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Sample records for encephalitis tick-borne

  1. Tick-Borne Encephalitis (TBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... virus, Siberian tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Far eastern Tick-borne encephalitis virus (formerly known as Russian ... viruses are closely related to TBEV and Far-eastern TBE, and include Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus in ...

  2. Tick-borne encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumpis, U; Crook, D; Oksi, J

    1999-04-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a zoonotic arbovirus infection endemic to Russia and Eastern and Central Europe. Despite being a common and serious life-threatening disease for which a mass vaccination program was implemented in Austria, there is only limited reference to this disease in the English-language literature. TBE is transmitted to humans usually by the bite of a tick (either Ixodes persulcatus or Ixodes ricinus); occasionally, cases occur following consumption of infected unpasteurized milk. Transmission is seasonal and occurs in spring and summer, particularly in rural areas favored by the vector. TBE is a serious cause of acute central nervous system disease, which may result in death or long-term neurological sequelae. Effective vaccines are available in a few countries. The risk for travelers of acquiring TBE is increasing with the recent rise in tourism to areas of endemicity during spring and summer.

  3. OUTCOMES OF TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS IN THE TOMSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Pinegina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study outcomes of tick-borne encephalitis in adults in the Tomsk Region. Patients conducted a comprehensive clinical and laboratory examination. Revealed the prevalence of autonomic disorders in individuals who have had at different periods of tick-borne encephalitis, which is regarded as the effects of tick-borne infection. Residual effects of tick-borne encephalitis occurs mainly in the form of light paresis after suffering a focal forms. Among the chronic (progredient forms of tick-borne encephalitis often formed hyperkinetic options. Most of the study revealed the presence of precipitating factors that could have an influence on the outcome. Fundamental diffe rences in all-clinical and immunological analyses at patients with various outcomes of tick-borne encephalitis it wasn't noted. KEY WORDS: tick-borne encephalitis, Tomsk Region, the outcomes.

  4. MRI in tick-borne encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkadhi, H.; Kollias, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    The tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus gives rise to epidemic encephalitis. Mild forms usually manifest as influenza-like episodes or are clinically silent. MRI is usually normal in TBE. We describe severe TBE in a patient who presented with fever and altered mental status after a tick bite and a specific antibody response to TBE. MRI revealed pronounced signal abnormalities in the basal ganglia and thalamus, without contrast enhancement. These findings coincide well with neuropathological studies of severe nerve cell degeneration with inflammatory cell infiltrates, neuronophagia and reactive astrocytosis in the deep grey matter. We review the literature and discuss the relevant differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  5. Tick-borne encephalitis: Pathogenesis and clinical implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžek, Daniel; Dobler, G.; Mantke, O. D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2010), s. 223-232 ISSN 1477-8939 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP302/10/P438; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis * Tick-borne encephalitis virus * Pathogenesis * Clinical data Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  6. Tick-borne encephalitis virus in horses, Austria, 2011

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rushton, J. O.; Lecollinet, S.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Svobodová, Petra; Lussy, H.; Nowotny, N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2013), s. 635-637 ISSN 1080-6040 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) * strains Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 7.327, year: 2013

  7. [Tick borne encephalitis and enviromental changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajkowska, Joanna; Malzahn, Elzbieta; Kondrusik, Maciej; Grygorczuk, Sambor; Pancewicz, Sławomir S; Kuśmierczyk, Justyna; Czupryna, Piotr; Hermanowska-Szpakowicz, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Currently observed markedly increased incidence of various tick borne diseases in many parts of Europe is due to documented climatic changes as well anthropogenic influence on habitat structure. One of the analyzed factors is tendency to increase of the spring temperatures, especially in the third decade of the April. Such conditions (spring temperatures above 7-10 degrees C) let the nymphs and larvae of Ixodes ricinus to feed simultaneously on rodents. This increases the risk of infection of Ixodes ricinus with TBE virus, so dangerous for humans.

  8. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infection of cultured mouse macrophages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ahantarig, A.; Růžek, Daniel; Vancová, Marie; Janowitz, A.; Šťastná, Hana; Tesařová, Martina; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 5 (2009), s. 283-290 ISSN 0300-5526 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/1479; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * macrophage s * electron microscopy Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.106, year: 2009

  9. Nucleoside Inhibitors of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eyer, L.; Valdés, James J.; Gil, V.A.; Nencka, Radim; Hřebabecký, Hubert; Šála, Michal; Salát, J.; Černý, Jiří; Palus, Martin; De Clercq, E.; Růžek, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 9 (2015), s. 5483-5493 ISSN 0066-4804 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis virus * infection * molecular analyses Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology; CC - Organic Chemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 4.415, year: 2015

  10. Tick-borne encephalitis: What travelers should know when visiting an endemic country

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chrdle, A.; Chmelík, V.; Růžek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 10 (2016), s. 2694-2699 ISSN 2164-5515 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV16-34238A Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : endemic country * flavivirus * tick-borne encephalitis * tick-borne encephalitis virus * travel medicine * vaccination Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.157, year: 2016

