WorldWideScience

Sample records for enclosing membrane tubes

  1. Cyto-Sim: a formal language model and stochastic simulator of membrane-enclosed biochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedwards, Sean; Mazza, Tommaso

    2007-10-15

    Compartments and membranes are the basis of cell topology and more than 30% of the human genome codes for membrane proteins. While it is possible to represent compartments and membrane proteins in a nominal way with many mathematical formalisms used in systems biology, few, if any, explicitly model the topology of the membranes themselves. Discrete stochastic simulation potentially offers the most accurate representation of cell dynamics. Since the details of every molecular interaction in a pathway are often not known, the relationship between chemical species in not necessarily best described at the lowest level, i.e. by mass action. Simulation is a form of computer-aided analysis, relying on human interpretation to derive meaning. To improve efficiency and gain meaning in an automatic way, it is necessary to have a formalism based on a model which has decidable properties. We present Cyto-Sim, a stochastic simulator of membrane-enclosed hierarchies of biochemical processes, where the membranes comprise an inner, outer and integral layer. The underlying model is based on formal language theory and has been shown to have decidable properties (Cavaliere and Sedwards, 2006), allowing formal analysis in addition to simulation. The simulator provides variable levels of abstraction via arbitrary chemical kinetics which link to ordinary differential equations. In addition to its compact native syntax, Cyto-Sim currently supports models described as Petri nets, can import all versions of SBML and can export SBML and MATLAB m-files. Cyto-Sim is available free, either as an applet or a stand-alone Java program via the web page (http://www.cosbi.eu/Rpty_Soft_CytoSim.php). Other versions can be made available upon request.

  2. Advanced Ultrasupercritical (AUSC) Tube Membrane Panel Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pschirer, James [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Burgess, Joshua [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Schrecengost, Robert [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

    2017-08-16

    Alstom Power Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of the General Electric Company (GE), has completed the project “Advanced Ultrasupercritical (AUSC) Tube Membrane Panel Development” under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Award Number DE-FE0024076. This project was part of DOE’s Novel Crosscutting Research and Development to Support Advanced Energy Systems program. AUSC Tube Membrane Panel Development was a two and one half year project to develop and verify the manufacturability and serviceability of welded tube membrane panels made from high performance materials suitable for the AUSC steam cycles, defined as high pressure steam turbine inlet conditions of 700-760°C (1292-1400°F) and 24.5-35MPa (3500-5000psi). The difficulty of this challenge lies in the fact that the membrane-welded construction imposes demands on the materials that are unlike any that exist in other parts of the boiler. Tube membrane panels have been designed, fabricated, and installed in boilers for over 50 years with relatively favorable experience when fabricated from carbon and Cr-Mo low alloy steels. The AUSC steam cycle requires membrane tube panels fabricated from materials that have not been used in a weldment with metal temperatures in the range of 582-610°C (1080-1130°F). Fabrication materials chosen for the tubing were Grade 92 and HR6W. Grade 92 is a creep strength enhanced ferritic Cr-Mo alloy and HR6W is a high nickel alloy. Once the materials were chosen, GE performed the engineering design of the panels, prepared shop manufacturing drawings, and developed manufacturing and inspection plans. After the materials were purchased, GE manufactured and inspected the tube membrane panels, determined if post fabrication heat treatment of the tube membrane panels was needed, performed pre- and post-weld heat treatment on the Grade 92 panels, conducted final nondestructive inspection of any heat treated tube membrane panels, conducted destructive inspection of the completed tube

  3. Hydro-osmotic Instabilities in Active Membrane Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Izzi, Sami C.; Rowlands, George; Sens, Pierre; Turner, Matthew S.

    2018-03-01

    We study a membrane tube with unidirectional ion pumps driving an osmotic pressure difference. A pressure-driven peristaltic instability is identified, qualitatively distinct from similar tension-driven Rayleigh-type instabilities on membrane tubes. We discuss how this instability could be related to the function and biogenesis of membrane bound organelles, in particular, the contractile vacuole complex. The unusually long natural wavelength of this instability is in agreement with that observed in cells.

  4. Calibration and field performance of membrane-enclosed sorptive coating for integrative passive sampling of persistent organic pollutants in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrana, Branislav; Paschke, Albrecht; Popp, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Membrane-enclosed sorptive coating (MESCO) is a miniaturised monitoring device that enables integrative passive sampling of persistent, hydrophobic organic pollutants in water. The system combines the passive sampling with solventless preconcentration of organic pollutants from water and subsequent desorption of analytes on-line into a chromatographic system. Exchange kinetics of chemicals between water and MESCO was studied at different flow rates of water, in order to characterize the effect of variable environmental conditions on the sampler performance, and to identify a method for in situ correction of the laboratory-derived calibration data. It was found that the desorption of chemicals from MESCO into water is isotropic to the absorption of the analytes onto the sampler under the same exposure conditions. This allows for the in situ calibration of the uptake of pollutants using elimination kinetics of performance reference compounds and more accurate estimates of target analyte concentrations. A field study was conducted to test the sampler performance alongside spot sampling. A good agreement of contaminant patterns and water concentrations was obtained by the two sampling techniques. - A robust calibration method of a passive sampling device for monitoring of persistent organic pollutants in water is described

  5. Carbon Nano tubes Based Mixed Matrix Membrane for Gas Separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanip, S.M.; Ismail, A.F.; Goh, P.S.; Norrdin, M.N.A.; Soga, T.; Tanemura, M.; Yasuhiko, H.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nano tubes based mixed matrix membrane (MMM) was prepared by the solution casting method in which the functionalized multi walled carbon nano tubes (f-MWNTs) were embedded into the polyimide membrane and the resulting membranes were characterized. The effect of nominal MWNTs content between 0.5 and 1.0 wt % on the gas separation properties were looked into. The morphologies of the MMM also indicated that at 0.7 % loading of f- MWNTs, the structures of the MMM showed uniform finger-like structures which have facilitated the fast gas transport through the polymer matrix. It may also be concluded that addition of open ended and shortened MWNTs to the polymer matrix can improve its permeability by increasing diffusivity through the MWNTs smooth cavity. (author)

  6. Studies on hydrogen separation membrane for IS process. Membrane preparation with porous α-alumina tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Gab-Jin; Onuki, Kaoru; Shimizu, Saburo

    1998-01-01

    It was investigated the preparation technique of hydrogen separation membrane to enhance the decomposition ratio of hydrogen iodide in the thermochemical IS process. Hydrogen separation membranes based on porous α-alumina tubes having pore size of 100 nm and 10 nm were prepared by chemical vapor deposition using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as the Si source. In the hydrogen separation membrane, its pore was closed by the deposited silica and then the permeation of gas was affected by the hindrance diffusion. At 600degC, the selectivity ratios (H 2 /N 2 ) were 5.2 and 160 for the membranes based on porous α-alumina tube having pore size of 100 nm and 10 nm, respectively. (author)

  7. Measurement and evaluation of the summer microclimate in the semi-enclosed space under a membrane structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jiang; Hoyano, Akira [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-G5-2 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    This study aims to clarify the summer microclimate in membrane structure buildings with semi-outdoor spaces and develop a computational simulation tool for designing a comfortable urban environment using membrane structures. Field measurements were conducted in a membrane structure building with a semi-outdoor space during a summer period. The present paper describes analysis results of measurement data for vertical distributions of air temperature and velocity under the membrane structure on clear sunny days. The following subjects were also discussed: (1) the effect of solar transmission on the warming of air temperature by the floor under the membrane structure; (2) the temperature reduction effect of ventilation by wind; (3) evaluation of thermal comfort in the living space under the membrane structure in terms of a thermal comfort index (new standard effective temperature: SET*). In order to demonstrate the capability to improve the thermal environment in the test membrane structure building, an evaporative cooling pavement was assumed to be applied to the ground under the membrane structure. The microclimatic modifying effect of this passive cooling strategy was evaluated using a numerical simulation method of coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with a 3D-CAD-based thermal simulation tool developed by the authors' research group. Simulation results show that the proposed simulation method is capable of quantifying spatial distributions of surface temperature, air temperature, air velocity and moisture in the living space under the membrane structure. The thermal comfort index (SET*) can also be estimated using these simulated results. (author)

  8. Heat transfer in a membrane assisted fluidised bed with immersed horizontal tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, S.A.R.K.; Volkers, S.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of gas permeation through horizontally immersed membrane tubes on the heat transfer characteristics in a membrane assisted fluidised bed was investigated experimentally. Local time-averaged heat transfer coefficients from copper tubes arranged in a staggered formation with the membrane

  9. Heat transfer in a membrane assisted fluidized bed with immersed horizontal tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, S.A.R.K.; Volkers, Sander; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of gas permeation through horizontally immersed membrane tubes on the heat transfer characteristics in a membrane assisted fluidized bed operated in the bubbling fluidization regime was investigated experimentally. Local time-averaged heat transfer coefficients from copper tubes arranged

  10. Testing of a 7-tube palladium membrane reactor for potential use in TEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, Bryan J.; Trujillo, Stephen; Willms, R. Scott

    2010-01-01

    A Palladium Membrane Reactor (PMR) consists of a palladium/silver membrane permeator filled with catalyst (catalyst may be inside or outside the membrane tubes). The PMR is designed to recover tritium from the methane, water, and other impurities present in fusion reactor effluent. A key feature of a PMR is that the total hydrogen isotope content of a stream is significantly reduced as (1) methane-steam reforming and/or water-gas shift reactions proceed on the catalyst bed and (2) hydrogen isotopes are removed via permeation through the membrane. With a PMR design matched to processing requirements, nearly complete hydrogen isotope removals can be achieved. A 3-tube PMR study was recently completed. From the results presented in this study, it was possible to conclude that a PMR is appropriate for TEP, perforated metal tube protectors function well, platinum on aluminum (PtA) catalyst performs the best, conditioning with air is probably required to properly condition the Pd/Ag tubes, and that CO/CO 2 ratios maybe an indicator of coking. The 3-tube PMR had a permeator membrane area of 0.0247 m 2 and a catalyst volume to membrane area ratio of 4.63 cc/cm 2 (with the catalyst on the outside of the membrane tubes and the catalyst only covering the membrane tube length). A PMR for TEP will require a larger membrane area (perhaps 0.35 m 2 ). With this in mind, an intermediate sized PMR was constructed. This PMR has 7 permeator tubes and a total membrane area of 0.0851 m 2 . The catalyst volume to membrane area ratio for the 7-tube PMR was 5.18 cc/cm 2 . The total membrane area of the 7-tube PMR (0.0851 m 2 ) is 3.45 times larger than total membrane area of the 3-tube PMR (0.0247 m 2 ). The following objectives were identified for the 7-tube PMR tests: (1) Refine test measurements, especially humidity and flow; (2) Refine maintenance procedures for Pd/Ag tube conditioning; (3) Evaluate baseline PMR operating conditions; (4) Determine PMR scaling method; (5) Evaluate PMR

  11. [Does a lateral gradient of membrane potential on the plasma membrane of growing pollen tube of germinating pollen grain exist?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, I M

    2011-01-01

    The data presented in the article by Breigina et al. (2009) "Changes in the membrane potential during pollen grain germination and pollen tube growth" (Tsitologiya. 51 (10): 815-823) and concerning the measurement of electric membrane potential (Delta Psi) on the plasma membrane of growing pollen tube of germinating pollen grain with the use of fluorescent potential-sensitive dye, di-4-ANEPPS, were critically analyzed in order to clarify whether a lateral gradient of Delta Psi on this membrane indeed exists. This analysis showed that the main conclusion of the authors of the above article on the existence of polar distribution of Delta Psi along the pollen tube plasma membrane is not in accordance with a number of known peculiarities of di-4-ANEPPS behavior in biological membranes and requires a significant revision. The findings in question reported by the authors, in my opinion, might be interpreted as evidence for the presence on the plasma membrane of growing pollen tube not only the membrane potential Delta Psi but also lateral gradient of so called intra-membrane dipole potential. Based on the comments made, another interpretation of the experimental results described by Breigina et al. has been offered. In addition, some drawbacks in the methodology used by the authors for measurement of Delta Psi with other fluorescent potential-sensitive dye, DiBAC3(3), are also shortly considered.

  12. Characterisation of detergent-insoluble membranes in pollen tubes of Nicotiana tabacum (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Moscatelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollen tubes are the vehicle for sperm cell delivery to the embryo sac during fertilisation of Angiosperms. They provide an intriguing model for unravelling mechanisms of growing to extremes. The asymmetric distribution of lipids and proteins in the pollen tube plasma membrane modulates ion fluxes and actin dynamics and is maintained by a delicate equilibrium between exocytosis and endocytosis. The structural constraints regulating polarised secretion and asymmetric protein distribution on the plasma membrane are mostly unknown. To address this problem, we investigated whether ordered membrane microdomains, namely membrane rafts, might contribute to sperm cell delivery. Detergent insoluble membranes, rich in sterols and sphingolipids, were isolated from tobacco pollen tubes. MALDI TOF/MS analysis revealed that actin, prohibitins and proteins involved in methylation reactions and in phosphoinositide pattern regulation are specifically present in pollen tube detergent insoluble membranes. Tubulins, voltage-dependent anion channels and proteins involved in membrane trafficking and signalling were also present. This paper reports the first evidence of membrane rafts in Angiosperm pollen tubes, opening new perspectives on the coordination of signal transduction, cytoskeleton dynamics and polarised secretion.

  13. Rotation, inversion and perversion in anisotropic elastic cylindrical tubes and membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, A.; Tabor, M.

    2013-01-01

    Cylindrical tubes and membranes are universal structural elements found in biology and engineering over a wide range of scales.Working in the framework of nonlinear elasticity, we consider the possible deformations of elastic cylindrical shells

  14. Urban future: enclosed neighbourhoods

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, K

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available believe that life within an enclosed neighbourhood provides a solution to crime and an improved quality of life. Yet, conclusive evidence of its effectiveness is lacking. City planners are being confronted with requests for permission to enclose entire...

  15. Rotation, inversion and perversion in anisotropic elastic cylindrical tubes and membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, A.

    2013-03-06

    Cylindrical tubes and membranes are universal structural elements found in biology and engineering over a wide range of scales.Working in the framework of nonlinear elasticity, we consider the possible deformations of elastic cylindrical shells reinforced by one or two families of fibres. We consider both small and large deformations and the reduction from thick cylindrical shells (tubes) to thin shells (cylindrical membranes). In particular, a number of universal parameter regimes can be identified where the response behaviour of the cylinder is qualitatively different. This include the possibility of inversion of twist or axial strain when the cylinder is subject to internal pressure. Copyright © The Royal Society 2013.

  16. The C-terminal hypervariable domain targets Aradopsis ROP9 to the invaginated pollen tube plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rop9 is a small GTPase of the Type II class, whereas the often studied type I Rops play roles during pollen tube growth. In pollen, Rop9 is located at the invaginated plasma membrane that surrounds the sperm cells, whereas type I Rops are located at the apical membrane of the pollen tube. The C-ter...

  17. Deposition of thin ultrafiltration membranes on commercial SiC microfiltration tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Facciotti, Marco; Boffa, Vittorio; Magnacca, Giuliana

    2014-01-01

    Porous SiC based materials present high mechanical, chemical and thermal robustness, and thus have been largely applied to water-filtration technologies. In this study, commercial SiC microfiltration tubes with nominal pore size of 0.04 m were used as carrier for depositing thin aluminium oxide....... After 5 times coating, a 5.6 µm thick γ-Al2O3 layer was obtained. This membrane shows retention of ~75% for polyethylene glycol molecules with Mn of 8 and 35 kDa, indicating that, despite their intrinsic surface roughness, commercial SiC microfiltration tubes can be applied as carrier for thin...... ultrafiltration membranes. This work also indicates that an improvement of the commercial SiC support surface smoothness may greatly enhance permeance and selectivity of Υ-Al2O3 ultrafiltration membranes by allowing the deposition of thinner defect-free layers....

  18. Effects of an elastic membrane on tube waves in permeable formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H; Johnson, D

    1996-10-01

    In this paper, the modified properties were calculated for tube wave propagation in a fluid-filled borehole penetrating a permeable rock due to the presence of a mudcake which forms on the borehole wall. The mudcake was characterized by an impermeable elastic layer. The mudcake partial sealing mechanism was simulated using a finite membrane stiffness. Consequently, it was shown that the mudcake can reduce, but not eliminate, the permeability effects on the tube wave slowness and attenuation. Moreover, this paper discusses a variety of values for the relevant parameters especially the mudcake thickness and membrane stiffness. The important combinations of mudcake parameters were clarified by using an analytic expression for the low-frequency limit.

  19. Identification of a Nicotiana plumbaginifolia plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase gene expressed in the pollen tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Benoit; Arango, Miguel; Oufattole, Mohammed; Crouzet, Jérôme; Purnelle, Bénédicte; Boutry, Marc

    2005-08-01

    In Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases (PMAs) are encoded by a gene family of nine members. Here, we report on the characterization of a new isogene, NpPMA5 (belonging to subfamily IV), and the determination of its expression pattern using the beta-glucuronidase (gusA) reporter gene. pNpPMA5-gusA was expressed in cotyledons, in vascular tissues of the stem (mainly in nodal zones), and in the flower and fruit. In the flower, high expression was found in the pollen tube after in vitro or in vivo germination. Northern blotting analysis confirmed that NpPMA5 was expressed in the pollen tube contrary to NpPMA2 (subfamily I) or NpPMA4 (subfamily II), two genes highly expressed in other tissues. The subcellular localization of PM H(+)-ATPase in the pollen tube was analyzed by immunocytodecoration. As expected, this enzyme was localized to the plasma membrane. However, neither the tip nor the base of the pollen tube was labeled, showing an asymmetrical distribution of this enzyme. This observation supports the hypothesis that the PM H(+)-ATPase is involved in creating the pH gradient that is observed along the pollen tube and is implicated in cell elongation. Compared to other plant PM H(+)-ATPases, the C-terminal region of NpPMA5 is shorter by 26 amino acid residues and is modified in the last 6 residues, due to a sequence rearrangement, which was also found in the orthologous gene of Nicotiana glutinosa, a Nicotiana species distant from N. plumbaginifolia and Petunia hybrida and Lycopersicon esculentum, other Solanacae species. This modification alters part of the PM H(+)-ATPase regulatory domain and raises the question whether this isoform is still regulated.

  20. Instability of enclosed horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Bernard S.

    2015-03-01

    We point out that there are solutions to the scalar wave equation on dimensional Minkowski space with finite energy tails which, if they reflect off a uniformly accelerated mirror due to (say) Dirichlet boundary conditions on it, develop an infinite stress-energy tensor on the mirror's Rindler horizon. We also show that, in the presence of an image mirror in the opposite Rindler wedge, suitable compactly supported arbitrarily small initial data on a suitable initial surface will develop an arbitrarily large stress-energy scalar near where the two horizons cross. Also, while there is a regular Hartle-Hawking-Israel-like state for the quantum theory between these two mirrors, there are coherent states built on it for which there are similar singularities in the expectation value of the renormalized stress-energy tensor. We conjecture that in other situations with analogous enclosed horizons such as a (maximally extended) Schwarzschild black hole in equilibrium in a (stationary spherical) box or the (maximally extended) Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime, there will be similar stress-energy singularities and almost-singularities—leading to instability of the horizons when gravity is switched on and matter and gravity perturbations are allowed for. All this suggests it is incorrect to picture a black hole in equilibrium in a box or a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as extending beyond the past and future horizons of a single Schwarzschild (/Schwarzschild-AdS) wedge. It would thus provide new evidence for 't Hooft's brick wall model while seeming to invalidate the picture in Maldacena's ` Eternal black holes in AdS'. It would thereby also support the validity of the author's matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis and of the paper ` Brick walls and AdS/CFT' by the author and Ortíz.

  1. A plant plasma membrane Ca2+ pump is required for normal pollen tube growth and fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøtt, Morten; Romanowsky, Shawn M; Bækgaard, Lone

    2004-01-01

    Ca(2+) signals are thought to play important roles in plant growth and development, including key aspects of pollen tube growth and fertilization. The dynamics of a Ca(2+) signal are largely controlled by influx (through channels) and efflux (through pumps and antiporters). The Arabidopsis genome...... and a high frequency of aborted fertilization, resulting in a >80% reduction in seed set. These findings identify a plasma membrane Ca(2+) transporter as a key regulator of pollen development and fertilization in flowering plants.......Ca(2+) signals are thought to play important roles in plant growth and development, including key aspects of pollen tube growth and fertilization. The dynamics of a Ca(2+) signal are largely controlled by influx (through channels) and efflux (through pumps and antiporters). The Arabidopsis genome......-inducing) plasmid that is transferred to plant cells] gene disruptions of ACA9 were found to result in partial male sterility. Complementation was observed by using a ACA9-yellow fluorescence protein (YFP) fusion that displayed plasma membrane localization. Mutant aca9 pollen displayed a reduced growth potential...

  2. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction analysis of zeolite NaA membranes on porous alumina tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyotani, Tomohiro

    2006-07-01

    Zeolite NaA-type membranes hydrothermally synthesized on porous alumina tubes, for dehydration process, were characterized by grazing incidence 2 theta scan X-ray diffraction analysis (GIXRD). The fine structure of the membrane was studied fractionally for surface layer and for materials embedded in the porous alumina tube. The thickness of the surface layer on the porous alumina tube in the membranes used in this study was approximately 2-3 microm as determined from transmission electron microscopy with focused ion beam thin-layer specimen preparation technique (FIB-TEM). To discuss the effects of the membrane surface morphology on the GIXRD measurements, CaA-type membrane prepared by ion exchange from the NaA-type membrane and surface-damaged NaA-type membrane prepared by water leaching were also studied. For the original NaA-type membrane, 2 theta scan GIXRD patterns could be clearly measured at X-ray incidence angles (alpha) ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 deg in increments of 0.1 deg. The surface layers of the 2 - 3 microm on the porous alumina tube correspond to the alpha values up to ca. 0.2 deg. For the CaA-type and the surface-damaged NaA-type membranes, however, diffraction patterns from the surface layer could not be successfully detected and the others were somewhat broad. For all the three samples, diffraction intensities of both zeolite and alumina increased with depth (X-ray incidence angle, alpha) in the porous alumina tube region. The depth profile analysis of the membranes based on the GIXRD first revealed that amount of zeolite crystal embedded in the porous alumina tube is much larger than that in the surface layer. Thus, the 2 theta scan GIXRD is a useful method to study zeolite crystal growth mechanism around (both inside and outside) the porous alumina support during hydrothermal synthesis and to study water permeation behavior in the dehydration process.

  3. Assessment of Eustachian tube function in patients with tympanic membrane retraction and in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canali, Inesângela; Petersen Schmidt Rosito, Letícia; Siliprandi, Bruno; Giugno, Cláudia; Selaimen da Costa, Sady

    The diagnosis of Eustachian tube dysfunctions is essential for better understanding of the pathogenesis of chronic otitis media. A series of tests to assess tube function are described in the literature; however, they are methodologically heterogeneous, with differences ranging from application protocols to standardization of tests and their results. To evaluate the variation in middle ear pressure in patients with tympanic membrane retraction and in normal patients during tube function tests, as well as to evaluate intra-individual variation between these tests. An observational, contemporary, cross-sectional study was conducted, in which the factor under study was the variation in middle ear pressure during tube function tests (Valsalva maneuver, sniff test, Toynbee maneuver) in healthy patients and in patients with mild and moderate/severe tympanic retraction. A total of 38 patients (76 ears) were included in the study. Patients underwent tube function tests at two different time points to determine pressure measurements after each maneuver. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, version 18.0, considering p-values <0.05 as statistically significant. Mean (standard deviation) age was 11 (2.72) years; 55.3% of patients were male and 44.7% female. The prevalence of type A tympanogram was higher among participants with healthy ears and those with mild retraction, whereas type C tympanograms were more frequent in the moderate/severe retraction group. An increase in middle ear pressure was observed during the Valsalva maneuver at the first time point evaluated in all three groups of ears (p=0.012). The variation in pressure was not significant either for the sniff test or for the Toynbee maneuver at the two time points evaluated (p≥0.05). Agreement between measurements obtained at the two different time points was weak to moderate for all tests in all three groups of ears, and the variations in discrepancy between measurements were higher in ears

  4. Design of a Multi-Tube Pd-Membrane Module for Tritium Recovery from He in DEMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Incelli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dense self-supported Pd-alloy membranes are used to selectively separate hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes. In particular, deuterium (D and tritium (T are currently identified as the main elements for the sustainability of the nuclear fusion reaction aimed at carbon free power generation. In the fusion nuclear reactors, a breeding blanket produces the tritium that is extracted and purified before being sent to the plasma chamber in order to sustain the fusion reaction. In this work, the application of Pd-alloy membranes has been tested for recovering tritium from a solid breeding blanket through a helium purge stream. Several simulations have been performed in order to optimize the design of a Pd-Ag multi-tube module in terms of geometry, operating parameters, and membrane module configuration (series vs. parallel. The results demonstrate that a pre-concentration stage before the Pd-membrane unit is mandatory because of the very low tritium concentration in the He which leaves the breeding blanket of the fusion reactor. The most suitable operating conditions could be reached by: (i increasing the hydrogen partial pressure in the lumen side and (ii decreasing the shell pressure. The preliminary design of a membrane unit has been carried out for the case of the DEMO fusion reactor: the optimized membrane module consists of an array of 182 Pd-Ag tubes of 500 mm length, 10 mm diameter, and 0.100 mm wall thickness (total active area of 2.85 m2.

  5. Micron-pore-sized metallic filter tube membranes for filtration of particulates and water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, T J; Palumbo, A V; Bischoff, B L; Miller, C J; Fagan, L A; McNeilly, M S; Judkins, R R

    2008-07-01

    Robust filtering techniques capable of efficiently removing particulates and biological agents from water or air suffer from plugging, poor rejuvenation, low permeance, and high backpressure. Operational characteristics of pressure-driven separations are in part controlled by the membrane pore size, charge of particulates, transmembrane pressure and the requirement for sufficient water flux to overcome fouling. With long term use filters decline in permeance due to filter-cake plugging of pores, fouling, or filter deterioration. Though metallic filter tube development at ORNL has focused almost exclusively on gas separations, a small study examined the applicability of these membranes for tangential filtering of aqueous suspensions of bacterial-sized particles. A mixture of fluorescent polystyrene microspheres ranging in size from 0.5 to 6 microm in diameter simulated microorganisms in filtration studies. Compared to a commercial filter, the ORNL 0.6 microm filter averaged approximately 10-fold greater filtration efficiency of the small particles, several-fold greater permeance after considerable use and it returned to approximately 85% of the initial flow upon backflushing versus 30% for the commercial filter. After filtering several liters of the particle-containing suspension, the ORNL composite filter still exhibited greater than 50% of its initial permeance while the commercial filter had decreased to less than 20%. When considering a greater filtration efficiency, greater permeance per unit mass, greater percentage of rejuvenation upon backflushing (up to 3-fold), and likely greater performance with extended use, the ORNL 0.6 microm filters can potentially outperform the commercial filter by factors of 100-1,000 fold.

  6. The influence of ventilation tube design on the magnitude of stress imposed at the implant/tympanic membrane interface.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vard, John P

    2008-03-01

    The design of ventilation tubes or grommets is thought to have a considerable influence on their performance. A computational model (finite element method) was used to investigate the significance of four design parameters of a commonly used design of ventilation tube. The design parameters were: the length of the shaft, the diameter of the flanges, the thickness of the flanges, and the material type. A statistical analysis technique, known as a factorial analysis of variance, was used to examine the importance of the four design parameters on the dynamical behaviour of the middle ear with the implant in situ and on the magnitude of stress induced at the implant\\/tympanic membrane interface. We predicted that the ventilation tube alters the frequency response of the middle ear; specifically the shaft length and the thickness of the flanges were found to have a significant effect upon the vibratory pattern at the umbo. A reduced length of tube and an increased size of flange were also found to be significant for minimising membrane stress (both with P<0.001). Thus, design parameters of critical influence on optimising performance were identified.

  7. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications...... for the lateral organization of membranes as wells as for physical properties like bending, permeability and elasticity...

  8. Similitude of membrane helical coil with membrane serpentine tube for characteristics of high-pressure syngas: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddamwar, Sagar. S.; Pawar, Anand N.; Naik, Pramod A.

    2018-05-01

    Heat exchangers remain one primary engineering methods besides this broad category of purposes including various waste heat recovery systems, power sectors, nuclear reactors. Natural convection is a method concerning heat transfer, during which flow of fluid occurs by density variations in the fluid occurring due to different temperature conditions. A fluid which encompasses a heat reservoir holds heat becomes light dense and rises. Operating fluid that is enclosing the high-temperature liquid remains frozen and later flows in to supplant it. Following this chilling liquid gets heated, and this method persists, resulting from convection flow. Forced convection into a heat exchanger is this movement of heat from one moving water to different stream through the surface from a pipe. The low-temperature liquid extracts heat of this comparatively high-temperature water because that flows along or over it.

  9. COMPARISON OF MEMBRANE FILTER, MULTIPLE-FERMENTATION-TUBE, AND PRESENCE-ABSENCE TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING TOTAL COLIFORMS IN SMALL COMMUNITY WATER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods for detecting total coliform bacteria in drinking water were compared using 1483 different drinking water samples from 15 small community water systems in Vermont and New Hampshire. The methods included the membrane filter (MF) technique, a ten tube fermentation tube tech...

  10. Investigation on Nano composite Membrane of Multi walled Carbon Nano tube Reinforced Polycarbonate Blend for Gas Separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausar, A.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nano tube has been explored as a nano filler in high performance polymeric membrane for gas separation. In this regard, nano composite membrane of polycarbonate (PC), poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVFHFP), and multi walled carbon nano tube (MWCNT) was fabricated via phase inversion technique. Poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) was employed for the compatibilization of the blend system. Two series of PC/PVFHFP/PEG were developed using purified P-MWCNT and acid functional A-MWCNT nano filler. Scanning and transmission electron micrographs have shown fine nano tube dispersion and wetting by matrix, compared with the purified system. Tensile strength and Young s modulus of PC/PVFHFP/PEG/MWCNT-A 1-5 were found to be in the range of 63.6-72.5 MPa and 110.6-122.1 MPa, respectively. The nano composite revealed 51% increase in Young s modulus and 28% increase in tensile stress relative to the pristine blend. The A-MWCNT was also effective in enhancing the perm selectivity αCO 2 /N 2 (31.2-39.9) of nano composite membrane relative to the blend membrane (21.6). The permeability ρCO 2 of blend was 125.6 barrer; however, the functional series had enhancedρCO 2 values ranging from 142.8 to 186.6 barrer. Moreover, A-MWCNT loading improved the gas diffusivity of PC/PVFHFP/PEG/MWCNT-A 1-5; however, filler content did not significantly influence the CO 2 and N 2 solubility.

  11. 46 CFR 116.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unless natural ventilation in all ordinary weather conditions is satisfactory to the OCMI. (d) An exhaust... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.600 Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed...

  12. Enclosed belts in the ascendancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    Although there will always be a place for traditional overland belt conveyors, enclosed belt systems are increasingly being specified where environmental protection assumes high priority or where there is a need to protect material from the weather. The article reports on recent conveyor projects such as: an MRC cable Belt in a 6.4 km system to carry coal in the Appalachian Mountains; a $40 m contract awarded to FL Smidth to supply an integrated coal handling system to LILIAMA in Vietnam and other contracts to handle coal for India's Coastal Gujarat Power; and a contract awarded to Bateman Engineered Technologies to supply a 7 km Japan Pipe Conveyor for a coal power station in Brazil. 3 photos.

  13. Exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) affects pollen tube growth via modulating putative Ca2+-permeable membrane channels and is coupled to negative regulation on glutamate decarboxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guang-Hui; Zou, Jie; Feng, Jing; Peng, Xiong-Bo; Wu, Ju-You; Wu, Ying-Liang; Palanivelu, Ravishankar; Sun, Meng-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is implicated in pollen tube growth, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms that it mediates are largely unknown. Here, it is shown that exogenous GABA modulates putative Ca2+-permeable channels on the plasma membranes of tobacco pollen grains and pollen tubes. Whole-cell voltage-clamp experiments and non-invasive micromeasurement technology (NMT) revealed that the influx of Ca2+ increases in pollen tubes in response to exogenous GABA. It is also demonstrated that glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), the rate-limiting enzyme of GABA biosynthesis, is involved in feedback controls of Ca2+-permeable channels to fluctuate intracellular GABA levels and thus modulate pollen tube growth. The findings suggest that GAD activity linked with Ca2+-permeable channels relays an extracellular GABA signal and integrates multiple signal pathways to modulate tobacco pollen tube growth. Thus, the data explain how GABA mediates the communication between the style and the growing pollen tubes. PMID:24799560

  14. Experimental study on the hydrodynamic effects of gas permeation through horizontal membrane tubes in fluidized beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de J.F.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Fluidized Bed Membrane Reactors gain worldwide increasing interest for various applications. Nevertheless, fundamental research on the hydrodynamics of these reactors is required in order to improve the predictive capabilities of numerical models and to improve reactor performance. This study

  15. Analysis of exocyst subunit EXO70 family reveals distinct membrane polar domains in Tobacco pollen tubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sekereš, Juraj; Pejchar, Přemysl; Šantrůček, J.; Vukašinović, Nemanja; Žárský, Viktor; Potocký, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 173, č. 3 (2017), s. 1659-1675 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19073S; GA ČR GA15-24711S Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21519 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : PLASMA-MEMBRANE * ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA * CELL-MIGRATION Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 6.456, year: 2016

  16. 46 CFR 177.600 - Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ventilation system unless natural ventilation in all ordinary weather conditions is satisfactory to the OCMI... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of enclosed and partially enclosed spaces... PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 177.600 Ventilation of...

  17. Enclosed nests may provide greater thermal than nest predation benefits compared with open nests across latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Boyce, Andy J.; Fierro-Calderon, Karolina; Mitchell, Adam E.; Armstad, Connor E.; Mouton, James C.; Bin Soudi, Evertius E.

    2017-01-01

    Nest structure is thought to provide benefits that have fitness consequences for several taxa. Traditionally, reduced nest predation has been considered the primary benefit underlying evolution of nest structure, whereas thermal benefits have been considered a secondary or even non-existent factor. Yet, the relative roles of these factors on nest structures remain largely unexplored.Enclosed nests have a constructed or natural roof connected to sides that allow a restricted opening or tube entrance that provides cover in all directions except the entrance, whereas open nests are cups or platforms that are open above. We show that construction of enclosed nests is more common among songbirds (Passeriformes) in tropical and southern hemisphere regions than in north temperate regions. This geographic pattern may reflect selection from predation risk, under long-standing assumptions that nest predation rates are higher in southern regions and that enclosed nests reduce predation risk compared with open cup nests. We therefore compared nest predation rates between enclosed vs. open nests in 114 songbird species that do not nest in tree holes among five communities of coexisting birds, and for 205 non-hole-nesting species from the literature, across northern temperate, tropical, and southern hemisphere regions.Among coexisting species, enclosed nests had lower nest predation rates than open nests in two south temperate sites, but not in either of two tropical sites or a north temperate site. Nest predation did not differ between nest types at any latitude based on literature data. Among 319 species from both our field studies and the literature, enclosed nests did not show consistent benefits of reduced predation and, in fact, predation was not consistently higher in the tropics, contrary to long-standing perspectives.Thermal benefits of enclosed nests were indicated based on three indirect results. First, species that built enclosed nests were smaller than species using

  18. Mechanism of membranous tunnelling nanotube formation in viral genome delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Peralta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In internal membrane-containing viruses, a lipid vesicle enclosed by the icosahedral capsid protects the genome. It has been postulated that this internal membrane is the genome delivery device of the virus. Viruses built with this architectural principle infect hosts in all three domains of cellular life. Here, using a combination of electron microscopy techniques, we investigate bacteriophage PRD1, the best understood model for such viruses, to unveil the mechanism behind the genome translocation across the cell envelope. To deliver its double-stranded DNA, the icosahedral protein-rich virus membrane transforms into a tubular structure protruding from one of the 12 vertices of the capsid. We suggest that this viral nanotube exits from the same vertex used for DNA packaging, which is biochemically distinct from the other 11. The tube crosses the capsid through an aperture corresponding to the loss of the peripentonal P3 major capsid protein trimers, penton protein P31 and membrane protein P16. The remodeling of the internal viral membrane is nucleated by changes in osmolarity and loss of capsid-membrane interactions as consequence of the de-capping of the vertices. This engages the polymerization of the tail tube, which is structured by membrane-associated proteins. We have observed that the proteo-lipidic tube in vivo can pierce the gram-negative bacterial cell envelope allowing the viral genome to be shuttled to the host cell. The internal diameter of the tube allows one double-stranded DNA chain to be translocated. We conclude that the assembly principles of the viral tunneling nanotube take advantage of proteo-lipid interactions that confer to the tail tube elastic, mechanical and functional properties employed also in other protein-membrane systems.

  19. Improved in-tube electro-membrane extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for simple and selective determination of ionic compounds: Optimization by central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazregar, Mohammad; Rajabi, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Asghari, Alireza

    2017-07-01

    In this work, an efficient sample clean-up method, named in-tube electro-membrane extraction, is modified to resolve the formation of bubbles in the extraction process. This modified method is applied for the extraction of two model analytes including tartrazine and sunset yellow from food samples. The method is based on the electro-kinetic migration of ionized compounds by the application of an electrical potential difference, and on this basis the analytes under investigation, as anionic compounds, simply migrate from the donor phase and concentrate in the acceptor phase. A thin polypropylene sheet placed in the tube acts as a support for the membrane solvent, and it separates 30 μL of the aqueous acceptor from 1.2 mL of the aqueous donor. This setup can be used to solve the problem of extracting highly hydrophilic analytes. Response surface methodology is used for optimization of the experimental parameters so that under the optimized conditions, the method provides a good linearity in the range of 50-1000 ng/mL, low limits of detection (15-25 ng/mL), good extraction repeatabilities (relative standard deviations below 8.1%, n = 5), and high extraction recoveries (54-76%). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. In-tube electro-membrane extraction with a sub-microliter organic solvent consumption as an efficient technique for synthetic food dyes determination in foodstuff samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazregar, Mohammad; Rajabi, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Asghari, Alireza; Abdossalami asl, Yousef

    2015-09-04

    A simple and efficient extraction technique with a sub-microliter organic solvent consumption termed as in-tube electro-membrane extraction (IEME) is introduced. This method is based upon the electro-kinetic migration of ionized compounds by the application of an electrical potential difference. For this purpose, a thin polypropylene (PP) sheet placed inside a tube acts as a support for the membrane solvent, and 30μL of an aqueous acceptor solution is separated by this solvent from 1.2mL of an aqueous donor solution. This method yielded high extraction recoveries (63-81%), and the consumption of the organic solvent used was only 0.5μL. By performing this method, the purification is high, and the utilization of the organic solvent, used as a mediator, is very simple and repeatable. The proposed method was evaluated by extraction of four synthetic food dyes (Amaranth, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red, and Carmoisine) as the model analytes. Optimization of variables affecting the method was carried out in order to achieve the best extraction efficiency. These variables were the type of membrane solvent, applied extraction voltage, extraction time, pH range, and concentration of salt added. Under the optimized conditions, IEME-HPLC-UV provided a good linearity in the range of 1.00-800ngmL(-1), low limits of detection (0.3-1ngmL(-1)), and good extraction repeatabilities (RSDs below 5.2%, n=5). It seems that this design is a proper one for the automation of the method. Also the consumption of the organic solvent in a sub-microliter scale, and its simplicity, high efficiency, and high purification can help one getting closer to the objectives of the green chemistry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals a dynamic pollen plasma membrane protein map and the membrane landscape of receptor-like kinases and transporters important for pollen tube growth and interaction with pistils in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning; Wang, Tai

    2017-01-05

    The coordination of pollen tube (PT) growth, guidance and timely growth arrest and rupture mediated by PT-pistil interaction is crucial for the PT to transport sperm cells into ovules for double fertilization. The plasma membrane (PM) represents an important interface for cell-cell interaction, and PM proteins of PTs are pioneers for mediating PT integrity and interaction with pistils. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying these events is important for proteomics. Using the efficient aqueous polymer two-phase system and alkali buffer treatment, we prepared high-purity PM from mature and germinated pollen of rice. We used iTRAQ quantitative proteomic methods and identified 1,121 PM-related proteins (PMrPs) (matched to 899 loci); 192 showed differential expression in the two pollen cell types, 119 increased and 73 decreased in abundance during germination. The PMrP and differentially expressed PMrP sets all showed a functional skew toward signal transduction, transporters, wall remodeling/metabolism and membrane trafficking. Their genomic loci had strong chromosome bias. We found 37 receptor-like kinases (RLKs) from 8 kinase subfamilies and 209 transporters involved in flux of diversified ions and metabolites. In combination with the rice pollen transcriptome data, we revealed that in general, the protein expression of these PMrPs disagreed with their mRNA expression, with inconsistent mRNA expression for 74% of differentially expressed PMrPs. This study identified genome-wide pollen PMrPs, and provided insights into the membrane profile of receptor-like kinases and transporters important for pollen tube growth and interaction with pistils. These pollen PMrPs and their mRNAs showed discordant expression. This work provides resource and knowledge to further dissect mechanisms by which pollen or the PT controls PMrP abundance and monitors interactions and ion and metabolite exchanges with female cells in rice.

  2. Tailoring the porosity and shrinkage of extruded MgO support tubes for oxygen separation membranes by thermoplastic feedstock development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothanda Ramachandran, Dhavanesan; Kaiser, Andreas; Glasscock, Julie

    for co-extrusion and co-sintering of a porous Magnesium oxide (MgO) support with a thin film of cerium gadolinium oxide (Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95-δ, CGO) as active oxygen transport membrane layer has been developed using a thermoplastic ceramic system and graphite as pore former. The feedstocks have been...

  3. Loss of the Arabidopsis thaliana P4-ATPases ALA6 and ALA7 Impairs Pollen Fitness and Alters the Pollen Tube Plasma Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C McDowell

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Members of the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases are thought to create and maintain lipid asymmetry in biological membranes by flipping specific lipids between membrane leaflets. In Arabidopsis, 7 of the 12 Aminophospholipid ATPase (ALA family members are expressed in pollen. Here we show that double knockout of ALA6 and ALA7 (ala6/7 results in siliques with a ~2-fold reduction in seed set with a high frequency of empty seed positions near the bottom. Seed set was reduced to near zero when plants were grown under a hot/cold temperature stress. Reciprocal crosses indicate that the ala6/7 reproductive deficiencies are due to a defect related to pollen transmission. In-vitro growth assays provide evidence that that ala6/7 pollen tubes are short and slow, with ~2-fold reductions in both maximal growth rate and overall length relative to wild-type. Outcrosses show that when ala6/7 pollen are in competition with wild-type pollen, they have a near 0% success rate in fertilizing ovules near the bottom of the pistil, consistent with ala6/7 pollen having short and slow growth defects. The ala6/7 phenotypes were rescued by the expression of either an ALA6-YFP or GFP-ALA6 fusion protein, which showed localization to both the plasma membrane and highly-mobile endomembrane structures. A mass spectrometry analysis of mature pollen grains revealed significant differences between ala6/7 and wild-type, both in the relative abundance of lipid classes and in the average number of double bonds present in acyl side chains. A change in the properties of the ala6/7 plasma membrane was also indicated by a ~10-fold reduction of labeling by lipophilic FM-dyes relative to wild-type. Together, these results indicate that ALA6 and ALA7 provide redundant activities that function to directly or indirectly change the distribution and abundance lipids in pollen, and support a model in which ALA6 and ALA7 are critical for pollen fitness under normal and temperature-stress conditions.

  4. Operation of an enclosed aquatic ecosystem in the Shenzhou-8 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Richter, Peter R.; Hao, Zongjie; An, Yanjun; Wang, Gaohong; Li, Dunhai; Liu, Yongding; Strauch, Sebastian M.; Schuster, Martin; Haag, Ferdinand W.; Lebert, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Long- term spaceflight needs reliable Biological life support systems (BLSS) to supply astronauts with enough food, fresh air and recycle wasters, but the knowledge about the operation pattern and controlling strategy is rear. For this purpose, a miniaturized enclosed aquatic ecosystem was developed and flown on the Chinese spaceship Shenzhou-8. The system with a total volume of about 60 mL was separated into two chambers by means of a gas transparent membrane. The lower chamber was inoculated with Euglena gracilis cells, and the upper chamber was cultured with Chlorella cells and three snails. After 17.5 days flight, the samples were analyzed. It was found that all snails in the ground module (GM) were alive, while in the flight module (FM) only one snail survived. The total cell numbers, assimilation of nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus, soluble proteins and carbohydrate contents showed a decrease in FM than in GM. The correlation analysis showed upper chambers of both FM and GM had the same positive and negative correlation factors, while differential correlation was found in lower chambers. These results suggested primary productivity in the enclosed system decreased in microgravity, accompanied with nutrients assimilation. The FM chamber endured lacking of domination species to sustain the system development and GM chamber endured richness in population abundance. These results implied photosynthesis intensity should be reduced to keep the system healthy. More Chlorella but less Euglena might be a useful strategy to sustain system stability. It is the first systematic analysis of enclosed systems in microgravity.

  5. Film holder for radiographing tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.V.; Foster, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    A film cassette is described which may be easily placed about tubing or piping and readily held in place while radiographic inspection is performed. A pair of precurved light-impervious semi-rigid plastic sheets, hinged at one edge, enclose sheet film together with any metallic foils or screens. Other edges are made light-tight with removable caps, and the entire unit is held securely about the object to be radiographed with a releasable fastener such as a strip of Velcro

  6. Film holder for radiographing tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Earl V.; Foster, Billy E.

    1976-01-01

    A film cassette is provided which may be easily placed about tubing or piping and readily held in place while radiographic inspection is performed. A pair of precurved light-impervious semi-rigid plastic sheets, hinged at one edge, enclose sheet film together with any metallic foils or screens. Other edges are made light-tight with removable caps, and the entire unit is held securely about the object to be radiographed with a releasable fastener such as a strip of Velcro.

  7. Axionic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurilia, A.; Spallucci, E.

    1992-01-01

    A metal ring removed from a soap-water solution encloses a film of soap which can be mathematically described as a minimal surface having the ring as its only boundary. This is known to everybody. In this letter we suggest a relativistic extension of the above fluidodynamic system where the soap film is replaced by a Kalb-Ramand gauge potential B μν (x) and the ring by a closed string. The interaction between the B μν field and the string current excites a new configuration of the system consisting of a relativistic membrane bounded by the string. We call such a classical solution of the equation of motion an axionic membrane. As a dynamical system, the axionic membrane admits a Hamilton-Jacobi formulation which is an extension of the HJ theory of electromagnetic strings. (orig.)

  8. Apparatus for inspecting and repairing a pressurized-water reactor's steam generator heat exchanger tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, O.; Roettger, H.; Kasti, H.; Hagen, H.G.

    1976-01-01

    Described is an apparatus provided for use with a pressurized-water reactor' steam generator having a manifold chamber enclosing the bottom side of a horizontal tube sheet having holes therethrough in which are mounted the tubes of a heat exchanger tube bundle. The manifold chamber has a manhole giving access to the tube's bottom side to permit internal inspection or repair of the tubes by registration of an end of a flexible guide conduit with the tube sheet holes and through which a flexible carrier can be guided for insertion via these holes in the tube sheet and through the tubes extending from the tube sheet's other side

  9. A simple algorithm for computing the smallest enclosing circle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven

    1991-01-01

    Presented is a simple O(n log n) algorithm for computing the smallest enclosing circle of a convex polygon. It can be easily extended to algorithms that compute the farthest-and the closest-point Voronoi diagram of a convex polygon within the same time bound.......Presented is a simple O(n log n) algorithm for computing the smallest enclosing circle of a convex polygon. It can be easily extended to algorithms that compute the farthest-and the closest-point Voronoi diagram of a convex polygon within the same time bound....

  10. A self-contained fully-enclosed microfluidic cartridge for lab on a chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yobas, Levent; Cheow, Lih Feng; Tang, Kum-Cheong; Yong, Shien-Eit; Ong, Eleana Kye-Zheng; Wong, Lionel; Teo, William Cheng-Yong; Ji, Hongmiao; Rafeah, Siti; Yu, Chen

    2009-12-01

    We describe a self-contained fully-enclosed cartridge for lab-on-a-chip applications where sample and reagents can be applied sequentially as is performed in a heterogeneous immunoassay, or nucleic acid extraction. Both the self-contained and fully-enclosed features of the cartridge are sought to ensure its safe use in the field by unskilled staff. Simplicity in cartridge design and operation is obtained via adopting a valveless concept whereby reagents are stored and used in the form of liquid plugs isolated by air spacers around a fluidic loop. Functional components integrated in the loop include a microfluidic chip specific to the target application, a novel peristaltic pump to displace the liquid plugs, and a pair of removable tubing segments where one is used to introduce biological sample and while the other is to collect eluant. The novel pump is fabricated through soft-lithography technique and works by pinching a planar channel under stainless-steel ball bearings that have been magnetically loaded. The utility of the cartridge is demonstrated for automated extraction and purification of nucleic acids (DNA) from a cell lysate on a battery-operated portable system. The cartridge shown here can be further extended to sample-in-answer-out diagnostic tests.

  11. Mobile unit for enclosing hot solid waste in a metal matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, I.A.; Arustamov, A.E.; Shiryaev, V.V.; Ozhovan, M.I.; Semenov, K.N.; Kachalov, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    After termination of their service life, the sources of ionizing radiation are transported to special burial points of radioactive waste in pitlike repositories near the surface. The repositories are cylindrical 200-litter cavities of stainless steel and are situated at a depth of 6 m in a concrete pit. The pit is concrete enveloped. The spent sources enter the cavity via a curve loading a tube. Water was observed in repositories of this type; in a powerful radiation field (with up to 10 4 R/sec), water accelerates the corrosion of the shells of the sources and liberates radiolytic hydrogen. In order to obtain reliable isolation of the sources, a new technique of enclosing the sources in a metal matrix of low-melting metals (layer-by-layer and directly in the repository) has been used since 1986 in the Moscow Scientific Planning Department 'Radon'. This makes it possible to preserve the traditional burial of spent sources and, in addition, to use the radiation shielding of the repository proper. Investigations have shown that this technique is very reliable: There are no radiolytic gases, the radiation field and the temperature field in the repository are substantially reduced, and therefore the volume of the repositories is increased by a factor of 5-6. The total activity of the spent sources enclosed in a metal matrix in accordance with this technique amounted to about 500,000 Ci in test units and semi-industrial units

  12. Comparative architecture of octahedral protein cages. I. Indexed enclosing forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janner, A.

    2008-07-01

    The architecture of four protein cages (bacterio ferritin, human mitochondrial ferritin, sulfur oxygenase reductase and small heat-shock protein) are compared top-to-bottom, starting from polyhedra with vertices at cubic lattice points enclosing the cage down to indexed polyhedral forms of single monomers.

