid and reaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Waldron

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death, or apoptosis, is a highly conserved cellular process that is crucial for tissue homeostasis under normal development as well as environmental stress. Misregulation of apoptosis is linked to many developmental defects and diseases such as tumour formation, autoimmune diseases and neurological disorders. In this paper, we show a novel role for the exoribonuclease Pacman/Xrn1 in regulating apoptosis. Using Drosophila wing imaginal discs as a model system, we demonstrate that a null mutation in pacman results in small imaginal discs as well as lethality during pupation. Mutant wing discs show an increase in the number of cells undergoing apoptosis, especially in the wing pouch area. Compensatory proliferation also occurs in these mutant discs, but this is insufficient to compensate for the concurrent increase in apoptosis. The phenotypic effects of the pacman null mutation are rescued by a deletion that removes one copy of each of the pro-apoptotic genes reaper, hid and grim, demonstrating that pacman acts through this pathway. The null pacman mutation also results in a significant increase in the expression of the pro-apoptotic mRNAs, hid and reaper, with this increase mostly occurring at the post-transcriptional level, suggesting that Pacman normally targets these mRNAs for degradation. Our results uncover a novel function for the conserved exoribonuclease Pacman and suggest that this exoribonuclease is important in the regulation of apoptosis in other organisms.

  12. Using Discovery Learning to Encourage Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardia Hi. Rahman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Creative thinking ability development is needed to be implemented by every educator including lecturers to their students. Therefore, they need to seriously act and design their learning process. One of the ways to develop student’s creative thinking is using discovery learning model. This research is conducted in physics education study program in 2016 with students who took learning and teaching class as research subject. From the research analysis result and discussion, it can be concluded that discovery learning model can encourage students’ creative thinking ability in learning and teaching strategy subject.

  13. Manipulating cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) expression in flax affects fibre composition and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent decades cultivation of flax and its application have dramatically decreased. One of the reasons for this is unpredictable quality and properties of flax fibre, because they depend on environmental factors, retting duration and growing conditions. These factors have contribution to the fibre composition, which consists of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and pectin. By far, it is largely established that in flax, lignin reduces an accessibility of enzymes either to pectin, hemicelluloses or cellulose (during retting or in biofuel synthesis and paper production). Therefore, in this study we evaluated composition and properties of flax fibre from plants with silenced CAD (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase) gene, which is key in the lignin biosynthesis. There is evidence that CAD is a useful tool to improve lignin digestibility and/or to lower the lignin levels in plants. Results Two studied lines responded differentially to the introduced modification due to the efficiency of the CAD silencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that flax CAD belongs to the “bona-fide” CAD family. CAD down-regulation had an effect in the reduced lignin amount in the flax fibre cell wall and as FT-IR results suggests, disturbed lignin composition and structure. Moreover introduced modification activated a compensatory mechanism which was manifested in the accumulation of cellulose and/or pectin. These changes had putative correlation with observed improved fiber’s tensile strength. Moreover, CAD down-regulation did not disturb at all or has only slight effect on flax plants’ development in vivo, however, the resistance against flax major pathogen Fusarium oxysporum decreased slightly. The modification positively affected fibre possessing; it resulted in more uniform retting. Conclusion The major finding of our paper is that the modification targeted directly to block lignin synthesis caused not only reduced lignin level in fibre, but also affected amount and

  14. The role of genetic sex in affect regulation and expression of GABA-related genes across species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne eSeney

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although circulating hormones and inhibitory gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA-related factors are known to affect mood, considerable knowledge gaps persist for biological mechanisms underlying the female bias in mood disorders. Here, we combine human and mouse studies to investigate sexual dimorphism in the GABA system in the context of major depressive disorder (MDD and then use a genetic model to dissect the role of sex-related factors in GABA-related gene expression and anxiety-/depressive-like behaviors in mice. First, using meta-analysis of gene array data in human postmortem brain (N = 51 MDD subjects, 50 controls, we show that the previously-reported down-regulation in MDD of somatostatin (SST, a marker of a GABA neuron subtype, is significantly greater in women with MDD. Second, using gene co-expression network analysis in control human subjects (N = 214; 2 frontal cortex regions and expression quantitative trait loci mapping (N = 170 subjects, we show that expression of SST and the GABA-synthesizing enzymes glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67 and GAD65 are tightly co-regulated and influenced by X-chromosome genetic polymorphisms. Third, using a rodent genetic model (Four Core Genotypes (FCG mice, in which genetic and gonadal sex are artificially dissociated (N ≥ 12/group, we show that genetic sex (i.e. X/Y chromosome influences both gene expression (lower Sst, Gad67, Gad65 in XY mice and anxiety-like behaviors (higher in XY mice. This suggests that in an intact male animal, the observed behavior represents the outcomes of male genetic sex increasing and male-like testosterone decreasing anxiety-like behaviors. Gonadal sex was the only factor influencing depressive-like behavior (gonadal males < gonadal females. Collectively, these combined human and mouse studies provide mechanistic insight into sexual dimorphism in mood disorders, and specifically demonstrate an unexpected role for XY genetic sex on GABA-related genes and anxiety

  15. Brown adipose tissue in obesity: Fractalkine-receptor dependent immune cell recruitment affects metabolic-related gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyák, Ágnes; Winkler, Zsuzsanna; Kuti, Dániel; Ferenczi, Szilamér; Kovács, Krisztina J

    2016-11-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays essential role in metabolic- and thermoregulation and displays morphological and functional plasticity in response to environmental and metabolic challenges. BAT is a heterogeneous tissue containing adipocytes and various immune-related cells, however, their interaction in regulation of BAT function is not fully elucidated. Fractalkine is a chemokine synthesized by adipocytes, which recruits fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1)-expressing leukocytes into the adipose tissue. Using transgenic mice, in which the fractalkine receptor, Cx3cr1 gene was replaced by Gfp, we evaluated whether deficiency in fractalkine signaling affects BAT remodeling and function in high-fat-diet - induced obesity. Homo- and heterozygote male CX3CR1-GFP mice were fed with normal or fat enriched (FatED) diet for 10weeks. Interscapular BAT was collected for molecular biological analysis. Heterozygous animals in which fractalkine signaling remains intact, gain more weight during FatED than CX3CR1 deficient gfp/gfp homozygotes. FatED in controls resulted in macrophage recruitment to the BAT with increased expression of proinflammatory mediators (Il1a, b, Tnfa and Ccl2). Local BAT inflammation was accompanied by increased expression of lipogenic enzymes and resulted in BAT "whitening". By contrast, fractalkine receptor deficiency prevented accumulation of tissue macrophages, selectively attenuated the expression of Tnfa, Il1a and Ccl2, increased BAT expression of lipolytic enzymes (Atgl, Hsl and Mgtl) and upregulated genes involved thermo-metabolism (Ucp1, Pparg Pgc1a) in response to FatED. These results highlight the importance of fractalkine-CX3CR1 interaction in recruitment of macrophages into the BAT of obese mice which might contribute to local tissue inflammation, adipose tissue remodeling and regulation of metabolic-related genes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Dietary protein intake affects expression of genes for lipid metabolism in porcine skeletal muscle in a genotype-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingying; Li, Fengna; He, Lingyun; Tan, Bie; Deng, Jinping; Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Yinghui; Geng, Meimei; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-04-14

    Skeletal muscle is a major site for the oxidation of fatty acids (FA) in mammals, including humans. Using a swine model, we tested the hypothesis that dietary protein intake regulates the expression of key genes for lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. A total of ninety-six barrows (forty-eight pure-bred Bama mini-pigs (fatty genotype) and forty-eight Landrace pigs (lean genotype)) were fed from 5 weeks of age to market weight. Pigs of fatty or lean genotype were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments (low- or adequate-protein diet), with twenty-four individually fed pigs per treatment. Our data showed that dietary protein levels affected the expression of genes involved in the anabolism and catabolism of lipids in the longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles in a genotype-dependent manner. Specifically, Bama mini-pigs had more intramuscular fat, SFA and MUFA, as well as elevated mRNA expression levels of lipogenic genes, compared with Landrace pigs. In contrast, Bama mini-pigs had lower mRNA expression levels of lipolytic genes than Landrace pigs fed an adequate-protein diet in the growing phase. These data are consistent with higher white-fat deposition in Bama mini-pigs than in Landrace pigs. In conclusion, adequate provision of dietary protein (amino acids) plays an important role in regulating the expression of key lipogenic genes, and the growth of white adipose tissue, in a genotype- and tissue-specific manner. These findings have important implications for developing novel dietary strategies in pig production.

  17. Post-weaning diet affects faecal microbial composition but not selected adipose gene expression in the cat (Felis catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Emma N; Kittelmann, Sandra; Young, Wayne; Kerr, Katherine R; Swanson, Kelly S; Roy, Nicole C; Thomas, David G

    2013-01-01

    The effects of pre- (i.e., gestation and during lactation) and post-weaning diet on the composition of faecal bacterial communities and adipose expression of key genes in the glucose and insulin pathways were investigated in the cat. Queens were maintained on a moderate protein:fat:carbohydrate kibbled ("Diet A"; 35:20:28% DM; n  =  4) or high protein:fat:carbohydrate canned ("Diet B"; 45:37:2% DM; n = 3) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were weaned onto these diets in a nested design (n  =  5 per treatment). Faecal samples were collected at wk 8 and 17 of age. DNA was isolated from faeces and bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were analysed by pyrosequencing. RNA was extracted from blood (wk 18) and adipose tissue and ovarian/testicular tissues (wk 24) and gene expression levels determined using RT-qPCR. Differences (Pcomposition of faecal bacteria were observed between pregnant queens fed Diet A or B. However, pre-weaning diet had little effect on faecal bacterial composition in weaned kittens. In contrast, post-weaning diet altered bacterial population profiles in the kittens. Increased (PDiet A compared to those fed Diet B post-weaning. Feeding Diet B pre-weaning increased (PDiet A pre-weaning. Post-weaning diet had no effect on expression levels of target genes. Correlations between the expression levels of genes involved in glucose and insulin pathways and faecal Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes phyla were identified. The reasons for why post-weaning diet affects microbial populations and not gene expression levels are of interest.

  18. Heterologous expression and N-terminal His-tagging processes affect the catalytic properties of staphylococcal lipases: a monolayer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horchani, Habib; Sabrina, Lignon; Régine, Lebrun; Sayari, Adel; Gargouri, Youssef; Verger, Robert

    2010-10-15

    The interfacial and kinetic properties of wild type, untagged recombinant and tagged recombinant forms of three staphylococcal lipases (SSL, SXL and SAL3) were compared using the monomolecular film technique. A kinetic study on the dependence of the stereoselectivity of these nine lipase forms on the surface pressure was performed using the three dicaprin isomers spread in the form of monomolecular films at the air-water interface. New parameters, termed Recombinant expression Effects on Catalysis (REC), N-Tag Effects on Catalysis (TEC), and N-Tag and Recombinant expression Effects on Catalysis (TREC), were introduced. The findings obtained showed that with all the lipases tested, the recombinant expression process and the N-terminal His-tag slightly affect the sn-1 preference for dicaprin enantiomers as well as the penetration capacity into monomolecular films of phosphatidylcholine but significantly decrease the catalytic rate of hydrolysis of three dicaprin isomers. This rate reduction is more pronounced at high surface pressures, i.e. at low interfacial energies. In conclusion, the effects of the heterologous expression process on the catalytic properties of the staphylococcal lipases are three times more deleterious than the presence of an N-terminal tag extension. In the case of the situation most commonly encountered in the literature, i.e. the heterologous expression of a tagged lipase, the rate of catalysis can be decreased by these processes by 42-83% on average in comparison with the values measured with the corresponding wild type form. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Interaction between Fluid Wall Shear Stress and Solid Circumferential Strain Affects Endothelial Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Ronny; Pierides, Alexis; Tarbell, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cells lining the walls of blood vessels are exposed simultaneously to wall shear stress (WSS) and circumferential stress (CS) that can be characterized by the temporal phase angle between WSS and CS (stress phase angle – SPA). Regions of the circulation with highly asynchronous hemodynamics (SPA close to -180°) such as coronary arteries are associated with the development of pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia whereas more synchronous regions (SPA closer to 0°) are spared of disease. The present study evaluates endothelial cell gene expression of 42 atherosclerosis-related genes under asynchronous hemodynamics (SPA=-180 °) and synchronous hemodynamics (SPA=0 °). This study used a novel bioreactor to investigate the cellular response of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECS) exposed to a combination of pulsatile WSS and CS at SPA=0 or SPA=-180. Using a PCR array of 42 genes, we determined that BAECS exposed to non-reversing sinusoidal WSS (10±10 dyne/cm2) and CS (4 ± 4 %) over a 7 hour testing period displayed 17 genes that were up regulated by SPA = -180 °, most of them pro-atherogenic, including NFκB and other NFκB target genes. The up regulation of NFκB p50/p105 and p65 by SPA =-180° was confirmed by Western blots and immunofluorescence staining demonstrating the nuclear translocation of NFκB p50/p105 and p65. These data suggest that asynchronous hemodynamics (SPA=-180 °) can elicit proatherogenic responses in endothelial cells compared to synchronous hemodynamics without shear stress reversal, indicating that SPA may be an important parameter characterizing arterial susceptibility to disease. PMID:26147292

  20. Genetic variability in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) affects clinical expression of Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromadzka, Grażyna; Rudnicka, Magdalena; Chabik, Grzegorz; Przybyłkowski, Adam; Członkowska, Anna

    2011-10-01

    Wilson's disease (WND) is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper (Cu) transport, resulting from pathogenic mutations in the ATP7B gene. The reason for the high variability in phenotypic expressions of WND is unknown. Hepatotoxic and neurotoxic effects of homocysteine (Hcy), as well as interrelationships between Hcy and Cu toxicity, were documented. We genotyped the two 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (one of the key folate/Hcy pathway enzymes) gene (MTHFR) polymorphisms: C677T and A1298C in 245 WND patients. Next, we tested the modulation of WND phenotypes by genotypes of MTHFR. MTHFR C677T genotype distribution deviated from that expected from a population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (C677T, χ(2) = 12.14, p = 0.0005). Patients with the MTHFR 1298C allele were younger at symptoms' onset than those without this allele (median (IQR) age, 24.9 (14.0) years vs. 28.5 (12.0) years, p = 0.006). Carriers of MTHFR "high activity" diplotype (double wild-type homozygotes 677CC/1298AA) manifested WND at older age, than non-carriers (median (IQR) age, 33.5 (9.0) years vs. 25.0 (13.0) years, p = 0.0009). Patients with the MTHFR 677T allele less frequently exhibited the neurological WND phenotype (31 (29.5%) vs. 36 (48.0%)), and more frequently presented with hepatic WND (44 (41.9%) vs. 22 (29.3%)), compared with subjects MTHFR 677T(-). We postulate that MTHFR polymorphism contributes to the phenotypic variability of WND. Copyright © 2011 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rhodopsin expression level affects rod outer segment morphology and photoresponse kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint L Makino

    Full Text Available The retinal rod outer segment is a sensory cilium that is specialized for the conversion of light into an electrical signal. Within the cilium, up to several thousand membranous disks contain as many as a billion copies of rhodopsin for efficient photon capture. Disks are continually turned over, requiring the daily synthesis of a prodigious amount of rhodopsin. To promote axial diffusion in the aqueous cytoplasm, the disks have one or more incisures. Across vertebrates, the range of disk diameters spans an order of magnitude, and the number and length of the incisures vary considerably, but the mechanisms controlling disk architecture are not well understood. The finding that transgenic mice overexpressing rhodopsin have enlarged disks lacking an incisure prompted us to test whether lowered rhodopsin levels constrain disk assembly.The structure and function of rods from hemizygous rhodopsin knockout (R+/- mice with decreased rhodopsin expression were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and single cell recording. R+/- rods were structurally altered in three ways: disk shape changed from circular to elliptical, disk surface area decreased, and the single incisure lengthened to divide the disk into two sections. Photocurrent responses to flashes recovered more rapidly than normal. A spatially resolved model of phototransduction indicated that changes in the packing densities of rhodopsin and other transduction proteins were responsible. The decrease in aqueous outer segment volume and the lengthened incisure had only minor effects on photon response amplitude and kinetics.Rhodopsin availability limits disk assembly and outer segment girth in normal rods. The incisure may buffer the supply of structural proteins needed to form larger disks. Decreased rhodopsin level accelerated photoresponse kinetics by increasing the rates of molecular collisions on the membrane. Faster responses, together with fewer rhodopsins, combine to lower overall

  2. The Interaction between Fluid Wall Shear Stress and Solid Circumferential Strain Affects Endothelial Gene Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Amaya

    Full Text Available Endothelial cells lining the walls of blood vessels are exposed simultaneously to wall shear stress (WSS and circumferential stress (CS that can be characterized by the temporal phase angle between WSS and CS (stress phase angle - SPA. Regions of the circulation with highly asynchronous hemodynamics (SPA close to -180° such as coronary arteries are associated with the development of pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia whereas more synchronous regions (SPA closer to 0° are spared of disease. The present study evaluates endothelial cell gene expression of 42 atherosclerosis-related genes under asynchronous hemodynamics (SPA=-180 ° and synchronous hemodynamics (SPA=0 °. This study used a novel bioreactor to investigate the cellular response of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECS exposed to a combination of pulsatile WSS and CS at SPA=0 or SPA=-180. Using a PCR array of 42 genes, we determined that BAECS exposed to non-reversing sinusoidal WSS (10±10 dyne/cm2 and CS (4 ± 4% over a 7 hour testing period displayed 17 genes that were up regulated by SPA = -180 °, most of them pro-atherogenic, including NFκB and other NFκB target genes. The up regulation of NFκB p50/p105 and p65 by SPA =-180° was confirmed by Western blots and immunofluorescence staining demonstrating the nuclear translocation of NFκB p50/p105 and p65. These data suggest that asynchronous hemodynamics (SPA=-180 ° can elicit proatherogenic responses in endothelial cells compared to synchronous hemodynamics without shear stress reversal, indicating that SPA may be an important parameter characterizing arterial susceptibility to disease.

  3. Bicycle infrastructure: can good design encourage cycling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Hull

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research posits the question that good design of the bicycle infrastructure in a city will encourage more people to cycle. Research is carried out to compare the cycle infrastructure in selected European cities against an adapted Level of Service concept using accompanied ride-alongs. The literature review on the factors that encourage/dissuade cycle use suggests that it is the potential rider’s perceptions on the safety of cycling in their neighbourhood that is the deciding feature. Moreover, the literature review showed that contextual factors such as whether the actual infrastructure meets the needs of different cyclists are relatively under-researched. Six case study cities were selected (Edinburgh, Cambridge, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and compared on a range of factors by the riders including the coherence, directness, attractiveness, safety and comfort of the network. A cycle infrastructure scoring system was derived from the cycling research literature and the research was carried out by the researcher, an experienced cyclist, accompanied by an inexperienced cyclist. Using this research, the article makes several recommendations for improving and enhancing existing cycle infrastructure provision.

  4. Subinhibitory concentrations of perilla oil affect the expression of secreted virulence factor genes in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiazhang Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathogenicity of staphylococcus aureus is dependent largely upon its ability to secrete a number of virulence factors, therefore, anti-virulence strategy to combat S. aureus-mediated infections is now gaining great interest. It is widely recognized that some plant essential oils could affect the production of staphylococcal exotoxins when used at subinhibitory concentrations. Perilla [Perilla frutescens (L. Britton], a natural medicine found in eastern Asia, is primarily used as both a medicinal and culinary herb. Its essential oil (perilla oil has been previously demonstrated to be active against S. aureus. However, there are no data on the influence of perilla oil on the production of S. aureus exotoxins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of perilla oil against S. aureus strains. Hemolysis, tumour necrosis factor (TNF release, Western blot, and real-time RT-PCR assays were performed to evaluate the effects of subinhibitory concentrations of perilla oil on exotoxins production in S. aureus. The data presented here show that perilla oil dose-dependently decreased the production of α-toxin, enterotoxins A and B (the major staphylococcal enterotoxins, and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1 in both methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The production of α-toxin, SEA, SEB, and TSST-1 in S. aureus was decreased by perilla oil. These data suggest that perilla oil may be useful for the treatment of S. aureus infections when used in combination with β-lactam antibiotics, which can increase exotoxins production by S. aureus at subinhibitory concentrations. Furthermore, perilla oil could be rationally applied in food systems as a novel food preservative both to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and to repress the production of exotoxins, particularly staphylococcal enterotoxins.

  5. Acute Stress Affects the Expression of Hippocampal Mu Oscillations in an Age-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takillah, Samir; Naudé, Jérémie; Didienne, Steve; Sebban, Claude; Decros, Brigitte; Schenker, Esther; Spedding, Michael; Mourot, Alexandre; Mariani, Jean; Faure, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Anxiolytic drugs are widely used in the elderly, a population particularly sensitive to stress. Stress, aging and anxiolytics all affect low-frequency oscillations in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) independently, but the interactions between these factors remain unclear. Here, we compared the effects of stress (elevated platform, EP) and anxiolytics (diazepam, DZP) on extracellular field potentials (EFP) in the PFC, parietal cortex and hippocampus (dorsal and ventral parts) of adult (8 months) and aged (18 months) Wistar rats. A potential source of confusion in the experimental studies in rodents comes from locomotion-related theta (6-12 Hz) oscillations, which may overshadow the direct effects of anxiety on low-frequency and especially on the high-amplitude oscillations in the Mu range (7-12 Hz), related to arousal. Animals were restrained to avoid any confound and isolate the direct effects of stress from theta oscillations related to stress-induced locomotion. We identified transient, high-amplitude oscillations in the 7-12 Hz range ("Mu-bursts") in the PFC, parietal cortex and only in the dorsal part of hippocampus. At rest, aged rats displayed more Mu-bursts than adults. Stress acted differently on Mu-bursts depending on age: it increases vs. decreases burst, in adult and aged animals, respectively. In contrast DZP (1 mg/kg) acted the same way in stressed adult and age animal: it decreased the occurrence of Mu-bursts, as well as their co-occurrence. This is consistent with DZP acting as a positive allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors, which globally potentiates inhibition and has anxiolytic effects. Overall, the effect of benzodiazepines on stressed animals was to restore Mu burst activity in adults but to strongly diminish them in aged rats. This work suggests Mu-bursts as a neural marker to study the impact of stress and DZP on age.

  6. Dietary Resveratrol Does Not Affect Life Span, Body Composition, Stress Response, and Longevity-Related Gene Expression in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Staats

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested the effect of the stilbene resveratrol on life span, body composition, locomotor activity, stress response, and the expression of genes encoding proteins centrally involved in ageing pathways in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Male and female w1118 D. melanogaster were fed diets based on sucrose, corn meal, and yeast. Flies either received a control diet or a diet supplemented with 500 µmol/L resveratrol. Dietary resveratrol did not affect mean, median, and maximal life span of male and female flies. Furthermore, body composition remained largely unchanged following the resveratrol supplementation. Locomotor activity, as determined by the climbing index, was not significantly different between control and resveratrol-supplemented flies. Resveratrol-fed flies did not exhibit an improved stress response towards hydrogen peroxide as compared to controls. Resveratrol did not change mRNA steady levels of antioxidant (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, NADH dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase 2 and longevity-related genes, including sirtuin 2, spargel, and I’m Not Dead Yet. Collectively, present data suggest that resveratrol does not affect life span, body composition, locomotor activity, stress response, and longevity-associated gene expression in w1118 D. melanogaster.

  7. The garlic allelochemical diallyl disulfide affects tomato root growth by influencing cell division, phytohormone balance and expansin gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Diallyl disulfide (DADS is a volatile organosulfur compound derived from garlic (Allium sativum L., and it is known as an allelochemical responsible for the strong allelopathic potential of garlic. The anticancer properties of DADS have been studied in experimental animals and various types of cancer cells, but to date, little is known about its mode of action as an allelochemical at the cytological level. The current research presents further studies on the effects of DADS on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. seed germination, root growth, mitotic index and cell size in root meristem, as well as the phytohormone levels and expression profile of auxin biosynthesis genes (FZYs, auxin transport genes (SlPINs and expansin genes (EXPs in tomato root. The results showed a biphasic, dose-dependent effect on tomato seed germination and root growth under different DADS concentrations. Lower concentrations (0.01-0.62 mM of DADS significantly promoted root growth, whereas higher levels (6.20-20.67 mM showed inhibitory effects. Cytological observations showed that the cell length of root meristem was increased and that the mitotic activity of meristematic cells in seedling root tips was enhanced at lower concentrations of DADS. In contrast, DADS at higher concentrations inhibited root growth by affecting both the length and division activity of meristematic cells. However, the cell width of the root meristem was not affected. Additionally, DADS increased the IAA and ZR contents of seedling roots in a dose-dependent manner. The influence on IAA content may be mediated by the up-regulation of FZYs and PINs. Further investigation into the underlying mechanism revealed that the expression levels of tomato EXPs were significantly affected by DADS. The expression levels of EXPB2 and beta-expansin precursor were increased after 3 d, and those of EXP1, EXPB3 and EXLB1 were increased after 5 d of DADS treatment (0.41 mM. This result suggests that tomato root growth

  8. Ankyrin and band 3 differentially affect expression of membrane glycoproteins but are not required for erythroblast enucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Peng, E-mail: peng-ji@fsm.northwestern.edu [Department of Pathology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142 (United States); Lodish, Harvey F. [Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142 (United States); Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ankyrin and band 3 are not required for erythroblasts enucleation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Loss of ankyrin does not affect erythroid membrane glycoprotein expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Loss of band 3 influences erythroid membrane glycoprotein expression. -- Abstract: During late stages of mammalian erythropoiesis the nucleus undergoes chromatin condensation, migration to the plasma membrane, and extrusion from the cytoplasm surrounded by a segment of plasma membrane. Since nuclear condensation occurs in all vertebrates, mammalian erythroid membrane and cytoskeleton proteins were implicated as playing important roles in mediating the movement and extrusion of the nucleus. Here we use erythroid ankyrin deficient and band 3 knockout mouse models to show that band 3, but not ankyrin, plays an important role in regulating the level of erythroid cell membrane proteins, as evidenced by decreased cell surface expression of glycophorin A in band 3 knockout mice. However, neither band 3 nor ankyrin are required for enucleation. These results demonstrate that mammalian erythroblast enucleation does not depend on the membrane integrity generated by the ankyrin-band 3 complex.

  9. Mycobacteria Exploit p38 Signaling To Affect CD1 Expression and Lipid Antigen Presentation by Human Dendritic Cells▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Maria Cristina; Teloni, Raffaela; Giannoni, Federico; Mariotti, Sabrina; Remoli, Maria Elena; Sargentini, Valeria; Videtta, Melissa; Pardini, Manuela; De Libero, Gennaro; Coccia, Eliana Marina; Nisini, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Group I CD1 proteins are specialized antigen-presenting molecules that present both microbial and self lipid antigens to CD1-restricted α/β T lymphocytes. The production of high levels of gamma interferon and lysis of infected macrophages by lipid-specific T lymphocytes are believed to play pivotal roles mainly in the defense against mycobacterial infections. We previously demonstrated that Mycobacterium tuberculosis and bacillus Calmette-Guérin (Mycobacterium bovis BCG) induce human monocytes to differentiate into CD1− dendritic cells (DC), which cannot present lipid antigens to specific T cells. Here, we show that in human monocytes mycobacteria trigger phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase to inhibit CD1 expression in DC derived from infected monocytes. Pretreatment with a specific p38 inhibitor renders monocytes insensitive to mycobacterial subversion and allows them to differentiate into CD1+ DC, which are fully capable of presenting lipid antigens to specific T cells. We also report that one of the pathogen recognition receptors triggered by BCG to activate p38 is complement receptor 3 (CR3), as shown by reduced p38 phosphorylation and partial reestablishment of CD1 membrane expression obtained by CR3 blockade before infection. In conclusion, we propose that p38 signaling is a novel pathway exploited by mycobacteria to affect the expression of CD1 antigen-presenting cells and avoid immune recognition. PMID:19720761

  10. Poly purine.pyrimidine sequences upstream of the beta-galactosidase gene affect gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmachari Samir K

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poly purine.pyrimidine sequences have the potential to adopt intramolecular triplex structures and are overrepresented upstream of genes in eukaryotes. These sequences may regulate gene expression by modulating the interaction of transcription factors with DNA sequences upstream of genes. Results A poly purine.pyrimidine sequence with the potential to adopt an intramolecular triplex DNA structure was designed. The sequence was inserted within a nucleosome positioned upstream of the β-galactosidase gene in yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, between the cycl promoter and gal 10Upstream Activating Sequences (UASg. Upon derepression with galactose, β-galactosidase gene expression is reduced 12-fold in cells carrying single copy poly purine.pyrimidine sequences. This reduction in expression is correlated with reduced transcription. Furthermore, we show that plasmids carrying a poly purine.pyrimidine sequence are not specifically lost from yeast cells. Conclusion We propose that a poly purine.pyrimidine sequence upstream of a gene affects transcription. Plasmids carrying this sequence are not specifically lost from cells and thus no additional effort is needed for the replication of these sequences in eukaryotic cells.

  11. Maternal epigenetics and methyl supplements affect agouti gene expression in A{sup vy}/a mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, G.L. [National Center for Toxicological Research/Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR (United States)]|[Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Kodell, R.L.; Cooney, C.A. [National Center for Toxicological Research/Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR (United States); Moore, S.R. [Bionetics Corp., Jefferson, AR (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Viable yellow (A{sup vy}/a) mice are larger, obese, hyperinsulinemic, more susceptible to cancer, and, on average, shorter lived than their non-yellow siblings. They are epigenetic mosaics ranging from a yellow phenotype with maximum ectopic agouti overexpression, through a continuum of mottled agouti/yellow phenotypes with partial agouti overexpression, to a pseudoagouti phenotype with minimal ectopic expression. Pseudoagouti A{sup vy}/a mice are lean, healthy, and longer lived than their yellow siblings. Here the authors report that feeding pregnant black a/a dams methyl-supplemented diets alters epigenetic regulation of agouti expression in their offspring, as indicated by increased agouti/black mottling in the direction of the pseudoagouti phenotype. They also present confirmatory evidence that epigenetic phenotypes are maternally heritable. Thus A{sup vy} expression, already known to be modulated by imprinting, strain-specific modification, and maternal epigenetic inheritance, is also modulated by maternal diet. These observations suggest, at least in this special case, that maternal dietary supplementation may positively affect health and longevity of the offspring. Therefore, this experimental system should be useful for identifying maternal factors that modulate epigenetic mechanisms, especially DNA methylation, in developing embryos.