  11. Characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavtchoutko, V; Vene, S; Haglund, M; Forsgren, M; Duks, A; Kalnina, V; Hörling, J; Lundkvist, A

    2000-02-01

    Viruses of the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) antigenic complex, within the family Flaviviridae, cause a variety of diseases including uncomplicated febrile illness, encephalitis, meningo-encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever and chronic disease in humans, domesticated animals or wildlife species. TBE is a serious problem in Latvia with up to a 1,000 patients confirmed serologically annually 1994-1995. No previous data had been reported on the causative agent of TBE in Latvia. In the present study, a virus was isolated from serum of a patient with clinical symptoms of an acute TBE infection. Nucleotide sequence information obtained by direct reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the serological characteristics of the isolated virus strain, designated TBE-Latvia-1-96, indicated a closer relationship to the Vasilchenko strain, isolated in Novosibirsk (Siberia, Russia), as compared to the western European or far eastern subtypes of TBE viruses. In a mouse neurovirulence assay, a significant difference in survival rates (days) was shown between Latvia-1-96 and the western European TBE virus subtype. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Tick-borne encephalitis: a disease neglected by travel medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haditsch, Martin; Kunze, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a vector-borne disease that is primarily transmitted to humans by infected ticks and causes infection of the central nervous system. Clinical presentations range from meningitis to encephalitis with or without myelitis, and infection may result in death or long-term neurological sequelae. TBE is endemic in regions of at least 27 European as well as in some Asian countries. Infection and disease, however, can be averted successfully by tick-bite prevention and active vaccination. The risk of infection has shifted from daily life and occupational exposure to leisure-time activities, including travelling. Outdoor activities during the tick season with contact with nature increase the risk of tick bites. Although the number of travel-associated cases is unknown, it is certainly under-estimated because there is hardly any awareness of TBE in non-endemic countries. Therefore, the majority of cases remain undiagnosed, also because of the lack of diagnostic serology, as there is no routine screening for TBE in non-endemic regions. Because of the increasing number of travellers from TBE non-endemic to endemic regions, and in view of the fact that TBE was included in the list of notifiable diseases in the European Union in September 2012, this disease needs to become an important issue in travel medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Infection and injury of human astrocytes by tick-borne encephalitis virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palus, Martin; Bílý, Tomáš; Elsterová, Jana; Langhansová, Helena; Salát, J.; Vancová, Marie; Růžek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 95, Pt 11 (2014), s. 2411-2426 ISSN 0022-1317 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116; GA ČR GAP302/12/2490; GA TA ČR TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis * Tick-borne encephalitis virus * human Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.183, year: 2014

  14. Tick-borne encephalitis vaccines: past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, Olaf; Bröker, Michael

    2005-10-01

    Vaccines to protect against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) are produced by two manufacturers and are widely used in European and Asian countries, where TBE virus is endemic. General trends in vaccine development during recent decades and extensive postmarketing experience resulted in several modifications to their formulations and practical implications for use. Modifications were made to the production process, such as the change of the virus master bank from mouse brain to primary cells; to the excipients, especially the stabilizers and preservative; and to include formulations for children. Additionally, a rapid vaccination schedule has been developed for persons who require a fast onset of protection. Recent data from clinical studies and postmarketing surveillance indicate that both vaccines are safe, efficacious and interchangeable. Further (major) changes to formulation or alternative targets for vaccine development are not anticipated in the next 5 years. Recent serologic studies indicate that the persistence of protective immunity was longer than expected. Thus, recommendations for prolongation of TBE booster intervals have been made in several European countries, and a harmonization for booster recommendations is predicted within the European Union. Based on epidemiologic trends, the use of TBE vaccines will continue to increase in all age groups, including children.

  15. CD8+ T-cells mediate immunopathology in tick-borne encephalitis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžek, Daniel; Salát, Jiří; Palus, M.; Gritsun, T. S.; Gould, E. A.; Dyková, Iva; Skallová, Anna; Jelínek, Jiří; Kopecký, Jan; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 384, č. 1 (2009), s. 1-6 ISSN 0042-6822 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR GA524/08/1509 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * immunopathology * encephalitis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.042, year: 2009

  16. The occurrence of Ixodes ricinus ticks and important tick-borne pathogens in areas with high tick-borne encephalitis prevalence in different altitudinal levels of the Czech Republic. Part I. Ixodes ricinus ticks and tick-borne encephalitis virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Daniel, M.; Danielová, V.; Kříž, B.; Růžek, Daniel; Fialová, A.; Malý, M.; Materna, J.; Pejčoch, M.; Erhart, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 2 (2016), s. 118-128 ISSN 1210-7913 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * tick-borne encephalitis virus * occurence * altitude * region * season Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2016