  13. Vulnerability of semi-enclosed marine systems to environmental disturbances

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    MacCracken, M.; Escobar-Briones, E; Gilbert, D.; Korotaev, G.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Perillo, G.M.E; Rixen, T.; Stanev, E; Sundby, B.; Thomas, H.; Unger, D.; Urban, E

    Semi-Enclosed Marine Systems to Environmental Disturbances Michael MacCracken t Elva Escobar-Briones t Denis Gilbert, Gennady Korotaev, Wajih Naqvi, Gerardo M.E. Perillo, Tim Rixen, Emil Stanev, Bj0rn Sundby, Helmuth Thomas t Daniela Unger, and Edward R. Urban, Jr...

  14. Cover Letter Dear Editor, Please find enclosed a paper entitled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ajamein

    Dear Editor,. Please find enclosed a paper entitled ' Intrinsic Kinetics of Fischer- Tropsch Synthesis Over a. Promoted Iron Catalyst '. I am submitting to your journal to be considered for publication as a research paper in Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia. The manuscript has not been previously published, is not ...

  15. Segmentally enclosed thrombolysis in percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for femoropopliteal occlusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, B; Tønnesen, K H; Nielsen, J D

    1991-01-01

    Segmentally enclosed thrombolysis (SET) was performed immediately following 34 percutaneous transluminal angioplasties (PTAs) for femoropopliteal occlusions. The dilated segment was sealed off with a double balloon catheter, and recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) 1 mg/ml and heparin...

  16. Tube plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafred, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    The tube plug comprises a one piece mechanical plug having one open end and one closed end which is capable of being inserted in a heat exchange tube and internally expanded into contact with the inside surface of the heat exchange tube for preventing flow of a coolant through the heat exchange tube. The tube plug also comprises a groove extending around the outside circumference thereof which has an elastomeric material disposed in the groove for enhancing the seal between the tube plug and the tube

  17. Gastrostomy Tube (G-Tube)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any of these problems: a dislodged tube a blocked or clogged tube any signs of infection (including redness, swelling, or warmth at the tube site; discharge that's yellow, green, or foul-smelling; fever) excessive bleeding or drainage from the tube site severe abdominal pain lasting ...

  18. Computational and experimental methods for enclosed natural convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.W.; Gartling, D.K.; Schimmel, W.P. Jr.

    1977-10-01

    Two computational procedures and one optical experimental procedure for studying enclosed natural convection are described. The finite-difference and finite-element numerical methods are developed and several sample problems are solved. Results obtained from the two computational approaches are compared. A temperature-visualization scheme using laser holographic interferometry is described, and results from this experimental procedure are compared with results from both numerical methods

  19. Acoustic firearm discharge detection and classification in an enclosed environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzi, Lorenzo; Gonzalez, Eric; Bruillard, Paul; Prowant, Matthew; Skorpik, James; Hughes, Michael; Child, Scott; Kist, Duane; McCarthy, John E.

    2016-05-01

    Two different signal processing algorithms are described for detection and classification of acoustic signals generated by firearm discharges in small enclosed spaces. The first is based on the logarithm of the signal energy. The second is a joint entropy. The current study indicates that a system using both signal energy and joint entropy would be able to both detect weapon discharges and classify weapon type, in small spaces, with high statistical certainty.

  20. Thermal performance of 2350 kW totally enclosed air to air cooled motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.C.; Kuo, S.C.; Chen, S.L. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Cheng, T.F. [TATUNG CO., Sanhsia, Taiwan (China)

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated numerically and experimentally the thermal performance of a 2350 kW enclosed air-to-air cooled motor. The experiment was divided into 2 sections. The centrifugal fans were tested using a standard test apparatus. Flow rates, output power, and pressure drop between the inlet and outlet were obtained. The motor was then tested to measure the flow rate of the external flow, and inlet and outlet temperatures of the external and internal flow in the heat exchanger. Motor performance was then simulated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool. Heat transfer within the motor was divided into external and internal flows. External flow was driven by the rotation of the centrifugal fan mounted to the frame on the motor shaft and passing through the tubes of a staggered heat exchanger mounted on the top of the frame. Internal flow was circulated through the heat exchanger by 2 axial fans located on either side of the rotor and cooled by the external flow. Axial and centrifugal fan simulations were in good agreement with results obtained during the experiments. The study demonstrated that the calculated velocity distributions of external flow fluids through the heat exchanger tubes are non-uniform. Air outlet temperatures for internal and external flows were estimated within 2 per cent. However, stator and rotor simulations were 3 per cent lower than experimental measured values. 7 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs.

  1. Expert System Control of Plant Growth in an Enclosed Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, George; Lanoue, Mark; Bathel, Matthew; Ryan, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    The Expert System is an enclosed, controlled environment for growing plants, which incorporates a computerized, knowledge-based software program that is designed to capture the knowledge, experience, and problem-solving skills of one or more human experts in a particular discipline. The Expert System is trained to analyze crop/plant status, to monitor the condition of the plants and the environment, and to adjust operational parameters to optimize the plant-growth process. This system is intended to provide a way to remotely control plant growth with little or no human intervention. More specifically, the term control implies an autonomous method for detecting plant states such as health (biomass) or stress and then for recommending and implementing cultivation and/or remediation to optimize plant growth and to minimize consumption of energy and nutrients. Because of difficulties associated with delivering energy and nutrients remotely, a key feature of this Expert System is its ability to minimize this effort and to achieve optimum growth while taking into account the diverse range of environmental considerations that exist in an enclosed environment. The plant-growth environment for the Expert System could be made from a variety of structures, including a greenhouse, an underground cavern, or another enclosed chamber. Imaging equipment positioned within or around the chamber provides spatially distributed crop/plant-growth information. Sensors mounted in the chamber provide data and information pertaining to environmental conditions that could affect plant development. Lamps in the growth environment structure supply illumination, and other additional equipment in the chamber supplies essential nutrients and chemicals.

  2. The Type VI Secretion TssEFGK-VgrG Phage-Like Baseplate Is Recruited to the TssJLM Membrane Complex via Multiple Contacts and Serves As Assembly Platform for Tail Tube/Sheath Polymerization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick R Brunet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Type VI secretion system (T6SS is a widespread weapon dedicated to the delivery of toxin proteins into eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The 13 T6SS subunits assemble a cytoplasmic contractile structure anchored to the cell envelope by a membrane-spanning complex. This structure is evolutionarily, structurally and functionally related to the tail of contractile bacteriophages. In bacteriophages, the tail assembles onto a protein complex, referred to as the baseplate, that not only serves as a platform during assembly of the tube and sheath, but also triggers the contraction of the sheath. Although progress has been made in understanding T6SS assembly and function, the composition of the T6SS baseplate remains mostly unknown. Here, we report that six T6SS proteins-TssA, TssE, TssF, TssG, TssK and VgrG-are required for proper assembly of the T6SS tail tube, and a complex between VgrG, TssE,-F and-G could be isolated. In addition, we demonstrate that TssF and TssG share limited sequence homologies with known phage components, and we report the interaction network between these subunits and other baseplate and tail components. In agreement with the baseplate being the assembly platform for the tail, fluorescence microscopy analyses of functional GFP-TssF and TssK-GFP fusion proteins show that these proteins assemble stable and static clusters on which the sheath polymerizes. Finally, we show that recruitment of the baseplate to the apparatus requires initial positioning of the membrane complex and contacts between TssG and the inner membrane TssM protein.

  3. Quantum transport in coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, L.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum transport properties are instrumental to understanding quantum coherent transport processes. Potential applications of quantum transport are widespread, in areas ranging from quantum information science to quantum engineering, and not restricted to quantum state transfer, control and manipulation. Here, we study light transport in a ring array of coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux. The ring configuration, with an arbitrary number of resonators embedded, forms a two-arm Aharonov–Bohm interferometer. The influence of magnetic flux on light transport is investigated. Tuning the magnetic flux can lead to resonant transmission, while half-integer magnetic flux quantum leads to completely destructive interference and transmission zeros in an interferometer with two equal arms. -- Highlights: •The light transport is investigated through ring array of coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic field. •Aharonov–Bohm ring interferometer of arbitrary configuration is investigated. •The half-integer magnetic flux quantum leads to destructive interference and transmission zeros for two-arm at equal length. •Complete transmission is available via tuning synthetic magnetic flux.

  4. Environmental behaviour of tensile membrane structures

    OpenAIRE

    Elnokaly, Amira; Chilton, John; Wilson, Robin

    2002-01-01

    This paper considers the environmental properties of spaces enclosed by tensile membrane structures (TMS). Limitations in the understanding of the environmental and thermal performance of TMS have to some extent hindered their acceptance by building clients and the building industry. A review of the early attempts to model the thermal environment of spaces enclosed by TMS is given and their environmental and thermal properties are discussed. The lack of appropriate tools for the investigation...

  5. Ceramic oxygen transport membrane array reactor and reforming method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Robinson, Charles; Wilson, Jamie R.; Gonzalez, Javier E.; Doraswami, Uttam R.

    2016-11-08

    The invention relates to a commercially viable modular ceramic oxygen transport membrane reforming reactor configured using repeating assemblies of oxygen transport membrane tubes and catalytic reforming reactors.

  6. Ceramic oxygen transport membrane array reactor and reforming method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Robinson, Charles; Wilson, Jamie R; Gonzalez, Javier E.; Doraswami, Uttam R.

    2017-10-03

    The invention relates to a commercially viable modular ceramic oxygen transport membrane system for utilizing heat generated in reactively-driven oxygen transport membrane tubes to generate steam, heat process fluid and/or provide energy to carry out endothermic chemical reactions. The system provides for improved thermal coupling of oxygen transport membrane tubes to steam generation tubes or process heater tubes or reactor tubes for efficient and effective radiant heat transfer.

  7. Gas separation membrane module assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Nicholas P [Palo Alto, CA; Fulton, Donald A [Fairfield, CA

    2009-03-31

    A gas-separation membrane module assembly and a gas-separation process using the assembly. The assembly includes a set of tubes, each containing gas-separation membranes, arranged within a housing. The housing contains a tube sheet that divides the space within the housing into two gas-tight spaces. A permeate collection system within the housing gathers permeate gas from the tubes for discharge from the housing.

  8. Permanent-magnet-less machine having an enclosed air gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-02-07

    A permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic rotating field when sourced by an alternating current. An uncluttered rotor disposed within the magnetic rotating field is spaced apart from the stator to form an air gap relative to an axis of rotation. A stationary excitation core spaced apart from the uncluttered rotor by an axial air gap and a radial air gap substantially encloses the stationary excitation core. Some permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous systems include stator core gaps to reduce axial flux flow. Some permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous systems include an uncluttered rotor coupled to outer laminations. The quadrature-axis inductance may be increased in some synchronous systems. Some synchronous systems convert energy such as mechanical energy into electrical energy (e.g., a generator); other synchronous systems may convert any form of energy into mechanical energy (e.g., a motor).

  9. Identification of V-type nerve agents in vapor samples using a field-portable capillary gas chromatography/membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry instrument with Tri-Bed concentrator and fluoridating conversion tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrui, Y; Nagoya, T; Kurimata, N; Sodeyama, M; Seto, Y

    2017-07-01

    A field-portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system (Hapsite ER) was evaluated for the detection of nonvolatile V-type nerve agents (VX and Russian VX (RVX)) in the vapor phase. The Hapsite ER system consists of a Tri-Bed concentrator gas sampler, a nonpolar low thermal-mass capillary GC column and a hydrophobic membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer evacuated by a non-evaporative getter pump. The GC-MS system was attached to a VX-G fluoridating conversion tube containing silver nitrate and potassium fluoride. Sample vapors of VX and RVX were converted into O-ethyl methylphosphonofluoridate (EtGB) and O-isobutyl methylphosphonofluoridate (iBuGB), respectively. These fluoridated derivatives were detected within 10 min. No compounds were detected when the VX and RVX samples were analyzed without the conversion tube. A vapor sample of tabun (GA) was analyzed, in which GA and O-ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidofluoridate were detected. The molar recovery percentages of EtGB and iBuGB from VX and RVX vapors varied from 0.3 to 17%, which was attributed to variations in the vaporization efficiency of the glass vapor container. The conversion efficiencies of the VX-G conversion tube for VX and RVX to their phosphonate derivatives were estimated to be 40%. VX and RVX vapors were detected at concentrations as low as 0.3 mg m -3 . Gasoline vapor was found to interfere with the analyses of VX and RVX. In the presence of 160 mg m -3 gasoline, the detection limits of VX and RVX vapor were increased to 20 mg m -3 . Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding therapies have been exhausted. Please review product brand and method of placement carefully with your physician ... Total Parenteral Nutrition. Resources: Oley Foundation Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation Children’s Medical Nutrition Alliance APFED’s Educational Webinar ...

  11. OMEGA (Offshore Membrane for Enclosing Algae). NASA-NAVY: A Strategic Planning Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This briefing packet provides a short introduction to OMEGA and a truncated version of our project approach, with an example of the kind of work break down structure (WBS) used to guide our Phase I activities. It is meant to give you an impression of how we are approaching the challenge of creating the world's first marine photobioreactor (PBR) that will scale to address the strategic energy problems confronting the United States and the world. Some of our conceptual PBR designs and plans for logistics are included to communicate the path we have taken. We have also included an aerial photograph of the experimental tanks we are using at the Cal Fish and Game, followed by concluding remarks. The overarching purpose of the strategic planning discussion in Norfolk is to establish the relationship between the NASA OMEGA Team and the Navy, to unite the strengths of both agencies, and to map a mutual way forward along the project's established critical path.

  12. Study of hydrogen vehicle storage in enclosed parking facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzile, M A [Transport Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles; Cook, S [Canadian Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a coordinated research program between Transport Canada and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Canada that examines issues of hydrogen vehicle storage. The ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles (eTV) program focuses on the safety issues of operating and storing hydrogen fuelled vehicles in enclosed parking facilities. The aim of the program is to review existing research, current building standards applied in Canada, standards applied to natural gas vehicles, and standards and recommended practices for the design of fuel cell vehicles. Any potential gaps in safety will be considered in the design of CFD modeling scenarios. Considerations that extend beyond previously performed studies include the effect of Canadian climate on vehicle safety and leak detection equipment, fail-safe mechanism performance, as well as analyses of the frequency of hydrogen leak occurrences and the probability of ignition. The results of the study will facilitate policy makers and authorities in making decisions regarding the storage of hydrogen fuelled vehicles as they become more popular.

  13. Pioneering SUPER - Small Unit Passively-safe Enclosed Reactor - 15559

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhownik, P.K.; Gairola, A.; Shamim, J.A.; Suh, K.Y.; Suh, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the basic features of the Small Unit Passively-safe Enclosed Reactor abbreviated as SUPER, a new reactor system that has been designed and proposed at the Seoul National University's Department of Energy Systems Engineering. SUPER is a small modular reactor system or SMR that is cooled by sub-cooled as well as supercritical water. As a new member of SMRs, SUPER is a small-scale nuclear plant that is designed to be factory-manufactured and shipped as modules to be assembled at a site. The concept offers promising answers to many questions about nuclear power including proliferation resistance, waste management, safety, and startup costs. SUPER is a customized paradigm of a supercritical water reactor or SCWR, a type sharing commonalities with the current fleet of light water reactors, or LWRs. SUPER has evolved from the System-integrated Modular Advance Reactor, or SMART, being developed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, or KAERI. SUPER enhanced the safety features for robustness, design/equipment simplification for natural convection, multi-purpose application for co-generation flexibilities, suitable for isolated or small electrical grids, just-in-time capacity addition, short construction time, and last, but not least, lower capital cost per unit. The primary objectives of SUPER is to develop the conceptual design for a safe and economic small, natural circulation SCWR, to address the economic and safety attributes of the concept, and to demonstrate its technical feasibilities. (authors)

  14. The relevance of accounting information enclosed in performance indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Cristina Onica

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research study is analyzing the relevance of accounting information reflected through the elaboration of firm performance variables and administration because of the necessity of performance to be administrated. The subject of the theme is enclosed in current development of accounting norms at national , european, (Directives and international levels (IAS/IFRS. The analyised topic is based upon the capabilty of accounting to generate information , throug synthesis calculus being settled the nature , the characteristics and the informational valences of financial performance of an organization. The accounting infromation is base for performing the decison process. The rol of accounting in insurring the relevance and comparability of information increased significantly, being already indispensable. A real solution for communication misunderstanig elimination emerged, as result of diputes in perception and interpretation of economic information, as results for the national speciffic norms.The economic communication is demanding for firm not only in its expression but in thinking and in the process of method conceptualization of organization and administration. A detailed financial situation analysis, which are employing annual financial analysis procedures, underling the performance and risks influencing factors, are considering one starting point for addressing the issue. The introduced variables are insuring a whole vision of firm activity and an appropriate strategy for results significance.

  15. Steam generator tube extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, H.

    1985-05-01

    To enable tube examination on steam generators in service, Framatome has now developed a process for removing sections of steam generator tubes. Tube sections can be removed without being damaged for treating the tube section expanded in the tube sheet

  16. 46 CFR 28.340 - Ventilation of enclosed engine and fuel tank spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of enclosed engine and fuel tank spaces. 28... of enclosed engine and fuel tank spaces. (a) Applicability. Each vessel with a gasoline outboard engine or gasoline storage tank must comply with the requirements of this section. (b) Ventilation of...

  17. Facile Synthesis of Gold Nanorice Enclosed by High- Index Facets and Its Application for CO Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Y.; Tao, J.; Liu, H.; Zeng, J.; Yu, T.; Ma, Y.; Moran, C.; Wu, L.; Zhu, Y.; Liu, J.; Xia, Y.

    2011-01-01

    A facile method for generating Au nanorice enclosed by high-index facets in high purity. The nanorice shows much higher catalytic activity for CO oxidation than multiply twinned particles of Au enclosed by {111} facets at temperatures below 300 C.

  18. Soft tissue decomposition of submerged, dismembered pig limbs enclosed in plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakosh, Caitlin M; Rogers, Tracy L

    2009-11-01

    This study examines underwater soft tissue decomposition of dismembered pig limbs deposited in polyethylene plastic bags. The research evaluates the level of influence that disposal method has on underwater decomposition processes and details observations specific to this scenario. To our knowledge, no other study has yet investigated decomposing, dismembered, and enclosed remains in water environments. The total sample size consisted of 120 dismembered pig limbs, divided into a subsample of 30 pig limbs per recovery period (34 and 71 days) for each treatment. The two treatments simulated non-enclosed and plastic enclosed disposal methods in a water context. The remains were completely submerged in Lake Ontario for 34 and 71 days. In both recovery periods, the non-enclosed samples lost soft tissue to a significantly greater extent than their plastic enclosed counterparts. Disposal of remains in plastic bags therefore results in preservation, most likely caused by bacterial inhibition and reduced oxygen levels.

  19. A Novel Enclosed Online Control System for Microalgae Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are single celled microscopic organisms which, like plants, convert solar energy into bio-energy through photosynthesis. They can be used to produce a variety of bio-based products, such as bio-food and biodiesel. Large scale algae production can be achieved in open or closed systems. An enclosed online microalgae control production system is presented in this paper. The designed system is composed of a reactor which is placed inside a box with light reflecting surface. Lighting system, CO2 supply, heating, as well as online cell mass monitoring via spectrophotometer, were integrated. The online monitoring of cell mass concentration is coupled to two pumps which remove a certain amount of cell suspension, and take fresh media as an alternative. Also, a LabView program was developed to collect data from a spectrophotometer and processed in a computer. Considering the limited experimental conditions and the pollution possibility for its high productivity if liquid is not properly disposed, food color was used to test the designed novel system in this paper. The results showed that, the system could detect a change in absorption over time with periodic sampling for every 4.8 minutes. When absorption value reach a pre-set gate, pump1 immediately starts to pump out a certain amount of solution?then pump2 starts to pump in fresh media according to the calculated time. The concentration could be controlled below the threshold value. From the continuous test using food color, the designed system showed good stability and controlling accuracy. It provides a good reference for the following microalgae testing experiment in future. Considering the applications of microalgae in agriculture, this research also provides resources for bio-fertilizer.

  20. Comparison of enclosed space detection system with conventional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercel, S.W.; Baylor, V.M.; Labaj, L.E.

    1997-09-01

    Enclosed Space Detection System (ESDS) is a fast, inexpensive, and reliable device for detecting human occupants hidden in vehicles. Operation requires less than two minutes. ESDS is used to foil attempts at smuggling illegal aliens, terrorists, and escaping prisoners. It is being tested at nuclear weapons facilities and has been operated at several prisons and international border crossings. ESDS is the first practical electronic alternative to physical searches of vehicles for hidden passengers. At critical checkpoints, a thorough physical search of a single fully loaded truck requires a team of from two to six people, and may take as long as eight hours. Despite this level of security, experience has shown that the search can occasionally be foiled. Due to the enormous time and expense of thorough physical searches of vehicles, they are seldom conducted at any but the most critical of locations, simply leaving many sites vulnerable to crime and terrorism. Prior to the development of the ESDS, the only other effective alternative to physical search was the use of specially-trained canines, which can be vastly superior to the physical search in both time and accuracy. However, as discussed in this paper, canine inspection is not really a competitive substitute for ESDS because canine reliability (80% at most) is not as high as that of the ESDS (99%+), while the costs, training requirements, and operator skill needed are significantly higher with canines than with the ESDS. In addition, the ESDS has straightforward self-diagnostic tests to ensure the system is operating correctly; such tests are not currently available with either canine or human inspectors. ESDS offers an attractive supplement or alternative to meet current security requirements for vehicle searches at portals at government, nuclear, industrial, and other facilities where concealed persons may pose a threat either by entering or leaving.

  1. Comparison of enclosed space detection system with conventional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kercel, S.W.; Baylor, V.M.; Labaj, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Enclosed Space Detection System (ESDS) is a fast, inexpensive, and reliable device for detecting human occupants hidden in vehicles. Operation requires less than two minutes. ESDS is used to foil attempts at smuggling illegal aliens, terrorists, and escaping prisoners. It is being tested at nuclear weapons facilities and has been operated at several prisons and international border crossings. ESDS is the first practical electronic alternative to physical searches of vehicles for hidden passengers. At critical checkpoints, a thorough physical search of a single fully loaded truck requires a team of from two to six people, and may take as long as eight hours. Despite this level of security, experience has shown that the search can occasionally be foiled. Due to the enormous time and expense of thorough physical searches of vehicles, they are seldom conducted at any but the most critical of locations, simply leaving many sites vulnerable to crime and terrorism. Prior to the development of the ESDS, the only other effective alternative to physical search was the use of specially-trained canines, which can be vastly superior to the physical search in both time and accuracy. However, as discussed in this paper, canine inspection is not really a competitive substitute for ESDS because canine reliability (80% at most) is not as high as that of the ESDS (99%+), while the costs, training requirements, and operator skill needed are significantly higher with canines than with the ESDS. In addition, the ESDS has straightforward self-diagnostic tests to ensure the system is operating correctly; such tests are not currently available with either canine or human inspectors. ESDS offers an attractive supplement or alternative to meet current security requirements for vehicle searches at portals at government, nuclear, industrial, and other facilities where concealed persons may pose a threat either by entering or leaving

  2. Experimental study of a hybrid electro-acoustic nonlinear membrane absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryk, P. Y.; Bellizzi, S.; Côte, R.

    2018-06-01

    A hybrid electro-acoustic nonlinear membrane absorber working as a nonlinear energy sink (here after named EA-NES) is described. The device is composed of a thin circular visco-elastic membrane working as an essentially cubic oscillator. One face of the membrane is coupled to the acoustic field to be reduced and the other face is enclosed. The enclosure includes a loudspeaker for the control of the acoustic pressure felt by the rear face of the membrane through proportional feedback control. An experimental set-up has been developed where the EA-NES is weakly coupled to a linear acoustic system. The linear acoustic system is an open-ended tube, coupled on one side to the EA-NES by a box, and on the other side to a source loudspeaker by another box. Only sinusoidal forcing is considered. It is shown that the EA-NES is able to perform resonance capture with the acoustic field, resulting in noise reduction by targeted energy transfer, and to operate in a large frequency band, tuning itself passively to any linear system. We demonstrate the ability of the feedback gain defining the active loop to modify the resonance frequency of the EA-NES, which is a key factor to tune the triggering threshold of energy pumping. The novelty of this work is to use active control combined to passive nonlinear transfer energy to improve it. In this paper, only experimental results are analyzed.

  3. Ear Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  4. Comparison of photovoltaic cell temperatures in modules operating with exposed and enclosed back surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.; Simon, F. F.

    1981-01-01

    Four different photovoltaic module designs were tested to determine the cell temperature of each design. The cell temperatures were compared to those obtained on identical design, using the same nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) concept. The results showed that the NOCT procedure does not apply to the enclosed configurations due to continuous transient conditions. The enclosed modules had higher cell temperatures than the open modules, and insulated modules higher than the uninsulated. The severest performance loss - when translated from cell temperatures - 17.5 % for one enclosed, insulated module as a compared to that module mounted openly.

  5. Electron tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Motohiro [Hamamatsu, JP; Fukasawa, Atsuhito [Hamamatsu, JP; Arisaka, Katsushi [Los Angeles, CA; Wang, Hanguo [North Hills, CA

    2011-12-20

    An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a face plate portion made of synthetic silica and having a surface on which a photoelectric surface is provided, a stem portion arranged facing the photoelectric surface and made of synthetic silica, and a side tube portion having one end connected to the face plate portion and the other end connected to the stem portion and made of synthetic silica; a projection portion arranged in the vacuum vessel, extending from the stem portion toward the photoelectric surface, and made of synthetic silica; and an electron detector arranged on the projection portion, for detecting electrons from the photoelectric surface, and made of silicon.

  6. Chest tube insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... Be careful there are no kinks in your tube. The drainage system should always sit upright and be placed ...

  7. Utilization of polymer enclosed intermediate class arresters to improve the performance of modern power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakich, J.D.; Lenk, D.W.; Koepfinger, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper introduces the first commercially available polymer enclosed intermediate class metal oxide surge arrester. It describes the unique construction of the design, including reduced size, increased flexibility, a collared seal on the polymer housing and an open webbed fiberglass-epoxy module which houses the metal oxide disc elements. Performance advantages are discussed. These include improved short term contamination performance of the insulator-like polymer design when compared to multi-unit porcelain housed designs. Data will show that polymer housed open-webbed fiberglass module construction extends the pressure relief capability beyond that of typical porcelain enclosed designs. The capability of the polymer enclosed design to withstand repeated pressure relief tests, simulating system reclose on a failed arrester, is also discussed. This paper discusses the circumstances at one utility which has considered utilizing polymer enclosed intermediate class arresters to effectively upgrade their system protection capabilities

  8. Ecological stoichiometry of C, N and P on different time enclosed in desertification steppe soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W. Z.; Jiao, Y.; Jia, Y. Q.

    2017-08-01

    It is the research object for the ecological stoichiometry of C, N and P on the different time of desertification grasslands enclosed and grazing grassland in Taibusi country of the Inner Mongolia, China. Through the measurement and analysis on ecological stoichiometric ratio of C, N and P in soil, the time of desertification grassland enclosed is determined. There are 13 soil of desertification grassland with different en-closure time, and 1 soil of grazing grassland. They are analyzed for the soil organic carbon, total nitro-gen, total phosphorus content and their density. The C/N of soil were increased with the extension of the time of desertification grassland enclosed. To 22 years enclosed, the C/N of grassland desertification soil enclosed is greater than the soil of grazing grassland that is 17. After the desertification grassland is en-closed, the C/N of soil is 13, and it is accumulated to maximum for C and N, and The grazing period is the best.

  9. photomultiplier tubes

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  10. photomultiplier tube

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  11. INFLUENCE OF NON-PERFORATED SCREEN LOCATION ON HEAT TRANSFER PROCESS IN BUILDING ENCLOSING PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Sizov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is recommended to have a vapor-proof barrier on the internal side of heat insulation system in multi-layer building enclosing parts in order to ensure protection of a heat-insulation layer against humidification because relative humidity of internal air is generally higher than external one and diffusion of water steam is directed from premises outside. While having a barrier with high vapor permeability a part of moisture can be accumulated in the structure and heat insulation core and difference of actual and maximum possible partial pressures leads to condensate formation. In order to improve thermal properties of enclosing parts the necessity arises to create a vapor-proof protection screen. It complies with the design of a panel with a vapor-proof screen in the form of non-perforated aluminium foil. The given screen located at internal panel layer prevents penetration of water vapor from premises into enclosing part and heat insulation layer. In such a case condensation zones and, consequently, their moistening can occur in some layers of enclosing parts according to their thermal and physical characteristics. The paper contains a calculation of thermal and moisture regime of the enclosing parts with vapor-proof layer (non-perforated aluminium foil located in enclosing part core between various layers. An analysis of thermal and moisture regime diagrams for multi-layer external enclosing part demonstrates that the part of non-perforated screen (aluminium foil located between internal concrete layer and perforated heat insulation layer is considered the most rational one. At the same time other screens between separate layers are perforated.

  12. Technical design report for the PANDA (AntiProton Annihilations at Darmstadt) Straw Tube Tracker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erni, W.; Keshelashvili, I.; Krusche, B.; Steinacher, M.; Heng, Y.; Liu, Z.; Liu, H.; Shen, X.; Wang, Q.; Xu, H.; Aab, A.; Albrecht, M.; Becker, J.; Csapo, A.; Feldbauer, F.; Fink, M.; Friedel, P.; Heinsius, F. H.; Held, T.; Klask, L.; Koch, H.; Kopf, B.; Leiber, S.; Leyhe, M.; Motzko, C.; Pelizaeus, M.; Pychy, J.; Roth, B.; Schroeder, T.; Schulze, J.; Sowa, C.; Steinke, M.; Trifterer, T.; Wiedner, U.; Zhong, J.; Beck, R.; Bianco, S.; Brinkmann, K. T.; Hammann, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Kaiser, D.; Kliemt, R.; Kube, M.; Pitka, A.; Quagli, T.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitz, R.; Schnell, R.; Thoma, U.; Vlasov, P.; Walther, D.; Wendel, C.; Wuerschig, T.; Zaunick, H. G.; Bianconi, A.; Bragadireanu, M.; Caprini, M.; Pantea, D.; Pantelica, D.; Pietreanu, D.; Serbina, L.; Tarta, P. D.; Kaplan, D.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Mindur, B.; Przyborowski, D.; Swientek, K.; Czech, B.; Kistryn, M.; Kliczewski, S.; Kozela, A.; Kulessa, P.; Lebiedowicz, P.; Pysz, K.; Schaefer, W.; Siudak, R.; Szczurek, A.; Jowzaee, S.; Kajetanowicz, M.; Kamys, B.; Kistryn, S.; Korcyl, G.; Korcyl, K.; Krzemien, W.; Magiera, A.; Moskal, P.; Palka, M.; Rudy, Z.; Salabura, P.; Smyrski, J.; Wronska, A.; Augustin, I.; Lehmann, I.; Nimorus, D.; Schepers, G.; Al-Turany, M.; Arora, R.; Deppe, H.; Flemming, H.; Gerhardt, A.; Goetzen, K.; Jordi, A. F.; Kalicy, G.; Karabowicz, R.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Luehning, J.; Maas, F.; Orth, H.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Saito, T.; Schepers, G.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Voss, B.; Wieczorek, P.; Wilms, A.; Zuehlsdorf, M.; Abazov, V. M.; Alexeev, G.; Arefiev, A.; Astakhov, V. I.; Barabanov, M. Yu.; Batyunya, B. V.; Davydov, Yu. I.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Efremov, A. A.; Fedunov, A. G.; Festchenko, A. A.; Galoyan, A. S.; Grigoryan, S.; Karmokov, A.; Koshurnikov, E. K.; Lobanov, V. I.; Lobanov, Yu. Yu.; Makarov, A. F.; Malinina, L. V.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mustafaev, G. A.; Olshevskiy, A.; Pasyuk, M. A.; Perevalova, E. A.; Piskun, A. A.; Pocheptsov, T. A.; Pontecorvo, G.; Rodionov, V. K.; Rogov, Yu. N.; Salmin, R. A.; Samartsev, A. G.; Sapozhnikov, M. G.; Shabratova, G. S.; Skachkova, A. N.; Skachkov, N. B.; Strokovsky, E. A.; Suleimanov, M. K.; Teshev, R. Sh.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Uzhinsky, V. V.; Vodopyanov, A. S.; Zaporozhets, S. A.; Zhuravlev, N. I.; Zorin, A. G.; Branford, D.; Glazier, D.; Watts, D.; Woods, P.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Uhlig, F.; Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K.; Tomaradze, A.; Xiao, T.; Bettoni, D.; Carassiti, V.; Ramusino, A. Cotta; Dalpiaz, P.; Drago, A.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Savrie, M.; Stancari, G.; Bianchi, N.; Gianotti, P.; Guaraldo, C.; Lucherini, V.; Orecchini, D.; Pace, E.; Bersani, A.; Bracco, G.; Macri, M.; Parodi, R. F.; Bremer, D.; Dormenev, V.; Drexler, P.; Dueren, M.; Eissner, T.; Foehl, K.; Galuska, M.; Gessler, T.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Hu, J.; Koch, P.; Kroeck, B.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, S.; Liang, Y.; Merle, O.; Metag, V.; Moritz, M.; Muenchow, D.; Nanova, M.; Novotny, R.; Spruck, B.; Stenzel, H.; Ullrich, T.; Werner, M.; Xu, H.; Euan, C.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D.; Keri, T.; Montgomery, R.; Protopopescu, D.; Rosner, G.; Seitz, B.; Babai, M.; Glazenborg-Kluttig, A.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Lemmens, P.; Lindemulder, M.; Löhner, H.; Messchendorp, J.; Moeini, H.; Schakel, P.; Schreuder, F.; Smit, H.; Tambave, G.; van der Weele, J. C.; Veenstra, Rick; Sohlbach, H.; Buescher, M.; Deermann, D.; Dosdall, R.; Esch, S.; Gillitzer, A.; Goldenbaum, F.; Grunwald, D.; Henssler, S.; Herten, A.; Hu, Q.; Kemmerling, G.; Kleines, H.; Kozlov, V.; Lehrach, A.; Maier, R.; Mertens, M.; Ohm, H.; Orfanitski, S.; Prasuhn, D.; Randriamalala, T.; Ritman, J.; Roeder, M.; Schadmand, S.; Serdyuk, V.; Sterzenbach, G.; Stockmanns, T.; Wintz, P.; Wuestner, P.; Xu, H.; Kisiel, J.; Li, S.; Li, Z.; Sun, Z.; Xu, H.; Rigato, V.; Fissum, S.; Hansen, K.; Isaksson, L.; Lundin, M.; Schroder, B.; Achenbach, P.; Bleser, S.; Cahit, U.; Cardinali, M.; Denig, A.; Distler, M.; Fritsch, M.; Jasinski, P.; Kangh, D.; Karavdina, A.; Lauth, W.; Merkel, H.; Michel, M.; Espi, M. C. Mora; Mueller, U.; Pochodzalla, J.; Sanchez, S.; Sanchez-Lorente, A.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.; Weber, T.; Dormenev, V. I.; Fedorov, A. A.; Korzhik, M. V.; Missevitch, O. V.; Balanutsa, V.; Chernetsky, V.; Demekhin, A.; Dolgolenko, A.; Fedorets, P.; Gerasimov, A.; Goryachev, V.; Varentsov, V.; Boukharov, A.; Malyshev, O.; Marishev, I.; Semenov, A.; Boehmer, F.; Dorheim, S.; Ketzer, B.; Paul, S.; Hergemoeller, A. K.; Khoukaz, A.; Koehler, E.; Taeschner, A.; Wessels, J.; Varma, R.; Chaterjee, A.; Jha, V.; Kailas, S.; Roy, B. J.; Yan, Y.; Chinorat, K.; Khanchai, K.; Ayut, L.; Pomrad, S.; Baldin, E.; Kotov, K.; Peleganchuk, S.; Tikhonov, Yu.; Boucher, J.; Chambert, V.; Dbeyssi, A.; Gumberidze, M.; Hennino, T.; Imre, M.; Kunne, R.; Le Galliard, C.; Ma, B.; Marchand, D.; Maroni, A.; Ong, S.; Ramstein, B.; Rosier, P.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; De Wiele, J. Van; Boca, G.; Braghieri, A.; Costanza, S.; Genova, P.; Lavezzi, L.; Montagna, P.; Rotondi, A.; Abramov, V.; Belikov, N.; Davidenko, A.; Derevschikov, A.; Goncharenko, Y.; Grishin, V.; Kachanov, V.; Konstantinov, D.; Kormilitsin, V.; Melnik, Y.; Levin, A.; Minaev, N.; Mochalov, V.; Morozov, D.; Nogach, L.; Poslavskiy, S.; Ryazantsev, A.; Ryzhikov, S.; Semenov, P.; Shein, I.; Uzunian, A.; Vasiliev, A.; Yakutin, A.; Back, T.; Cederwall, B.; Makonyi, K.; Tegner, P. E.; von Wurtemberg, K. M.; Belostotski, S.; Gavrilov, G.; Itzotov, A.; Kashchuk, A.; Kisselev, A.; Kravchenko, P.; Levitskaya, O.; Manaenkov, S.; Miklukho, O.; Naryshkin, Y.; Veretennikov, D.; Vikhrov, V.; Zhadanov, A.; Alberto, D.; Amoroso, A.; Bussa, M. P.; Busso, L.; De Mori, F.; Destefanis, M.; Fava, L.; Ferrero, L.; Greco, M.; Maggiora, M.; Marcello, S.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Zotti, L.; Calvo, D.; Coli, S.; De Remigis, P.; Filippi, A.; Giraudo, G.; Lusso, S.; Mazza, G.; Morra, O.; Rivetti, A.; Wheadon, R.; Iazzi, F.; Lavagno, A.; Younis, H.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Martin, A.; Clement, H.; Galander, B.; Balkestahl, L. Caldeira; Calen, H.; Fransson, K.; Johansson, T.; Kupsc, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Thome, E.; Wolke, M.; Zlomanczuk, J.; Diaz, J.; Ortiz, A.; Dmowski, K.; Duda, P.; Korzeniewski, R.; Slowinski, B.; Chlopik, A.; Guzik, Z.; Kosinski, K.; Melnychuk, D.; Wasilewski, A.; Wojciechowski, M.; Wronka, S.; Wysocka, A.; Zwieglinski, B.; Buehler, P.; Hartman, O. N.; Kienle, P.; Marton, J.; Suzuki, K.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.; Werner, M.J.

    This document describes the technical layout and the expected performance of the Straw Tube Tracker (STT), the main tracking detector of the PANDA target spectrometer. The STT encloses a Micro-Vertex-Detector (MVD) for the inner tracking and is followed in beam direction by a set of GEM stations.

  13. Specification of indoor climate design parameters at the assessment of moisture protective properties of enclosing structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornienko Sergey Valer’evich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to wide implementation of enveloping structures with increased heat-insulation properties in modern construction here appeared a necessity to assess their moisture conditions. Assessment of moisture conditions of enveloping structures is carried out according to maximum allowable moisture state basing on determining the surface of maximum damping. In relation to it the necessity of additional vapour barrier is checked using moisture balance equation. Though the change of indoor climate parameters in premises is not taken into account in moisture balance equations defined for different seasons. The author improves the method of calculating moisture protective parameters of enclosing structures according to the maximum allowable damping state for a year and a period of moisture accumulation. It is shown in this article that accounting of temperature and relative humidity change of inside air allows specifying calculated parameters of indoor climate in residential and office rooms in assessment of moisture protective properties of enclosing structures for the case of an effective enclosing structure with a façade heat-insulation composite system. Coordinates of the maximum moistened surface of the envelope depends on indoor climate design parameters. It is concluded that the increase of requirements for moisture protection of enclosing structures when using design values of temperature and relative humidity of internal air according to the Russian regulation (SP 50.13330.2012 is not always reasonable. Accounting of changes of indoor climate parameters allows more precise assessment of moisture protective properties of enclosing structures during their design.

  14. Pointlike Inclusion Interactions in Tubular Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vahid Belarghou, A.; Idema, T.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane tubes and tubular networks are ubiquitous in living cells. Inclusions like proteins are vital for both the stability and the dynamics of such networks. These inclusions interact via the curvature deformations they impose on the membrane. We analytically study the resulting membrane

  15. An effective device for gas-liquid oxygen removal in enclosed microalgae culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhenfeng; Kang, Ruijuan; Shi, Shaoyuan; Cong, Wei; Cai, Zhaoling

    2010-01-01

    A high-performance gas-liquid transmission device (HPTD) was described in this paper. To investigate the HPTD mass transfer characteristics, the overall volumetric mass transfer coefficients, K(A)(La,CO(2)) for the absorption of gaseous CO(2) and K(A)(La,O(2)) for the desorption of dissolved O(2) were determined, respectively, by titration and dissolved oxygen electrode. The mass transfer capability of carbon dioxide was compared with that of dissolved oxygen in the device, and the operating conditions were optimized to suit for the large-scale enclosed micro-algae cultivation. Based on the effectiveness evaluation of the HPTD applied in one enclosed flat plate Spirulina culture system, it was confirmed that the HPTD can satisfy the demand of the enclosed system for carbon supplement and excessive oxygen removal.

  16. Eustachian tube patency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustachian tube patency refers to how much the eustachian tube is open. The eustachian tube runs between the middle ear and the throat. It controls the pressure behind the eardrum and middle ear space. This helps keep ...

  17. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  18. Tube holding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A tube holding rig is described for the lateral support of tubes arranged in tight parcels in a heat exchanger. This tube holding rig includes not less than two tube supporting assemblies, with a space between them, located crosswise with respect to the tubes, each supporting assembly comprising a first set of parallel components in contact with the tubes, whilst a second set of components is also in contact with the tubes. These two sets of parts together define apertures through which the tubes pass [fr

  19. The influence of wind direction on natural ventilation: application to a large semi-enclosed stadium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, van T.A.J.; Blocken, B.J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Natural ventilation is still a commonly applied way in building engineering to ensure a healthy and comfortable indoor climate. In this paper CFD simulations of the natural ventilation of a large semi-enclosed stadium in the Netherlands during the summer are described. Simulations are performed to

  20. Influence of topography on tide propagation and amplification in semi-enclosed basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Pieter C.; Schuttelaars, Henk M.

    2011-01-01

    An idealized model for tide propagation and amplification in semi-enclosed rectangular basins is presented, accounting for depth differences by a combination of longitudinal and lateral topographic steps. The basin geometry is formed by several adjacent compartments of identical width, each having

  1. Influence of topography on tide propagation and amplification in semi-enclosed basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, P.C.; Schuttelaars, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    An idealized model for tide propagation and amplification in semi-enclosed rectangular basins is presented, accounting for depth differences by a combination of longitudinal and lateral topographic steps. The basin geometry is formed by several adjacent compartments of identical width, each having

  2. Enclosed outdoor photobioreactors: light regime, photosynthetic efficiency, scale-up, and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.G.J.; Tramper, J.; Mur, L.R.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Enclosed outdoor photobioreactors need to be developed and designed for large-scale production of phototrophic microorganisms. Both light regime and photosynthetic efficiency were analyzed in characteristic examples of state-of-the-art pilot-scale photobioreactors. In this study it is shown that

  3. Evaluation of an enclosed ultraviolet-C radiation device for decontamination of mobile handheld devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, J Itty; Cadnum, Jennifer L; Sankar, Thriveen; Jencson, Annette L; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Donskey, Curtis J

    2016-06-01

    Mobile handheld devices used in health care settings may become contaminated with health care-associated pathogens. We demonstrated that an enclosed ultraviolet-C radiation device was effective in rapidly reducing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and with longer exposure times, Clostridium difficile spores, on glass slides and reducing contamination on in-use mobile handheld devices. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Global change in marine ecosystems: implications for semi-enclosed Arabian seas

    KAUST Repository

    Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-12-07

    Global Change has been defined as the impact of human activities on the key processes that determine the functioning of the Biosphere. Global Change is a major threat for marine ecosystems and includes climate change as well as other global impacts such as inputs of pollutants, overfishing and coastal sprawl. The Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas, including the Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea, have supported human livelihoods in the Arabian Peninsula over centuries and continue to do so, but are also threatened by Global Change. These threats are particularly severe as Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas already present rather extreme conditions, in terms of temperature, salinity and oxygen concentration. The vulnerability of the unique marine ecosystems of the Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas to Global Change vectors is largely unknown, but predictions based on first principles suggest that they may be at or near the tipping point for many pressures, such as warming and hypoxia. There is an urgent need to implement international collaborative research programs to accelerate our understanding of the vulnerability of Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas to Global Change vectors in order to inform conservation and management plans to ensure these Seas continue to support the livelihoods and well-being of the Arab nations.

  5. Global change in marine ecosystems: implications for semi-enclosed Arabian seas

    KAUST Repository

    Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    -enclosed Arabian Seas to Global Change vectors is largely unknown, but predictions based on first principles suggest that they may be at or near the tipping point for many pressures, such as warming and hypoxia. There is an urgent need to implement international

  6. Bender/Coiler for Tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Easy-to-use tool makes coils of tubing. Tubing to be bend clamped with stop post. Die positioned snugly against tubing. Operator turns handle to slide die along tubing, pushing tubing into spiral groove on mandrel.

  7. Apparatus for plasma surface treating and preparation of membrane layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus suitable for plasma surface treating (e.g., forming a membrane layer on a substrate surface) comprises a plasma generation section which is operable at least at substantially atmospheric pressure and is in communication via at least one plasma inlet (e.g., a nozzle) with an enclosed

  8. Method for plasma surface treating and preparation of membrane layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1992-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus suitable for plasma surface treating (e.g. forming a membrane layer on a substrate) which comprises a plasma generation section (2) which is in communication via at least one plasma inlet means (4) (e.g. a nozzle) with an enclosed plasma treating section (3)

  9. Autophagy in the test tube: In vitro reconstitution of aspects of autophagosome biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yijian; Matscheko, Nena; Wollert, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Autophagy is a versatile recycling pathway that delivers cytoplasmic contents to lysosomal compartments for degradation. It involves the formation of a cup-shaped membrane that expands to capture cargo. After the cargo has been entirely enclosed, the membrane is sealed to generate a double-membrane-enclosed compartment, termed the autophagosome. Depending on the physiological state of the cell, the cargo is selected either specifically or non-specifically. The process involves a highly conserved set of autophagy-related proteins. Reconstitution of their action on model membranes in vitro has contributed tremendously to our understanding of autophagosome biogenesis. This review will focus on various in vitro techniques that have been employed to decipher the function of the autophagic core machinery. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  10. Slit Tubes for Semisoft Pneumatic Actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belding, Lee; Baytekin, Bilge; Baytekin, Hasan Tarik; Rothemund, Philipp; Verma, Mohit S; Nemiroski, Alex; Sameoto, Dan; Grzybowski, Bartosz A; Whitesides, George M

    2018-03-01

    This article describes a new principle for designing soft or 'semisoft' pneumatic actuators: SLiT (for SLit-in-Tube) actuators. Inflating an elastomeric balloon, when enclosed by an external shell (a material with higher Young's modulus) containing slits of different directions and lengths, produces a variety of motions, including bending, twisting, contraction, and elongation. The requisite pressure for actuation depends on the length of the slits, and this dependence allows sequential actuation by controlling the applied pressure. Different actuators can also be controlled using external "sliders" that act as reprogrammable "on-off" switches. A pneumatic arm and a walker constructed from SLiT actuators demonstrate their ease of fabrication and the range of motions they can achieve. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Ray tracing for optimization of compound parabolic concentrators for solar collectors of enclosed design

    OpenAIRE

    YURCHENKO, VLADIMIR; YURCHENKO, EDUARD; ÇİYDEM, MEHMET; TOTUK, ONAT

    2015-01-01

    We present our developments in computer simulations and optimization of compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs) for solar heat collectors. Issues of both the optical and thermal optimization of CPC collectors of enclosed design are discussed. Ray tracing results for a CPC with a V-shaped absorber are presented. A range of optimal values for the apex angle of a V-shaped absorber is proposed for a CPC collector of typical design.

  12. Glovebox enclosed dc plasma source for the determination of metals in plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The direct current plasma source of a Beckman Spectraspan IIIB emission spectrometer was enclosed in a glovebox at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in December 1982. Since that time, the system has been used for the routine determination of alloy and impurity metals in plutonium. This paper presents the systematic steps involved in developing the glovebox and gives information regarding performance of the plasma in the glovebox and the effectiveness of containment of plutonium. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Ethical and legal analyses of policy prohibiting tobacco smoking in enclosed public spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriola, Taiwo A

    2009-01-01

    A spate of legislations prohibiting cigarette smoking in enclosed public spaces, mainly on grounds of public health protection, recently swept across cities around the world. This is in tandem with a raft of increasingly restrictive national laws that emerged on the back of the ratification of the WHO Framework for Tobacco Control by more than one 168 countries in 2005. The central debate on the increasingly restrictive tobacco laws revolves on the extent to which public health interests justification should ground political intervention in a private right as basic as tobacco smoking, which interestingly is often lumped in the food and beverage category. The pertinent legal and ethical questions therefore are the following: Is or should there be a general unrestricted right to tobacco smoking? If there were such a right, should public health or ethical considerations trump private right to smoke in enclosed public spaces? And if public health interests were so paramount, should they go farther and ground tobacco smoking proscription in all private and public spheres? Using ethical principles and rights-based arguments, the paper critically examines the legal and ethical ramifications of public health justification for tobacco smoking proscription in enclosed public spaces.

  14. X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A form of x-ray tube is described which provides satisfactory focussing of the electron beam when the beam extends for several feet from gun to target. Such a tube can be used for computerised tomographic scanning. (UK)

  15. Pressure tube type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komada, Masaoki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the safety of pressure tube type reactors by providing an additional ECCS system to an ordinary ECCS system and injecting heavy water in the reactor core tank into pressure tubes upon fractures of the tubes. Constitution: Upon fractures of pressure tubes, reduction of the pressure in the fractured tubes to the atmospheric pressure in confirmed and the electromagnetic valve is operated to completely isolate the pressure tubes from the fractured portion. Then, the heavy water in the reactor core tank flows into and spontaneously recycles through the pressure tubes to cool the fuels in the tube to prevent their meltdown. By additionally providing the separate ECCS system to the ordinary ECCS system, fuels can be cooled upon loss of coolant accidents to improve the safety of the reactors. (Moriyama, K.)

  16. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - bolus; G-tube - bolus; Gastrostomy button - bolus; Bard Button - bolus; MIC-KEY - bolus ... KEY, 3 to 8 weeks after surgery. These feedings will help your child grow strong and healthy. ...

  17. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  18. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

  19. Measurement of leakage dose distribution from Crookes tube using imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Obara, Satoshi; Inoue, Hajime; Kato, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Ikuo; Hosoda, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Crookes tube is used on an educational site in the junior high school and the high school, etc. for the purpose to learn the character of cathode rays. When using the tube, X rays are generated, however, there is few example of confirming in which direction to scatter in detail. Understanding how the distribution of the leakage dose is important because of efficient exposure decrease. The distribution of X rays generated from Crookes tube was measured by arranging imaging plates in six surroundings to enclose Crookes tube. The electron collided with a metal target and X rays had extended backward. The dose was greatly different depending on the direction. When experimenting with Crookes tube, it is necessary to consider not only the dose but also distribution. (author)

  20. Flame assisted synthesis of catalytic ceramic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Johnny; Mosleh, Majid; Johannessen, Tue

    2004-01-01

    technology it is possible to make supported catalysts, composite metal oxides, catalytically active surfaces, and porous ceramic membranes. Membrane layers can be formed by using a porous substrate tube (or surface) as a nano-particle filter. The aerosol gas from the flame is led through a porous substrate...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into a...