  12. Phenotypes and gene expression profiles of Saccharopolyspora erythraea rifampicin-resistant (rif mutants affected in erythromycin production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bicciato Silvio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence from previous works that bacterial secondary metabolism may be stimulated by genetic manipulation of RNA polymerase (RNAP. In this study we have used rifampicin selection as a strategy to genetically improve the erythromycin producer Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Results Spontaneous rifampicin-resistant (rif mutants were isolated from the parental strain NRRL2338 and two rif mutations mapping within rpoB, S444F and Q426R, were characterized. With respect to the parental strain, S444F mutants exhibited higher respiratory performance and up to four-fold higher final erythromycin yields; in contrast, Q426R mutants were slow-growing, developmental-defective and severely impaired in erythromycin production. DNA microarray analysis demonstrated that these rif mutations deeply changed the transcriptional profile of S. erythraea. The expression of genes coding for key enzymes of carbon (and energy and nitrogen central metabolism was dramatically altered in turn affecting the flux of metabolites through erythromycin feeder pathways. In particular, the valine catabolic pathway that supplies propionyl-CoA for biosynthesis of the erythromycin precursor 6-deoxyerythronolide B was strongly up-regulated in the S444F mutants, while the expression of the biosynthetic gene cluster of erythromycin (ery was not significantly affected. In contrast, the ery cluster was down-regulated ( Conclusion Rifampicin selection is a simple and reliable tool to investigate novel links between primary and secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation in S. erythraea and to improve erythromycin production. At the same time genome-wide analysis of expression profiles using DNA microarrays allowed information to be gained about the mechanisms underlying the stimulatory/inhibitory effects of the rif mutations on erythromycin production.

  13. Estimating peer effects in networks with peer encouragement designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckles, Dean; Kizilcec, René F; Bakshy, Eytan

    2016-07-05

    Peer effects, in which the behavior of an individual is affected by the behavior of their peers, are central to social science. Because peer effects are often confounded with homophily and common external causes, recent work has used randomized experiments to estimate effects of specific peer behaviors. These experiments have often relied on the experimenter being able to randomly modulate mechanisms by which peer behavior is transmitted to a focal individual. We describe experimental designs that instead randomly assign individuals' peers to encouragements to behaviors that directly affect those individuals. We illustrate this method with a large peer encouragement design on Facebook for estimating the effects of receiving feedback from peers on posts shared by focal individuals. We find evidence for substantial effects of receiving marginal feedback on multiple behaviors, including giving feedback to others and continued posting. These findings provide experimental evidence for the role of behaviors directed at specific individuals in the adoption and continued use of communication technologies. In comparison, observational estimates differ substantially, both underestimating and overestimating effects, suggesting that researchers and policy makers should be cautious in relying on them.

  14. TORC1 signaling inhibition by rapamycin and caffeine affect lifespan, global gene expression, and cell proliferation of fission yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallis, Charalampos; Codlin, Sandra; Bähler, Jürg

    2013-01-01

    Target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) is implicated in growth control and aging from yeast to humans. Fission yeast is emerging as a popular model organism to study TOR signaling, although rapamycin has been thought to not affect cell growth in this organism. Here, we analyzed the effects of rapamycin and caffeine, singly and combined, on multiple cellular processes in fission yeast. The two drugs led to diverse and specific phenotypes that depended on TORC1 inhibition, including prolonged chronological lifespan, inhibition of global translation, inhibition of cell growth and division, and reprograming of global gene expression mimicking nitrogen starvation. Rapamycin and caffeine differentially affected these various TORC1-dependent processes. Combined drug treatment augmented most phenotypes and effectively blocked cell growth. Rapamycin showed a much more subtle effect on global translation than did caffeine, while both drugs were effective in prolonging chronological lifespan. Rapamycin and caffeine did not affect the lifespan via the pH of the growth media. Rapamycin prolonged the lifespan of nongrowing cells only when applied during the growth phase but not when applied after cells had stopped proliferation. The doses of rapamycin and caffeine strongly correlated with growth inhibition and with lifespan extension. This comprehensive analysis will inform future studies into TORC1 function and cellular aging in fission yeast and beyond. PMID:23551936

  15. CERN encourages girls to "expand their horizons"

    CERN Multimedia

    François Briard

    2015-01-01

    On 14 November, CERN took part for the fourth time in "Élargis tes horizons" (see here), a conference organised every two years at Geneva University for girls from the local region aged 11 to 14 aiming to encourage them to take up studies and careers in the scientific and technical domains.   Claude Sanz (left), a fellow in the EN Department, explaining to three girls how to build a particle accelerator in a salad bowl. This year, young physicists and engineers from ATLAS and CMS ran three workshops: "Seeing the invisible using a cloud chamber", "Great cold fun and treats with liquid nitrogen" and "Build your own accelerator in a salad bowl!" CERN was also represented at the Forum de Découverte, represented by the Diversity Office and the Medialab team, presenting the "Higgnite" interactive experiment, which illustrates the principle of the Higgs field. More...

  16. State legal innovations to encourage naloxone dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Corey; Carr, Derek

    The opioid overdose epidemic continues to claim the lives of tens of thousands of Americans every year. Increased access to the opioid antagonist naloxone can reduce opioid-related morbidity and mortality. In this commentary, we describe several recent legal innovations designed to encourage pharmacists to ensure that naloxone is available when and where it is needed, and dispel some common misconceptions regarding potential legal risks associated with pharmacy naloxone dispensing. Data are drawn from state laws and regulations, as catalogued by the Westlaw database. States have rapidly modified law and policy to increase layperson access to naloxone. As of August 2016, 44 states permit naloxone to be prescribed for administration to a person with whom the prescriber does not have a prescriber-patient relationship. Forty-two states permit naloxone to be dispensed via a non-patient-specific mechanism such as a standing or protocol order, and 5 states permit some pharmacists to prescribe naloxone on their own authority. The liability risk associated with naloxone dispensing is no higher than any other medication, and may be lower than some. However, to encourage the prescription and dispensing of naloxone, 36 states provide additional protection from civil liability for pharmacy naloxone dispensing, and 32 states provide protection from potential criminal action. Naloxone access laws in 31 states explicitly provide that dispensing naloxone as permitted by law cannot be grounds for disciplinary action by the state board of pharmacy or similar entity. Pharmacists are key members of the health care team and are uniquely situated to reduce potential opioid overdose risk. Pharmacists should be aware of and utilize innovative state laws designed to increase access to naloxone. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure to atrazine affects the expression of key genes in metabolic pathways integral to energy homeostasis in Xenopus laevis tadpoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaya, Renee M., E-mail: renee.zaya@wmich.edu [Great Lakes Environmental and Molecular Sciences Center, Department of Biological Sciences, 3425 Wood Hall, Western Michigan University, 1903 West Michigan Avenue, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Amini, Zakariya, E-mail: zakariya.amini@wmich.edu [Great Lakes Environmental and Molecular Sciences Center, Department of Biological Sciences, 3425 Wood Hall, Western Michigan University, 1903 West Michigan Avenue, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Whitaker, Ashley S., E-mail: ashley.s.whitaker@wmich.edu [Great Lakes Environmental and Molecular Sciences Center, Department of Biological Sciences, 3425 Wood Hall, Western Michigan University, 1903 West Michigan Avenue, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Ide, Charles F., E-mail: charles.ide@wmich.edu [Great Lakes Environmental and Molecular Sciences Center, Department of Biological Sciences, 3425 Wood Hall, Western Michigan University, 1903 West Michigan Avenue, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    In our laboratory, Xenopus laevis tadpoles exposed throughout development to 200 or 400 {mu}g/L atrazine, concentrations reported to periodically occur in puddles, vernal ponds and runoff soon after application, were smaller and had smaller fat bodies (the tadpole's lipid storage organ) than controls. It was hypothesized that these changes were due to atrazine-related perturbations of energy homeostasis. To investigate this hypothesis, selected metabolic responses to exposure at the transcriptional and biochemical levels in atrazine-exposed tadpoles were measured. DNA microarray technology was used to determine which metabolic pathways were affected after developmental exposure to 400 {mu}g/L atrazine. From these data, genes representative of the affected pathways were selected for assay using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to measure changes in expression during a 2-week exposure to 400 {mu}g/L. Finally, ATP levels were measured from tadpoles both early in and at termination of exposure to 200 and 400 {mu}g/L. Microarray analysis revealed significant differential gene expression in metabolic pathways involved with energy homeostasis. Pathways with increased transcription were associated with the conversion of lipids and proteins into energy. Pathways with decreased transcription were associated with carbohydrate metabolism, fat storage, and protein synthesis. Using qRT-PCR, changes in gene expression indicative of an early stress response to atrazine were noted. Exposed tadpoles had significant decreases in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (AD) and glucocorticoid receptor protein (GR) mRNA after 24 h of exposure, and near-significant (p = 0.07) increases in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {beta} (PPAR-{beta}) mRNA by 72 h. Decreases in AD suggested decreases in fatty acid {beta}-oxidation while decreases in GR may have been a receptor desensitization response to a glucocorticoid surge. Involvement of PPAR-{beta}, an energy

  18. [Effect of acupuncture along affected meridian on the MME gene expression of migraine patients without aura of gan-yang hyperactivity syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yin-Lan; Wan, Ming-Yu; Liang, Xi-Sen; Liang, Fan-Rong

    2015-03-01

    To observe the effect of acupuncture along affected meridian on the mem- brane metallo-endopeptidase (MME) gene expression of migraine patients without aura (MO) of Gan-yang hyperactivity syndrome (GYHS). Totally 20 MO patients of GYHS were randomly assigned to the acupoint group (acupuncture along affected meridian) and the non-acupoint group, 10 cases in each group. Needling was performed once per day for 10 consecutive days. Gene chip technology was used to obtain two sets of gene expression profiles and analyzed using Gene Ontology (GO). In the acupoint group, MME gene expression decreased after needling (P = 0.0023).That gene was rich in the beta-amyloid metabolic process (P = 3.16E-05) and the peptide metabolic process (P = 0.009612). Its expression was not seen in the non-acupoint group. The effect of point selection along affected meridian could be achieved possibly by regulating the MME gene expression.

  19. Local NSAID infusion does not affect protein synthesis and gene expression in human muscle after eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, U R; Schjerling, P.; Langberg, Henning

    2011-01-01

    models, and inhibit the exercise-induced satellite cell proliferation and protein synthesis in humans. However, the cellular mechanisms eliciting these responses remain unknown. Eight healthy male volunteers performed 200 maximal eccentric contractions with each leg. To block prostaglandin synthesis......Unaccustomed exercise leads to satellite cell proliferation and increased skeletal muscle protein turnover. Several growth factors and cytokines may be involved in the adaptive responses. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) negatively affect muscle regeneration and adaptation in animal...... locally in the skeletal muscle, indomethacin (NSAID) was infused for 7.5 h via microdialysis catheters into m. vastus lateralis of one leg. Protein synthesis was determined by the incorporation of 1,2-(13) C(2) leucine into muscle protein from 24 to 28 h post-exercise. Furthermore, mRNA expression...

  20. CD4+CD25+ T cells expressing FoxP3 in Icelandic horses affected with insect bite hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Eman; Steinbach, Falko; Marti, Eliane

    2012-07-15

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an IgE-mediated dermatitis caused by bites of midges from the genus Culicoides. We have shown previously that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from IBH-affected horses produce higher levels of IL-4 and lower levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 than those from healthy horses, suggesting that IBH is associated with a reduced regulatory immune response. FoxP3 is a crucial marker of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Here we have determined the proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T cells by flow cytometry in PBMC directly after isolation or after stimulation with Culicoides extract or a control antigen (Tetanus Toxoid). There were no differences between healthy and IBH horses either in the proportion of FoxP3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in freshly isolated PBMC or in the following stimulation with Tetanus Toxoid. However, upon stimulation of PBMC with the allergen, expression of FoxP3 by CD4(+)CD25(+high) and CD4(+)CD25(+dim) cells was significantly higher in healthy than in IBH horses. Addition of recombinant IL-4 to PBMC from healthy horses stimulated with the allergen significantly decreased the proportion of FoxP3 expressing cells within CD4(+)CD25(+high). These results suggest that IBH is associated with a decreased number of allergen-induced Tregs. This could be a consequence of the increased IL-4 production by PBMC of IBH-affected horses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Water availability and population origin affect the expression of the tradeoff between reproduction and growth in Plantago coronopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C F; García, M B; Ehlers, B K

    2013-05-01

    Investment in reproduction and growth represent a classic tradeoff with implication for life history evolution. The local environment can play a major role in the magnitude and evolutionary consequences of such a tradeoff. Here, we examined the investment in reproductive and vegetative tissue in 40 maternal half-sib families from four different populations of the herb Plantago coronopus growing in either a dry or wet greenhouse environment. Plants originated from populations with an annual or a perennial life form, with annuals prevailing in drier habitats with greater seasonal variation in both temperature and precipitation. We found that water availability affected the expression of the tradeoff (both phenotypic and genetic) between reproduction and growth, being most accentuated under dry condition. However, populations responded very differently to water treatments. Plants from annual populations showed a similar response to drought condition with little variation among maternal families, suggesting a history of selection favouring genotypes with high allocation to reproduction when water availability is low. Plants from annual populations also expressed the highest level of plasticity. For the perennial populations, one showed a large variation among maternal families in resource allocation and expressed significant negative genetic correlations between reproductive and vegetative biomass under drought. The other perennial population showed less variation in response to treatment and had trait values similar to those of the annuals, although it was significantly less plastic. We stress the importance of considering intraspecific variation in response to environmental change such as drought, as conspecific plants exhibited very different abilities and strategies to respond to high versus low water availability even among geographically close populations. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Modified expression of alternative oxidase in transgenic tomato and petunia affects the level of tomato spotted wilt virus resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Hao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV has a very wide host range, and is transmitted in a persistent manner by several species of thrips. These characteristics make this virus difficult to control. We show here that the over-expression of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX in tomato and petunia is related to TSWV resistance. Results The open reading frame and full-length sequence of the tomato AOX gene LeAox1au were cloned and introduced into tomato 'Healani' and petunia 'Sheer Madness' using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Highly expressed AOX transgenic tomato and petunia plants were selfed and transgenic R1 seedlings from 10 tomato lines and 12 petunia lines were used for bioassay. For each assayed line, 22 to 32 tomato R1 progeny in three replications and 39 to 128 petunia progeny in 13 replications were challenged with TSWV. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays showed that the TSWV levels in transgenic tomato line FKT4-1 was significantly lower than that of wild-type controls after challenge with TSWV. In addition, transgenic petunia line FKP10 showed significantly less lesion number and smaller lesion size than non-transgenic controls after inoculation by TSWV. Conclusion In all assayed transgenic tomato lines, a higher percentage of transgenic progeny had lower TSWV levels than non-transgenic plants after challenge with TSWV, and the significantly increased resistant levels of tomato and petunia lines identified in this study indicate that altered expression levels of AOX in tomato and petunia can affect the levels of TSWV resistance.

  3. Mifepristone treatment affects the response to repeated amphetamine injections, but does not attenuate the expression of sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Rixt; Boshuizen, Marieke C S; de Kloet, E Ronald

    2013-12-01

    Rationale Glucocorticoid hormones facilitate sensitization to repeated administration of psychostimulants, an effect that is mediated by glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). It is still unclear, however, at which stage of psychomotor sensitization are stress and GR-mediated effects involved. In the present study, we have tested the hypothesis that GR-mediated effects during the phase of repeated amphetamine injections play a crucial role in the long-term expression of sensitization. For this purpose, we used DBA/2 mice, an inbred strain commonly used for the study of stress effects on psychostimulant sensitization. Animals were treated with the GR antagonist mifepristone (200 mg/kg) at 2.5 h before each daily injection of amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg) or saline in a 5-day protocol. The amphetamine or saline injections were given in the home or a novel context. This was followed by a 2.5-week withdrawal period, without any drug delivery. Following the withdrawal period, two low-dose amphetamine challenges (1.25 mg/kg) were given subsequently, without additional mifepristone. The animals receiving amphetamine in the novel context showed a higher expression of sensitization at challenge as compared to those in the home condition. Mifepristone treatment influenced locomotor response to repeated amphetamine injections, but this effect during the initial phase did not affect the expression of sensitization after a withdrawal period. Our results indicate that GR-related processes during the initial phase of sensitization are involved in, but not crucial for, the development of long-term sensitization.

  4. Psyllium and fat in diets differentially affect the activities and expressions of colonic sphingomyelinases and caspase in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yajun; Ohlsson, Lena; Duan, Rui-Dong

    2004-05-01

    Dietary fibre and fat affect colonic tumourigenesis and inflammation. Sphingomyelin metabolism may have implications for the pathogenesis of colonic tumours and ulcerative colitis. The present study examined the effects of psyllium and fat on the enzymes responsible for sphingomyelin metabolism and apoptosis in the colon. Mice were fed control, psyllium-containing (100 g/kg), high-fat (313 g/kg, 53 % energy as fat) or high-fat plus psyllium diets for 4 weeks. The activities of acid, neutral and alkaline sphingomyelinase (SMase), neutral ceramidase, and caspase 3, 8 and 9 in colonic mucosa were determined. The expressions of alkaline SMase and caspase 3 were examined. The psyllium-containing diet was found to increase significantly the activities of alkaline SMase and caspase 3 and decreased those of acid SMase and neutral ceramidase. The high-fat diet had opposite effects on these enzymes and attenuated the effects of psyllium. Western blotting showed that psyllium increased and high-fat decreased the levels of alkaline SMase and caspase 3 in colonic mucosa. The change in caspase 3 activity was positively correlated with that of alkaline SMase and negatively with acid SMase. No similar changes of acid and alkaline phosphatase activities in the colon or acid and neutral SMase activity in the liver were identified. In conclusion, colonic sphingomyelin metabolism and apoptosis were affected by psyllium and fat in an opposite manner. The results may have implications for colorectal tumourigenesis and inflammation.

  5. Is early sestamibi imaging in head and neck cancer affected by MDR status, p53 expression, or cell proliferation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitha, Thomas E-mail: THOMAS.LEITHA@akh-wien.ac.at; Glaser, Christoph; Lang, Susanna

    1998-08-01

    A consensus has emerged that early imaging (within 20 min post-injection [p.i.] of sestamibi) has the highest diagnostic yield. Tc-99m-sestamibi uptake has been associated with P-glycoprotein-mediated multi-drug resistance (MDR), tumor vascularization, invasiveness, and cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to assess whether these parameters affect tumor uptake in current imaging protocols. Twenty-three patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the mouth floor who were scheduled for surgery were imaged 5 min. p.i. with a triple-head gamma camera (360 deg., 3 deg./step SPECT, UHRPAR collimators). Tumor:nontumor tissue (TBR), tumor:gingiva (TGR), tumor:salivary gland (TSR), and tumor:nuchal muscle ratios (TNR) were calculated based on the cts/pix values of ROIs in the axial slices. The expression of the MDR gene was determined histochemically from biopsies. Cell proliferation was quantitated by the histochemical analysis of the Ki-67 protein (Ki-67 index); additionally, the p53 tumor suppressor gene (p53 index), a posttranslational stabilizer of the cell cycle at the G1 stage, was assessed. No significant differences were found for the uptake indices between MDR+ and MDR- tumors. Moreover, no significant correlation between sestamibi uptake and the Ki-67 and p53 indices could be demonstrated. The diagnostic information content of currently applied imaging protocols for sestamibi in SCC of the mouth floor is not affected by tumor-specific properties.

  6. Is early sestamibi imaging in head and neck cancer affected by MDR status, p53 expression, or cell proliferation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitha, T; Glaser, C; Lang, S

    1998-08-01

    A consensus has emerged that early imaging (within 20 min post-injection [p.i.] of sestamibi) has the highest diagnostic yield. Tc-99m-sestamibi uptake has been associated with P-glycoprotein-mediated multi-drug resistance (MDR), tumor vascularization, invasiveness, and cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to assess whether these parameters affect tumor uptake in current imaging protocols. Twenty-three patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the mouth floor who were scheduled for surgery were imaged 5 min. p.i. with a triple-head gamma camera (360 degrees, 3 degrees/step SPECT, UHRPAR collimators). Tumor:nontumor tissue (TBR), tumor:gingiva (TGR), tumor:salivary gland (TSR), and tumor:nuchal muscle ratios (TNR) were calculated based on the cts/pix values of ROIs in the axial slices. The expression of the MDR gene was determined histochemically from biopsies. Cell proliferation was quantitated by the histochemical analysis of the Ki-67 protein (Ki-67 index); additionally, the p53 tumor suppressor gene (p53 index), a posttranslational stabilizer of the cell cycle at the G1 stage, was assessed. No significant differences were found for the uptake indices between MDR+ and MDR- tumors. Moreover, no significant correlation between sestamibi uptake and the Ki-67 and p53 indices could be demonstrated. The diagnostic information content of currently applied imaging protocols for sestamibi in SCC of the mouth floor is not affected by tumor-specific properties.

  7. Biased processing of neutral facial expressions is associated with depressive symptoms and suicide ideation in individuals at risk for major depression due to affective temperaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniglio, Roberto; Gusciglio, Francesca; Lofrese, Valentina; Belvederi Murri, Martino; Tamburello, Antonino; Innamorati, Marco

    2014-04-01

    To elucidate whether abnormal facial emotion processing represents a vulnerability factor for major depression, some studies have explored deficits in emotion processing in individuals at familial risk for depression. Nevertheless, these studies have provided mixed results. However, no studies on facial emotion processing have been conducted in at-risk samples with early or attenuated signs of depression, such as individuals with affective temperaments who are characterized by subclinical depressive moods, cognitions, and behaviors that resemble those that occur in patients with major depression. Presence and severity of depressive symptoms, affective temperaments, death wishes, suicidal ideation, and suicide planning were explored in 231 participants with a mean age 39.9 years (SD=14.57). Participants also completed an emotion recognition task with 80 emotional face stimuli expressing fear, angry, sad, happy, and neutral facial expressions. Participants with higher scores on affective temperamental dimensions containing a depressive component, compared to those with lower scores, reported more depressive symptoms, death wishes, suicide ideation and planning, and an increased tendency to interpret neutral facial expressions as emotional facial expressions; in particular, neutral facial expressions were interpreted more negatively, mostly as sad facial expressions. However, there were no group differences in identification and discrimination of facial expressions of happiness, sadness, fear, and anger. A negative bias in interpretation of neutral facial expressions, but not accuracy deficits in recognizing emotional facial expressions, may represent a vulnerability factor for major depression. However, further research is needed. © 2014.

  8. Encouraging an ecological evolution of data infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Infrastructure is often thought of as a complex physical construct usually designed to transport information or things (e.g. electricity, water, cars, money, sound, data…). The Research Data Alliance (RDA) takes a more holistic view and considers infrastructure as a complex body of relationships between people, machines, and organisations. This paper will describe how this more ecological perspective leads RDA to define and govern an agile virtual organization. We seek to harness the power of the volunteer, through an open problem solving approach that focusses on the problems of our individual members and their organisations. We focus on implementing solutions that make data sharing work better without defining a priori what is necessary. We do not judge the fitness of a solution, per se, but instead assess how broadly the solution is adopted, recognizing that adoption is often the social challenge of technical problem. We seek to encourage a bottoms up approach with light guidance on principles from the top. The goal is to develop community solutions that solve real problems today yet are adaptive to changing technologies and needs.

  9. Gender Diversity in Planetary Volcanology: Encouraging Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, T. K.; Lopes, R. M.

    2004-12-01

    We have brought together a group of respected and well-known female planetary volcanologists to create a book designed to encourage young women to pursue scientific careers. The book, entitled "Volcanic Worlds: Exploring the Solar System's Volcanoes," published by Praxis, is written for undergraduates who may have no background in geology or planetary sciences. Each chapter covers a different Solar System body or volcanic process, and is authored by a woman who is an expert in her field. Subjects covered include: the relation of plate tectonics to volcanism on Earth; the study of Mars' volcanoes from space and using rovers; geysers on Neptune's moon Triton and on Earth; eruptions on Io; and studying submarine lava flows from a submarine. Each chapter is written in a comfortable, readily accessible tone, with authors presenting not only science, but also some of the unique challenges faced by women conducting volcanological research today-and how these are overcome. Although not intended to be a textbook, this work could easily form the basis of an undergraduate geology seminar, honors course, or as a valuable accessory to an introductory geology course. In addition, it could be used in courses that would be cross-listed between geology departments and sociology departments. We will present more information on the book, and suggestions of how it could be used in the classroom to enhance gender diversity in the Earth and Space Sciences.

  10. Encouraging CPAP adherence: it is everyone's job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollig, Suzanne M

    2010-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic disease treated effectively with the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Patient adherence to prescribed CPAP is variable, however, leaving the undertreated OSA patient at risk of development or worsening of comorbid medical conditions, including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The severity of disease and the presence of daytime sleepiness appear to have some predictive quality for subsequent adherence, though a search for consistent predictive factors related to CPAP adherence has proven elusive. Other influences, such as sex, age, socioeconomic status, and personality traits are less robust predictors. The use of sophisticated therapy modalities such as auto-titration or bi-level PAP units has been shown to improve adherence in certain subsets of OSA patients. Adverse effects such as nasal congestion, dry mouth, or skin irritation occur in approximately 50% of CPAP users, and addressing these adverse effects may improve adherence in some patients. More encouraging, studies on the use of intensive patient education and behavioral interventions have shown more positive effects on adherence, leading to the conclusion that improvement in patient adherence to CPAP therapy requires a multi-layered approach, using combined technological, behavioral, and adverse-effect interventions.

  11. Encouraging girl child education in my village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Entongwe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available My critical reflection will be drawn from an experience I had just a year after my graduation from the university where I was appointed as one of the X-students to lead a student cultural week in my village with the theme “raising awareness on education”. At the university, I was a member of my association in which students from my tribe generally come together to promote unity and encourage others in education. My role was to present a discourse on girl child education all the entire villagers who were gathered at the village square that evening. A high dropout rate at school and illiteracy are major problems in my region, in which there is still a great deal of gender disparity when it comes to educating children, especially the girl child. This programme is in line with the government’s policy of promoting education in my country, whose priority is for education to reach the grass-roots communities.

  12. Encouraging the Creative Voice of the Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torff, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    Examines the role of creative expression in educational practices. Briefly outlines the work of educational leaders, including Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Howard Gardner, and Robert Sternberg, who are proponents of multi-faceted learning and creativity. Considers strategies for educational approaches that involve more creative invention, problem…

  13. Caffeine and rolipram affect Smad signalling and TGF-β1 stimulated CTGF and transgelin expression in lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehrholz, Markus; Speer, Christian P; Kunzmann, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine administration is an important part of the therapeutic treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. However, caffeine mediated effects on airway remodelling are still undefined. The TGF-β/Smad signalling pathway is one of the key pathways involved in airway remodelling. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a downstream mediator of TGF-β, and transgelin, a binding and stabilising protein of the cytoskeleton, are both regulated by TGF-β1 and play an important role in airway remodelling. Both have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of BPD. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether caffeine, an unspecific phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, and rolipram, a prototypical PDE-4 selective inhibitor, were both able to affect TGF-β1-induced Smad signalling and CTGF/transgelin expression in lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, the effect of transgelin knock-down on Smad signalling was studied. The pharmacological effect of caffeine and rolipram on Smad signalling was investigated by means of a luciferase assay via transfection of a TGF-β1-inducible reporter plasmid in A549 cells. The regulation of CTGF and transgelin expression by caffeine and rolipram were studied by promoter analysis, real-time PCR and Western blot. Endogenous transgelin expression was down-regulated by lentiviral transduction mediating transgelin-specific shRNA expression. The addition of caffeine and rolipram inhibited TGF-β1 induced reporter gene activity in a concentration-related manner. They also antagonized the TGF-β1 induced up-regulation of CTGF and transgelin on the promoter-, the mRNA-, and the protein-level. Functional analysis showed that transgelin silencing reduced TGF-β1 induced Smad-signalling and CTGF induction in lung epithelial cells. The present study highlights possible new molecular mechanisms of caffeine and rolipram including an inhibition of Smad signalling and of TGF-β1 regulated genes involved in airway remodelling. An

  14. Caffeine and rolipram affect Smad signalling and TGF-β1 stimulated CTGF and transgelin expression in lung epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Fehrholz

    Full Text Available Caffeine administration is an important part of the therapeutic treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD in preterm infants. However, caffeine mediated effects on airway remodelling are still undefined. The TGF-β/Smad signalling pathway is one of the key pathways involved in airway remodelling. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, a downstream mediator of TGF-β, and transgelin, a binding and stabilising protein of the cytoskeleton, are both regulated by TGF-β1 and play an important role in airway remodelling. Both have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of BPD. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether caffeine, an unspecific phosphodiesterase (PDE inhibitor, and rolipram, a prototypical PDE-4 selective inhibitor, were both able to affect TGF-β1-induced Smad signalling and CTGF/transgelin expression in lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, the effect of transgelin knock-down on Smad signalling was studied. The pharmacological effect of caffeine and rolipram on Smad signalling was investigated by means of a luciferase assay via transfection of a TGF-β1-inducible reporter plasmid in A549 cells. The regulation of CTGF and transgelin expression by caffeine and rolipram were studied by promoter analysis, real-time PCR and Western blot. Endogenous transgelin expression was down-regulated by lentiviral transduction mediating transgelin-specific shRNA expression. The addition of caffeine and rolipram inhibited TGF-β1 induced reporter gene activity in a concentration-related manner. They also antagonized the TGF-β1 induced up-regulation of CTGF and transgelin on the promoter-, the mRNA-, and the protein-level. Functional analysis showed that transgelin silencing reduced TGF-β1 induced Smad-signalling and CTGF induction in lung epithelial cells. The present study highlights possible new molecular mechanisms of caffeine and rolipram including an inhibition of Smad signalling and of TGF-β1 regulated genes involved in airway

  15. Nosocomial influenza: encouraging insights and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhems, Philippe; Bénet, Thomas; Munier-Marion, Elodie

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence and incidence of viral nosocomial influenza infections in healthcare settings are underestimated. Nosocomial influenza outbreaks are frequent, and control remains challenging in acute care and long-term healthcare settings. This review examines recent publications on the determinants of nosocomial influenza prevention and control. Nosocomial influenza outbreaks occur in various healthcare settings, especially among the frail and elderly. The correct diagnosis is commonly missed because a substantial proportion of asymptomatic cases can transmit infections. Rapid diagnosis will facilitate rapid identification of cases and the implementation of control measures but needs confirmation in some circumstances, such as the description of transmission chains. Links between patients and healthcare personnel (HCP) have been well explored by phylogenetic virus characterization and need additional refinement and study. The preventive role of HCP vaccination in influenza incidence among patients should be investigated further in various settings to take into account different strategies for vaccination (i.e. voluntary or mandatory vaccination policies). Indeed, in Europe, influenza vaccination remains modest, whereas in North America hospitals and some states and provinces are now mandating influenza vaccination among HCP. The variability of vaccine effectiveness by seasonal epidemics is also an important consideration for control strategies. When influenza cases occur in the community, the risk of transmission and nosocomial cases increase in healthcare settings requiring vigilance among staff. Surveillance and early warning systems should be encouraged. Outbreak control needs appropriate identification of cases and transmission chains, and rapid implementation of control measures. Vaccination policies in conjunction with appropriate infection control measures could reduce virus spreading in hospitals. HCP vaccination coverage must be improved.

  16. Associations between bottle-feeding intensity and maternal encouragement of bottle-emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Garcia, Patsy; Schaffner, Andrew A

    2017-12-01

    To explore longitudinal associations between bottle-feeding and maternal encouragement of infant bottle-emptying during the first 6 months of infancy. Mothers completed questionnaires during the third trimester of pregnancy, then monthly during the first 6 months postpartum. Questionnaires assessed family demographics, maternal and infant weight status, infant feeding patterns and maternal encouragement of infant bottle-emptying. The Infant Feeding Practices Study 2, conducted by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Food and Drug Administration. Mothers (n 1776). Repeated-measures regression was used to explore associations between bottle-feeding intensity (BFI; defined as the percentage of daily feedings that were from a bottle) and encouragement of bottle-emptying. Mothers who reported consistently high or consistently low BFI also exhibited consistently higher or lower frequency of encouraging their infants to empty the bottle (respectively) across the first 6 months of infancy, whereas mothers who reported increases in their BFI also exhibited concomitant increases in the frequency to which they encouraged their infants to finish the bottle. More frequent encouragement of bottle-emptying was also associated with feeding expressed breast milk (Pbottles for infant feeding was significantly associated with more frequent encouragement of bottle-emptying. Further research using causal designs is needed to better understand whether the use of bottles promotes this controlling feeding practice or whether mothers with more controlling feeding practices opt to bottle-feed.