  17. Serological survey of domestic animals for tick-borne encephalitis and Bhanja viruses in northeastern Hungary

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šikutová, Silvie; Hornok, S.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Doležálková, I.; Juřicová, Zina; Rudolf, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 135, 3-4 (2009), s. 267-271 ISSN 0378-1135 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis * Bhanja virus * Cattle * Horse * Sheep * Hungary Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.874, year: 2009

  18. Ixodes ricinus tick saliva modulates tick-borne encephalitis virus infection of dendritic cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fialová, Anna; Cimburek, Zdeněk; Iezzi, G.; Kopecký, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 7 (2010), s. 580-585 ISSN 1286-4579 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960811 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis virus * Dendritic cell * Tick saliva * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2010

  19. Tick-borne Encephalitis Associated with Consumption of Raw Goat Milk, Slovenia, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudopisk, Neda; Korva, Miša; Janet, Evgen; Simetinger, Marjana; Grgič-Vitek, Marta; Gubenšek, Jakob; Natek, Vladimir; Kraigher, Alenka; Strle, Franc

    2013-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) developed in 3 persons in Slovenia who drank raw milk; a fourth person, who had been vaccinated against TBE, remained healthy. TBE virus RNA was detected in serum and milk of the source goat. Persons in TBE-endemic areas should be encouraged to drink only boiled/pasteurized milk and to be vaccinated. PMID:23697658

  20. Fatal tick-borne encephalitis in an immunosuppressed 12-year-old patient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chmelík, V.; Chrdle, A.; Růžek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 74, 1 January (2016), s. 73-74 ISSN 1386-6532 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis * immunosuppressed patient * fatal case * haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.051, year: 2016

  1. First documented case of imported tick-borne encephalitis in Australia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chaunhuri, A.; Růžek, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2013), s. 93-96 ISSN 0918-2918 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP302/10/P438; GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis virus * viral encephalitis * travel medicine * flavivirus Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 0.967, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/imj.12017/pdf

  2. Characterization of a siberian virus isolated from a patient with progressive chronic tick-borne encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsun, T S; Frolova, T V; Zhankov, A I; Armesto, M; Turner, S L; Frolova, M P; Pogodina, V V; Lashkevich, V A; Gould, E A

    2003-01-01

    A strain of Tick-borne encephalitis virus designated Zausaev (Za) was isolated in Siberia from a patient who died of a progressive (2-year) form of tick-borne encephalitis 10 years after being bitten by a tick. The complete genomic sequence of this virus was determined, and an attempt was made to correlate the sequence with the biological characteristics of the virus. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this virus belongs to the Siberian subtype of Tick-borne encephalitis virus. Comparison of Za virus with two related viruses, a Far Eastern isolate, Sofjin, and a Siberian isolate, Vasilchenko, revealed differences among the three viruses in pathogenicity for Syrian hamsters, cytopathogenicity for PS cells, plaque morphology, and the electrophoretic profiles of virus-specific nonstructural proteins. Comparative amino acid alignments revealed 10 individual amino acid substitutions in the Za virus polyprotein sequence that were different from those of other tick-borne flaviviruses. Notably, the dimeric form of the Za virus NS1 protein migrated in polyacrylamide gels as a heterogeneous group of molecules with a significantly higher electrophoretic mobility than those of the Sofjin and Vasilchenko viruses. Two amino acid substitutions, T(277)-->V and E(279)-->G, within the NS1 dimerization domain are probably responsible for the altered oligomerization of Za virus NS1. These studies suggest that the patient from whom Za virus was isolated died due to increased pathogenicity of the latent virus following spontaneous mutagenesis.

  3. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infects human brain microvascular endothelial cells without compromising blood-brain barrier integrity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palus, Martin; Vancová, Marie; Širmarová, J.; Elsterová, Jana; Perner, Jan; Růžek, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 507, JUL (2017), s. 110-122 ISSN 0042-6822 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV16-34238A; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * tick-borne encephalitis virus * blood- brain barrier * neuroinfection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 3.353, year: 2016

  4. Full genome sequences and molecular characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus strains isolated from human patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Formanová, P.; Černý, Jiří; Černá Bolfíková, B.; Valdés, James J.; Kozlová, I.; Dzhioev, Y.; Růžek, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2015), s. 38-46 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116; GA ČR GAP302/12/2490 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis virus * tick-borne encephalitis * genome analysis * human patient s Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.690, year: 2015

  5. Rodents as Sentinels for the Prevalence of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Achazi, K.; Růžek, Daniel; Donoso-Mantke, O.; Schlegel, M.; Ali, H. S.; Wenk, M.; Schmidt-Chanasit, J.; Ohlmeyer, L.; Ruhe, F.; Vor, T.; Kiffner, Ch.; Kallies, R.; Ulrich, R. G.; Niedrig, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2011), 641-647 ISSN 1530-3667 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP302/10/P438; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Distribution * Monitoring * Rodents * Tick-borne encephalitis * Zoonosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.437, year: 2011

  6. [Characteristics of clinical features of tick-borne encephalitis in Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, M A; Markeshin, S Ia; Riazanova, N Ia; Degtiareva, A A; Zakharova, T F; Bychkova, M V

    1989-12-01

    The analysis of data collected from the clinical epidemiological and virological surveys in 1985-1988 on the incidence of arbovirus infection in population provided evidence for circulation of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus in the Crimea. Etiological relevance of TBE virus in the onset of the diseases was revealed. Clinical picture of TBE in the Crimea is characterized by severe forms and diphasic fever with the relapse running more grave and protracted course.