  2. Dynamics of membrane nanotubes coated with I-BAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barooji, Younes F.; Rørvig-Lund, Andreas; Semsey, Szabolcs; Reihani, S. Nader S.; Bendix, Poul M.

    2016-07-01

    Membrane deformation is a necessary step in a number of cellular processes such as filopodia and invadopodia formation and has been shown to involve membrane shaping proteins containing membrane binding domains from the IRSp53-MIM protein family. In reconstituted membranes the membrane shaping domains can efficiently deform negatively charged membranes into tubules without any other proteins present. Here, we show that the IM domain (also called I-BAR domain) from the protein ABBA, forms semi-flexible nanotubes protruding into Giant Unilamellar lipid Vesicles (GUVs). By simultaneous quantification of tube intensity and tubular shape we find both the diameter and stiffness of the nanotubes. I-BAR decorated tubes were quantified to have a diameter of ~50 nm and exhibit no stiffening relative to protein free tubes of the same diameter. At high protein density the tubes are immobile whereas at lower density the tubes diffuse freely on the surface of the GUV. Bleaching experiments of the fluorescently tagged I-BAR confirmed that the mobility of the tubes correlates with the mobility of the I-BAR on the GUV membrane. Finally, at low density of I-BAR the protein upconcentrates within tubes protruding into the GUVs. This implies that I-BAR exhibits strong preference for negatively curved membranes.

  3. Heat exchanger tube tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugel, G.

    1976-01-01

    Certain types of heat-exchangers have tubes opening through a tube sheet to a manifold having an access opening offset from alignment with the tube ends. A tool for inserting a device, such as for inspection or repair, is provided for use in such instances. The tool is formed by a flexible guide tube insertable through the access opening and having an inner end provided with a connector for connection with the opening of the tube in which the device is to be inserted, and an outer end which remains outside of the chamber, the guide tube having adequate length for this arrangement. A flexible transport hose for internally transporting the device slides inside of the guide tube. This hose is long enough to slide through the guide tube, into the heat-exchanger tube, and through the latter to the extent required for the use of the device. The guide tube must be bent to reach the end of the heat-exchanger tube and the latter may be constructed with a bend, the hose carrying anit-friction elements at interspaced locations along its length to make it possible for the hose to negotiate such bends while sliding to the location where the use of the device is required

  4. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  5. Intercostal drainage tube or intracardiac drainage tube?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Anitha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although insertion of chest drain tubes is a common medical practice, there are risks associated with this procedure, especially when inexperienced physicians perform it. Wrong insertion of the tube has been known to cause morbidity and occasional mortality. We report a case where the left ventricle was accidentally punctured leading to near-exsanguination. This report is to highlight the need for experienced physicians to supervise the procedure and train the younger physician in the safe performance of the procedure.

  6. Intercostal drainage tube or intracardiac drainage tube?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, N; Kamath, S Ganesh; Khymdeit, Edison; Prabhu, Manjunath

    2016-01-01

    Although insertion of chest drain tubes is a common medical practice, there are risks associated with this procedure, especially when inexperienced physicians perform it. Wrong insertion of the tube has been known to cause morbidity and occasional mortality. We report a case where the left ventricle was accidentally punctured leading to near-exsanguination. This report is to highlight the need for experienced physicians to supervise the procedure and train the younger physician in the safe performance of the procedure.

  7. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos » NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Listen NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: ...

  8. Studies on portal systemic circulation by oral administration of 201Tl enclosed enteric coated capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonami, Norihisa; Nakajima, Kenichi; Watanabe, Naoto

    1986-01-01

    Thallium-201 enclosed enteric coated capsule was prepared and administered orally to evaluate portal systemic circulation in 11 control subjects and 31 patients with various liver diseases by investigating scintigraphic appearance and the heart-to-liver uptake ratio (H/L ratio). In 10 patients with liver cirrhosis and one with chronic hepatitis, the results of H/L ratio were compared to those obtained by 201 Tl per-rectal administration. 1. It was fundamentally confirmed that 201 Tl enclosed enteric coated capsule was not broken down in the artificial gastric juice, but nearly completely melted 15 minutes after soaking in the artificial intestinal juice. 2. Clinical study was successfully completed in 36 out of 42 cases (86 %). Unsuccessful cases were found in 2 with capsule collapse in the stomach and 4 with its poor moving to the duodenum. 3. In control subjects the liver was clearly visualized and the mean value of H/L ratio was 0.32 which is lower than that of 201 Tl per-rectal administration previously reported. H/L ratio in patients with chronic and acute hepatitis was nearly equal to that in control subjects. H/L ratio in patients with liver cirrhosis was slightly higher than that in control subjects, but there was no significant difference between them. In cases with esophageal varices, H/L ratio was not so high compared to that in control subjects. Out of 7 patients showing high H/L ratio more than 0.8 in 201 Tl per-rectal administration, only one showed similar high ratio (1.07) in oral administration of 201 Tl enclosed enteric coated capsule. In this case the shunting from superior mesenteric vein to inferior vena cava connection was confirmed. From these results, it was considered that the shunting volume of superior mesenteric vein through esophageal varices is small. 4. A possibility of a new administration of radioisotope with enteric coated capsule was emphasized. (author)

  9. Use of diesel engines in industrial trucks operated in enclosed spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, W; Reibold, G

    1981-01-01

    Report on emission investigations on a fork-lifter equipped with a low-pollutant MWM-engine, tests were carried out in enclosed spaces. The aim was to clarify if the maximum MPC at a place of work listed in a table of waste gas components can be observed even under unfavourable operating conditions of the fork lifter. The test is described, results are analysed. It is proved that there are no health hazards for the staff even under the extreme conditions chosen for the test.

  10. Pediatric cuffed endotracheal tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endotracheal intubation in children is usually performed utilizing uncuffed endotracheal tubes for conduct of anesthesia as well as for prolonged ventilation in critical care units. However, uncuffed tubes may require multiple changes to avoid excessive air leak, with subsequent environmental pollution making the technique uneconomical. In addition, monitoring of ventilatory parameters, exhaled volumes, and end-expiratory gases may be unreliable. All these problems can be avoided by use of cuffed endotracheal tubes. Besides, cuffed endotracheal tubes may be of advantage in special situations like laparoscopic surgery and in surgical conditions at risk of aspiration. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans in children have found the narrowest portion of larynx at rima glottides. Cuffed endotracheal tubes, therefore, will form a complete seal with low cuff pressure of <15 cm H 2 O without any increase in airway complications. Till recently, the use of cuffed endotracheal tubes was limited by variations in the tube design marketed by different manufacturers. The introduction of a new cuffed endotracheal tube in the market with improved tracheal sealing characteristics may encourage increased safe use of these tubes in clinical practice. A literature search using search words "cuffed endotracheal tube" and "children" from 1980 to January 2012 in PUBMED was conducted. Based on the search, the advantages and potential benefits of cuffed ETT are reviewed in this article.

  11. Remote controller for tool moving in tube especially rotopeenig tool in steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tocci, J.L.; Blotas, B.; Francois, D.

    1988-01-01

    To introduce at distance a tool such a rotopeening tool in a tube, the tool is attached to the extremity of a flexible cable which is enclosed in a flexible sheath. The sheath extremity is fixed on the arm of a carrier. The other extremity of the sheath is fixed in translation on a command bed. The tool introduction is made by a motoreduction gear placed on the bed translating the extremity of the sheath by pinion-rack system [fr

  12. Lunar Lava Tube Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Cheryl Lynn; Walden, Bryce; Billings, Thomas L.; Reeder, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Large (greater than 300 m diameter) lava tube caverns appear to exist on the Moon and could provide substantial safety and cost benefits for lunar bases. Over 40 m of basalt and regolith constitute the lava tube roof and would protect both construction and operations. Constant temperatures of -20 C reduce thermal stress on structures and machines. Base designs need not incorporate heavy shielding, so lightweight materials can be used and construction can be expedited. Identification and characterization of lava tube caverns can be incorporated into current precursor lunar mission plans. Some searches can even be done from Earth. Specific recommendations for lunar lava tube search and exploration are (1) an Earth-based radar interferometer, (2) an Earth-penetrating radar (EPR) orbiter, (3) kinetic penetrators for lunar lava tube confirmation, (4) a 'Moon Bat' hovering rocket vehicle, and (5) the use of other proposed landers and orbiters to help find lunar lava tubes.

  13. Categorising YouTube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC) of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigation processes on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube......’s technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a user-driven bottom-up folksonomy and a hierarchical browsing system that emphasises a culture of competition...... and which favours the already popular content of YouTube. With this taxonomic approach, the UGC videos are registered and analysed in terms of empirically based observations. The article identifies various UGC categories and their principal characteristics. Furthermore, general tendencies of the UGC within...

  14. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1983-08-01

    A review of the performance of steam generator tubes in 110 water-cooled nuclear power reactors showed that tubes were plugged at 46 (42 percent) of the reactors. The number of tubes removed from service increased from 1900 (0.14 percent) in 1980 to 4692 (0.30 percent) in 1981. The leading causes of tube failures were stress corrosion cracking from the primary side, stress corrosion cracking (or intergranular attack) from the secondary side and pitting corrosion. The lowest incidence of corrosion-induced defects from the secondary side occurred in reactors that used all-volatile treatment since start-up. At one reactor a large number of degraded tubes were repaired by sleeving which is expected to become an important method of tube repair in the future

  15. Rectangular drift tube characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, D.S.; Musienko, Yu.V.

    1985-01-01

    Results on the study of the characteristics of a 50 x 100 mm aluminium drift tube are presented. The tube was filled with argon-methane and argon-isobutane mixtures. With 16 per cent methane concentration the largest deviation from a linear relation between the drift time and the drift path over 50 mm is less than 2 mm. The tube filled with argon-isobutane mixture is capable of operating in a limited streamer mode

  16. Partial Discharge Monitoring on Metal-Enclosed Switchgear with Distributed Non-Contact Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongxing Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Metal-enclosed switchgear, which are widely used in the distribution of electrical energy, play an important role in power distribution networks. Their safe operation is directly related to the reliability of power system as well as the power quality on the consumer side. Partial discharge detection is an effective way to identify potential faults and can be utilized for insulation diagnosis of metal-enclosed switchgear. The transient earth voltage method, an effective non-intrusive method, has substantial engineering application value for estimating the insulation condition of switchgear. However, the practical application effectiveness of TEV detection is not satisfactory because of the lack of a TEV detection application method, i.e., a method with sufficient technical cognition and analysis. This paper proposes an innovative online PD detection system and a corresponding application strategy based on an intelligent feedback distributed TEV wireless sensor network, consisting of sensing, communication, and diagnosis layers. In the proposed system, the TEV signal or status data are wirelessly transmitted to the terminal following low-energy signal preprocessing and acquisition by TEV sensors. Then, a central server analyzes the correlation of the uploaded data and gives a fault warning level according to the quantity, trend, parallel analysis, and phase resolved partial discharge pattern recognition. In this way, a TEV detection system and strategy with distributed acquisition, unitized fault warning, and centralized diagnosis is realized. The proposed system has positive significance for reducing the fault rate of medium voltage switchgear and improving its operation and maintenance level.

  17. Partial Discharge Monitoring on Metal-Enclosed Switchgear with Distributed Non-Contact Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongxing; Dong, Ming; Ren, Ming; Huang, Wenguang; Zhou, Jierui; Gao, Xuze; Albarracín, Ricardo

    2018-02-11

    Metal-enclosed switchgear, which are widely used in the distribution of electrical energy, play an important role in power distribution networks. Their safe operation is directly related to the reliability of power system as well as the power quality on the consumer side. Partial discharge detection is an effective way to identify potential faults and can be utilized for insulation diagnosis of metal-enclosed switchgear. The transient earth voltage method, an effective non-intrusive method, has substantial engineering application value for estimating the insulation condition of switchgear. However, the practical application effectiveness of TEV detection is not satisfactory because of the lack of a TEV detection application method, i.e., a method with sufficient technical cognition and analysis. This paper proposes an innovative online PD detection system and a corresponding application strategy based on an intelligent feedback distributed TEV wireless sensor network, consisting of sensing, communication, and diagnosis layers. In the proposed system, the TEV signal or status data are wirelessly transmitted to the terminal following low-energy signal preprocessing and acquisition by TEV sensors. Then, a central server analyzes the correlation of the uploaded data and gives a fault warning level according to the quantity, trend, parallel analysis, and phase resolved partial discharge pattern recognition. In this way, a TEV detection system and strategy with distributed acquisition, unitized fault warning, and centralized diagnosis is realized. The proposed system has positive significance for reducing the fault rate of medium voltage switchgear and improving its operation and maintenance level.

  18. Application of RADTRAN to estimation of doses to persons in enclosed spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.

    1992-01-01

    The RADTRAN computer code for transportation risk analysis can be used to estimate doses to persons in enclosed volumes. This application was developed in response to a need to examine consequences of a hypothetical container leak during accident-free transportation by cargo air. The original problem addressed tritium containers, but the method can be applied to any gaseous or suspended particulate material potentially released in an airplane or other enclosed area (e.g., warehouse) under accident-free conditions. Such leakage can occur during shipment of any radioactive gas or material with a gaseous phase. Atmospheric dispersion is normally modeled in RADTRAN as a series of downwind isopleths each of which is assigned a dilution factor (also known as time-integrated concentration or X/Q value). These values are located in look-up tables in RADTRAN and are normally taken from externally performed Gaussian dispersion calculations. The dilution factors are used to estimate inhalation dose to persons in the specified downwind areas

  19. Construction of microscale structures in enclosed microfluidic networks by using a magnetic beads based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Jun; Yang, Zhong; Wan, Xiaoping; Hu, Ning; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2013-08-20

    A large number of microscale structures have been used to elaborate flowing control or complex biological and chemical reaction on microfluidic chips. However, it is still inconvenient to fabricate microstructures with different heights (or depths) on the same substrate. These kinds of microstructures can be fabricated by using the photolithography and wet-etching method step by step, but involves time-consuming design and fabrication process, as well as complicated alignment of different masters. In addition, few existing methods can be used to perform fabrication within enclosed microfluidic networks. It is also difficult to change or remove existing microstructures within these networks. In this study, a magnetic-beads-based approach is presented to build microstructures in enclosed microfluidic networks. Electromagnetic field generated by microfabricated conducting wires (coils) is used to manipulate and trap magnetic beads on the bottom surface of a microchannel. These trapped beads are accumulated to form a microscale pile with desired shape, which can adjust liquid flow, dock cells, modify surface, and do some other things as those fabricated microstructures. Once the electromagnetic field is changed, trapped beads may form new shapes or be removed by a liquid flow. Besides being used in microfabrication, this magnetic-beads-based method can be used for novel microfluidic manipulation. It has been validated by forming microscale dam structure for cell docking and modified surface for cell patterning, as well as guiding the growth of neurons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of RADTRAN to estimation of doses to persons in enclosed spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.

    1993-01-01

    The RADTRAN computer code for transportation risk analysis (Neuhauser and Kanipe, 1992) can be used to estimate doses to persons in enclosed volumes. This application was developed in response to a need to examine consequences of a hypothetical container leak during accident-free transportation by cargo air. The original problem addressed tritium containers, but the method can be applied to any gaseous or suspended particulate material potentially released in an airplane or other enclosed area (e.g., warehouse ) under accident-free conditions. Such leakage can occur during shipment of any radioactive gas or material with a gaseous phase. Atmospheric dispersion is normally modeled in RADTRAN as a series of downwind isopleths each of which is assigned a dilution factor (also known as time-integrated concentration or X/Q value). These values are located in look-up tables in RADTRAN and are normally taken from externally performed Gaussian dispersion calculations. The dilution factors are used to estimate inhalation dose to persons in the specified downwind areas. (J.P.N.)

  1. Open-end tube dynamic flow model with an oscillatory extortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulwin Tytus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a derivation of dynamic 2d mathematical model for open end tube with oscillatory extortion in the region of the closed end. The aim the research is to investigate possible uses of the increased pressure in the enclosed tube chamber, especially for energy efficient lift generation. The mathematical model allows to test and predict how flow modifications impact the resultant lifting force. A derivation of the proposed mathematical model is shown. The mathematical model is then compared to the computational fluid dynamics discrete model. The results prove the accuracy of the mathematical physical model.

  2. Categorising YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC) of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigation processes on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube’s technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a...

  3. Pressure tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susuki, Akira; Murata, Shigeto; Minato, Akihiko.

    1993-01-01

    In a pressure tube reactor, a reactor core is constituted by arranging more than two units of a minimum unit combination of a moderator sealing pipe containing a calandria tube having moderators there between and a calandria tube and moderators. The upper header and a lower header of the calandria tank containing moderators are communicated by way of the moderator sealing tube. Further, a gravitationally dropping mechanism is disposed for injecting neutron absorbing liquid to a calandria gas injection portion. A ratio between a moderator volume and a fuel volume is defined as a function of the inner diameter of the moderator sealing tube, the outer diameter of the calandria tube and the diameter of fuel pellets, and has no influence to intervals of a pressure tube lattice. The interval of the pressure tube lattice is enlarged without increasing the size of the pressure tube, to improve production efficiency of the reactor and set a coolant void coefficient more negative, thereby enabling to improve self controllability and safety. Further, the reactor scram can be conducted by injecting neutron absorbing liquid. (N.H.)

  4. Heated Tube Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Heated Tube Facility at NASA GRC investigates cooling issues by simulating conditions characteristic of rocket engine thrust chambers and high speed airbreathing...

  5. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1984-10-01

    A review of the performance of steam generator tubes in 116 water-cooled nuclear power reactors showed that tubes were plugged at 54 (46 percent) of the reactors. The number of tubes removed from service decreased from 4 692 (0.30 percent) in 1981 to 3 222 (0.20 percent) in 1982. The leading causes of tube failures were stress corrosion cracking from the primary side, stress corrosion cracking (or intergranular attack) from the secondary side and pitting corrosion. The lowest incidence of corrosion-induced defects from the secondary side occurred in reactors that have used only volatile treatment, with or without condensate demineralization

  6. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Tapping, R.L.; Stipan, L.

    1992-03-01

    A survey of steam generator operating experience for 1986 has been carried out for 184 pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors, and 1 water-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor. Tubes were plugged at 75 of the reactors (40.5%). In 1986, 3737 tubes were plugged (0.14% of those in service) and 3148 tubes were repaired by sleeving. A small number of reactors accounted for the bulk of the plugged tubes, a phenomenon consistent with previous years. For 1986, the available tubesheet sludge data for 38 reactors has been compiled into tabular form, and sludge/deposit data will be incorporated into all future surveys

  7. Evaluation of the Effect of Tube Pitch and Surface Alterations on Temperature Field at Sprinkled Tube Bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kracík Petr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water flowing on a sprinkled tube bundle forms three basic modes: It is the Droplet mode (liquid drips from one tube to another, the Jet mode (with an increasing flow rate droplets merge into a column and the Membrane (Sheet mode (with further increasing of falling film liquid flow rate columns merge and create sheets between the tubes. With sufficient flow rate sheets merge at this state and the tube bundle is completely covered by a thin liquid film. There are several factors influencing the individual mode types as well as heat transfer. Beside the above mentioned falling film liquid flow rate they are for instance tube diameters, tube pitches in a tube bundle or a physical condition of a falling film liquid. This paper presents a summary of data measured at atmospheric pressure at a tube bundle consisting of copper tubes of 12 milimeters diameter and of the studied tube length one meter. The tubes are positioned horizontally one above another with the tested pitches of 15, 20, 25 and 30 mm and there is a distribution tube placed above them with water flowing out. The thermal gradient of 15–40 has been tested with all pitches where the falling film liquid’s temperature at the inlet of the distribution tube was 15 °C. The liquid was heated during the flow through the exchanger and the temperature of the sprinkled (heater liquid at the inlet of the exchanger with a constant flow rate about 7.2 litres per minute was 40 °C. The tested flow of the falling film liquid ranged from 1.0 to 13.0 litres per minute. Sequences of 180 exposures have been recorded in partial flow rate stages by thermographic camera with record frequency of 30 Hz which were consequently assessed using the Matlab programme. This paper presents results achieved at the above mentioned pitches and at three types of tube bundle surfaces.

  8. Steam generator tube failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service

  9. Method for shaping polyethylene tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Method forms polyethylene plastic tubing into configurations previously only possible with metal tubing. By using polyethylene in place of copper or stain less steel tubing inlow pressure systems, fabrication costs are significantly reduced. Polyethylene tubing can be used whenever low pressure tubing is needed in oil operations, aircraft and space applications, powerplants, and testing laboratories.

  10. Pyrotechnic Tubing Connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Thomas J.; Yang, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Tool forms mechanical seal at joint without levers or hydraulic apparatus. Proposed tool intended for use in outer space used on Earth by heavily garbed workers to join tubing in difficult environments. Called Pyrotool, used with Lokring (or equivalent) fittings. Piston slides in cylinder when pushed by gas from detonating pyrotechnic charge. Impulse of piston compresses fittings, sealing around butting ends of tubes.

  11. Studies on portal systemic circulation by oral administration of /sup 201/Tl enclosed enteric coated capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonami, Norihisa; Nakajima, Kenichi; Watanabe, Naoto and others

    1986-03-01

    Thallium-201 enclosed enteric coated capsule was prepared and administered orally to evaluate portal systemic circulation in 11 control subjects and 31 patients with various liver diseases by investigating scintigraphic appearance and the heart-to-liver uptake ratio (H/L ratio). In 10 patients with liver cirrhosis and one with chronic hepatitis, the results of H/L ratio were compared to those obtained by /sup 201/Tl per-rectal administration. 1. It was fundamentally confirmed that /sup 201/Tl enclosed enteric coated capsule was not broken down in the artificial gastric juice, but nearly completely melted 15 minutes after soaking in the artificial intestinal juice. 2. Clinical study was successfully completed in 36 out of 42 cases (86 %). Unsuccessful cases were found in 2 with capsule collapse in the stomach and 4 with its poor moving to the duodenum. 3. In control subjects the liver was clearly visualized and the mean value of H/L ratio was 0.32 which is lower than that of /sup 201/Tl per-rectal administration previously reported. H/L ratio in patients with chronic and acute hepatitis was nearly equal to that in control subjects. H/L ratio in patients with liver cirrhosis was slightly higher than that in control subjects, but there was no significant difference between them. In cases with esophageal varices, H/L ratio was not so high compared to that in control subjects. Out of 7 patients showing high H/L ratio more than 0.8 in /sup 201/Tl per-rectal administration, only one showed similar high ratio (1.07) in oral administration of /sup 201/Tl enclosed enteric coated capsule. In this case the shunting from superior mesenteric vein to inferior vena cava connection was confirmed. From these results, it was considered that the shunting volume of superior mesenteric vein through esophageal varices is small. 4. A possibility of a new administration of radioisotope with enteric coated capsule was emphasized.

  12. Molybdenum Tube Characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaux II, Miles Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Usov, Igor Olegovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-07

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques have been utilized to produce free-standing molybdenum tubes with the end goal of nuclear fuel clad applications. In order to produce tubes with properties desirable for this application, deposition rates were lowered requiring long deposition durations on the order of 50 hours. Standard CVD methods as well as fluidized-bed CVD (FBCVD) methods were applied towards these objectives. Characterization of the tubes produced in this manner revealed material suitable for fuel clad applications, but lacking necessary uniformity across the length of the tubes. The production of freestanding Mo tubes that possess the desired properties across their entire length represents an engineering challenge that can be overcome in a next iteration of the deposition system.

  13. Membrane Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Physics, mathematics and chemistry all play a vital role in understanding the true nature and functioning of biological membranes, key elements of living processes. Besides simple spectroscopic observations and electrical measurements of membranes we address in this book the phenomena of coexistence and independent existence of different membrane components using various theoretical approaches. This treatment will be helpful for readers who want to understand biological processes by applying both simple observations and fundamental scientific analysis. It provides a deep understanding of the causes and effects of processes inside membranes, and will thus eventually open new doors for high-level pharmaceutical approaches towards fighting membrane- and cell-related diseases.

  14. Momentum distribution of non-interacting fermions enclosed in a box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivine, H.

    1985-01-01

    This is a study of: the finite size effect on the momentum distribution n(/sup →/k) of an ensemble of A non-interacting fermions enclosed in a box. Analytical expressions are obtained in the two limiting cases the Fermi momentum. The result is to analyze the convergence of toward the standard step function in the infinite medium. Applying results to the nuclear case, changes are compared in n(/sup →/k) generated by the finite size of actual nuclei to those due to short range correlations. Both effects are shown to be of same order of magnitude. The next step is to take into account the short range correlations in finite systems

  15. The system of enclosed optical cavities as a tool for laser photons storing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsov, V.P.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Telegin, Yu.N.

    2004-01-01

    The calculation of the system consisting of two optical cavities enclosed one into another is performed in the plane-wave approximation. It is shown that under definite conditions one can obtain an enhancement of the electromagnetic field in the internal cavity as compared to the case of direct excitation of the cavity with an electromagnetic wave of the same amplitude. The comparative analysis of these two approaches is carried out. We suppose to apply the proposed system with moderate-reflectivity mirrors (R=0.99) for accumulating laser photons in the optical cavity of the X-ray source LESR-N100 based on Compton scattering of the laser beam on relativistic electrons stored in the ring

  16. Comparative consideration and design of a security depot for high radioactive glass-enclosed materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroni, U.

    1985-01-01

    From the beginning of 1990 the COGEMA shall supply glass-enclosed high radioactive waste of the reprocessing of German fuel elements back to the Federal Republic of Germany. As to this time the final waste storage in the salt stock of Gorleben will not be available the glass cannisters have to be deposited above ground. First a comparison is made out of a number of proposed storage concepts for the deposition of HAW-glass blocks. The safety technical behaviour of the facility is considered. On the basis of the gained results a new facility design is presented, which can take 450 glass cannisters in a discoid built up cast-steel vessel and makes possible the utilization of the resulting radioactive heat of dissociation. During the development of this concept besides a compact, reasonable method of building and the thermodynamic behaviour of the storage the aspect of high security against release of radioactive materials was emphasized. (orig.) [de

  17. Application of macrobenthos functional groups to estimate the ecosystem health in a semi-enclosed bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shitao; Zhou, Ran; Qin, Xuebo; Shi, Honghua; Ding, Dewen

    2013-09-15

    In this study, the functional group concept was first applied to evaluate the ecosystem health of Bohai Bay. Macrobenthos functional groups were defined according to feeding types and divided into five groups: a carnivorous group (CA), omnivorous group (OM), planktivorous group (PL), herbivorous group (HE), and detritivorous group (DE). Groups CA, DE, OM, and PL were identified, but the HE group was absent from Bohai Bay. Group DE was dominant during the study periods. The ecosystem health was assessed using a functional group evenness index. The functional group evenness values of most sampling stations were less than 0.40, indicating that the ecosystem health was deteriorated in Bohai Bay. Such deterioration could be attributed to land reclamation, industrial and sewage effluents, oil pollution, and hypersaline water discharge. This study demonstrates that the functional group concept can be applied to ecosystem health assessment in a semi-enclosed bay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Liquefied extinguishing agent discharge to an overpressure-sensitive enclosed volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurda Lukáš

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The throttling of liquefied substances from high pressure vessels to an enclosed volume starting at atmospheric pressure is described in order to determine thermodynamic state of the extinguished room gaseous contents. Time dependent, 0D mathematical model is implemented describing the state inside the agent container, the isenthalpic throttling in the distribution system, agent vaporization and mixing with air. The agent is modelled as real gas. Other influences on the process including the heat transfer from selected solid parts inside the room and the gas mixture leakage out of the room are taken into account. Main outcome is an MS Excel tool for integrated fire extinguishers design optimization. The optimization balances the two contradictory requirements: Agent volumetric concentration to sustain the fire extinguishing capabilities and tolerable room overpressure. Agent fill weight and discharge time are being adjusted. The discharge time is controlled by the distribution piping and spray nozzles design. System operation is checked concerning various initial and boundary conditions.

  19. The equivalent doses of indoor radon in some dwellings and enclosed areas in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakam, O.; Choukri, J.; Reyss, L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The principal source of exposure to radiation for public in built-up areas is known to be the inhalation for radon its short-lived daughters.Most of this exposure occurs inside homes,where many hours are spent each day and where the volumic activity of radon is usually higher than outdoors. The compelling effects of radon and its short-lived decay products spread slowly but surely through a wide range of biological problems encountered in such areas as the mortality rates and lung cancer in uranium mines,the results of experimental work with animals, and the discovery of unsually high levels of radon in the living environments of the general population. As a way of prevention, we have measured the volumic activities of indoor radon-222 and we have calculated their effective equivalent dose in some dwellings and enclosed areas in Morocco. The obtained results show that the effective equivalent dose of activities measured indoor dwellings are inferior to the admissible annual limit fixed by ICRP for population, except in two twons situated in regions rich in phosphate deposits where the calculated doses are slightly upper than this limit. The results obtained for enclosed areas are inferior to the admissible annual limit fixed by ICRP for workers, except in the cave of geophysical observatory situated at depth of-12 meters where the obtained value don't present in risk for workers health because workers pass only a few minutes by day in this cave. The risks related to the volumic activities for indoor radon could be avoided by simple precautions such the continuous ventilation

  20. Automation in tube finishing bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Prateek; Satyadev, B.; Raghuraman, S.; Syama Sundara Rao, B.

    1997-01-01

    Automation concept in tube finishing bay, introduced after the final pass annealing of PHWR tubes resulted in integration of number of sub-systems in synchronisation with each other to produce final cut fuel tubes of specified length, tube finish etc. The tube finishing bay which was physically segregated into four distinct areas: 1. tube spreader and stacking area, 2. I.D. sand blasting area, 3. end conditioning, wad blowing, end capping and O.D. wet grinding area, 4. tube inspection, tube cutting and stacking area has been studied

  1. Apparatus suitable for plasma surface treating and process for preparing membrane layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1988-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus suitable for plasma surface treating (e.g. forming a membrane layer on a substrate) which comprises a plasma generation section (2) which is in communication via at least one plasma inlet means (4) (e.g. a nozzle) with an enclosed plasma treating section (3)

  2. Helically coiled tube heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    In a heat exchanger such as a steam generator for a nuclear reactor, two or more bundles of helically coiled tubes are arranged in series with the tubes in each bundle integrally continuing through the tube bundles arranged in series therewith. Pitch values for the tubing in any pair of tube bundles, taken transverse to the path of the reactor coolant flow about the tubes, are selected as a ratio of two unequal integers to permit efficient operation of each tube bundle while maintaining the various tube bundles of the heat exchanger within a compact envelope. Preferably, the helix angle and tube pitch parallel to the path of coolant flow are constant for all tubes in a single bundle so that the tubes are of approximately the same length within each bundle

  3. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1982-04-01

    The performance of steam generator tubes in water-cooled nuclear power reactors has been reviewed for 1980. Tube defects occurred at 38% of the 97 reactors surveyed. This is a marginal improvement over 1979 when defects occurred at 41% of the reactors. The number of failed tubes was also lower, 0.14% of the tubes in service in 1980 compared with 0.20% of those in service in 1979. Analysis of the causes of these failures indicates that stress corrosion cracking was the leading failure mechanism. Reactors that used all-volatile treatment of secondary water, with or without full-flow condensate demineralization since start-up showed the lowest incidence of corrosion-related defects

  4. X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webley, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The object of the invention described is to provide an X-ray tube providing a scanned X-ray output which does not require a scanned electron beam. This is obtained by an X-ray tube including an anode which is rotatable about an axis, and a source of a beam of energy, for example an electron beam, arranged to impinge on a surface of the anode to generate X-radiation substantially at the region of incidence on the anode surface. The anode is rotatable about the axis to move the region of incidence over the surface. The anode is so shaped that the rotation causes the region of incidence to move in a predetermined manner relative to fixed parts of the tube so that the generated X-radiation is scanned in a predetermined manner relative to the tube. (UK)

  5. Fuel assembly guide tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention is directed toward a nuclear fuel assembly guide tube arrangement which restrains spacer grid movement due to coolant flow and which offers secondary means for supporting a fuel assembly during handling and transfer operations

  6. Bull Moose Tube Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Bull Moose Tube Company, a business located at 1819 Clarkson Road, Chesterfield, MO, 63017, for alleged violations at the facility located at 406 East Industrial Drive,

  7. Tracheostomy tube - eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trach - eating ... take your first bites. Certain factors may make eating or swallowing harder, such as: Changes in the ... easier to swallow. Suction the tracheostomy tube before eating. This will keep you from coughing while eating, ...

  8. Membrane shape modulates transmembrane protein distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimon, Sophie; Callan-Jones, Andrew; Berthaud, Alice; Pinot, Mathieu; Toombes, Gilman E S; Bassereau, Patricia

    2014-01-27

    Although membrane shape varies greatly throughout the cell, the contribution of membrane curvature to transmembrane protein targeting is unknown because of the numerous sorting mechanisms that take place concurrently in cells. To isolate the effect of membrane shape, we used cell-sized giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) containing either the potassium channel KvAP or the water channel AQP0 to form membrane nanotubes with controlled radii. Whereas the AQP0 concentrations in flat and curved membranes were indistinguishable, KvAP was enriched in the tubes, with greater enrichment in more highly curved membranes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching measurements showed that both proteins could freely diffuse through the neck between the tube and GUV, and the effect of each protein on membrane shape and stiffness was characterized using a thermodynamic sorting model. This study establishes the importance of membrane shape for targeting transmembrane proteins and provides a method for determining the effective shape and flexibility of membrane proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Streak tube development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinrichs, C.K.; Estrella, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    A research program for the development of a high-speed, high-resolution streak image tube is described. This is one task in the development of a streak camera system with digital electronic readout, whose primary application is for diagnostics in underground nuclear testing. This program is concerned with the development of a high-resolution streak image tube compatible with x-ray input and electronic digital output. The tube must be capable of time resolution down to 100 psec and spatial resolution to provide greater than 1000 resolution elements across the cathode (much greater than presently available). Another objective is to develop the capability to make design changes in tube configurations to meet different experimental requirements. A demountable prototype streak tube was constructed, mounted on an optical bench, and placed in a vacuum system. Initial measurements of the tube resolution with an undeflected image show a resolution of 32 line pairs per millimeter over a cathode diameter of one inch, which is consistent with the predictions of the computer simulations. With the initial set of unoptmized deflection plates, the resolution pattern appeared to remain unchanged for static deflections of +- 1/2-inch, a total streak length of one inch, also consistent with the computer simulations. A passively mode-locked frequency-doubled dye laser is being developed as an ultraviolet pulsed light source to measure dynamic tube resolution during streaking. A sweep circuit to provide the deflection voltage in the prototype tube has been designed and constructed and provides a relatively linear ramp voltage with ramp durations adjustable between 10 and 1000 nsec

  10. Researching YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    Arthurs, Jane; Drakopoulou, Sophia; Gandini, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    ‘Researching YouTube’ introduces the special issue of Convergence which arose out of an international academic conference on YouTube that was held in London at Middlesex University in September 2016. The conference aimed to generate a robust overview of YouTube’s changing character and significance after its first ten years of development by creating a productive dialogue between speakers from different disciplines and cultures, and between YouTube-specific research and wider debates in media...

  11. Tubing crimping pliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, G.T.

    1981-02-27

    The disclosure relates to pliers and more particularly to pliers for crimping two or more pieces of copper tubing together prior to their being permanently joined by brazing, soldering or the like. A die containing spring-loaded pins rotates within a cammed ring in the head of the pliers. As the die rotates, the pins force a crimp on tubing held within the pliers.

  12. Complex Dynamic Development of Poliovirus Membranous Replication Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vinod; Hansen, Bryan T.; Hoyt, Forrest H.; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Ehrenfeld, Ellie

    2012-01-01

    Replication of all positive-strand RNA viruses is intimately associated with membranes. Here we utilize electron tomography and other methods to investigate the remodeling of membranes in poliovirus-infected cells. We found that the viral replication structures previously described as “vesicles” are in fact convoluted, branching chambers with complex and dynamic morphology. They are likely to originate from cis-Golgi membranes and are represented during the early stages of infection by single-walled connecting and branching tubular compartments. These early viral organelles gradually transform into double-membrane structures by extension of membranous walls and/or collapsing of the luminal cavity of the single-membrane structures. As the double-membrane regions develop, they enclose cytoplasmic material. At this stage, a continuous membranous structure may have double- and single-walled membrane morphology at adjacent cross-sections. In the late stages of the replication cycle, the structures are represented mostly by double-membrane vesicles. Viral replication proteins, double-stranded RNA species, and actively replicating RNA are associated with both double- and single-membrane structures. However, the exponential phase of viral RNA synthesis occurs when single-membrane formations are predominant in the cell. It has been shown previously that replication complexes of some other positive-strand RNA viruses form on membrane invaginations, which result from negative membrane curvature. Our data show that the remodeling of cellular membranes in poliovirus-infected cells produces structures with positive curvature of membranes. Thus, it is likely that there is a fundamental divergence in the requirements for the supporting cellular membrane-shaping machinery among different groups of positive-strand RNA viruses. PMID:22072780

  13. Pressure tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Osamu; Kumasaka, Katsuyuki.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To remove the heat of reactor core using a great amount of moderators at the periphery of the reactor core as coolants. Constitution: Heat of a reactor core is removed by disposing a spontaneous recycling cooling device for cooling moderators in a moderator tank, without using additional power driven equipments. That is, a spontaneous recycling cooling device for cooling the moderators in the moderator tank is disposed. Further, the gap between the inner wall of a pressure tube guide pipe disposed through the vertical direction of a moderator tank and the outer wall of a pressure tube inserted through the guide pipe is made smaller than the rupture distortion caused by the thermal expansion upon overheating of the pressure tube and greater than the minimum gap required for heat shiels between the pressure tube and the pressure tube guide pipe during usual operation. In this way, even if such an accident as can not using a coolant cooling device comprising power driven equipment should occur in the pressure tube type reactor, the rise in the temperature of the reactor core can be retarded to obtain a margin with time. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. Tube spacer grid for a heat-exchanger tube bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidl, H.

    1976-01-01

    A tube spacer grid for a heat-exchanger tube bundle is formed by an annular grid frame having a groove formed in its inner surface in which the interspaced grid bars have their ends positioned and held in interspaced relationship by short sections of tubes passed through holes axially formed in the grid frame so that the tubes are positioned between the ends of the grid bars in the grooves. The tube sections may be cut from the same tubes used to form the tube bundle. 5 claims, 3 drawing figures

  15. The neighbor enclosed area tracking algorithm and its application to cyclone merger in the midlatitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inatsu, Masaru; Amada, Shotarou; Satake, Yuya

    2010-05-01

    The neighbor enclosed area tracking (NEAT) algorithm is proposed as an alternative method to conventional point-to-point cyclone tracking approaches. Most automated Lagrangian tracking algorithms contain three procedures: cyclone identification, cyclone tracking, and quantification of cyclone intensity and activity. The cyclone identification was simply based on a comparison of neighboring grid points; cyclone tracking mainly employed a near-neighbor point search to neighbor-time cyclone-center datasets; and cyclone intensity and activity are mainly quantified as cyclone track density, and other accompanying products such as genesis and lysis densities, mean lifetime, average moving vector, and mean growth rate can also be obtained in the final procedure. But a crucial problem in the above technique is its requirement of some complicated connecting conditions for near-neighbor tracking. To overcome the problem, NEAT completes cyclone identification and cyclone tracking in a single process of equivalent labeling for spatiotemporally connected domains, i.e., if two spatially enclosed areas in a neighboring time frame overlap, they should be connected. NEAT enables us to count the genesis and tracks of individual cyclones as the conventional tracking. Moreover, NEAT has the ability to produce fruitful information on cyclone mergers and separations, cyclone shape, and material transport by individual eddies (the latter two features will be reported elsewhere). There are many possible applications of NEAT to meteorology and oceanography, but now we focus on the situation, well-known by Japanese synopticians, that two cyclones pass respectively over the north and south of Japan and then they frequently merge and are rapidly deepened in the western Pacific. For the case, the southern cyclones tend to be stimulated just above the sea surface temperature front to the north of oceanic western boundary currents, while the northern cyclones, moving eastward along the polar

  16. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy of a superstructure of fluid dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klösgen, B; Helfrich, W

    1997-01-01

    a porous technical membrane. Sampling and cryofixation took place at various times within 3 weeks after the preparation. From the micrographs we infer that the small fraction of vesicles enclosing one another develop passages (connections) between the bilayers. In contrast, the superstructure is basically...... a feature of disconnected membranes. Among its modifications are isolated membrane bends or folds and a grainy membrane texture with a minimal grain spacing of 4-6 nm. In the extruded dispersions the passages and the superstructure seem to be formed mostly within the first day. The fraction of smooth...

  17. 46 CFR 108.437 - Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment. 108.437 Section 108.437 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.437 Pipe sizes and discharge rates for...

  18. STS 31 PAYLOAD HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ENCLOSED IN AN AIR-TIGHT PLASTIC BAG FOR PROTECTION IN VERTICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Preparations are made to enclose the Hubble Space Telescope [HST] inside an air-tight plastic bag in the VPF. Processing of the 94- inch primary mirror telescope for launch on the Discovery in March 1990, involves working within strict controls to prevent contamination.

  19. Eddy covariance measurements with a new fast-response, enclosed-path analyzer: Spectral characteristics and cross-system comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Novick; J. Walker; W.S. Chan; A. Schmidt; C. Sobek; J.M. Vose

    2013-01-01

    A new class of enclosed path gas analyzers suitable for eddy covariance applications combines the advantages of traditional closed-path systems (small density corrections, good performance in poor weather) and open-path systems (good spectral response, low power requirements), and permits estimates of instantaneous gas mixing ratio. Here, the extent to which these...

  20. Small drains, big problems: the impact of dry weather runoff on shoreline water quality at enclosed beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippy, Megan A; Stein, Robert; Sanders, Brett F; Davis, Kristen; McLaughlin, Karen; Skinner, John F; Kappeler, John; Grant, Stanley B

    2014-12-16

    Enclosed beaches along urban coastlines are frequent hot spots of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) pollution. In this paper we present field measurements and modeling studies aimed at evaluating the impact of small storm drains on FIB pollution at enclosed beaches in Newport Bay, the second largest tidal embayment in Southern California. Our results suggest that small drains have a disproportionate impact on enclosed beach water quality for five reasons: (1) dry weather surface flows (primarily from overirrigation of lawns and ornamental plants) harbor FIB at concentrations exceeding recreational water quality criteria; (2) small drains can trap dry weather runoff during high tide, and then release it in a bolus during the falling tide when drainpipe outlets are exposed; (3) nearshore turbulence is low (turbulent diffusivities approximately 10(-3) m(2) s(-1)), limiting dilution of FIB and other runoff-associated pollutants once they enter the bay; (4) once in the bay, runoff can form buoyant plumes that further limit vertical mixing and dilution; and (5) local winds can force buoyant runoff plumes back against the shoreline, where water depth is minimal and human contact likely. Outdoor water conservation and urban retrofits that minimize the volume of dry and wet weather runoff entering the local storm drain system may be the best option for improving beach water quality in Newport Bay and other urban-impacted enclosed beaches.

  1. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home >> NEI YouTube Videos >> NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Listen NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract ...

  2. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home » NEI YouTube Videos » NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Listen NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract ...

  3. Measurement of mucociliary function of the eustachian tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuutinen, J.; Kaerjae, J.; Karjalainen, P.

    1983-01-01

    Mucociliary function of the eustachian tube was measured with a radioisotopic method; 0.01 mL of a human serum albumin labeled with technetium 99m was instilled into the anterior part of the middle ear cavity either through a perforation or by puncturing the tympanic membrane, and its course was followed by a gamma-camera. In the normal eustachian tube, the velocity of the mucociliary transport was 0.7 to 1.1 mm/min. The mucociliary function was totally absent in chronic otitis media, in untreated secretory otitis media, and in the ear with a moist perforation of the tympanic membrane. The mucociliary transport returned to normal when the ear was clinically healed. It is assumed that the impairment of the mucociliary function of the eustachian tube and middle ear plays an important role in the pathogenesis of secretory otitis media and chronic ear discharge

  4. Accurate Modelling of Surface Currents and Internal Tides in a Semi-enclosed Coastal Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S. E.; Soontiens, N. K.; Dunn, M. B. H.; Liu, J.; Olson, E.; Halverson, M. J.; Pawlowicz, R.

    2016-02-01

    The Strait of Georgia is a deep (400 m), strongly stratified, semi-enclosed coastal sea on the west coast of North America. We have configured a baroclinic model of the Strait of Georgia and surrounding coastal waters using the NEMO ocean community model. We run daily nowcasts and forecasts and publish our sea-surface results (including storm surge warnings) to the web (salishsea.eos.ubc.ca/storm-surge). Tides in the Strait of Georgia are mixed and large. The baroclinic model and previous barotropic models accurately represent tidal sea-level variations and depth mean currents. The baroclinic model reproduces accurately the diurnal but not the semi-diurnal baroclinic tidal currents. In the Southern Strait of Georgia, strong internal tidal currents at the semi-diurnal frequency are observed. Strong semi-diurnal tides are also produced in the model, but are almost 180 degrees out of phase with the observations. In the model, in the surface, the barotropic and baroclinic tides reinforce, whereas the observations show that at the surface the baroclinic tides oppose the barotropic. As such the surface currents are very poorly modelled. Here we will present evidence of the internal tidal field from observations. We will discuss the generation regions of the tides, the necessary modifications to the model required to correct the phase, the resulting baroclinic tides and the improvements in the surface currents.

  5. Modelling alongshore flow in a semi-enclosed lagoon strongly forced by tides and waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskjelle, Torbjørn; Barthel, Knut; Christensen, Kai H.; Furaca, Noca; Gammelsrød, Tor; Hoguane, António M.; Nharreluga, Bilardo

    2014-08-01

    Alongshore flows strongly driven by tides and waves is studied in the context of a one-dimensional numerical model. Observations from field surveys performed in a semi-enclosed lagoon (1.7 km×0.2 km) outside Xai-Xai, Mozambique, are used to validate the model results. The model is able to capture most of the observed temporal variability of the current, but sea surface height tends to be overestimated at high tide, especially during high wave events. Inside the lagoon we observed a mainly uni-directional alongshore current, with speeds up to 1 ms-1. The current varies primarily with the tide, being close to zero near low tide, generally increasing during flood and decreasing during ebb. The observations revealed a local minimum in the alongshore flow at high tide, which the model was successful in reproducing. Residence times in the lagoon were calculated to be less than one hour with wave forcing dominating the flushing. At this beach a high number of drowning casualties have occurred, but no connection was found between them and strong current events in a simulation covering the period 2011-2012.

  6. A frictionally and hydraulically constrained model of the convectively driven mean flow in partially enclosed seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxworthy, T.

    1997-08-01

    A simple three-layer model of the dynamics of partially enclosed seas, driven by a surface buoyancy flux, is presented. It contains two major elements, a hydraulic constraint at the exit contraction and friction in the interior of the main body of the sea; both together determine the vertical structure and magnitudes of the interior flow variables, i.e. velocity and density. Application of the model to the large-scale dynamics of the Red Sea gives results that are not in disagreement with observation once the model is applied, also, to predict the dense outflow from the Gulf of Suez. The latter appears to be the agent responsible for the formation of dense bottom water in this system. Also, the model is reasonably successful in predicting the density of the outflow from the Persian Gulf, and can be applied to any number of other examples of convectively driven flow in long, narrow channels, with or without sills and constrictions at their exits.

  7. Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared spectrometry of flowable enclosed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, John F.; Jones, Roger W.

    1993-03-02

    A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a flowable material enclosed in a transport system having an infrared transparent wall portion. A temperature differential is transiently generated between a thin surface layer portion of the material and a lower or deeper portion of the material sufficient to alter the thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material from the black-body thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material, and the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is detected through the infrared transparent portion of the transport system while the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation. The detection is effected prior to the temperature differential propagating into the lower or deeper portion of the material to an extent such that the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is no longer sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation. By such detection, the detected altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is indicative of characteristics relating to molecular composition of the material.

  8. Through-Metal-Wall Power Delivery and Data Transmission for Enclosed Sensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Xin Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to assess the current viable technologies for wireless power delivery and data transmission through metal barriers. Using such technologies sensors enclosed in hermetical metal containers can be powered and communicate through exterior power sources without penetration of the metal wall for wire feed-throughs. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential requirements for through-metal-wall power delivery and data transmission and then we: (1 describe three electromagnetic coupling based techniques reported in the literature, which include inductive coupling, capacitive coupling, and magnetic resonance coupling; (2 present a detailed review of wireless ultrasonic through-metal-wall power delivery and/or data transmission methods; (3 compare various ultrasonic through-metal-wall systems in modeling, transducer configuration and communication mode with sensors; (4 summarize the characteristics of electromagnetic-based and ultrasound-based systems, evaluate the challenges and development trends. We conclude that electromagnetic coupling methods are suitable for through thin non-ferromagnetic metal wall power delivery and data transmission at a relatively low data rate; piezoelectric transducer-based ultrasonic systems are particularly advantageous in achieving high power transfer efficiency and high data rates; the combination of more than one single technique may provide a more practical and reliable solution for long term operation.

  9. Combination of minimum enclosing balls classifier with SVM in coal-rock recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, QingJun; Jiang, HaiYan; Song, Qinghui; Zhao, XieGuang; Wu, Xiaoxuan

    2017-01-01

    Top-coal caving technology is a productive and efficient method in modern mechanized coal mining, the study of coal-rock recognition is key to realizing automation in comprehensive mechanized coal mining. In this paper we propose a new discriminant analysis framework for coal-rock recognition. In the framework, a data acquisition model with vibration and acoustic signals is designed and the caving dataset with 10 feature variables and three classes is got. And the perfect combination of feature variables can be automatically decided by using the multi-class F-score (MF-Score) feature selection. In terms of nonlinear mapping in real-world optimization problem, an effective minimum enclosing ball (MEB) algorithm plus Support vector machine (SVM) is proposed for rapid detection of coal-rock in the caving process. In particular, we illustrate how to construct MEB-SVM classifier in coal-rock recognition which exhibit inherently complex distribution data. The proposed method is examined on UCI data sets and the caving dataset, and compared with some new excellent SVM classifiers. We conduct experiments with accuracy and Friedman test for comparison of more classifiers over multiple on the UCI data sets. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has good robustness and generalization ability. The results of experiments on the caving dataset show the better performance which leads to a promising feature selection and multi-class recognition in coal-rock recognition. PMID:28937987

  10. High-aspect-ratio, silicon oxide-enclosed pillar structures in microfluidic liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lisa C; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Sepaniak, Michael J

    2010-11-15

    The present paper discusses the ability to separate chemical species using high-aspect-ratio, silicon oxide-enclosed pillar arrays. These miniaturized chromatographic systems require smaller sample volumes, experience less flow resistance, and generate superior separation efficiency over traditional packed bed liquid chromatographic columns, improvements controlled by the increased order and decreased pore size of the systems. In our distinctive fabrication sequence, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of silicon oxide is used to alter the surface and structural properties of the pillars for facile surface modification while improving the pillar mechanical stability and increasing surface area. The separation behavior of model compounds within our pillar systems indicated an unexpected hydrophobic-like separation mechanism. The effects of organic modifier, ionic concentration, and pressure-driven flow rate were studied. A decrease in the organic content of the mobile phase increased peak resolution while detrimentally effecting peak shape. A resolution of 4.7 (RSD = 3.7%) was obtained for nearly perfect Gaussian shaped peaks, exhibiting plate heights as low as 1.1 and 1.8 μm for fluorescein and sulforhodamine B, respectively. Contact angle measurements and DART mass spectrometry analysis indicate that our employed elastomeric soft bonding technique modifies pillar properties, creating a fortuitous stationary phase. This discovery provides evidence supporting the ability to easily functionalize PECVD oxide surfaces by gas-phase reactions.