  17. Use of the Encouragement Process in Adlerian Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkmeyer, Don C.

    1972-01-01

    Encouragement in all facets of the counseling interview is a critical ingredient in the counseling process. This article sets forth the theory and specific applications of the encouragement process in counseling, as viewed in the socio-teleological model. (Author)

  18. Developmental temperature affects the expression of ejaculatory traits and the outcome of sperm competition in Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudeva, R; Deeming, D C; Eady, P E

    2014-09-01

    The outcome of post-copulatory sexual selection is determined by a complex set of interactions between the primary reproductive traits of two or more males and their interactions with the reproductive traits of the female. Recently, a number of studies have shown the primary reproductive traits of both males and females express phenotypic plasticity in response to the thermal environment experienced during ontogeny. However, how plasticity in these traits affects the dynamics of sperm competition remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate plasticity in testes size, sperm size and sperm number in response to developmental temperature in the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Males reared at the highest temperature eclosed at the smallest body size and had the smallest absolute and relative testes size. Males reared at both the high- and low-temperature extremes produced both fewer and smaller sperm than males reared at intermediate temperatures. In the absence of sperm competition, developmental temperature had no effect on male fertility. However, under conditions of sperm competition, males reared at either temperature extreme were less competitive in terms of sperm offence (P(2)), whereas those reared at the lowest temperature were less competitive in terms of sperm defence (P(1)). This suggests the developmental pathways that regulate the phenotypic expression of these ejaculatory traits are subject to both natural and sexual selection: natural selection in the pre-ejaculatory environment and sexual selection in the post-ejaculatory environment. In nature, thermal heterogeneity during development is commonplace. Therefore, we suggest the interplay between ecology and development represents an important, yet hitherto underestimated component of male fitness via post-copulatory sexual selection. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Leptin siRNA promotes ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis and affects steroidogenesis by increasing NPY2 receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaomeng; Kou, Xinxin; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Xiaoli; Cheng, Guomei; Jia, Tianming

    2017-10-30

    Leptin has been found to be involved in the ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis and steroidogenesis. Loss of neuropeptide Y (NPY) can correct the obesity syndrome of mutant mice lacking of leptin (ob/ob). However, the association of NPY and leptin in ovarian granulosa cells and ovarian steroidogenesis has not been investigated. Here, C57BL/6J ob/ob mice and C57BL/6J (control) mice were intraperitoneally injected with PBS, leptin (0.4μg/g bodyweight) or BIIE0246 (NPY2 receptor [NPY2R] antagonist, 30μg/kg bodyweight) every day for 15days. We found that NPY2R mRNA expression in mouse ovary was suppressed by leptin treatment, but increased by leptin deficiency. Leptin or BIIE0246 treatment significantly increased E2, but notably decreased progesterone in both mice. A lower level of E2 and a higher level of progesterone was observed in ob/ob mice than in control mice. Further, we then knocked down leptin expression in human ovarian granulosa cells by siRNA transfection and treated the cells with DMSO or BIIE0246. In vitro experiments confirmed the findings in mice. siLeptin treatment decreased the secretion of E2, anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and the cell proliferation, but increased the secretion of progesterone and cell apoptosis. Western blotting analysis of PCNA, Bcl-2 and Bax confirmed the results of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Activation of JAK2 and STAT3 was also suppressed by knocking down leptin. All the effects of siLeptin on ovarian granulosa cells were partially reversed by BIIE0246. In conclusion, knockdown of leptin significantly affected ovarian steroidogenesis and ovarian function through NPY. siLeptin transfection impaired the activation of JAK2/STAT3 and contributed to ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis partially through up-regulating NPY2R expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Altered sucrose synthase and invertase expression affects the local and systemic sugar metabolism of nematode-infected Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Susana; Lorenz, Cindy; Crespo, Sara; Cabrera, Javier; Ludwig, Roland; Escobar, Carolina; Hofmann, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes of plants induce highly specific feeding cells in the root central cylinder. From these, the obligate parasites withdraw all required nutrients. The feeding cells were described as sink tissues in the plant's circulation system that are supplied with phloem-derived solutes such as sugars. Currently, there are several publications describing mechanisms of sugar import into the feeding cells. However, sugar processing has not been studied so far. Thus, in the present work, the roles of the sucrose-cleaving enzymes sucrose synthases (SUS) and invertases (INV) in the development of Heterodera schachtii were studied. Gene expression analyses indicate that both enzymes are regulated transcriptionally. Nematode development was enhanced on multiple INV and SUS mutants. Syncytia of these mutants were characterized by altered enzyme activity and changing sugar pool sizes. Further, the analyses revealed systemically affected sugar levels and enzyme activities in the shoots of the tested mutants, suggesting changes in the source-sink relationship. Finally, the development of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica was studied in different INV and SUS mutants and wild-type Arabidopsis plants. Similar effects on the development of both sedentary endoparasitic nematode species (root-knot and cyst nematode) were observed, suggesting a more general role of sucrose-degrading enzymes during plant-nematode interactions.

  1. Phosphoproteomics Reveals Regulatory T Cell-Mediated DEF6 Dephosphorylation That Affects Cytokine Expression in Human Conventional T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin N. Joshi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs control key events of immune tolerance, primarily by suppression of effector T cells. We previously revealed that Tregs rapidly suppress T cell receptor (TCR-induced calcium store depletion in conventional CD4+CD25− T cells (Tcons independently of IP3 levels, consequently inhibiting NFAT signaling and effector cytokine expression. Here, we study Treg suppression mechanisms through unbiased phosphoproteomics of primary human Tcons upon TCR stimulation and Treg-mediated suppression, respectively. Tregs induced a state of overall decreased phosphorylation as opposed to TCR stimulation. We discovered novel phosphosites (T595_S597 in the DEF6 (SLAT protein that were phosphorylated upon TCR stimulation and conversely dephosphorylated upon coculture with Tregs. Mutation of these DEF6 phosphosites abrogated interaction of DEF6 with the IP3 receptor and affected NFAT activation and cytokine transcription in primary Tcons. This novel mechanism and phosphoproteomics data resource may aid in modifying sensitivity of Tcons to Treg-mediated suppression in autoimmune disease or cancer.

  2. Culture temperature affects gene expression and metabolic pathways in the 2-methylisoborneol-producing cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena galeata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Masayuki; Ishikawa, Toshiki; Miyagi, Atsuko; Saito, Kazuaki; Miyazaki, Motonobu; Asaeda, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Uchimiya, Hirofumi; Kawai-Yamada, Maki

    2014-02-15

    A volatile metabolite, 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB), causes an unpleasant taste and odor in tap water. Some filamentous cyanobacteria produce 2-MIB via a two-step biosynthetic pathway: methylation of geranyl diphosphate (GPP) by methyl transferase (GPPMT), followed by the cyclization of methyl-GPP by monoterpene cyclase (MIBS). We isolated the genes encoding GPPMT and MIBS from Pseudanabaena galeata, a filamentous cyanobacterium known to be a major causal organism of 2-MIB production in Japanese lakes. The predicted amino acid sequence showed high similarity with that of Pseudanabaena limnetica (96% identity in GPPMT and 97% identity in MIBS). P. galeata was cultured at different temperatures to examine the effect of growth conditions on the production of 2-MIB and major metabolites. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) measurements showed higher accumulation of 2-MIB at 30 °C than at 4 °C or 20 °C after 24 h of culture. Real-time-RT PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of the genes encoding GPPMT and MIBS decreased at 4 °C and increased at 30 °C, compared with at 20 °C. Furthermore, metabolite analysis showed dramatic changes in primary metabolite concentrations in cyanobacteria grown at different temperatures. The data indicate that changes in carbon flow in the TCA cycle affect 2-MIB biosynthesis at higher temperatures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Phosphoproteomics Reveals Regulatory T Cell-Mediated DEF6 Dephosphorylation That Affects Cytokine Expression in Human Conventional T Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Joshi, Rubin N.

    2017-09-25

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) control key events of immune tolerance, primarily by suppression of effector T cells. We previously revealed that Tregs rapidly suppress T cell receptor (TCR)-induced calcium store depletion in conventional CD4CD25 T cells (Tcons) independently of IP levels, consequently inhibiting NFAT signaling and effector cytokine expression. Here, we study Treg suppression mechanisms through unbiased phosphoproteomics of primary human Tcons upon TCR stimulation and Treg-mediated suppression, respectively. Tregs induced a state of overall decreased phosphorylation as opposed to TCR stimulation. We discovered novel phosphosites (T595_S597) in the DEF6 (SLAT) protein that were phosphorylated upon TCR stimulation and conversely dephosphorylated upon coculture with Tregs. Mutation of these DEF6 phosphosites abrogated interaction of DEF6 with the IP receptor and affected NFAT activation and cytokine transcription in primary Tcons. This novel mechanism and phosphoproteomics data resource may aid in modifying sensitivity of Tcons to Treg-mediated suppression in autoimmune disease or cancer.

  4. Selenium-enriched milk proteins and selenium yeast affect selenoprotein activity and expression differently in mouse colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying; McIntosh, Graeme H; Le Leu, Richard K; Young, Graeme P

    2010-07-01

    Certain forms of dietary Se may have an advantage in improving Se status and reducing cancer risk. The present study compared the effects of an Se-enriched milk protein product (dairy-Se) with an Se yeast (yeast-Se) on selenoprotein activity and expression in the mouse colon. Mice were fed four diets for 4 weeks: a control milk protein diet (Se at 0.068 parts per million (ppm)), dairy-Se diets with Se at 0.5 and 1 ppm, and a yeast-Se diet with Se at 1 ppm. Cytosolic glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) activity, mRNA of selenoprotein P (SeP), GPx-1, gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase-2 (GPx-2) and thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR-1) were examined in the mouse colon. Dairy-Se diets did not significantly affect GPx-1 mRNA and GPx-1 activity but produced a dose-dependent increase in SeP and GPx-2 mRNA, with a significantly higher level achieved at 1 ppm Se (P supplement had any effect on TrxR-1. The present study indicates that selenoprotein levels in the mouse colon are regulated differently depending on the Se supplement. As we have previously shown that dairy-Se at 1 ppm was protective against colorectal cancer (CRC) in an azoxymethane-induced CRC mouse model, this up-regulation of colonic GPx-2 and SeP with Se supplementation may be crucial to its chemopreventive action.

  5. Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Xia Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.

  6. Vitamin D3 Adjuvant Treatment Stimulate Interleukin-10 Expression in Children with Nephrotic Syndrome Without Affecting to Clinical Outcome and Glucocorticoid Receptor Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnul Asariati

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS is the most glomerular disease that occurred in childhood with high rate morbidity. Glucocorticoid is drug of choice for INS and responsiveness to this drug determined prognosis.Glucocorticoid upregulate transcription of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-10. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine and has multiple role in immune response include modulate Th1/Th2 response. Vitamin D3 interact with glucocorticoid signaling. Administered active form of vitamin D3 increase dexamethasone-induced IL-10 expression by regulatory T cells in steroid resistant asthmatic patient. Here we showed increase of CD4+ IL10+ expression after treatment both prednisone only and combination prednison with vitamin D3. Both in new-onset NS or rare relaps NS, combination treatment prednisone + vitamin D3 increase CD4+ IL10+ expression significantly compared to prednisone-only treated group (p= 0.003, which first group (new-onset nephrotic syndrome + prednisone and vitamin D3 treatment showed the most CD4+ IL10+ expression enhancement (9.53±3.89. However this study failed to show a correlation between CD4+ IL-10+ expression after prednisone and vitamin D3 treatment with clinical outcome (linear regression test, p= 0,125. This study also showed that there was a no correlation between CD4+ IL-10+ expression and CD3+ GR expression after prednison + vitamin D3 treatment (p= 0.088. CD4+ IL-10+ expression in new-onset and rarely relapsing nephrotic syndrome patients higher in prednisone + vitamin D3 treated group than prednisone-only treated group. There is no correlation between CD4+ IL-10+ expression and CD3+ GR expression nor CD4+ IL-10+ expression and clinical outcome.

  7. Supplements of vitamins B9 and B12 affect hepatic and mammary gland gene expression profiles in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Bazoumana; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Duplessis, Melissa; Girard, Christiane L

    2016-08-15

    A combined supplement of vitamins B9 and B12 was reported to increase milk and milk component yields of dairy cows without effect on feed intake. The present study was undertaken to verify whether this supplementation positively modifies the pathways involved in milk and milk component synthesis. Thus, by studying the transcriptome activity in these tissues, the effect of supplements of both vitamins on the metabolism of both liver and mammary gland, was investigated. For this study, 24 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were assigned to 6 blocks of 4 animals each according to previous 305-day milk production. Within each block, cows were randomly assigned to weekly intramuscular injections of 5 mL of either saline 0.9 % NaCl, 320 mg of vitamin B9, 10 mg of vitamin B12 or a combination of both vitamins (B9 + B12). The experimental period began 3 weeks before the expected calving date and lasted 9 weeks of lactation. Liver and mammary biopsies were performed on lactating dairy cows 64 ± 3 days after calving. Samples from both tissues were analyzed by microarray and qPCR to identify genes differentially expressed in hepatic and mammary tissues. Microarray analysis identified 47 genes in hepatic tissue and 16 genes in the mammary gland whose expression was modified by the vitamin supplements. Gene ontology (GO) categorizes genes in non-overlapping domains of molecular biology. Panther is one of the online GO resources used for gene function classification. It classifies the 63 genes according to Molecular Function, Biological Process and Protein Class. Most of the biological processes modulated by the vitamin supplements were associated to developmental process, protein metabolic process, transport and response to inflammation. In the liver, most of the genes modulated by the vitamin treatments involved protein metabolic process while developmental process appeared to be more affected by the treatments in mammary gland. Out of 25 genes analysed by qPCR, 7

  8. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) affects forelimb motor map expression but has little effect on skilled and unskilled behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullion, K; Guy, A R; Singleton, A; Spanswick, S C; Hill, M N; Teskey, G C

    2016-04-05

    It has previously been shown in rats that acute administration of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exerts a dose-dependent effect on simple locomotor activity, with low doses of THC causing hyper-locomotion and high doses causing hypo-locomotion. However the effect of acute THC administration on cortical movement representations (motor maps) and skilled learned movements is completely unknown. It is important to determine the effects of THC on motor maps and skilled learned behaviors because behaviors like driving place people at a heightened risk. Three doses of THC were used in the current study: 0.2mg/kg, 1.0mg/kg and 2.5mg/kg representing the approximate range of the low to high levels of available THC one would consume from recreational use of cannabis. Acute peripheral administration of THC to drug naïve rats resulted in dose-dependent alterations in motor map expression using high resolution short duration intracortical microstimulation (SD-ICMS). THC at 0.2mg/kg decreased movement thresholds and increased motor map size, while 1.0mg/kg had the opposite effect, and 2.5mg/kg had an even more dramatic effect. Deriving complex movement maps using long duration (LD)-ICMS at 1.0mg/kg resulted in fewer complex movements. Dosages of 1.0mg/kg and 2.5mg/kg THC reduced the number of reach attempts but did not affect percentage of success or the kinetics of reaching on the single pellet skilled reaching task. Rats that received 2.5mg/kg THC did show an increase in latency of forelimb removal on the bar task, while dose-dependent effects of THC on unskilled locomotor activity using the rotorod and horizontal ladder tasks were not observed. Rats may be employing compensatory strategies after receiving THC, which may account for the robust changes in motor map expression but moderate effects on behavior. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using Photography To Enhance Language and Learning: A Picture Can Encourage a Thousand Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarulli, Nancy J.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how speech-language pathologists can use photography to encourage more active language expression in children with language and learning disabilities, and describes seven categories for photography use in language learning environments. Each photo project includes suggested language objectives, applications, and advantages. (Author/CR)

  10. Eye of the Beholder: Stage Entrance Behavior and Facial Expression Affect Continuous Quality Ratings in Music Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, George; Williamon, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Judgments of music performance quality are commonly employed in music practice, education, and research. However, previous studies have demonstrated the limited reliability of such judgments, and there is now evidence that extraneous visual, social, and other "non-musical" features can unduly influence them. The present study employed continuous measurement techniques to examine how the process of forming a music quality judgment is affected by the manipulation of temporally specific visual cues. Video footage comprising an appropriate stage entrance and error-free performance served as the standard condition (Video 1). This footage was manipulated to provide four additional conditions, each identical save for a single variation: an inappropriate stage entrance (Video 2); the presence of an aural performance error midway through the piece (Video 3); the same error accompanied by a negative facial reaction by the performer (Video 4); the facial reaction with no corresponding aural error (Video 5). The participants were 53 musicians and 52 non-musicians (N = 105) who individually assessed the performance quality of one of the five randomly assigned videos via a digital continuous measurement interface and headphones. The results showed that participants viewing the "inappropriate" stage entrance made judgments significantly more quickly than those viewing the "appropriate" entrance, and while the poor entrance caused significantly lower initial scores among those with musical training, the effect did not persist long into the performance. The aural error caused an immediate drop in quality judgments that persisted to a lower final score only when accompanied by the frustrated facial expression from the pianist; the performance error alone caused a temporary drop only in the musicians' ratings, and the negative facial reaction alone caused no reaction regardless of participants' musical experience. These findings demonstrate the importance of visual information in

  11. Eye of the Beholder: Stage Entrance Behavior and Facial Expression Affect Continuous Quality Ratings in Music Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Williamon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Judgments of music performance quality are commonly employed in music practice, education, and research. However, previous studies have demonstrated the limited reliability of such judgments, and there is now evidence that extraneous visual, social, and other “non-musical” features can unduly influence them. The present study employed continuous measurement techniques to examine how the process of forming a music quality judgment is affected by the manipulation of temporally specific visual cues. Video footage comprising an appropriate stage entrance and error-free performance served as the standard condition (Video 1. This footage was manipulated to provide four additional conditions, each identical save for a single variation: an inappropriate stage entrance (Video 2; the presence of an aural performance error midway through the piece (Video 3; the same error accompanied by a negative facial reaction by the performer (Video 4; the facial reaction with no corresponding aural error (Video 5. The participants were 53 musicians and 52 non-musicians (N = 105 who individually assessed the performance quality of one of the five randomly assigned videos via a digital continuous measurement interface and headphones. The results showed that participants viewing the “inappropriate” stage entrance made judgments significantly more quickly than those viewing the “appropriate” entrance, and while the poor entrance caused significantly lower initial scores among those with musical training, the effect did not persist long into the performance. The aural error caused an immediate drop in quality judgments that persisted to a lower final score only when accompanied by the frustrated facial expression from the pianist; the performance error alone caused a temporary drop only in the musicians' ratings, and the negative facial reaction alone caused no reaction regardless of participants' musical experience. These findings demonstrate the importance of

  12. Expression of angiopoietin-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 correlates with lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis and affects survival of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both Ang-2 and VEGFR-3 are major regulators of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, respectively, and thus may affect prognosis of OSCC. We sought to determine the associations between Ang-2 and VEGFR-3 expression and survival of OSCC. METHODS: Ang-2 and VEGFR-3 expression was determined immunohistochemically in tumor tissues from 112 patients with OSCC; OSCC-adjacent noncancerous oral tissue from 85 OSCC patients; and normal oral mucosa from 37 cancer-free individuals. A log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare survival among different groups with expression of Ang-2 and VEGFR-3. RESULTS: Ang-2 and VEGFR-3 expression was upregulated in OSCC compared to nontumor tissue (all P<0.05. High Ang-2 expression positively correlated with microvessel density (MVD (P<0.01, and high VEGFR-3 expression positively correlated with lymph node metastasis (P<0.01 and lymphatic vessel density (LVD (P<0.01. The patients with high expression of Ang-2 alone or in combination with VEGFR-3 had a significantly worse survival than in patients with low expression of Ang-2 or any other co-expression status (all P<0.05, respectively. Furthermore, multivariable analysis showed that patients with high expression of Ang-2 alone or in combination with VEGFR-3 had a significantly increased risk of death compared with those with low expression of Ang-2 or any other co-expression status (HR, 2.7, 95% CI, 1.1-6.2 and 5.0, 1.3-15.4, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that increased expression in tumors of Ang-2 may individually, or in combination with VEGFR-3, predict poor prognosis of OSCC.

  13. Exposure to Solute Stress Affects Genome-Wide Expression but Not the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Activity of Sphingomonas sp. Strain LH128 in Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fida, Tekle Tafese; Breugelmans, Philip; Lavigne, Rob; Coronado, Edith; Johnson, David R.; van der Meer, Jan Roelof; Mayer, Antonia P.; Heipieper, Hermann J.; Hofkens, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Members of the genus Sphingomonas are important catalysts for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, but their activity can be affected by various stress factors. This study examines the physiological and genome-wide transcription response of the phenanthrene-degrading Sphingomonas sp. strain LH128 in biofilms to solute stress (invoked by 450 mM NaCl solution), either as an acute (4-h) or a chronic (3-day) exposure. The degree of membrane fatty acid saturation was increased as a response to chronic stress. Oxygen consumption in the biofilms and phenanthrene mineralization activities of biofilm cells were, however, not significantly affected after imposing either acute or chronic stress. This finding was in agreement with the transcriptomic data, since genes involved in PAH degradation were not differentially expressed in stressed conditions compared to nonstressed conditions. The transcriptomic data suggest that LH128 adapts to NaCl stress by (i) increasing the expression of genes coping with osmolytic and ionic stress such as biosynthesis of compatible solutes and regulation of ion homeostasis, (ii) increasing the expression of genes involved in general stress response, (iii) changing the expression of general and specific regulatory functions, and (iv) decreasing the expression of protein synthesis such as proteins involved in motility. Differences in gene expression between cells under acute and chronic stress suggest that LH128 goes through changes in genome-wide expression to fully adapt to NaCl stress, without significantly changing phenanthrene degrading activity. PMID:23001650

  14. The 5'-UTR intron of the midgut-specific BmAPN4 gene affects the level and location of expression in transgenic silkworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liang; Huang, Chunlin; Sun, Qiang; Guo, Huizhen; Cheng, Tingcai; Peng, Zhengwen; Dang, Yinghui; Liu, Weiqiang; Xu, Guowen; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-08-01

    Introns are important for regulating gene expression. BmAPN4, which has a 5'-UTR upstream intron (5 UI), is specifically expressed in the entire silkworm midgut. In our previous study, the promoter region upstream of the 5 UI of BmAPN4 was cloned and identified as the P3 promoter (P3P) with activity only in the anterior midgut. In this study, the sequence consisting of the P3P and the 5 UI was cloned and named as P3P+5 UI. A transgenic vector was constructed in which EGFP was controlled by P3P+5 UI. Transgenic P3+5 UI silkworms were generated by embryo microinjection. RT-PCR showed P3P+5 UI activity throughout the larval stage. Intense green fluorescence was seen only in the entire midgut of P3+5 UI silkworms and expression was confirmed by RT-PCR. qPCR revealed that expression of EGFP in the anterior midgut of P3+5 UI silkworms was 64% higher than in P3 silkworms, indicating the 5 UI sustained intron-mediated enhancement of gene expression. These results suggested that the BmAPN4 5 UI affected the level and site of expression. The 5 UI was cloned and added behind P2P, another specific promoter with activity only in the anterior midgut of silkworm, to construct the P2P+5 UI and transgenic P2+5 UI silkworms. Expression patterns were the same for P2P+5 UI and P2P, suggesting that the 5UI of BmAPN4 did not affect P2P. This study found that the BmAPN4 5 UI affected the amount and location of gene expression. Its influence appeared to be dependent on a specific promoter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Parental encouragement of dieting promotes daughters' early dieting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balantekin, Katherine N; Savage, Jennifer S; Marini, Michele E; Birch, Leann L

    2014-09-01

    Dieting to lose weight is common among female adolescents. This research investigated the association between maternal and paternal encouragement to diet and their daughters' self-reported "early dieting" (prior to age 11 y) and adolescent dieting (between 11 y and 15 y), and how parental encouragement to diet is related to changes in daughters' BMI percentiles. Participants in this study were 174 non-Hispanic white girls and their parents, assessed when daughters were 9-, 11-, 13-, and 15 y. The Parent Encouragement of Child Weight Loss Scale was used to measure encouragement to diet. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between parental encouragement to diet and daughters' reports of dieting by 11 y and by 15 y, adjusting for daughters' weight status at baseline. Compared with girls whose mothers didn't encourage dieting, girls who were encouraged to diet were twice as likely to diet by 11 y; girls who were encouraged by their fathers were also twice as likely to diet by 11 y. Girls who were encouraged to diet by both parents were 8 times more likely to report early dieting than girls who were not. Neither maternal nor paternal encouragement predicted the emergence of dieting during adolescence. Girls who dieted and had parental encouragement to do so had increases in BMI percentile from 9 y to 15 y. Findings reveal that parental encouragement to diet may be counterproductive and that parents need alternative approaches to promote healthy patterns of intake and growth among young girls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Predictors of maternal encouragement to diet: a moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Bridget; Carmody, Julia K; Janicke, David M

    2014-08-01

    Maternal encouragement to diet has been linked to child disordered eating, overweight and obesity, and negative psychosocial outcomes. A limited amount of research has examined variables that may contribute to maternal encouragement to diet. The current study examined the relationship between child BMI, parent BMI, maternal concern about child weight status, and maternal encouragement to diet. 80 youths, aged 8-17, and their mothers were administered questionnaires to assess maternal weight concern and child perception of maternal encouragement to diet. Data were analyzed using a bootstrapped moderated mediation model. Higher child BMI predicted increased maternal weight concern, which in turn was related to increased encouragement to diet. Mothers of overweight and obese youth were more likely to be concerned about their child's weight if mothers themselves were overweight or obese. Overweight or obese girls (but not boys) with an overweight or obese mother were more likely to be encouraged to diet. The model accounted for 48% of the variance in maternal encouragement to diet. Results indicate a potential mechanism by which encouragement to diet occurs and highlight the relevance of maternal weight and child gender in the prediction of encouragement to diet.

  17. Pharmacological activation of LXR in utero directly influences ABC transporter expression and function in mice but does not affect adult cholesterol metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straten, E. M. E.; Huijkman, N. C. A.; Baller, J. F. W.; Kuipers, F.; Plosch, T.

    2008-01-01

    van Straten EM, Huijkman NC, Baller JF, Kuipers F, Plosch T. Pharmacological activation of LXR in utero directly influences ABC transporter expression and function in mice but does not affect adult cholesterol metabolism. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295: E1341-E1348, 2008. First published October

  18. Salicylic acid affects the expression of VvCBF4 gene in grapes subjected to low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Aazami

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effects of exogenous salicylic acid (SA on the expression of Vitis vinifera C-repeat binding factor 4 (VvCBF4 gene under low-temperature conditions in an Iranian Vitis viniferea L. ‘Sultanina’. The experiment was conducted as a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with four replications. 100 μmol/L SA (0, 1, 6 and 12 h before applying cold stress in temperatures of 1 ± 0.5 °C (for 1, 3, 6 and 12 h and 22 °C (as control were applied. The highest expression was observed in plants treated 6 h before sampling. By increasing the duration of low temperature, the expression of VvCBF4 increased. Increasing the duration of cold stress to 6 h in 1 °C increased the expression of VvCBF4 to 24.3 fold. Exogenous application of SA and cold stress treatments increased the expression of VvCBF4. In conclusion, exogenous application of SA in cold stress, increased the expression of VvCBF4 depending on treating time before cold stress. The highest VvCBF4 expression was observed in plants treated 6 h before sampling and increasing the time decreased the expression. By increasing the expression of VvCBF4 the tolerance of plant to cold stress increased.

  19. Follistatin, induced by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), plays no role in prolactin expression but affects gonadotropin FSHbeta expression as a paracrine factor in pituitary somatolactotroph GH3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oride, Aki; Kanasaki, Haruhiko; Purwana, Indri N; Mutiara, Sandra; Miyazaki, Kohji

    2009-08-07

    Follistatin regulates FSHbeta gene expression by binding to and bioneutralizing activin effects. In this study, we found that thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) increased follistatin gene expression in pituitary somatolactotroph GH3 cells. Treatment of GH3 with 100 nM TRH significantly increased follistatin mRNA expression as determined by real time PCR. TRH-induced follistatin expression was significantly abrogated in the presence of MEK inhibitor, U0126. Overexpression of constitutive active MEKK in GH3 cells dramatically increased follistatin expressions. Transfection of GH3 cells with follistatin siRNA reduced endogenous follistatin mRNA expression, but failed to modulate prolactin promoter activity. Prolactin mRNA levels were not affected by increasing the dose of follistatin, and TRH-induced prolactin promoter activity was not modulated in the presence of follistatin. In other experiments using pituitary gonadotroph LbetaT2 cells, activin increased FSHbeta promoter activity and mRNA expression, and follistatin completely inhibited this activin-increased FSHbeta gene expression. Treatment of GH3 cells with activin reduced the basal activity of prolactin promoter and follistatin prevented this effect. GH3 cells were co-cultured with LbetaT2 cells, which had been transfected with FSHbeta promoter-linked luciferase vectors and treated with activin in the presence of TRH. Activin-induced FSHbeta promoter activity was completely inhibited in the presence of TRH. In addition to that, FSHbeta mRNA was not detected from LbetaT2 cells which were co-cultured with GH3 cells. Our current results suggest the possibility that TRH increases follistatin gene expression in prolactin-producing cells in association with ERK pathways. Somatolactotroph-derived follistatin affects gonadotrophs by countering activin-induced FSHbeta gene expression in a paracrine fashion.

  20. [Continue to encourage one couple to have one child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z

    1987-09-01

    The Chinese State Council exhorted the masses in 1984 and 1986 to improve upon its adherence to the birth policy. The policy of 1 child per couple is the proper policy reflecting specific historical conditions. China's goal to modernize cannot be realized if the population grows unchecked. With the exception of minorities and certain rural families, all couples are affected by this policy. The 1 child rate jumped from 20.73% in 1970 to 58.3% in 1984, while the 3 child rate dropped to 19.8% from 60.21% during those years. In order to solve one of China's major future population problems, it is necessary to continue advocating 1 child per couple. With the 1986 population at 1,060,080,000, China's average per capita income is among the lowest in the world. It is not enough simply to improve the economy. Population growth must be contained at 1,200,000,000 by 2000. If every couple were permitted 2 children, and allowing for unplanned births, the population would be 1,300,000,000 in 2000. Therefore, it is essential to encourage more couples to limit families to 1 child through example by officials, propaganda, material incentives and priorities in jobs and housing.