  7. [The immune status of the population of the Crimea to the tick-borne encephalitis virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markeshin, S Ia; Karavanov, A S; Kovin, V V; Zakharova, T F; Evstratov, Iu V; Bychkova, M V; Evstaf'ev, I L

    1991-10-01

    The immune status of the Crimean population with respect to tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus has been studied. The results of the study confirm the existence of natural foci of TBE in the Crimea. The most active and potentially dangerous foci are located in forests of the mountain area of the peninsula. The study has revealed that humans are mainly exposed to the risk of contacting TBE virus infection during their work and rest in the forest.

  8. Structure-activity relationships of nucleoside analogues for inhibition of tick-borne encephalitis virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eyer, L.; Šmídková, Markéta; Nencka, Radim; Neča, J.; Kastl, T.; Palus, Martin; De Clercq, E.; Růžek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 133, Sep (2016), s. 119-129 ISSN 0166-3542 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV16-34238A; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-20054S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : structure-activity relationship * tick-borne encephalitis * nucleoside inhibitor * antiviral activity * cytotoxicity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry; EE - Microbiology, Virology (BC-A) Impact factor: 4.271, year: 2016

  9. [Activating effect of cyclophosphane at late stages of persistence of the tick-borne encephalitis virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, T V; Pogodina, V V; Larina, G I; Frolova, M P; Karmysheva, V Ia

    1982-01-01

    Conditions of activation of persistent infection caused by subcutaneous inoculation of Syrian hamsters with the B-383 and Vasilchenko strains of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBE) were studied. After 2 administrations of cyclophosphane (CP) on day 170 of infection clinically manifest disease developed in some animals with increasingly severe pathomorphological lesions in the CNS. Several variants of activated TBE virus were isolated from brains and spleens of CP-treated hamsters. The activation of persistent infection was observed in the presence of marked decreased of humoral immunity level, weight of the thymus, and values of spontaneous rosette-formation.

  10. Psychiatric aspects of herpes simplex encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis and herpes zoster encephalitis among immunocompetent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Więdłocha, Magdalena; Marcinowicz, Piotr; Stańczykiewicz, Bartłomiej

    2015-01-01

    The psychopathological symptoms occurring in the course of diseases associated with infections are often initially isolated and non-characteristic, and may cause diagnostic difficulties. Moreover, such disorders tend to be less responsive to psychiatric management. Among possible causes such as trauma, neoplasm and vascular changes, inflammatory changes of the brain as a result of a viral infection should also be considered. There were 452 registered cases of viral encephalitis in Poland in 2010, and although not very prevalent they remain a severe and life-threatening condition. What is more, the frequently occurring neurological and psychiatric complications of viral encephalitis often result in permanent disabilities, causing a significant decrease in the quality of life. This article presents the three types of encephalitis that are most prevalent among immunocompetent patients in Poland, i.e. herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and herpes zoster encephalitis (HZE). The psychopathology of the acute phase of the infection, the residual symptoms, features apparent in imaging studies and some neuropathological aspects are also presented. The paper also focuses on psychiatric aspects of the diagnostics and treatment of the described conditions. The clinical pictures of these infections are quite specific, although they cover a wide range of symptoms, and these characteristic features are described. The aim of this review is also to show the significance of thorough diagnostics and a multidisciplinary approach to patients with viral CNS infections.

  11. Isolation, preliminary characterization, and full-genome analyses of tick-borne encephalitis virus from Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Stefan; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Altantuul, Damdin; Battsetseg, Jigjav; Davaadorj, Rendoo; Tserennorov, Damdindorj; Buyanjargal, Tsoodol; Otgonbaatar, Dashdavaa; Zöller, Lothar; Speck, Stephanie; Wölfel, Roman; Dobler, Gerhard; Essbauer, Sandra

    2012-12-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes one of the most important inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system, namely severe encephalitis in Europe and Asia. Since the 1980s tick-borne encephalitis is known in Mongolia with increasing numbers of human cases reported during the last years. So far, however, data on TBEV strains are still sparse. We herein report the isolation of a TBEV strain from Ixodes persulcatus ticks collected in Mongolia in 2010. Phylogenetic analysis of the E-gene classified this isolate as Siberian subtype of TBEV. The Mongolian TBEV strain showed differences in virus titers, plaque sizes, and growth properties in two human neuronal cell-lines. In addition, the 10,242 nucleotide long open-reading frame and the corresponding polyprotein sequence were revealed. The isolate grouped in the genetic subclade of the Siberian subtype. The strain Zausaev (AF527415) and Vasilchenko (AF069066) had 97 and 94 % identity on the nucleotide level. In summary, we herein describe first detailed data regarding TBEV from Mongolia. Further investigations of TBEV in Mongolia and adjacent areas are needed to understand the intricate dispersal of this virus.