  11. Tides in three enclosed basins: the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor P Medvedev

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tides are the main type of sea level variability in the world ocean. However, oceanic tides penetrate weakly, or do not penetrate at all, into enclosed basins such as the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas. Consequently, only directly forced tides are formed in these basins. Long observation time series (up to 123 years in the Baltic Sea and 38 years in the Black and Caspian seas at numerous stations were used to precisely estimate tidal constituents. High-resolution spectra revealed fine structure of discrete peaks at tidal frequencies. The diurnal radiational constituent S1 (1 cpd, apparently associated with breeze winds, was found to play an important role in general tidal dynamics in these seas. Harmonic analysis of tides for individual yearly series with consecutive vector averaging over the entire observational period was applied to estimate mean amplitudes and phases of tidal constituents. Our findings indicate that the formation and predominance of diurnal or semidiurnal tides in these seas appears to depend on the frequency-selective properties of the basins. Thus, in the Baltic Sea with fundamental modal period of about 27 h, diurnal tides dominate in the major eastern gulfs. In the Black Sea resonant amplification of semidiurnal tides is observed in the northwestern part. The predominance of semidiurnal tides in the Caspian Sea has also probably a resonant nature. Maximum tidal heights estimated for a 100-year period are 23 cm in the Baltic Sea, 18 cm in the Black Sea and 21 cm in the southern Caspian Sea.

  12. METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINATION OF SOUND INSULATION OF APARTMENTS’ ENCLOSING STRUCTURES TO MEET NOISE PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giyasov Botir Iminzhonovich

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Subject: an important task in the design of internal enclosing structures of apartments is the establishment of their required soundproofing ability. At present, there is no reliable method for determining the required sound insulation and in this regard internal enclosures are designed without proper justification for noise protection. Research objectives: development of a technique for determining the required sound insulation of apartment’s internal enclosures to ensure an acceptable noise regime in the apartments’ rooms under the action of intra-apartment noise sources. Materials and methods: the methodology was developed on the basis of a statistical method for noise calculation in the apartments, treated as systems of acoustically coupled proportionate rooms, and with the help of a computer program that implements this method. Results: the technique makes it possible to generate, with the use of computer technologies, a targeted selection of internal enclosures of the apartment to meet their soundproofing requirements. Conclusions: the technique proposed in the article can be used at the design stage of apartments when determining the required soundproofing of partitions and doors. Using this technique, it is possible to harmonize the sound insulation ratio of individual elements among themselves and thereby guarantee a selection of internal structures for their acoustic and economic efficiency.

  13. Combination of minimum enclosing balls classifier with SVM in coal-rock recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, QingJun; Jiang, HaiYan; Song, Qinghui; Zhao, XieGuang; Wu, Xiaoxuan

    2017-01-01

    Top-coal caving technology is a productive and efficient method in modern mechanized coal mining, the study of coal-rock recognition is key to realizing automation in comprehensive mechanized coal mining. In this paper we propose a new discriminant analysis framework for coal-rock recognition. In the framework, a data acquisition model with vibration and acoustic signals is designed and the caving dataset with 10 feature variables and three classes is got. And the perfect combination of feature variables can be automatically decided by using the multi-class F-score (MF-Score) feature selection. In terms of nonlinear mapping in real-world optimization problem, an effective minimum enclosing ball (MEB) algorithm plus Support vector machine (SVM) is proposed for rapid detection of coal-rock in the caving process. In particular, we illustrate how to construct MEB-SVM classifier in coal-rock recognition which exhibit inherently complex distribution data. The proposed method is examined on UCI data sets and the caving dataset, and compared with some new excellent SVM classifiers. We conduct experiments with accuracy and Friedman test for comparison of more classifiers over multiple on the UCI data sets. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has good robustness and generalization ability. The results of experiments on the caving dataset show the better performance which leads to a promising feature selection and multi-class recognition in coal-rock recognition.

  14. Development of a Compact Maglev Centrifugal Blood Pump Enclosed in a Titanium Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Chi Nan; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Asama, Junichi; Takatani, Setsuo; Shimokohbe, Akira

    A compact centrifugal blood pump consisting of a controlled two-degrees-of-freedom radial magnetic bearing and a brushless DC motor enclosed in a titanium housing has been developed for use as an implantable ventricular assist device. The magnetic bearing also supports axial and angular motions of the impeller via a magnetic coupling. The top housing is made of pure titanium, while the impeller and the stator are coated with pure titanium and Ti-6Al-7Nb, respectively, to improve the biocompatibility of the pump. The combination of pure titanium and titanium alloy was chosen because of the sensitivity of eddy current type displacement sensors through the intervening conducting wall. The dimensions of the pump are 69.0 mm in diameter and 28.5 mm in height. During a pump performance test, axial shifting of the impeller due to hydraulic forces led to variations in the rotational positioning signal, causing loss of control of the rotational speed. This problem was solved by conditioning the rotational positioning signal. With a flow rate of 5 l/min against a head pressure of 100 mmHg, the power consumption and efficiency of the pump were 5.5 W and 20%, respectively. Furthermore, the hemolysis of the blood pump was 43.6% lower when compared to that of a commercially available pump.

  15. Legislation on smoking in enclosed public places in Scotland: how will we evaluate the impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, Sally J; Gruer, Laurence; Amos, Amanda; Currie, Candace; Fischbacher, Colin; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hastings, Gerard; Malam, Sally; Pell, Jill; Scott, Calum; Semple, Sean

    2006-03-01

    From 26 March 2006, smoking will be prohibited in wholly and substantially enclosed public places in Scotland, and it will be an offence to permit smoking or to smoke in no-smoking premises. We anticipate that implementation of the smoke-free legislation will result in significant health gains associated with reductions in exposure to both environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and personal tobacco consumption as well as other social and economic impacts. Health Scotland in conjunction with the Information Services Division (ISD) Scotland and the Scottish Executive have developed a comprehensive evaluation strategy to assess the expected short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes. Using routine health, behavioural and economic data and commissioned research, we will assess the impact of the smoke-free legislation in eight key outcome areas--knowledge and attitudes, ETS exposure, compliance, culture, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption, tobacco-related morbidity and mortality, economic impacts on the hospitality sector and health inequalities. The findings from this evaluation will make a significant contribution to the international understanding of the health effects of exposure to ETS and the broader social, cultural and economic impacts of smoke-free legislation.

  16. Variant palmaris profundus enclosed by an unusual loop of the median nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOU, HSIU-CHU; JENG, HELLEN; KO, TSUI-LING; PAI, MAN-HUI; CHANG, CHIU-YUN; WU, CHING-HSIANG

    2001-01-01

    According to the usual description in most anatomy texts, the median nerve in the forearm passes between the 2 heads of pronator teres. It continues distally between flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus almost to the retinaculum. Muscular branches leave the nerve near the elbow and supply all superficial muscles of the anterior part of the forearm except flexor carpi ulnaris. Many variations of the median nerve in the forearm have been reported (Urban & Krosman, 1992). The palmaris profundus is also a rare anomaly of the forearm (Dyreby & Engber, 1982). It originates from the radial side of the common flexor tendon in the proximal forearm and inserts into the undersurface of the palmar aponeurosis. The origin of palmaris profundus may be close to the median nerve and its branches, and may be involved in compressive neuropathy of the anterior interosseous nerve. Its tendon crossing through the carpal canal has been implicated in the carpal tunnel syndrome (reviewed by Lahey & Aulicino, 1986). In some cases, palmaris profundus was found enclosed in a common fascial sheath with the median nerve (Stark, 1992; Sahinoglu et al. 1994). To indicate its close association with the median nerve, the palmaris profundus was also named ‘musculus comitans nervi mediani’ (Sahinoglu et al. 1994). This article reports an unusual loop of the median nerve encircling an anomalous palmaris profundus in the forearm, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously described. PMID:11693311

  17. Combination of minimum enclosing balls classifier with SVM in coal-rock recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QingJun Song

    Full Text Available Top-coal caving technology is a productive and efficient method in modern mechanized coal mining, the study of coal-rock recognition is key to realizing automation in comprehensive mechanized coal mining. In this paper we propose a new discriminant analysis framework for coal-rock recognition. In the framework, a data acquisition model with vibration and acoustic signals is designed and the caving dataset with 10 feature variables and three classes is got. And the perfect combination of feature variables can be automatically decided by using the multi-class F-score (MF-Score feature selection. In terms of nonlinear mapping in real-world optimization problem, an effective minimum enclosing ball (MEB algorithm plus Support vector machine (SVM is proposed for rapid detection of coal-rock in the caving process. In particular, we illustrate how to construct MEB-SVM classifier in coal-rock recognition which exhibit inherently complex distribution data. The proposed method is examined on UCI data sets and the caving dataset, and compared with some new excellent SVM classifiers. We conduct experiments with accuracy and Friedman test for comparison of more classifiers over multiple on the UCI data sets. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has good robustness and generalization ability. The results of experiments on the caving dataset show the better performance which leads to a promising feature selection and multi-class recognition in coal-rock recognition.

  18. Spatially uniform but temporally variable bacterioplankton in a semi-enclosed coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziti, Alexandra; Kormas, Konstantinos A; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria; Karayanni, Hera

    2015-07-01

    Studies focusing on the temporal and spatial dynamics of bacterioplankton communities within littoral areas undergoing direct influences from the coast are quite limited. In addition, they are more complicated to resolve compared to communities in the open ocean. In order to elucidate the effects of spatial vs. temporal variability on bacterial communities in a highly land-influenced semi-enclosed gulf, surface bacterioplankton communities from five coastal sites in Igoumenitsa Gulf (Ionian Sea, Greece) were analyzed over a nine-month period using 16S rDNA 454-pyrosequencing. Temporal differences were more pronounced than spatial ones, with lower diversity indices observed during the summer months. During winter and early spring, bacterial communities were dominated by SAR11 representatives, while this pattern changed in May when they were abruptly replaced by members of Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, and Alteromonadales. Additionally, correlation analysis showed high negative correlations between the presence of SAR11 OTUs in relation to temperature and sunlight that might have driven, directly or indirectly, the disappearance of these OTUs in the summer months. The dominance of SAR11 during the winter months further supported the global distribution of the clade, not only in the open-sea, but also in coastal systems. This study revealed that specific bacteria exhibited distinct succession patterns in an anthropogenic-impacted coastal system. The major bacterioplankton component was represented by commonly found marine bacteria exhibiting seasonal dynamics, while freshwater and terrestrial-related phylotypes were absent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Nuclear reactor installation with outer shell enclosing a primary pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The high temperature nuclear reactor installation described includes a fluid cooled nuclear heat source, a primary pressure vessel containing the heat source, an outer shell enclosing the primary pressure vessel and acting as a secondary means of containment for this vessel against outside projectiles. Multiple auxiliary equipment points are arranged outside the outer shell which comprises a part of a lower wall around the primary pressure vessel, an annular part integrated in the lower wall and extending outwards as from this wall and an upper part integrated in the annular part and extending above this annular part and above the primary pressure vessel. The annular part and the primary pressure vessel are formed with vertical penetrations which can be closed communicating respectively with the auxiliary equipment points and with inside the pressure vessel whilst handling gear is provided in the upper part for vertically raising reactor components through these penetrations and for transporting them over the annular part and over the primary pressure vessel [fr

  20. Carbon monoxide poisoning and death in a large enclosed ventilated area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Butch; Froloff, Victor; Mills, Kelly; McGee, Michael

    2013-11-01

    A 55-year-old man with a medical history of tobacco use suddenly collapsed while power washing an empty indoor pool in a hotel. The decedent was transported to the local hospital where he was pronounced. A postmortem examination revealed atherosclerotic heart disease and bilateral pulmonary edema and congestion. A postmortem blood carbon monoxide (CO) level was 27% saturation, and a CO performed on hospital admission blood was 49% saturation. CO poisoning is a common cause of toxicological morbidity and mortality in the United States. The circumstances most often occur in an enclosed environment and may be intentional or unintentional. CO poisoning has been reported in open, well-ventilated spaces, but rarely results in death. A warning label was present on the engine clearly stating the dangers of CO emission. However, there was a false sense of security due to the large size of the pool room and the presence of industrial blowers that were being used for ventilation. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. The peculiarities of structurizing enclosing rock massif while developing a coal seam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyreva, E. N.; Shinkevich, M. V.

    2017-09-01

    Different concepts of the development of geo-mechanical processes during longwall mining of a seam which are fundamentally different from the conventional ones are introduced in the article. Fundamental principles of the model for structurizing enclosing rock mass while longwall mining along the strike are described. The model was developed on the bases of non-linear geomechanical laws. According to the model, rock mass in the area of mining operation is organized as rock geomechanical layers with shifting arches. And the formation period of shifting arches in disintegrated rock mass is divisible by the length of the stope. Undulate characteristic of a massif as a peculiarity of man-made structurization of a massif is defined. It is shown that structuring the broken massif causes the formation of block-structured system and it can be detected while monitoring the ground pressure in powered support props. The results of the research allow decreasing the negative influence of a ground pressure and can be applied to specify parameters for controlling the roof, defining geometrical dimensions of a mining section and positioning of holing chute (face entry).

  2. Numerical analysis of steady and transient natural convection in an enclosed cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehedi, Tanveer Hassan; Tahzeeb, Rahat Bin; Islam, A. K. M. Sadrul

    2017-06-01

    The paper presents the numerical simulation of natural convection heat transfer of air inside an enclosed cavity which can be helpful to find out the critical width of insulation in air insulated walls seen in residential buildings and industrial furnaces. Natural convection between two walls having different temperatures have been simulated using ANSYS FLUENT 12.0 in both steady and transient conditions. To simulate different heat transfer and fluid flow conditions, Rayleigh number ranging from 103 to 105 has been maintained (i.e. Laminar flow.) In case of steady state analysis, the CFD predictions were in very good agreement with the reviewed literature. Transient simulation process has been performed by using User Defined Functions, where the temperature of the hot wall varies with time linearly. To obtain and compare the heat transfer properties, Nusselt number has been calculated at the hot wall at different conditions. The buoyancy driven flow characteristics have been investigated by observing the flow pattern in a graphical manner. The characteristics of the system at different temperature differences between the wall has been observed and documented.

  3. Casimir potential of a compact object enclosed by a spherical cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaheer, Saad; Rahi, Sahand Jamal; Emig, Thorsten; Jaffe, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    We study the electromagnetic Casimir interaction of a compact object contained inside a closed cavity of another compact object. We express the interaction energy in terms of the objects' scattering matrices and translation matrices that relate the coordinate systems appropriate to each object. When the enclosing object is an otherwise empty metallic spherical shell, much larger than the internal object, and the two are sufficiently separated, the Casimir force can be expressed in terms of the static electric and magnetic multipole polarizabilities of the internal object, which is analogous to the Casimir-Polder result. Although it is not a simple power law, the dependence of the force on the separation of the object from the containing sphere is a universal function of its displacement from the center of the sphere, independent of other details of the object's electromagnetic response. Furthermore, we compute the exact Casimir force between two metallic spheres contained one inside the other at arbitrary separations. Finally, we combine our results with earlier work on the Casimir force between two spheres to obtain data on the leading-order correction to the proximity force approximation for two metallic spheres both outside and within one another.

  4. Description of the heating and expansion process of a water drop enclosed in a hot melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, G.; Berg, E. von.

    1985-11-01

    In the present study a simple model for the description of the heating- and expansion-process of a water drop enclosed in hot melt is developed. The model is valid between the first contact of melt and water up to the beginning of evaporation. A possible superheating by retardation of ebullition is disregarded. The balance equations for energy, mass and momentum as well as the equation of state are integrated over the radial space coordinate in both media using appropriate profiles of temperature, pressure and velocity. Thereby a system of coupled ordinary differential equations is formed for the variables of the model which are now time dependent only. The equations are solved numerically by means of a FORTRAN-program. The influence of parameters (melt-temperature, heat-transfer-coefficient between melt and water as well as drop radius) are studied. It is shown that always very rapidly a vapor-layer forms around the water drop, while the inner part of the drop did not yet 'notice' anything of the heating process. An approximation formula for the time-transfer-coefficients between melt and water. Due to this approximation, the time up to incipience of evaporation grows proportional to the drop radius, which means that in the frame of the present model even small droplets won't evaporate as a whole instantaneously. (orig.) [de

  5. Membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane paradigm is a modified frozen star approach to modeling black holes, with particles and fields assuming a complex, static, boundary-layer type structure (membrane) near the event horizon. The membrane has no effects on the present or future evolution of particles and fields above itself. The mathematical representation is a combination of a formalism containing terms for the shear and bulk viscosity, surface pressure, momentum, temperature, entropy, etc., of the horizon and the 3+1 formalism. The latter model considers a family of three-dimensional spacelike hypersurfaces in one-dimensional time. The membrane model considers a magnetic field threading the hole and undergoing torque from the hole rotation. The field is cleaned by the horizon and distributed over the horizon so that ohmic dissipation is minimized. The membrane paradigm is invalid inside the horizon, but is useful for theoretically probing the properties of slowly evolving black holes

  6. Membrane processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The membrane processes have played important role in the industrial separation process. These technologies can be found in all industrial areas such as food, beverages, metallurgy, pulp and paper, textile, pharmaceutical, automotive, biotechnology and chemical industry, as well as in water treatment for domestic and industrial application. Although these processes are known since twentieth century, there are still many studies that focus on the testing of new membranes' materials and determining of conditions for optimal selectivity, i. e. the optimum transmembrane pressure (TMP) or permeate flux to minimize fouling. Moreover the researchers proposed some calculation methods to predict the membrane processes properties. In this article, the laboratory scale experiments of membrane separation techniques, as well their validation by calculation methods are presented. Because membrane is the "heart" of the process, experimental and computational methods for its characterization are also described.

  7. CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Larry W.; Way, J. Douglas; Vlasse, Marcus

    2003-01-01

    mechanisms. The Membrane Test Facility (MTF) has been developed to measure membrane permeance over a wide range of temperature and pressure. The facility uses two volume compartments separated by the membrane that are instrumented to measure temperature, delta pressure across the membrane, and gas composition. A thermal shroud supports and encloses the membrane, and provides temperature control. Methods were developed to determine membrane permeance using the first order decay of the pressure difference between the sealed compartments, using the total pressure for pure gases, and partial pressure of each species in gas mixtures. The technique provides an end-to-end measurement of gas permeance that includes concentration polarization effects. Experiments have shown that in addition to membrane permeance properties, the geometry and design of associated structures play an important role in how membrane systems will function on Mars.

  8. Tube plug removal machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    In a nuclear steam generator wherein some faulty tubes have been isolated by mechanical plugging, to remove a selected plug without damaging the associated tube, a plug removal machine is used. The machine drills into a plug portion with a tap drill bit having a drill portion a tap portion and a threaded portion, engaging that plug portion with the threaded portion after the drilled hole has been threaded by the tap portion thereof, and removing a portion of the plug in the tube with a counterbore drill bit mounted concentrically about the tap drill bit. A trip pin and trip spline disengage the tap drill bit from the motor. The counterbore drill bit is thereafter self-centered with respect to the tube and plug about the now stationary tap drill bit. After a portion of the plug has been removed by the counterbore drill bit, pulling on the top drill bit by grippers on slots will remove the remaining plug portion from the tube. (author)

  9. Categorising YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mosebo Simonsen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigationprocesses on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube’s technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a user-driven bottom-up folksonomy and a hierarchical browsing system that emphasises a culture of competition and which favours the already popular content of YouTube. With this taxonomic approach, the UGC videos are registered and analysed in terms of empirically based observations. The article identifies various UGC categories and their principal characteristics. Furthermore, general tendencies of the UGC within the interacting relationship of new and old genres are discussed. It is argued that the utility of a conventional categorical system is primarily of analytical and theoretical interest rather than as a practical instrument.

  10. Measuring of tube expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogeleer, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    The expansion of the primary tubes or sleeves of the steam generator of a nuclear reactor plant are measured while the tubes or sleeves are being expanded. A primary tube or sleeve is expanded by high pressure of water which flows through a channel in an expander body. The water is supplied through an elongated conductor and is introduced through a connector on the shank connected to the conductor at its outer end. A wire extends through the mandrel and through the conductor to the end of the connector. At its inner end the wire is connected to a tapered pin which is subject to counteracting forces produced by the pressure of the water. The force on the side where the wire is connected to the conductor is smaller than on the opposite side. The tapered pin is moved in the direction of the higher force and extrudes the wire outwardly of the conductor. The tapered surface of the tapered pin engages transverse captive plungers which are maintained in engagement with the expanding tube or sleeve as they are moved outwardly by the tapered pin. The wire and the connector extend out of the generator and, at its outer end, the wire is connected to an indicator which measures the extent to which the wire is moved by the tapered pin, thus measuring the expansion of the tube or sleeve as it progresses

  11. Ammonium detection by formation of colored zebra-bands in a detecting tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Tatsuaki; Niki, Keizou; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Oguchi, Tatsuo; Kamimoto, Yuki; Yamada, Toshiro; Nagai, Masahiro

    2010-06-15

    Ammonium ion was colorized by means of a diazo coupling reaction with 2-phenylphenol, where the color development reaction was conducted within 3min by using boric acid as a catalyst. The resulting colored solution (0.5ml) was supplied by suction to a detecting tube consisting of a nonwoven fabric test strip (2mm wide, 1mm thick, 150mm long) impregnated with benzylcetyldimethylammonium chloride in a stripe pattern and enclosed in a heat-shrinkable tube. When the colored solution was supplied to the detecting tube, blue zebra-bands formed, and the ammonium concentration was determined by counting the number of zebra-bands. The detection range was 1-20mg-Nl(-1). Ammonium ion in actual domestic wastewater samples was successfully detected by means of this method.

  12. Advanced evacuated tube collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertz, W. W.; Hull, J. R.; Winston, R.; Ogallagher, J.

    1985-04-01

    The essence of the design concept for these new collectors is the integration of moderate levels of nonimaging concentration inside the evacuated tube itself. This permanently protects the reflection surfaces and allows the use of highly reflecting front surface mirrors with reflectances greater than 95%. Previous fabrication and long term testing of a proof-of-concept prototype has established the technical success of the concept. Present work is directed toward the development of a manufacturable unit that will be suitable for the widest possible range of applications. Design alternatives include scaling up the original prototype's tube diameter from 5 cm to 10 cm, using an internal shaped metal concentrating reflector, using a variety of profile shapes to minimize so-called gap losses and accommodate both single ended and double-ended flow geometries, and allowing the use of heat pipes for the absorber tube.

  13. Square through tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akita, Junji; Honma, Toei.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a square through tube involving thermal movement in pipelines such as water supply pump driving turbine exhaust pipe (square-shaped), which is wide in freedom with respect to shape and dimension thereof for efficient installation at site. Structure: In a through tube to be airtightly retained for purpose of decontamination in an atomic power plant, comprising a seal rubber plate, a band and a bolt and a nut for securing said plate, the seal rubber plate being worked into the desired shape so that it may be placed in intimate contact with the concrete floor surface by utilization of elasticity of rubber, thereby providing airtightness at a corner portion of the square tube. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. SG tube identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogstraten, P. van

    1994-01-01

    A ''Tracker'' system is described which is designed to identify any tube in a reactor steam generator quickly and safely. Occupational radiation doses to maintenance workers are reduced by using a Tracker and emergency down times are shortened. The system employs a television camera and light source in a stainless steel box with a large window. Both the camera and spotlight can be panned and tilted to reach any point on the tubesheet and are remotely controlled. An operator at a safe working distance can identify any tube visible on a real time video by comparison with the tubesheet pattern stored earlier in the computer memory. The identified tube can then be spotlighted and dealt with quickly by a maintenance worker inside the channel head. (UK)

  15. Primordial membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2017-01-01

    Cellular membranes, which are self-assembled bilayer structures mainly composed of lipids, proteins and conjugated polysaccharides, are the defining feature of cell physiology. It is likely that the complexity of contemporary cells was preceded by simpler chemical systems or protocells during...... the various evolutionary stages that led from inanimate to living matter. It is also likely that primitive membranes played a similar role in protocell 'physiology'. The composition of such ancestral membranes has been proposed as mixtures of single hydrocarbon chain amphiphiles, which are simpler versions...

  16. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TUBING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutz, E.C.

    1958-04-15

    The manufacture of thin-walled uranium tubing by the hot-piercing techique is described. Uranium billets are preheated to a temperature above 780 d C. The heated billet is fed to a station where it is engaged on its external surface by three convex-surfaced rotating rollers which are set at an angle to the axis of the billet to produce a surface friction force in one direction to force the billet over a piercing mandrel. While being formed around the mandrel and before losing the desired shape, the tube thus formed is cooled by a water spray.

  17. Guide tube sleeve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attix, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The invention increases the operating capacity of a nuclear reactor by causing a modification in the flow pattern of the coolant which enhances the coolant's effectiveness. The apparatus provides a thin-walled tubular sleeve closely surrounding but not attached to the exterior surface of a guide tube in a fuel assembly. The wall of the sleeve has tabs projecting outwardly into adjacent flow channels. The sleeve is attached to the wall of a cellular void through which passes the guide tube associated with said sleeve. The tabs increase the flow of water in the channel and thus increase the heat transfer

  18. Pressure tube type research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To prevent excessive heat generation due to radiation of a pressure tube vessel. Structure: A pressure tube encasing therein a core comprises a dual construction comprising inner and outer tubes coaxially disposed. High speed cooling water is passed through the inner tube for cooling. In addition, in the outer periphery of said outer tube there is provided a forced cooling tube disposed coaxially thereto, into which cooling fluid, for example, such as moderator or reflector is forcibly passed. This forced cooling tube has its outer periphery surrounded by the vessel into which moderator or reflector is fed. By the provision of the dual construction of the pressure tube and the forced cooling tube, the vessel may be prevented from heat generation. (Ikeda, J.)

  19. Peptide signalling during the pollen tube journey and double fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Li-Jia; Li, Ling; Lan, Zijun; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Flowering seed plants (angiosperms) have evolved unique ways to protect their gametes from pathogen attack and from drying out. The female gametes (egg and central cell) are deeply embedded in the maternal tissues of the ovule inside the ovary, while the male gametes (sperm cells) are enclosed in the vegetative pollen tube cell. After germination of the pollen tube at the surface of papilla cells of the stigma the two immobile sperm cells are transported deep inside the sporophytic maternal tissues to be released inside the ovule for double fertilization. Angiosperms have evolved a number of hurdles along the pollen tube journey to prevent inbreeding and fertilization by alien sperm cells, and to maximize reproductive success. These pre-zygotic hybridization barriers require intensive communication between the male and female reproductive cells and the necessity to distinguish self from non-self interaction partners. General molecules such as nitric oxide (NO) or gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) therefore appear to play only a minor role in these species-specific communication events. The past 20 years have shown that highly polymorphic peptides play a leading role in all communication steps along the pollen tube pathway and fertilization. Here we review our current understanding of the role of peptides during reproduction with a focus on peptide signalling during self-incompatibility, pollen tube growth and guidance as well as sperm reception and gamete activation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Effects of pulsed nutrient inputs on phytoplankton assemblage structure and blooms in an enclosed coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatharis, Sofie; Tsirtsis, George; Danielidis, Daniel B.; Chi, Thang Do; Mouillot, David

    2007-07-01

    The response of phytoplankton assemblage structure to terrestrial nutrient inputs was examined for the Gulf of Kalloni in the Northern Aegean Sea, a productive semi-enclosed coastal marine ecosystem. The study was focused on a typical annual cycle, and emphasis was placed on the comparative analysis between blooms developing after significant nutrient inputs from the watershed, and naturally occurring blooms. Baseline information was collected on a monthly basis from a network of stations located in the oligotrophic open sea and the interior and more productive part of the embayment. Intensive sampling was also carried out along a gradient in the vicinity of a river which was the most important source of freshwater and nutrient input for the Gulf. Phytoplankton assemblage structure was analyzed from 188 samples using diversity indices (Shannon and Average Taxonomic Distinctness), multivariate plotting methods (NMDS), multivariate statistics (PERMANOVA), and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Three characteristic assemblages were recognized: (1) an autumn assemblage developed under nutrient depleted conditions, having low diversity due to the dominance of two small diatoms, (2) a winter bloom of the potentially toxic species Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha occurring immediately after a nutrient peak and characterized by very low diversity, and (3) a naturally occurring early summer bloom of centric diatoms with relatively high diversity. The results of the study support the view that moderate nutrient inputs may have a beneficial effect on the functioning of coastal ecosystems, stimulating the taxonomic diversity through the growth of different taxonomic groups and taxa. On the other hand, a sudden pulse of high nutrient concentrations may greatly affect the natural succession of organisms, have a negative effect on the diversity through the dominance of a single species, and can increase the possibility of a harmful algal bloom development.

  1. Soundscape studies in Montreal's Biodome: using enclosed ecosystems to explain biodiversity to the public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher Favret, K. E.

    2016-02-01

    The Biodome in Montreal is a unique public museum with over 750 species organized into five different ecosystems. We spent several weeks obtaining soundscapes from three of these: Gulf of St. Lawrence, Labrador Coast, and Sub-Antarctic Islands. The idea was to leverage the accessibility and known biodiversity of these mesocosms to calibrate instruments, evaluate methods for assessing biodiversity, and educate people ranging from the penguin keeper to the general public about soundscape ecology and biodiversity assessments. The Gulf of St. Lawrence exhibit has hundreds of fish that belong to 20 species swimming in 2.5 million gallons of seawater, with seabirds and invertebrates nearby. The Sub-Antarctic Islands exhibit, by contrast, has four species of penguins. As part of Montreal's Space for Life program, there is a searchable index of the species available to the public: http://espacepourlavie.ca/en/fauna-and-flora-biodome.The emerging field of soundscape ecology offers a new approach for effectively monitoring changes in sounds generated by communities ranging from urban centers to oceans. The entropy-based approach pioneered by Sueur et al., (2008) characterizes acoustic spectrograms based on the spectral space-filling properties of the sound producers. By calculating the complexity of the acoustic environment, we can detect cycles over various time scales. Disturbed systems can be detected by changes in the timing and frequency of sounds filling various "niches" in the soundscape that might act as early warnings of changes induced on scales from single events to climate shifts. These changes range from presence or absence of vocalizations by individual species, to changes in the higher order statistics of the daily sound structures that include sounds with physical, biological, and human origins. Here we show what we have learned so far about comparing enclosed ecosystems to the real world outside, and some of the challenges and rewards of using soundscape

  2. Simple Excitation of Standing Waves in Rubber Bands and Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortel, Adolf

    2004-04-01

    Many methods to excite standing waves in strings, plates, membranes, rods, tubes, and soap bubbles have been described. Usually a loudspeaker or a vibrating reed is driven by the amplified output of an audio oscillator. A novel and simple method consists of using a tuning fork or a singing rod to excite transversal standing waves in stretched rubber membranes sprinkled with fine sand.

  3. Membranous nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin-lightening creams Systemic lupus erythematosus , rheumatoid arthritis, Graves disease, and other autoimmune disorders The disorder occurs at ... diagnosis. The following tests can help determine the cause of membranous nephropathy: Antinuclear antibodies test Anti-double- ...

  4. Double wall steam generator tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padden, T.R.; Uber, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    Double-walled steam generator tubing for the steam generators of a liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor prevents sliding between the surfaces due to a mechanical interlock. Forces resulting from differential thermal expansion between the outer tube and the inner tube are insufficient in magnitude to cause shearing of base metal. The interlock is formed by jointly drawing the tubing, with the inside wall of the outer tube being already formed with grooves. The drawing causes the outer wall of the inner tube to form corrugations locking with the grooves. (author)

  5. Carbon nanofibers in catalytic membrane microreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aran, H.C.; Pacheco Benito, Sergio; Luiten-Olieman, Maria W.J.; Er, S.; Wessling, Matthias; Lefferts, Leonardus; Benes, Nieck Edwin; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we report on the fabrication and operation of new hybrid membrane microreactors for gas–liquid–solid (G–L–S) reactions. The presented reactors consist of porous stainless steel tubes onto which carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are grown as catalyst support, all encapsulated by a gas permeable

  6. Technical Design Report for the: PANDA Straw Tube Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Erni, W; Krusche, B; Steinacher, M; Heng, Y; Liu, Z; Liu, H; Shen, X; Wang, Q; Xu, H; Aab, A; Albrecht, M; Becker, J; Csapó, A; Feldbauer, F; Fink, M; Friedel, P; Heinsius, F H; Held, T; Klask, L; Koch, H; Kopf, B; Leiber, S; Leyhe, M; Motzko, C; Pelizäus, M; Pychy, J; Roth, B; Schröder, T; Schulze, J; Sowa, C; Steinke, M; Trifterer, T; Wiedner, U; Zhong, J; Beck, R; Bianco, S; Brinkmann, K T; Hammann, C; Hinterberger, F; Kaiser, D; Kliemt, R; Kube, M; Pitka, A; Quagli, T; Schmidt, C; Schmitz, R; Schnell, R; Thoma, U; Vlasov, P; Walther, D; Wendel, C; Würschig, T; Zaunick, H G; Bianconi, A; Bragadireanu, M; Caprini, M; Pantea, D; Pantelica, D; Pietreanu, D; Serbina, L; Tarta, P D; Kaplan, D; Fiutowski, T; Idzik, M; Mindur, B; Przyborowski, D; Swientek, K; Czech, B; Kistryn, M; Kliczewski, S; Kozela, A; Kulessa, P; Lebiedowicz, P; Pysz, K; Schäfer, W; Siudak, R; Szczurek\\inst, A; Jowzaee, S; Kajetanowicz, M; Kamys, B; Kistryn, S; Korcyl, G; Korcyl, K; Krzemien, W; Magiera, A; Moskal, P; Palka, M; Rudy, Z; Salabura, P; Smyrski, J; Wrońska\\inst, A; Al-Turany, M; Arora, R; Augustin, I; Deppe, H; Flemming, H; Gerhardt, A; Götzen, K; Jordi, A F; Kalicy, G; Karabowicz, R; Lehmann, D; Lewandowski, B; Lühning, J; Maas, F; Orth, H; Patsyuk, M; Peters, K; Saito, T; Schepers, G; Schmidt, C J; Schmitt, L; Schwarz, C; Schwiening, J; Traxler, M; Voss, B; Wieczorek, P; Wilms, A; Zühlsdorf\\inst, M; Abazov, V M; Alexeev, G; Arefiev, A; Astakhov, V I; Barabanov, M Yu; Batyunya, B V; Davydov, Yu I; Dodokhov, V Kh; Efremov, A A; Fedunov, A G; Festchenko, A A; Galoyan, A S; Grigoryan, S; Karmokov, A; Koshurnikov, E K; Lobanov, V I; Lobanov, Yu Yu; Makarov, A F; Malinina, L V; Malyshev, V L; Mustafaev, G A; Olshevskiy, A; Pasyuk, M A; Perevalova, E A; Piskun, A A; Pocheptsov, T A; Pontecorvo, G; Rodionov, V K; Rogov, Yu N; Salmin, R A; Samartsev, A G; Sapozhnikov, M G; Shabratova, G S; Skachkova, A N; Skachkov, N B; Strokovsky, E A; Suleimanov, M K; Teshev, R Sh; Tokmenin, V V; Uzhinsky, V V; Vodopyanov, A S; Zaporozhets, S A; Zhuravlev, N I; Zorin, A G; Branford, D; Glazier, D; Watts, D; Woods, P; Britting, A; Eyrich, W; Lehmann, A; Uhlig, F; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K; Tomaradze, A; Xiao, T; Bettoni, D; Carassiti, V; Ramusino, A Cotta; Dalpiaz, P; Drago, A; Fioravanti, E; Garzia, I; Savriè, M; Stancari, G; Bianchi, N; Gianotti, P; Guaraldo, C; Lucherini, V; Orecchini, D; Pace, E; Bersani, A; Bracco, G; Macri, M; Parodi, R F; Bremer, D; Dormenev, V; Drexler, P; Düren, M; Eissner, T; Föhl, K; Galuska, M; Gessler, T; Hayrapetyan, A; Hu, J; Koch, P; Kröck, B; Kühn, W; Lange, S; Liang, Y; Merle, O; Metag, V; Moritz, M; Münchow, D; Nanova, M; Novotny, R; Spruck, B; Stenzel, H; Ullrich, T; Werner, M; Xu, H; Euan, C; Hoek, M; Ireland, D; Keri, T; Montgomery, R; Protopopescu, D; Rosner, G; Seitz, B; Babai, M; Glazenborg-Kluttig, A; Kavatsyuk, M; Lemmens, P; Lindemulder, M; Löhner, H; Messchendorp, J; Moeini, H; Schakel, P; Schreuder, F; Smit, H; Tambave, G; Weele, J C van der; Veenstra\\inst, R; Sohlbach, H; Büscher, M; Deermann, D; Dosdall, R; Esch, S; Gillitzer, A; Goldenbaum, F; Grunwald, D; Henssler, S; Herten, A; Hu, Q; Kemmerling, G; Kleines, H; Kozlov, V; Lehrach, A; Maier, R; Mertens, M; Ohm, H; Orfanitski, S; Prasuhn, D; Randriamalala, T; Ritman, J; Schadmand, S; Serdyuk, V; Sterzenbach, G; Stockmanns, T; Wintz, P; Wüstner, P; Xu, H; Kisiel, J; Li, S; Li, Z; Sun, Z; Xu, H; Rigato, V; Fissum, S; Hansen, K; Isaksson, L; Lundin, M; Schröder, B; Achenbach, P; Bleser, S; Cahit, U; Cardinali, M; Denig, A; Distler, M; Fritsch, M; Kangh, D; Karavdina, A; Lauth, W; Merkel, H; Michel, M; Espi, M C Mora; Müller, U; Pochodzalla, J; Prometeusz, J; Sanchez, S; Sanchez-Lorente, A; Schlimme, S; Sfienti, C; Weber\\inst, M Thiel T; Dormenev, V I; Fedorov, A A; Korzhik, M V; Missevitch, O V; Balanutsa, V; Chernetsky, V; Demekhin, A; Dolgolenko, A; Fedorets, P; Gerasimov, A; Goryachev, V; Varentsov, V; Boukharov, A; Malyshev, O; Marishev, I; Semenov, A; Böhmer, F; Dørheim, S; Ketzer, B; Paul, S; Hergemöller, A K; Khoukaz, A; Köhler, E; Täschner, A; Wessels, J; Varma, R; Chaterjee, A; Jha, V; Kailas, S; Roy, B; Yan, Y; Chinorat, K; Khanchai, K; Ayut, L; Pomrad, S; Baldin, E; Kotov, K; Peleganchuk, S; Tikhonov, Yu; Boucher, J; Chambert, V; Dbeyssi, A; Hennino, T; Imre, M; Kunne, R; Galliard, C Le; Ma, B; Marchand, D; Maroni, A; Ong, S; Ramstein, B; Rosier, P; Sudol, M; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E; Wiele, J Van de; Boca, G; Braghieri, A; Costanza, S; Genova, P; Lavezzi, L; Montagna, P; Rotondi, A; Abramov, V; Belikov, N; Davidenko, A; Derevschikov, A; Goncharenko, Y; Grishin, V; Kachanov, V; Konstantinov, D; Kormilitsin, V; Melnik, Y; Levin, A; Minaev, N; Mochalov, V; Morozov, D; Nogach, L; Poslavskiy, S; Ryazantsev, A; Ryzhikov, S; Semenov, P; Shein, I; Uzunian, A; Vasiliev, A; Yakutin, A; Bäck, T; Cederwall, B; Makónyi, K; Tegnér, P E; Würtemberg, K M von; Belostotski, S; Gavrilov, G; Itzotov, A; Kashchuk, A; Kisselev, A; Kravchenko, P; Levitskaya, O; Manaenkov, S; Miklukho, O; Naryshkin, Y; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Zhadanov, A; Alberto, D; Amoroso, A; Bussa, M P; Busso, L; Mori, F De; Destefanis, M; Fava, L; Ferrero, L; Greco, M; Maggiora, M; Marcello, S; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Zotti, L; Calvo, D; Coli, S; Remigis, P De; Filippi, A; Giraudo, G; Lusso, S; Mazza, G; Morra, O; Rivetti, A; Wheadon, R; Iazzi, F; Lavagno, A; Younis, H; Birsa, R; Bradamante, F; Bressan, A; Martin, A; Clement, H; Galander, B; Balkestal, L Caldeira; Calén, H; Fransson, K; Johansson, T; Kupsc, A; Marciniewski, P; Thomé, E; Wolke, M; Zlomanczuk, J; Díaz, J; Ortiz, A; Dmowski, K; Korzeniewski, R; Przemyslaw, D; Slowinski, B; Chlopik, A; Guzik, Z; Kosinski, K; Melnychuk, D; Wasilewski, A; Wojciechowski, M; Wronka, S; Wysocka, A; Zwieglinski, B; Bühler, P; Hartman, O; Kienle, P; Marton, J; Suzuki, K; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2012-01-01

    This document describes the technical layout and the expected performance of the Straw Tube Tracker (STT), the main tracking detector of the PANDA target spectrometer. The STT encloses a Micro-Vertex-Detector (MVD) for the inner tracking and is followed in beam direction by a set of GEM-stations. The tasks of the STT are the measurement of the particle momentum from the reconstructed trajectory and the measurement of the specific energy-loss for a particle identification. Dedicated simulations with full analysis studies of certain proton-antiproton reactions, identified as being benchmark tests for the whole \\Panda scientific program, have been performed to test the STT layout and performance. The results are presented, and the time lines to construct the STT are described.

  7. Tube-dwelling invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hölker, Franz; Vanni, Michael J.; Kuiper, Jan J.; Meile, Christof; Grossart, Hans Peter; Stief, Peter; Adrian, Rita; Lorke, Andreas; Dellwig, Olaf; Brand, Andreas; Hupfer, Michael; Mooij, Wolf M.; Nützmann, Gunnar; Lewandowski, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    There is ample evidence that tube-dwelling invertebrates such as chironomids significantly alter multiple important ecosystem functions, particularly in shallow lakes. Chironomids pump large water volumes, and associated suspended and dissolved substances, through the sediment and thereby compete

  8. Cladding tube manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, R.; Jeong, Y. H.; Baek, B. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, S. J.; Choi, B. K.; Kim, J. M.

    1999-04-01

    This report gives an overview of the manufacturing routine of PWR cladding tubes. The routine essentially consists of a series of deformation and annealing processes which are necessary to transform the ingot geometry to tube dimensions. By changing shape, microstructure and structure-related properties are altered simultaneously. First, a short overview of the basics of that part of deformation geometry is given which is related to tube reducing operations. Then those processes of the manufacturing routine which change the microstructure are depicted, and the influence of certain process parameters on microstructure and material properties are shown. The influence of the resulting microstructure on material properties is not discussed in detail, since it is described in my previous report A lloy Development for High Burnup Cladding . Because of their paramount importance still up to now, and because manufacturing data and their influence on properties for other alloys are not so well established or published, the descriptions are mostly related to Zry4 tube manufacturing, and are only in short for other alloys. (author). 9 refs., 46 figs

  9. Thoughts on accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    A brief, subjective review is given of mechanisms that may be limiting electrostatic accelerator tubes to present levels of performance. Suggestions are made for attacking these limitations with the purpose of stimulating the thinking of designers and users of electrostatic accelerators

  10. Tracheostomy tube - speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with others. However, you can learn how to speak with a tracheostomy tube. It just takes practice. There ... If it is hard to speak with a trach in place, special devices can help you learn to create sounds. One-way valves, called speaking valves, are placed ...

  11. Thoughts of accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    A brief, subjective review is given of mechanisms that may be limiting electrostatic accelerator tubes to present levels of performance. Suggestions are made for attacking these limitations with the purpose of stimulating the thinking of designers and users of electrostatic accelerators

  12. Cladding tube manufacturing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, R. [Kraftwerk Union AG, Mulheim (Germany); Jeong, Y.H.; Baek, B.J.; Kim, K.H.; Kim, S.J.; Choi, B.K.; Kim, J.M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    This report gives an overview of the manufacturing routine of PWR cladding tubes. The routine essentially consists of a series of deformation and annealing processes which are necessary to transform the ingot geometry to tube dimensions. By changing shape, microstructure and structure-related properties are altered simultaneously. First, a short overview of the basics of that part of deformation geometry is given which is related to tube reducing operations. Then those processes of the manufacturing routine which change the microstructure are depicted, and the influence of certain process parameters on microstructure and material properties are shown. The influence of the resulting microstructure on material properties is not discussed in detail, since it is described in my previous report 'Alloy Development for High Burnup Cladding.' Because of their paramount importance still up to now, and because manufacturing data and their influence on properties for other alloys are not so well established or published, the descriptions are mostly related to Zry4 tube manufacturing, and are only in short for other alloys. (author). 9 refs., 46 figs.

  13. Transport logistics in pollen tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebli, Youssef; Kroeger, Jens; Geitmann, Anja

    2013-07-01

    Cellular organelles move within the cellular volume and the effect of the resulting drag forces on the liquid causes bulk movement in the cytosol. The movement of both organelles and cytosol leads to an overall motion pattern called cytoplasmic streaming or cyclosis. This streaming enables the active and passive transport of molecules and organelles between cellular compartments. Furthermore, the fusion and budding of vesicles with and from the plasma membrane (exo/endocytosis) allow for transport of material between the inside and the outside of the cell. In the pollen tube, cytoplasmic streaming and exo/endocytosis are very active and fulfill several different functions. In this review, we focus on the logistics of intracellular motion and transport processes as well as their biophysical underpinnings. We discuss various modeling attempts that have been performed to understand both long-distance shuttling and short-distance targeting of organelles. We show how the combination of mechanical and mathematical modeling with cell biological approaches has contributed to our understanding of intracellular transport logistics.

  14. Polyamide membranes with nanoscale Turing structures for water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhe; Chen, Shengfu; Peng, Xinsheng; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Congjie

    2018-05-01

    The emergence of Turing structures is of fundamental importance, and designing these structures and developing their applications have practical effects in chemistry and biology. We use a facile route based on interfacial polymerization to generate Turing-type polyamide membranes for water purification. Manipulation of shapes by control of reaction conditions enabled the creation of membranes with bubble or tube structures. These membranes exhibit excellent water-salt separation performance that surpasses the upper-bound line of traditional desalination membranes. Furthermore, we show the existence of high water permeability sites in the Turing structures, where water transport through the membranes is enhanced.

  15. Experimental measurements of static pressure and pressure drop in a duct enclosing a seven wire-wrapped rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graca, M.C.; Ballve, H.; Fernandez y Fernandez, E.; Carajilescov, P.

    1981-01-01

    The friction factor and the static pressure distributions, in the axial and transversal directions, in the wall of the hexagonal duct, enclosing a seven wire-wrapped rod bundle, were experimentally measured, using an air opened loop. The Reynolds numbers are the range 10 3 - 5x10 4 . The friction factors are compared to existing correlations. The static pressure distributions show that the static pressure is not hydrostatic in the cross section of the flow. (Author) [pt

  16. Activity of aminotransferases in organs of rats during hypoxia of enclosed space of the action of thiamine bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сніжана Сергіївна Чернадчук

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is studied an aminotransferase activity during injection of thiamin bromide in rat tissues in normal and hypoxic enclosed space. After injection of thiamine bromide we have set reduction of AST and ALT activity, relative to control, except by the brain tissue, where there was an increase of investigated indicators. The decrease of activity of the investigated elements is occurred in animals which before hypoxia were injection of thiamine bromide

  17. Otological Findings Ten Years after Myringotomy with Tympanostomy Tube Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Goljanian Tabrizi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To study the long-term complications of tympanostomy tube insertion in young children 10 years after surgery.   Materials and Methods: In September 2011, the medical records of all patients who had undergone myringotomy with tympanostomy tube insertion between February 2000 and March 2001 at the two general hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences were studied. Of the 98 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 82 patients agreed to participate and were enrolled in the study. The complications of the operation were evaluated in these patients.   Results: Of the 164 ears that were operated on, myringosclerosis was found in 17.1%, atrophy of the tympanic membrane in 1.2%, permanent perforation of the tympanic membrane in 0.6% and tympanic membrane atelectasis in 0.6%. None of the patients developed cholesteatoma as a complication of tympanostomy tube insertion.   Conclusion:  Considering the low risk of serious complications after 10 years, tympanostomy tube insertion is a safe and effective treatment option in the treatment of otitis media with effusion.

  18. Long-term follow-up of otitis media with effusion in children: comparisons between a ventilation tube group and a non-ventilation tube group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hye Ran; Kim, Tae Su; Chung, Jong Woo

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the long-term outcomes in children with otitis media with effusion who received either medical treatment or ventilation tubes. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 89 bilateral cases of otitis media with effusion in children who were recommended to receive ventilation tube insertion and were followed up for more than 5 years. Tympanic membrane was inspected by otoscopic examination. Hearing was evaluated with pure tone audiometry. The mean duration of follow-up was 8.4 years (range, 5.2-15.7 years). Twenty-three children were treated without surgery, while 22 were treated once by ventilation tube insertion and 44 were treated more than once by ventilation tube insertion. At the fifth year of follow-up, both groups of children who underwent ventilation tube insertion had more frequent tympanic membrane abnormalities than the medication group (8.7% in those treated without surgery, 72.7% in those treated once by ventilation tube insertion, and 88.6% in those treated more than once by ventilation tube insertion). Common tympanic membrane abnormalities were retraction (27.0%) and tympanosclerotic plaque (23.6%), regardless of the treatment modality. At the fifth year follow-up, the average air-conduction threshold was 10.0 dB (± 6.5 dB) in patients treated without surgery, 15.9 dB (± 11.2dB) in patients treated once by ventilation tube insertion, and 17.8 dB (± 7.6 dB) in those treated more than once by ventilation tube insertion. The audiological difference was significant when we compared the hearing level of children treated by medication without surgery to the two ventilation tube groups. Though ventilation tube insertion can resolve hearing loss quickly, there were more tympanic membrane abnormalities and a decline in hearing levels in our ventilation tube insertion group vs. the observation group measured 5 years later. Physicians should therefore be cautious when applying a ventilation tube in

  19. Drift tubes of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1977-01-01

    Being redied for installation, those at the right are for tank 1, those on the left for tank 2. Contrary to Linac 1, which had drift-tubes supported on stems, here the tubes are suspended, for better mechanical stability.

  20. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia ... *PDF files require the free Adobe® Reader® software for viewing. This website is maintained by the ...