  1. Interdisciplinary Intellect: HASTAC and the Commitment to Encourage Collective Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singletary, Kimberly Alecia

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the role of the Humanities, Arts, Science, and Technology Advanced Collaboratory (HASTAC) in facilitating and encouraging a collaborative community of junior and senior scholars on issues of technology and humanistic learning. As a result of its emphasis on collaboration and discussion, HASTAC encourages a form of collective…

  2. MC1R variants affect the expression of melanocortin and melanogenic genes and the association between melanocortin genes and coloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Jose, Luis M; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse; Ducret, Valérie; Simon, Céline; Richter, Hannes; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Roulin, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene influences coloration by altering the expression of genes acting downstream in the melanin synthesis. MC1R belongs to the melanocortin system, a genetic network coding for the ligands that regulate MC1R and other melanocortin receptors controlling different physiological and behavioural traits. The impact of MC1R variants on these regulatory melanocortin genes was never considered, even though MC1R mutations could alter the influence of these genes on coloration (e.g. by decreasing MC1R response to melanocortin ligands). Using barn owl growing feathers, we investigated the differences between MC1R genotypes in the (co)expression of six melanocortin and nine melanogenic-related genes and in the association between melanocortin gene expression and phenotype (feather pheomelanin content). Compared to the MC1R rufous allele, responsible for reddish coloration, the white allele was not only associated with an expected lower expression of melanogenic-related genes (TYR, TYRP1, OCA2, SLC45A2, KIT, DCT) but also with a lower MC1R expression and a higher expression of ASIP, the MC1R antagonist. More importantly, the expression of PCSK2, responsible for the maturation of the MC1R agonist, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, was positively related to pheomelanin content in MC1R white homozygotes but not in individuals carrying the MC1R rufous allele. These findings indicate that MC1R mutations not only alter the expression of melanogenic-related genes but also the association between coloration and the expression of melanocortin genes upstream of MC1R. This suggests that MC1R mutations can modulate the regulation of coloration by the pleiotropic melanocortin genes, potentially decoupling the often-observed associations between coloration and other phenotypes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Subspecies and diet affect the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and chemical composition of muscle in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Priscilla D; Oliveira, Dalton M; Chizzotti, Mario L; Chalfun-Junior, Antonio; Coelho, Tamara C; Gionbelli, MateusP; Paiva, Luciano V; Carvalho, José Roberto R; Ladeira, Marcio M

    2017-11-01

    Fourteen Nellore and 14 Angus young bulls with BW of 381±11.8kg were randomly assigned into 2 feeding groups (whole shelled corn without forage (WSC) or corn silage and ground corn (GC)) to evaluate chemical composition and expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in the longissimus thoracis (LT). We hypothesized that bulls fed the WSC diet have greater amounts of intramuscular fat and Angus have higher expression levels of PPAR and SREBF. Meat from Angus bulls had greater ether extract compared to Nellore (Pbeef of bulls fed this diet due to the reduced expression of SREBF1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. D2.3 - ENCOURAGE platform reference architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Luis Lino; Pinho, Luis Miguel; Albano, Michele

    2012-01-01

    of heterogeneous (both new and legacy) systems, by abstracting from the technologies within the buildings and supporting multiple independent gateways, creating the notion of a single abstract interface. The document defines the overall architecture of the ENCOURAGE platform, presenting the structure......This document describes the reference architecture of the ENCOURAGE platform, together with the interconnection of the platform with the external environment. The document is the outcome of task 2.3 (Design of System Architecture) of the ENCOURAGE project, and sets, together with the remaining...... and standardization initiatives, in the areas addressed by ENCOURAGE. Also, related existing architectures are analysed for consistency and state-of-the-art survey. This allows for ENCOURAGE to build on current practice, innovating in its modularity, scalability and support for seamless interoperability...

  5. Fostering Emotion Expression and Affective Involvement with Communication Partners in People with Congenital Deafblindness and Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Marga A. W.; Janssen, Marleen J.; Ruijssenaars, Wied A. J. J. M.; Huisman, Mark; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have shown that it is possible to foster affective involvement between people with congenital deafblindness and their communication partners. Affective involvement is crucial for well-being, and it is important to know whether it can also be fostered with people who have congenital deafblindness and intellectual…

  6. Emotion and food. Do the emotions expressed on other people's faces affect the desire to eat liked and disliked food products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthomeuf, L; Rousset, S; Droit-Volet, S

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to test if pleasure, neutrality and disgust expressed by other individuals on a photograph could affect the desire to eat liked or disliked food products. Forty-four men and women were presented with two series of photographs. The first series of photographs was composed of six food photographs: three liked and three disliked food products. The second series consisted of the same photographs presented with eaters expressing three different emotions: disgust, pleasure or neutrality. Results showed that the effect of the presence of an eater, and of emotions expressed by this eater, depended on the food category. For the liked foods, the desire to eat was higher when these foods were presented alone than with an eater expressing neutral emotion. When the eater expressed pleasure, the desire to eat these liked foods did not significantly increase. In contrast, when the eater expressed disgust, the desire to eat them significantly decreased. When the foods were disliked, the influence of the pleasant social context was stronger than for the liked foods. The desire to eat the disliked foods actually increased in the presence of an eater expressing pleasure. On the contrary, the disgust and neutral context had no effect on the desire for disliked foods.

  7. Type of Renal Replacement Therapy (Hemodialysis versus Peritoneal Dialysis) Does Not Affect Cytokine Gene Expression or Clinical Parameters of Renal Transplant Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Dorota; Kościelska-Kasprzak, Katarzyna; Chudoba, Paweł; Mazanowska, Oktawia; Banasik, Mirosław; Żabinska, Marcelina; Boratyńska, Maria; Lepiesza, Agnieszka; Korta, Krzysztof; Gomółkiewicz, Agnieszka; Dzięgiel, Piotr; Klinger, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Patients with renal failure suffer from immune disturbances, caused by uremic toxins and influenced by dialysis treatment. The aim of the present study was to reveal whether type of dialysis modality (hemodialysis, HD, versus peritoneal dialysis, PD) differentially affects the immunocompetence, particularly the expression of genes involved in the immune response. 87 renal transplant candidates (66 HD, 21 PD) were included in the study. The peripheral blood RNA samples were obtained with the PAXgene Blood system just before transplantation. The gene expression of CASP3, FAS, TP53, FOXP3, IFNG, IL2, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL17, IL18, LCN2, TGFB1, and TNF was assessed with real-time PCR on custom-designed low density arrays (TaqMan). Gene expression data were analyzed in relation to pretransplant clinical parameters. The mean expression of examined genes showed no significant differences between PD and HD with the exception of FAS, expression of which was 30% higher in PD patients compared to the HD group. There was nonsignificantly higher expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the PD group. The clinical inflammatory parameters (CRP, albumin, cholesterol, and hemoglobin levels) did not differ between the groups. Type of renal replacement therapy exerts no differential effect on cytokine gene expression or inflammatory clinical parameters.

  8. Gene expression noise in spatial patterning: hunchback promoter structure affects noise amplitude and distribution in Drosophila segmentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holloway, David M; Lopes, Francisco J P; da Fontoura Costa, Luciano; Travençolo, Bruno A N; Golyandina, Nina; Usevich, Konstantin; Spirov, Alexander V

    2011-01-01

    .... We identify means by which noise is controlled during gene expression by characterizing the dependence of hb mRNA and protein output noise on hb promoter structure and transcriptional dynamics...

  9. Post-weaning diet affects faecal microbial composition but not selected adipose gene expression in the cat (Felis catus)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bermingham, Emma N; Kittelmann, Sandra; Young, Wayne; Kerr, Katherine R; Swanson, Kelly S; Roy, Nicole C; Thomas, David G

    2013-01-01

    The effects of pre- (i.e., gestation and during lactation) and post-weaning diet on the composition of faecal bacterial communities and adipose expression of key genes in the glucose and insulin pathways were investigated in the cat...

  10. Does HOXA9 Gene Expression in Egyptian Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Patients Affect Disease Progression? A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manar Mohamd Mohamad Ismail

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML is a clonal stem cell disease and is consistently associated with the BCR-ABL fusion gene. The chronic phase of the disease tends to pass into an accelerated phase and eventually leads to acute leukemia if left untreated. Oncoproteins necessary for leukemic transformation are both fundamentally and clinically relevant to identify as they might be new molecular targets for the development of specific anti-leukemic drugs. This study is an initial step to define the proportion of HOXA9 gene expression in some Egyptians with chronic-phase CML at diagnosis and to evaluate its relation with BCR-ABL expression and its clinical significance. METHODS: Sixty-two newly diagnosed CML patients (56 in chronic phase, 1 in accelerated phase, and 5 in blastic crises were enrolled in the study. HOXA9 and BCR-ABL gene expressions were detected by one-step RT-PCR. ABL was chosen as a control gene to calculate HOXA9/ABL and BCR-ABL/ABL ratios from densitometric values of PCR product intensities. RESULTS: HOXA9 expression was encountered in 25/56 (44.6% of newly diagnosed CML patients in the chronic phase. The median expression was 0.31 (range: 0.08-1.37 in relation to the ABL gene, with a higher frequency of expression in CML patients presenting with splenomegaly (p<0.001, high Sokal score (p<0.001, and BCR-ABL expression from the first round (p=0.004. No association could be detected with other clinical parameters, overall survival, or disease-free survival. CONCLUSION: HOXA9 expression is closely related to poor prognostic factors, but we could not demonstrate its relationship to patient survival.

  11. Peri-pubertal gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment affects sex biased gene expression of amygdala in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruddin, Syed; Krogenæs, Anette; Brynildsrud, Ola Brønstad; Verhaegen, Steven; Evans, Neil P; Robinson, Jane E; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebold; Ropstad, Erik

    2013-12-01

    The nature of hormonal involvement in pubertal brain development has attracted wide interest. Structural changes within the brain that occur during pubertal development appear mainly in regions closely linked with emotion, motivation and cognitive functions. Using a sheep model, we have previously shown that peri-pubertal pharmacological blockade of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors, results in exaggerated sex-differences in cognitive executive function and emotional control, as well as sex and hemisphere specific patterns of expression of hippocampal genes associated with synaptic plasticity and endocrine signaling. In this study, we explored effects of this treatment regime on the gene expression profile of the ovine amygdala. The study was conducted with 30 same-sex twin lambs (14 female and 16 male), half of which were treated with the GnRH agonist (GnRHa) goserelin acetate every 4th week, beginning before puberty, until approximately 50 weeks of age. Gene expression profiles of the left and right amygdala were measured using 8×15 K Agilent ovine microarrays. Differential expression of selected genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR (Quantitative real time PCR). Networking analyses and Gene Ontology (GO) Term analyses were performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), version 7.5 and DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and integrated Discovery) version 6.7 software packages, respectively. GnRHa treatment was associated with significant sex- and hemisphere-specific differential patterns of gene expression. GnRHa treatment was associated with differential expression of 432 (|logFC|>0.3, adj. p value expressed as a result of GnRHa treatment in the male animals. The results indicated that GnRH may, directly and/or indirectly, be involved in the regulation of sex- and hemisphere-specific differential expression of genes in the amygdala. This finding should be considered when long-term peri-pubertal GnRHa treatment is used in children. Copyright

  12. Magnolol causes alterations in the cell cycle in androgen insensitive human prostate cancer cells in vitro by affecting expression of key cell cycle regulatory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Brendan T; McDougall, Luke; Catalli, Adriana; Hurta, Robert A R

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer, one of the most common cancers in the Western world, affects many men worldwide. This study investigated the effects of magnolol, a compound found in the roots and bark of the magnolia tree Magnolia officinalis, on the behavior of 2 androgen insensitive human prostate cancer cell lines, DU145 and PC3, in vitro. Magnolol, in a 24-h exposure at 40 and 80 μM, was found to be cytotoxic to cells. Magnolol also affected cell cycle progression of DU145 and PC3 cells, resulting in alterations to the cell cycle and subsequently decreasing the proportion of cells entering the G2/M-phase of the cell cycle. Magnolol inhibited the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins including cyclins A, B1, D1, and E, as well as CDK2 and CDK4. Protein expression levels of pRBp107 decreased and pRBp130 protein expression levels increased in response to magnolol exposure, whereas p16(INK4a), p21, and p27 protein expression levels were apparently unchanged post 24-h exposure. Magnolol exposure at 6 h did increase p27 protein expression levels. This study has demonstrated that magnolol can alter the behavior of androgen insensitive human prostate cancer cells in vitro and suggests that magnolol may have potential as a novel anti-prostate cancer agent.

  13. Effects of skilled reach training with affected forelimb and treadmill exercise on the expression of neurotrophic factor following ischemia-induced brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Min-Sik; Kim, Seong-Gil; Cheon, Song-Hee

    2017-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of skilled reach training with affected forelimb and treadmill exercise on the expression of neurotrophic factor following ischemia-induced brain injury in rats. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups randomly: namely, the control sacrified 2 weeks after surgery, skilled reach training with forepaw contralateral to brain injury for 2 weeks, and treadmill exercise for 2 weeks. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by intraluminal occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. After that, skilled reach training and treadmill exercise were conducted. Western blot analysis was performed to investigate expressions of neurotrophic factors. [Results] There were significant differences in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor expression between the control group and the experimental group. There were no significant differences in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor expression between the skilled reach training group and the treadmill exercise group. [Conclusion] Skilled reach training and treadmill exercise can affect the expression of neurotrophic factors.

  14. Dietary sodium propionate affects mucosal immune parameters, growth and appetite related genes expression: Insights from zebrafish model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Safari, Roghieh; Dadar, Maryam

    2017-03-01

    Propionate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) that improves physiological and pathophysiological properties. However, there is limited information available about the effects of SCFAs on mucosal immune parameters as well as growth and appetite related genes expression. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of sodium propionate (SP) intake on the mucosal immune parameters, growth and appetite related genes expression using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as model organism. Zebrafish fed control or diet supplemented with different levels (0.5, 1 and 2%) of SP for 8weeks. At the end of feeding trial, the expression of the key genes related to growth and appetite (GH, IGF1, MYSTN and Ghrl) was evaluated. Also, mucosal immune parameters (Total Ig, lysozyme and protease activity) were studied in skin mucus of zebrafish. The results showed that dietary administration of SP significantly (P<0.05) up-regulated the expression of GH, IGF1 and down-regulated MYSTN gene. Also, feeding zebrafish with SP supplemented diet significantly increased appetite related gene expression (P<0.05) with a more pronounced effect in higher inclusion levels. Compared with control group, the expression of appetite related gene (Ghrl) was remarkably (P<0.05) higher in SP fed zebrafish. Also, elevated mucosal immune parameters was observed in zebrafish fed SP supplemented diet. The present results revealed beneficial effects of dietary SP on mucosal immune response and growth and appetite related genes expression. These results also highlighted the potential use of SP as additive in human diets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Histone Acetylation Modifications Affect Tissue-Dependent Expression of Poplar Homologs of C4 Photosynthetic Enzyme Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Histone modifications play important roles in regulating the expression of C4 photosynthetic genes. Given that all enzymes required for the C4 photosynthesis pathway are present in C3 plants, it has been hypothesized that this expression regulatory mechanism has been conserved. However, the relationship between histone modification and the expression of homologs of C4 photosynthetic enzyme genes has not been well determined in C3 plants. In the present study, we cloned nine hybrid poplar (Populus simonii × Populus nigra homologs of maize (Zea mays C4 photosynthetic enzyme genes, carbonic anhydrase (CA, pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, and investigated the correlation between the expression levels of these genes and the levels of promoter histone acetylation modifications in four vegetative tissues. We found that poplar homologs of C4 homologous genes had tissue-dependent expression patterns that were mostly well-correlated with the level of histone acetylation modification (H3K9ac and H4K5ac determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A further confirmed the role of histone acetylation in the regulation of the nine target genes. Collectively, these results suggest that both H3K9ac and H4K5ac positively regulate the tissue-dependent expression pattern of the PsnCAs, PsnPPDKs, PsnPCKs, and PsnPEPCs genes and that this regulatory mechanism seems to be conserved among the C3 and C4 species. Our findings provide new insight that will aid efforts to modify the expression pattern of these homologs of C4 genes to engineer C4 plants from C3 plants.

  16. Cortisol increases CXCR4 expression but does not affect CD62L and CCR7 levels on specific T cell subsets in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besedovsky, Luciana; Linz, Barbara; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Groch, Sabine; Born, Jan; Lange, Tanja

    2014-06-01

    Glucocorticoids are well known to affect T cell migration, leading to a redistribution of the cells from blood to the bone marrow, accompanied by a concurrent suppression of lymph node homing. Despite numerous studies in this context, with most of them employing synthetic glucocorticoids in nonphysiological doses, the mechanisms of this redistribution are not well understood. Here, we investigated in healthy men the impact of cortisol at physiological concentrations on the expression of different migration molecules on eight T cell subpopulations in vivo and in vitro. Hydrocortisone (cortisol, 22 mg) infused during nocturnal rest when endogenous cortisol levels are low, compared with placebo, differentially reduced numbers of T cell subsets, with naive CD4(+) and CD8(+) subsets exhibiting the strongest reduction. Hydrocortisone in vivo and in vitro increased CXCR4 expression, which presumably mediates the recruitment of T cells to the bone marrow. Expression of the lymph node homing receptor CD62L on total CD3(+) and CD8(+) T cells appeared reduced following hydrocortisone infusion. However, this was due to a selective extravasation of CD62L(+) T cell subsets, as hydrocortisone affected neither CD62L expression on a subpopulation level nor CD62L expression in vitro. Corresponding results in the opposite direction were observed after blocking of endogenous cortisol synthesis by metyrapone. CCR7, another lymph node homing receptor, was also unaffected by hydrocortisone in vitro. Thus, cortisol seems to redirect T cells to the bone marrow by upregulating their CXCR4 expression, whereas its inhibiting effect on T cell homing to lymph nodes is apparently regulated independently of the expression of classical homing receptors. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Temperature, but not available energy, affects the expression of a sexually selected ultraviolet (UV colour trait in male European green lizards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Bajer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colour signals are widely used in intraspecific communication and often linked to individual fitness. The development of some pigment-based (e.g. carotenoids colours is often environment-dependent and costly for the signaller, however, for structural colours (e.g. ultraviolet [UV] this topic is poorly understood, especially in terrestrial ectothermic vertebrates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a factorial experiment, we studied how available energy and time at elevated body temperature affects the annual expression of the nuptial throat colour patch in male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis after hibernation and before mating season. In this species, there is a female preference for males with high throat UV reflectance, and males with high UV reflectance are more likely to win fights. We found that (i while food shortage decreased lizards' body condition, it did not affect colour development, and (ii the available time for maintaining high body temperature affected the development of UV colour without affecting body condition or other colour traits. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that the expression of a sexually selected structural colour signal depends on the time at elevated body temperature affecting physiological performance but not on available energy gained from food per se in an ectothermic vertebrate. We suggest that the effect of high ambient temperature on UV colour in male L. viridis makes it an honest signal, because success in acquiring thermally favourable territories and/or effective behavioural thermoregulation can both be linked to individual quality.

  18. Temperature, but not available energy, affects the expression of a sexually selected ultraviolet (UV) colour trait in male European green lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Katalin; Molnár, Orsolya; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor

    2012-01-01

    Colour signals are widely used in intraspecific communication and often linked to individual fitness. The development of some pigment-based (e.g. carotenoids) colours is often environment-dependent and costly for the signaller, however, for structural colours (e.g. ultraviolet [UV]) this topic is poorly understood, especially in terrestrial ectothermic vertebrates. In a factorial experiment, we studied how available energy and time at elevated body temperature affects the annual expression of the nuptial throat colour patch in male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) after hibernation and before mating season. In this species, there is a female preference for males with high throat UV reflectance, and males with high UV reflectance are more likely to win fights. We found that (i) while food shortage decreased lizards' body condition, it did not affect colour development, and (ii) the available time for maintaining high body temperature affected the development of UV colour without affecting body condition or other colour traits. Our results demonstrate that the expression of a sexually selected structural colour signal depends on the time at elevated body temperature affecting physiological performance but not on available energy gained from food per se in an ectothermic vertebrate. We suggest that the effect of high ambient temperature on UV colour in male L. viridis makes it an honest signal, because success in acquiring thermally favourable territories and/or effective behavioural thermoregulation can both be linked to individual quality.

  19. Character and Temperament Dimensions in Subjects with Depressive Disorder: Impact of the Affective State on Their Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojan Bajraktarov

    2017-02-01

    CONCLUSION: The people with the recurrent depressive disorder have a different profile of personality traits (temperament and character compared with the control group, and their characteristics depend on their current affective state.

  20. High temperature and UV-C treatments affect stilbenoid accumulation and related gene expression levels in Gnetum parvifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Deng

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Our results indicated that high temperatures and ultraviolet irradiation differentially affect the biosynthesis of specific stilbenes in G. parvifolium stems and roots. Therefore, cultivating G. parvifolium seedlings under optimal stress conditions may increase the biosynthesis of specific stilbene compounds.

  1. Eye of the Beholder: Stage Entrance Behavior and Facial Expression Affect Continuous Quality Ratings in Music Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aaron Williamon; George Waddell

    2017-01-01

    ...” features can unduly influence them. The present study employed continuous measurement techniques to examine how the process of forming a music quality judgment is affected by the manipulation of temporally specific visual cues...

  2. Clenbuterol affects the expression of messenger RNA for interleukin 10 in peripheral leukocytes from horses challenged intrabronchially with lipopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hoven, R; Duvigneau, J C; Hartl, R T; Gemeiner, M

    2006-11-01

    On four occasions, four horses with heaves and four horses with small airway inflammatory diseases inhaled 0.9% saline based aerosol mixtures with or without lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Prior to the first saline and LPS inhalation, horses were untreated, while three and a half days prior to the third and forth inhalation horses had received 0.8 microg/kg clenbuterol intravenously twice daily. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and interferon- gamma (IFN- gamma) was investigated by RT-PCR, all of which were expressed in the white blood cells of samples collected. Inhalation of LPS only changed the cytokine expression profile of IL-10, IL-4 and TNF-alpha mRNA which were higher after challenge with LPS. However in those horses that were treated with clenbuterol the LPS-induced IL-10 mRNA expression was shown to be suppressed. Further changes in IL-4 and TNF-alpha were not significant. Thus the results of this study indicated that clenbuterol can modulate the expression of IL-10 mRNA in peripheral white blood cells in those horses with small airway diseases that have been exposed to LPS.

  3. PamR, a new MarR-like regulator affecting prophages and metabolic genes expression in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De San Eustaquio-Campillo, Alba; Cornilleau, Charlène; Guérin, Cyprien; Carballido-López, Rut; Chastanet, Arnaud

    2017-01-01

    B. subtilis adapts to changing environments by reprogramming its genetic expression through a variety of transcriptional regulators from the global transition state regulators that allow a complete resetting of the cell genetic expression, to stress specific regulators controlling only a limited number of key genes required for optimal adaptation. Among them, MarR-type transcriptional regulators are known to respond to a variety of stresses including antibiotics or oxidative stress, and to control catabolic or virulence gene expression. Here we report the characterization of the ydcFGH operon of B. subtilis, containing a putative MarR-type transcriptional regulator. Using a combination of molecular genetics and high-throughput approaches, we show that this regulator, renamed PamR, controls directly its own expression and influence the expression of large sets of prophage-related and metabolic genes. The extent of the regulon impacted by PamR suggests that this regulator reprograms the metabolic landscape of B. subtilis in response to a yet unknown signal.

  4. Seasonal variation of defense-related gene expression in leaves from Bois noir affected and recovered grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Lucia; Romanazzi, Gianfranco

    2011-06-22

    Although Bois noir is one of the main phytoplasma diseases of grapevine, the gene expression and enzyme activities that underlie physiological changes occurring in symptomatic and recovered (with spontaneous or induced symptom remission) plants are mostly unknown. Bois noir symptomatic leaves (September 2006, 2007) and symptomless leaves from infected symptomatic plants (September 2007) of Sangiovese (moderately susceptible) and Chardonnay (highly susceptible) cultivars were collected. Moreover, leaves from infected symptomless plants of both cultivars were harvested in June 2007. Leaves from recovered plants were also collected in the same periods. In recovered plants of both cultivars, class III chitinase and almost every time phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase expression were increased for all collection periods. In symptomatic leaves of both cultivars, the expressions of the same genes were up-regulated and also those of β-1,3-glucanase and flavanone 3-hydroxylase. The activities of chitinase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, β-1,3-glucanase, and superoxide dismutase generally correlated with gene expression. For the moderately susceptible Sangiovese, the defense genes were generally up-regulated in both symptomatic and symptomless leaves (for all collection periods). This behavior was not observed in the highly susceptible Chardonnay, in which changes in gene expression were linked to evident symptom display. Therefore, the physiological response of the plants to this pathogen infection appear to be the reason for the resistance of the cultivar to the disease.

  5. Alteration of osa-miR156e expression affects rice plant architecture and strigolactones (SLs) pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihui; Gao, Xinqiang; Zhang, Jian

    2015-05-01

    Overexpressing osa--miR156e in rice produced a bushy mutant and osa--miR156e regulation of tillering may do this through the strigolactones (SLs) pathway. Appropriate downregulation of osa--miR156 expression contributed to the improvement of plant architecture. Tillering is one of the main determinants for rice architecture and yield. In this study, a bushy mutant of rice was identified with increased tiller number, reduced plant height, prolonged heading date, low seed setting, and small panicle size due to a T-DNA insertion which essentially elevated the expression of osa-miR156e. Transgenic plants with constitutive expression of osa-miR156e also had the bushy phenotype, which showed osa-miR156 may control apical dominance and tiller outgrowth via regulating the strigolactones signaling pathway. Furthermore, the extent of impaired morphology was correlated with the expression level of osa-miR156e. In an attempt to genetically improve rice architecture, ectopic expression of osa-miR156e under the GAL4-UAS system or OsTB1 promoter was conducted. According to agronomic trait analysis, pTB1:osa-miR156e transgenic plants significantly improved the grain yield per plant compared to plants overexpressing osa-miR156e, even though the yield was still inferior to the wild type, making it a very interesting albeit negative result. Our results suggested that osa-miR156 could serve as a potential tool for modifying rice plant architecture through genetic manipulation of the osa-miR156 expression level.

  6. Genetic Variations of TAP1 Gene Exon 3 Affects Gene Expression and Escherichia coli F18 Resistance in Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaohui Zhao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, our research group identified Sutai pigs’ phenotypes that exhibited extreme resistance and susceptibility to the Escherichia coli F18 respectively, and then eight ETEC (Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F18-resistant piglets and eight ETEC F18-sensitive piglets were selected. Then, the TAP1 (Transporter associated with antigen processing mRNA relative expression levels were analyzed in 11 tissues of the resistant and susceptible phenotypes. Simultaneously, we detected the genetic variations in exon 3 of the TAP1 gene and evaluated the TAP1 mRNA expression levels among the different genotype pigs to study the effects of the genetic variation on gene expression, and the E. coli F18 resistance. The results revealed higher expression levels in the resistant genotypes than that in the susceptible genotypes in 11 tissues, with significant differences in the spleen, lymph node, lung, thymus, duodenum and jejunum. Furthermore, a G729A mutation was identified in the TAP1 gene exon 3, and this mutation deviates from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p < 0.01. The TAP1 mRNA levels in GG genotype were significantly higher than that in the other two genotypes, with significant differences in the liver, lung, kidney, thymus, lymph node, duodenum and jejunum tissues. We speculated that high expression of the TAP1 gene might confer resistance against the E. coli F18, the G729A mutation had a significant effect on the mRNA expression, and individuals with the GG genotype possessed a stronger ability to resist the E. coli F18 infection.

  7. Therapy-Resistant, Spontaneously Remitting Generalized Neutrophilic Eccrine Hidradenitis in a Healthy Patient Decreases the Expression of Dermcidin in Affected Eccrine Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Kambayashi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe a healthy 69-year-old Japanese man with generalized neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis (NEH. He visited our outpatient clinic with a 15-year history of disseminated pruritic papules on his trunk and extremities; the eruptions, however, were limited to the summer months. Histological findings reveal a dense accumulation of neutrophils around the sweat glands with degenerated secretary coils. Interestingly, immunohistochemical staining showed that the expression of dermcidin on the secretory portion of eccrine glands was significantly decreased in the affected lesion. To our knowledge, this is the first report in English of generalized NEH in a healthy adult that shows the downregulation of the expression of dermcidin in affected eccrine glands.

  8. The role of aberrant expression of T cell miRNAs affected by TNF-α in the immunopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ning-Sheng; Yu, Hui-Chun; Tung, Chien-Hsueh; Huang, Kuang-Yung; Huang, Hsien-Bin; Lu, Ming-Chi

    2017-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) can cause diverse T cell dysfunctions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is involved in the regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) expression in different cell types. We hypothesized that the expression of T cell miRNAs would be affected by TNF-α, and these miRNAs could participate in the immunopathogenesis of RA. Expression profiles of 270 human miRNAs in Jurkat cells, cultured in the presence or absence of TNF-α for 7 days were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Potentially aberrantly expressed miRNAs were validated using T cell samples from 35 patients with RA and 15 controls. Transfection studies were conducted to search for gene expression and biological functions regulated by specific miRNAs. Initial analysis revealed 12 miRNAs were significantly lower, whereas the expression level of miR-146a was significantly higher in Jurkat cells after being cultured with TNF-α for 7 days. Decreased expression of miR-139-3p, miR-204, miR-760, miR-524-5p, miR-136, miR-548d-3p, miR-214, miR-383, and miR-887 were noted in RA T cells. Expression levels of miR-139-3p, miR-204, miR-214, and miR-760 were correlated with the use of biologic agents. The transfection of miR-214 mimic suppressed TNF-α-mediated apoptosis of Jurkat cells. Increased phosphorylation of extracellular regulating kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was noted in RA T cells and Jurkat cells after TNF-α exposure. Transfection of Jurkat cells with miR-214 mimic suppressed both the basal and TNF-α-mediated ERK and JNK phosphoryation. Among T cell miRNAs affected by TNF-α, the expression levels of nine miRNAs were decreased in T cells from patients with RA. The expression levels of miR-139-3p, miR-204, miR-214, and miR-760 increased in RA patients receiving biologic agents. The transfection of miR-214 reversed the TNF-α-mediated cells apoptosis and inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK and JNK in Jurkat cells.

  9. Effects of skilled reach training with affected forelimb and treadmill exercise on the expression of neurotrophic factor following ischemia-induced brain injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, Min-Sik; Kim, Seong-gil; Cheon, Song-Hee

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of skilled reach training with affected forelimb and treadmill exercise on the expression of neurotrophic factor following ischemia-induced brain injury in rats. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups randomly: namely, the control sacrified 2 weeks after surgery, skilled reach training with forepaw contralateral to brain injury for 2 weeks, and treadmill exercise for 2 weeks. Transient...

  10. Isolation and Expression Analysis of STAT Members from Synechogobius hasta and Their Roles in Leptin Affecting Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Signal transducers and activators of transcription proteins (STATs act as important mediators in multiple biological processes induced by a large number of cytokines. In the present study, full-length cDNA sequences of seven STAT members, including some splicing variants different from those in mammals, were obtained from Synechogobius hasta. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the seven STAT members were derived from paralogous genes that might have arisen by whole genome duplication (WGD events during vertebrate evolution. All of these members share similar domain structure compared with those of mammals, and were widely expressed across the tested tissues (brain, gill, heart, intestine, liver, muscle and spleen, but at variable levels. Incubation in vitro of recombinant human leptin changed the intracellular triglyceride (TG content and mRNA levels of several STATs members, as well as expressions and activities of genes involved in lipid metabolism. Furthermore, Tyrphostin B42 (AG490, a specific inhibitor of the Janus Kinase 2(JAK2-STAT pathway, partially reversed leptin-induced change on STAT3 and its two spliced isoforms expression, as well as expressions and activities of genes involved in lipid metabolism. As a consequence, the decrease of TG content was also reversed. Thus, our study suggests that STAT3 is the requisite for the leptin signal and the activation of the STAT3 member may account for the leptin-induced changes in lipid metabolism in S. hasta.