  12. Partial Characterization of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Isolates from Ticks of Southern Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Oksana O; Dubina, Dmytro O; Vynograd, Nataliya O; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2017-08-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most common tick-borne viral infection in Eurasia; thousands of human cases are annually reported from several European countries. Several tick species are vectors of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), while TBE appears to be spreading from the Eurasian continent westward to Europe. Fifteen study sites were chosen from five territories of southern Ukraine, including Odessa, Mykolaiv, Kherson Oblast, the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, and Sevastopol. Tick collection was performed in spring season of three consecutive years (1988-1990) using either flagging technique or direct collection of specimens feeding on cattle. A total of 15,243 tick imagoes and nymphs were collected from nine species, including Dermacentor marginatus, D. reticulatus, Haemaphysalis parva, H. punctata, Hyalomma marginatum, Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus bursa, R. rossicus, and R. sanguineus, pooled in 282 monospecific samples. Supernatant of grinded pool was used for inoculation to suckling mice for virus isolation. Eight TBEV isolates were identified from ticks among six study sites. Ticks showed a minimum infection rate from 0.11% to 0.81%. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope (E) protein gene of seven isolates, assigned all to the European subtype (TBEV-Eu) showing a maximum identity of 97.17% to the "Pan" TBEV-Eu reference strain. Compared to 104 TBEV-Eu isolates they clustered within the same clade as the Pan reference strain and distinguished from other TBEV-Eu isolates. Amino acid sequence analysis of the South Ukrainian TBEV-Eu isolates revealed the presence of four amino acid substitutions 67 (N), 266 (R), 306 (V), and 407 (R), in the ectodomains II and III and in the stem-anchor region of the E protein gene. This study confirmed TBEV-Eu subtype distribution in the southern region of Ukraine, which eventually overlaps with TBEV-FE (Far Eastern subtype) and TBEV-Sib (Siberian subtype) domains, showing the heterogeneity of TBEV circulating in

  13. [Tick-borne diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot Dupont, H; Raoult, D

    1993-05-01

    Due to their worldwide distribution, from hottest to coldest climates, and due to their behaviour, ticks are capable of transmitting numerous human and animal bacterial viral or parasitous diseases. Depending on the disease, they play the role of biological vector or intermediate host. In France, six tick borne diseases are of epidemiologic importance. Q fever (not often tick-borne), Mediterranean Spotted Fever, Lyme disease, Turalemia (human and animal), Babesiosis and Tick-borne Viral Encephalitis.

  14. Serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 levels in patients with tick-borne encephalitis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palus, Martin; Žampachová, E.; Elsterová, Jana; Růžek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 2 (2014), s. 165-169 ISSN 0163-4453 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * matrix metalloproteinase-9 * tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 * bloodebrain barrier Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 4.441, year: 2014

  15. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus in zoo animal species in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Širmarová, J.; Tichá, L.; Golovchenko, Maryna; Salát, Jiří; Grubhoffer, L.; Rudenko, Natalia; Nowotny, N.; Růžek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2014), s. 523-527 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis virus * Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato * Lyme borreliosis * Seroprevalence * Zoo animals Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2014

  16. A Review of Methods for Detecting Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Infection in Tick, Animal, and Human Specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ergunay, K.; Tkachev, S.; Kozlova, I.; Růžek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2016), s. 4-12 ISSN 1530-3667 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * serology * PCR * tick(s) * rodents Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.045, year: 2016

  17. Socio-economic factors in the differential upsurge of tick-borne encephalitis in Central and Eastern Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šumilo, D.; Bormane, A.; Asokliene, L.; Vasilenko, V.; Golovljova, I.; Avsic-Zupanc, T.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Randolph, S. E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2008), s. 81-95 ISSN 1052-9276 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * Europe Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 7.130, year: 2008

  18. [Molecular genetic characteristics of tick-borne encephalitis virus in the crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurchenko, O A; Vinograd, N A; Dubina, D A

    2012-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the envelope (E) protein gene of three tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) strains 80, 85, and 290 isolated from Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Crimea in 1989-1990 were determined. A comparative analysis of the genetic structure of the strains showed their identity. A phylogenetic analysis of these strains with 34 other TBEV strains could assign them to the European genotype and showed their maximum (97.24%) identity to the Pan strain that occupies a separate position among the sequenced TBEV strains. The findings indicate that the TBEV European genotype strains circulated together with the TBEV Far Eastern genotype ones in the Crimea in 1980-1990.