  1. Tubing For Sampling Hydrazine Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Josh; Taffe, Patricia S.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Wyatt, Jeffrey R.

    1993-01-01

    Report evaluates flexible tubing used for transporting such hypergolic vapors as those of hydrazines for quantitative analysis. Describes experiments in which variety of tubing materials, chosen for their known compatibility with hydrazine, flexibility, and resistance to heat.

  2. Prospects for stronger calandria tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ells, C.E.; Coleman, C.E.; Hosbons, R.R.; Ibrahim, E.F.; Doubt, G.L.

    1990-12-01

    The CANDU calandria tubes, made of seam welded and annealed Zircaloy-2, have given exemplary service in-reactor. Although not designed as a system pressure containment, calandria tubes may remain intact even in the face of pressure tube rupture. One such incident at Pickering Unit 2 demonstrated the economic advantage of such an outcome, and a case can be made for increasing the probability that other calandria tubes would perform in a similar fashion. Various methods of obtaining stronger calandria tubes are available, and reviewed here. When the tubes are internally pressurized, the weld is the weak section of the tube. Increasing the oxygen concentration in the starting sheet, and thickening the weld, are promising routes to a stronger tube

  3. Treatment of hazardous and toxic liquids using Rochem Disc Tube technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaMonica, D.

    1992-01-01

    Rochem Separation Systems, established in 1990 as a subsidiary of the international Rochem Group, has advanced the treatment of hazardous and toxic liquids with its unique, patented Disc Tube technology. Developed in 1987 at Rochem's design and production facilities in Hamburg, Germany, the Disc Tube technology is a series of membrane modules that greatly reduce the problems that hamper the effectiveness of other treatment technologies (i.e. fouling, scaling, cost, etc.). Applications of the Disc Tube technology include reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration. Rochem was recently accepted into the EPA Superfund Site program as a result of its Disc Tube technology. 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Expansion lyre-shaped tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andro, Jean.

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates the expansion lyre-shaped tube portions formed in dudgeoned tubular bundles between two bottom plates. An expansion lyre comprises at least two sets of tubes of unequal lengths coplanar and symmetrical with respect to the main tube axis, with connecting portions between the tubes forming said sets. The invention applies to apparatus such as heat exchangers, heaters, superheaters or breeders [fr

  5. Effects of waves on water dispersion in a semi-enclosed estuarine bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpey, M. T.; Ardhuin, F.; Otheguy, P.

    2012-04-01

    The bay of Saint Jean de Luz - Ciboure is a touristic destination located in the south west of France on the Basque coast. This small bay is 1.5km wide for 1km long. It is semi-enclosed by breakwaters, so that the area is mostly protected from waves except in its eastern part, where wave breaking is regularly observed over a shallow rock shelf. In the rest of the area the currents are generally weak. The bay receives fresh water inflows from two rivers. During intense raining events, the rivers can introduce pollutants in the bay. The input of pollutants combined with the low level dynamic of the area can affect the water quality for several days. To study such a phenomenon, mechanisms of water dispersion in the bay are investigated. The present paper focuses on the effects of waves on bay dynamics. Several field experiments were conducted in the area, combining wave and current measurements from a set of ADCP and ADV, lagrangian difter experiments in the surfzone, salinity and temperature profile measurements. An analysis of this set of various data is provided. It reveals that the bay combines remarkable density stratification due to fresh water inflows and occasionally intense wave-induced currents in the surfzone. These currents have a strong influence on river plume dynamics when the sea state is energetic. Moreover, modifications of hydrodynamics in the bay passes are found to be remarkably correlated with sea state evolutions. This result suggests a significant impact of waves on the bay flushing. To further analyse these phenomena, a three dimensional numerical model of bay hydrodynamics is developed. The model aims at reproducing fresh water inflows combined with wind-, tide- and wave-induced currents and mixing. The model of the bay is implemented using the code MOHID , which has been modified to allow the three dimensional representation of wave-current interactions proposed by Ardhuin et al. [2008b] . The circulation is forced by the wave field modelled

  6. Assessment of current effect on waves in a semi-enclosed basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetazzo, A.; Carniel, S.; Sclavo, M.; Bergamasco, A.

    2012-04-01

    The wave-current interaction process in the semi-enclosed Adriatic Sea is studied using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system, which is used to exchange data fields between the ocean model ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System) and the wave model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore). The 2-way data transfer between circulation and wave models is synchronous with ROMS providing current fields, free surface elevation, and bathymetry to SWAN. In particular, the 3-D current profiles are averaged using a formulation that integrates the near-surface velocity over a depth controlled by the spectral mean wave number. This coupling procedure is carried out up to coastal areas by means of an offline grid nesting. The parent grid covers the whole Adriatic Sea and has a horizontal resolution of 2.0 km, whereas the child grid resolution increases to 0.5 km but it is limited to the northern Adriatic Sea (Gulf of Venice), where the current effect on waves is investigated. The most frequent winds blowing on the Adriatic Sea are the so-called Bora and Sirocco which cause high waves in the Adriatic Sea, although Bora waves are generally fetch-limited. In fact, Bora winds blow orthogonal to the main basin axis (approximately aligned with the NW-SE direction), while Sirocco has large spatial scale being a southeasterly wind. For the numerical simulations, the meteorological forcings are provided by the operational meteorological model COSMO-I7, which is the Italian version of the COSMO Model, a mesoscale model developed in the framework of the COSMO Consortium. During the analysis period, the simulated wind, current and wave are compared with observations at the ISMAR oceanographic tower located off the Venice littoral. Wave heights and sea surface winds are also compared with satellite-derived data. To account for the variability of sea states during a storm, the expected maximum individual wave height in a sea storm with a given history is also

  7. Turbulence characteristics of the Bödewadt layer in a large enclosed rotor-stator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randriamampianina, Anthony; Poncet, Sébastien

    2006-05-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) direct numerical simulation is combined with a laboratory study to describe the turbulent flow in an enclosed annular rotor-stator cavity characterized by a large aspect ratio G =(b-a)/h=18.32 and a small radius ratio a /b=0.152, where a and b are the inner and outer radii of the rotating disk and h is the interdisk spacing. The rotation rate Ω under consideration is equivalent to the rotational Reynolds number Re =Ωb2/ν=9.5×104, where ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. This corresponds to a value at which an experiment carried out at the laboratory has shown that the stator boundary layer is turbulent, whereas the rotor boundary layer is still laminar. Comparisons of the 3D computed solution with velocity measurements have given good agreement for the mean and turbulent fields. The results enhance evidence of weak turbulence at this Reynolds number, by comparing the turbulence properties with available data in the literature [M. Lygren and H. I. Andersson, J. Fluid Mech. 426, 297 (2001)]. An approximately self-similar boundary layer behavior is observed along the stator side. The reduction of the structural parameter a1 under the typical value 0.15 and the variation in the wall-normal direction of the different characteristic angles show that this boundary layer is three-dimensional. A quadrant analysis [H. S. Kang, H. Choi, and J. Y. Yoo, Phys. Fluids 10, 2315 (1998)] of conditionally averaged velocities is performed to identify the contributions of different events (ejections and sweeps) on the Reynolds shear stress producing vortical structures. The asymmetries observed in the conditionally averaged quadrant analysis are dominated by Reynolds stress-producing events in this Bödewadt layer. Moreover, case 1 vortices (with a positive wall induced velocity) are found to be the major source of generation of special strong events, in agreement with the conclusions of Lygren and Andersson [J. Fluid Mech. 426, 297 (2001)].

  8. The Red Sea: An Arena for Wind-Wave Modeling in Enclosed Seas

    KAUST Repository

    Langodan, Sabique

    2016-12-01

    Wind and waves play a major role in important ocean dynamical processes, such as the exchange of heat, momentum and gases between atmosphere and ocean, that greatly contributes to the earth climate and marine lives. Knowledge on wind and wave weather and climate is crucial for a wide range of applications, including oceanographic studies, maritime activities and ocean engineering. Despite being one of the important world shipping routes, the wind-wave characteristics in the Red Sea are yet to be fully explored. Because of the scarcity of waves data in the Red Sea, numerical models become crucial and provide very powerful tools to extrapolate wind and wave data in space, and backward and forward in time. Unlike open oceans, enclosed basins wave have different characteristics, mainly because of their local generation processes. The complex orography on both sides of the Red Sea makes the local wind, and consequently wave, modeling very challenging. This thesis considers the modeling of wind-wave characteristics in the Red Sea, including their climate variability and trends using state-of-the-art numerical models and all available observations. Different approaches are investigated to model and understand the general and unusual wind and wave conditions in the basin using standard global meteorological products and customised regional wind and wave models. After studying and identifying the main characteristics of the wind-wave variability in the Red Sea, we demonstrate the importance of generating accurate atmospheric forcing through data assimilation for reliable wave simulations. In particular, we show that the state-of-the-art physical formulation of wave models is not suitable to model the unique situation of the two opposing wind-waves systems in the Red Sea Convergence Zone, and propose and successfully test a modification to the input and white-capping source functions to address this problem. We further investigate the climate variability and trends of wind

  9. Adsorption properties of technetium and rhenium for hybrid microcapsules enclosing Toa extractant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y.; Mimura, H.; Niibori, Y. [Tohoku University, Graduate School of Engineering, Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Aramaki-Aza-Aoba 6-6-01-2, Aoba-ku, Sendai-shi, Miyagi-ken, 980-8579 Japan (Japan); Koyama, S.; Ohnishi, T., E-mail: yanwu@cyric.tohoku.ac.j [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, O-arai Research and Development Center, Fuels and Materials Department, Alpha-Gamma Section, Narita-cho 4002, O-arai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1393 Japan (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Special attention has been given to the separation and recovery of the VII-group elements Tc and Re, in relation to the partitioning of high-level liquid waste (HLLW) generated from the nuclear fuel reprocessing process. In this study, a tertiary amine (tri-n-octylamine Toa), which is effective for the extraction of oxo anions, was encapsulated in a calcium alginate gel polymer (CaALG), and the adsorption behaviours of TcO{sub 4} and ReO{sub 4}{sup -} in the presence of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid were examined by using calcium alginate microcapsules (M Cs) enclosing Toa extractant (Toa-CaALG M Cs). The order of the distribution coefficient K{sub d} for different oxo anions at 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} was ReO{sub 4}{sup -}> WO{sub 4}{sup 2-}> CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} {approx} MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-}>> SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}. Toa-CaALG still exhibited high uptake ability for ReO{sub 4}{sup -} even after irradiation with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays (dose: 17.6 kGy). Uptake of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in the presence of 1 M HNO{sub 3} was readily attained within 3 h. Relatively large K{sub d} values above 10{sup 2} cm{sup 3}/g were obtained for Toa-CaALG in the presence of 0.01 {approx} 1 M HNO{sub 3}. All of the TcO{sub 4}{sup -} was successfully adsorbed by Toa-CaALG from the simulated HLLW. The adsorbed TcO{sub 4}{sup -} was then effectively eluted with 5 M or 7 M HNO{sub 3} solution. Further, the selective uptake of ReO{sub 4}{sup -} (a chemical analogue of TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) was confirmed by using actual HLLW (Fbr, Joyo, JAEA), and uptake (%) above 99% was obtained. Toa-CaALG was thus effective for the selective separation and recovery of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} and ReO{sub 4}{sup -} from waste solutions containing highly concentrated HNO{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 3}. Microencapsulation techniques with alginate gel polymer can be applied to other ion exchangers and extractants, and the M Cs immobilizing these adsorbents are effective for the advanced separation of various radionuclides, rare metals and

  10. Chest tube insertion - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest tubes are inserted to drain blood, fluid, or air and allow full expansion of the lungs. The tube is placed in the pleural space. The area where the tube will be inserted is numbed (local anesthesia). The patient may also be sedated. The chest ...

  11. Tube Length and Water Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ruktantichoke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study water flowed through a straight horizontal plastic tube placed at the bottom of a large tank of water. The effect of changing the length of tubing on the velocity of flow was investigated. It was found that the Hagen-Poiseuille Equation is valid when the effect of water entering the tube is accounted for.

  12. Tubing cutter for tight spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girala, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    Cutter requires few short swings of handle to rotate its cutting edge full 360 around tube. It will cut tubing installed in confined space that prevents free movement of conventional cutter. Cutter is snapped onto tube and held in place by spring-loaded clamp. Screw ratchet advances cutting wheel.

  13. Synthesis and structural characterization of coaxial nano tubes intercalated of molybdenum disulfide with carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reza San German, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the study of some fundamental aspects in the growth of unidimensional systems of coaxial nano tubes from the mold method is approached. This method is an inclusion technique of a precursor reagent into oxide nano porous alumina film (mold), and later applying some processes of synthesis it is gotten to obtain the wished material. The synthesized structures are identified later because they take place by means of the initial formation of nano tubes of MoS 2 , enclosing to carbon nano tubes by the same method, with propylene flow which generates a graphitization process that 'copy' the mold through as it flows. Binary phase MoS 2 + C nano tubes were synthesized by propylene pyrolysis inside MoS 2 nano tubes prepared by template assisted technique. The large coaxial nano tubes constituted of graphite sheets inserted between the MoS 2 layers forming the outer part, and coaxial multi wall carbon nano tubes (MWCNT) intercalated with MoS 2 inside. High resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), high angle annular dark field (HAADF), gatan image filter (GIF), nano beam electron diffraction patterns (NBEDP), along with molecular dynamics simulation and quantum mechanical calculations were used to characterize the samples. The one-dimensional structures exhibit diverse morphologies such as long straight and twisted nano tubes with several structural irregularities. The inter-planar spacing between MoS 2 layers was found to increase from 6.3 to 7.4 A due to intercalation with carbon. Simulated HREM images revealed the presence of these twisted nano structures, with mechanical stretch into intercalate carbon between MoS 2 layers. Our results open up the possibility of using MoS 2 nano tubes as templates for the synthesis of new one- dimensional binary phase systems. (Author)

  14. Heat Exchanger Tube to Tube Sheet Joints Corrosion Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iancu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents the studies made by the authors above the tube to tube sheet fittings of heat exchanger with fixed covers from hydrofining oil reforming unit. Tube fittings are critical zones for heat exchangers failures. On a device made from material tube and tube sheet at real joints dimensions were establish axial compression force and traction force at which tube is extracted from expanded joint. Were used two shapes joints with two types of fittings surfaces, one with smooth hole of tube sheet and other in which on boring surface we made a groove. From extracted expanded tube zones were made samples for corrosion tests in order to establish the corrosion rate, corrosion potential and corrosion current in working mediums such as hydrofining oil and industrial water at different temperatures. The corrosion rate values and the temperature influence are important to evaluate joints durability and also the results obtained shows that the boring tube sheet shape with a groove on hole tube shape presents a better corrosion behavior then the shape with smooth hole tube sheet.

  15. YouTube Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riendeau, Diane

    2012-09-01

    To date, this column has presented videos to show in class, Don Mathieson from Tulsa Community College suggested that YouTube could be used in another fashion. In Don's experience, his students are not always prepared for the mathematic rigor of his course. Even at the high school level, math can be a barrier for physics students. Walid Shihabi, a colleague of Don's, decided to compile a list of YouTube videos that his students could watch to relearn basic mathematics. I thought this sounded like a fantastic idea and a great service to the students. Walid graciously agreed to share his list and I have reproduced a large portion of it below.

  16. Neutron image intensifier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verat, M.; Rougeot, H.; Driard, B.

    1983-01-01

    The most frequently used techniques in neutron radiography employ a neutron converter consisting of either a scintillator or a thin metal sheet. The radiation created by the neutrons exposes a photographic film that is in contact with the converter: in the direct method, the film is exposed during the time that the object is irradiated with neutrons; in the transfer method, the film is exposed after the irradiation of the object with neutrons. In industrial non-destructive testing, when many identical objects have to be checked, these techniques have several disadvantages. Non-destructive testing systems without these disadvantages can be constructed around neutron-image intensifier tubes. A description and the operating characteristics of neutron-image intensifier tubes are given. (Auth.)

  17. Tube coupling device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, William N. (Inventor); Hein, Leopold A. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A first annular ring of a tube coupling device has a keyed opening sized to fit around the nut region of a male coupling, and a second annular ring has a keyed opening sized to fit around the nut of a female coupling. Each ring has mating ratchet teeth and these rings are biased together, thereby engaging these teeth and preventing rotation of these rings. This in turn prevents the rotation of the male nut region with respect to the female nut. For tube-to-bulkhead locking, one facet of one ring is notched, and a pin is pressed into an opening in the bulkhead. This pin is sized to fit within one of the notches in the ring, thereby preventing rotation of this ring with respect to the bulkhead.

  18. PEG Tube Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarshi Biswas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG has been used for providing enteral access to patients who require long-term enteral nutrition for years. Although generally considered safe, PEG tube placement can be associated with many immediate and delayed complications. Buried bumper syndrome (BBS is one of the uncommon and late complications of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG placement. It occurs when the internal bumper of the PEG tube erodes into the gastric wall and lodges itself between the gastric wall and skin. This can lead to a variety of additional complications such as wound infection, peritonitis, and necrotizing fasciitis. We present here a case of buried bumper syndrome which caused extensive necrosis of the anterior abdominal wall.

  19. Recurrent inspection of tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.

    1984-01-01

    Recommendations concerning the selection of areas for the inspection of tubes have been outlined. The aim is to focus the control on the regions which are important for the safety and where damage is supposed to take place. The number of zones will depend on the risk factors as judged by experts. The localizing will be based upon probable damaging mechanisms. A certain number of areas should be chosen at random. (G.B.)

  20. Cathode ray tube screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockayne, B.; Robbins, D.J.; Glasper, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    An improved cathode ray tube screen is described which consists of a single- or a poly-crystalline slice of a material such as yttrium aluminium garnet in which dopants such as Tb 3 + , Eu 3 + , Ce 3 + or Tm 3 + are ion implanted to different depths or in different areas of the screen. Annealing the screen removes lattice damage caused by the ion implanting and assists the diffusion of the dopant into the crystal. (U.K.)

  1. Cathode ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A cathode ray tube comprises two electron lens means in combination to crossover the electron beam at a second crossover between the two electron lens means with one of the two lens means having a variable voltage applied thereto to control the location of the beam crossover in order to focus the beam onto a display screen at any location away from the screen center. (Auth.)

  2. Fabrication of seamless calandria tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saibaba, N.; Phanibabu, C.; Bhaskara Rao, C.V.; Kalidas, R.; Ganguly, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Calandria tube is a large diameter, thin walled zircaloy-4 tube and is an important structural component of PHWR type of reactors. These tubes are lifetime components and remain during the full life of the reactor. Calandria tubes are classified as extremely thin walled tubes with a diameter to wall thickness ratio of around 96. Such thin walled tubes are conventionally produced by seam welded route comprising of extrusion of slabs followed by a series of hot and rolling passes, shaping into O-shape and eventual welding. An alternative and superior method of fabricating the calandria tubes, the seamless route, has been developed, which involves hot extrusion of mother blanks followed by three successive cold pilger reductions. Eccentricity correction of the extruded blanks is carried out on a special purpose grinding equipment to bring the wall thickness variation within permissible limits. Predominant wall thickness reductions are given during cold pilgering to ensure high Q-factor values. The texture in the finished tubes could be closely, controlled with an average f r value of 0.65. Pilgering parameters and tube guiding system have been specially designed to facilities rolling of thin walled tubes. Seamless calandria tubes have distinct advantages over welded tubes. In addition to the absence of weld, they are dimensionally more stable, lighter in weight and possess uniform grains with superior grain size. The cycle time from billet to finished product is substantially reduced and the product is amenable to high level of quality assurance. The most significant feature of the seamless route is its material recovery over welded route. Residual stresses measured in the tubes indicate that these are negligible and uniform along the length of the tube. In view of their superior quality, the first charge of seamless calandria tubes will be rolled into the first 500 MWe Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor at Tarapur

  3. Metamaterial membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new class of metamaterial device to achieve separation of compounds by using coordinate transformations and metamaterial theory. By rationally designing the spatial anisotropy for mass diffusion, we simultaneously concentrate different compounds in different spatial locations, leading to separation of mixtures across a metamaterial membrane. The separation of mixtures into their constituent compounds is critically important in biophysics, biomedical, and chemical applications. We present a practical case where a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen diffusing through a polymeric planar matrix is separated. This work opens doors to new paradigms in membrane separations via coordinate transformations and metamaterials by introducing novel properties and unconventional mass diffusion phenomena. (paper)

  4. CRL X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchevsky, N.N.; Petrov, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed. (authors)

  5. Microdischarges in DC accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Thorn, R.

    1978-07-01

    Voltage tests on the Daresbury ceramic/titanium accelerator tube have shown that microdischarges play an important role in the conditioning process. It has been found that the voltage onset for microdischarges in a tube is dependent on the surface contamination of the electrodes and the tube geometry (in particular the tube length). This geometrical effect can be related to the trajectories of secondary ions emitted from the electrode surfaces. Sensitive diagnostic techniques have been developed to study the mass and energy distribution of ions emitted along the axis of the tube during these predischarges. The energy distribution of protons (and H - ions) can be related to the origins of the discharges in the tube. Detailed results are presented for a particular tube geometry. (author)

  6. Three-dimensional structure of the enveloped bacteriophage phi12: an incomplete T = 13 lattice is superposed on an enclosed T = 1 shell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wei

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophage phi12 is a member of the Cystoviridae, a unique group of lipid containing membrane enveloped bacteriophages that infect the bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. The genomes of the virus species contain three double-stranded (dsRNA segments, and the virus capsid itself is organized in multiple protein shells. The segmented dsRNA genome, the multi-layered arrangement of the capsid and the overall viral replication scheme make the Cystoviridae similar to the Reoviridae.We present structural studies of cystovirus phi12 obtained using cryo-electron microscopy and image processing techniques. We have collected images of isolated phi12 virions and generated reconstructions of both the entire particles and the polymerase complex (PC. We find that in the nucleocapsid (NC, the phi12 P8 protein is organized on an incomplete T = 13 icosahedral lattice where the symmetry axes of the T = 13 layer and the enclosed T = 1 layer of the PC superpose. This is the same general protein-component organization found in phi6 NC's but the detailed structure of the entire phi12 P8 layer is distinct from that found in the best classified cystovirus species phi6. In the reconstruction of the NC, the P8 layer includes protein density surrounding the hexamers of P4 that sit at the 5-fold vertices of the icosahedral lattice. We believe these novel features correspond to dimers of protein P7.In conclusion, we have determined that the phi12 NC surface is composed of an incomplete T = 13 P8 layer forming a net-like configuration. The significance of this finding in regard to cystovirus assembly is that vacancies in the lattice could have the potential to accommodate additional viral proteins that are required for RNA packaging and synthesis.

  7. Ultrasonic inspection of tube to tube plate welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telford, D.W.; Peat, T.S.

    1985-01-01

    To monitor the deterioration of a weld between a tube and tube plate which has been repaired by a repair sleeve inside the tube and brazed at one end to the tube, ultrasound from a crystal at the end of a rod is launched, in the form of Lamb-type waves, into the tube through the braze and allowed to travel along the tube to the weld and be reflected back along the tube. The technique may also be used for the type of heat exchanger in which, during construction, the tubes are welded to the tube plate via external sleeves in which case the ultrasound is used in a similar manner to inspect the sleeve/tube plate weld. an electromagnetic transducer may be used to generate the ultrasound. The ultrasonic head comprising the crystal and an acoustic baffle is mounted on a Perspex (RTM) rod which may be rotated by a stepping motor. Echo signals from the region of deterioration may be isolated by use of a time gate in the receiver. The device primarily detects circumferentially orientated cracks, and may be used in heat exchangers in nuclear power plants. (author)

  8. Chelating polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Villalobos Vazquez de la Parra, Luis Francisco; Hilke, Roland

    2015-01-01

    microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  9. A parametric study of dispersion processes in semi-enclosed basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffoni, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche S. Teresa, La Spezia (Italy). Dipt. di Innovazione; Bellucci, A.; Zambianchi, E. [Istituto Universitario Navale, Neapel (Italy); Griffa, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, La Spezia (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    The dispersion processes in semi-enclosed basins with stationary flows have been studied by means of an Eulerian advection-diffusion model. Special interest have been given to quantities which characterize the macroscopic state of the system: the normalized total quantity C(t) (C (0) = 1) of a tracer inside the basin, and its residence time T. Also the principal eigenvalue {tau}{sub 0} of the advection-diffusion problem has been considered, since for stationery flows C (t) attains, for time t long enough, an exponential decay shape C{sub 0}exp (-t/{tau}{sub 0} ). The focus is one the comparison between cases where the flow is rotational with re circulations, represented by a flow with a gyre at the outflow. The sensitivity of the results to a number of parameters, including initial and boundary conditions and the eddy diffusivity coefficient, have been studied. It is found that for small Peclet numbers, when the flow is highly diffusive, the results do not depend strongly on the flow structure. {tau}{sub 0} tends to a constant limit (dependent on the boundary conditions) at decreasing Peclet number, and T is approximated by T asymptotically equal to {tau}{sub 0}. For high Peclet numbers, instead, the rotational and irrotational cases are qualitatively different. For rotational flows, {tau}{sub 0}, tends to zero at increasing Peclet number, and T tends toward the advective time scale. For flows with re circulations, in which the tracer tends to be trapped inside the gyre, {tau}{sub 0} increases at increasing Peclet numbers and T asymptotically equal to {tau}{sub 0}, for all initial and boundary conditions. The values of T and {tau}{sub 0} do not change significantly in the range of realistic Peclet numbers considered. This suggests that, for flows with re circulations, the macroscopic dispersion properties depend only weakly on the eddy diffusion coefficient. [Italian] Processi di dispersione in bacini semi-chiusi caratterizzati da flussi stazionari sono stati

  10. Liquid-Nitrogen Test for Blocked Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, W. R.

    1984-01-01

    Nondestructive test identifies obstructed tube in array of parallel tubes. Trickle of liquid nitrogen allowed to flow through tube array until array accumulates substantial formation of frost from moisture in air. Flow stopped and warm air introduced into inlet manifold to heat tubes in array. Tubes still frosted after others defrosted identified as obstructed tubes. Applications include inspection of flow systems having parallel legs.

  11. Tubing misconnections: normalization of deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Debora; Symes, Lene; Guenter, Peggi; Graves, Krisanne

    2011-06-01

    Accidental connection of an enteral system to an intravenous (IV) system frequently results in the death of the patient. Misconnections are commonly attributed to the presence of universal connectors found in the majority of patient care tubing systems. Universal connectors allow for tubing misconnections between physiologically incompatible systems. The purpose of this review of case studies of tubing misconnections and of current expert recommendations for safe tubing connections was to answer the following questions: In tubing connections that have the potential for misconnections between enteral and IV tubing, what are the threats to safety? What are patient outcomes following misconnections between enteral and IV tubing? What are the current recommendations for preventing misconnections between enteral and IV tubing? Following an extensive literature search and guided by 2 models of threats and errors, the authors analyzed case studies and expert opinions to identify technical, organizational, and human errors; patient-related threats; patient outcomes; and recommendations. A total of 116 case studies were found in 34 publications. Each involved misconnections of tubes carrying feedings, intended for enteral routes, to IV lines. Overwhelmingly, the recommendations were for redesign to eliminate universal connectors and prevent misconnections. Other recommendations were made, but the analysis indicates they would not prevent all misconnections. This review of the published case studies and current expert recommendations supports a redesign of connectors to ensure incompatibility between enteral and IV systems. Despite the cumulative evidence, little progress has been made to safeguard patients from tubing misconnections.

  12. Removal of Radioactive Nuclides by Multi-Functional Microcapsules Enclosing Inorganic Ion-Exchangers and Organic Extractants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimura, H.; Akiba, K.; Onodera, Y.

    2002-02-26

    The microcapsules enclosing two kinds of functional materials, inorganic ion-exchangers and organic extractants, were prepared by taking advantage of the high immobilization ability of alginate gel polymer. The fine powders of inorganic ion-exchanger and oil drops of extractant were kneaded with sodium alginate (NaALG) solution and the kneaded sol readily gelled in a salt solution of CaCl2, BaCl2 or HCl to form spherical gel particles. The uptake properties of various nuclides, 137Cs, 85Sr, 60Co, 88Y, 152Eu and 241Am, for thirty-four specimens of microcapsules in the presence of 10-1-10-4 M HNO3 were evaluated by the batch method. The distribution coefficient (Kd) of Cs+ above 103 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules enclosing CuFC or AMP. The Kd of Sr2+ around 102 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules containing clinoptilolite, antimonic acid, zeolite A, zeolite X or titanic acid. The microcapsules enclosing DEHPA exhibited relatively large Kd values of trivalent metal ions above 103 cm3/g; for example, the Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for a favorable microcapsule (CuFC/clinoptilolite/DEHPA/CaALG) were 1.1x104, 7.5x10, 1.1x10, 1.0x104, 1.4x104, 3.4x103 cm3/g, respectively. The uptake rates of Cs+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for this microcapsule were rather fast; the uptake percentage above 90% was obtained after 19 h-shaking and the uptake equilibrium was attained within 1 d. The AMP/CaALG exhibited high uptake ability for Cs+ even after irradiation of 188 kGy, and DEHPA/CaALG microcapsule had similar Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ ions before and after irradiation. The microcapsules with various shapes such as spherical, columnar, fibrous and filmy forms were easily prepared by changing the way of dipping kneaded sol into gelling salt solution. The microcapsules enclosing inorganic ion-exchangers and extractants have a potential possibility for the simultaneous removal of various radioactive nuclides from waste solutions.

  13. Factors related to persisting perforations after ventilation tube insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell Ferster, Ashley P; Tanner, April Michelle; Karikari, Kodjo; Roberts, Christopher; Wiltz, Derek; Carr, Michele M

    2016-02-01

    Over a million ventilation tubes are placed annually in the United States, making this one of the most commonly performed procedures in the field of medicine. Certain factors increase the risk of persistent tympanic membrane perforation following the extrusion of short term ventilation tubes. Persistent perforations may fail to heal on their own, necessitating surgical closure to avoid conductive hearing loss. It is important to detect factors that may predict children who are at increased risk for persistent perforations. This study was a retrospective chart review that involved 757 patients between 2003 and 2008. The patients studied were within the age of 2 months-17 years, and all had short term tubes placed. The chart data also included demographic information, comorbidities, and information related to tube insertion and follow-up care. Chi-square, t-test, and multivariate logistic regression were conducted to compare variables between patients with perforations and those without. Data from 757 patients was analyzed, showing that perforation rate is associated with rhinorrhea, operative tube removal, aural polyps, and otorrhea (OR 1.72, 8.16, 4.69, and 1.72 respectively). The absence of otorrhea decreased the likelihood of TM perforations and no significant differences were found in gender, total number of sets of tubes, type of tube, use of nasal steroids, adenoidectomy, or nasal congestion. Our findings suggest that children with rhinorrhea, otorrhea, aural polyps, or prolonged intubation requiring operative tube removal should be identified clinically as children at risk of persisting perforation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Alpha detection in pipes using an inverting membrane scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrick, D.T.; Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Characterization of surface alpha emitting contamination inside enclosed spaces such as piping systems presents an interesting radiological measurement challenge. Detection of these alpha particles from the exterior of the pipe is impossible since the alpha particles are completely absorbed by the pipe wall. Traditional survey techniques, using hand-held instruments, simply can not be used effectively inside pipes. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. is currently developing an enhancement to its Pipe Explorer{trademark} system that will address this challenge. The Pipe Explorer{trademark} uses a unique sensor deployment method where an inverted tubular membrane is propagated through complex pipe runs via air pressure. The inversion process causes the membrane to fold out against the pipe wall, such that no part of the membrane drags along the pipe wall. This deployment methodology has been successfully demonstrated at several DOE sites to transport specially designed beta and gamma, scintillation detectors into pipes ranging in length up to 250 ft.

  15. Sealed ion accelerator tubes (survey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitsik, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    The first publications on developing commercial models of small-scale sealed accelerator tubes in which neutrons are generated appeared in the foreign press in 1954 to 1957; they were very brief and were advertising-oriented. The tubes were designed for neutron logging of oil wells instead of ampule neutron sources (Po + Be, Ra + Be). Later, instruments of this type began to be called neutron tubes from the resulting neutron radiation that they gave off. In Soviet Union a neutron tube was developed in 1958 in connection with the development of the pulsed neutron-neutron method of studying the geological profile of oil wells. At that time the tube developed was intended, in the view of its inventors, to replace standard isotope sources with constant neutron yield. A fairly detailed survey of neutron tubes was made in the studies. 8 refs., 8 figs

  16. Steam generator tube integrity program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierks, D.R.; Shack, W.J.; Muscara, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new research program on steam generator tubing degradation is being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at Argonne National Laboratory. This program is intended to support a performance-based steam generator tube integrity rule. Critical areas addressed by the program include evaluation of the processes used for the in-service inspection of steam generator tubes and recommendations for improving the reliability and accuracy of inspections; validation and improvement of correlations for evaluating integrity and leakage of degraded steam generator tubes, and validation and improvement of correlations and models for predicting degradation in steam generator tubes as aging occurs. The studies will focus on mill-annealed Alloy 600 tubing, however, tests will also be performed on replacement materials such as thermally-treated Alloy 600 or 690. An overview of the technical work planned for the program is given

  17. Free compression tube. Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Ioan

    2012-11-01

    During the flight of vehicles, their propulsion energy must overcome gravity, to ensure the displacement of air masses on vehicle trajectory, to cover both energy losses from the friction between a solid surface and the air and also the kinetic energy of reflected air masses due to the impact with the flying vehicle. The flight optimization by increasing speed and reducing fuel consumption has directed research in the aerodynamics field. The flying vehicles shapes obtained through studies in the wind tunnel provide the optimization of the impact with the air masses and the airflow along the vehicle. By energy balance studies for vehicles in flight, the author Ioan Rusu directed his research in reducing the energy lost at vehicle impact with air masses. In this respect as compared to classical solutions for building flight vehicles aerodynamic surfaces which reduce the impact and friction with air masses, Ioan Rusu has invented a device which he named free compression tube for rockets, registered with the State Office for Inventions and Trademarks of Romania, OSIM, deposit f 2011 0352. Mounted in front of flight vehicles it eliminates significantly the impact and friction of air masses with the vehicle solid. The air masses come into contact with the air inside the free compression tube and the air-solid friction is eliminated and replaced by air to air friction.

  18. Tube leak detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Bunji; Takamura, Koichi; Matsuda, Shigehiro; Kiyosawa, Shun-ichi; Asami, Toru; Yamada, Hiroshi; Naruse, Shin-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention detects occurrence of leakage in a steam generator, a steam heating tube, or a heat exchanger of a nuclear power plant. Namely, an vibration sensor is disposed at the rear end of a rod-like supersonic resonance member. A node portion for the vibrations of the resonance member is held by a holding member and attached to a wall surface of a can such as a boiler. With such a constitution, the resonance member is resonated by supersonic waves generated upon leakage of the tube. The vibrations are measured by the vibration sensor at the rear end. Presence of leakage is detected by utilizing one or more of resonance frequencies. Since the device adopts a resonance phenomenon, a conduction efficiency of the vibrations is high, thereby enabling to detect leakage at high sensitivity. In addition, the supersonic wave resonance member has its top end directly protruded into a pressure vessel such as a boiler by using a metal or a ceramic which is excellent in heat and pressure resistance. Accordingly, the sound of leak can be detected efficiently. (I.S.)

  19. Shock tube Multiphase Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, John; Allen, Roy; Paudel, Manoj; Young, Calvin; Musick, Ben; McFarland, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    Shock driven multiphase instabilities (SDMI) are unique physical phenomena that have far-reaching practical applications in engineering and science. The instability is present in high energy explosions, scramjet combustors, and supernovae events. The SDMI arises when a multiphase interface is impulsively accelerated by the passage of a shockwave. It is similar in development to the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability however, particle-to-gas coupling is the driving mechanism of the SDMI. As particle effects such as lag and phase change become more prominent, the SDMI's development begins to significantly deviate from the RM instability. We have developed an experiment for studying the SDMI in our shock tube facility. In our experiments, a multiphase interface is created using a laminar jet and flowed into the shock tube where it is accelerated by the passage of a planar shockwave. The interface development is captured using CCD cameras synchronized with planar laser illumination. This talk will give an overview of new experiments conducted to examine the development of a shocked cylindrical multiphase interface. The effects of Atwood number, particle size, and a second acceleration (reshock) of the interface will be discussed.

  20. Pressure tube reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natori, Hisahide.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the electrical power generation efficiency in a pressure tube reactor in which coolants and moderators are separated by feedwater heating with heat generated in heavy water and by decreasing the amount of steams to be extracted from the turbine. Constitution: A heat exchanger and a heavy water cooler are additionally provided to a conventional pressure tube reactor. The heat exchanger is disposed at the pre-stage of a low pressure feedwater heater series. High temperature heavy water heated in the core is passed through the primary side of the exchanger, while feedwater is passed through the secondary side. The cooler is disposed on the downstream of the heat exchanger in the flowing direction of the heavy water, in which heavy water from the heat exchanger is passed through the primary side and the auxiliary equipment cooling water is sent to the secondary side thereof. Accordingly, since extraction of heating steams is no more necessary, the steam can be used for the rotation of the turbine, and the electrical power generation efficiency can be improved. (Seki, T.)

  1. [Long-term follow-up after tympanostomy tube insertion in children with serous otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete-Szabó, Gabriella; Kiss, Fekete; Rovó, László

    2015-11-15

    The authors report about the efficacy of inserted tympanostomy tube in children with serous otitis media. The aim of the authors was to assess the status of eardrum, the function of Eustachian tube and hearing level 10 years after the use of tympanostomy tube. Patients filled out a questionnaire and microscopic examination of tympanic membrane, tympanometry, Eustachian tube function examination, and audiometry tests were performed. In the period of 2003-2004, ventilation tube insertion was performed in 711 patients in the ENT Department of Pediatric Health Center of University of Szeged. In 349 patients adenotomy and tympanostomy tube insertion, in 18 cases tonsillectomy and grommet insertion and in 344 patients only typmanostomy tube insertion were performed. Due to objective difficulties (address change, no phone number) 453 patients were asked for control test and 312 persons accepted the invitation. Normal hearing level was found in 84.6% of patients and normal tympanometry result occurred in 82%. Tympanic ventilation disorder, perforation of tympanic membrane, sensorineural hearing loss and sensorineural hearing loss due to noise exposure were diagnosed. Application of tympanostomy tube is effective in the treatment of serous otitis media resulting from ventilation disorder. The authors draw attention to the importance of tympanometry examination to prevent the adhesive processes and cholesteatoma in chronic ventilation disorder of the middle ear.

  2. Measurements of electrically exploded tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, J.W.; Hartman, C.W.; Munger, R.H.; Gullickson, R.L.; Trimble, D.O.; Cheng, D.Y.

    1975-01-01

    The dynamics of electrically exploded tubes were investigated, principally by means of current measurements and flash x-ray pictures. The pinch effect was observed on the tube motion. Pileup of the imploding tube metal was seen on axis. An approximate analytical model can be roughly fitted to the data, but a more complete fit can be obtained with detailed numerical codes. Application of the results to the planning of future gas-embedded Z-pinch experiments is discussed. (U.S.)

  3. Failure analysis of boiler tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, K.; Siddiqui, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Boiler tubes are energy conversion components where heat energy is used to convert water into high pressure superheated steam, which is then delivered to a turbine for electric power generation in thermal power plants or to run plant and machineries in a process or manufacturing industry. It was reported that one of the tubes of a fire-tube boiler used in a local industry had leakage after the formation of pits at the external surface of the tube. The inner side of the fire tube was working with hot flue gasses with a pressure of 10 Kg/cm/sup 2/ and temperature 225 degree C. The outside of the tube was surrounded by feed water. The purpose of this study was to determine the cause of pits developed at the external surface of the failed boiler tube sample. In the present work boiler tube samples of steel grade ASTM AI61/ASTM A192 were analyzed using metallographic analysis, chemical analysis, and mechanical testing. It was concluded that the appearance of defects on the boiler tube sample indicates cavitation type corrosion failure. Cavitation damage superficially resembled pitting, but surface appeared considerably rougher and had many closely spaced pits. (author)

  4. Radiation-resistant camera tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahata, Takao; Manabe, Sohei; Makishima, Yasuhiro

    1982-01-01

    It was a long time ago that Toshiba launched on manufacturing black-and-white radiation-resistant camera tubes employing nonbrowning face-plate glass for ITV cameras used in nuclear power plants. Now in compliance with the increasing demand in nuclear power field, the Company is at grips with the development of radiation-resistant single color-camera tubes incorporating a color-stripe filter for color ITV cameras used under radiation environment. Herein represented are the results of experiments on characteristics of materials for single color-camera tubes and prospects for commercialization of the tubes. (author)

  5. YouTube and 'psychiatry'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert; Miller, John; Collins, Noel

    2015-12-01

    YouTube is a video-sharing website that is increasingly used to share and disseminate health-related information, particularly among younger people. There are reports that social media sites, such as YouTube, are being used to communicate an anti-psychiatry message but this has never been confirmed in any published analysis of YouTube clip content. This descriptive study revealed that the representation of 'psychiatry' during summer 2012 was predominantly negative. A subsequent smaller re-analysis suggests that the negative portrayal of 'psychiatry' on YouTube is a stable phenomenon. The significance of this and how it could be addressed are discussed.

  6. Bacterial Biofilms in Jones Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Eric S; Hauck, Matthew J; Kirk Harris, Jonathan; Robertson, Charles E; Dailey, Roger A

    To investigate the presence and microbiology of bacterial biofilms on Jones tubes (JTs) by direct visualization with scanning electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of representative JTs, and to correlate these findings with inflammation and/or infection related to the JT. In this study, prospective case series were performed. JTs were recovered from consecutive patients presenting to clinic for routine cleaning or recurrent irritation/infection. Four tubes were processed for scanning electron microscopy alone to visualize evidence of biofilms. Two tubes underwent PCR alone for bacterial quantification. One tube was divided in half and sent for scanning electron microscopy and PCR. Symptoms related to the JTs were recorded at the time of recovery. Seven tubes were obtained. Five underwent SEM, and 3 out of 5 showed evidence of biofilms (60%). Two of the 3 biofilms demonstrated cocci and the third revealed rods. Three tubes underwent PCR. The predominant bacteria identified were Pseudomonadales (39%), Pseudomonas (16%), and Staphylococcus (14%). Three of the 7 patients (43%) reported irritation and discharge at presentation. Two symptomatic patients, whose tubes were imaged only, revealed biofilms. The third symptomatic patient's tube underwent PCR only, showing predominantly Staphylococcus (56%) and Haemophilus (36%) species. Two of the 4 asymptomatic patients also showed biofilms. All symptomatic patients improved rapidly after tube exchange and steroid antibiotic drops. Bacterial biofilms were variably present on JTs, and did not always correlate with patients' symptoms. Nevertheless, routine JT cleaning is recommended to treat and possibly prevent inflammation caused by biofilms.

  7. Grooved tube plug rolls in

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausser, P.

    1991-01-01

    The removable plugs used to date by the Power Generation Group (KWU) of Siemens to seal defective steam generator tubes have a good track record. Their sealing principle is based on the elastic tensioning of three seal disks against the inside wall of the tube. Now a further removable plug is available -a roll-in plug with a metal-coated surface. It is particularly suitable for use in the roller-expanded zone of the tubes at the tube sheet. The plugs can be used in both Siemens-KWU steam generators and in steam generators manufactured in compliance with the guidelines of the ASME Code. (author)

  8. Learning from YouTube [Video Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    YouTube is a mess. YouTube is for amateurs. YouTube dissolves the real. YouTube is host to inconceivable combos. YouTube is best for corporate-made community. YouTube is badly baked. These are a few of the things Media Studies professor Alexandra Juhasz (and her class) learned about YouTube when she set out to investigate what actually happens…

  9. The Multifaceted Role of SNARE Proteins in Membrane Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Pluhackova, Kristyna; Böckmann, Rainer A

    2017-01-01

    Membrane fusion is a key process in all living organisms that contributes to a variety of biological processes including viral infection, cell fertilization, as well as intracellular transport, and neurotransmitter release. In particular, the various membrane-enclosed compartments in eukaryotic cells need to exchange their contents and communicate across membranes. Efficient and controllable fusion of biological membranes is known to be driven by cooperative action of SNARE proteins, which constitute the central components of the eukaryotic fusion machinery responsible for fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane. During exocytosis, vesicle-associated v-SNARE (synaptobrevin) and target cell-associated t-SNAREs (syntaxin and SNAP-25) assemble into a core trans-SNARE complex. This complex plays a versatile role at various stages of exocytosis ranging from the priming to fusion pore formation and expansion, finally resulting in the release or exchange of the vesicle content. This review summarizes current knowledge on the intricate molecular mechanisms underlying exocytosis triggered and catalyzed by SNARE proteins. Particular attention is given to the function of the peptidic SNARE membrane anchors and the role of SNARE-lipid interactions in fusion. Moreover, the regulatory mechanisms by synaptic auxiliary proteins in SNARE-driven membrane fusion are briefly outlined.

  10. Coupling of bio-PRB and enclosed in-well aeration system for remediation of nitrobenzene and aniline in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Ding, Feng; Wang, Liu; Liu, Peng; Yu, Xiaolong; Ye, Kang

    2016-05-01

    A laboratory-scale bio-permeable reactive barrier (bio-PRB) was constructed and combined with enclosed in-well aeration system to treat nitrobenzene (NB) and aniline (AN) in groundwater. Batch-style experiments were first conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of NB and AN degradation, using suspension (free cells) of degrading consortium and immobilized consortium by a mixture of perlite and peat. The NB and AN were completely degraded in 4 mg L(-1) when the aeration system was applied into the bio-PRB system. The NB and AN were effectively removed when the aeration system was functional in the bio-PRB. The removal efficiency decreased when the aeration system malfunctioned for 20 days, thus indicating that DO was an important factor for the degradation of NB and AN. The regain of NB and AN removal after the malfunction indicates the robustness of degradation consortium. No original organics and new formed by-products were observed in the effluent. The results indicate that NB and AN in groundwater can be completely mineralized in a bio-PRB equipped with enclosed in-well aeration system and filled with perlite and peat attached with degrading consortium.

  11. How immunocontraception can contribute to elephant management in small, enclosed reserves: Munyawana population as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Heleen C; Mackey, Robin L; Slotow, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Immunocontraception has been widely used as a management tool to reduce population growth in captive as well as wild populations of various fauna. We model the use of an individual-based rotational immunocontraception plan on a wild elephant, Loxodonta africana, population and quantify the social and reproductive advantages of this method of implementation using adaptive management. The use of immunocontraception on an individual, rotational basis stretches the inter-calving interval for each individual female elephant to a management-determined interval, preventing exposing females to unlimited long-term immunocontraception use (which may have as yet undocumented negative effects). Such rotational immunocontraception can effectively lower population growth rates, age the population, and alter the age structure. Furthermore, such structured intervention can simulate natural process such as predation or episodic catastrophic events (e.g., drought), which regulates calf recruitment within an abnormally structured population. A rotational immunocontraception plan is a feasible and useful elephant population management tool, especially in a small, enclosed conservation area. Such approaches should be considered for other long-lived, social species in enclosed areas where the long-term consequences of consistent contraception may be unknown.

  12. How immunocontraception can contribute to elephant management in small, enclosed reserves: Munyawana population as a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen C Druce

    Full Text Available Immunocontraception has been widely used as a management tool to reduce population growth in captive as well as wild populations of various fauna. We model the use of an individual-based rotational immunocontraception plan on a wild elephant, Loxodonta africana, population and quantify the social and reproductive advantages of this method of implementation using adaptive management. The use of immunocontraception on an individual, rotational basis stretches the inter-calving interval for each individual female elephant to a management-determined interval, preventing exposing females to unlimited long-term immunocontraception use (which may have as yet undocumented negative effects. Such rotational immunocontraception can effectively lower population growth rates, age the population, and alter the age structure. Furthermore, such structured intervention can simulate natural process such as predation or episodic catastrophic events (e.g., drought, which regulates calf recruitment within an abnormally structured population. A rotational immunocontraception plan is a feasible and useful elephant population management tool, especially in a small, enclosed conservation area. Such approaches should be considered for other long-lived, social species in enclosed areas where the long-term consequences of consistent contraception may be unknown.

  13. Can multiple fish farms be integrated within a semi-enclosed bay without causing acute ecosystem degradation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Puhr

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study explores the possibility that multiple fish farms (FFs containing sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream (Sparus aurata can be successfully integrated within a semi-enclosed bay in the Croatian Adriatic. The research focuses on determining principal environmental factors (EFs that control the integration and attempts to estimate their individual and synergic ability to influence deposition and removal of organic matter (OM and trace elements (TE from the system. The complexity of the designated tasks demanded a comprehensive number of various datasets and samples to be used in the analysis. The ADCP data revealed strong wind induced currents forming within the research domain resulting in high system flushing efficiency (3.5–6 days. The sediment samples from all stations contained relatively inert minerals which contributed to overall low OM and TE concentrations and very limited variability found across the entire bathymetric range. The thermal advection effect recorded at two stations was attributed to specific seabed topography and the hydrodynamic response formed during Maestral wind episodes. The results indicate that a successful integration of four FFs has taken place within the research site (semi enclosed bay, and that the key EFs responsible for its success are strong wind induced hydrodynamics, favorable seabed topography and sediment mineral composition. The synergy of the principal EFs that formed within the system was found to have an attenuating effect regarding FFs chemical influence (OM and TE and an amplifying one regarding spatial footprint which extended to ≈2000 m distance.