  11. High intensity interval training favourably affects antioxidant and inflammation mRNA expression in early-stage chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Patrick S; Briskey, David R; Scanlan, Aaron T; Coombes, Jeff S; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2015-12-01

    Increased levels of oxidative stress and inflammation have been linked to the progression of chronic kidney disease. To reduce oxidative stress and inflammation related to chronic kidney disease, chronic aerobic exercise is often recommended. Data suggests high intensity interval training may be more beneficial than traditional aerobic exercise. However, appraisals of differing modes of exercise, along with explanations of mechanisms responsible for observed effects, are lacking. This study assessed effects of eight weeks of high intensity interval training (85% VO2max), versus low intensity exercise (45-50% VO2max) and sedentary behaviour, in an animal model of early-stage chronic kidney disease. We examined kidney-specific mRNA expression of genes related to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity (glutathione peroxidase 1; Gpx1, superoxide dismutase 1; Sod1, and catalase; Cat) and inflammation (kidney injury molecule 1; Kim1 and tumour necrosis factor receptor super family 1b; Tnfrsf1b), as well as plasma F2-isoprostanes, a marker of lipid peroxidation. Compared to sedentary behaviour, high intensity interval training resulted in increased mRNA expression of Sod1 (p=0.01) and Cat (pintensity exercise, high intensity interval training resulted in increased mRNA expression of Cat (phigh intensity interval training was superior to sedentary behaviour and low intensity exercise as high intensity interval training beneficially influenced expression of genes related to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity and inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary Selenium Levels Affect Selenoprotein Expression and Support the Interferon-γ and IL-6 Immune Response Pathways in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Petra A; Carlson, Bradley A; Anderson, Christine B; Seifried, Harold E; Hatfield, Dolph L; Howard, Michael T

    2015-08-06

    Selenium is an essential element that is required to support a number of cellular functions and biochemical pathways. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of reduced dietary selenium levels on gene expression to assess changes in expression of non-selenoprotein genes that may contribute to the physiological consequences of selenium deficiency. Mice were fed diets that were either deficient in selenium or supplemented with selenium in the form of sodium selenite for six weeks. Differences in liver mRNA expression and translation were measured using a combination of ribosome profiling, RNA-Seq, microarrays, and qPCR. Expression levels and translation of mRNAs encoding stress-related selenoproteins were shown to be up-regulated by increased selenium status, as were genes involved in inflammation and response to interferon-γ. Changes in serum cytokine levels were measured which confirmed that interferon-γ, as well as IL-6, were increased in selenium adequate mice. Finally, microarray and qPCR analysis of lung tissue demonstrated that the selenium effects on immune function are not limited to liver. These data are consistent with previous reports indicating that adequate selenium levels can support beneficial immune responses, and further identify the IL-6 and interferon-γ pathways as being responsive to dietary selenium intake.

  13. The analysis of correlation between IL-12 gene expression and hepatitis B virus in the affected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Abdolhossein; Rashki, Ahmad; Ghahari, Sajjad; Ghayoori, Bashir

    2015-09-01

    Hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection, which is one of the global public health concerns, is among the most common causes of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It was proposed that cytokine-mediated immunity plays a critical role in determining the outcomes of hepatitis B virus infection. Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is a heterodimeric cytokine that shows a broad range of immunoregulatory properties during immune responses and combats host invading pathogens. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the possible association between expression levels of IL-12 gene with HBV infection in patients with HBV infection. This clinical study was performed on 30 HBV patients and 30 healthy controls. SYBR Green Real-time PCR was performed to examine the expression level of IL-12 gene in HBV patients. Then, the rate of expression was calculated using the Livak ([Formula: see text] ) method. ΔCT of samples in the two groups were compared using t test method. PCR was also used for HBV-DNA evidence. The results of our study demonstrated that the difference in mean of IL-12 gene expression between healthy subjects and HBV patients is statistically significant.

  14. Dietary Selenium Levels Affect Selenoprotein Expression and Support the Interferon-γ and IL-6 Immune Response Pathways in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra A. Tsuji

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential element that is required to support a number of cellular functions and biochemical pathways. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of reduced dietary selenium levels on gene expression to assess changes in expression of non-selenoprotein genes that may contribute to the physiological consequences of selenium deficiency. Mice were fed diets that were either deficient in selenium or supplemented with selenium in the form of sodium selenite for six weeks. Differences in liver mRNA expression and translation were measured using a combination of ribosome profiling, RNA-Seq, microarrays, and qPCR. Expression levels and translation of mRNAs encoding stress-related selenoproteins were shown to be up-regulated by increased selenium status, as were genes involved in inflammation and response to interferon-γ. Changes in serum cytokine levels were measured which confirmed that interferon-γ, as well as IL-6, were increased in selenium adequate mice. Finally, microarray and qPCR analysis of lung tissue demonstrated that the selenium effects on immune function are not limited to liver. These data are consistent with previous reports indicating that adequate selenium levels can support beneficial immune responses, and further identify the IL-6 and interferon-γ pathways as being responsive to dietary selenium intake.

  15. Citosol (thiamylal sodium) triggers apoptosis and affects gene expressions of murine leukemia RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, R S-C; Yu, C-S; Liu, K-C; Huang, H-Y; Ip, S-W; Lin, J-P; Chueh, F-S; Yang, J-S; Chung, J-G

    2012-08-01

    Citosol (thiamylal sodium) is one of generally used anesthetic-sedative agents for clinical patients, and it has not been reported to show induction of cytotoxic effects in cancer cells, especially in mice leukemia RAW 264.7 cells in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of citosol on mice leukemic RAW 264.7 cells, including the effects on protein and gene expression levels which are determined by Western blotting and DNA microarray methods, respectively. Results indicated that citosol induced cell morphological changes, cytotoxic effect, and induction of apoptosis in RAW 264.7 cells. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that citosol promoted the levels of Fas, cytochrome c, caspase 9 and 3 active form and Bax levels, but it suppressed Bcl-xl protein level that may lead to apoptotic death in RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, DNA microarray assay indicated that citosol significantly promoted the expression of 5 genes (Gm4884, Gm10883, Lce1c, Lrg1, and LOC100045878) and significantly inhibited the expression of 24 genes (Gm10679, Zfp617, LOC621831, Gm5929, Snord116, Gm3994, LOC380994, Gm5592, LOC380994, LOC280487, Gm4638, Tex24, A530064D06Rik, BC094916, EG668725, Gm189, Hist2h3c2, Gm8020, Snord115, Gm3079, Olfr198, Tdh, Snord115, and Olfr1249). Based on these observations, citosol induced cell apoptosis and influenced gene expression in mice leukemia RAW 264.7 cells in vitro.

  16. Beta-carotene affects gene-expression in lungs of male and female Bcmo1-/-mice in opposite directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, Y.G.J.; Godschalk, R.W.L.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Schooten, van F.J.; Keijer, J.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms triggered by high dietary beta-carotene (BC) intake in lung are largely unknown. We performed microarray gene expression analysis on lung tissue of BC supplemented beta-carotene 15,150-monooxygenase 1 knockout (Bcmo1-/-) mice, which are—like humans—able to accumulate BC. Our

  17. Pre-Slaughter Stress Affects Ryanodine Receptor Protein Gene Expression and the Water-Holding Capacity in Fillets of the Nile Tilapia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice S R Goes

    Full Text Available Current study evaluated the effect of pre-slaughter stress on serum cortisol levels, pH, colorimetry, water-holding capacity (WHC and gene expression of ryanodine receptors (RyR1 and RyR3 in the Nile tilapia. A 3x4 factorial scheme experiment was conducted comprising three densities (100, 200, 400 kg/m³ with four transportation times (60, 120, 180, and 240 minutes.Transportation times alone reduced cortisol levels up to 180 minutes, followed by increased WHC and mRNA expression, RyR1 and RyR3 (200 kg/m³ density. No effect of density x transportation time interacted on the evaluated parameters. Results provided the first evidence that pre-slaughter stress affected ryanodine gene expression receptors and, consequently, the water-holding capacity in tilapia fillets.

  18. PINK1 expression increases during brain development and stem cell differentiation, and affects the development of GFAP-positive astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Insup; Choi, Dong-Joo; Yang, Haijie; Woo, Joo Hong; Chang, Mi-Yoon; Kim, Joo Yeon; Sun, Woong; Park, Sang-Myun; Jou, Ilo; Lee, Sang-Hun; Lee, Sang Hoon; Joe, Eun-Hye

    2016-01-08

    Mutation of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) causes autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite of its ubiquitous expression in brain, its roles in non-neuronal cells such as neural stem cells (NSCs) and astrocytes were poorly unknown. We show that PINK1 expression increases from embryonic day 12 to postnatal day 1 in mice, which represents the main period of brain development. PINK1 expression also increases during neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation. Interestingly, expression of GFAP (a marker of astrocytes) was lower in PINK1 knockout (KO) mouse brain lysates compared to wild-type (WT) lysates at postnatal days 1-8, whereas there was little difference in the expression of markers for other brain cell types (e.g., neurons and oligodendrocytes). Further experiments showed that PINK1-KO NSCs were defective in their differentiation to astrocytes, producing fewer GFAP-positive cells compared to WT NSCs. However, the KO and WT NSCs did not differ in their self-renewal capabilities or ability to differentiate to neurons and oligodendrocytes. Interestingly, during differentiation of KO NSCs there were no defects in mitochondrial function, and there were not changes in signaling molecules such as SMAD1/5/8, STAT3, and HES1 involved in differentiation of NSCs into astrocytes. In brain sections, GFAP-positive astrocytes were more sparsely distributed in the corpus callosum and substantia nigra of KO animals compared with WT. Our study suggests that PINK1 deficiency causes defects in GFAP-positive astrogliogenesis during brain development and NSC differentiation, which may be a factor to increase risk for PD.

  19. Residual expression of reprogramming factors affects the transcriptional program and epigenetic signatures of induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar A Sommer

    Full Text Available Delivery of the transcription factors Oct4, Klf4, Sox2 and c-Myc via integrating viral vectors has been widely employed to generate induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC lines from both normal and disease-specific somatic tissues, providing an invaluable resource for medical research and drug development. Residual reprogramming transgene expression from integrated viruses nevertheless alters the biological properties of iPSCs and has been associated with a reduced developmental competence both in vivo and in vitro. We performed transcriptional profiling of mouse iPSC lines before and after excision of a polycistronic lentiviral reprogramming vector to systematically define the overall impact of persistent transgene expression on the molecular features of iPSCs. We demonstrate that residual expression of the Yamanaka factors prevents iPSCs from acquiring the transcriptional program exhibited by embryonic stem cells (ESCs and that the expression profiles of iPSCs generated with and without c-Myc are indistinguishable. After vector excision, we find 36% of iPSC clones show normal methylation of the Gtl2 region, an imprinted locus that marks ESC-equivalent iPSC lines. Furthermore, we show that the reprogramming factor Klf4 binds to the promoter region of Gtl2. Regardless of Gtl2 methylation status, we find similar endodermal and hepatocyte differentiation potential comparing syngeneic Gtl2(ON vs Gtl2(OFF iPSC clones. Our findings provide new insights into the reprogramming process and emphasize the importance of generating iPSCs free of any residual transgene expression.

  20. Uteroplacental insufficiency affects kidney VEGF expression in a model of IUGR with compensatory glomerular hypertrophy and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baserga, Mariana; Bares, Allyson L; Hale, Merica A; Callaway, Christopher W; McKnight, Robert A; Lane, Pascale H; Lane, Robert H

    2009-06-01

    Low nephron endowment secondary to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) results in compensatory hypertrophy of the remaining glomeruli, which in turn is associated with hypertension. However, gender differences exist in the response of the kidney to injury, and IUGR female offspring seems protected from an unfavorable outcome. We previously reported differences in gender-specific gene expression in the IUGR kidney as well as increased circulating corticosterone levels following uteroplacental insufficiency (UPI). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is critical for renal development, is an important candidate in the IUGR kidney since its expression can be regulated by sex-steroids and glucocorticoids. We hypothesize that IUGR leads to altered kidney VEGF expression in a gender-specific manner. Following uterine ligation in the pregnant rat, UPI decreases renal VEGF levels in male and female IUGR animals at birth and through postnatal day 21. However, by day 120 of life, IUGR females have increased kidney VEGF expression, not present in the IUGR males. In addition, IUGR males exhibit increased serum testosterone levels as well as proteinuria. These findings are intriguing in light of the difference in glomerular hypertrophy observed: IUGR males show increased glomerular area when compared to IUGR females. In this model characterized by decreased nephron number and adult onset hypertension, UPI decreases renal VEGF expression during nephrogenesis. Our most intriguing finding is the increased renal VEGF levels in adult IUGR females, associated with a more benign phenotype. We suggest that the mechanisms underlying renal disease in response to IUGR are most likely regulated in a gender specific manner.

  1. Encouraging alternative transportation behavior among baby boomers via simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Due to disruptions prompted by changing demographic patterns, aging infrastructure, and a : growing green culture New England states have been at the forefront of searching for options : to encourage sustainable transportation alternatives. How...

  2. Encourage Your Workers to Report Bloodborne Pathogen Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products Programs Contact NIOSH First Responders: Encourage Your Workers to Report Bloodborne Pathogen Exposures Language: English Español ( ... take appropriate post-exposure actions to protect your workers, their families, and the public against infection from ...

  3. Why should modified Atkins diet be encouraged for treating epilepsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Why should modified Atkins diet be encouraged for treating epilepsy in emerging countries? Amal Satte, Eric Heath Kossoff, Mohamed Belghiti, Abderrahim Zerhouni, Hamid Ouhabi, Hassania Guerinech, Jamal Mounach ...

  4. Directed abstraction: Encouraging broad, personal generalizations following a success experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunick, Peter V; Fazio, Russell H; Vasey, Michael W

    2015-07-01

    People with negative self-views may fail to generalize appropriately from success experiences (e.g., Wood, Heimpel, Newby-Clark, & Ross, 2005). We drew on theories regarding self-views (Swann, Griffin, Predmore, & Gaines, 1987) and abstraction (Semin & Fiedler, 1991), as well as past linguistic framing work (e.g., Marigold, Holmes, & Ross, 2007, 2010; Salancik, 1974), to create a new technique to encourage people with negative self-views to generalize broadly from a success experience to the self-concept. We call this technique directed abstraction. In Experiment 1, participants with negative self-views who completed a directed abstraction writing task following success feedback regarding a novel laboratory task generalized more from that success, reporting higher ability levels and greater expectations of future success in the relevant domain. In Experiment 2, directed abstraction produced similar results (including more positive self-related affect, e.g., pride) after participants recalled a past public speaking success. In Experiment 3, participants high in fear of public speaking gave two speeches in a context designed to be challenging yet also to elicit successful performances. Directed abstraction helped these participants generalize from their success to beliefs about their abilities, expectations about the future, and confidence as a speaker. In Experiment 4, directed abstraction following success on a verbal task increased persistence in the face of failure on a subsequent verbal task. We discuss implications for understanding how and when people generalize from a success, compare directed abstraction to existing interventions, and suggest practical applications for this influence technique. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Human papillomavirus 16 E2 interacts with neuregulin receptor degradation protein 1 affecting ErbB-3 expression in vitro and in clinical samples of cervical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Francesca; Curzio, Gianfranca; Melucci, Elisa; Terrenato, Irene; Antoniani, Barbara; Carosi, Mariantonia; Mottolese, Marcella; Vici, Patrizia; Mariani, Luciano; Venuti, Aldo

    2016-05-01

    The ErbB tyrosine kinase receptors play a key role in regulating many cellular functions and human papillomaviruses (HPVs) may interact with transductional pathway of different growth factor receptors. Here, these interactions were analysed in W12 cell line carrying HPV 16 genome and in clinical samples. W12 cells, in which HPV16 becomes integrated during passages, were utilised to detect viral and ErbB family expression at early (W12E) and late passages (W12G). Interestingly, a strong reduction of ErbB-3 expression was observed in W12G. Loss of the E2 and E5 viral genes occurs in W12G and this may affect ErbB-3 receptor expression. E2 and E5 rescue experiments demonstrated that only E2 gene was able to restore ErbB-3 expression. E2 is a transcriptional factor but the expression levels of ErbB3 were unaffected and ErbB-3 promoter did not show any consensus sequence for E2, thus E2 may interact in another way with ErbB3. Indeed, HPV 16 E2 can modulate ErbB-3 by interacting with the ubiquitin ligase neuregulin receptor degradation protein 1 (Nrdp-1) that is involved in the regulation of this receptor, via ubiquitination and degradation. E2 co-immunoprecipitated in a complex with Nrdp-1 leading to hypothesise an involvement of this interaction in ErbB-3 regulation. In addition, 90% of the clinical samples with integrated virus and E2 loss showed no or low ErbB-3 positivity, confirming in vitro results. In conclusion, the new discovered interaction of HPV-16 E2 with Nrdp-1 may affect ErbB-3 expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dyslipidemia rather than Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus or Chronic Periodontitis Affects the Systemic Expression of Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomuceno, Rafael; Villela, Bárbara Scoralick; Corbi, Sâmia Cruz Tfaile; Bastos, Alliny De Souza; Dos Santos, Raquel Alves; Takahashi, Catarina Satie; Orrico, Silvana Regina Perez; Scarel-Caminaga, Raquel Mantuaneli

    2017-01-01

    A high percentage of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) patients are also affected by dyslipidemia and chronic periodontitis (CP), but no studies have determined the gene expression in patients that are simultaneously affected by all three diseases. We investigated the systemic expression of immune-related genes in T2D, dyslipidemia, and CP patients. One hundred and fifty patients were separated into five groups containing 30 individuals each: (G1) poorly controlled T2D with dyslipidemia and CP; (G2) well-controlled T2D with dyslipidemia and CP; (G3) normoglycemic individuals with dyslipidemia and CP; (G4) healthy individuals with CP; (G5) systemic and periodontally healthy individuals. Blood analyses of lipid and glycemic profiles were carried out. The expression of genes, including IL10, JAK1, STAT3, SOCS3, IP10, ICAM1, IFNA, IFNG, STAT1, and IRF1, was investigated by RT-qPCR. Patients with dyslipidemia demonstrated statistically higher expression of the IL10 and IFNA genes, while IFNG, IP10, IRF1, JAK1, and STAT3 were lower in comparison with nondyslipidemic patients. Anti-inflammatory genes, such as IL10, positively correlated with parameters of glucose, lipid, and periodontal profiles, while proinflammatory genes, such as IFNG, were negatively correlated with these parameters. We conclude that dyslipidemia appears to be the primary disease that is associated with gene expression of immune-related genes, while parameters of T2D and CP were correlated with the expression of these important immune genes.

  7. Questioning the link between Self-Expressed Attitudes and Repurchasing Behavior: Relations Between Cognitive, Affective and Action Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guven Ordun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In psychology attitude is defined as favorable or unfavorable evaluations towards a person, group, object or event. Attitudes are formed by past and present experiences and are expected to change as a function of experience. Three components of the attitude defined as cognitive (what we know about the subject, affective (how we feel towards the subject and behavioral (intention to behave towards the subject. Our behavior is defined as a complex combination of beliefs, feelings, capabilities and norms. The majority of consumer behavior literature examined the main antecedents of purchase behavior. Attitudes are described as one of the most important determinant of the behavior. There are several methods and techniques to assess attitude; the most used one is the self-report paper and pencil measures. Brand loyalty is another important concept related with repetitive purchasing behavior. While cognitive loyalty is related with the information, affective loyalty is related with feelings. Behavioral loyalty is described as the past behaviors or experiences. Some of our behaviors are determined by the cognitive component of the attitude while others may be directed by the affective part. Main focus of the research is to find out whether there is a level of compliance between cognitive, affective and behavioral attitude of consumers. 1000 forms are distributed in order to identify the attitudes and purchasing behaviors of consumers 783 forms are evaluated

  8. Down-Regulation of Small Rubber Particle Protein Expression Affects Integrity of Rubber Particles and Rubber Content in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hillebrand, A.; Post, J. J.; Wurbs, D.; Wahler, D.; Lenders, D.; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Pruefer, D.; Gronover, CH. S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 7 (2012), e41874:1-9 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Hevea-Brasiliensis * Parthenium-Argentatum * Elongation-Factor * Silencing Affects * Surface- Structure * Oil Bodies * Latex * Prenyltransferase * Biosynthesis * Stability Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  9. Aging and walnut-rich diet supplementation affects the expression of immediate-early genes in critical brain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging evidence indicates a direct link between age-associated changes in epigenetic mechanisms and onset of neurodegenerative diseases, and that these genomic modulations are directly affected by diet. Diets deficient in folate, choline and methionine, or the trace elements zinc and selenium, are...

  10. The constitutive expression of the V gene of Parainfluenza virus 5 affects the growth properties of bovine herpesvirus 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Esmaile de Sales Lima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of the expression of Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5 V protein in bovine cells on the replication of Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5. Growth properties of BoHV-5 were evaluated in parental and PIV5 transfected cells. In one-step growth experiments, the BoHV-5 reached higher titers at earlier time points in the transfected cells when compared to the parental cells. The mean plaque size produced by the BoHV-5 in transfected cells was larger than the parental cells. This indicated that the expression of the PIV5 V gene facilitated the release and cell-to-cell spread of BoHV-5 in bovine cells.

  11. Interaction between the Stress Phase Angle (SPA) and the Oscillatory Shear Index (OSI) Affects Endothelial Cell Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Ronny; Cancel, Limary M.; Tarbell, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Hemodynamic forces play an important role in the non-uniform distribution of atherosclerotic lesions. Endothelial cells are exposed simultaneously to fluid wall shear stress (WSS) and solid circumferential stress (CS). Due to variations in impedance (global factors) and geometric complexities (local factors) in the arterial circulation a time lag arises between these two forces that can be characterized by the temporal phase angle between CS and WSS (stress phase angle–SPA). Asynchronous flows (SPA close to -180°) that are most prominent in coronary arteries have been associated with localization of atherosclerosis. Reversing oscillatory flows characterized by an oscillatory shear index (OSI) that is great than zero are also associated with atherosclerosis localization. In this study we examined the relationship between asynchronous flows and reversing flows in altering the expression of 37 genes relevant to atherosclerosis development. In the case of reversing oscillatory flow, we observed that the asynchronous condition upregulated 8 genes compared to synchronous hemodynamics, most of them proatherogenic. Upregulation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NFκB p65 was confirmed by western blot, and nuclear translocation of NFκB p65 was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining. A comparative study between non-reversing flow and reversing flow found that in the case of synchronous hemodynamics, reversing flow altered the expression of 11 genes, while in the case of asynchronous hemodynamics, reversing flow altered the expression of 17 genes. Reversing flow significantly upregulated protein expression of NFκB p65 for both synchronous and asynchronous conditions. Nuclear translocation of NFκB p65 was confirmed for synchronous and asynchronous conditions in the presence of flow reversal. These data suggest that asynchronous hemodynamics and reversing flow can elicit proatherogenic responses in endothelial cells compared to synchronous hemodynamics

  12. Age affects the expression of maternal care and subsequent behavioural development of offspring in a precocial bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Pittet

    Full Text Available Variations of breeding success with age have been studied largely in iteroparous species and particularly in birds: survival of offspring increases with parental age until senescence. Nevertheless, these results are from observations of free-living individuals and therefore, it remains impossible to determine whether these variations result from parental investment or efficiency or both, and whether these variations occur during the prenatal or the postnatal stage or during both. Our study aimed first, to determine whether age had an impact on the expression of maternal breeding care by comparing inexperienced female birds of two different ages, and second, to define how these potential differences impact chicks' growth and behavioural development. We made 22 2-month-old and 22 8-month-old female Japanese quail foster 1-day-old chicks. We observed their maternal behaviour until the chicks were 11 days old and then tested these chicks after separation from their mothers. Several behavioural tests estimated their fearfulness and their sociality. We observed first that a longer induction was required for young females to express maternal behaviour. Subsequently as many young females as elder females expressed maternal behaviour, but young females warmed chicks less, expressed less covering postures and rejected their chicks more. Chicks brooded by elder females presented higher growth rates and more fearfulness and sociality. Our results reveal that maternal investment increased with age independently of maternal experience, suggesting modification of hormone levels implied in maternal behaviour. Isolated effects of maternal experience should now be assessed in females of the same age. In addition, our results show, for first time in birds, that variations in maternal care directly induce important differences in the behavioural development of chicks. Finally, our results confirm that Japanese quail remains a great laboratory model of avian

  13. IFN regulatory factor 8 represses GM-CSF expression in T cells to affect myeloid cell lineage differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschall, Amy V; Zhang, Ruihua; Qi, Chen-Feng; Bardhan, Kankana; Peng, Liang; Lu, Geming; Yang, Jianjun; Merad, Miriam; McGaha, Tracy; Zhou, Gang; Mellor, Andrew; Abrams, Scott I; Morse, Herbert C; Ozato, Keiko; Xiong, Huabao; Liu, Kebin

    2015-03-01

    During hematopoiesis, hematopoietic stem cells constantly differentiate into granulocytes and macrophages via a distinct differentiation program that is tightly controlled by myeloid lineage-specific transcription factors. Mice with a null mutation of IFN regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) accumulate CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid cells that phenotypically and functionally resemble tumor-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), indicating an essential role of IRF8 in myeloid cell lineage differentiation. However, IRF8 is expressed in various types of immune cells, and whether IRF8 functions intrinsically or extrinsically in regulation of myeloid cell lineage differentiation is not fully understood. In this study, we report an intriguing finding that, although IRF8-deficient mice exhibit deregulated myeloid cell differentiation and resultant accumulation of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) MDSCs, surprisingly, mice with IRF8 deficiency only in myeloid cells exhibit no abnormal myeloid cell lineage differentiation. Instead, mice with IRF8 deficiency only in T cells exhibited deregulated myeloid cell differentiation and MDSC accumulation. We further demonstrated that IRF8-deficient T cells exhibit elevated GM-CSF expression and secretion. Treatment of mice with GM-CSF increased MDSC accumulation, and adoptive transfer of IRF8-deficient T cells, but not GM-CSF-deficient T cells, increased MDSC accumulation in the recipient chimeric mice. Moreover, overexpression of IRF8 decreased GM-CSF expression in T cells. Our data determine that, in addition to its intrinsic function as an apoptosis regulator in myeloid cells, IRF8 also acts extrinsically to repress GM-CSF expression in T cells to control myeloid cell lineage differentiation, revealing a novel mechanism that the adaptive immune component of the immune system regulates the innate immune cell myelopoiesis in vivo. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. Interaction between the Stress Phase Angle (SPA and the Oscillatory Shear Index (OSI Affects Endothelial Cell Gene Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Amaya

    Full Text Available Hemodynamic forces play an important role in the non-uniform distribution of atherosclerotic lesions. Endothelial cells are exposed simultaneously to fluid wall shear stress (WSS and solid circumferential stress (CS. Due to variations in impedance (global factors and geometric complexities (local factors in the arterial circulation a time lag arises between these two forces that can be characterized by the temporal phase angle between CS and WSS (stress phase angle-SPA. Asynchronous flows (SPA close to -180° that are most prominent in coronary arteries have been associated with localization of atherosclerosis. Reversing oscillatory flows characterized by an oscillatory shear index (OSI that is great than zero are also associated with atherosclerosis localization. In this study we examined the relationship between asynchronous flows and reversing flows in altering the expression of 37 genes relevant to atherosclerosis development. In the case of reversing oscillatory flow, we observed that the asynchronous condition upregulated 8 genes compared to synchronous hemodynamics, most of them proatherogenic. Upregulation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NFκB p65 was confirmed by western blot, and nuclear translocation of NFκB p65 was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining. A comparative study between non-reversing flow and reversing flow found that in the case of synchronous hemodynamics, reversing flow altered the expression of 11 genes, while in the case of asynchronous hemodynamics, reversing flow altered the expression of 17 genes. Reversing flow significantly upregulated protein expression of NFκB p65 for both synchronous and asynchronous conditions. Nuclear translocation of NFκB p65 was confirmed for synchronous and asynchronous conditions in the presence of flow reversal. These data suggest that asynchronous hemodynamics and reversing flow can elicit proatherogenic responses in endothelial cells compared to synchronous

  15. Peri-pubertal gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog treatment affects hippocampus gene expression without changing spatial orientation in young sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruddin, Syed; Wojniusz, Slawomir; Ropstad, Erik; Krogenæs, Anette; Evans, Neil P; Robinson, Jane E; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Amiry-Moghaddam, Mahmood; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebold

    2013-04-01

    Normal brain maturation is the result of molecular changes that can be modulated by endocrine variables associated with brain plasticity and results in sex- and age specific changes in cognitive performance. Using a sheep model, we have previously shown that peri-pubertal pharmacological blockade of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors results in increased sex-differences in cognitive executive function and emotional control. In this study we explore effects of this treatment regime on hippocampal gene expression and spatial orientation. The study was conducted with 30 same-sex twin lambs, half of which were treated with the GnRH analog (GnRHa) goserelin acetate every 4th week, beginning before puberty, until 50 weeks of age. Animals were tested in their spatial orientation ability at 48 weeks of age. Quantitative real time PCR analysis was conducted to examine effects of treatment on the expression of genes associated with synaptic plasticity and endocrine signaling. GnRHa treatment was associated with significant sex- and hemisphere specific changes in mRNA expression for some of the genes studied. The treatment had no significant effect on spatial orientation. However, there was a tendency that females performed better than males in spatial orientation. Our results indicate that GnRH directly and/or indirectly, is involved in the regulation of sex- and side-specific expression patterns of genes. Hence, these results should be considered when long-term peri-pubertal GnRHa treatment is used in children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Affective facial expression in sub-clinically depressed and non-depressed mothers during contingent and non-contingent face-to-face interactions with their infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Skotheim, Siv; Høie, Kjartan; Markhus, Maria Wik; Kjellevold, Marian; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Berle, Jan Øystein; Stormark, Kjell Morten

    2017-08-01

    Depression in the postpartum period involves feelings of sadness, anxiety and irritability, and attenuated feelings of pleasure and comfort with the infant. Even mild- to- moderate symptoms of depression seem to have an impact on caregivers affective availability and contingent responsiveness. The aim of the present study was to investigate non-depressed and sub-clinically depressed mothers interest and affective expression during contingent and non-contingent face-to-face interaction with their infant. The study utilized a double video (DV) set-up. The mother and the infant were presented with live real-time video sequences, which allowed for mutually responsive interaction between the mother and the infant (Live contingent sequences), or replay sequences where the interaction was set out of phase (Replay non-contingent sequences). The DV set-up consisted of five sequences: Live1-Replay1-Live2-Replay2-Live3. Based on their scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the mothers were divided into a non-depressed and a sub-clinically depressed group (EPDS score≥6). A three-way split-plot ANOVA showed that the sub-clinically depressed mothers displayed the same amount of positive and negative facial affect independent of the quality of the interaction with the infants. The non-depressed mothers displayed more positive facial affect during the non-contingent than the contingent interaction sequences, while there was no such effect for negative facial affect. The results indicate that sub-clinically level depressive symptoms influence the mothers' affective facial expression during early face-to-face interaction with their infants. One of the clinical implications is to consider even sub-clinical depressive symptoms as a risk factor for mother-infant relationship disturbances. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of residues of SARS-CoV nsp1 that differentially affect inhibition of gene expression and antiviral signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Andrew R; Savalia, Dhruti; Lowry, Virginia K; Farrell, Cara M; Wathelet, Marc G

    2013-01-01

    An epidemic of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) led to the identification of an associated coronavirus, SARS-CoV. This virus evades the host innate immune response in part through the expression of its non-structural protein (nsp) 1, which inhibits both host gene expression and virus- and interferon (IFN)-dependent signaling. Thus, nsp1 is a promising target for drugs, as inhibition of nsp1 would make SARS-CoV more susceptible to the host antiviral defenses. To gain a better understanding of nsp1 mode of action, we generated and analyzed 38 mutants of the SARS-CoV nsp1, targeting 62 solvent exposed residues out of the 180 amino acid protein. From this work, we identified six classes of mutants that abolished, attenuated or increased nsp1 inhibition of host gene expression and/or antiviral signaling. Each class of mutants clustered on SARS-CoV nsp1 surface and suggested nsp1 interacts with distinct host factors to exert its inhibitory activities. Identification of the nsp1 residues critical for its activities and the pathways involved in these activities should help in the design of drugs targeting nsp1. Significantly, several point mutants increased the inhibitory activity of nsp1, suggesting that coronaviruses could evolve a greater ability to evade the host response through mutations of such residues.