  19. [Strategy for choosing antibiotics for treating bacterial infections associated with chronic tick-borne encephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenko, G V; Pogodina, V V; Frolova, M P; Ivannikova, T A

    1996-01-01

    The capacity of wide-spectrum antibiotics kefzol and ristomycin to activate the persisting tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and cause an exacerbation of chronic process was investigated in Syrian hamsters in whom a prolonged (77 to 270 days) persistent TBE infection was induced by three TBE strains: Vasilchenko, V-383, and 205. The degree of antibiotic-induced activation was assessed using the criteria characterizing the reproduction and peculiarities of persisting TBE virus, immunodepression, and morphologic changes in the central nervous system. Effects of kefzol and ristomycin were compared with those of 8 antibiotics studied previously. Ristomycin, levomycetin (chloramphycin), penicillin, ampicillin (ampital), and levoridan were referred to drugs devoid of evident provoking effect. Kefzol (cefamezin), florimycin (viomycin), and kanamycin (kanamytrex) were characterized as weak activators and streptomycin and tetracycline as potent activators of the persisting TBE virus. These data may be used when selecting alternative agents for therapy of secondary bacterial infections concomitant with TBE.

  20. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens in South Bohemia (Czech Republic) – Spatial variability in Ixodes ricinus abundance, Borrelia burgdorferi and tick-borne encephalitis virus prevalence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hönig, Václav; Švec, P.; Halas, Petr; Vavrušková, Zuzana; Tykalová, Hana; Kilian, Patrik; Vetišková, Vendula; Dorňáková, Veronika; Štěrbová, Jarmila; Šimonová, Zuzana; Erhart, Jan; Štěrba, Ján; Golovchenko, Maryna; Rudenko, Natalia; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 5 (2015), s. 559-567 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/09/H026; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick * tick-borne encephalitis * ixodes ricinus * environmental factors * lyme borreliosis Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (BC-A) Impact factor: 2.690, year: 2015 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S1877959X15000783/1-s2.0-S1877959X15000783-main.pdf?_tid=8785a702-8de3-11e5-bd28-00000aacb35f&acdnat=1447844587_a91b4e4d404a70fda98b06e4950edb11

  1. Tick-borne encephalitis: What travelers should know when visiting an endemic country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrdle, Aleš; Chmelík, Václav; Růžek, Daniel

    2016-10-02

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an acute febrile illness with neurological manifestations that is prevalent in forested areas of moderate climate in Europe and Asia. TBE virus is transmitted by ticks and rarely by unpasteurized milk and dairy products. The disease burden is attributed mainly to resulting long-term disability, especially in individuals over 50 y of age. Currently, there is no causative treatment, but a very effective vaccination is available with a good safety profile. The vaccination requires 3 basic doses to be fully effective and regular boosters afterwards. An accelerated vaccination schedule enables a patient to reach reasonably protective titres within 3 to 4 weeks from the first injection. The risk of travel-related TBE is estimated to be less than the risk of acquiring typhoid fever while visiting highly endemic regions in South Asia, but more than the risk of acquiring Japanese encephalitis, meningococcal invasive disease, or rabies. The pre-travel risk assessment of acquiring TBE should consider known risk factors which include 1) the country and regions to be visited; 2) April to November season; 3) altitude less than 1500 m above the sea level; 4) duration of stay; 5) the extent of tick-exposure associated activities including leisure and professional outdoor activities within the endemic area; and 6) age and comorbidities of the traveler. A major challenge, however, is the very low awareness of the risk of contracting TBE in those who travel to industrialized European countries.

  2. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE): an underestimated risk…still: report of the 14th annual meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Ursula

    2012-06-01

    Today, the risk of getting tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is still underestimated in many parts of Europe and worldwide. Therefore, the 14th meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE) - a group of neurologists, general practitioners, clinicians, travel physicians, virologists, pediatricians, and epidemiologists - was held under the title "Tick-borne encephalitis: an underestimated risk…still". Among the discussed issues were: TBE, an underestimated risk in children, a case report in two Dutch travelers, the very emotional report of a tick victim, an overview of the epidemiological situation, investigations to detect new TBE cases in Italy, TBE virus (TBEV) strains circulation in Northern Europe, TBE Program of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), efforts to increase the TBE vaccination rate in the Czech Republic, positioning statement of the World Health Organization (WHO), and TBE in dogs. To answer the question raised above: Yes, the risk of getting TBE is underestimated in children and adults, because awareness is still too low. It is still underestimated in several areas of Europe, where, for a lack of human cases, TBEV is thought to be absent. It is underestimated in travelers, because they still do not know enough about the risk, and diagnostic awareness in non-endemic countries is still low. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased working memory related fMRI signal in children following Tick Borne Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrik, Ullman; Åsa, Fowler; Ronny, Wickström