  14. Development of resistance welding process. 4. Preparation of pressuring enclosed creep test specimen of 7A material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Hideo; Seki, Masayuki; Ishibashi, Fujio; Hirako, Kazuhito; Tsukada, Tatsuya

    2001-02-01

    Mechanical strength in the position welded by resistance welding system was examined in 1999. The test specimens were destroyed in the welding position in a shorter time than expected in the creep test. Therefore, test specimens were prepared to evaluate the cause of destruction. Inner-pressure enclosed creep test specimens were prepared by resistance welding method. Cladding material with low deviation of thickness and high re-crystallization rate was used. Heat treatment after resistance welding was performed to remove the influence of residual stress and the precipitation of carbides. (1) Before preparation of specimens, the welding condition was fixed. Three test specimens were prepared. Two specimens without heat treatment were transported to MMS in Oarai Engineering Center on Aug. 4, 2000. One specimen with heat treatment was transported to MMS after evaluating the residual stress to get optimum heat treatment condition. (2) Specimens were prepared with welding end plugs to both ends of ferritic ODS cladding. Enclosing sides were welded with highly strong Ferritic/Martensitic steel end plugs. The other sides were welded with ferritic ODS end plugs. (3) Some kinds of electrical wave data were obtained during performing welding. Welding position was evaluated with supersonic detector after performing welding. (4) Mechanical strength of welding position in high temperature 800degC was confirmed to be equal to or larger than that of cladding material. The highly qualified specimens in the present were successfully prepared. (author)

  15. Tube to tube excursive instability - sensitivities and transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.; Layland, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    A simple basic analysis of excursive instability in a boiler tube shows how it depends upon operating conditions and physical properties. A detailed mathematical model of an AGR boiler is used to conduct a steady state parameter sensitivity survey. It is possible from this basis to anticipate the effects of changes in operating conditions and changes in design parameters upon tube to tube stability. Dynamic responses of tubes operating near the stability threshold are examined using a mathematical model. Simulated excursions are triggered by imparting small abrupt pressure changes on the boiler inlet pressure. The influences of the magnitude of the pressure change, waterside friction factor and gas side coupling between tubes are examined. (author)

  16. Jose Cabrera (Zorita) tube examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchirka, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Jose Cabrera (Zorita) tube examination procedures are discussed. This plant continues to use phosphate water chemistry (sodium/phosphate ratio = 2.1). Three hot leg tube segments were pulled from the Jose Cabera (Zorita) plant in 1985. One tube had a field EC indication on the OD at the first tube support plate and the other two had field EC indications on their ID about 3 inches above the bottom of the tube sheet. All three tubes were initially sent to Battelle for preliminary NDE and decontamination. Segments of two tubes were sent to Westinghouse for destructive examination. The results of the laboratory eddy current and radiographic examinations are given. The results of the visual examinations are also given. The tube with OD indications was destructively examined and shallow intergranular pitting and intergranular attack, up to 2 mils deep, were found on the OD in the tube sheet region. Local areas of IGA, up to 5 mils deep, were found on the OD within the tube support plate region. A summary of this information together with supporting micrographs is given. It was hypothesized that a caustic crevice environment was the cause of this mild degradation. Shallow areas of thinning or wastage, up to 3 mils, were found just above the top of the tube sheet in the sludge pile region. Even more shallow wastage was found at the edges of support plate locations. This wastage is believed to be the remnant of early plant chemistry when a higher sodium/phosphate ratio and higher phosphate concentration were allowed

  17. Tube for irradiation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehrich, K.; Vogt, H.

    1979-01-01

    This patent describes a tube for irradiation equipment for limiting an emergent beam, with a baseplate, possessing a central aperture, intended for attaching to the equipment, as well as four carrier plates, each of which possesses a limiting edge and a sliding edge located at right angles thereto. The carrier plates are located parallel to the baseplate, the limiting edge of each carrier plate resting against the sliding edge of the adjacent carrier plate and each of the two mutually opposite pairs of carrier plates being displaceable, parallel to the direction of its sliding edges and symmetrically to the center of the transmission aperture, for the purpose of continuously varying the transmission aperture defined by the limiting edges, during which displacement each of the displaced carrier plates carries with it the carrier plate, resting against the limiting edge of the former plate, parallel to the direction of the limiting edge of the latter plate. 8 claims

  18. Primary Fallopian Tube Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad K Shetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary Fallopian Tube Carcinoma (PFTC is rare and accounts for about 0.3% of all gynecologic cancers. Less than 1500 cases have been reported in the literature. It arises in postmenopausal women and typically presents with abdominal pelvic pain, vaginal bleeding and watery discharge. However, a correct diagnosis is rarely achieved preoperative, and in many cases, the diagnosis is made after incidental surgery for unrelated conditions commonly being ovarian carcinoma . Compared with ovarian carcinoma, PFTC more often presents at early stages, but it has a worse prognosis. PFTC is usually managed in the same manner as ovarian cancer. We report a case of Left PFTC that presented as Left ovarian mass, and we briefly review the literature.

  19. Pressure tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Fujino, Michihira.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To equalize heavy water flow distribution by providing a nozzle for externally injecting heavy water from a vibration preventive plate to the upper portion to feed the heavy water in a pressure tube reactor and swallowing up heavy water in a calandria tank to supply the heavy water to the reactor core above the vibration preventive plate. Constitution: A moderator injection nozzle is mounted on the inner wall of a calandria tank. Heavy water is externally injected above the vibration preventive plate, and heavy water in the calandria tank is swallowed up to supply the heavy water to the core reactor above the vibration preventive plate. Therefore, the heavy water flow distribution can be equalized over the entire reactor core, and the distribution of neutron absorber dissolved in the heavy water is equalized. (Yoshihara, H.)

  20. A New Resonance Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Alan

    2017-12-01

    The measurement of the speed of sound in air with the resonance tube is a popular experiment that often yields accurate results. One approach is to hold a vibrating tuning fork over an air column that is partially immersed in water. The column is raised and lowered in the water until the generated standing wave produces resonance: this occurs at the point where sound is perceived to have maximum loudness, or at the point where the amplitude of the standing wave has maximum value, namely an antinode. An antinode coincides with the position of the tuning fork, beyond the end of the air column, which consequently introduces an end correction. One way to minimize this end correction is to measure the distance between consecutive antinodes.

  1. Improper tube fixation causing a leaky cuff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Babita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaking endotracheal tube cuffs are common problems in intensive care units. We report a case wherein the inflation tube was damaged by the adhesive plaster used for tube fixation and resulted in leaking endotracheal tube cuff. We also give some suggestions regarding the tube fixation and some remedial measures for damaged inflation system.

  2. Characterization of tube support alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaia, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    The involvement and relationship of carbon steel corrosion products in the tube denting phenomenon promoted an intensive research effort to: 1) understand, reproduce, and arrest the denting process, and 2) evaluate alternative tube support materials to provide additional corrosion resistance. The paper summarizes a corrosion testing program for the verification of type 405 stainless steel under acid or all volatile treatment conditions

  3. Radioisotope study of Eustachian tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rossi, G.; Campioni, P.; Vaccaro, A.

    1988-01-01

    Radioisotope studies of Eustachian tube are suggested in the preoperative phase of tympanoplasty, in order to assess tubal drainage and secretion. The use of gamma camera fitted to a computer allowed the AA, to calculate some semi-quantitative parameters for an exact assessment of the radioactivity transit from the tympanic cass up to the pharyngeal cavity, throughout the Eustachian tube. (orig.) [de

  4. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Amblyopia Listen NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract Convergence ... is maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this ...

  5. Tubing Cutter is Activated Hydraulically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsmith, D. G.; Richardson, J. I.

    1983-01-01

    Hydraulically-actuated tubing cutter severs tubing when operator squeezes handle grip. "Gooseneck" extension enables cutter to be used in areas where accessiblity is limited. Cutter has potential as flight-line tool and is useful in automobile and fire rescue work.

  6. Flaming on YouTube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, Peter J.; Heuvelman, A.; Verleur, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this explorative study, flaming on YouTube was studied using surveys of YouTube users. Flaming is defined as displaying hostility by insulting, swearing or using otherwise offensive language. Three general conclusions were drawn. First, although many users said that they themselves do not flame,

  7. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on Social Media Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, ...

  8. Flowmeter with silicon flow tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Dijkstra, Marcel; Haneveld, J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2009-01-01

    A flowmeter comprising a system chip with a silicon substrate provided on a carrier, in an opening whereof at least one silicon flow tube is provided for transporting a medium whose flow rate is to be measured, said tube having two ends that issue via a wall of the opening into channels coated with

  9. Improved guide tube bulge tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaill, R.E.; Phillips, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    A guide tube bulge tool for securing control rod guide tubes to a fuel assembly grid, includes a cylinder having several flexible tines each of which is equipped with a semispherical radially outwardly extending projection. A tapered ram fits into the cylinder so as to force the tines outwardly when the ram is pulled into the cylinder while supporting the other tines. (UK)

  10. [A case of petrous ridge meningioma manifested as pneumocephalus followed by Eustachian tube insufflation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shinya; Gi, Hidefuku; Uno, Jyunji; Ikai, Yoshiaki; Inoha, Satoshi; Nagaoka, Shintarou; Nishio, Shunji

    2009-05-01

    A 50-year-old female, who had a headache after Eustachian tube insufflation for her ear congestion, came to our hospital. CT and MRI revealed pneumocephalus and petrous ridge meningioma which destroyed petrous bone and air cells. Eustachian tube insufflation was considered to make the air coming into the middle ear, mastoid air cell and then into the intracranial space destroying the tumor. At surgery, there was subdural hematoma around the tumor. Total removal of the tumor and the hematoma membrane was performed. Histologically, the tumor was transitional meningioma and the cluster of meningioma cells were noted in the subdural hematoma membrane.

  11. Flow chemistry: intelligent processing of gas-liquid transformations using a tube-in-tube reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, Martin; O'Brien, Matthew; Ley, Steven V; Polyzos, Anastasios

    2015-02-17

    reactive gas in a given reaction mixture. We have developed a tube-in-tube reactor device consisting of a pair of concentric capillaries in which pressurized gas permeates through an inner Teflon AF-2400 tube and reacts with dissolved substrate within a liquid phase that flows within a second gas impermeable tube. This Account examines our efforts toward the development of a simple, unified methodology for the processing of gaseous reagents in flow by way of development of a tube-in-tube reactor device and applications to key C-C, C-N, and C-O bond forming and hydrogenation reactions. We further describe the application to multistep reactions using solid-supported reagents and extend the technology to processes utilizing multiple gas reagents. A key feature of our work is the development of computer-aided imaging techniques to allow automated in-line monitoring of gas concentration and stoichiometry in real time. We anticipate that this Account will illustrate the convenience and benefits of membrane tube-in-tube reactor technology to improve and concomitantly broaden the scope of gas/liquid/solid reactions in organic synthesis.

  12. HF electronic tubes. Technologies, grid tubes and klystrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemoine, Th.

    2009-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the basic technologies of electronic tubes: cathodes, electronic optics, vacuum and high voltage. Then the grid tubes, klystrons and inductive output tubes (IOT) are introduced. Content: 1 - context and classification; 2 - electronic tube technologies: cathodes, electronic optics, magnetic confinement (linear tubes), periodic permanent magnet (PPM) focussing, collectors, depressed collectors; 3 - vacuum technologies: vacuum quality, surface effects and interaction with electrostatic and RF fields, secondary emission, multipactor effect, thermo-electronic emission; 4 - grid tubes: operation of a triode, tetrodes, dynamic operation and classes of use, 'common grid' and 'common cathode' operation, ranges of utilisation and limitations, operation of a tetrode on unadjusted load, lifetime of a tetrode, uses of grid tubes; 5 - klystrons: operation, impact of space charge, multi-cavity klystrons, interaction efficiency, extended interaction klystrons, relation between interaction efficiency, perveance and efficiency, ranges of utilization and power limitations, multi-beam klystrons and sheet beam klystrons, operation on unadjusted load, klystron band pass and lifetime, uses; 6 - IOT: principle of operation, ranges of utilisation and limitations, interaction efficiency and depressed collector IOT, IOT lifetime and uses. (J.S.)

  13. Catalytic combustion of propane in a membrane reactor with separate feed of reactants—I. Operation in absence of trans-membrane pressure gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saracco, Guido; Veldsink, Jan Willem; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, Wim P.M. van

    1995-01-01

    A pilot plant study on propane catalytic combustion in a membrane reactor with separate reactant feeds is presented. The membrane consisted of a porous alumina tube activated by insertion into its pores of a Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst. The role of reactants concentration and of the feed flow rates were

  14. Imaging of the Eustachian tube and its function: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.E.; Tysome, J.R. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of ENT Surgery, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Scoffings, D.J. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    The Eustachian tube is a complex and inaccessible structure, which maintains middle ear ventilation to facilitate transmission of sound from the tympanic membrane to the cochlea. A renewed interest in treatments for eustachian tube dysfunction has led to a demand for methods of imaging the Eustachian tube, and assessing tube opening non-invasively. This review aims to summarise the use of imaging in the anatomical assessment of the Eustachian tube, and to explore how radiological techniques can be used to assess tube function. A systematic review of the literature was performed with narrative data analysis. With high-resolution images, the soft and bony anatomy of the Eustachian tube can be assessed in detail. CT and MRI are best suited to identifying features associated with obstructive or patulous Eustachian tube dysfunction, though true assessments of function have only been achieved with contrast enhanced radiographs and scintigraphy. A single modality has yet to provide a complete assessment. No test has entered routine clinical use, but further development and research is underway. Significant information can be gained from imaging the Eustachian tube, and as faster acquisition techniques are developed, it is possible that dynamic imaging of tubal opening could play an important role in the assessment of patients with ET dysfunction. (orig.)

  15. Removal of I, Rn, Xe and Kr from off gas streams using PTFE membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemer, Darryl D.; Lewis, Leroy C.

    1990-01-01

    A process for removing I, R, Xe and Kr which involves the passage of the off gas stream through a tube-in-shell assembly, whereby the tubing is a PTFE membrane which permits the selective passages of the gases for removing and isolating the gases.

  16. Water-storage-tube systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemker, P.

    1981-12-24

    Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

  17. Conditioning and breakdown phenomena in accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorka, S.J.

    1979-01-01

    Important breakdown mechanisms in accelerator tubes are reviewed, and discharge phenomena in NEC tubes are deduced from the surface appearance of the electrodes and insulators of a used tube. Microphotos of these surfaces are shown

  18. Facility for the storage of spent, heat-emitting and container-enclosed nuclear reactor fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennings, U.

    1987-01-01

    Patent for facility for the storage of spent, heat-emitting and container-enclosed nuclear reactor fuel assemblies, which are arranged within a building in a horizontal position and are cooled by a gas stream, whereby the building has a storage and a loading zone, characterized by the fact that pallet trucks arranged one above the other in a row and such that an interspace is left for the receiving positions for the containers, the the pallet trucks can be moved along rails that extend between two side walls arranged opposite to one another in the storage zone, that the storage zone can be loaded and unloaded by opening located in these two side walls, and that the gas stream only circulates within the building

  19. Comparative analysis of the modified enclosed energy metric for self-focusing holograms from digital lensless holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Carlos; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    A comparative analysis of the performance of the modified enclosed energy (MEE) method for self-focusing holograms recorded with digital lensless holographic microscopy is presented. Notwithstanding the MEE analysis previously published, no extended analysis of its performance has been reported. We have tested the MEE in terms of the minimum axial distance allowed between the set of reconstructed holograms to search for the focal plane and the elapsed time to obtain the focused image. These parameters have been compared with those for some of the already reported methods in the literature. The MEE achieves better results in terms of self-focusing quality but at a higher computational cost. Despite its longer processing time, the method remains within a time frame to be technologically attractive. Modeled and experimental holograms have been utilized in this work to perform the comparative study.

  20. Orbit-averaged quantities, the classical Hellmann-Feynman theorem, and the magnetic flux enclosed by gyro-motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, R. J., E-mail: rperkins@pppl.gov; Bellan, P. M. [Applied Physics and Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Action integrals are often used to average a system over fast oscillations and obtain reduced dynamics. It is not surprising, then, that action integrals play a central role in the Hellmann-Feynman theorem of classical mechanics, which furnishes the values of certain quantities averaged over one period of rapid oscillation. This paper revisits the classical Hellmann-Feynman theorem, rederiving it in connection to an analogous theorem involving the time-averaged evolution of canonical coordinates. We then apply a modified version of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem to obtain a new result: the magnetic flux enclosed by one period of gyro-motion of a charged particle in a non-uniform magnetic field. These results further demonstrate the utility of the action integral in regards to obtaining orbit-averaged quantities and the usefulness of this formalism in characterizing charged particle motion.

  1. Robotic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between digital and analogue is often constructed as one of opposition. The perception that the world is permeated with underlying patterns of data, describing events and matter alike, suggests that information can be understood apart from the substance to which it is associated......, and that its encoded logic can be constructed and reconfigured as an isolated entity. This disembodiment of information from materiality implies that an event like a thunderstorm, or a material like a body, can be described equally by data, in other words it can be read or written. The following prototypes......, Vivisection and Strange Metabolisms, were developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen as a means of engaging intangible digital data with tactile physical material. As robotic membranes, they are a dual examination...

  2. Flux tubes at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cea, Paolo [INFN, Sezione di Bari,Via G. Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Bari,Via G. Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Cosmai, Leonardo [INFN, Sezione di Bari,Via G. Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Cuteri, Francesca; Papa, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria & INFN-Cosenza,Ponte Bucci, cubo 31C, I-87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy)

    2016-06-07

    The chromoelectric field generated by a static quark-antiquark pair, with its peculiar tube-like shape, can be nicely described, at zero temperature, within the dual superconductor scenario for the QCD confining vacuum. In this work we investigate, by lattice Monte Carlo simulations of the SU(3) pure gauge theory, the fate of chromoelectric flux tubes across the deconfinement transition. We find that, if the distance between the static sources is kept fixed at about 0.76 fm ≃1.6/√σ and the temperature is increased towards and above the deconfinement temperature T{sub c}, the amplitude of the field inside the flux tube gets smaller, while the shape of the flux tube does not vary appreciably across deconfinement. This scenario with flux-tube “evaporation” above T{sub c} has no correspondence in ordinary (type-II) superconductivity, where instead the transition to the phase with normal conductivity is characterized by a divergent fattening of flux tubes as the transition temperature is approached from below. We present also some evidence about the existence of flux-tube structures in the magnetic sector of the theory in the deconfined phase.

  3. Pressure tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Nobuhiro; Kaneto, Kunikazu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To attain uniform fluid poison distribution in a calandria tank by downwardly projecting, at an equal distance to the reactor core, a spacer wall from the periphery of an anti-vibration plate in the vicinity of a heavy water flow passage in the periphery of the anti-vibration plate, thereby decrease the amount of heavy water flowing into the heavy water flow passage. Constitution: A projecting wall concentrical with a calandria tank is suspended vertically from the boundary side at the peripheral portion of an anti-vibration plate to a water heavy flow passage in the periphery of the anti-vibration plate. The projecting wall has such a vertical length as about equal to the width of the heavy water flow passage, prevents heavy water flowing through apertures of a control rod guide tube from entering into the heavy water passage and increases the ratio of heavy water that flows through the heavy water flow passage in the anti-vibration plate. Consequently, if the liquid poison density in heavy water is varied, the ununiform poison density in the calandria tank can be prevented. (Seki, T.)

  4. Internal heat exchange tubes for industrial furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, M.; Lingle, T.M.

    1992-05-26

    This patent describes a method for cooling the work within an industrial furnace. It comprises providing a longitudinally extending outer tube which extends into the furnace having a closed axial end and an open axial end; providing a preformed inner tube open at both ends within the outer tube; injecting a coolant into the inner tube so that the coolant flows from one axial end of the tube out the opposite end adjacent the closed end of the outer tube, and from the closed end of the outer tube to the open end thereof; circulating a gas within the furnace against the outer tube to effect heat transfer therewith.

  5. Patient identification and tube labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dongen-Lases, Edmée C; Cornes, Michael P; Grankvist, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    of phlebotomy procedures with the CLSI H3-A6 guideline was unacceptably low, and that patient identification and tube labelling are amongst the most critical steps in need of immediate attention and improvement. The process of patient identification and tube labelling is an essential safety barrier to prevent...... patient identity mix-up. Therefore, the EFLM Working Group aims to encourage and support worldwide harmonisation of patient identification and tube labelling procedures in order to reduce the risk of preanalytical errors and improve patient safety. With this Position paper we wish to raise awareness...... and provide recommendations for proper patient and sample identification procedures....

  6. PEG tubes: dealing with complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Hardip; Thompson, Rosie

    A percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy tube can be used to deliver nutrition, hydration and medicines directly into the patient's stomach. Patients will require a tube if they are unable to swallow safely, putting them at risk of aspiration of food, drink and medicines into their lungs. It is vital that nurses are aware of the complications that may arise when caring for a patient with a PEG tube. It is equally important that nurses know how to deal with these complications or from where tc seek advice. This article provides a quick troubleshooting guide to help nurses deal with complications that can arise with PEG feeding.

  7. Applications of liquid scintillation tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broga, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    A new cocktail containing device for liquid scintillation counting, the scintillation tube, consists of a two-layered plastic bag which is heatsealed after the cocktail and sample have been placed in it. It is then placed in a carrying vial and counted in a conventional liquid scintillation counter. These tubes have proved to be a practical and economical alternative to vials. Some of their advantages are elimination of absorption problems, transparency, lower background and higher counting efficiency, low breakage danger and savings in waste disposal costs. Two applications for which the tubes are particularly suitable are the counting of laboratory swipes and urine analysis. (author)

  8. Membranes for nanometer-scale mass fast transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakajin, Olgica [San Leandro, CA; Holt, Jason [Berkeley, CA; Noy, Aleksandr [Belmont, CA; Park, Hyung Gyu [Oakland, CA

    2011-10-18

    Nanoporous membranes comprising single walled, double walled, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes embedded in a matrix material were fabricated for fluid mechanics and mass transfer studies on the nanometer scale and commercial applications. Average pore size can be 2 nm to 20 nm, or seven nm or less, or two nanometers or less. The membrane can be free of large voids spanning the membrane such that transport of material such as gas or liquid occurs exclusively through the tubes. Fast fluid, vapor, and liquid transport are observed. Versatile micromachining methods can be used for membrane fabrication. A single chip can comprise multiple membranes. These membranes are a robust platform for the study of confined molecular transport, with applications in liquid and gas separations and chemical sensing including desalination, dialysis, and fabric formation.

  9. Metal–Organic Framework-Functionalized Alumina Membranes for Vacuum Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zuo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nature-mimetic hydrophobic membranes with high wetting resistance have been designed for seawater desalination via vacuum membrane distillation (VMD in this study. This is achieved through molecular engineering of metal–organic framework (MOF-functionalized alumina surfaces. A two-step synthetic strategy was invented to design the hydrophobic membranes: (1 to intergrow MOF crystals on the alumina tube substrate and (2 to introduce perfluoro molecules onto the MOF functionalized membrane surface. With the first step, the surface morphology, especially the hierarchical roughness, can be controlled by tuning the MOF crystal structure. After the second step, the perfluoro molecules function as an ultrathin layer of hydrophobic floss, which lowers the surface energy. Therefore, the resultant membranes do not only possess the intrinsic advantages of alumina supports such as high stability and high water permeability, but also have a hydrophobic surface formed by MOF functionalization. The membrane prepared under an optimum condition achieved a good VMD flux of 32.3 L/m2-h at 60 °C. This study may open up a totally new approach for design of next-generation high performance membrane distillation membranes for seawater desalination.

  10. Condenser tube buckling within tube-tubesheet joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willertz, L.E.; Kalnins, A.; Updike, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of the appearance of protrusions, or bumps, in the interior of roller-expanded tubes within a tubesheet is addressed. Such bumps have been observed in condensers of power plants. A brief history of the reported occurrences of the bumps is given. The hypothesis is advanced that the mechanics of the formation of the bumps is similar to a buckling problem that has 'bifurcation at infinity'. Following this hypothesis, a two-dimensional physical model is developed, and the application of this model to study a three-dimensional bump is proposed. It is proposed in this paper that an initial deviation from the circular shape of the tube required to produce a bump. It is shown that without such a deviation the tubes cannot buckle. An experiment with short tube segments has been performed that verifies some of the features of the observed condenser tube bumps. Exactly what force produced the initial deviation for the observed bumps is still unknown. Available evidence implicates the hydro-laser jet that is used in the cleaning of tubes and tubesheets. A scenario of how a bump could have been produced by the hydro-laser jet is proposed. (author)

  11. Counter-current membrane reactor for WGS process: Membrane design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piemonte, Vincenzo; Favetta, Barbara [Department of Chemical Engineering Materials and Environment, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); De Falco, Marcello [Faculty of Engineering, University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, via Alvaro del Portillo 21, 00128 Rome (Italy); Basile, Angelo [CNR-ITM, c/o University of Calabria, Via Pietro Bucci, Cubo 17/C, 87030 Rende (CS) (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    Water gas shift (WGS) is a thermodynamically limited reaction which has to operate at low temperatures, reducing kinetics rate and increasing the amount of catalyst required to reach valuable CO conversions. It has been widely demonstrated that the integration of hydrogen selective membranes is a promising way to enhance WGS reactors performance: a Pd-based MR operated successfully overcoming the thermodynamic constraints of a traditional reactor thanks to the removal of hydrogen from reaction environment. In the first part of a MR, the H{sub 2} partial pressure starts from a minimum value since the reaction has not started. As a consequence, if the carrier gas in the permeation zone is sent in counter-current, which is the most efficient configuration, in the first reactor section the H{sub 2} partial pressure in reaction zone is low while in the permeation zone is high, potentially implying back permeation. This means a bad utilization of the first part of the membrane area and thus, a worsening of the MR performance with lower H{sub 2} recovery and lower CO conversion with respect to the case in which the whole selective surface is properly used. To avoid this problem different MR configurations were evaluated by a 1-D pseudo-homogeneous model, validated with WGS industrial data reported in scientific literature. It was demonstrated that the permeated H{sub 2} flow rate per membrane surface, i.e. the membrane flux, strongly improves if selective membrane is placed only in the second part of the reactor: in fact, if the membrane is placed at L{sub m}/L{sub tot} = 0.5, the membrane flux is 0.2 kmol/(m{sup 2}h) about, if it is placed along all reactor tube (L{sub m}/L{sub tot} = 1), flux is 0.05 kmol/(m{sup 2}h). The effect of the L/D reactor ratio and of the reactor wall temperature on the CO conversion were also assessed. (author)

  12. Vertical steam generator with slab-type tube-plate with even tube bundle washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manek, O.; Masek, V.; Motejl, V.; Quitta, R.

    1980-01-01

    A shielding plate supporting the tubes attached to the tube plate of a vertical steam generator is mounted above the tube plate. Tube sleeves are designed with a dimensional tolerance relative to the heat transfer tubes and the sleeve end and the tube plate end. A separate space is thus formed above the tube plate in which circulation or feed water is introduced to flow between the branch and the heat transfer tube. This provides intensive washing of heat transfer tubes at a critical point and prevents deposit formation, thus excluding heat transfer tube failures. (J.B.)

  13. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Disease Dilated Eye Exam Dry Eye For Kids Glaucoma Healthy Vision Tips Leber Congenital Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded ...

  14. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Aging Program African American Program Training and Jobs Fellowships NEI Summer Intern Program Diversity In Vision ... DIVRO) Student Training Programs To search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home >> NEI YouTube Videos >> ...

  15. Technique for joining metal tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    Uniform wall thickness and uninterrupted heat transfer is achieved by using shaped metal insert as wall material for joint. Insert acts as support during brazing, after which excess material is ground away to bring joint to original tubing size.

  16. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division ... Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video ...

  17. Cuffed endotracheal tubes in paediatrics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cuffed endotracheal tubes (CETTs) in children who are younger than eight years old. Most paediatric ... the smallest functional part of the infant airway, because the ... During the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in ...

  18. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino ... To search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home » NEI YouTube ...

  19. Unique thylakoid membrane architecture of a unicellular N2-fixing cyanobacterium revealed by electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberton, Michelle; Austin II, Jotham R; Berg, R. Howard; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2011-04-01

    Cyanobacteria, descendants of the endosymbiont that gave rise to modern-day chloroplasts, are vital contributors to global biological energy conversion processes. A thorough understanding of the physiology of cyanobacteria requires detailed knowledge of these organisms at the level of cellular architecture and organization. In these prokaryotes, the large membrane protein complexes of the photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains function in the intracellular thylakoid membranes. Like plants, the architecture of the thylakoid membranes in cyanobacteria has direct impact on cellular bioenergetics, protein transport, and molecular trafficking. However, whole-cell thylakoid organization in cyanobacteria is not well understood. Here we present, by using electron tomography, an in-depth analysis of the architecture of the thylakoid membranes in a unicellular cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142. Based on the results of three-dimensional tomographic reconstructions of near-entire cells, we determined that the thylakoids in Cyanothece 51142 form a dense and complex network that extends throughout the entire cell. This thylakoid membrane network is formed from the branching and splitting of membranes and encloses a single lumenal space. The entire thylakoid network spirals as a peripheral ring of membranes around the cell, an organization that has not previously been described in a cyanobacterium. Within the thylakoid membrane network are areas of quasi-helical arrangement with similarities to the thylakoid membrane system in chloroplasts. This cyanobacterial thylakoid arrangement is an efficient means of packing a large volume of membranes in the cell while optimizing intracellular transport and trafficking.

  20. Unique Thylakoid Membrane Architecture of a Unicellular N2-Fixing Cyanobacterium Revealed by Electron Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberton, Michelle L.; Austin, Jotham R.; Berg, R. H.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2011-04-01

    Cyanobacteria, descendants of the endosymbiont that gave rise to modern-day chloroplasts, are vital contributors to global biological energy conversion processes. A thorough understanding of the physiology of cyanobacteria requires detailed knowledge of these organisms at the level of cellular architecture and organization. In these prokaryotes, the large membrane protein complexes of the photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains function in the intracellular thylakoid membranes. Like plants, the architecture of the thylakoid membranes in cyanobacteria has direct impact on cellular bioenergetics, protein transport, and molecular trafficking. However, whole-cell thylakoid organization in cyanobacteria is not well understood. Here we present, by using electron tomography, an in-depth analysis of the architecture of the thylakoid membranes in a unicellular cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142. Based on the results of three-dimensional tomographic reconstructions of near-entire cells, we determined that the thylakoids in Cyanothece 51142 form a dense and complex network that extends throughout the entire cell. This thylakoid membrane network is formed from the branching and splitting of membranes and encloses a single lumenal space. The entire thylakoid network spirals as a peripheral ring of membranes around the cell, an organization that has not previously been described in a cyanobacterium. Within the thylakoid membrane network are areas of quasi-helical arrangement with similarities to the thylakoid membrane system in chloroplasts. This cyanobacterial thylakoid arrangement is an efficient means of packing a large volume of membranes in the cell while optimizing intracellular transport and trafficking.

  1. Perforated membrane-type acoustic metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langfeldt, F.; Kemsies, H.; Gleine, W.; Estorff, O. von

    2017-01-01

    This letter introduces a modified design of membrane-type acoustic metamaterials (MAMs) with a ring mass and a perforation so that an airflow through the membrane is enabled. Simplified analytical investigations of the perforated MAM (PMAM) indicate that the perforation introduces a second anti-resonance, where the effective surface mass density of the PMAM is much higher than the static value. The theoretical results are validated using impedance tube measurements, indicating good agreement between the theoretical predictions and the measured data. The anti-resonances yield high low-frequency sound transmission loss values with peak values over 25 dB higher than the corresponding mass-law. - Highlights: • A new membrane-type acoustic metamaterial exhibiting negative density is presented. • The metamaterial design contains a ring mass with a perforation through the membrane. • The sound transmission loss exhibits narrow-band peaks much higher than the mass-law. • The emergence of the peaks is explained using a simple theoretical model. • Impedance tube measurements are used to validate the theoretical predictions.

  2. Perforated membrane-type acoustic metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langfeldt, F., E-mail: Felix.Langfeldt@haw-hamburg.de [Department of Automotive and Aeronautical Engineering, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Berliner Tor 9, D-20099 Hamburg (Germany); Kemsies, H., E-mail: Hannes.Kemsies@haw-hamburg.de [Department of Automotive and Aeronautical Engineering, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Berliner Tor 9, D-20099 Hamburg (Germany); Gleine, W., E-mail: Wolfgang.Gleine@haw-hamburg.de [Department of Automotive and Aeronautical Engineering, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Berliner Tor 9, D-20099 Hamburg (Germany); Estorff, O. von, E-mail: estorff@tu-harburg.de [Institute of Modelling and Computation, Hamburg University of Technology, Denickestr. 17, D-21073 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-04-25

    This letter introduces a modified design of membrane-type acoustic metamaterials (MAMs) with a ring mass and a perforation so that an airflow through the membrane is enabled. Simplified analytical investigations of the perforated MAM (PMAM) indicate that the perforation introduces a second anti-resonance, where the effective surface mass density of the PMAM is much higher than the static value. The theoretical results are validated using impedance tube measurements, indicating good agreement between the theoretical predictions and the measured data. The anti-resonances yield high low-frequency sound transmission loss values with peak values over 25 dB higher than the corresponding mass-law. - Highlights: • A new membrane-type acoustic metamaterial exhibiting negative density is presented. • The metamaterial design contains a ring mass with a perforation through the membrane. • The sound transmission loss exhibits narrow-band peaks much higher than the mass-law. • The emergence of the peaks is explained using a simple theoretical model. • Impedance tube measurements are used to validate the theoretical predictions.

  3. Eddy current tube testing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufayet, J.P.; Duret, G.

    1975-01-01

    The unit described can check a wide variety of tubes in quick succession and its modular design gives it a high degree of versability. Suitably defined working conditions and specific fittings enable most of the faults encountered in the manufacture of a tube to be detected. By appropriate means of selection based on signal amplitude, phase and frequency analyses it is possible to adapt selection criteria to the seriousness of the different categories of defect [fr

  4. The YouTube reader

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    YouTube has come to epitomize the possibilities of digital culture. With more than seventy million unique users a month and approximately eighty million videos online, this brand-name video distribution platform holds the richest repository of popular culture on the Internet. As the fastest growing site in the history of the Web, YouTube promises endless new opportunities for amateur video, political campaigning, entertainment formats, and viral marketing—a clip culture that has seemed to out...

  5. Gasification in a revolving tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speicher, R.F.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a method for allothermal coal gasification is to refine raw lignite from the Rhine area to high-quality synthesis gas or reduction gas without extracting the water utilizing nuclear process heat in a heated revolving bundle of tubes. Computational models are described for the macroscopic course of events in parallel flow gasification. In the design of the test plant, the principle of drag-in and transport of the tube drier was applied. (DG) [de

  6. Electronics for proportional drift tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremont, G.; Friend, B.; Mess, K.H.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Tarle, J.C.; Verweij, H.; CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moscow Collaboration); Geske, K.; Riege, H.; Schuett, J.; CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moscow Collaboration); Semenov, Y.; CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moscow Collaboration)

    1980-01-01

    An electronic system for the read-out of a large number of proportional drift tubes (16,000) has been designed. This system measures deposited charge and drift-time of the charge of a particle traversing a proportional drift tube. A second event can be accepted during the read-out of the system. Up to 40 typical events can be collected and buffered before a data transfer to a computer is necessary. (orig.)

  7. Tube-in-shell heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, J.

    1976-01-01

    Tube-in-shell heat exchangers normally comprise a bundle of parallel tubes within a shell container, with a fluid arranged to flow through the tubes in heat exchange with a second fluid flowing through the shell. The tubes are usually end supported by the tube plates that separate the two fluids, and in use the tube attachments to the tube plates and the tube plates can be subject to severe stress by thermal shock and frequent inspection and servicing are required. Where the heat exchangers are immersed in a coolant such as liquid Na such inspection is difficult. In the arrangement described a longitudinally extending central tube is provided incorporating axially spaced cylindrical tube plates to which the opposite ends of the tubes are attached. Within this tube there is a tubular baffle that slidably seals against the wall of the tube between the cylindrical tube plates to define two co-axial flow ducts. These ducts are interconnected at the closed end of the tube by the heat exchange tubes and the baffle comprises inner and outer spaced walls with the interspace containing Ar. The baffle is easily removable and can be withdrawn to enable insertion of equipment for inspecting the wall of the tube and tube attachments and to facilitate plugging of defective tubes. Cylindrical tube plates are believed to be superior for carrying pressure loads and resisting the effects of thermal shock. Some protection against thermal shock can be effected by arranging that the secondary heat exchange fluid is on the tube side, and by providing a thermal baffle to prevent direct impingement of hot primary fluid on to the cylindrical tube plates. The inner wall of the tubular baffle may have flexible expansible region. Some nuclear reactor constructions incorporating such an arrangement are described, including liquid metal reactors. (U.K.)

  8. Dermatology on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyers, Lindsay N; Quest, Tyler; Karimkhani, Chante; Connett, Jessica; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2014-06-15

    YouTube, reaches upwards of six billion users on a monthly basis and is a unique source of information distribution and communication. Although the influence of YouTube on personal health decision-making is well established, this study assessed the type of content and viewership on a broad scope of dermatology related content on YouTube. Select terms (i.e. dermatology, sun protection, skin cancer, skin cancer awareness, and skin conditions) were searched on YouTube. Overall, the results included 100 videos with over 47 million viewers. Advocacy was the most prevalent content type at 24% of the total search results. These 100 videos were "shared" a total of 101,173 times and have driven 6,325 subscriptions to distinct YouTube user pages. Of the total videos, 35% were uploaded by or featured an MD/DO/PhD in dermatology or other specialty/field, 2% FNP/PA, 1% RN, and 62% other. As one of the most trafficked global sites on the Internet, YouTube is a valuable resource for dermatologists, physicians in other specialties, and the general public to share their dermatology-related content and gain subscribers. However, challenges of accessing and determining evidence-based data remain an issue.

  9. Ceramic membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adcock, K.D.; Fain, D.E.; James, D.L.; Powell, L.E.; Raj, T.; Roettger, G.E.; Sutton, T.G. [East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The separative performance of the authors` ceramic membranes has been determined in the past using a permeance test system that measured flows of pure gases through a membrane at temperatures up to 275 C. From these data, the separation factor was determined for a particular gas pair from the ratio of the pure gas specific flows. An important project goal this year has been to build a Mixed Gas Separation System (MGSS) for measuring the separation efficiencies of membranes at higher temperatures and using mixed gases. The MGSS test system has been built, and initial operation has been achieved. The MGSS is capable of measuring the separation efficiency of membranes at temperatures up to 600 C and pressures up to 100 psi using a binary gas mixture such as hydrogen/methane. The mixed gas is fed into a tubular membrane at pressures up to 100 psi, and the membrane separates the feed gas mixture into a permeate stream and a raffinate stream. The test membrane is sealed in a stainless steel holder that is mounted in a split tube furnace to permit membrane separations to be evaluated at temperatures up to 600 C. The compositions of the three gas streams are measured by a gas chromatograph equipped with thermal conductivity detectors. The test system also measures the temperatures and pressures of all three gas streams as well as the flow rate of the feed stream. These data taken over a range of flows and pressures permit the separation efficiency to be determined as a function of the operating conditions. A mathematical model of the separation has been developed that permits the data to be reduced and the separation factor for the membrane to be determined.

  10. The Effect of Voltage Charging on the Transport Properties of Gold Nanotube Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experton, Juliette; Martin, Charles R

    2018-05-01

    Porous membranes are used in chemical separations and in many electrochemical processes and devices. Research on the transport properties of a unique class of porous membranes that contain monodisperse gold nanotubes traversing the entire membrane thickness is reviewed here. These gold nanotubes can act as conduits for ionic and molecular transports through the membrane. Because the tubes are electronically conductive, they can be electrochemically charged by applying a voltage to the membrane. How this "voltage charging" affects the transport properties of gold nanotube membranes is the subject of this Review. Experiments showing that voltage charging can be used to reversibly switch the membrane between ideally cation- and anion-transporting states are reviewed. Voltage charging can also be used to enhance the ionic conductivity of gold nanotube membranes. Finally, voltage charging to accomplish electroporation of living bacteria as they pass through gold nanotube membranes is reviewed. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Introduction to solid supported membrane based electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzone, Andre; Costa, Wagner Steuer; Braner, Markus; Călinescu, Octavian; Hatahet, Lina; Fendler, Klaus

    2013-05-11

    The electrophysiological method we present is based on a solid supported membrane (SSM) composed of an octadecanethiol layer chemisorbed on a gold coated sensor chip and a phosphatidylcholine monolayer on top. This assembly is mounted into a cuvette system containing the reference electrode, a chlorinated silver wire. After adsorption of membrane fragments or proteoliposomes containing the membrane protein of interest, a fast solution exchange is used to induce the transport activity of the membrane protein. In the single solution exchange protocol two solutions, one non-activating and one activating solution, are needed. The flow is controlled by pressurized air and a valve and tubing system within a faraday cage. The kinetics of the electrogenic transport activity is obtained via capacitive coupling between the SSM and the proteoliposomes or membrane fragments. The method, therefore, yields only transient currents. The peak current represents the stationary transport activity. The time dependent transporter currents can be reconstructed by circuit analysis. This method is especially suited for prokaryotic transporters or eukaryotic transporters from intracellular membranes, which cannot be investigated by patch clamp or voltage clamp methods.

  12. Membrane assisted fluidized bed reactor: experimental demonstration for partial oxidation of methanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, S.A.R.K.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis the reactor concept has been developed on the basis of an experimental study on the effect of fluidization conditions on the membrane permeation rate in a MAFBR, the extent of gas back mixing and the tube-to-bed heat transfer rates in the presence of membrane bundles with and without

  13. Ethanol steam reforming kinetics of a Pd-Ag membrane reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tosti, S.; Basile, A.; Borelli, R.; Borgognoni, F.; Castelli, S.; Fabbricino, M.; Gallucci, F.; Licusati, C.

    2009-01-01

    The ethanol steam reforming reaction carried out in a Pd-based tubular membrane reactor has been modelled via a finite element code. The model considers the membrane tube divided into finite volume elements where the mass balances for both lumen and shell sides are carried out accordingly to the

  14. Recent advances on polymeric membranes for membrane reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Buonomenna, M. G.; Choi, Seung Hak

    2012-01-01

    . The successful use of membranes in membrane reactors is primary the result of two developments concerning: (i) membrane materials and (ii) membrane structures. The selection of a suited material and preparation technique depends on the application the membrane

  15. Tubing vs. buckets: a cost comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil K. Huyler

    1975-01-01

    Equipment investment for tubing-vacuum systems was significantly less than that for bucket systems. Tubing-vacuum systems required about 22 percent less labor input, the major labor input being completed before sap-flow periods. Annual cost of operation was less for tubing-vacuum than the bucket system. Small tubing-vacuum operations showed more profit potential than...

  16. Expander for Thin-Wall Tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessin, R.

    1983-01-01

    Tool locally expands small-diameter tubes. Tube expander locally expands and deforms tube: Compressive lateral stress induced in elastomeric sleeve by squeezing axially between two metal tool parts. Adaptable to situations in which tube must have small bulge for mechanical support or flow control.

  17. Cross-talk in straw tube chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzec, J. E-mail: janusz.marzec@ire.pw.edu.pl

    2003-05-11

    An analytical model of the signal transmission between neighboring straw tubes with resistive cathodes (cross-talk) is presented. The dependence of the cross-talk level on the cathode resistance, tube length, particle detection point, the distance of the tube from the shielding planes, and termination of the tube ends is analyzed.

  18. Cross-talk in straw tube chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzec, J.

    2003-01-01

    An analytical model of the signal transmission between neighboring straw tubes with resistive cathodes (cross-talk) is presented. The dependence of the cross-talk level on the cathode resistance, tube length, particle detection point, the distance of the tube from the shielding planes, and termination of the tube ends is analyzed

  19. Molecular evidence that rough endoplasmic reticulum is the site of calreticulin translation in Petunia pollen tubes growing in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwińska, Anna; Lenartowski, Robert; Smoliński, Dariusz Jan; Lenartowska, Marta

    2015-07-01

    In germinating pollen grains and growing pollen tubes, CRT is translated on ER membrane-bound ribosomes in the regions where its activity is required for stabilization of tip-focused Ca (2+) gradient. Pollen tube growth requires coordination of signaling, exocytosis, and actin cytoskeletal organization. Many of these processes are thought to be controlled by finely tuned regulation of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) in discrete regions of the tube cytoplasm. Most notably, a mechanism must function to maintain a steep gradient of Ca(2+) that exists at the tip of growing pollen tube. Several pieces of evidence point to calreticulin (CRT) as a key Ca(2+)-binding/-buffering protein involved in pollen germination and pollen tube growth. We previously hypothesized that in germinating pollen and growing tubes, CRT is translated on the ribosomes associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the regions where its activity might be required. In this report, we have addressed this idea by identifying the sites where CRT mRNA, CRT protein, 18S rRNA, and rough ER are localized in Petunia pollen tubes. We observed all four components in the germinal aperture of pollen grains and in subapical regions of elongating tubes. These results seem to support our idea that CRT is translated on ER membrane-bound ribosomes during pollen germination and pollen tube growth. In elongated pollen tubes, we found CRT mainly localized in the subapical zone, where ER and Golgi stacks are abundant. In eukaryotic cells, these organelles serve as mobile intracellular stores of easily releasable Ca(2+), which can be buffered by proteins such as CRT. Therefore, we postulate that subapical-localized CRT is involved in pollen tube growth by maintaining the stable tip-focused Ca(2+) gradient and thus modulating local Ca(2+) concentration within the tube cytoplasm.

  20. Constructing irregular surfaces to enclose macromolecular complexes for mesoscale modeling using the discrete surface charge optimization (DISCO) algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Beard, Daniel A; Schlick, Tamar

    2003-12-01

    Salt-mediated electrostatics interactions play an essential role in biomolecular structures and dynamics. Because macromolecular systems modeled at atomic resolution contain thousands of solute atoms, the electrostatic computations constitute an expensive part of the force and energy calculations. Implicit solvent models are one way to simplify the model and associated calculations, but they are generally used in combination with standard atomic models for the solute. To approximate electrostatics interactions in models on the polymer level (e.g., supercoiled DNA) that are simulated over long times (e.g., milliseconds) using Brownian dynamics, Beard and Schlick have developed the DiSCO (Discrete Surface Charge Optimization) algorithm. DiSCO represents a macromolecular complex by a few hundred discrete charges on a surface enclosing the system modeled by the Debye-Hückel (screened Coulombic) approximation to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, and treats the salt solution as continuum solvation. DiSCO can represent the nucleosome core particle (>12,000 atoms), for example, by 353 discrete surface charges distributed on the surfaces of a large disk for the nucleosome core particle and a slender cylinder for the histone tail; the charges are optimized with respect to the Poisson-Boltzmann solution for the electric field, yielding a approximately 5.5% residual. Because regular surfaces enclosing macromolecules are not sufficiently general and may be suboptimal for certain systems, we develop a general method to construct irregular models tailored to the geometry of macromolecules. We also compare charge optimization based on both the electric field and electrostatic potential refinement. Results indicate that irregular surfaces can lead to a more accurate approximation (lower residuals), and the refinement in terms of the electric field is more robust. We also show that surface smoothing for irregular models is important, that the charge optimization (by the TNPACK

  1. POROUS MEMBRANE TEMPLATED SYNTHESIS OF POLYMER PILLARED LAYER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-wei Niu; Dan Li; Zhen-zhong Yang

    2003-01-01

    The anodic porous alumina membranes with a definite pore diameter and aspect ratio were used as templates to synthesize polymer pillared layer structures. The pillared polymer was produced in the template membrane pores, and the layer on the template surfaces. Rigid cured epoxy resin, polystyrene and soft hydrogel were chosen to confirm the methodology. The pillars were in the form of either tubes or fibers, which were controlled by the alumina membrane pore surface wettability. The structural features were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy results.

  2. Free Piston Double Diaphragm Shock Tube

    OpenAIRE

    OGURA, Eiji; FUNABIKI, Katsushi; SATO, Shunichi; ABE, Takashi; 小倉, 栄二; 船曳, 勝之; 佐藤, 俊逸; 安部, 隆士

    1997-01-01

    A free piston double diaphragm shock tube was newly developed for generation of high Mach number shock wave. Its characteristics was investigated for various operation parameters; such as a strength of the diaphragm at the end of the comparession tube, an initial pressure of low pressure tube, an initial pressure of medium pressure tube and the volume of compression tube. Under the restriction of fixed pressures for the driver high pressure tube (32×10^5Pa) and the low pressure tube (40Pa) in...

  3. PWR steam generator tubing sample library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    In order to compile the tubing sample library, two approaches were employed: (a) tubing sample replication by either chemical or mechanical means, based on field tube data and metallography reports for tubes already destructively examined; and (b) acquisition of field tubes removed from operating or retired steam generators. In addition, a unique mercury modeling concept is in use to guide the selection of replica samples. A compendium was compiled that summarizes field observations and morphologies of steam generator tube degradation types based on available NDE, destructive examinations, and field reports. This compendium was used in selecting candidate degradation types that were manufactured for inclusion in the tube library

  4. Pump element for a tube pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a tube pump comprising a tube and a pump element inserted in the tube, where the pump element comprises a rod element and a first and a second non-return valve member positioned a distance apart on the rod element. The valve members are oriented in the same direction...... relative to the rod element so as to allow for a fluid flow in the tube through the first valve member, along the rod element, and through the second valve member. The tube comprises an at least partly flexible tube portion between the valve members such that a repeated deformation of the flexible tube...... portion acts to alternately close and open the valve members thereby generating a fluid flow through the tube. The invention further relates to a pump element comprising at least two non-return valve members connected by a rod element, and for insertion in an at least partly flexible tube in such tube...

  5. Managing a chest tube and drainage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durai, Rajaraman; Hoque, Happy; Davies, Tony W

    2010-02-01

    Intercostal drainage tubes (ie, chest tubes) are inserted to drain the pleural cavity of air, blood, pus, or lymph. The water-seal container connected to the chest tube allows one-way movement of air and liquid from the pleural cavity. The container should not be changed unless it is full, and the chest tube should not be clamped unnecessarily. After a chest tube is inserted, a nurse trained in chest-tube management is responsible for managing the chest tube and drainage system. This entails monitoring the chest-tube position, controlling fluid evacuation, identifying when to change or empty the containers, and caring for the tube and drainage system during patient transport. This article provides an overview of indications, insertion techniques, and management of chest tubes. Copyright 2010 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Air pollutant dispersion from a large semi-enclosed stadium in an urban area: high-resolution CFD modeling versus full-scale measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, van T.A.J.; Blocken, B.J.E.; Seppelt, R.; Voinov, A.A.; Lange, S.; Bankamp, D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: High-resolution CFD simulations and full-scale measurements have been performed to assess the dispersion of air pollutants (CO2) from the large semi-enclosed Amsterdam ArenA football stadium. The dispersion process is driven by natural ventilation by the urban wind flow and by buoyancy,

  7. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2013-10-31

    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  8. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jü rgen; Khashab, Niveen M.; Zaher, Amir

    2013-01-01

    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  9. Immunohistochemical structural pecularities of uterine tube of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лариса Сергеевна Куприянова

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim - immunohistochemical detection of structural features of the uterine tubes of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection.Methods: anthropometric, macroscopic, organometric, histological, immunohistochemical, statistical.Object of research - the uterine tubes of antenatal dead fetuses. The control group consisted of 25 fetuses of healthy mothers; the comparison group is 15 fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection. Fetal infection confirmed by laboratory methods; the presence of TORCH infections, cytomegalovirus, herpes infection and chlamydial infection is determined.Results: indicators of weight and body length of the fetus of the comparison group were significantly reduced. Unidirectional changes are established in the definition of the mass and the length of the uterine tubes of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection. Massive growth of connective tissue in the mucosa, the mucous membrane and muscle membrane of wall of the uterine tube of fetus in the comparison group is shown by histological methods. Violation of collagen formation in the connective tissue in the uterine tubes of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection is found by immunohistochemistry method.Conclusions: The reduction of anthropometric and organometric indicators in fetuses of comparison group is shown. Sclerosis and atrophy, as well as violations of collagen-synthesizing function are predominated in the main structural components of the wall of the uterine tube of fetuses in the comparison group. The revealed changes in the future ontogenesis may lead to the development of primary infertility

  10. Analysis of forming limit in tube hydroforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Il; Yang, Seung Hang; Kim, Young Suk

    2013-01-01

    The automotive industry has shown increasing interest in tube hydroforming. Despite many automobile structural parts being produced from cylindrical tubes, failures frequently occur during tube hydroforming under improper forming conditions. These problems include wrinkling, buckling, folding back, and bursting. We perform analytical studies to determine forming limits in tube hydroforming and demonstrate how these forming limits are influenced by the loading path. Theoretical results for the forming limits of wrinkling and bursting are compared with experimental results for an aluminum tube.