  18. Omission and Resupply of Nitrogen Affect Physiological and Enzymatic Activities and the Gene Expression of Eucalypt Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loane Vaz Fernandes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The mineral nutrient uptake of plants in the field occurs in pulses, due to variations in the substance concentrations at the root surface. The fluctuations in nutrient supply probably induce changes in the plant, which are to date unknown for Eucalyptus. This study evaluated these changes in plant growth, nutritional status, photosynthesis, and gene expression, which can serve as biomarkers of the nitrogen status, of four eucalypt clones exposed to N omission and resupply. A greenhouse experiment with four Eucalyptus clones was installed, and after initial growth exposed to N omission for 21 d, followed by N resupply in nutrient solution for 14 d. Nitrogen omission decreased the total N and photosynthetic pigments, net photosynthesis and photochemical dissipation, and increased enzyme activity especially in leaves and the gene expression in leaves and roots. Nitrogen resupply decreased these variations, indicating recovery. The total N concentration was highly and significantly correlated with net photosynthesis, enzyme activity, expression of genes GS2;1 and Gln1;3 in the leaves and AMT1;2 in the roots, contents of chlorophyll a and b, and photochemical energy dissipation. The enzymes GS and NR in the leaves and the genes AMT1;2, GS2;1 and Gln1;3 proved to be sensitive N indicators.

  19. Expression of an (E-β-farnesene synthase gene from Asian peppermint in tobacco affected aphid infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiudao Yu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aphids are major agricultural pests that cause significant yield losses in crop plants each year. (E-β-farnesene (EβF is the main or only component of an alarm pheromone involved in chemical communication within aphid species and particularly in the avoidance of predation. EβF also occurs in the essential oil of some plant species, and is catalyzed by EβF synthase. By using oligonucleotide primers designed from the known sequence of an EβF synthase gene from black peppermint (Mentha × piperita, two cDNA sequences, MaβFS1 and MaβFS2, were isolated from Asian peppermint (Mentha asiatica. Expression pattern analysis showed that the MaβFS1 gene exhibited higher expression in flowers than in roots, stems and leaves at the transcriptional level. Overexpression of MaβFS1 in tobacco plants resulted in emission of pure EβF ranging from 2.62 to 4.85 ng d− 1 g− 1 of fresh tissue. Tritrophic interactions involving peach aphids (Myzus persicae, and predatory lacewing (Chrysopa septempunctata larvae demonstrated that transgenic tobacco expressing MaβFS1 had lower aphid infestation. This result suggested that the EβF synthase gene from Asian peppermint could be a good candidate for genetic engineering of agriculturally important crop plants.

  20. Sodium houttuyfonate affects production of N-acyl homoserine lactone and quorum sensing-regulated genes expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqiang eWu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing (QS is a means of cell-to-cell communication that uses diffusible signaling molecules that are sensed by the population to determine population density, thus allowing co-ordinate gene regulation in response to population density. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, production of the QS signaling molecule, N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL, co-ordinates expression of key factors of pathogenesis, including biofilm formation and toxin secretion. It is predicted that the inhibition of AHL sensing would provide an effective clinical treatment to reduce the expression of virulence factors and increase the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents. We previously demonstrated that sodium houttuyfonate (SH, commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat infectious diseases, can effectively inhibit QS-regulated processes, including biofilm formation. Here, using a model system, we demonstrate that SH causes the dose-dependent inhibition of AHL production, through down-regulation of the AHL biosynthesis gene, lasI. Addition of SH also resulted in down-regulation of expression of the AHL sensor and transcriptional regulator, LasR, and inhibited the production of the QS-regulated virulence factors, pyocyanin and LasA. These results suggest that the antimicrobial activity of SH may be due to its ability to disrupt QS in P. aeruginosa.

  1. Photoperiodic regulation of the sucrose transporter StSUT4 affects the expression of circadian-regulated genes and ethylene production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela eChincinska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Several recent publications report different subcellular localisation of members of the SUT4 subfamily of sucrose transporters. The physiological function of SUT4 sucrose transporters is still not entirely clarified as down-regulation of members of the SUT4 clade had very different effects in rice, poplar and potato. Here, we provide new data on the localization and function of the Solanaceous StSUT4 protein, further elucidating involvement in the onset of flowering, tuberization and in the shade avoidance syndrome of potato plants.Induction of early flowering and tuberization in SUT4-inhibited potato plants correlates with increased sucrose export from leaves and increased sucrose and starch accumulation in terminal sink organs such as developing tubers. SUT4 does not only affect the expression of gibberellin and ethylene biosynthetic enzymes, but also the rate of ethylene synthesis in potato. In SUT4-inhibited plants, the ethylene production no longer follows a diurnal rhythm, leading to the assumption that StSUT4 controls circadian gene expression, potentially by regulating sucrose export from leaves. Furthermore, SUT4 expression affects clock-regulated genes such as StFT, StSOC1 and StCO, which might also be involved in a photoperiod-dependently controlled tuberization. A model is proposed in which StSUT4 controls a phloem-mobile signalling molecule generated in leaves which together with enhanced sucrose export affects developmental switches in apical meristems. SUT4 seems to link photoreceptor-perceived information about the light quality and day length, with phytohormone biosynthesis and the expression of circadian genes.

  2. Nicotine affects bone resorption and suppresses the expression of cathepsin K, MMP-9 and vacuolar-type H(+-ATPase d2 and actin organization in osteoclasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Tanaka

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is an important risk factor for the development of several cancers, osteoporosis, and inflammatory diseases such as periodontitis. Nicotine is one of the major components of tobacco. In previous study, we showed that nicotine inhibits mineralized nodule formation by osteoblasts, and the culture medium from osteoblasts containing nicotine and lipopolysaccharide increases osteoclast differentiation. However, the direct effect of nicotine on the differentiation and function of osteoclasts is poorly understood. Thus, we examined the direct effects of nicotine on the expression of nicotine receptors and bone resorption-related enzymes, mineral resorption, actin organization, and bone resorption using RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow cells as osteoclast precursors. Cells were cultured with 10(-5, 10(-4, or 10(-3 M nicotine and/or 50 µM α-bungarotoxin (btx, an 7 nicotine receptor antagonist, in differentiation medium containing the soluble RANKL for up 7 days. 1-5, 7, 9, and 10 nicotine receptors were expressed on RAW264.7 cells. The expression of 7 nicotine receptor was increased by the addition of nicotine. Nicotine suppressed the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase positive multinuclear osteoclasts with large nuclei(≥10 nuclei, and decreased the planar area of each cell. Nicotine decreased expression of cathepsin K, MMP-9, and V-ATPase d2. Btx inhibited nicotine effects. Nicotine increased CA II expression although decreased the expression of V-ATPase d2 and the distribution of F-actin. Nicotine suppressed the planar area of resorption pit by osteoclasts, but did not affect mineral resorption. These results suggest that nicotine increased the number of osteoclasts with small nuclei, but suppressed the number of osteoclasts with large nuclei. Moreover, nicotine reduced the planar area of resorption pit by suppressing the number of osteoclasts with large nuclei, V-ATPase d2, cathepsin K and MMP-9 expression and actin

  3. Metallothionein 2A affects the cell respiration by suppressing the expression of mitochondrial protein cytochrome c oxidase subunit II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragina, Olga; Gurjanova, Karina; Krishtal, Jekaterina; Kulp, Maria; Karro, Niina; Tõugu, Vello; Palumaa, Peep

    2015-06-01

    Metallothioneins (MT) are involved in a broad range of cellular processes and play a major role in protection of cells towards various stressors. Two functions of MTs, namely the maintaining of the homeostasis of transition metal ions and the redox balance, are directly linked to the functioning of mitochondria. Dyshomeostasis of MTs is often related with malfunctioning of mitochondria; however, the mechanism by which MTs affect the mitochondrial respiratory chain is still unknown. We demonstrated that overexpression of MT-2A in HEK cell line decreased the oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the cells. HEK cells overexpressing MT-2A demonstrated reduced oxygen consumption and lower cellular ATP levels. MT-2A did not affect the number of mitochondria, but reduced specifically the level of cytochrome c oxidase subunit II protein, which resulted in lower activity of the complex IV.

  4. Differentially expressed microRNAs and affected biological pathways revealed by modulated modularity clustering (MMC) analysis of human preeclamptic and IUGR placentas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L; Tsai, S Q; Hardison, N E; James, A H; Motsinger-Reif, A A; Thames, B; Stone, E A; Deng, C; Piedrahita, J A

    2013-07-01

    This study focuses on the implementation of modulated modularity clustering (MMC) a new cluster algorithm for the identification of molecular signatures of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and the identification of affected microRNAs Eighty-six human placentas from normal (40), growth-restricted (27), and preeclamptic (19) term pregnancies were profiled using Illumina Human-6 Beadarrays. MMC was utilized to generate modules based on similarities in placental transcriptome. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was used to predict affected microRNAs. Expression levels of these candidate microRNAs were investigated in seventy-one human term placentas as follows: control (29); IUGR (26); and preeclampsia (16). MMC identified two modules, one representing IUGR placentas and one representing preeclamptic placentas. 326 differentially expressed genes in the module representing IUGR and 889 differentially expressed genes in a module representing preeclampsia were identified. Functional analysis of molecular signatures associated with IUGR identified P13K/AKT, mTOR, p70S6K, apoptosis and IGF-1 signaling as being affected. Analysis of variance of GSEA-predicted microRNAs indicated that miR-194 was significantly down-regulated both in preeclampsia (p = 0.0001) and IUGR (p = 0.0304), and miR-149 was significantly down-regulated in preeclampsia (p = 0.0168). Implementation of MMC, allowed identification of genes disregulated in IUGR and preeclampsia. The reliability of MMC was validated by comparing to previous linear modeling analysis of preeclamptic placentas. MMC allowed the elucidation of a molecular signature associated with preeclampsia and a subset of IUGR samples. This allowed the identification of genes, pathways, and microRNAs affected in these diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Eye of the Beholder: Stage Entrance Behavior and Facial Expression Affect Continuous Quality Ratings in Music Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Waddell, G.; Williamon, A.

    2017-01-01

    Judgments of music performance quality are commonly employed in music practice, education, and research. However, previous studies have demonstrated the limited reliability of such judgments, and there is now evidence that extraneous visual, social, and other “non-musical” features can unduly influence them. The present study employed continuous measurement techniques to examine how the process of forming a music quality judgment is affected by the manipulation of temporally specific visual c...

  6. Methionine-supplemented diet affects the expression of cardiovascular disease-related genes and increases inflammatory cytokines in mice heart and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aissa, Alexandre Ferro; Amaral, Catia Lira do; Venancio, Vinicius Paula; Machado, Carla da Silva; Hernandes, Lívia Cristina; Santos, Patrick Wellington da Silva; Curi, Rui; Bianchi, Maria de Lourdes Pires; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi

    2017-01-01

    Some important environmental factors that influence the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) include tobacco, excess alcohol, and unhealthy diet. Methionine obtained from the diet participates in the synthesis of DNA, proteins, lipids and affects homocysteine levels, which is associated with the elevated risk for CVD development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the manner in which dietary methionine might affect cellular mechanisms underlying CVD occurrence. Swiss albino mice were fed either control (0.3% DL-methionine), methionine-supplemented (2% DL-methionine), or a methionine-deprived diet (0% DL-methionine) over a 10-week period. The parameters measured included plasma homocysteine concentrations, oxidative stress by reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6, as well as expression of genes associated with CVD. The levels of apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5), a regulator of plasma triglycerides, were measured. The methionine-supplemented diet increased oxidative stress by lowering the GSH/GSSG ratio in heart tissues and decreased expression of the genes Apob, Ctgf, Serpinb2, Spp1, Il1b, and Sell, but elevated expression of Thbs4, Tgfb2, Ccr1, and Vegfa. Methionine-deprived diet reduced expression of Col3a1, Cdh5, Fabp3, Bax, and Hbegf and increased expression of Sell, Ccl5, Itga2, Birc3, Msr1, Bcl2a1a, Il1r2, and Selp. Methionine-deprived diet exerted pro-inflammatory consequences as evidenced by elevated levels of cytokines IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6 noted in liver. Methionine-supplemented diet increased hepatic IL-6 and cardiac TNF-α. Both methionine supplementation and deprivation lowered hepatic levels of APOA5. In conclusion, data demonstrated that a methionine-supplemented diet modulated important biological processes associated with high risk of CVD development.

  7. RNase E affects the expression of the acyl-homoserine lactone synthase gene sinI in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgardt, Kathrin; Charoenpanich, Pornsri; McIntosh, Matthew; Schikora, Adam; Stein, Elke; Thalmann, Sebastian; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Klug, Gabriele; Becker, Anke; Evguenieva-Hackenberg, Elena

    2014-04-01

    Quorum sensing of Sinorhizobium meliloti relies on N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) as autoinducers. AHL production increases at high population density, and this depends on the AHL synthase SinI and two transcriptional regulators, SinR and ExpR. Our study demonstrates that ectopic expression of the gene rne, coding for RNase E, an endoribonuclease that is probably essential for growth, prevents the accumulation of AHLs at detectable levels. The ectopic rne expression led to a higher level of rne mRNA and a lower level of sinI mRNA independently of the presence of ExpR, the AHL receptor, and AHLs. In line with this, IPTG (isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside)-induced overexpression of rne resulted in a shorter half-life of sinI mRNA and a strong reduction of AHL accumulation. Moreover, using translational sinI-egfp fusions, we found that sinI expression is specifically decreased upon induced overexpression of rne, independently of the presence of the global posttranscriptional regulator Hfq. The 28-nucleotide 5' untranslated region (UTR) of sinI mRNA was sufficient for this effect. Random amplification of 5' cDNA ends (5'-RACE) analyses revealed a potential RNase E cleavage site at position +24 between the Shine-Dalgarno site and the translation start site. We postulate therefore that RNase E-dependent degradation of sinI mRNA from the 5' end is one of the steps mediating a high turnover of sinI mRNA, which allows the Sin quorum-sensing system to respond rapidly to changes in transcriptional control of AHL production.

  8. Differential expression of microRNA501-5p affects the aggressiveness of clear cell renal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangolini, Alessandra; Bonon, Anna; Volinia, Stefano; Lanza, Giovanni; Gambari, Roberto; Pinton, Paolo; Russo, Gian Rosario; del Senno, Laura; Dell’Atti, Lucio; Aguiari, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is a common neoplasia of the adult kidney that accounts for about 3% of adult malignancies. Clear cell renal carcinoma is the most frequent subtype of kidney cancer and 20–40% of patients develop metastases. The absence of appropriate biomarkers complicates diagnosis and prognosis of this disease. In this regard, small noncoding RNAs (microRNAs), which are mutated in several neoplastic diseases including kidney carcinoma, may be optimal candidates as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of this kind of cancer. Here we show that patients with clear cell kidney carcinoma that express low levels of miR501-5p exhibited a good prognosis compared with patients with unchanged or high levels of this microRNA. Consistently, in kidney carcinoma cells the downregulation of miR501-5p induced an increased caspase-3 activity, p53 expression as well as decreased mTOR activation, leading to stimulation of the apoptotic pathway. Conversely, miR501-5p upregulation enhanced the activity of mTOR and promoted both cell proliferation and survival. These biological processes occurred through p53 inactivation by proteasome degradation in a mechanism involving MDM2-mediated p53 ubiquitination. Our results support a role for miR501-5p in balancing apoptosis and cell survival in clear cell renal carcinoma. In particular, the downregulation of microRNA501-5p promotes a good prognosis, while its upregulation contributes to a poor prognosis, in particular, if associated with p53 and MDM2 overexpression and mTOR activation. Thus, the expression of miR501-5p is a possible biomarker for the prognosis of clear cell renal carcinoma. PMID:25426415

  9. Expression-associated polymorphisms of CAV1-CAV2 affect intraocular pressure and high-tension glaucoma risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sewon; Kim, Kyunglan; Heo, Dong Won; Kim, Jong-Sung; Park, Chan Kee; Kim, Chang-sik; Kang, Changwon

    2015-01-01

    The human CAV1-CAV2 locus has been associated with susceptibility to primary open-angle glaucoma in four studies of Caucasian, Chinese, and Pakistani populations, although not in several other studies of non-Korean populations. In this study with Korean participants, the CAV1-CAV2 locus was investigated for associations with susceptibility to primary open-angle glaucoma accompanied by elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), namely, high-tension glaucoma (HTG), as well as with IOP elevation, which is a strong risk factor for glaucoma. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 1,161 Korean participants including 229 patients with HTG and 932 healthy controls and statistically examined for association with HTG susceptibility and IOP. One SNP was rs4236601 G>A, which had been reported in the original study, and the other SNP was rs17588172 T>G, which was perfectly correlated (r2=1) with another reported SNP rs1052990. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis was performed using GENe Expression VARiation (Genevar) data. Both SNPs were associated with HTG susceptibility, but the rs4236601 association disappeared when adjusted for the rs17588172 genotype and not vice versa. The minor allele G of rs17588172 was associated significantly with 1.5-fold increased susceptibility to HTG (p=0.0069) and marginally with IOP elevation (p=0.043) versus the major allele T. This minor allele was also associated with decreased CAV1 and CAV2 mRNA in skin and adipose according to the Genevar eQTL analysis. The minor allele G of rs17588172 in the CAV1-CAV2 locus is associated with decreased expression of CAV1 and CAV2 in some tissues, marginally with IOP elevation, and consequently with increased susceptibility to HTG.

  10. Chitooligosaccharide ameliorates diet-induced obesity in mice and affects adipose gene expression involved in adipogenesis and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Hye; Yang, Hyun Pil; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2012-03-01

    Chitooligosaccharide (CO) has been reported to have potential antiobestic effects in a few studies, but the antiobesity properties of CO and its related mechanisms in models of dietary obesity remain unclear. We investigated the effect of CO on body weight gain, size of adipocytes, adipokines, and lipid profiles in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice and on the gene expression in adipose tissue using a complementary DNA microarray approach to test the hypothesis that CO supplementation would alleviate HF diet-induced obesity by the alteration of adipose tissue-specific gene expression. Male C57BL/6N mice were fed a normal diet (control), HF diet, or CO-supplemented HF diet (1% or 3%) for 5 months. Compared with the HF diet mice, mice fed the 3% CO-supplemented diet gained 15% less weight but did not display any change in food and energy intake. Chitooligosaccharide supplementation markedly improved serum and hepatic lipid profiles. Histologic examination showed that epididymal adipocyte size was smaller in mice fed the HF + 3% CO. Microarray analysis showed that dietary CO supplementation modulated adipogenesis-related genes such as matrix metallopeptidases 3, 12, 13, and 14; tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1; and cathepsin k in the adipose tissues. Twenty-five percent of the CO-responsive genes identified are involved in immune responses including the inflammatory response and cytokine production. These results suggest that CO supplementation may help ameliorate HF diet-induced weight gain and improve serum and liver lipid profile abnormalities, which are associated, at least in part, with altered adipose tissue gene expression involved in adipogenesis and inflammation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Epilepsy-causing sequence variations in SIK1 disrupt synaptic activity response gene expression and affect neuronal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pröschel, Christoph; Hansen, Jeanne N; Ali, Adil; Tuttle, Emily; Lacagnina, Michelle; Buscaglia, Georgia; Halterman, Marc W; Paciorkowski, Alex R

    2017-02-01

    SIK1 syndrome is a newly described developmental epilepsy disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the salt-inducible kinase SIK1. To better understand the pathophysiology of SIK1 syndrome, we studied the effects of SIK1 pathogenic sequence variations in human neurons. Primary human fetal cortical neurons were transfected with a lentiviral vector to overexpress wild-type and mutant SIK1 protein. We evaluated the transcriptional activity of known downstream gene targets in neurons expressing mutant SIK1 compared with wild type. We then assayed neuronal morphology by measuring neurite length, number and branching. Truncating SIK1 sequence variations were associated with abnormal MEF2C transcriptional activity and decreased MEF2C protein levels. Epilepsy-causing SIK1 sequence variations were associated with significantly decreased expression of ARC (activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated) and other synaptic activity response element genes. Assay of mRNA levels for other MEF2C target genes NR4A1 (Nur77) and NRG1, found significantly, decreased the expression of these genes as well. The missense p.(Pro287Thr) SIK1 sequence variation was associated with abnormal neuronal morphology, with significant decreases in mean neurite length, mean number of neurites and a significant increase in proximal branches compared with wild type. Epilepsy-causing SIK1 sequence variations resulted in abnormalities in the MEF2C-ARC pathway of neuronal development and synapse activity response. This work provides the first insights into the mechanisms of pathogenesis in SIK1 syndrome, and extends the ARX-MEF2C pathway in the pathogenesis of developmental epilepsy.

  12. Affected pathways and transcriptional regulators in gene expression response to an ultra-marathon trail: Global and independent activity approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Maqueda

    Full Text Available Gene expression (GE analyses on blood samples from marathon and half-marathon runners have reported significant impacts on the immune and inflammatory systems. An ultra-marathon trail (UMT represents a greater effort due to its more testing conditions. For the first time, we report the genome-wide GE profiling in a group of 16 runners participating in an 82 km UMT competition. We quantified their differential GE profile before and after the race using HuGene2.0st microarrays (Affymetrix Inc., California, US. The results obtained were decomposed by means of an independent component analysis (ICA targeting independent expression modes. We observed significant differences in the expression levels of 5,084 protein coding genes resulting in an overrepresentation of 14% of the human biological pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. These were mainly clustered on terms related with protein synthesis repression, altered immune system and infectious diseases related mechanisms. In a second analysis, 27 out of the 196 transcriptional regulators (TRs included in the Open Regulatory Annotation database were overrepresented. Among these TRs, we identified transcription factors from the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF family EPAS1 (p< 0.01 and HIF1A (p<0.001, and others jointly described in the gluconeogenesis program such as HNF4 (p< 0.001, EGR1 (p<0.001, CEBPA (p< 0.001 and a highly specific TR, YY1 (p<0.01. The five independent components, obtained from ICA, further revealed a down-regulation of 10 genes distributed in the complex I, III and V from the electron transport chain. This mitochondrial activity reduction is compatible with HIF-1 system activation. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF pathway, known to be regulated by HIF, also emerged (p<0.05. Additionally, and related to the brain rewarding circuit, the endocannabinoid signalling pathway was overrepresented (p<0.05.

  13. Gene expression noise in spatial patterning: hunchback promoter structure affects noise amplitude and distribution in Drosophila segmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Holloway

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Positional information in developing embryos is specified by spatial gradients of transcriptional regulators. One of the classic systems for studying this is the activation of the hunchback (hb gene in early fruit fly (Drosophila segmentation by the maternally-derived gradient of the Bicoid (Bcd protein. Gene regulation is subject to intrinsic noise which can produce variable expression. This variability must be constrained in the highly reproducible and coordinated events of development. We identify means by which noise is controlled during gene expression by characterizing the dependence of hb mRNA and protein output noise on hb promoter structure and transcriptional dynamics. We use a stochastic model of the hb promoter in which the number and strength of Bcd and Hb (self-regulatory binding sites can be varied. Model parameters are fit to data from WT embryos, the self-regulation mutant hb(14F, and lacZ reporter constructs using different portions of the hb promoter. We have corroborated model noise predictions experimentally. The results indicate that WT (self-regulatory Hb output noise is predominantly dependent on the transcription and translation dynamics of its own expression, rather than on Bcd fluctuations. The constructs and mutant, which lack self-regulation, indicate that the multiple Bcd binding sites in the hb promoter (and their strengths also play a role in buffering noise. The model is robust to the variation in Bcd binding site number across a number of fly species. This study identifies particular ways in which promoter structure and regulatory dynamics reduce hb output noise. Insofar as many of these are common features of genes (e.g. multiple regulatory sites, cooperativity, self-feedback, the current results contribute to the general understanding of the reproducibility and determinacy of spatial patterning in early development.

  14. Dietary administration of microalgae Navicula sp. affects immune status and gene expression of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Guardiola, Francisco; Rojas, Maurilia; Ascencio-Valle, Felipe; Esteban, María Ángeles

    2013-09-01

    Effects of silage microalgae enriched with a probiotic and lyophilized microalgae were evaluated on main immune parameters and different gene expression of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). A total of 60 seabream were grouped into 3 treatment diets which were a control diet (commercial diet) without microalgae (C), commercial diet supplemented with silage microalgae Navicula sp. plus Lactobacillus sakei 5-4 (10(6) CFU g(-1)) (SM), and commercial diet supplemented with lyophilized microalgae (LM) for 4 weeks. Generally, the results showed a significant increase in the immune parameters, principally in leucocyte peroxidase, phagocytosis and complement activities in fish fed with SM diet compared to control group. About the gene expression in head-kidney, transcript levels (Interleukin-8, Interleukin-1β and β-defensin) were upregulated in fish fed with SM after 4 weeks of treatments. However, the gene expression was upregulated in intestine from fish fed with LM with significant difference in transferrin and cyclooxygenase 2 gene at 2 weeks, and in occludin, transferrin, interleukin-8 and interleukin-1β at 4 weeks. Finally, about the digestive enzymes, LM diet caused an upregulated of α-amylase and alkaline phosphatase genes at 2 weeks; however SM diet caused an upregulated trypsin gene at 4 weeks. SM diet a higher enhancing effect on gilthead seabream immune parameters than that observed when using LM. Furthermore, dietary administration of microalgae Navicula sp. provokes upregulation of several genes in the gut that correlates with slight inflammation. Further studies are needed to know if this diatom could be useful for administering as diet supplement for farmed fish. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Green tea extract suppresses adiposity and affects the expression of lipid metabolism genes in diet-induced obese zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasumura Takahiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral fat accumulation is one of the most important predictors of mortality in obese populations. Administration of green tea extract (GTE can reduce body fat and reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases in mammals. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of GTE on adiposity in diet-induced obese (DIO zebrafish. Methods Zebrafish at 3.5 to 4.5 months post-fertilization were allocated to four groups: non-DIO, DIO, DIO + 0.0025%GTE, and DIO + 0.0050%GTE. The non-DIO group was fed freshly hatched Artemia once daily (5 mg cysts/fish daily for 40 days. Zebrafish in the three DIO groups were fed freshly hatched Artemia three times daily (60 mg cysts/fish daily. Zebrafish in the DIO + 0.0025%GTE and DIO + 0.0050%GTE groups were exposed to GTE after the start of feeding three times daily for 40 days. Results Three-dimensional microcomputed tomography analysis showed that GTE exposure significantly decreased the volume of visceral but not subcutaneous fat tissue in DIO zebrafish. GTE exposure increased hepatic expression of the lipid catabolism genes ACOX1 (acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1, palmitoyl, ACADM (acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, c-4 to c-12 straight chain, and PPARA (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. GTE exposure also significantly decreased the visceral fat expression of SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3b which inhibits leptin signaling. Conclusions The present results are consistent with those seen in mammals treated with GTE, supporting the validity of studying the effects of GTE in DIO zebrafish. Our results suggest that GTE exerts beneficial effects on adiposity, possibly by altering the expression of lipid catabolism genes and SOCS3.

  16. A novel RNA binding protein affects rbcL gene expression and is specific to bundle sheath chloroplasts in C4 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Shaun M; Patel, Minesh; Yerramsetty, Pradeep; Mure, Christopher M; Zielinski, Amy M; Bruenn, Jeremy A; Berry, James O

    2013-09-22

    Plants that utilize the highly efficient C4 pathway of photosynthesis typically possess kranz-type leaf anatomy that consists of two morphologically and functionally distinct photosynthetic cell types, the bundle sheath (BS) and mesophyll (M) cells. These two cell types differentially express many genes that are required for C4 capability and function. In mature C4 leaves, the plastidic rbcL gene, encoding the large subunit of the primary CO2 fixation enzyme Rubisco, is expressed specifically within BS cells. Numerous studies have demonstrated that BS-specific rbcL gene expression is regulated predominantly at post-transcriptional levels, through the control of translation and mRNA stability. The identification of regulatory factors associated with C4 patterns of rbcL gene expression has been an elusive goal for many years. RLSB, encoded by the nuclear RLSB gene, is an S1-domain RNA binding protein purified from C4 chloroplasts based on its specific binding to plastid-encoded rbcL mRNA in vitro. Co-localized with LSU to chloroplasts, RLSB is highly conserved across many plant species. Most significantly, RLSB localizes specifically to leaf bundle sheath (BS) cells in C4 plants. Comparative analysis using maize (C4) and Arabidopsis (C3) reveals its tight association with rbcL gene expression in both plants. Reduced RLSB expression (through insertion mutation or RNA silencing, respectively) led to reductions in rbcL mRNA accumulation and LSU production. Additional developmental effects, such as virescent/yellow leaves, were likely associated with decreased photosynthetic function and disruption of associated signaling networks. Reductions in RLSB expression, due to insertion mutation or gene silencing, are strictly correlated with reductions in rbcL gene expression in both maize and Arabidopsis. In both plants, accumulation of rbcL mRNA as well as synthesis of LSU protein were affected. These findings suggest that specific accumulation and binding of the RLSB binding

  17. Encouraging sustainability oriented change through social media : A case study of GreenhackGBG

    OpenAIRE

    Kronström, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    How a sustainability-oriented campaign can use social media to encourage citizens to make change towards more sustainable lifestyles is the outline of this thesis. The studied case is GreenhackGBG, a sustainability project managed by the city of Gothenburg which strives to affect citizens to change practices in their everyday life. The focus of this thesis is to see how the communication project utilizes social media as a communication tool. Since the role of social media in society constantl...