    2016-01-01

    Tick Borne Encephalitis (TBE) is a viral infection in the central nervous system endemic in Europe and Asia. While pediatric infection may carry a lower risk for serious neurological sequelae compared to adults, a large proportion of children experience long term cognitive problems, most markedly decreased working memory capacity. We explored whether task related functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could reveal a biological correlate of status-post TBE in children. We examined 11 serologically verified pediatric TBE patients with central nervous system involvement with 55 healthy controls with working memory tests and MRI. The TBE patients showed a prominent deficit in working memory capacity and an increased task related functional MRI signal in working memory related cortical areas during a spatial working memory task performed without sedation. No diffusion differences could be found with DTI, in line with the reported paucity of anatomical abnormalities. This study is the first to demonstrate functional MRI abnormalities in TBE patients that bears similarity to other patient groups with diffuse neuronal damage. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Results of the 20-year study of tick-borne encephalitis in Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstaf'ev, I L

    2001-01-01

    The history of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) study in the Crimea was retraced and the possibility of introduction of TBE virus to the Crimea in the process of the acclimatization of vertebrates from areas enzootic for TBE is discussed. The foci of TBE were found throughout the whole of the mountain forest zone of the Crimea and coincided with the habitat area of lxodes ricinus, the main vector of TBE. Such ticks as Dermacentor reticulatus, D. marginatus and Hyalomma marginatum were also found to take part in the circulation of the virus. Among the residents of the mountain forest zone, 13.9% were found to have immunity to TBE, testifying to the wide contact of the population with the pathogen. TBE morbidity had pronounced seasonal character and the morbidity rate was low with the prevalence of mild clinical forms. The characteristic feature of the virus population was polymorphism: strains identical to the Far-Eastern strains Sofyin (about 60-70%) and strains differing in their antigenic structure circulated here.

  5. REACTOGENITY OF TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS VACCINE ENCEPUR ADULT AND IMMUNE RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Leonova

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The comprehensive clinical-immunological characteristic of a tick-borne encephalitis vaccine En-cepur Adult (Germany, which was studied on a group of residents of Far East of Russia was discussed. Reactogenity in 32,4% of vaccinees was characterized by minor clinical manifestations and was due to the reaction to specific vaccine albumin. Expression of immune response (mean geometric titers was evaluated in a neutralization test. A group with the reactogenity showed higher geometric mean antibody titers (1:182 compared with a group without the reactogenity (1:97.All of vaccinees with various levels (high, middle, low of specific immune response had an increased quantity of CD20+ and CD25+ lymphocytes. We showed a difference in immunologic reactivity of people with high and low levels of specific antibody response. As compared with a low level group the group with a high level of specific response showed significantly higher quantity of lymphocytes and their subpopulations (CD3+, CD4+, CD45RA+ as well as higher levels of IgM, IgG.We conclude that vaccine Encepur Adult (Germany possesses a high immunologic activity. It is recommended to use this vaccine as a safe and effective specific preventive remedy in TBE endemic areas.

  6. Geographical Environment Factors and Risk Assessment of Tick-Borne Encephalitis in Hulunbuir, Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yifan; Wang, Juanle; Gao, Mengxu; Fang, Liqun; Liu, Changhua; Lyu, Xin; Bai, Yongqing; Zhao, Qiang; Li, Hairong; Yu, Hongjie; Cao, Wuchun; Feng, Liqiang; Wang, Yanjun; Zhang, Bin

    2017-05-26

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is one of natural foci diseases transmitted by ticks. Its distribution and transmission are closely related to geographic and environmental factors. Identification of environmental determinates of TBE is of great importance to understanding the general distribution of existing and potential TBE natural foci. Hulunbuir, one of the most severe endemic areas of the disease, is selected as the study area. Statistical analysis, global and local spatial autocorrelation analysis, and regression methods were applied to detect the spatiotemporal characteristics, compare the impact degree of associated factors, and model the risk distribution using the heterogeneity. The statistical analysis of gridded geographic and environmental factors and TBE incidence show that the TBE patients mainly occurred during spring and summer and that there is a significant positive spatial autocorrelation between the distribution of TBE cases and environmental characteristics. The impact degree of these factors on TBE risks has the following descending order: temperature, relative humidity, vegetation coverage, precipitation and topography. A high-risk area with a triangle shape was determined in the central part of Hulunbuir; the low-risk area is located in the two belts next to the outside edge of the central triangle. The TBE risk distribution revealed that the impact of the geographic factors changed depending on the heterogeneity.