  11. The treatment of oily brines containing waste oils using membrane technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, H.; Tremblay, A.Y. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Veinot, D.E. [Defence R and D Canada, Halifax, NS (Canada). Atlantic Dockyard Laboratory

    2004-07-01

    Bilge water is an oily wastewater from ships that must be treated before it is discharged to coastal waters. It is difficult to treat because it contains seawater, particulates, used oils and detergents. This paper presents the results of a study which examined a cascaded membrane system comprised of a backflushed microfiltration membrane used for pretreatment of bilge water. It also examined an ultrafiltration membrane used in the final polishing step. Membrane pore size, materials and support structures were examined for single tube carbon membrane and multilumen ceramic membranes. Results indicate that membranes with a pore size less than 0.2 microns can treat bilge water directly. The performance of the membrane depends on its pore size and on the particle size distribution of the bilge water. Backflushing improved the flux in single tube carbon membranes but not in the multilumen ceramic membranes. Another important factor in bilge water treatment was the clearance of the support structure with respect to particulates. Heating, air and steam methods were all found to be suitable for membrane flux regeneration. A hybrid microfiltration and ultrafiltration membrane proved to be very effective in treating bilge water.

  12. Analysis of autofrettaged metal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M. Afzaal; Khan, Muddasar; Rashid, Badar; Khushnood, Shahab

    2007-01-01

    Thick-walled cylinders are widely used as compressor cylinders, pump cylinders, high pressure tubing, process reactors and vessels, nuclear reactors, isostatic vessels and gun barrels. In practice, cylinders are generally subjected to sudden and frequently drastic pressure fluctuations, such as the pressure generated in a gun barrel upon the firing of the weapon, pressure reversals in pump cylinders or in process reactors employing high-pressure piping, necessitating enhanced strength of such cylinders. A process for enhancing the strength of thick-walled cylinders has been in service, and is referred to as 'autofrettage'. It extends the service life of the cylinder. The autofrettage is achieved by increasing elastic strength of a cylinder with various methods such as hydraulic pressurization, mechanical swaging, or by utilizing the pressure of a powder gas. This research work deals with the hydraulic and mechanical autofrettage of metal tubes with the objective to attain enhanced strength. Five metal tubes are taken randomly for analysis purpose. The experimental data for five metal tubes is obtained to analyze the behavior of different parameters used during, before, and after autofrettage process. For this research, two-stage autofrettage is taken into consideration. The modeling of the metal tube is carried out in WildFire-ProEngineering, and for analysis purpose, finite element software ANSYS7 and COSMOS are used. The graphical analysis of swage autofrettage is carried out using MATLAB7. The results are validated using available experimental and numerical data. (author)

  13. Physics of magnetic flux tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Ryutova, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first account of the physics of magnetic flux tubes from their fundamental properties to collective phenomena in an ensembles of flux tubes. The physics of magnetic flux tubes is absolutely vital for understanding fundamental physical processes in the solar atmosphere shaped and governed by magnetic fields. High-resolution and high cadence observations from recent space and  ground-based instruments taken simultaneously at different heights and temperatures not only show the ubiquity of filamentary structure formation but also allow to study how various events are interconnected by system of magnetic flux tubes. The book covers both theory and observations. Theoretical models presented in analytical and phenomenological forms are tailored for practical applications. These are welded with state-of-the-art observations from early decisive ones to the most recent data that open a new phase-space for exploring the Sun and sun-like stars. Concept of magnetic flux tubes is central to various magn...

  14. Scale-Up Design Analysis and Modelling of Cobalt Oxide Silica Membrane Module for Hydrogen Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhao Ji

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the application of a validated mathematical model for gas permeation at high temperatures focusing on demonstrated scale-up design for H2 processing. The model considered the driving force variation with spatial coordinates and the mass transfer across the molecular sieve cobalt oxide silica membrane to predict the separation performance. The model was used to study the process of H2 separation at 500 °C in single and multi-tube membrane modules. Parameters of interest included the H2 purity in the permeate stream, H2 recovery and H2 yield as a function of the membrane length, number of tubes in a membrane module, space velocity and H2 feed molar fraction. For a single tubular membrane, increasing the length of a membrane tube led to higher H2 yield and H2 recovery, owing to the increase of the membrane area. However, the H2 purity decreased as H2 fraction was depleted, thus reducing the driving force for H2 permeation. By keeping the membrane length constant in a multi-tube arrangement, the H2 yield and H2 recovery increase was attributed to the higher membrane area, but the H2 purity was again compromised. Increasing the space velocity avoided the reduction of H2 purity and still delivered higher H2 yield and H2 recovery than in a single membrane arrangement. Essentially, if the membrane surface is too large, the driving force becomes lower at the expense of H2 purity. In this case, the membrane module is over designed. Hence, maintaining a driving force is of utmost importance to deliver the functionality of process separation.

  15. Effect of Processing Parameters on Pore Structure and Thickness of Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) Tubular Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Belwalkar, A.; Grasing, E.; Van Geertruyden, W.; Huang, Z.; Misiolek, W.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) tubular membranes were fabricated from aluminum alloy tubes in sulfuric and oxalic acid electrolytes using a two-step anodization process. The membranes were investigated for characteristics such as pore size, interpore distance and thickness by varying applied voltage and electrolyte concentration. Morphology of the membranes was examined using light optical and scanning electron microscopy and characterized using ImageJ software. Results showed that me...

  16. Measurements of volumic activity of radon in indoor air in dwellings and enclosed work areas in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakam, O. K.; Lferde, M.

    1994-01-01

    The principal source of exposure to radiation for public in built-up areas is known to be the inhalation of radon and its short-lived daughters. Most of this exposure occurs inside homes, where many hours are spent each day and where the volumic activity of radon are usually higher than outdoors. For measure these volumic activity, cellulose nitrate films LR-115 type II already calibrated of volumic activity of radon are used. The measurements were performed in 30 dwellings and enclosed work areas in different regions of Morocco. The volumic mean activity obtained in dwellings is 64 +- 5 Bq/m sup 3 in Rabat, 59 +- 6 Bq/ m sup 3 in Kenitra, 124 +- 8 Bq/ m sup 3 in youssoufia and 136 +- 9 Bq/ m sup 3 in Khouribga. It was showed that the volumic activity of radon are more higher in two factory locals of moroccan ores treatment than in dwellings. The average volumic activity of radon in geophysical observatory cellar in Berchid was 1541 +- 64 Bq/ m sup 3. We also observed that the volumic activity of radon in indoor air is more higher in winter than in summer and it decrease with altitude and increase with depth. 4 tabs. 2 refs. (author)

  17. Development of a Novel Self-Enclosed Sample Preparation Device for DNA/RNA Isolation in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Mehta, Satish K.; Pensinger, Stuart J.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    Modern biology techniques present potentials for a wide range of molecular, cellular, and biochemistry applications in space, including detection of infectious pathogens and environmental contaminations, monitoring of drug-resistant microbial and dangerous mutations, identification of new phenotypes of microbial and new life species. However, one of the major technological blockades in enabling these technologies in space is a lack of devices for sample preparation in the space environment. To overcome such an obstacle, we constructed a prototype of a DNA/RNA isolation device based on our novel designs documented in the NASA New Technology Reporting System (MSC-24811-1/3-1). This device is self-enclosed and pipette free, purposely designed for use in the absence of gravity. Our design can also be modified easily for preparing samples in space for other applications, such as flowcytometry, immunostaining, cell separation, sample purification and separation according to its size and charges, sample chemical labeling, and sample purification. The prototype of our DNA/RNA isolation device was tested for efficiencies of DNA and RNA isolation from various cell types for PCR analysis. The purity and integrity of purified DNA and RNA were determined as well. Results showed that our developed DNA/RNA isolation device offers similar efficiency and quality in comparison to the samples prepared using the standard protocol in the laboratory.

  18. Modeling of the flame propagation in coal-dust- methane air mixture in an enclosed sphere volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krainov, A Yu; Moiseeva, K M

    2016-01-01

    The results of the numerical simulation of the flame front propagation in coal-dust- methane-air mixture in an enclosed volume with the ignition source in the center of the volume are presented. The mathematical model is based on a dual-velocity two-phase model of the reacting gas-dispersion medium. The system of equations includes the mass-conversation equation, the impulse-conversation equation, the total energy-conversation equation of the gas and particles taking into account the thermal conductivity and chemical reactions in the gas and on the particle surface, mass-conversation equation of the mixture gas components considering the diffusion and the burn-out and the particle burn-out equation. The influence of the coal particle mass on the pressure in the volume after the mixture burn out and on the burn-out time has been investigated. It has been shown that the burning rate of the coal-dust methane air mixtures depends on the coal particle size. (paper)

  19. Measure of activities and calculation of effective dose of indoor 222Rn in some dwellings and enclosed areas in Morrocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choukri, A.; Hakam, O.-K.

    2010-01-01

    Radon gas ( 222 Rn) is found in the environment and is an occurring radioactive gas that is originated from the decay of uranium in rocks and soils. It is colorless, odorless, and tasteless and can only be measured using special equipment. Ionizing radiations are present at all time and at all places on the earth. Radon is one of the principal sources of natural radiation exposure. Most of this exposure occurs inside homes. Radon levels are governed by many factors, like local geology, atmospheric conditions, air exchange rate, wind velocity, and the orientation of the house. The inhalation of radon causes a high number of lung cancer cases, which are reported annually (UNSCEAR, 2000). Exposure to radon in dwellings and workplaces may arise from existing exposure situations or from practices. The results of various international surveys have demonstrated an increase in radon concentration levels in houses and, consequently, a continuously growing concern about its health effects to the population. Experimental The passive time integrated method of using a solid state nuclear track detector (LR-115 type II) was employed. Stations of Radon measurements Stations of measure were implanted in some regions of Morocco. However, measurements were only made in the places where voluntary correspondents were found having agreed to install detectors. These were in houses in the following cities: Rabat, Casablanca, Kenitra, El Jadida, Berchid, Khouribga, Youssoufia, Ouarzazate and Oujda. Results The volumic activities of radon vary in Houses, between 31and 136 Bq/m3 with an average value of 80 Bq/m3. This value is comparable to those found in the other regions of the world. In enclosed work area, the volumic activities of radon vary between 60 Bq/m3 in an ordinary area to 1884 Bq/m3 at not airy underground level of 12 m. The effective dose per unit exposure to radon and radon progeny was obtained using the so-called dose conversion convention as defined by ICRP (1993; 1994

  20. ORNL fusion power demonstration study: arguments for a vacuum building in which to enclose a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, R.W.

    1976-12-01

    Fusion reactors as presently contemplated are excessively complicated, are virtually inaccessible for some repairs, and are subject to frequent loss of function. This dilemma arises in large part because the closed surface that separates the ''hard'' vacuum of the plasma zone from atmospheric pressure is located at the first wall or between blanket and shield. This closed surface is one containing hundreds to thousands of linear meters of welds or mechanical seals which are subject to radiation damage and cyclic fatigue. In situ repair is extremely difficult. This paper examines the arguments favoring the enclosing of the entire reactor in a vacuum building and thus changing the character of this closed surface from one requiring absolute vacuum integrity to one of high pumping impedance. Two differentially pumped vacuum zones are imagined, one clean zone for the plasma and one for the balance of the volume. Both would be at substantially the same pressure. Other advantages for the vacuum enclosure are also cited and discussed

  1. Drift tubes of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    With the advent of the 800 MeV PS Booster in 1972, the original injector of the PS, a 50 MeV Alvarez-type proton linac, had reached its limits, in terms of intensity and stability. In 1973 one therefore decided to build a new linac (Linac 2), also with a drift-tube Alvarez structure and an energy of 50 MeV. It had a new Cockcroft-Walton preinjector with 750 keV, instead of the previous one with 500 keV. Linac 2 was put into service in 1980. The old Linac 1 was then used for the study of, and later operation with, various types of ions. This picture shows Linac 2 drift-tubes, suspended on stems coming from the top, in contrast to Linac 1, where the drift-tubes stood on stems coming from the bottom.

  2. On hydraulics of capillary tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Aloyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the laws of motion of water in the capillary tubes, taken as a model for flowing well, on the analogical net count device. For capillary tube the lower limit value of flow rate is empirically determined above which the total hydraulic resistance of the capillary is practically constant. The specificity of the phenomenon is that the regime of motion, by a Reynolds number, for a given flow rate still remains laminar. This circumstance can perplex the specialists, so the author invites them to the scientific debate on the subject of study. Obviously, to identify the resulting puzzle it is necessary to conduct a series of experiments using capillaries of different lengths and diameters and with different values of overpressure. The article states that in tubes with very small diameter the preliminary magnitude of capillary rise of water in the presence of flow plays no role and can be neglected.

  3. Tubing and cable cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsmith, D. D.; Richardson, J. I. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hand held hydraulic cutting tool was developed which is particularly useful in deactivating ejection seats in military aircraft rescue operations. The tool consists primarily of a hydraulic system composed of a fluid reservoir, a pumping piston, and an actuator piston. Mechanical cutting jaws are attached to the actuator piston rod. The hydraulic system is controlled by a pump handle. As the pump handle is operated the actuator piston rod is forced outward and thus the cutting jaws are forced together. The frame of the device is a flexible metal tubing which permits easy positioning of the tool cutting jaws in remote and normally inaccessible locations. Bifurcated cutting edges ensure removal of a section of the tubing or cable to thereby reduce the possibility of accidental reactivation of the tubing or cable being severed.

  4. Biocompatibility of Different Nerve Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Felix; Keilhoff, Gerburg; Fansa, Hisham

    2009-01-01

    Bridging nerve gaps with suitable grafts is a major clinical problem. The autologous nerve graft is considered to be the gold standard, providing the best functional results; however, donor site morbidity is still a major disadvantage. Various attempts have been made to overcome the problems of autologous nerve grafts with artificial nerve tubes, which are “ready-to-use” in almost every situation. A wide range of materials have been used in animal models but only few have been applied to date clinically, where biocompatibility is an inevitable prerequisite. This review gives an idea about artificial nerve tubes with special focus on their biocompatibility in animals and humans.

  5. Working session 3: Tubing integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cueto-Felgueroso, C.; Strosnider, J.

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-three individuals representing nine countries (Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, France, Japan, the Slovak Republic, Spain, the UK, and the US) participated in the session on tube integrity. These individuals represented utilities, vendors, consultants and regulatory authorities. The major subjects discussed by the group included overall objectives of managing steam generator tube degradation, necessary elements of a steam generator degradation management program, the concept of degradation specific management, structural integrity evaluations, leakage evaluations, and specific degradation mechanisms. The group's discussions on these subjects, including conclusions and recommendations, are summarized in this article

  6. The Sealed Tube Neutron Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunnell, L.N.; Beyerle, A.; Durkee, R.; Headley, G.; Hurley, P.

    1992-01-01

    A Sealed Tube Neutron Generator (STNG) has been designed and tested at Special Technologies Laboratories (STL) in Santa Barbara, California. Unlike similar tubes that have been used for years in other applications, e.g., by the oil well logging industry, the present device was designed primarily to be part of the Associated Particle Imaging (API) system. Consequently, the size and quality of the neutron spot produced by the STNG is of primary importance. Results from initial measurements indicate that performance goals are satisfied

  7. YouTube and Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Scott P.; Vatrapu, Ravi; Medina, Richard

    This paper examines the links to YouTube from the Facebook “walls” of Barack Obama, Hillary Clinton, and John McCain over two years prior to the 2008 U.S. Presidential election. User-generated linkage patterns show how participants in these politically-related social networking dialogues used...... online video to make their points. We show a strong integration of the Web 2.0 and new media technologies of social networking and online video. We argue that political discussion in social networking environments can no longer be viewed as primarily textual, and that neither Facebook nor YouTube can...

  8. Core barrel inner tube lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffers, J P

    1968-07-16

    A core drill with means for selectively lifting a core barrel inner tube consists of a lifting means connected to the core barrel inner tube assembly. It has a closable passage to permit drilling fluid normally to pass through it. The lifting means has a normally downward facing surface and a means to direct drilling fluid pressure against that surface so that on closure of the passage to fluid flow, the pressure of the drilling fluid is caused to act selectively on it. This causes the lifting means to rise and lift the core barrel. (7 claims)

  9. Opposed slant tube diabatic sorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Donald C.

    2004-01-20

    A sorber comprised of at least three concentric coils of tubing contained in a shell with a flow path for liquid sorbent in one direction, a flow path for heat transfer fluid which is in counter-current heat exchange relationship with sorbent flow, a sorbate vapor port in communication with at least one of sorbent inlet or exit ports, wherein each coil is coiled in opposite direction to those coils adjoining it, whereby the opposed slant tube configuration is achieved, with structure for flow modification in the core space inside the innermost coil.

  10. The FINUDA straw tube detector

    CERN Document Server

    Zia, A; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Gianotti, P; Giardoni, M; Lucherini, V; Mecozzi, A; Pace, E; Passamonti, L; Qaiser, N; Russo, V; Tomassini, S; Sarwar, S; Serdyouk, V

    2001-01-01

    An array of 2424 2.6- m-long, 15- mm-diameter mylar straw tubes, arranged in two axial and four stereo layers, has been assembled at National Laboratories of Frascati of INFN for the FINUDA experiment. The array covers a cylindrical tracking surface of 18 m sup 2 and provides coordinate measurement in the drift direction and along the wire with a resolution of the order of 100 and 300 mu m, respectively. The array has finished the commissioning phase and tests with cosmic rays are underway. The status straw tubes array and a very preliminary result from cosmic rays test are summarized in this work.

  11. The FINUDA straw tube detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, A.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.L.; Gianotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Lucherini, V.; Mecozzi, A.; Pace, E.; Passamonti, L.; Qaiser, N.; Russo, V.; Tomassini, S.; Sarwar, S.; Serdyouk, V.

    2001-01-01

    An array of 2424 2.6- m-long, 15- mm-diameter mylar straw tubes, arranged in two axial and four stereo layers, has been assembled at National Laboratories of Frascati of INFN for the FINUDA experiment. The array covers a cylindrical tracking surface of 18 m 2 and provides coordinate measurement in the drift direction and along the wire with a resolution of the order of 100 and 300 μm, respectively. The array has finished the commissioning phase and tests with cosmic rays are underway. The status straw tubes array and a very preliminary result from cosmic rays test are summarized in this work

  12. The FINUDA straw tube detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, A.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F. L.; Gianotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Lucherini, V.; Mecozzi, A.; Pace, E.; Passamonti, L.; Qaiser, N.; Russo, V.; Tomassini, S.; Sarwar, S.; Serdyouk, V.

    2001-04-01

    An array of 2424 2.6- m-long, 15- mm-diameter mylar straw tubes, arranged in two axial and four stereo layers, has been assembled at National Laboratories of Frascati of INFN for the FINUDA experiment. The array covers a cylindrical tracking surface of 18 m 2 and provides coordinate measurement in the drift direction and along the wire with a resolution of the order of 100 and 300 μm, respectively. The array has finished the commissioning phase and tests with cosmic rays are underway. The status straw tubes array and a very preliminary result from cosmic rays test are summarized in this work.

  13. Control rod guide tube assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel assembly including sleeves telescoped over end portions of control rod guide tubes which bear against internal shoulders of the sleeves. Upper ends of the sleeves protrude beyond a control rod guide tube spider and are locked in place by means of a resilient cellular lattice or lock that is seated in mating grooves in the outer surfaces of the sleeves. A grapple is provided for disengaging the entire lock structure spider and associated washers, springs and a grill from the end of the fuel assembly in order to enable these components to be removed and subsequently replaced on the fuel assembly after inspection and repair. (UK)

  14. Laser Myringotomy Versus Ventilation Tubes In Otitis Media With Effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Mohammad; Malik, Suhail Ahmad; Haroon, Tahir

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a leading cause of difficulty in hearing in paediatric population. Otitis media with effusion must be detected and managed early to prevent conductive hearing loss in children. It was aimed to compare results of laser myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion, in terms of hearing improvement and recurrence of Middle ear effusion (MEE). This randomized controlled trial was conducted from February 2012 to January 2015. Children of 4- 12 years of age with decreased hearing due to OME were included in the study. These children were investigated with pure tone audiometry (PTA) and tympanometry to confirm conductive hearing loss. Patients were put in 2 groups, group one comprised of patients treated with laser myringotomy and group 2, treated with ventilation tube insertion. The objective was to evaluate and compare results of the two procedures in terms of resolution of middle ear effusion (MEE) and improvement of hearing. The two procedures were also compared in terms of complications like otorrhea, persistence of perforation, hypertrophic scar and thinning of tympanic membrane (TM). Middle ear effusion cleared in 35 out of 68 ears with laser myringotomy (LM) as compared to 52 out of 62 ears with ventilation tubes (VT). The myringotomy was still patent in 21 ears treated with LM while tube was in site in 50 years with VT after 3 months. The hearing level improved with LM by 10-15 dB after first 3 months. The aim in Otitis media with effusion is ventilation of tympanic cavity. Laser myringotomy can be substitute to ventilation tube insertion (VT). But it remains patent for shorter time and less effective than VT. The ears with refractory or recurrent MEE should have VT insertion.

  15. Calreticulin is required for calcium homeostasis and proper pollen tube tip growth in Petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwińska, Anna; Wasąg, Piotr; Zakrzewski, Przemysław; Lenartowska, Marta; Lenartowski, Robert

    2017-05-01

    Calreticulin is involved in stabilization of the tip-focused Ca 2+ gradient and the actin cytoskeleton arrangement and function that is required for several key processes driving Petunia pollen tube tip growth. Although the precise mechanism is unclear, stabilization of a tip-focused calcium (Ca 2+ ) gradient seems to be critical for pollen germination and pollen tube growth. We hypothesize that calreticulin (CRT), a Ca 2+ -binding/buffering chaperone typically residing in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells, is an excellent candidate to fulfill this role. We previously showed that in Petunia pollen tubes growing in vitro, CRT is translated on ER membrane-bound ribosomes that are abundant in the subapical zone of the tube, where CRT's Ca 2+ -buffering and chaperone activities might be particularly required. Here, we sought to determine the function of CRT using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to, for the first time in pollen tubes growing in vitro, knockdown expression of a gene. We demonstrate that siRNA-mediated post-transcriptional silencing of Petunia hybrida CRT gene (PhCRT) expression strongly impairs pollen tube growth, cytoplasmic zonation, actin cytoskeleton organization, and the tip-focused Ca 2+ gradient. Moreover, reduction of CRT alters the localization and disturbs the structure of the ER in abnormally elongating pollen tubes. Finally, cytoplasmic streaming is inhibited, and most of the pollen tubes rupture. Our data clearly show an interplay between CRT, Ca 2+ gradient, actin-dependent cytoplasmic streaming, organelle positioning, and vesicle trafficking during pollen tube elongation. Thus, we suggest that CRT functions in Petunia pollen tube growth by stabilizing Ca 2+ homeostasis and acting as a chaperone to assure quality control of glycoproteins passing through the ER.

  16. Study on antioxidant experiment on forged steel tube sheet and tube hole for steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zong Hai; Wang Detai; Ding Yang

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant experiment on forged steel tube sheet and tube hole for steam generator was studied and the influence of different simulated heat treatments on the antioxidant performance of tube sheet and tube hole was made. The influence of different antioxidant methods on the size of tube hole was drawn. Furthermore, the change of size and weight of 18MnD5 forged steel tube sheet on the condition of different simulated heat treatments was also studied. The analytical results have proved reference information for the use of 18MnD5 material and for key processes of processing tube hole and wearing and expanding U-style tube. (authors)

  17. Bradycardia after Tube Thoracostomy for Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yomi Fashola

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of an elderly patient who became bradycardic after chest tube insertion for spontaneous pneumothorax. Arrhythmia is a rare complication of tube thoracostomy. Unlike other reported cases of chest tube induced arrhythmias, the bradycardia in our patient responded to resuscitative measures without removal or repositioning of the tube. Our patient, who had COPD, presented with shortness of breath due to spontaneous pneumothorax. Moments after tube insertion, patient developed severe bradycardia that responded to Atropine. In patients requiring chest tube insertion, it is important to be prepared to provide cardiopulmonary resuscitative therapy in case the patient develops a life-threatening arrhythmia.

  18. Heat and mass transfer across gas-filled enclosed spaces between a hot liquid surface and a cooled roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, J C; Bennett, A W [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    1977-01-01

    A detailed knowledge is required of the amounts of sodium vapour which may be transported from the hot surface of a fast reactor coolant pool through the cover gas to cooler regions of the structure. Evaporation from the unbounded liquid surfaces of lakes and seas has been studied extensively but the heat and mass transfer mechanisms in gas-vapour mixtures which occur in enclosed spaces have received less attention. Recent work at Harwell has provided a theoretical model from which the heat and mass transfer in idealised plane cavities can be calculated. An experimental study is reported in this paper which seeks to verify the theoretical prediction. Heat and mass transfer measurements have been made on a system in which a heated water pool transfers heat and mass across a gas-filled space to a cooled horizontal cover plate. Several cover gases were used in the experiments and the results show that, provided the partial density of the vapour is low compared with that of the gas, the heat transfer mechanism is that of combined convection and radiation. The enhancement in heat transfer due to the presence of the vapour is broadly consistent with assumption of a direct analogy between heat and mass transfer neglecting condensation in the interspace. The mass transfer measurements, in which water condensing on the cooled roof was measured directly, showed for low roof temperatures an imbalance between the mass and heat transfer. This observation is consistent with the theoretical predictions that heat transfer in the convecting system should be independent of the amount of condensation and 'rain-back' within the cavity. The results of tests with helium showed that convection was entirely suppressed by the presence of the water vapour. This confirms the behaviour predicted for gas-vapour mixtures in which the vapour density is of the same order as the gas density. (author)

  19. Annual benthic metabolism and organic carbon fluxes in a semi-enclosed Mediterranean bay dominated by the macroalgae Caulerpa prolifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eRuiz-Halpern

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas play an important role on carbon cycling. Elucidating the dynamics on the production, transport and fate of organic carbon is relevant to gain a better understanding of the role coastal areas play in the global carbon budget. Here, we assess the metabolic status and associated organic carbon fluxes of a semi-enclosed Mediterranean bay supporting a meadow of Caulerpa prolifera. We test whether the EDOC pool is a significant component of the organic carbon pool and associated fluxes in this ecosystem. The Bay of Portocolom was in net metabolic balance on a yearly basis, but heterotrophic during the summer months. Community respiration (CR was positively correlated to C. prolifera biomass, while net community production (NCP had a negative correlation. The benthic compartment represented, on average, 72.6 ± 5.2 % of CR and 86.8 ± 4.5 % of gross primary production (GPP. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC production peaked in summer and was always positive, with the incubations performed in the dark almost doubling the flux of those performed in the light. Exchangeable dissolved organic carbon (EDOC, however, oscillated between production and uptake, being completely recycled within the system and representing around 14% of the DOC flux. The pools of bottom and surface DOC were high for an oligotrophic environment, and were positively correlated to the pool of EDOC. Thus, despite being in metabolic balance, this ecosystem acted as a conduit for organic carbon (OC, as it is able to export OC to adjacent areas derived from allochtonous inputs during heterotrophic conditions. These inputs likely come from groundwater discharge, human activity in the watershed, delivered to the sediments through the high capacity of C. prolifera to remove particles from the water column, and from the air-water exchange of EDOC, demonstrating that these communities are a major contributor to the cycling of OC in coastal embayments.

  20. Welding the CNGS decay tube

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    3.6 km of welds were required for the 1 km long CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) decay tube, in which particles produced in the collision with a proton and a graphite target will decay into muons and muon neutrinos. Four highly skilled welders performed this delicate task.

  1. Tube in shell heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, O.; Willby, C.R.; Sheward, G.E.; Ormrod, D.T.; Firth, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    An improved tube-in-shell heat exchanger to be used between liquid metal and water is described for use in the liquid metal coolant system of fast breeder reactors. It is stated that this design is less prone to failures which could result in sodium water reactions than previous exchangers. (UK)

  2. Working session 1: Tubing degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharshafdjian, G.; Turluer, G.

    1997-01-01

    A general introductory overview of the purpose of the group and the general subject area of SG tubing degradation was given by the facilitator. The purpose of the session was described as to open-quotes develop conclusions and proposals on regulatory and technical needs required to deal with the issues of SG tubing degradation.close quotes Types, locations and characteristics of tubing degradation in steam generators were briefly reviewed. The well-known synergistic effects of materials, environment, and stress and strain/strain rate, subsequently referred to by the acronym open-quotes MESSclose quotes by some of the group members, were noted. The element of time (i.e., evolution of these variables with time) was emphasized. It was also suggested that the group might want to consider the related topics of inspection capabilities, operational variables, degradation remedies, and validity of test data, and some background information in these areas was provided. The presentation given by Peter Millet during the Plenary Session was reviewed; Specifically, the chemical aspects and the degradation from the secondary side of the steam generator were noted. The main issues discussed during the October 1995 EPRI meeting on secondary side corrosion were reported, and a listing of the potential SG tube degradations was provided and discussed

  3. Kundt's Tube Experiment Using Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Sara Orsola; Pezzi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with a modern version of Kundt's tube experiment. Using economic instruments and a couple of smartphones, it is possible to "see" nodes and antinodes of standing acoustic waves in a column of vibrating air and to measure the speed of sound.

  4. OurTube / David Talbot

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talbot, David

    2009-01-01

    USA California Ülikooli töötajate Abram Stern'i ja Michael Dale'i poolt 2005. a. algatatud USA kongressis peetud kõnede videoremiksidest ja nende poolt loodud veebisaidist Metavid.org. Ka YouTube keskkonnast ja wikipedia katsetustest muuta oma keskkond multimeedialisemaks

  5. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Program Vision and Aging Program African American Program Training and Jobs Fellowships NEI Summer Intern Program Diversity In Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs To search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home >> NEI YouTube Videos >> ...

  6. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Aging Program African American Program Training and Jobs Fellowships NEI Summer Intern Program Diversity In Vision ... DIVRO) Student Training Programs To search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home » NEI YouTube Videos » ...

  7. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract Convergence Insufficiency Diabetic Eye Disease Dilated Eye Exam Dry Eye For Kids Glaucoma Healthy Vision Tips Leber Congenital Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube ...

  8. Thermodynamical aspects of pulse tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waele, de A.T.A.M.; Steijaert, P.P.; Gijzen, J.

    1997-01-01

    The cooling power of cryocoolers is determined by the work done by the compressor and the entropy produced by the irreversible processes in the various components of the system. In this paper we discuss the thermodynamics of pulse tubes, but many of the relationships are equally valid for other

  9. Mechanical support for straw tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joestlein, H.

    1990-01-01

    A design is proposed for mounting a large number of straw tubes to form an SSC central tracking chamber. The assembly is precise and of very low mass. The fabrication is modular and can be carried out with a minimum of tooling and instrumentation. Testing of modules is possible prior to the final assembly. 4 figs

  10. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Program Vision and Aging Program African American Program Training and Jobs Fellowships NEI Summer Intern Program Diversity In Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs To search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home » NEI YouTube Videos » ...

  11. Learning DMEK From YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Hamish D; Jhanji, Vishal

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of the first cases of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) performed by an anterior segment surgeon, learning the procedure, including graft preparation, primarily from watching YouTube videos. DMEK surgery was not learned during fellowship training; there was no attendance at DMEK courses, no witnessing of live surgery, and no supervision by an experienced DMEK surgeon. All graft tissue was prepared by the surgeon on the day of surgery. This is a retrospective review of the 3-month postoperative results of the first 40 consecutive cases. The success rate of graft preparation, intraoperative and postoperative complications, spectacle-corrected visual acuity, endothelial cell density, and central corneal thickness were evaluated. Grafts were successfully prepared in all cases with no loss of donor tissue. DMEK surgery was successful in 39 of 40 eyes with the one failure occurring in a vitrectomized eye without an intact iris-lens diaphragm. Spectacle-corrected visual acuity was ≥6/6 in 23 of the 25 eyes without comorbidity. Mean endothelial cell density was 1515 (±474) cells/mm. Mean central corneal thickness decreased from 624 (±40) μm preoperatively to 513 (±34) μm postoperatively. Although formal training is desirable, good results can be obtained by an anterior segment surgeon learning DMEK, including graft preparation, without it. DMEK should no longer be considered a procedure with a long learning curve in routine cases.

  12. Impulse generation by detonation tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Marcia Ann

    Impulse generation with gaseous detonation requires conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy. This conversion process is well understood in rocket engines where the high pressure combustion products expand through a nozzle generating high velocity exhaust gases. The propulsion community is now focusing on advanced concepts that utilize non-traditional forms of combustion like detonation. Such a device is called a pulse detonation engine in which laboratory tests have proven that thrust can be achieved through continuous cyclic operation. Because of poor performance of straight detonation tubes compared to conventional propulsion systems and the success of using nozzles on rocket engines, the effect of nozzles on detonation tubes is being investigated. Although previous studies of detonation tube nozzles have suggested substantial benefits, up to now there has been no systematic investigations over a range of operating conditions and nozzle configurations. As a result, no models predicting the impulse when nozzles are used exist. This lack of data has severely limited the development and evaluation of models and simulations of nozzles on pulse detonation engines. The first experimental investigation measuring impulse by gaseous detonation in plain tubes and tubes with nozzles operating in varying environment pressures is presented. Converging, diverging, and converging-diverging nozzles were tested to determine the effect of divergence angle, nozzle length, and volumetric fill fraction on impulse. The largest increases in specific impulse, 72% at an environment pressure of 100 kPa and 43% at an environment pressure of 1.4 kPa, were measured with the largest diverging nozzle tested that had a 12° half angle and was 0.6 m long. Two regimes of nozzle operation that depend on the environment pressure are responsible for these increases and were first observed from these data. To augment this experimental investigation, all data in the literature regarding

  13. Improving the calandria tubes for CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.E.; Fong, R.W.L.; Doubt, G.L.

    1997-01-01

    CANDU calandria tubes are made from annealed Zircaloy-2 sheet formed into a cylinder and welded along its length to make the tube. The current calandria tubes have given exemplary service for many years. With more stringent regulations and the need to accommodate warm cooling water in tropical countries, we started a development program to increase the margins for failure during postulated accidents. These improvements involve increasing the tube strength and optimising the heat-transfer from an excessively hot fuel channel to the cool moderator. If the postulated accident involves a pressure tube break, it would be desirable if the calandria tube withstood the full pressure of the heat-transport system. The weakest link in current calandria tubes is the weld. Thickening the weld can increase the strength by 20% while seamless tubes can be 45% stronger than current tubes. The latter tubes can hold full system pressure for many hours without failure. If during the postulated accident the fuel and pressure tube become excessively hot but do not touch the calandria tube, the radiant heat loss must be maximised. Current calandria tubes have an absorptivity (emissivity) of about 0.2. To protect the fuel and the fuel channel we have devised a finish to the inside surface of the calandria tube that increases the emissivity to 0.7. If during the postulated accident the hot pressure tube touches the cool calandria tube, the contact conductance and the critical heat flux must be optimised to ensure nucleate boiling of the moderator at the outside surface of the calandria tube and therefore efficient exploitation of the moderator as a heat sink. In laboratory tests small ridges on the inside surface and roughening of the outside surface have been shown to increase the margins against failure and increase the possible moderator temperatures thus providing the opportunity to decrease the cost of the moderator heat-exchange system and remove restrictions on reactor operation in

  14. Rejection index for pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, A.B.; Meneley, D.

    1989-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to establish a set of criteria (or Rejection Index) which could be used to decide whether a zirconium-2 1/2 w/o niobium pressure tube in a CANDU reactor should be removed from service due to in-service degradation. A critique of key issues associated with establishing a realistic rejection index was prepared. Areas of uncertainty in available information were identified and recommendations for further analysis and laboratory testing made. A Rejection Index based on the following limits has been recommended: 1) Limits related to design intent and normal operation: any garter spring must remain within the tolerance band specified for its design location; the annulus gas system must normally be operated in a circulating mode with a procedure in place for purging to prevent accumulation of deuterium. It must remain sensitive to leaks into any part of the systems; and pressure tube dimensions and distortions must be limited to maintain the fuel channels within the original design intent; 2) Limits related to defect tolerance: adequate time margins between occurrence of a leaking crack and unstable failure must be demonstrated for all fuel channels; long lap-type flaws are unacceptable; crack-like defects of any size are unacceptable; and score marks, frat marks and other defects with contoured profiles must fall below certain depth, length and stress intensity limits; and 3) Limits related to property degradation: at operating temperature each pressure tube must be demonstrated to have a critical length in excess of a stipulated value; the maximum equivalent hydrogen level in any pressure tube should not exceed a limit which should be defined taking into account the known history of that tube; the maximum equivalent hydrogen level in any rolled joint should not exceed a limit which is presently recommended as 200 ppm equivalent hydrogen; and the maximum diametral creep strain should be limited to less than 5%

  15. Schizophrenia on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Matthew M; Nour, Murraih H; Tsatalou, Olga-Maria; Barrera, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    YouTube ( www.youtube.com ) is the most popular video-sharing Web site on the Internet and is used by medical students as a source of information regarding mental health conditions, including schizophrenia. The accuracy and educational utility of schizophrenia presentations on YouTube are unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the accuracy of depictions of psychosis in the context of a diagnosis of schizophrenia (referred to in this article as "acute schizophrenia") on YouTube and to assess the utility of these videos as educational tools for teaching medical students to recognize the clinical features of acute schizophrenia. YouTube was searched for videos purporting to show acute schizophrenia. Eligible videos were independently rated by two consultant psychiatrists on two separate occasions 22 days apart for diagnostic accuracy, psychopathology, and educational utility. Videos (N=4,200) were assessed against predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The majority were not eligible for further analysis, mostly because they did not claim to show a patient with schizophrenia (74%) or contained duplicated content (11%). Of 35 videos that met the eligibility and adequacy criteria, only 12 accurately depicted acute schizophrenia. Accurate videos were characterized by persecutory delusions (83%), inappropriate affect (75%), and negative symptoms (83%). Despite the fact that 83% of accurate videos were deemed to have good educational utility compared with 15% of inaccurate videos, accurate and inaccurate videos had similar view counts (290,048 versus 186,124). Schizophrenia presentations on YouTube offer a distorted picture of the condition.

  16. Balance between Apical Membrane Growth and Luminal Matrix Resistance Determines Epithelial Tubule Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Dong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The morphological stability of biological tubes is crucial for the efficient circulation of fluids and gases. Failure of this stability causes irregularly shaped tubes found in multiple pathological conditions. Here, we report that Drosophila mutants of the ESCRT III component Shrub/Vps32 exhibit a strikingly elongated sinusoidal tube phenotype. This is caused by excessive apical membrane synthesis accompanied by the ectopic accumulation and overactivation of Crumbs in swollen endosomes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the apical extracellular matrix (aECM of the tracheal tube is a viscoelastic material coupled with the apical membrane. We present a simple mechanical model in which aECM elasticity, apical membrane growth, and their interaction are three vital parameters determining the stability of biological tubes. Our findings demonstrate a mechanical role for the extracellular matrix and suggest that the interaction of the apical membrane and an elastic aECM determines the final morphology of biological tubes independent of cell shape.

  17. Balance between apical membrane growth and luminal matrix resistance determines epithelial tubule shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bo; Hannezo, Edouard; Hayashi, Shigeo

    2014-05-22

    The morphological stability of biological tubes is crucial for the efficient circulation of fluids and gases. Failure of this stability causes irregularly shaped tubes found in multiple pathological conditions. Here, we report that Drosophila mutants of the ESCRT III component Shrub/Vps32 exhibit a strikingly elongated sinusoidal tube phenotype. This is caused by excessive apical membrane synthesis accompanied by the ectopic accumulation and overactivation of Crumbs in swollen endosomes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the apical extracellular matrix (aECM) of the tracheal tube is a viscoelastic material coupled with the apical membrane. We present a simple mechanical model in which aECM elasticity, apical membrane growth, and their interaction are three vital parameters determining the stability of biological tubes. Our findings demonstrate a mechanical role for the extracellular matrix and suggest that the interaction of the apical membrane and an elastic aECM determines the final morphology of biological tubes independent of cell shape. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  19. Premature rupture of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000512.htm Premature rupture of membranes To use the sharing features on this page, ... water that surrounds your baby in the womb. Membranes or layers of tissue hold in this fluid. ...

  20. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  1. Membrane with integrated spacer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balster, J.H.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wessling, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Many membrane processes are severely influenced by concentration polarisation. Turbulence promoting spacers placed in between the membranes can reduce the diffusional resistance of concentration polarisation by inducing additional mixing. Electrodialysis (ED) used for desalination suffers from

  2. Development of Nanofiller-Modulated Polymeric Oxygen Enrichment Membranes for Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides in Coal Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianzhong Lou; Shamsuddin Ilias

    2010-12-31

    North Carolina A&T State University in Greensboro, North Carolina, has undertaken this project to develop the knowledge and the material to improve the oxygen-enrichment polymer membrane, in order to provide high-grade oxygen-enriched streams for coal combustion and gasification applications. Both experimental and theoretical approaches were used in this project. The membranes evaluated thus far include single-walled carbon nano-tube, nano-fumed silica polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and zeolite-modulated polyimide membranes. To document the nanofiller-modulated polymer, molecular dynamics simulations have been conducted to calculate the theoretical oxygen molecular diffusion coefficient and nitrogen molecular coefficient inside single-walled carbon nano-tube PDMS membranes, in order to predict the effect of the nano-tubes on the gas-separation permeability. The team has performed permeation and diffusion experiments using polymers with nano-silica particles, nano-tubes, and zeolites as fillers; studied the influence of nano-fillers on the self diffusion, free volume, glass transition, oxygen diffusion and solubility, and perm-selectivity of oxygen in polymer membranes; developed molecular models of single-walled carbon nano-tube and nano-fumed silica PDMS membranes, and zeolites-modulated polyimide membranes. This project partially supported three graduate students (two finished degrees and one transferred to other institution). This project has resulted in two journal publications and additional publications will be prepared in the near future.

  3. Boiling and condensation in microfin tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Lynn M.

    A general overview of microfin tubes and their applications is presented. Manufacturing processes, commercial availability, experimental heat transfer, and pressure drop data for various refrigerants (including alternative refrigerants and refrigerant-oil mixtures), physical mechanisms of enhancement, and the incorporation of microfin tubes in common heat exchanger configurations are discussed. Microfin tubes, also known by various trade names, are characterized by numerous small fins which typically spiral down the inside wall of tubes at angles ranging from 10 to 30 degrees. The number of fins ranges from 48 to 70 with typical fin heights of 0.12 to 0.30 mm (fin height generally less than 3 percent of the inside diameter of the tube). Fin shapes may vary and the inside surface area of microfin tubes is 10 to 70 percent greater than the area of equivalent smooth tubes. Heat transfer can be enhanced by up to a factor of three with microfin tubes.

  4. X-ray tube current control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, W.A.; Resnick, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    A closed loop feedback system for controlling the current output of an x-ray tube. The system has circuitry for improving the transient response and stability of the x-ray tube current over a substantial nonlinear portion of the tube current production characteristic. The system includes a reference generator for applying adjustable step function reference signals representing desired tube currents. The system also includes means for instantaneous sensing of actual tube current. An error detector compares the value of actual and reference tube current and produces an error signal as a function of their difference. The system feedback loop includes amplification circuitry for controlling x-ray tube filament dc voltage to regulate tube current as a function of the error signal value. The system also includes compensation circuitry, between the reference generator and the amplification circuitry, to vary the loop gain of the feedback control system as a function of the reference magnitude

  5. In service inspection for steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comby, R.; Eyrolles, Ph.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper the authors show the means putting in place for examination of steam generators tubes. These means (eddy current probes, ultrasonic testing) associated with a knowledge on degradation phenomena allow mapping controlled tubes and limiting undesirable obturations [fr

  6. Chemical cleaning specification: few tube test model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, L.V.; Simpson, J.L.

    1979-09-01

    The specification is for the waterside chemical cleaning of the 2 1/4 Cr - 1 Mo steel steam generator tubes. It describes the reagents and conditions for post-chemical cleaning passivation of the evaporator tubes

  7. Prestressed Carbon Fiber Composite Overwrapped Gun Tube

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Littlefield, Andrew; Hyland, Edward

    2006-01-01

    .... Using composite materials not only directly removes weight from the gun tube but, by better balancing the tube, allows the use of smaller drive systems, thus further enhancing the system weight loss...

  8. Operational experience with the Daresbury accelerator tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, T.W.; Eastham, D.A.; Joy, T.; Leese, J.M.; Tait, N.R.S.; Thorn, R.

    1986-01-01

    Operational experience with the Daresbury MKI accelerator tube is reviewed with particular attention to conditioning and high voltage performance. The effects of surges and transients on the tube are described and lines of future development are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Gel layer formation on membranes in Membrane Bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Brink, P.F.H.

    2014-01-01

    The widespread application of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for municipal wastewater treatment is hampered by membrane fouling. Fouling increases energy demand, reduces process performance and creates the need for more frequent (chemical) membrane cleaning or replacement. Membrane fouling in MBRs is

  10. Smart membranes for monitoring membrane based desalination processes

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Karam, Ayman M.

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are related to smart membranes for monitoring membrane based process such as, e.g., membrane distillation processes. In one example, a membrane, includes a porous surface and a plurality of sensors (e.g., temperature, flow and

  11. Phosphorus mass balance in a highly eutrophic semi-enclosed inlet near a big metropolis: a small inlet can contribute towards particulate organic matter production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaoka, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tamiji

    2011-01-01

    Terrigenous loading into enclosed water bodies has been blamed for eutrophic conditions marked by massive algal growth and subsequent hypoxia due to decomposition of dead algal cells. This study aims to describe the eutrophication and hypoxia processes in a semi-enclosed water body lying near a big metropolis. Phosphorus mass balance in a small inlet, Ohko Inlet, located at the head of Hiroshima Bay, Japan, was quantified using a numerical model. Dissolved inorganic phosphorous inflow from Kaita Bay next to the inlet was five times higher than that from terrigenous load, which may cause an enhancement of primary production. Therefore, it was concluded that not only the reduction of material load from the land and the suppression of benthic flux are needed, but also reducing the inflow of high phosphorus and oxygen depleted water from Kaita Bay will form a collective alternative measure to remediate the environmental condition of the inlet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Conceptual optimization using genetic algorithms for tube in tube structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pârv, Bianca Roxana; Hulea, Radu; Mojolic, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to optimize the tube in tube structural systems for tall buildings under the horizontal wind loads. It is well-known that the horizontal wind loads is the main criteria when choosing the structural system, the types and the dimensions of structural elements in the majority of tall buildings. Thus, the structural response of tall buildings under the horizontal wind loads will be analyzed for 40 story buildings and a total height of 120 meters; the horizontal dimensions will be 30m × 30m for the first two optimization problems and 15m × 15m for the third. The optimization problems will have the following as objective function the cross section area, as restrictions the displacement of the building< the admissible displacement (H/500), and as variables the cross section dimensions of the structural elements

  13. Porphyromonas gingivalis Outer Membrane Vesicles Mediate Coaggregation and Piggybacking of Treponema denticola and Lachnoanaerobaculum saburreum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Grenier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis sheds outer membrane vesicles that contain several virulence factors, including adhesins. In this study, we investigated the ability of P. gingivalis outer membrane vesicles to mediate the coaggregation and piggybacking of Treponema denticola and Lachnoanaerobaculum saburreum. Marked coaggregation between T. denticola and L. saburreum occurred in the presence of P. gingivalis outer membrane vesicles. Sucrose was an effective chemoattractant for the motile species T. denticola. The addition of outer membrane vesicles to a mixture of T. denticola and L. saburreum significantly increased the number of nonmotile bacteria that migrated into a sucrose-filled capillary tube immersed in the bacterial mixture. Under optimal conditions, the number of nonmotile L. saburreum in the capillary tube increased approximately 5-fold, whereas no increase occurred when boiled vesicles were used. This study showed that P. gingivalis outer membrane vesicles mediate coaggregation between T. denticola and L. saburreum and that nonmotile bacteria can be translocated by piggybacking on spirochetes.

  14. Study of a dense metal membrane reactor for hydrogen separation from hydroiodic acid decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosti, Silvano; Borelli, Rodolfo; Borgognoni, Fabio [ENEA, Dipartimento FPN, C.R. ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati, Roma I-00044 (Italy); Favuzza, Paolo; Tarquini, Pietro [ENEA, Dipartimento TER, C.R. ENEA Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, Roma (Italy); Rizzello, Claudio [Tesi Sas, Via Bolzano 28, Roma (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    A membrane reactor has been studied for separating the hydrogen produced by the dissociation of hydroiodic acid in the thermochemical-sulfur iodine process. A dense metal membrane tube of wall thickness 0.250 mm has been considered in this analysis for hosting a fixed-bed catalyst: the selective separation of hydrogen from an azeotropic H{sub 2}O-HI mixture has been studied in the temperature range of 700-800 K. The materials being considered for the construction of the membrane tube are niobium and tantalum; as a matter of fact, the most commonly used Pd-Ag membranes cannot withstand the corrosive environment generated by the hydroiodic acid. The Damkohler-Peclet analysis has been used for designing the membrane reactor, while a finite element method has simulated its behaviour: the effect of the temperature and pressure on the HI conversion and hydrogen yield has been evaluated. (author)

  15. Influence of sintering temperature on the characteristics of a-alumina filtration tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarina Abdul Wahid; Rafindde Ramli; Andanastuti Muchtar; Abd Wahab Mohammad

    2005-01-01

    The emerging technology of ceramic membrane filters has created a lot of impact on the materials development and separation industries. Ceramic membrane filters have been used in many separation industry applications particularly in food, dairy, beverages, biotechnology, pharmaceutical and waste treatment industries. This is due to the fact that ceramics are inert and durable and can withstand high temperatures as well as extreme chemical conditions. They also have favourable mechanical properties and lower fouling rates. In this study, ceramic filtration tubes having dimensions of 10 mm outer diameter, 6 mm inner diameter and 880 mm long were prepared from a-alumina using the extrusion technique. The effects of sintering temperature on the pore size, microstructure and porosity of the alumina tube were investigated. The optimum sintering temperature was determined based on the performance of the tubes with regards to porosity, pore size and microstructure. The alumina tubes were sintered at six different temperatures i.e. 1250 degree C, 1300 degree C, 1350 degree C, 1400 degree C, 1450 degree C and 1500 degree C. The porous structures of the alumina tubes were studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) whereas a Mercury Porosimeter was used to determine the porosity and pore size distribution. (Author)

  16. Models for Automated Tube Performance Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunkhorst, C.

    2002-01-01

    High power radio-frequency systems, as typically used in fusion research devices, utilize vacuum tubes. Evaluation of vacuum tube performance involves data taken from tube operating curves. The acquisition of data from such graphical sources is a tedious process. A simple modeling method is presented that will provide values of tube currents for a given set of element voltages. These models may be used as subroutines in iterative solutions of amplifier operating conditions for a specific loading impedance

  17. PROBLEMS IN THE TUBING/PACKER SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Davorin Matanović; Mario Livaja

    1993-01-01

    When gas and oil wells are completed and produced or treated through the tubing connected to packer, there is a great number of problems to be solved. Changes in temperatures and pressures that occure during various operations ussually result in changes in tubing lengths or tubing to packer forces, depending on tubing to packer connections. This paper summarises some earlier papers and explains partly elaborated details. It also gives a complete approach to solve problems in uniform strings r...