  18. MicroRNA-137 Inhibits EFNB2 Expression Affected by a Genetic Variant and Is Expressed Aberrantly in Peripheral Blood of Schizophrenia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of endogenous and non-coding single-stranded RNAs of approximately 22 nucleotides, many of which are evolutionarily conserved. Genome-wide association studies have identified a robust statistical association between the MIR137 gene and schizophrenia in Europeans, which was replicated in the Han Chinese population in a case-control study. In the previous study, we provided evidence for a significant association between the EFNB2 gene and schizophrenia in Han Chinese subjects. In the current study, we utilized computational analysis, vector construction of point mutations, luciferase reporter assays and gene expression assays including RT-qPCR and western blotting methods to investigate miR-137 directly targeting EFNB2 gene and explore the reversal effect of a genetic variant of SNP rs550067317 in the putative seed-pair region of EFNB2 3′-UTR. We also found that miR-137 could be detected in the peripheral blood of a cohort of first-onset schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, and the area under curve was 0.795 (95% confidence interval 0.700–0.890, which is a middle diagnostic value for disease, suggesting that it might be valuable for diagnosing schizophrenia. In summary, this study would improve our understanding of the role of miR-137 in schizophrenia-associated signaling pathways and identify the genetic basis of rs550067317 for schizophrenia. Furthermore, we provided new evidence for the involvement of miR-137 in the etiology and diagnosis of schizophrenia, which might contribute to the discovery of new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for the disease.

  19. A Transgenic Transcription Factor (TaDREB3) in Barley Affects the Expression of MicroRNAs and Other Small Non-Coding RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberg, Michael; Shi, Bu-Jun; Gustafson, Perry; Langridge, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs), microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and other functional non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) are important gene regulators. Comparison of sRNA expression profiles between transgenic barley over-expressing a drought tolerant TF (TaDREB3) and non-transgenic control barley revealed many group-specific sRNAs. In addition, 42% of the shared sRNAs were differentially expressed between the two groups (|log2| >1). Furthermore, TaDREB3-derived sRNAs were only detected in transgenic barley despite the existence of homologous genes in non-transgenic barley. These results demonstrate that the TF strongly affects the expression of sRNAs and siRNAs could in turn affect the TF stability. The TF also affects size distribution and abundance of sRNAs including miRNAs. About half of the sRNAs in each group were derived from chloroplast. A sRNA derived from tRNA-His(GUG) encoded by the chloroplast genome is the most abundant sRNA, accounting for 42.2% of the total sRNAs in transgenic barley and 28.9% in non-transgenic barley. This sRNA, which targets a gene (TC245676) involved in biological processes, was only present in barley leaves but not roots. 124 and 136 miRNAs were detected in transgenic and non-transgenic barley, respectively. miR156 was the most abundant miRNA and up-regulated in transgenic barley, while miR168 was the most abundant miRNA and up-regulated in non-transgenic barley. Eight out of 20 predicted novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between the two groups. All the predicted novel miRNA targets were validated using a degradome library. Our data provide an insight into the effect of TF on the expression of sRNAs in barley. PMID:22870277

  20. DMSA-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Greatly Affect the Expression of Genes Coding Cysteine-Rich Proteins by Their DMSA Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Xin; Zou, Jinglu; Liu, Yingxun; Wang, Jinke

    2015-10-19

    The dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) was widely used to coat iron oxide nanoparticles (FeNPs); however, its intracellular cytotoxicity remains to be adequately elucidated. This study analyzed the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in four mammalian cells treated by a DMSA-coated magnetite FeNP at various doses at different times. The results revealed that about one-fourth of DEGs coded cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) in all cells under each treatment, indicating that the nanoparticles greatly affected the expressions of CRP-coding genes. Additionally, about 26% of CRP-coding DEGs were enzyme genes in all cells, indicating that the nanoparticles greatly affected the expression of enzyme genes. Further experiments with the nanoparticles and a polyethylenimine (PEI)-coated magnetite FeNP revealed that the effect mainly resulted from DMSA carried into cells by the nanoparticles. This study thus first reported the cytotoxicity of DMSA at the gene transcription level as coating molecules of FeNPs. This study provides new insight into the molecular mechanism by which the DMSA-coated nanoparticles resulted in the transcriptional changes of many CRP-coding genes in cells. This study draws attention toward the intracellular cytotoxicity of DMSA as a coating molecule of nanoparticles, which has very low toxicity as an orally administered antidote due to its extracellular distribution.

  1. Endurance and Resistance Training Affect High Fat Diet-Induced Increase of Ceramides, Inflammasome Expression, and Systemic Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Mardare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effects of differentiated exercise regimes on high fat-induced metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Mice were fed a standard diet (ST or a high fat diet (HFD and subjected to regular endurance training (ET or resistance training (RT. After 10 weeks body weight, glucose tolerance, fatty acids (FAs, circulating ceramides, cytokines, and immunological mediators were determined. The HFD induced a significant increase in body weight and a disturbed glucose tolerance (p<0.05. An increase of plasma FA, ceramides, and inflammatory mediators in adipose tissue and serum was found (p<0.05. Both endurance and resistance training decreased body weight (p<0.05 and reduced serum ceramides (p<0.005. While RT attenuated the increase of NLRP-3 (RT expression in adipose tissue, ET was effective in reducing TNF-α and IL-18 expression. Furthermore, ET reduced levels of MIP-1γ, while RT decreased levels of IL-18, MIP-1γ, Timp-1, and CD40 in serum (p<0.001, respectively. Although both exercise regimes improved glucose tolerance (p<0.001, ET was more effective than RT. These results suggest that exercise improves HFD-induced complications possibly through a reduction of ceramides, the reduction of inflammasome activation in adipose tissues, and a systemic downregulation of inflammatory cytokines.

  2. Altered Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in the Maize Lc-Expressed Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Affects Storage Root Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxia; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Min; Fan, Weijuan; Firon, Nurit; Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Yuan, Ling; Zhang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    There is no direct evidence of the effect of lignin metabolism on early storage root development in sweet potato. In this study, we found that heterologous expression of the maize leaf color (Lc) gene in sweet potato increased anthocyanin pigment accumulation in the whole plant and resulted in reduced size with an increased length/width ratio, low yield and less starch content in the early storage roots. RT-PCR analysis revealed dramatic up-regulation of the genes involved in the lignin biosynthesis pathway in developing storage roots, leading to greater lignin content in the Lc transgenic lines, compared to the wild type. This was also evidenced by the enhanced lignification of vascular cells in the early storage roots. Furthermore, increased expression of the β-amylase gene in leaves and storage roots also accelerated starch degradation and increased the sugar use efficiency, providing more energy and carbohydrate sources for lignin biosynthesis in the Lc transgenic sweet potato. Lesser starch accumulation was observed in the developing storage roots at the initiation stage in the Lc plants. Our study provides experimental evidence of the basic carbohydrate metabolism underlying the development of storage roots, which is the transformation of lignin biosynthesis to starch biosynthesis. PMID:26727353

  3. Antifungal genes expressed in transgenic pea (Pisum sativum L.) do not affect root colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, Jagroop Gill; Jacobsen, Hans-Jörg; Cahill, James F; Hall, Linda M

    2017-06-12

    Genetically modified crops have raised concerns about unintended consequences on non-target organisms including beneficial soil associates. Pea transformed with four antifungal genes 1-3 β glucanase, endochitinase, polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins, and stilbene synthase is currently under field-testing for efficacy against fungal diseases in Canada. Transgenes had lower expression in the roots than leaves in greenhouse experiment. To determine the impact of disease-tolerant pea or gene products on colonization by non-target arbuscular mycorrhizae and nodulation by rhizobium, a field trial was established. Transgene insertion, as single gene or stacked genes, did not alter root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF) or root nodulation by rhizobium inoculation in the field. We found no effect of transgenes on the plant growth and performance although, having a dual inoculant with both AMF and rhizobium yielded higher fresh weight shoot-to-root ratio in all the lines tested. This initial risk assessment of transgenic peas expressing antifungal genes showed no deleterious effect on non-target organisms.

  4. LOV Histidine Kinase Modulates the General Stress Response System and Affects the virB Operon Expression in Brucella abortus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Sycz

    Full Text Available Brucella is the causative agent of the zoonotic disease brucellosis, and its success as an intracellular pathogen relies on its ability to adapt to the harsh environmental conditions that it encounters inside the host. The Brucella genome encodes a sensor histidine kinase containing a LOV domain upstream from the kinase, LOVHK, which plays an important role in light-regulated Brucella virulence. In this report we study the intracellular signaling pathway initiated by the light sensor LOVHK using an integrated biochemical and genetic approach. From results of bacterial two-hybrid assays and phosphotransfer experiments we demonstrate that LOVHK functionally interacts with two response regulators: PhyR and LovR, constituting a functional two-component signal-transduction system. LOVHK contributes to the activation of the General Stress Response (GSR system in Brucella via PhyR, while LovR is proposed to be a phosphate-sink for LOVHK, decreasing its phosphorylation state. We also show that in the absence of LOVHK the expression of the virB operon is down-regulated. In conclusion, our results suggest that LOVHK positively regulates the GSR system in vivo, and has an effect on the expression of the virB operon. The proposed regulatory network suggests a similar role for LOVHK in other microorganisms.

  5. Gene Expression Profiling Identifies Important Genes Affected by R2 Compound Disrupting FAK and P53 Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita M. Golubovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK is a non-receptor kinase that plays an important role in many cellular processes: adhesion, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis and survival. Recently, we have shown that Roslin 2 or R2 (1-benzyl-15,3,5,7-tetraazatricyclo[3.3.1.1~3,7~]decane compound disrupts FAK and p53 proteins, activates p53 transcriptional activity, and blocks tumor growth. In this report we performed a microarray gene expression analysis of R2-treated HCT116 p53+/+ and p53−/− cells and detected 1484 genes that were significantly up- or down-regulated (p < 0.05 in HCT116 p53+/+ cells but not in p53−/− cells. Among up-regulated genes in HCT p53+/+ cells we detected critical p53 targets: Mdm-2, Noxa-1, and RIP1. Among down-regulated genes, Met, PLK2, KIF14, BIRC2 and other genes were identified. In addition, a combination of R2 compound with M13 compound that disrupts FAK and Mmd-2 complex or R2 and Nutlin-1 that disrupts Mdm-2 and p53 decreased clonogenicity of HCT116 p53+/+ colon cancer cells more significantly than each agent alone in a p53-dependent manner. Thus, the report detects gene expression profile in response to R2 treatment and demonstrates that the combination of drugs targeting FAK, Mdm-2, and p53 can be a novel therapy approach.

  6. Feeding a high dosage of zinc oxide affects suppressor of cytokine gene expression in Salmonella Typhimurium infected piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Jasper N; Brockmann, Gudrun A; Kreuzer-Redmer, Susanne

    2016-10-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins play an important role in the regulation of the immune response by inhibiting cytokines. Here we investigated the effects of zinc oxide fed at three different dosages (LZN=57ppm, MZN=167ppm, HZN=2425ppm) to weaned piglets that were or were not orally infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT 104. We detected higher expression of SOCS3 six days after weaning for all analyzed piglets, regardless of the infection or the zinc feeding, suggesting a stress induced immune response. Whereas, SOCS1 showed only higher transcript amounts in S. Typhimurium infected piglets, especially the LZN group. This might indicate an infection regulating effect of zinc oxide in the infection model. After 42days of infection, the expression of SOCS2, SOCS4, and SOCS7 was increased only in animals fed the highest concentrations of zinc oxide, while non-infected piglets at the age of 56days showed no regulation for these genes. The up-regulation of SOCS genes in the mesenteric lymph nodes of piglets fed a diet with a very high concentration of zinc over 6 weeks suggests that such treatments may impair the immune response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sexual dimorphism of liver metastasis by murine pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is affected by expression of complement C5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Tanupriya; Kobayashi, Shinta; da Silva, Edaise; Clausen, Richard; Chan, Chang; Vosburgh, Evan; Tang, Laura H; Levine, Arnold J; Harris, Chris R

    2016-05-24

    In a mouse model for neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas (PanNETs), liver metastasis occurred at a higher frequency in males. Male mice also had higher serum and intratumoral levels of the innate immunity protein complement C5. In mice that lost the ability to express complement C5, there was a lower frequency of metastasis, and males no longer had a higher frequency of metastasis than females. Treatment with PMX53, a small molecule antagonist of C5aR1/CD88, the receptor for complement C5a, also reduced metastasis. Mice lacking a functional gene for complement C5 had smaller primary tumors, which were less invasive and lacked the CD68+ macrophages that have previously been associated with metastasis in this type of tumor. This is the first report of a gene that causes sexual dimorphism of metastasis in a mouse model. In the human disease, which also shows sexual dimorphism for metastasis, clinically advanced tumors expressed more complement C5 than less advanced tumors.

  8. Haste makes waste: accelerated molt adversely affects the expression of melanin-based and depigmented plumage ornaments in house sparrows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor I Vágási

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many animals display colorful signals in their integument which convey information about the quality of their bearer. Theoretically, these ornaments incur differential production and/or maintenance costs that enforce their honesty. However, the proximate mechanisms of production costs are poorly understood and contentious in cases of non-carotenoid-based plumage ornaments like the melanin-based badge and depigmented white wing-bar in house sparrows Passer domesticus. Costly life-history events are adaptively separated in time, thus, when reproduction is extended, the time available for molt is curtailed and, in turn, molt rate is accelerated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We experimentally accelerated the molt rate by shortening the photoperiod in order to test whether this environmental constraint is mirrored in the expression of plumage ornaments. Sparrows which had undergone an accelerated molt developed smaller badges and less bright wing-bars compared to conspecifics that molted at a natural rate being held at natural-like photoperiod. There was no difference in the brightness of the badge or the size of the wing-bar. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that the time available for molt and thus the rate at which molt occurs may constrain the expression of melanin-based and depigmented plumage advertisements. This mechanism may lead to the evolution of honest signaling if the onset of molt is condition-dependent through the timing of and/or trade-off between breeding and molt.

  9. Haste makes waste: accelerated molt adversely affects the expression of melanin-based and depigmented plumage ornaments in house sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vágási, Csongor I; Pap, Péter L; Barta, Zoltán

    2010-12-03

    Many animals display colorful signals in their integument which convey information about the quality of their bearer. Theoretically, these ornaments incur differential production and/or maintenance costs that enforce their honesty. However, the proximate mechanisms of production costs are poorly understood and contentious in cases of non-carotenoid-based plumage ornaments like the melanin-based badge and depigmented white wing-bar in house sparrows Passer domesticus. Costly life-history events are adaptively separated in time, thus, when reproduction is extended, the time available for molt is curtailed and, in turn, molt rate is accelerated. We experimentally accelerated the molt rate by shortening the photoperiod in order to test whether this environmental constraint is mirrored in the expression of plumage ornaments. Sparrows which had undergone an accelerated molt developed smaller badges and less bright wing-bars compared to conspecifics that molted at a natural rate being held at natural-like photoperiod. There was no difference in the brightness of the badge or the size of the wing-bar. These results indicate that the time available for molt and thus the rate at which molt occurs may constrain the expression of melanin-based and depigmented plumage advertisements. This mechanism may lead to the evolution of honest signaling if the onset of molt is condition-dependent through the timing of and/or trade-off between breeding and molt.

  10. Roosters affected by epididymal lithiasis present local alteration in vitamin D3, testosterone and estradiol levels as well as estrogen receptor 2 (beta) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, André G; Dornas, Rubem A P; Praes, Lílian C; Hess, Rex A; Mahecha, Germán A B; Oliveira, Cleida A

    2011-09-01

    Epididymal lithiasis is a reproductive dysfunction of roosters that is associated with loss of fertility and is characterized by the formation of calcium stones in the lumen of the efferent ductules of the epididymal region. The efferent ductules of birds are responsible for the reabsorption of the fluid coming from the testis as well as luminal calcium. It has been hypothesized that the epididymal stone formation may be related to the impairment of local fluid or calcium homeostasis, which depends on hormones such as estradiol (E(2)). Therefore, this study aimed to investigate possible alterations in the expression of ERα (ESR1) and ERβ (ESR2) in the epididymal region of roosters affected by epididymal lithiasis. The study was performed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting assays. In addition, the concentrations of E(2), vitamin D3, and testosterone, which are also key hormones in maintenance of calcium homeostasis, were determined in the plasma and epididymal region, by ELISA. It was observed that ESR2 expression is increased in all segments of the epididymal region of affected roosters, whereas ESR1 levels are not altered. Moreover, the hormone concentration profiles were changed, as in the epididymal region of roosters with lithiasis the E(2) levels were increased and vitamin D3 as well as testosterone concentrations were significantly decreased. These results suggest that a hormonal imbalance may be involved with the origin and progression of the epididymal lithiasis, possibly by affecting the local fluid or calcium homeostasis.

  11. CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells expressing FoxP3 in Icelandic horses affected with insect bite hypersensitivity.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamza Eman; Steinbach Falko; Marti Eliane

    2011-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an IgE mediated dermatitis caused by bites of midges from the genus Culicoides. We have shown previously that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from IBH affected horses produce higher levels of IL 4 and lower levels of IL 10 and TGF ß1 than those from healthy horses suggesting that IBH is associated with a reduced regulatory immune response. FoxP3 is a crucial marker of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Here we have determined the proportion of CD4(+)CD...

  12. Character and Temperament Dimensions in Subjects with Depressive Disorder: Impact of the Affective State on Their Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajraktarov, Stojan; Novotni, Antoni; Arsova, Slavica; Gudeva-Nikovska, Dance; Vujovik, Viktorija

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The depression is a cross-cultural condition that occurs in all cultures and within all nations with certain specificities, even though there are some differences in its manifestation. The hereditary load is of major importance, but also the individual personality factors, in the form of risk factors, are associated with the occurrence of depression. Personality characteristics have a significant impact on the occurrence of the recurrent depressive disorder and the outcome of the treatment as well. AIM: To identify the specific personality traits in people with the recurrent depressive disorder and the impact of the affective state on them. METHODS: Three questionnaires were used: a general questionnaire, Beck’s scale of depressive symptoms, and TCI-R (inventory for temperament and character). RESULTS: The most indicative differences in the dimensions are found in the Harm avoidance and the Self-direction dimensions, and most variable dimensions dependent on effective state are Novelty seeking and Reward dependence. CONCLUSION: The people with the recurrent depressive disorder have a different profile of personality traits (temperament and character) compared with the control group, and their characteristics depend on their current affective state. PMID:28293319

  13. Postnatal exposure to flutamide affects CDH1 and CTNNB1 gene expression in adult pig epididymis and prostate and alters metabolism of testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorowska, E; Zarzycka, M; Chojnacka, K; Bilinska, B; Hejmej, A

    2014-03-01

    In both epididymis and prostate the dynamic cross-talk between the cells is hormonally regulated and, in part, through direct cell-to-cell interactions. Functionality of the male reproductive organs may be affected by exposure to specific chemicals, so-called 'reprotoxicants'. In this study we tested whether early postnatal and prepubertal exposure to anti-androgen flutamide altered the expression of adherens junction genes encoding E-cadherin (CDH1) and β-catenin (CTNNB1) in adult pig epididymis and prostate. In addition, the expression of mRNAs and proteins for 5α-reductase (ST5AR2) and aromatase (CYP19A1) were examined to show whether flutamide alters metabolism of testosterone. Thus, flutamide was injected into male piglets between Days 2 and 10 and between Days 90 and 98 postnatally (PD2 and PD90; 50 mg/kg bw), tissues that were obtained on postnatal Day 270. To assess the expression of the genes and proteins, real-time RT-PCR and Western blot were performed respectively. Moreover, adherens junction proteins were localized by immunohistochemistry. In response to flutamide, CDH1 and CTNNB1 expressions were down-regulated along the epididymis, mostly in PD2 group (p < 0.001, p < 0.01). In the prostate, CDH1 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly down-regulated (p < 0.01), whereas CTNNB1 mRNA was slightly up-regulated in both flutamide-treated groups. CTNNB1 protein level was markedly elevated in both PD2 (p < 0.001) and PD90 (p < 0.01) groups. In the epididymis, the expression of ST5AR2 and CYP19A1 was down- and up-regulated, respectively (p < 0.05), whereas in the prostate evident decrease in CYP19A1 expression (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, p < 0.05) was demonstrated. In both tissues, membranous immunolocalization of CTNNB1 suggests its involvement in cell-cell adhesion. Overall, flutamide administration resulted in suppression of androgen action in the epididymis and prostate leading to deregulation of CDH1 and CTNNB1 gene expressions which is probably

  14. Inhibition of IRE1 signaling affects the expression of genes encoded glucocorticoid receptor and some related factors and their hypoxic regulation in U87 glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minchenko, D O; Riabovol, O O; Tsymbal, D O; Ratushna, O O; Minchenko, O H

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to examine the effect of inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling, mediated by IRE1 (inositol requiring enzyme 1), which is a central mediator of the unfolded protein response on the expression of genes encoding glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and some related proteins (SGK1, SGK3, NCOA1, NCOA2, ARHGAP35, NNT) and their hypoxic regulation in U87 glioma cells for evaluation of their possible significance in the control of the glioma growth. The expression of NR3C1,SGK1,SGK3, NCOA1, NCOA2, ARHGAP35, and NNT genes in U87 glioma cells, transfected by empty vector pcDNA3.1 (control) and cells without IRE1 signaling enzyme function (transfected by dnIRE1) upon hypoxia, was studied by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Inhibition of IRE1 signaling enzyme function up-regulates the expression of NR3C1, SGK1, NCOA1, NCOA2, ARHGAP35, and NNT genes in U87 glioma cells in comparison with the control glioma cells, with more significant changes for NR3C1, SGK1, and NNT genes. At the same time, the expression of SGK3 gene is strongly down-regulated in glioma cells upon inhibition of IRE1. We have also shown that hypoxia increases the expression of NR3C1, SGK1, NCOA2, ARHGAP35, and NNT genes but decreases SGK3 and NCOA1 genes expression in control glioma cells. Moreover, the inhibition of both enzymatic activities (kinase and endoribonuclease) of IRE1 in U87 glioma cells enhances the eff ect of hypoxia on the expression of SGK1, SGK3, and NNT genes, but decreases the sensitivity of NR3C1 gene to hypoxic condition. Furthermore, the expression of NCOA1 gene is resistant to hypoxia in control glioma cells, but NCOA2 and ARHGAP35 genes are resistant to this condition in glioma cells without functional activity of IRE1 signaling enzyme. Results of this investigation demonstrate that inhibition of IRE1 signaling enzyme function affects the expression of NR3C1, SGK1, SGK3, NCOA1, NCOA2, ARHGAP35, and NNT genes in U87 glioma cells

  15. Exposure to brominated flame retardant PBDE-99 affects cytoskeletal protein expression in the neonatal mouse cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, Henrik; Kultima, Kim; Scholz, Birger

    2008-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are environmental contaminants found in human and animal tissues worldwide. Neonatal exposure to the flame retardant 2,2', 4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-99) disrupts normal brain development in mice, and results in disturbed spontaneous behavior....... Protein resolution was enhanced by sample pre-fractionation. In the cell model, we determined cell viability using the trypan blue exclusion assay, and apoptosis using immunocytochemical detection of cleaved caspase-3. We determined the identity of 111 differentially expressed proteins, 32 (29%) of which...... activity. These results indicate that the permanent neurological damage induced by PBDE-99 during the brain growth spurt involve detrimental effects on cytoskeletal regulation and neuronal maturation in the developing cerebral cortex....

  16. Neutron Radiation Affects the Expression of Genes Involved in the Response to Auxin, Senescence and Oxidative Stress in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunati, A.; Tassone, P.; Migliaccio, F.

    2008-06-01

    Researches were conducted on the effect of neutron radiation on the expression of genes auxin activated or connected with the process of senescence in Arabidopsis plants. The research was done by applying the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The results indicated that the auxin response factors (ARFs) genes are clearly downregulated, whereas the indolacetic acid-induced (Aux/IAAs) genes in some cases were upregulated. By contrast in the mutants for auxin transport aux1 and eir1 the ARFs genes were upregulated. In addition, both in the wildtype and mutants, some already known genes activated by stress and senescence were significantly upregulated. On the basis of these researches we conclude that the process of senescence induced by irradiation is, at least in part, controlled by the physiology of the hormone auxin.

  17. Ankyrin and band 3 differentially affect expression of membrane glycoproteins but are not required for erythroblast enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Peng; Lodish, Harvey F

    2012-01-27

    During late stages of mammalian erythropoiesis the nucleus undergoes chromatin condensation, migration to the plasma membrane, and extrusion from the cytoplasm surrounded by a segment of plasma membrane. Since nuclear condensation occurs in all vertebrates, mammalian erythroid membrane and cytoskeleton proteins were implicated as playing important roles in mediating the movement and extrusion of the nucleus. Here we use erythroid ankyrin deficient and band 3 knockout mouse models to show that band 3, but not ankyrin, plays an important role in regulating the level of erythroid cell membrane proteins, as evidenced by decreased cell surface expression of glycophorin A in band 3 knockout mice. However, neither band 3 nor ankyrin are required for enucleation. These results demonstrate that mammalian erythroblast enucleation does not depend on the membrane integrity generated by the ankyrin-band 3 complex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanical stimuli on C2C12 myoblasts affect myoblast differentiation, focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation and galectin-1 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto Blak; Lametsch, Rene; Karlsson, Anders H

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical forces are crucial in the regulation of cell morphology and function. At the cellular level, these forces influence myoblast differentiation and fusion. In this study we applied mechanical stimuli to embryonic muscle cells using magnetic microbeads, a method shown to apply stress...... by mechanical stimulation including Galectin-1, Annexin III, and RhoGDI. In this study we demonstrate how the combination of this method of mechanical stimuli and proteomic analysis can be a powerful tool to detect proteins that are potentially interacting in biochemical pathways or complex cellular mechanisms...... during the process of myoblast differentiation. We determined an increase in expression and changes in cellular localization of Galectin-1, in mechanically stimulated myoblasts. A potential involvement of Galectin-1 in myoblast differentiation is presented....

  19. Increased expression of the dyslexia candidate gene DCDC2 affects length and signaling of primary cilia in neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Massinen

    Full Text Available DCDC2 is one of the candidate susceptibility genes for dyslexia. It belongs to the superfamily of doublecortin domain containing proteins that bind to microtubules, and it has been shown to be involved in neuronal migration. We show that the Dcdc2 protein localizes to the primary cilium in primary rat hippocampal neurons and that it can be found within close proximity to the ciliary kinesin-2 subunit Kif3a. Overexpression of DCDC2 increases ciliary length and activates Shh signaling, whereas downregulation of Dcdc2 expression enhances Wnt signaling, consistent with a functional role in ciliary signaling. Moreover, DCDC2 overexpression in C. elegans causes an abnormal neuronal phenotype that can only be seen in ciliated neurons. Together our results suggest a potential role for DCDC2 in the structure and function of primary cilia.

  20. Overexpression or silencing of FOXO3a affects proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells and expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiantian Sang

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs have been considered to be of great significance in therapeutic angiogenesis. Furthermore, the Forkhead box O (FOXO transcription factors are known to be important regulators of cell cycle. Therefore, we investigated the effects of changes in FOXO3a activity on cell proliferation and cell cycle regulatory proteins in EPCs. The constructed recombinant adenovirus vectors Ad-TM (triple mutant-FOXO3a, Ad-shRNA-FOXO3a and the control Ad-GFP were transfected into EPCs derived from human umbilical cord blood. Assessment of transfection efficiency using an inverted fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry indicated a successful transfection. Additionally, the expression of FOXO3a was markedly increased in the Ad-TM-FOXO3a group but was inhibited in the Ad-shRNA-FOXO3a group as seen by western blotting. Overexpression of FOXO3a suppressed EPC proliferation and modulated expression of the cell cycle regulatory proteins including upregulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p27(kip1 and downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2, cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA. In the Ad-shRNA-FOXO3a group, the results were counter-productive. Furthermore, flow cytometry for cell cycle analysis suggested that the active mutant of FOXO3a caused a noticeable increase in G1- and S-phase frequencies, while a decrease was observed after FOXO3a silencing. In conclusion, these data demonstrated that FOXO3a could possibly inhibit EPC proliferation via cell cycle arrest involving upregulation of p27(kip1 and downregulation of CDK2, cyclin D1 and PCNA.

  1. Does cadmium affect the toxicokinetics of permethrin in Chironomus dilutus at sublethal level? Evidence of enzymatic activity and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Li, Huizhen; Zhang, Junjie; Ding, Yuping; You, Jing

    2016-11-01

    Pyrethroids and metals were simultaneously detected in aquatic environment and showed antagonistic lethality to the benthic invertebrate, Chironomus dilutus. Accelerated biotransformation of pyrethroids in organism by the presence of metals was proposed as the likely reason for the antagonism. Mechanistic explanation for the role of toxicokinetics of pyrethroids in the antagonistic interaction would help better understanding the reasons for the joint toxicity. The goal was achieved in the current study by evaluating the impact of cadmium on toxicokinetic parameters of permethrin in C. dilutus, and by explaining the interaction through quantifying the activity and gene expression of biotransformation-related enzymes. Toxicokinetic parameters were simulated using a first-order kinetic model. Bioconcentration factors and uptake and elimination rate constants for permethrin were not significantly changed with the addition of cadmium at sublethal level, neither did the activity of enzymes, including glutathione S-transferase (GST), carboxylesterase (CarE), catalase and lipid peroxidation. Yet, the activities of metabolism-related enzymes (GST and CarE) showed an elevating tendency with adding cadmium. Furthermore, the expression of metabolism-related genes, including cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase genes were significantly up-regulated in C. dilutus exposed to a mixture of permethrin and cadmium compared with permethrin only. Although co-exposure to cadmium did not induce toxicokinetic changes of permethrin in C. dilutus, it did enhance the activity of metabolic enzymes which were encoded by the metabolism-related genes, suggesting an acceleration of biotransformation of permethrin to less toxic metabolites in the midges. This possibly explained the antagonistic interaction for permethrin and cadmium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gene Expression Profiling Identifies Important Genes Affected by R2 Compound Disrupting FAK and P53 Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubovskaya, Vita M., E-mail: Vita.Golubovskaya@roswellpark.org; Ho, Baotran [Department of Surgical Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Conroy, Jeffrey [Genomics Shared Resource, Center for Personalized Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Liu, Song; Wang, Dan [Bioinformatics Core Facility, Biostatistics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Cance, William G. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor kinase that plays an important role in many cellular processes: adhesion, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis and survival. Recently, we have shown that Roslin 2 or R2 (1-benzyl-15,3,5,7-tetraazatricyclo[3.3.1.1~3,7~]decane) compound disrupts FAK and p53 proteins, activates p53 transcriptional activity, and blocks tumor growth. In this report we performed a microarray gene expression analysis of R2-treated HCT116 p53{sup +/+} and p53{sup −/−} cells and detected 1484 genes that were significantly up- or down-regulated (p < 0.05) in HCT116 p53{sup +/+} cells but not in p53{sup −/−} cells. Among up-regulated genes in HCT p53{sup +/+} cells we detected critical p53 targets: Mdm-2, Noxa-1, and RIP1. Among down-regulated genes, Met, PLK2, KIF14, BIRC2 and other genes were identified. In addition, a combination of R2 compound with M13 compound that disrupts FAK and Mmd-2 complex or R2 and Nutlin-1 that disrupts Mdm-2 and p53 decreased clonogenicity of HCT116 p53{sup +/+} colon cancer cells more significantly than each agent alone in a p53-dependent manner. Thus, the report detects gene expression profile in response to R2 treatment and demonstrates that the combination of drugs targeting FAK, Mdm-2, and p53 can be a novel therapy approach.