  18. Operating performance of CANDU pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheadle, B.A.; Price, E.G.

    1989-04-01

    The performance of Zircaloy-2 and Zr-2.5 Nb pressure tubes in CANDU reactors is reviewed. The accelerated hydriding of Zircaloy-2 in reducing water chemistries can lower the toughness of this material and it is essential that defect-initiating phenomena, such as hydride blister formation from pressure tube to calandria tube contact, be prevented. Zr-2.5 Nb pressure tubes are performing well with low rates of hydrogen pick-up and good retention of material properties

  19. The generalized second law of thermodynamics for the interacting polytropic dark energy in non-flat FRW universe enclosed by the apparent horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karami, K.; Ghaffari, S.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics in a non-flat FRW universe containing the interacting polytropic dark energy with cold dark matter. The boundary of the universe is assumed to be enclosed by the dynamical apparent horizon. We show that for this model under thermal equilibrium with the Hawking radiation, the generalized second law is always satisfied throughout the history of the universe for any spatial curvature, independently of the deceleration parameter.

  20. The generalized second law in irreversible thermodynamics for the interacting dark energy in a non-flat FRW universe enclosed by the apparent horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karami, K., E-mail: KKarami@uok.ac.i [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran St., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaffari, S. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran St., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-03-01

    We investigate the validity of the generalized second law in irreversible thermodynamics in a non-flat FRW universe containing the interacting dark energy with cold dark matter. The boundary of the universe is assumed to be enclosed by the dynamical apparent horizon. We show that for the present time, the generalized second law in nonequilibrium thermodynamics is satisfied for the special range of the energy transfer constants.

  1. The generalized second law in irreversible thermodynamics for the interacting dark energy in a non-flat FRW universe enclosed by the apparent horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karami, K.; Ghaffari, S.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the validity of the generalized second law in irreversible thermodynamics in a non-flat FRW universe containing the interacting dark energy with cold dark matter. The boundary of the universe is assumed to be enclosed by the dynamical apparent horizon. We show that for the present time, the generalized second law in nonequilibrium thermodynamics is satisfied for the special range of the energy transfer constants.

  2. The generalized second law of thermodynamics for the interacting polytropic dark energy in non-flat FRW universe enclosed by the apparent horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karami, K., E-mail: KKarami@uok.ac.i [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran St., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaffari, S. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran St., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-05-03

    We investigate the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics in a non-flat FRW universe containing the interacting polytropic dark energy with cold dark matter. The boundary of the universe is assumed to be enclosed by the dynamical apparent horizon. We show that for this model under thermal equilibrium with the Hawking radiation, the generalized second law is always satisfied throughout the history of the universe for any spatial curvature, independently of the deceleration parameter.

  3. A radial holding device for the bundle and brace plates envelope in a vapor generator, by the means of enclosed screw stops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comic, G.

    1995-01-01

    With the aim to protect the envelopes and bundles against seisms or other constraints, without causing interference with the water flow or being too complicated to install, as with previous systems, a holding system is proposed which uses screw stops fixed to the envelope and to the brace; the screw, enclosed in one of the two parts, ensures, during the assembly, the displacement of the second part for good contact with the brace plate. 6 fig

  4. Instrument-Aided Assessment of the Effect of Natural and Technogenic Factors on the Geomechanical State of a Massif Enclosing an HPP Turbine Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramov, N. N., E-mail: Abramov@goi.kolasc.net.ru; Epimakhov, Yu. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Mining Institute, Kola Scientific Center (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    A package of geophysical criteria has been developed using seismic spatiotemporal tomography (SST) of a rock massif to perform an instrument-aided assessment of the effect of natural and technogenic factors on the geomechanical state of a rock massif enclosing an underground turbine room at an HPP. Results are presented for a detailed assessment for the underground turbine room at the Verkhnyaya Tuloma HPP on the Kola peninsula.

  5. Model cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther-Pomorski, Thomas; Nylander, Tommy; Cardenas Gomez, Marite

    2014-01-01

    The high complexity of biological membranes has motivated the development and application of a wide range of model membrane systems to study biochemical and biophysical aspects of membranes in situ under well defined conditions. The aim is to provide fundamental understanding of processes control...

  6. Idiopathic epiretinal membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bu, Shao-Chong; Kuijer, Roelof; Li, Xiao-Rong; Hooymans, Johanna M M; Los, Leonoor I

    2014-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM) is a fibrocellular membrane that proliferates on the inner surface of the retina at the macular area. Membrane contraction is an important sight-threatening event and is due to fibrotic remodeling. Methods: Analysis of the current literature

  7. Meniscus Membranes For Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C.; Jorgensen, Betty; Pesiri, David R.

    2005-09-20

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  8. Meniscus membranes for separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C [Irvine, CA; Jorgensen, Betty [Jemez Springs, NM; Pesiri, David R [Aliso Viejo, CA

    2004-01-27

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  9. Method for forming H2-permselective oxide membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavalas, G.R.; Nam, S.W.; Tsapatsis, M.; Kim, S.

    1995-09-26

    Methods are disclosed for forming permselective oxide membranes that are highly selective to permeation of hydrogen by chemical deposition of reactants in the pore of porous tubes, such as Vycor{trademark} glass or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tubes. The porous tubes have pores extending through the tube wall. The process involves forming a stream containing a first reactant of the formula RX{sub n}, wherein R is silicon, titanium, boron or aluminum, X is chlorine, bromine or iodine, and n is a number which is equal to the valence of R; and forming another stream containing water vapor as the second reactant. Both of the reactant streams are passed along either the outside or the inside surface of a porous tube and the streams react in the pores of the porous tube to form a nonporous layer of R-oxide in the pores. The membranes are formed by the hydrolysis of the respective halides. In another embodiment, the first reactant stream contains a first reactant having the formula SiH{sub n}Cl{sub 4{minus}n} where n is 1, 2 or 3; and the second reactant stream contains water vapor and oxygen. In still another embodiment the first reactant stream containing a first reactant selected from the group consisting of Cl{sub 3}SiOSiCl{sub 3}, Cl{sub 3}SiOSiCl{sub 2}OSiCl{sub 3}, and mixtures thereof and the second reactant stream contains water vapor. In still another embodiment, membrane formation is carried out by an alternating flow deposition method. This involves a sequence of cycles, each cycle comprising introduction of the halide-containing stream and allowance of a specific time for reaction followed by purge and flow of the water vapor containing stream for a specific length of time. In all embodiments the nonporous layers formed are selectively permeable to hydrogen. 11 figs.

  10. Preparation of antibody coated tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles Berrueta, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: 1. Purification of IgG: 2-4 ml serum at pH 8 with Buffer tris 1M pH 8. Let serum pass through the column of Sepharose Prot. A (1-2 ml). Wash with: a) Buffer tris 0.1M pH 8; b) Buffer tris 0.01M pH 8. Elute with Glycine 0.1M pH 3 adding eluant at 0.5 ml fractions and collect in eppendorf tubes containing 50μ1 Buffer tris 1M pH 8 to neutralize. 20 fractions are collected. Absorbency at 280nm is measured in each fraction. Pool is formed with protein factions. Dialysis against water is done during 48 hours changing water twice during that lapse. Regenerate column for future use with 1 wash Urea 2M, second with LiCl 1M and third wash with Glycine 0.1 M pH 2.5. 2. Antibody Immobilization on an Activated Solid Phase: NUNC maxisorp, Star tube 75x12 mm is trade mark for polystyrene tubes from Pharmacia with less than 5% CV% inhomogeneity in adsorption of IgG and less than 10% for random bias of any result from mean value. They are kept closed until use. They are not reusable. The antibody is diluted to a working dilution with buffer carbonate-bi carbonate 0.1M, pH 9.6 (BCBic). Adequate volume is pipetted into maxisorb NUNC tubes paying attention not to produce droplets (1/200 dilution and 0.3 ml/tube are used for TSH assays). An incubation overnight is enough to get maximum IgG binding. Antibody solution is recovered for further use (after mixing with additional antibody). Solid phase is subject to washing with phosphate buffer with non-Ionic detergent (1 ml PB.5 + 0.5% Tween 20) and then with pure water. Tubes are left two hours upside down and kept tightly closed with dissicant at - 20 deg. C

  11. Boiling heat transfer on horizontal tube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Nucleate boiling heat transfer characteristics for a tube in a bundle differ from that for a single tube in a pool and this difference is known as 'tube bundle effect.' There exist two bundle effects, positive and negative. The positive bundle effect enhances heat transfer due to convective flow induced by rising bubbles generated from the lower tubes, while the negative bundle effect deteriorates heat transfer due to vapor blanketing caused by accumulation of bubbles. Staggered tube bundles tested and found that the upper tubes in bundles have higher heat transfer coefficients than the lower tubes. The effects of various parameters such as pressure, tube geometry and oil contamination on heat transfer have been examined. Some workers attempted to clarify the mechanism of occurrence of 'bundle effect' by testing tube arrangements of small scale. All reported only enhancement in heat transfer but results showed the symptom of heat transfer deterioration at higher heat fluxes. As mentioned above, it has not been clarified so far even whether the 'tube bundle effect' should serve as enhancement or deterioration of heat transfer in nucleate boiling. In this study, experiments are performed in detail by using bundles of small scale, and effects of heat flux distribution, pressure and tube location are clarified. Furthermore, some consideration on the mechanisms of occurrence of 'tube bundle effect' is made and a method for prediction of heat transfer rate is proposed

  12. Caring for Your Percutaneous Nephrostomy Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the nephrostomy tube for 15 seconds. 5. Disconnect the drainage bag from the tube. 6. Put the used bag aside. 7. With a new alcohol pad, swab the open end of the nephrostomy tube for 15 seconds. 8. Connect a new bag. 9. Secure the drainage bag ...

  13. The Fuge Tube Diode Array Spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, B. T.; Long, S. R.; Stewart, K. K.; Lagowski, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the details for adapting a diode array UV-vis spectrophotometer to incorporate the use of polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes--fuge tubes--as cuvettes. Optical data are presented validating that the polyethylene fuge tubes are equivalent to the standard square cross section polystyrene or glass cuvettes generally used in…

  14. 21 CFR 868.5975 - Ventilator tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ventilator tubing. 868.5975 Section 868.5975 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5975 Ventilator tubing. (a) Identification. Ventilator tubing is a device intended for use as a conduit for gases between a ventilator and a patient...

  15. Strong, corrosion-resistant aluminum tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M. W.; Adams, F. F.

    1980-01-01

    When aluminum tubing having good corrosion resistance and postweld strength is needed, type 5083 alloy should be considered. Chemical composition is carefully controlled and can be drawn into thin-wall tubing with excellent mechanical properties. Uses of tubing are in aircraft, boats, docks, and process equipment.

  16. Inspection tool for butt-welded tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horman, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    Inspection tool for tubing consists of metal casing housing elastic collar. Collar is clamped around weld site under test. Leakage through weld is contained within chamber and is bled to detector via tubing attached to fitting. Tool, originally designed to detect fluid leakage in tubing, can be used to detect gas leaks.

  17. Tube temperature rise limits: Boiling considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderwater, R.G.

    1952-03-26

    A revision of tube power limits based on boiling considerations was presented earlier. The limits were given on a basis of tube power versus header pressure. However, for convenience of operation, the limits have been converted from tube power to permissible water temperature rise. The permissible {triangle}t`s water are given in this document.

  18. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single tooth...) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in...

  19. Numerical simulation of pulse-tube refrigerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyulina, I.A.; Mattheij, R.M.M.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Waele, de A.T.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    A new numerical model has been introduced to study steady oscillatory heat and mass transfer in the tube section of a pulse-tube refrigerator. Conservation equations describing compressible gas flow in the tube are solved numerically, using high resolution schemes. The equation of conservation of

  20. N Reactor pressure tube 1350 postirradiation examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    The N Reactor pressure tubes were fabricated from Zircaloy-2 primarily due to the excellent corrosion resistance, low neutron absorption, and high strength properties of this alloy. Irradiation damage mechanisms increase the strength and decrease the ductility of the Zircaloy-2. Irradiation data available at the time the tubes were installed indicated that fast neutron irradiation damage mechanisms would not decrease the ductility to unacceptable levels over the estimated plant life of 25 to 30 years. However, because the tubes are a primary coolant system component and only limited data are available on irradiation effects at high fluences, a Postirradiation Examination (PIE) program was developed to assure that service factors do not compromise pressure tube integrity essential to reactor safety. The PIE program requires that a pressure tube be periodically removed from the reactor for destructive testing. The N Reactor Technical Specifications specify that the frequency of pressure tube removal and examination be based upon the previous PIE test results. Four pressure tubes were examined before tube 1350, and the test results were summarized in individual reports. PIE results on tube 1350 were summarized along with the test results on the previous four tubes in a previous report. The purpose of this report is to present in detail the results on PIE of pressure tube 1350, and, in particular, document the technique by which the fracture toughness of the pressure tube was determined

  1. Spring/dimple instrument tube restraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMario, E.E.; Lawson, C.N.

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear fuel assembly for a pressurized water nuclear reactor has a spring and dimple structure formed in a non-radioactive insert tube placed in the top of a sensor receiving instrumentation tube thimble disposed in the fuel assembly and attached at a top nozzle, a bottom nozzle, and intermediate grids. The instrumentation tube thimble is open at the top, where the sensor or its connection extends through the cooling water for coupling to a sensor signal processor. The spring and dimple insert tube is mounted within the instrumentation tube thimble and extends downwardly adjacent the top. The springs and dimples restrain the sensor and its connections against lateral displacement causing impact with the instrumentation tube thimble due to the strong axial flow of cooling water. The instrumentation tube has a stainless steel outer sleeve and a zirconium alloy inner sleeve below the insert tube adjacent the top. The insert tube is relatively non-radioactivated inconel alloy. The opposed springs and dimples are formed on diametrically opposite inner walls of the insert tube, the springs being formed as spaced axial cuts in the insert tube, with a web of the insert tube between the cuts bowed radially inwardly for forming the spring, and the dimples being formed as radially inward protrusions opposed to the springs. 7 figures

  2. Synthesis and structural characterization of coaxial nano tubes intercalated of molybdenum disulfide with carbon; Sintesis y caracterizacion estructural de nanotubos coaxiales intercalados de disulfuro de molibdeno con carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reza San German, C M

    2005-07-01

    In this work the study of some fundamental aspects in the growth of unidimensional systems of coaxial nano tubes from the mold method is approached. This method is an inclusion technique of a precursor reagent into oxide nano porous alumina film (mold), and later applying some processes of synthesis it is gotten to obtain the wished material. The synthesized structures are identified later because they take place by means of the initial formation of nano tubes of MoS{sub 2}, enclosing to carbon nano tubes by the same method, with propylene flow which generates a graphitization process that 'copy' the mold through as it flows. Binary phase MoS{sub 2} + C nano tubes were synthesized by propylene pyrolysis inside MoS{sub 2} nano tubes prepared by template assisted technique. The large coaxial nano tubes constituted of graphite sheets inserted between the MoS{sub 2} layers forming the outer part, and coaxial multi wall carbon nano tubes (MWCNT) intercalated with MoS{sub 2} inside. High resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), high angle annular dark field (HAADF), gatan image filter (GIF), nano beam electron diffraction patterns (NBEDP), along with molecular dynamics simulation and quantum mechanical calculations were used to characterize the samples. The one-dimensional structures exhibit diverse morphologies such as long straight and twisted nano tubes with several structural irregularities. The inter-planar spacing between MoS{sub 2} layers was found to increase from 6.3 to 7.4 A due to intercalation with carbon. Simulated HREM images revealed the presence of these twisted nano structures, with mechanical stretch into intercalate carbon between MoS{sub 2} layers. Our results open up the possibility of using MoS{sub 2} nano tubes as templates for the synthesis of new one- dimensional binary phase systems. (Author)

  3. Synthesis and structural characterization of coaxial nano tubes intercalated of molybdenum disulfide with carbon; Sintesis y caracterizacion estructural de nanotubos coaxiales intercalados de disulfuro de molibdeno con carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reza San German, C.M

    2005-07-01

    In this work the study of some fundamental aspects in the growth of unidimensional systems of coaxial nano tubes from the mold method is approached. This method is an inclusion technique of a precursor reagent into oxide nano porous alumina film (mold), and later applying some processes of synthesis it is gotten to obtain the wished material. The synthesized structures are identified later because they take place by means of the initial formation of nano tubes of MoS{sub 2}, enclosing to carbon nano tubes by the same method, with propylene flow which generates a graphitization process that 'copy' the mold through as it flows. Binary phase MoS{sub 2} + C nano tubes were synthesized by propylene pyrolysis inside MoS{sub 2} nano tubes prepared by template assisted technique. The large coaxial nano tubes constituted of graphite sheets inserted between the MoS{sub 2} layers forming the outer part, and coaxial multi wall carbon nano tubes (MWCNT) intercalated with MoS{sub 2} inside. High resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), high angle annular dark field (HAADF), gatan image filter (GIF), nano beam electron diffraction patterns (NBEDP), along with molecular dynamics simulation and quantum mechanical calculations were used to characterize the samples. The one-dimensional structures exhibit diverse morphologies such as long straight and twisted nano tubes with several structural irregularities. The inter-planar spacing between MoS{sub 2} layers was found to increase from 6.3 to 7.4 A due to intercalation with carbon. Simulated HREM images revealed the presence of these twisted nano structures, with mechanical stretch into intercalate carbon between MoS{sub 2} layers. Our results open up the possibility of using MoS{sub 2} nano tubes as templates for the synthesis of new one- dimensional binary phase systems. (Author)

  4. Assessment of the Particulate Food Supply Available for Mussel ( Mytilus spp.) Farming in a Semi-enclosed, Northern Inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, R. W.; McKenzie, C. H.; Mills, T. J.

    2001-07-01

    Temporal variability in the quantity, organic content, and phytoplankton composition of the particulate food supply available to a cultured mussel population was assessed for a 3-year period in a small inlet of Notre Dame Bay, Newfoundland, Canada. The study site had a restricted flushing rate estimated at 1-2·75 times wk -1for a complete water exchange. The quantity of both total (TPM) and organic (POM) seston varied temporally from 0·7-23·7 mg l -1and 0·05-1·97 mg l -1respectively during the 3-year sampling period. TPM typically remained relatively high (>10 mg l -1) through the winter and spring period. Most of the seasonal variation in total seston was due to seasonal variability in the PIM component. Both PIM and POM concentrations were seasonally lowest during summer. The organic fraction of the seston (POM/TPM ratio) was seasonally low in winter and increased steadily through spring and summer to reach its maximum in the autumn. The living phytoplankton component of the seston was typically dominated, both numerically and in biomass, by a variety of diatom and autotrophic nanoflagellate species in the 2- 20-μm diameter size range. Discrete diatom population blooms occurred in the autumn of all three years and largely consisted of a single species, Skeletonema costatum. Phytoplankton:detritus ratios were significantly lower during winter. Total phytoplankton biomass levels were seasonally low during winter and summer and were associated with seasonal variation in diatom biomass. We conducted modelling simulations of relationships among seston organic food levels, their temporal variability, tidal flushing rates, cultured mussel biomass and production indices, and estimates of mussel maintenance ration requirements to predict the adequacy of northern inlets to sustain commercial-scale mussel farm development. We conclude from these simulations that small, semi-enclosed, northern inlets likely frequently experience periods when naturally occurring organic

  5. Novel Ultrafine Fibrous Poly(tetrafluoroethylene Hollow Fiber Membrane Fabricated by Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglin Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel poly(tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE hollow fiber membranes were successfully fabricated by electrospinning, with ultrafine fibrous PTFE membranes as separation layers, while a porous glassfiber braided tube served as the supporting matrix. During this process, PTFE/poly(vinylalcohol (PVA ultrafine fibrous membranes were electrospun while covering the porous glassfiber braided tube; then, the nascent PTFE/PVA hollow fiber membrane was obtained. In the following sintering process, the spinning carrier PVA decomposed; meanwhile, the ultrafine fibrous PTFE membrane shrank inward so as to further integrate with the supporting matrix. Therefore, the ultrafine fibrous PTFE membranes had excellent interface bonding strength with the supporting matrix. Moreover, the obtained ultrafine fibrous PTFE hollow fiber membrane exhibited superior performances in terms of strong hydrophobicity (CA > 140°, high porosity (>70%, and sharp pore size distribution. The comprehensive properties indicated that the ultrafine fibrous PTFE hollow fiber membranes could have potentially useful applications in membrane contactors (MC, especially membrane distillation (MD in harsh water environments.

  6. Control rod guide tube assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fuel assembly is described as consisting of a sleeve that engages one end of a control rod guide tube essentially fixing the guide tube to one of the fuel assembly end structures. The end of the sleeve protrudes above the surface of the end fitting. The outer surface of the sleeve has a peripheral groove that engages the resilient sides of a cellular grid or lattice shaped lock. This lock fixes the sleeve in position between the various elements that comprise the end fitting, thereby eliminating a profusion of costly and potentially troublesome nuts, threaded studs and the like that are frequently employed in the fuel assemblies that are presently in use

  7. ATLAS Muon Drift Tube Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Y [KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organisation, Tsukuba (Japan); Ball, B; Chapman, J W; Dai, T; Ferretti, C; Gregory, J [University of Michigan, Department of Physics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Beretta, M [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Boterenbrood, H; Jansweijer, P P M [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brandenburg, G W; Fries, T; Costa, J Guimaraes da; Harder, S; Huth, J [Harvard University, Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ceradini, F [INFN Roma Tre and Universita Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma (Italy); Hazen, E [Boston University, Physics Department, Boston, MA (United States); Kirsch, L E [Brandeis University, Department of Physics, Waltham, MA (United States); Koenig, A C [Radboud University Nijmegen/Nikhef, Dept. of Exp. High Energy Physics, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lanza, A [INFN Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Mikenberg, G [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics, Rehovot (Israel)], E-mail: brandenburg@physics.harvard.edu (and others)

    2008-09-15

    This paper describes the electronics used for the ATLAS monitored drift tube (MDT) chambers. These chambers are the main component of the precision tracking system in the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The MDT detector system consists of 1,150 chambers containing a total of 354,000 drift tubes. It is capable of measuring the sagitta of muon tracks to an accuracy of 60 {mu}m, which corresponds to a momentum accuracy of about 10% at p{sub T}= 1 TeV. The design and performance of the MDT readout electronics as well as the electronics for controlling, monitoring and powering the detector will be discussed. These electronics have been extensively tested under simulated running conditions and have undergone radiation testing certifying them for more than 10 years of LHC operation. They are now installed on the ATLAS detector and are operating during cosmic ray commissioning runs.

  8. ATLAS Muon Drift Tube Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, Y; Beretta, M; Boterenbrood, H; Brandenburg, G W; Ceradini, F; Chapman, J W; Dai, T; Ferretti, C; Fries, T; Gregory, J; Guimarães da Costa, J; Harder, S; Hazen, E; Huth, J; Jansweijer, P P M; Kirsch, L E; König, A C; Lanza, A; Mikenberg, G; Oliver, J; Posch, C; Richter, R; Riegler, W; Spiriti, E; Taylor, F E; Vermeulen, J; Wadsworth, B; Wijnen, T A M

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the electronics used for the ATLAS monitored drift tube (MDT) chambers. These chambers are the main component of the precision tracking system in the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The MDT detector system consists of 1,150 chambers containing a total of 354,000 drift tubes. It is capable of measuring the sagitta of muon tracks to an accuracy of 60 microns, which corresponds to a momentum accuracy of about 10% at pT = 1 TeV. The design and performance of the MDT readout electronics as well as the electronics for controlling, monitoring and powering the detector will be discussed. These electronics have been extensively tested under simulated running conditions and have undergone radiation testing certifying them for more than 10 years of LHC operation. They are now installed on the ATLAS detector and are operating during cosmic ray commissioning runs.

  9. Origami interleaved tube cellular materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Kenneth C; Tachi, Tomohiro; Calisch, Sam; Miura, Koryo

    2014-01-01

    A novel origami cellular material based on a deployable cellular origami structure is described. The structure is bi-directionally flat-foldable in two orthogonal (x and y) directions and is relatively stiff in the third orthogonal (z) direction. While such mechanical orthotropicity is well known in cellular materials with extruded two dimensional geometry, the interleaved tube geometry presented here consists of two orthogonal axes of interleaved tubes with high interfacial surface area and relative volume that changes with fold-state. In addition, the foldability still allows for fabrication by a flat lamination process, similar to methods used for conventional expanded two dimensional cellular materials. This article presents the geometric characteristics of the structure together with corresponding kinematic and mechanical modeling, explaining the orthotropic elastic behavior of the structure with classical dimensional scaling analysis. (paper)

  10. Origami interleaved tube cellular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kenneth C.; Tachi, Tomohiro; Calisch, Sam; Miura, Koryo

    2014-09-01

    A novel origami cellular material based on a deployable cellular origami structure is described. The structure is bi-directionally flat-foldable in two orthogonal (x and y) directions and is relatively stiff in the third orthogonal (z) direction. While such mechanical orthotropicity is well known in cellular materials with extruded two dimensional geometry, the interleaved tube geometry presented here consists of two orthogonal axes of interleaved tubes with high interfacial surface area and relative volume that changes with fold-state. In addition, the foldability still allows for fabrication by a flat lamination process, similar to methods used for conventional expanded two dimensional cellular materials. This article presents the geometric characteristics of the structure together with corresponding kinematic and mechanical modeling, explaining the orthotropic elastic behavior of the structure with classical dimensional scaling analysis.

  11. Microwave discharges in capillary tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervisevic, Emil

    1984-01-01

    This research thesis aims at being a contribution to the study of microwave discharge by a surface wave, and more precisely focusses on the discharge in capillary tubes filled with argon. The author first present theoretical models which describe, on the one hand, the propagation of the surface wave along the plasma column, and, on the other hand, longitudinal and radial profiles of the main discharge characteristics. The second part addresses the study of the influence of parameters (gas pressure and tube radius) on discharge operation and characteristics. Laws of similitude as well as empirical relationships between argon I and argon II emission line intensities, electron density, and electric field in the plasma have been established [fr

  12. Scintillation counter: photomultiplier tube alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into the sample receiving zone. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (auth)

  13. Separation membrane development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.W. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    A ceramic membrane has been developed to separate hydrogen from other gases. The method used is a sol-gel process. A thin layer of dense ceramic material is coated on a coarse ceramic filter substrate. The pore size distribution in the thin layer is controlled by a densification of the coating materials by heat treatment. The membrane has been tested by permeation measurement of the hydrogen and other gases. Selectivity of the membrane has been achieved to separate hydrogen from carbon monoxide. The permeation rate of hydrogen through the ceramic membrane was about 20 times larger than Pd-Ag membrane.

  14. Cell membrane conformation at vertical nanowire array interface revealed by fluorescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthing, Trine; Bonde, Sara; Rostgaard, Katrine R; Martinez, Karen L; Madsen, Morten Hannibal; Sørensen, Claus B; Nygård, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    The perspectives offered by vertical arrays of nanowires for biosensing applications in living cells depend on the access of individual nanowires to the cell interior. Recent results on electrical access and molecular delivery suggest that direct access is not always obtained. Here, we present a generic approach to directly visualize the membrane conformation of living cells interfaced with nanowire arrays, with single nanowire resolution. The method combines confocal z-stack imaging with an optimized cell membrane labelling strategy which was applied to HEK293 cells interfaced with 2–11 μm long and 3–7 μm spaced nanowires with various surface coatings (bare, aminosilane-coated or polyethyleneimine-coated indium arsenide). We demonstrate that, for all commonly used nanowire lengths, spacings and surface coatings, nanowires generally remain enclosed in a membrane compartment, and are thereby not in direct contact with the cell interior. (paper)

  15. X-ray tube target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A target with an improved heat emissive surface for use in a rotating anode type x-ray tube is described. The target consists of a body having a first surface portion made of x-ray emissive material and a second surface portion made of a heat emissive material comprising at least one of hafnium boride, hafnium oxide, hafnium nitride, hafnium silicide, and hafnium aluminide. (U.K.)

  16. Advanced pressure tube sampling tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittich, K.C.; King, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Deuterium concentration is an important parameter that must be assessed to evaluate the Fitness for service of CANDU pressure tubes. In-reactor pressure tube sampling allows accurate deuterium concentration assessment to be made without the expenses associated with fuel channel removal. This technology, which AECL has developed over the past fifteen years, has become the standard method for deuterium concentration assessment. AECL is developing a multi-head tool that would reduce in-reactor handling overhead by allowing one tool to sequentially sample at all four axial pressure tube locations before removal from the reactor. Four sets of independent cutting heads, like those on the existing sampling tools, facilitate this incorporating proven technology demonstrated in over 1400 in-reactor samples taken to date. The multi-head tool is delivered by AECL's Advanced Delivery Machine or other similar delivery machines. Further, AECL has developed an automated sample handling system that receives and processes the tool once out of the reactor. This system retrieves samples from the tool, dries, weighs and places them in labelled vials which are then directed into shielded shipping flasks. The multi-head wet sampling tool and the automated sample handling system are based on proven technology and offer continued savings and dose reduction to utilities in a competitive electricity market. (author)

  17. Ultrasonic inspection of inpile tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, D.M.; Bossi, H.

    1985-01-01

    The in-service inspection (ISI) of inpile tubes can be performed accurately and safely with a semiautomatic ultrasonic inspection system. The ultrasonic technique uses a set of multiple transducers to detect and size cracks, voids, and laminations radially and circumferentially. Welds are also inspected for defects. The system is designed to inspect stainless steel and Inconel tubes ranging from 53.8 mm (2.12 in.) to 101.6 mm (4 in.) inner diameter with wall thickness on the order of 5 mm. The inspection head contains seven transducers mounted in a surface-following device. Six angle-beam transducers generate shear waves in the tubes. Two of the six are oriented to detect circumferential cracks, and two detect axial cracks. Although each of these four transducers is used in the pulse-echo mode, they are oriented in aligned sets so pitch-catch operation is possible if desired. The remaining angle-beam transducers are angulated to detect flaws that are off axial or circumferential orientation. The seventh transducer is used for longitudinal inspection and detects and sizes laminar-type defects

  18. Microporous silica membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal stability is a crucial factor for the application of microporous silica-based membranes in industrial processes. Indeed, it is well established that steam exposure may cause densification and defect formation in microporous silica membranes, which are detrimental to both membrane...... permeability and selectivity. Numerous previous studies show that microporous transition metal doped-silica membranes are hydrothermally more stable than pure silica membranes, but less permeable. Here we present a quantitative study on the impact of type and concentration of transition metal ions...... on the microporous structure, stability and permeability of amorphous silica-based membranes, providing information on how to design chemical compositions and synthetic paths for the fabrication of silica-based membranes with a well accessible and highly stabile microporous structure....

  19. Clustering on Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannes, Ludger; Pezeshkian, Weria; Ipsen, John H

    2018-01-01

    Clustering of extracellular ligands and proteins on the plasma membrane is required to perform specific cellular functions, such as signaling and endocytosis. Attractive forces that originate in perturbations of the membrane's physical properties contribute to this clustering, in addition to direct...... protein-protein interactions. However, these membrane-mediated forces have not all been equally considered, despite their importance. In this review, we describe how line tension, lipid depletion, and membrane curvature contribute to membrane-mediated clustering. Additional attractive forces that arise...... from protein-induced perturbation of a membrane's fluctuations are also described. This review aims to provide a survey of the current understanding of membrane-mediated clustering and how this supports precise biological functions....

  20. Small size neutron tube UNG-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bespalov, D.F.; Mints, A.Z.; Shkol'nikov, A.S.

    A tube UNG-1 (universal neutron gas-filled) is designed for the use in the well neutron generators IGN-1 and IGN-1-M (a pulse neutron generator). Their serial production in the USSR has been started in 1963. At the same year, the serial production of the tubes UNG-1 has been started. Thus, this tube is the first serial logging accelerating tube in the USSR. A Penning source, equipped with a hot cathode, was selected as an ion source of the tube

  1. Application of dynamic membranes in anaerobic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erşahin, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) physically ensure biomass retention by the application of a membrane filtration process. With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs), the combination of membrane and anaerobic processes has received much attention and become

  2. Alpha detection in pipes using an inverting membrane scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendrick, D.T.; Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E.

    1995-01-01

    Characterization of surface alpha emitting contamination inside enclosed spaces such as piping systems presents an interesting radiological measurement challenge. Detection of these alpha particles from the exterior of the pipe is impossible since the alpha particles are completely absorbed by the pipe wall. Traditional survey techniques, using hand-held instruments, simply can not be used effectively inside pipes. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. is currently developing an enhancement to its Pipe Explorer trademark system that will address this challenge. The Pipe Explorer trademark uses a unique sensor deployment method where an inverted tubular membrane is propagated through complex pipe runs via air pressure. The inversion process causes the membrane to fold out against the pipe wall, such that no part of the membrane drags along the pipe wall. This deployment methodology has been successfully demonstrated at several DOE sites to transport specially designed beta and gamma scintillation detectors into pipes ranging in length up to 250 ft. The measurement methodology under development overcomes the limitations associated with conventional hand-held survey instruments by remotely emplacing an alpha scintillator in direct contact with the interior pipe surface over the entire length to be characterized. This is accomplished by incorporating a suitable scintillator into the otherwise clear membrane material. Alpha particles emitted from the interior pipe surface will intersect the membrane, resulting in the emission of light pulses from the scintillator. A photodetector, towed by the inverting membrane, is used to count these light pulses as a function of distance into the pipe, thereby producing a log of the surface alpha contamination levels. It is anticipated that the resulting system will be able to perform measurements in pipes as small as two inches in diameter, and several hundred feet in length

  3. Combustor with two stage primary fuel tube with concentric members and flow regulating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David Marchant; Whidden, Graydon Lane; Zolyomi, Wendel

    1999-01-01

    A combustor for a gas turbine having a centrally located fuel nozzle and inner, middle and outer concentric cylindrical liners, the inner liner enclosing a primary combustion zone. The combustor has an air inlet that forms two passages for pre-mixing primary fuel and air to be supplied to the primary combustion zone. Each of the pre-mixing passages has a circumferential array of swirl vanes. A plurality of primary fuel tube assemblies extend through both pre-mixing passages, with each primary fuel tube assembly located between a pair of swirl vanes. Each primary fuel tube assembly is comprised of two tubular members. The first member supplies fuel to the first pre-mixing passage, while the second member, which extends through the first member, supplies fuel to the second pre-mixing passage. An annular fuel manifold is divided into first and second chambers by a circumferentially extending baffle. The proximal end of the first member is attached to the manifold itself while the proximal end of the second member is attached to the baffle. The distal end of the first member is attached directly to the second member at around its mid-point. The inlets of the first and second members are in flow communication with the first and second manifold chambers, respectively. Control valves separately regulate the flow of fuel to the two chambers and, therefore, to the two members of the fuel tube assemblies, thereby allowing the flow of fuel to the first and second pre-mixing passages to be separately controlled.

  4. Gastroenteric tube feeding: Techniques, problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Irina; Shastri, Yogesh M; Stein, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Gastroenteric tube feeding plays a major role in the management of patients with poor voluntary intake, chronic neurological or mechanical dysphagia or gut dysfunction, and patients who are critically ill. However, despite the benefits and widespread use of enteral tube feeding, some patients experience complications. This review aims to discuss and compare current knowledge regarding the clinical application of enteral tube feeding, together with associated complications and special aspects. We conducted an extensive literature search on PubMed, Embase and Medline using index terms relating to enteral access, enteral feeding/nutrition, tube feeding, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy/jejunostomy, endoscopic nasoenteric tube, nasogastric tube, and refeeding syndrome. The literature showed common routes of enteral access to include nasoenteral tube, gastrostomy and jejunostomy, while complications fall into four major categories: mechanical, e.g., tube blockage or removal; gastrointestinal, e.g., diarrhea; infectious e.g., aspiration pneumonia, tube site infection; and metabolic, e.g., refeeding syndrome, hyperglycemia. Although the type and frequency of complications arising from tube feeding vary considerably according to the chosen access route, gastrointestinal complications are without doubt the most common. Complications associated with enteral tube feeding can be reduced by careful observance of guidelines, including those related to food composition, administration rate, portion size, food temperature and patient supervision. PMID:25024606

  5. Precision heat forming of tetrafluoroethylene tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, W. V.; Thatcher, C. S. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An invention that provides a method of altering the size of tetrafluoroethylene tubing which is only available in limited combination of wall thicknesses and diameter are discussed. The method includes the steps of sliding the tetrafluoroethylene tubing onto an aluminum mandrel and clamping the ends of the tubing to the mandrel by means of clamps. The tetrafluorethylene tubing and mandrel are then placed in a supporting coil which with the mandrel and tetrafluorethylene tubing are then positioned in a insulated steel pipe which is normally covered with a fiber glass insulator to smooth out temperature distribution therein. The entire structure is then placed in an event which heats the tetrafluorethylene tubing which is then shrunk by the heat to the outer dimension of the aluminum mandrel. After cooling the aluminum mandrel is removed from the newly sized tetrafluorethylene tubing by a conventional chemical milling process.

  6. Tests of compressed geometry NEC acceleration tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raatz, J.E.; Rathmell, R.D.; Stelson, P.H.; Ziegler, N.F.

    1985-01-01

    Tests have been performed in the 3 MV Pelletron test machine at NEC on a compressed geometry tube which increases the insulating length of the tube by eliminating the heated electrode assemblies (approx.2.5 cm thick) at the end of each tube section. Some insert electrodes are changed to provide some trapping of secondary ions. The geometry tested provided an 18% increase in live ceramic in the tube. The compressed geometry tube allowed a terminal voltage of 3.55 MV on the 3 MV column at normal gradients of 30.3 kv/tube gap. The tube was also conditioned to more than 4 MV and remained stable in voltage with few sparks and with low x-ray levels for days at about 4 MV. This same performance could be achieved with or without arc discharge cleaning. 4 refs., 4 figs

  7. Tube formation by complex cellular processes in Ciona intestinalis notochord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bo; Horie, Takeo; Denker, Elsa; Kusakabe, Takehiro; Tsuda, Motoyuki; Smith, William C; Jiang, Di

    2009-06-15

    In the course of embryogenesis multicellular structures and organs are assembled from constituent cells. One structural component common to many organs is the tube, which consists most simply of a luminal space surrounded by a single layer of epithelial cells. The notochord of ascidian Ciona forms a tube consisting of only 40 cells, and serves as a hydrostatic "skeleton" essential for swimming. While the early processes of convergent extension in ascidian notochord development have been extensively studied, the later phases of development, which include lumen formation, have not been well characterized. Here we used molecular markers and confocal imaging to describe tubulogenesis in the developing Ciona notochord. We found that during tubulogenesis each notochord cell established de novo apical domains, and underwent a mesenchymal-epithelial transition to become an unusual epithelial cell with two opposing apical domains. Concomitantly, extracellular luminal matrix was produced and deposited between notochord cells. Subsequently, each notochord cell simultaneously executed two types of crawling movements bi-directionally along the anterior/posterior axis on the inner surface of notochordal sheath. Lamellipodia-like protrusions resulted in cell lengthening along the anterior/posterior axis, while the retraction of trailing edges of the same cell led to the merging of the two apical domains. As a result, the notochord cells acquired endothelial-like shape and formed the wall of the central lumen. Inhibition of actin polymerization prevented the cell movement and tube formation. Ciona notochord tube formation utilized an assortment of common and fundamental cellular processes including cell shape change, apical membrane biogenesis, cell/cell adhesion remodeling, dynamic cell crawling, and lumen matrix secretion.

  8. CANDU steam generator tubing material service experience and allied development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, A.E.; Lesurf, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    This paper covers the following aspects for the tube materials in CANDU-PHW steam generators: inservice performance with respect to tube leaks and coolant activity attributable to boiler tube corrosion, selection of tube materials for use with non-boiling and boiling primary coolants, supporting development on corrosion, vibration, fretting wear, tube inspection, leak detection and plugging of defective tubes. (author)

  9. Probing lipid membrane electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi

    The electrostatic properties of lipid bilayer membranes play a significant role in many biological processes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is highly sensitive to membrane surface potential in electrolyte solutions. With fully characterized probe tips, AFM can perform quantitative electrostatic analysis of lipid membranes. Electrostatic interactions between Silicon nitride probes and supported zwitterionic dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayer with a variable fraction of anionic dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) were measured by AFM. Classical Gouy-Chapman theory was used to model the membrane electrostatics. The nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation was numerically solved with finite element method to provide the potential distribution around the AFM tips. Theoretical tip-sample electrostatic interactions were calculated with the surface integral of both Maxwell and osmotic stress tensors on tip surface. The measured forces were interpreted with theoretical forces and the resulting surface charge densities of the membrane surfaces were in quantitative agreement with the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model of membrane charge regulation. It was demonstrated that the AFM can quantitatively detect membrane surface potential at a separation of several screening lengths, and that the AFM probe only perturbs the membrane surface potential by external field created by the internai membrane dipole moment. The analysis yields a dipole moment of 1.5 Debye per lipid with a dipole potential of +275 mV for supported DOPC membranes. This new ability to quantitatively measure the membrane dipole density in a noninvasive manner will be useful in identifying the biological effects of the dipole potential. Finally, heterogeneous model membranes were studied with fluid electric force microscopy (FEFM). Electrostatic mapping was demonstrated with 50 nm resolution. The capabilities of quantitative electrostatic measurement and lateral charge density mapping make AFM a unique and powerful

  10. Emulsification using microporous membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran T. Vladisavljević

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Membrane emulsification is a process of injecting a pure dispersed phase or pre-emulsion through a microporous membrane into the continuous phase. As a result of the immiscibility of the two phases, droplets of the dispersed phase are formed at the outlets of membrane pores. The droplets formed in the process are removed from the membrane surface by applying cross-flow or stirring of the continuous phase or using a dynamic (rotating or vibrating membrane. The most commonly used membrane for emulsification is the Shirasu Porous Glass (SPG membrane, fabricated through spinodal decomposition in a melt consisting of Japanese volcanic ash (Shirasu, boric acid and calcium carbonate. Microsieve membranes are increasingly popular as an alternative to highly tortuous glass and ceramic membranes. Microsieves are usually fabricated from nickel by photolithography and electroplating or they can be manufactured from silicon nitride via Reactive Ion Etching (RIE. An advantage of microsieves compared to the SPG membrane is in much higher transmembrane fluxes and higher tolerance to fouling by the emulsion ingredients due to the existence of short, straight through pores. Unlike conventional emulsification devices such as high-pressure valve homogenisers and rotor-stator devices, membrane emulsification devices permit a precise control over the mean pore size over a wide range and during the process insignificant amount of energy is dissipated as heat. The drop size is primarily determined by the pore size, but it depends also on other parameters, such as membrane wettability, emulsion formulation, shear stress on the membrane surface, transmembrane pressure, etc.

  11. Theoretical studies on membrane-based gas separation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of mass transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.R.; Marjani, A.; Davallo, M.; Moradi, S.; Shirazian, S.

    2011-01-01

    A 2D mass transfer model was developed to study carbon dioxide removal by absorption in membrane contactors. The model predicts the steady state absorbent and carbon dioxide concentrations in the membrane by solving the conservation equations. The continuity equations for three sub domains of the membrane contactor involving the tube; membrane and shell were obtained and solved by finite element method (FEM). The model was based on 'non-wetted mode' in which the gas phase filled the membrane pores. Laminar parabolic velocity profile was used for the liquid flow in the tube side; whereas, the gas flow in the shell side was characterized by Happel's free surface model. Axial and radial diffusion transport inside the shell, through the membrane, and within the tube side of the contactor was considered in the mass transfer model. The predictions of percent CO/sub 2/ removal obtained by modeling were compared with the experimental values obtained from literature. They were the experimental results for CO/sub 2/ removal from CO/sub 2//N/sub 2/ gas mixture with amines aqueous solutions as the liquid solvent using polypropylene membrane contactor. The modeling predictions were in good agreement with the experimental values for different values of gas and liquid flow rates. (author)

  12. Effect of tube-support interaction on the dynamic responses of heat exchanger tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    Operating heat exchangers have experienced tube damages due to excessive flow-induced vibration. The relatively small inherent tube-to-baffle hole clearances associated with manufacturing tolerances in heat exchangers affect the tube vibrational characteristics. In attempting a theoretical analysis, questions arise as to the effects of tube-baffle impacting on dynamic responses. Experiments were performed to determine the effects of tube-baffle impacting in vertical/horizontal tube orientation, and in air/water medium on the vibrational characteristics (resonant frequencies, mode shapes, and damping) and displacement response amplitudes of a seven-span tube model. The tube and support conditions were prototypic, and overall length approximately one-third that of a straight tube segment of the steam generator designed for the CRBR. The test results were compared with the analytical results based on the multispan beam with ''knife-edge'' supports

  13. Ion-conducting membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Sajjad, Syed Dawar; Gao, Yan; Liu, Zengcai; Chen, Qingmei

    2017-12-26

    An anion-conducting polymeric membrane comprises a terpolymer of styrene, vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x. R.sub.s is a positively charged cyclic amine group. R.sub.x is at least one constituent selected from the group consisting Cl, OH and a reaction product between an OH or Cl and a species other than a simple amine or a cyclic amine. The total weight of the vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x groups is greater than 0.3% of the total weight of the membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  14. Gas separation with membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, G.; Michele, H.; Werner, U.

    1982-01-01

    Gas separation with membranes has already been tested in numerous fields of application, e.g. uranium enrichment of H 2 separation. In many of these processes the mass transfer units, so-called permeators, have to be connected in tandem in order to achieve high concentrations. A most economical operating method provides for each case an optimization of the cascades with regard to the membrane materials, construction and design of module. By utilization of the concentration gradient along the membrane a new process development has been accomplished - the continuously operating membrane rectification unit. Investment and operating costs can be reduced considerably for a number of separating processes by combining a membrane rectification unit with a conventional recycling cascade. However, the new procedure requires that the specifications for the module construction, flow design, and membrane properties be reconsidered. (orig.) [de

  15. CFD modeling of a boiler's tubes rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, Masoud; Khoshhal, Abbas; Shariati, Seyed Mehdi

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study on the reason for tubes damage in the superheater Platen section of the 320 MW Bisotoun power plant, Iran. The boiler has three types of superheater tubes and the damage occurs in a series of elbows belongs to the long tubes. A three-dimensional modeling was performed using an in-house computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code in order to explore the reason. The code has ability of simultaneous solving of the continuity, the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and employing the turbulence, combustion and radiation models. The whole boiler including; walls, burners, air channels, three types of tubes, etc., was modeled in the real scale. The boiler was meshed into almost 2,000,000 tetrahedral control volumes and the standard k-ε turbulence model and the Rosseland radiation model were used in the model. The theoretical results showed that the inlet 18.9 MPa saturated steam becomes superheated inside the tubes and exit at a pressure of 17.8 MPa. The predicted results showed that the temperature of the steam and tube's wall in the long tubes is higher than the short and medium size tubes. In addition, the predicted steam mass flow rate in the long tube was lower than other ones. Therefore, it was concluded that the main reason for the rupture in the long tubes elbow is changing of the tube's metal microstructure due to working in a temperature higher than the design temperature. In addition, the structural fatigue tension makes the last elbow of the long tube more ready for rupture in comparison with the other places. The concluded result was validated by observations from the photomicrograph of the tube's metal samples taken from the damaged and undamaged sections

  16. The development of zirconia membrane oxygen separation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiacchi, F.T.; Badwal, S.P.S.; Velizko, V.

    2000-01-01

    The oxygen separation technology based on ceramic membranes constructed from stabilised zirconia is currently under development for applications ranging from oxygen generation or air enrichment for medical use to control of oxygen concentration or oxygen removal from gas streams and enclosures for semiconductor, food packaging and process control instrumentation industries. The technology is based on a rugged tubular design with extensive thermal cycling capability. Several single and three tube devices have been operated for periods up to 5000h. An eight tube module, as a building block for larger scale oxygen production or removal devices, has been constructed and is being evaluated. In this paper, the construction of the device, oxygen generating capacity, life time tests and performance of the ceramic membrane device under development at CSIRO will be discussed. Copyright (2000) The Australian Ceramic Society

  17. X-ray tube targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    In rotary targets for X-ray tubes warping is a problem which causes X-ray deficiency. A rotary target is described in which warping is reduced by using alloys of molybdenum with 0.05 to 10% iron, silicon, cobalt, tantalum, niobium, hafnium, stable metal oxide or mixture thereof. Suitable mixtures are 0.5 to 10% of tantalum, niobium or hafnium with from 0.5 to 5% yttrium oxide, or 0.05 to 0.3% of cobalt or silicon. Optionally 0.1 to 5% by weight of additional material may be alloyed with the molybdenum, such as tantalum or hafnium carbides. (author)

  18. Eddy current inspection of tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauza, J. L. R.; Herrero, J.; Diaz, J.

    1966-01-01

    The Experimental research work carried out to develop a Eddy current testing equipment is described. Search coils with ferrite or air cores were used and the obtained results are discussed. Valuable information was gained from a improved channel in which a direct measure of the defect and the reference signal phase difference is obtained. Artificial defect used to evaluate resolution and sensitivity were produced by electro-machining and mechanical means. Finned SAP tubing was tested in a routine basis with the described equipment and the results plotted. Basic and theoretical considerations on the Eddy current testing technique are given in the last section of this report. (Author)

  19. Chelating polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2015-01-22

    The present application offers a solution to the current problems associated with recovery and recycling of precious metals from scrap material, discard articles, and other items comprising one or more precious metals. The solution is premised on a microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  20. Hydrogen selective membrane for the natural gas system. Development of CO{sub 2}-selective biogas membrane. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestboe, A.P.

    2012-02-15

    the goal to develop membrane materials that are suitable for the removal of CO{sub 2}. Emphasis was put on selecting materials that are commercially available and that can be easily processed into membranes in a large scale. Membrane modules were produced from many capillary tubes of the membranes in order to achieve a system for removing CO{sub 2} in a larger scale. A certain technology was developed in which the membrane material was improved upon by adding certain nanoporous particles called zeolites. A choice was made in thermoplastic polyurethane, and a supplier was found in BASF. This is a rather cheap material and a certain grade of their products was found to offer a reasonable high selectivity of 16 while couple with a high permeability. A zeolite was selected in Linde Type 4A, which has pores that are on the molecular size exactly between CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. By adding these particles, a molecular sieving effect was obtained. It was found that the selectivity was increased by 50% and the permeability of the finished material was 24 Barrer, which is a rather high number when coupled with this selectivity. A success was achieved in the development of a technology in which zeolite articles could be blended with a large range of polymers in such a way that there were no voids around the zeolite particles, but a tight adhesive was obtained. This made it possible to not lose selectivity due to bypassing of gaseous molecules around the zeolite particles. It was found that this technology could be passed over from a small laboratory scale compounder to a large scale compounder-extruder. In going from small-scale membranes used for laboratory testing to industry sized membrane modules a number of designs were considered. A design which consisted of large bundles of capillary tubes were found to be the best suitable solution and was used in the further development. These capillary tubes were made in such a way, that there was a strong carrier tube of a highly