  3. ALS-causing mutations differentially affect PGC-1α expression and function in the brain vs. peripheral tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Hanna; Lang, Kerstin; Buck, Eva; Higelin, Julia; Barteczko, Lara; Pasquarelli, Noemi; Sprissler, Jasmin; Lucas, Tanja; Holzmann, Karlheinz; Demestre, Maria; Lindenberg, Katrin S; Danzer, Karin M; Boeckers, Tobias; Ludolph, Albert C; Dupuis, Luc; Weydt, Patrick; Witting, Anke

    2017-01-01

    Monogenetic forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) offer an opportunity for unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying this devastating neurodegenerative disorder. In order to identify a link between ALS-related metabolic changes and neurodegeneration, we investigated whether ALS-causing mutations interfere with the peripheral and brain-specific expression and signaling of the metabolic master regulator PGC (PPAR gamma coactivator)-1α (PGC-1α). We analyzed the expression of PGC-1α isoforms and target genes in two mouse models of familial ALS and validated the stimulated PGC-1α signaling in primary adipocytes and neurons of these animal models and in iPS derived motoneurons of two ALS patients harboring two different frame-shift FUS/TLS mutations. Mutations in SOD1 and FUS/TLS decrease Ppargc1a levels in the CNS whereas in muscle and brown adipose tissue Ppargc1a mRNA levels were increased. Probing the underlying mechanism in neurons, we identified the monocarboxylate lactate as a previously unrecognized potent and selective inducer of the CNS-specific PGC-1α isoforms. Lactate also induced genes like brain-derived neurotrophic factor, transcription factor EB and superoxide dismutase 3 that are down-regulated in PGC-1α deficient neurons. The lactate-induced CNS-specific PGC-1α signaling system is completely silenced in motoneurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells obtained from two ALS patients harboring two different frame-shift FUS/TLS mutations. ALS mutations increase the canonical PGC-1α system in the periphery while inhibiting the CNS-specific isoforms. We identify lactate as an inducer of the neuronal PGC-1α system directly linking brain metabolism and neuroprotection. Changes in the PGC-1α system might be involved in the ALS accompanied metabolic changes and in neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Downregulated miR-195 detected in preeclamptic placenta affects trophoblast cell invasion via modulating ActRIIA expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bai

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is a pregnancy-specific syndrome manifested by on-set of hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. Abnormal placenta development has been generally accepted as initial cause of the disorder. Recently, miR-195 was found to be down-regulated in preeclamptic placentas compared with normal pregnant ones, indicating possible association of this small molecule with placental pathology of preeclampsia. By far the function of miR-195 in the development of placenta remains unknown.Bioinformatic assay predicted ActRIIA as one of the targets for miR-195. By using Real-time PCR, Western blotting and Dual Luciferase Assay, we validated that ActRIIA was the direct target of miR-195 in human trophoblast cells. Transwell insert invasion assay showed that miR-195 could promote cell invasion in trophoblast cell line, HTR8/SVneo cells, and the effect could be abrogated by overexpressed ActRIIA. In preeclamptic placenta tissues, pri-miR-195 and mature miR-195 expressions were down-regulated, whereas ActRIIA level appeared to be increased when compared with that in gestational-week-matched normal placentas.This is the first report on the function of miR-195 in human placental trophoblast cells which reveals an invasion-promoting effect of the small RNA via repressing ActRIIA. Aberrant expression of miR-195 may contribute to the occurrence of preeclampsia through interfering with Activin/Nodal signaling mediated by ActRIIA in human placenta.

  5. Genetic variations creating microRNA target sites in the FXN 3'-UTR affect frataxin expression in Friedreich ataxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta Bandiera

    Full Text Available Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA is a severe neurodegenerative disease caused by GAA repeat expansion within the first intron of the frataxin gene. It has been suggested that the repeat is responsible for the disease severity due to impaired transcription thereby reducing expression of the protein. However, genotype-phenotype correlation is imperfect, and the influence of other gene regions of the frataxin gene is unknown. We hypothesized that FRDA patients may harbor specific regulatory variants in the 3'-UTR. We sequenced the 3'-UTR region of the frataxin gene in a cohort of 57 FRDA individuals and 58 controls. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs out of 19 were polymorphic in our case-control sample. These SNPs defined several haplotypes with one reaching 89% of homozygosity in patients versus 24% in controls. In another cohort of 47 FRDA Reunionese patients, 94% patients were found to be homozygous for this haplotype. We found that this FRDA 3'-UTR conferred a 1.2-fold decrease in the expression of a reporter gene versus the alternative haplotype configuration. We established that differential targeting by miRNA could account for this functional variability. We specifically demonstrated the involvement of miR-124 (i.e hsa-mir-124-3p in the down-regulation of FRDA-3'-UTR. Our results suggest for the first time that post-transcriptional regulation of frataxin occurs through the 3'-UTR and involves miRNA targeting. We propose that the involvement of miRNAs in a FRDA-specific regulation of frataxin may provide a rationale to increase residual levels of frataxin through miRNA-inhibitory molecules.

  6. Genome-wide gene expression analysis in cancer cells reveals 3D growth to affect ECM and processes associated with cell adhesion but not DNA repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Zschenker

    Full Text Available Cell morphology determines cell behavior, signal transduction, protein-protein interaction, and responsiveness to external stimuli. In cancer, these functions profoundly contribute to resistance mechanisms to radio- and chemotherapy. With regard to this aspect, this study compared the genome wide gene expression in exponentially growing cell lines from different tumor entities, lung carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, under more physiological three-dimensional (3D versus monolayer cell culture conditions. Whole genome cDNA microarray analysis was accomplished using the Affymetrix HG U133 Plus 2.0 gene chip. Significance analysis of microarray (SAM and t-test analysis revealed significant changes in gene expression profiles of 3D relative to 2D cell culture conditions. These changes affected the extracellular matrix and were mainly associated with biological processes like tissue development, cell adhesion, immune system and defense response in contrast to terms related to DNA repair, which lacked significant alterations. Selected genes were verified by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. Additionally, we show that 3D growth mediates a significant increase in tumor cell radio- and chemoresistance relative to 2D. Our findings show significant gene expression differences between 3D and 2D cell culture systems and indicate that cellular responsiveness to external stress such as ionizing radiation and chemotherapeutics is essentially influenced by differential expression of genes involved in the regulation of integrin signaling, cell shape and cell-cell contact.

  7. Pyrokinin β-neuropeptide affects necrophoretic behavior in fire ants (S. invicta), and expression of β-NP in a mycoinsecticide increases its virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yanhua; Pereira, Roberto M; Kilic, Engin; Casella, George; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2012-01-01

    Fire ants are one of the world's most damaging invasive pests, with few means for their effective control. Although ecologically friendly alternatives to chemical pesticides such as the insecticidal fungus Beauveria bassiana have been suggested for the control of fire ant populations, their use has been limited due to the low virulence of the fungus and the length of time it takes to kill its target. We present a means of increasing the virulence of the fungal agent by expressing a fire ant neuropeptide. Expression of the fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) pyrokinin β-neuropeptide (β-NP) by B. bassiana increased fungal virulence six-fold towards fire ants, decreased the LT(50), but did not affect virulence towards the lepidopteran, Galleria mellonella. Intriguingly, ants killed by the β-NP expressing fungus were disrupted in the removal of dead colony members, i.e. necrophoretic behavior. Furthermore, synthetic C-terminal amidated β-NP but not the non-amidated peptide had a dramatic effect on necrophoretic behavior. These data link chemical sensing of a specific peptide to a complex social behavior. Our results also confirm a new approach to insect control in which expression of host molecules in an insect pathogen can by exploited for target specific augmentation of virulence. The minimization of the development of potential insect resistance by our approach is discussed.

  8. Decreased expression of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and complexin II mRNAs in schizophrenia: further evidence for a synaptic pathology affecting glutamate neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, S L; Harrison, P J

    2005-03-01

    Synaptic protein gene expression is altered in schizophrenia. In the hippocampal formation there may be particular involvement of glutamatergic neurons and their synapses, but overall the profile remains unclear. In this in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH) study, we examined four informative synaptic protein transcripts: vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 1, VGLUT2, complexin I, and complexin II, in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DPFC), superior temporal cortex (STC), and hippocampal formation, in 13 subjects with schizophrenia and 18 controls. In these areas, VGLUT1 and complexin II are expressed primarily by excitatory neurons, whereas complexin I is mainly expressed by inhibitory neurons. In schizophrenia, VGLUT1 mRNA was decreased in hippocampal formation and DPFC, complexin II mRNA was reduced in DPFC and STC, and complexin I mRNA decreased in STC. Hippocampal VGLUT1 mRNA declined with age selectively in the schizophrenia group. VGLUT2 mRNA was not quantifiable due to its low level. The data provide additional evidence for a synaptic pathology in schizophrenia, in terms of a reduced expression of three synaptic protein genes. In the hippocampus, the loss of VGLUT1 mRNA supports data indicating that glutamatergic presynaptic deficits are prominent, whereas the pattern of results in temporal and frontal cortex suggests broadly similar changes may affect inhibitory and excitatory neurons. The impairment of synaptic transmission implied by the synaptic protein reductions may contribute to the dysfunction of cortical neural circuits that characterises the disorder.

  9. Exposure of Lactating Dairy Cows to Acute Pre-Ovulatory Heat Stress Affects Granulosa Cell-Specific Gene Expression Profiles in Dominant Follicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Vanselow

    Full Text Available High environmental temperatures induce detrimental effects on various reproductive processes in cattle. According to the predicted global warming the number of days with unfavorable ambient temperatures will further increase. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of acute heat stress during the late pre-ovulatory phase on morphological, physiological and molecular parameters of dominant follicles in cycling cows during lactation. Eight German Holstein cows in established lactation were exposed to heat stress (28°C or thermoneutral conditions (15°C with pair-feeding for four days. After hormonal heat induction growth of the respective dominant follicles was monitored by ultrasonography for two days, then an ovulatory GnRH dose was given and follicular steroid hormones and granulosa cell-specific gene expression profiles were determined 23 hrs thereafter. The data showed that the pre-ovulatory growth of dominant follicles and the estradiol, but not the progesterone concentrations tended to be slightly affected. mRNA microarray and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed distinct expression profiles in granulosa cells derived from heat stressed compared to pair-fed animals. Among the 255 affected genes heatstress-, stress- or apoptosis associated genes were not present. But instead, we found up-regulation of genes essentially involved in G-protein coupled signaling pathways, extracellular matrix composition, and several members of the solute carrier family as well as up-regulation of FST encoding follistatin. In summary, the data of the present study show that acute pre-ovulatory heat stress can specifically alter gene expression profiles in granulosa cells, however without inducing stress related genes and pathways and suggestively can impair follicular growth due to affecting the activin-inhibin-follistatin system.

  10. Can intermediate-frequency magnetic fields affect memory function-related gene expressions in hippocampus of C57BL/6J mice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Ohtani, Shin; Ushiyama, Akira; Fujimaki, Hidekazu; Kunugita, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a cooking appliance based on the principle of electromagnetic induction has come to be used domestically on a widespread basis; this induction heating cooking hob mainly generates intermediate-frequency magnetic fields (IF-MF). However, whether electromagnetic fields originating from household appliances represent a health risk remains uncertain. We investigated the effect of IF-MF on the expressions of memory function-related genes and related transduction molecules in the mouse hippocampus. Male and female C57BL/6J mice were allotted to a control (sham-exposed), an exposure, or a recovery (one week after exposure) group and were exposed to IF-MF (21 kHz, 3.8 mT) one hour per day for 2 weeks. Twenty-four hour after final exposure, the expression levels of memory function-related genes and the mRNA levels for signal transduction pathway molecules in the hippocampi were examined using real-time RT-PCR. The relative mRNA expression levels of the N-methyl-D aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits NR1, NR2A, and NR2B as well as transcription factors (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) -IV, cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) -1) and neurotrophins (nerve growth factor (NGF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF)) were not significantly altered in the IF-MF-exposed mice. We also examined the morphology of the hippocampus using a histological analysis, but no changes in the IF-MF-exposed mice were seen. This is the first in vivo study to show that IF-MF exposure did not affect the expression levels of memory function-related genes in the hippocampus of C57BL/6J mice. The present findings suggest that IF-MF exposure may not affect cognitive function in the present animal model.

  11. Skin-infiltrating T cells and cytokine expression in Icelandic horses affected with insect bite hypersensitivity: a possible role for regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Mareike; Janda, Jozef; Sigurdardottir, Olöf G; Svansson, Vilhjalmur; Klukowska, Jolanta; von Tscharner, Claudia; Doherr, Marcus; Broström, Hans; Andersson, Lisa S; Einarsson, Sigurjón; Marti, Eliane; Torsteinsdottir, Sigurbjörg

    2011-03-15

    Equine insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a seasonally recurrent, pruritic skin disorder caused by an IgE-mediated reaction to salivary proteins of biting flies, predominantly of the genus Culicoides. The aim of this study was to define T cell subsets and cytokine profile in the skin of IBH-affected Icelandic horses with particular focus on the balance between T helper (Th) 1, Th2 and T regulatory (Treg) cells. Distribution and number of CD4+, CD8+ and Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)+ T cells were characterized by immunohistochemical staining in lesional and non-lesional skin of moderately and severely IBH-affected horses (n=14) and in the skin of healthy control horses (n=10). Using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, mRNA expression levels of Th2 cytokines (Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13), Th1 cytokines (Interferon-γ), regulatory cytokines (Transforming Growth Factor β1, IL-10) and the Treg transcription factor FoxP3 were measured in skin and blood samples. Furthermore, Culicoides nubeculosus specific serum IgE levels were assessed. Lesions of IBH-affected horses contained significantly higher numbers of CD4+ cells than skin of healthy control horses. Furthermore, the total number of T cells (CD4+ and CD8+) was significantly increased in lesional compared to non-lesional skin and there was a tendency (p=0.07) for higher numbers of CD4+ cells in lesional compared to non-lesional skin. While the number of FoxP3+ T cells did not differ significantly between the groups, the ratio of Foxp3 to CD4+ cells was significantly lower in lesions of severely IBH-affected horses than in moderately affected or control horses. Interestingly, differences in FoxP3 expression were more striking at the mRNA level. FoxP3 mRNA levels were significantly reduced in lesional skin, compared both to non-lesional and to healthy skin and were also significantly lower in non-lesional compared to healthy skin. Expression levels of IL-13, but not IL-4 or IL-5

  12. CcpA affects expression of the groESL and dnaK operons in Lactobacillus plantarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marasco Rosangela

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are widely used in food industry and their growth performance is important for the quality of the fermented product. During industrial processes changes in temperature may represent an environmental stress to be overcome by starters and non-starters LAB. Studies on adaptation to heat shock have shown the involvement of the chaperon system-proteins in various Gram-positive bacteria. The corresponding operons, namely the dnaK and groESL operons, are controlled by a negative mechanism involving the HrcA repressor protein binding to the cis acting element CIRCE. Results We studied adaptation to heat shock in the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum. The LM3-2 strain, carrying a null mutation in the ccpA gene, encoding the catabolite control protein A (CcpA, showed a lower percent of survival to high temperature with respect to the LM3 wild type strain. Among proteins differentially expressed in the two strains, the GroES chaperon was more abundant in the wild type strain compared to the mutant strain under standard growth conditions. Transcriptional studies showed that class I heat shock operons were differentially expressed upon heat shock in both strains. Indeed, the dnaK and groESL operons were induced about two times more in the LM3 strain compared to the LM3-2 strain. Analysis of the regulatory region of the two operons showed the presence of cre sequences, putative binding sites for the CcpA protein. Conclusion The L. plantarum dnaK and groESL operons are characterized by the presence of the cis acting sequence CIRCE in the promoter region, suggesting a negative regulation by the HrcA/CIRCE system, which is a common type of control among the class I heat shock operons of Gram-positive bacteria. We found an additional system of regulation, based on a positive control exerted by the CcpA protein, which would interact with cre sequences present in the regulatory region of the dnaK and gro

  13. trans-10,cis-12-Conjugated Linoleic Acid Affects Expression of Lipogenic Genes in Mammary Glands of Lactating Dairy Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huaiping; Zhang, Tianying; Li, Cong; Wang, Jianjue; Huang, Jiangtao; Li, Zhongyang

    2017-11-01

    The molecular mechanisms on milk fat depression (MFD) in response to trans-10,cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid (t10,c12-CLA) supplementation in ruminants were elucidated in this research with dairy goats. A total of 30 2-year-old Xinong Saanen dairy goats [40 ± 5 days in milk (DIM)] at peak lactation stage were assigned to a 3 × 3 Latin square design (14 day treatment period, followed with 14 day washout). Three CLA treatments included (a) control, fed the basal diet only without CLA supplementation; (b) orally supplemented with 8 g/day of lipid-encapsulated CLA (low dose, CLA-1); and (c) orally supplemented with 16 g/day of lipid-encapsulated CLA (high dose, CLA-2). Expression levels of fatty acid metabolism genes in the mammary tissues were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in three goats on day 1 and the other three goats on day 14 in each group after the discontinuation of CLA treatment in the third experimental period. Dietary supplementation of CLA led to a significant decrease of milk fat compared to the control (p < 0.05). Milk fat concentrations in CLA-1 and CLA-2 groups were 2.74 and 2.42%, respectively, while the milk fat concentration in the control group was 2.99%. Decreases in short- and medium-chain fatty acids (<16 carbons) and increases in unsaturated fatty acids were observed in the CLA-2 group (p < 0.05). The desaturation indexes of C16 and C18 fatty acids were obviously increased (p < 0.01). RT-qPCR results revealed decreases of the mRNA expression levels of SREBF1, PPARG, LPL, CD36, FABP3, ACSL1, FASN, ACACA, DGAT2, TIP47, ADRP, and BTN1A1 genes in mammary glands (p < 0.05) and an increase of the SCD gene because of CLA supplementation (p < 0.05). In conclusion, t10,c12-CLA-induced MFD was possibly the result from the downregulation of genes involved in lipogenesis in goat mammary glands.

  14. Low-Dose Irradiation Affects Expression of Inflammatory Markers in the Heart of ApoE -/- Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Daniel; Mitchel, Ronald E. J.; Barclay, Mirela; Wyatt, Heather; Bugden, Michelle; Priest, Nicholas D.; Scholz, Markus; Hildebrandt, Guido; Kamprad, Manja; Glasow, Annegret

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate long-term risks of ionizing radiation on the heart, even at moderate doses. In this study, we investigated the inflammatory, thrombotic and fibrotic late responses of the heart after low-dose irradiation (IR) with specific emphasize on the dose rate. Hypercholesterolemic ApoE-deficient mice were sacrificed 3 and 6 months after total body irradiation (TBI) with 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 or 2 Gy at low (1 mGy/min) or high dose rate (150 mGy/min). The expression of inflammatory and thrombotic markers was quantified in frozen heart sections (CD31, E-selectin, thrombomodulin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, collagen IV, Thy-1, and CD45) and in plasma samples (IL6, KC, MCP-1, TNFα, INFγ, IL-1β, TGFβ, INFγ, IL-10, sICAM-1, sE-selectin, sVCAM-1 and fibrinogen) by fluorescence analysis and ELISA. We found that even very low irradiation doses induced adaptive late responses, such as increases of capillary density and changes in collagen IV and Thy-1 levels indicating compensatory regulation. Slight decreases of ICAM-1 levels and reduction of Thy 1 expression at 0.025–0.5 Gy indicate anti-inflammatory effects, whereas at the highest dose (2 Gy) increased VCAM-1 levels on the endocardium may represent a switch to a pro-inflammatory response. Plasma samples partially confirmed this pattern, showing a decrease of proinflammatory markers (sVCAM, sICAM) at 0.025–2.0 Gy. In contrast, an enhancement of MCP-1, TNFα and fibrinogen at 0.05–2.0 Gy indicated a proinflammatory and prothrombotic systemic response. Multivariate analysis also revealed significant age-dependent increases (KC, MCP-1, fibrinogen) and decreases (sICAM, sVCAM, sE-selectin) of plasma markers. This paper represents local and systemic effects of low-dose irradiation, including also age- and dose rate-dependent responses in the ApoE-/- mouse model. These insights in the multiple inflammatory/thrombotic effects caused by low-dose irradiation might facilitate an individual evaluation and

  15. Isoflavone supplement composition and equol producer status affect gene expression in adipose tissue: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velpen, Vera; Geelen, Anouk; Hollman, Peter C H; Schouten, Evert G; van 't Veer, Pieter; Afman, Lydia A

    2014-11-01

    Isoflavone supplements, consumed by women experiencing menopausal symptoms, are suggested to have positive effects on menopause-related adiposity and cardiovascular disease risk profile, but discussions about their safety are still ongoing. The objective was to study the effects of an 8-wk consumption of 2 different isoflavone supplements compared with placebo on whole-genome gene expression in the adipose tissue of postmenopausal women. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover intervention consisted of 2 substudies, one with a low-genistein (LG) supplement (56% daidzein + daidzin, 16% genistein + genistin, and 28% glycitein + glycitin) and the other with a high-genistein (HG) supplement (49% daidzein + daidzin, 41% genistein + genistin, and 10% glycitein + glycitin). Both supplements provided ∼ 100 mg isoflavones/d (aglycone equivalents). After the 8-wk isoflavone and placebo period, whole-genome arrays were performed in subcutaneous adipose tissue of postmenopausal women (n = 26 after LG, n = 31 after HG). Participants were randomized by equol-producing phenotype, and data analysis was performed per substudy for equol producers and nonproducers separately. Gene set enrichment analysis showed downregulation of expression of energy metabolism-related genes after LG supplementation (n = 24) in both equol-producing phenotypes and oppositely regulated expression for equol producers (down) and nonproducers (up) after HG supplementation (n = 31). Expression of inflammation-related genes was upregulated in equol producers but downregulated in nonproducers, independent of supplement type. Only 4.4-7.0% of the genes with significantly changed expression were estrogen responsive. Body weight, adipocyte size, and plasma lipid profile were not affected by isoflavone supplementation. Effects of isoflavones on adipose tissue gene expression were influenced by supplement composition and equol-producing phenotype, whereas estrogen-responsive effects were

  16. Mechanotransduction: Relevance to Physical Therapist Practice-Understanding Our Ability to Affect Genetic Expression Through Mechanical Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Sharon L; Olmedo, Margaret L

    2016-05-01

    Mechanotransduction, the mechanism by which mechanical perturbation influences genetic expression and cellular behavior, is an area of molecular biology undergoing rapid exploration and discovery. Cells are sensitive to forces such as shear, tension, and compression, and they respond accordingly through cellular proliferation, migration, tissue repair, altered metabolism, and even stem cell differentiation and maturation. The study of how cells sense and respond to mechanical stimulation is under robust expansion, with new scientific methods and technologies at our disposal. The application of these technologies to physical therapist practice may hold answers to some of our age-old questions while creating new avenues for our profession to optimize movement for societal health. Embracing this science as foundational to our profession will allow us to be valuable scientific collaborators with distinctive knowledge of the effects of loading. These partnerships will be key to augmenting the clinical utility of emerging therapies such as regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, and gene therapy. Collaboration with other scientific disciplines in these endeavors, along with the inclusion and application of these discoveries in our academic programs, will enhance the understanding of the impact of our practice on biologic and genetic processes. A basic understanding of mechanotransduction and its relevance to physical therapist practice is warranted to begin the conversation. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  17. CRH Affects the Phenotypic Expression of Sepsis-Associated Virulence Factors by Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 1 In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette G. Ngo Ndjom

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a life-threatening health condition caused by infectious pathogens of the respiratory tract, and accounts for 28–50% of annual deaths in the US alone. Current treatment regimen advocates the use of corticosteroids as adjunct treatment with antibiotics, for their broad inhibitory effect on the activity and production of pro-inflammatory mediators. However, despite their use, corticosteroids have not proven to be able to reverse the death incidence among septic patients. We have previously demonstrated the potential for neuroendocrine factors to directly influence Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence, which may in turn mediate disease outcome leading to sepsis and septic shock. The current study investigated the role of Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH in mediating key markers of pneumococcal virulence as important phenotypic determinants of sepsis and septic shock risks. In vitro cultures of serotype 1 pneumococcal strain with CRH promoted growth rate, increased capsule thickness and penicillin resistance, as well as induced pneumolysin gene expression. These results thus provide significant insights of CRH–pathogen interactions useful in understanding the underlying mechanisms of neuroendocrine factor's role in the onset of community acquired pneumonias (CAP, sepsis and septic shock.

  18. Differences between musicians and non-musicians in neuro-affective processing of sadness and fear expressed in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mona; Gutyrchik, Evgeny; Bao, Yan; Zaytseva, Yuliya; Carl, Petra; Welker, Lorenz; Pöppel, Ernst; Reiser, Maximilian; Blautzik, Janusch; Meindl, Thomas

    2014-04-30

    Music is known to convey and evoke emotional states. Musical training has been argued to lead to changes in neural architecture and enhanced processing of emotions. It is not clear, however, whether musical training is also associated with changes in behavioral and neural responses to musically conveyed discrete emotions. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the responses to three musically conveyed emotions (happiness, sadness, fear) in a group of musicians and a group of non-musicians. We find that musicians rate sadness and fear as significantly more arousing than non-musicians, and that musical training is associated with specific neural activations: In response to sadness expressed in music, musicians show activation increases in the right prefrontal cortex, specifically in the superior and middle frontal gyri. In response to fear, musicians show activation increases in the right parietal cortex, specifically in the supramarginal and inferior parietal gyri. No specific activations were observed in response to happiness. Our results highlight the strong association between musical training and altered processing of "negative" emotions on both the behavioral and on the neural level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Endometrial gene expression in primiparous dairy cows at the end of the voluntary waiting period is affected by nutrition: Total mixed ration vs increasing levels of herbage allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astessiano, A L; Carriquiry, M; Mattiauda, D A; Adrien, M L; Chilibroste, P; Meikle, A

    2017-10-01

    The study postulated that differential nutritional management during the early lactation period would be reflected in endometrial expression of genes related to embryo growth at the end of the voluntary waiting period. Thus, the effect of the combined use of total mixed ration (TMR) and grazing under different herbage allowances during the first 75 days post-partum (DPP) on endometrial gene expression was evaluated in primiparous dairy cows. Cows were blocked by body weight, age and body condition score and randomly assigned to three grazing treatments: high (HA, 30 kg DM per cow per day), medium (MA, 15 kg DM per cow per day) and low (LA, 7.5 kg DM per cow per day) herbage allowance (mixed pasture, 2,600 kg DM per ha) plus 8 kg DM of supplement or TMR (55% forage, 45% concentrate) fed ad libitum (TMR) from calving to 75 DPP. At 57 DPP, cows were synchronized for oestrus (day 0, 68 DPP) and at day 7, endometrial biopsies were obtained. The nutritional treatment did not affect insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations on days 0, 4 or 7. Expression of IGF1, IGFBP3, IGFBP4, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 mRNA was significantly affected by the nutritional treatment. Endometrial IGF1 and IGFBP4 mRNA were twofold greater in TMR and HA than MA and LA cows. Expression of IGFBP3 and ADIPOR1 mRNAs was greater in TMR and HA than MA cows, but did not differ from LA cows. All groups had greater expression of ADIPOR2 mRNA than MA cows. This study provided solid evidence of the importance of nutritional management during early lactation on uterine environment at the end of the voluntary waiting period. The greater expression of genes related to embryo growth and uterine function (IGF system, progesterone and adiponectin receptors) in cows fed diets maximizing energy intake suggests a favourable environment for embryonic growth, which may explain the improved reproductive performance of cows in good energy balance. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Down-Regulation of Small Rubber Particle Protein Expression Affects Integrity of Rubber Particles and Rubber Content in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Andrea; Post, Janina J.; Wurbs, David; Wahler, Daniela; Lenders, Malte; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Prüfer, Dirk; Gronover, Christian Schulze

    2012-01-01

    The biosynthesis of rubber is thought to take place on the surface of rubber particles in laticifers, highly specialized cells that are present in more than 40 plant families. The small rubber particle protein (SRPP) has been supposed to be involved in rubber biosynthesis, and recently five SRPPs (TbSRPP1–5) were identified in the rubber-producing dandelion species Taraxacum brevicorniculatum. Here, we demonstrate by immunogold labeling that TbSRPPs are localized to rubber particles, and that rubber particles mainly consist of TbSRPP3, 4 and 5 as shown by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis. We also carried out an RNA-interference approach in transgenic plants to address the function of TbSRPPs in rubber biosynthesis as well as rubber particle morphology and stability. TbSRPP-RNAi transgenic T. brevicorniculatum plants showed a 40–50% reduction in the dry rubber content, but neither the rubber weight average molecular mass nor the polydispersity of the rubber were affected. Although no phenotypical differences to wild-type particles could be observed in vivo, rubber particles from the TbSRPP-RNAi transgenic lines were less stable and tend to rapidly aggregate in expelling latex after wounding of laticifers. Our results prove that TbSRPPs are very crucial for rubber production in T. brevicorniculatum, probably by contributing to a most favourable and stable rubber particle architecture for efficient rubber biosynthesis and eventually storage. PMID:22911861

  1. Down-regulation of small rubber particle protein expression affects integrity of rubber particles and rubber content in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hillebrand

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis of rubber is thought to take place on the surface of rubber particles in laticifers, highly specialized cells that are present in more than 40 plant families. The small rubber particle protein (SRPP has been supposed to be involved in rubber biosynthesis, and recently five SRPPs (TbSRPP1-5 were identified in the rubber-producing dandelion species Taraxacum brevicorniculatum. Here, we demonstrate by immunogold labeling that TbSRPPs are localized to rubber particles, and that rubber particles mainly consist of TbSRPP3, 4 and 5 as shown by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis. We also carried out an RNA-interference approach in transgenic plants to address the function of TbSRPPs in rubber biosynthesis as well as rubber particle morphology and stability. TbSRPP-RNAi transgenic T. brevicorniculatum plants showed a 40-50% reduction in the dry rubber content, but neither the rubber weight average molecular mass nor the polydispersity of the rubber were affected. Although no phenotypical differences to wild-type particles could be observed in vivo, rubber particles from the TbSRPP-RNAi transgenic lines were less stable and tend to rapidly aggregate in expelling latex after wounding of laticifers. Our results prove that TbSRPPs are very crucial for rubber production in T. brevicorniculatum, probably by contributing to a most favourable and stable rubber particle architecture for efficient rubber biosynthesis and eventually storage.

  2. Magnolol Affects Cellular Proliferation, Polyamine Biosynthesis and Catabolism-Linked Protein Expression and Associated Cellular Signaling Pathways in Human Prostate Cancer Cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan T. McKeown

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed form of cancer in men in Canada and the United States. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development and progression of many cancers, including prostate cancer. Context and purpose of this study: This study investigated the effects of magnolol, a compound found in the roots and bark of the magnolia tree Magnolia officinalis, on cellular proliferation and proliferation-linked activities of PC3 human prostate cancer cells in vitro. Results: PC3 cells exposed to magnolol at a concentration of 80 μM for 6 hours exhibited decreased protein expression of ornithine decarboxylase, a key regulator in polyamine biosynthesis, as well as affecting the expression of other proteins involved in polyamine biosynthesis and catabolism. Furthermore, protein expression of the R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, a key regulatory protein associated with DNA synthesis, was significantly decreased. Finally, the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase, PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, NFκB (nuclear fac