  7. Emergence of tick-borne encephalitis in new endemic areas in Austria: 42 years of surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, F X; Stiasny, K; Holzmann, H; Kundi, M; Sixl, W; Wenk, M; Kainz, W; Essl, A; Kunz, C

    2015-04-02

    Human infections with tick-borne encephalitis (TBE)virus are a public health concern in certain regions of Europe, central and eastern Asia. Expansions of endemic areas and increased incidences have been associated with different factors including ecological changes supporting tick reproduction, socioeconomic changes increasing human outdoor activities and climatic changes favouring virus circulation in natural foci. Austria is among the most strongly affected countries in Central Europe, but the annual number of cases has strongly declined due to vaccination. Here,we have analysed changes of the incidence of TBE in the unvaccinated population of all federal states of Austria over a period of 42 years. The overall incidence in Austria has remained constant, but new strongly affected endemic regions have emerged in alpine valleys in the west of Austria. In parallel, the incidence in low-land regions in the north-east of the country is decreasing. There is no evidence for a shift to higher altitudes of infection sites in the traditional TBE zones,but the average altitudes of some newly established endemic areas in the west are significantly higher. Our analyses underscore the focal nature of TBE endemic areas and the potential of TBE virus to emerge in previously unaffected regions.

  8. [Streptomycin--an activator of persisting tick-borne encephalitis virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenko, G V; Pogodina, V V; Karmysheva, V Ia

    1984-01-01

    The effect of streptomycin (C) on persistence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus in Syrian hamsters infected with 3 strains of the virus (41/65, Aina/1448, Vasilchenko ) intracerebrally or subcutaneously was studied. In the animals not given C the infectious virus could be detected in the brain for 8-14 days but not later although their organs (mostly brains and spleens) contained the hemagglutinating antigen and viral antigen detectable by immunofluorescence. Intramuscularly C was given twice daily for 13-35 days in a daily dose of 200 mg/kg. The C-treated hamsters yielded 7 virulent TBE virus strains: 3 from the brain, 3 from the spleen, and one from the blood. No virus could be isolated from the liver, kidneys, or lungs despite the use of various methods for isolation including tissue explantation. The activating effect of C was observed against the background of 4-fold decrease in the titre of complement-fixing and antihemagglutinating antibodies. C exerted its activating effect both at early (70 days) and late (9 months) stages of TBE virus persistence. The activating effect of C appears to be due to its immunosuppressive properties and neurotoxic action on the CNS.

  9. Increased Relative Risk of Tick-Borne Encephalitis in Warmer Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE is a serious acute neuroinfection of humans caused by a tick-borne flavivirus. The disease is typically seasonal, linked to the host-seeking activity of Ixodes ricinus (predominantly nymphs, the principal European tick vector species. To address the need for accurate risk predictions of contracting TBE, data on 4,044 TBE cases reported in the Czech Republic during 2001–2006 were compared with questing activity of I. ricinus nymphs monitored weekly at a defined location for the same 6-year period. A time shift of 21 days between infected tick bite and recorded disease onset provided the optimal model for comparing the number of cases of TBE with numbers of questing nymphs. Mean annual distribution of TBE cases and tick counts showed a similar bimodal distribution. Significantly, the ratio of TBE cases to questing nymphs was highest in the summer-autumn period even though the number of questing nymphs peaked in the spring-summer period. However, this pattern changed during a period of extreme meteorological events of flooding and abnormally high temperatures, indicating that changes in climate affect the incidence of TBE. Previous studies failed to link human behavior with changes in incidence of TBE but showed extrinsic temperature impacts arbovirus replication. Hence, we hypothesize the apparent discrepancy between peak nymphal tick activity and greatest risk of contracting TBE is due to the effect of temperature on virus replication in the tick vector. Relative proportions of questing nymphs and the numbers of weeks in which they were found were greater in summer-autumn compared with spring-summer at near-ground temperatures >5°C and at standard day and weekly average temperatures of >15°C. Thus, during the summer-autumn period, the virus dose in infected tick bites is likely greater owing to increased virus replication at higher microclimatic temperatures, consequently increasing the relative risk of

  10. Determinants of tick-borne encephalitis in counties of southern Germany, 2001-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiffner Christian

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE virus can cause severe symptoms in humans. The incidence of this vector-borne pathogen in humans is characterised by spatial and temporal heterogeneity. To explain the variation in reported human TBE cases per county in southern Germany, we designed a time-lagged, spatially-explicit model that incorporates ecological, environmental, and climatic factors. Results We fitted a logistic regression model to the annual counts of reported human TBE cases in each of 140 counties over an eight year period. The model controlled for spatial autocorrelation and unexplained temporal variation. The occurrence of human TBE was found to be positively correlated with the proportions of broad-leafed, mixed and coniferous forest cover. An index of forest fragmentation was negatively correlated with TBE incidence, suggesting that infection risk is higher in fragmented landscapes. The results contradict previous evidence regarding the relevance of a specific spring-time temperature regime for TBE epidemiology. Hunting bag data of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in the previous year was positively correlated with human TBE incidence, and hunting bag density of red fox (Vulpes vulpes and red deer (Cervus elaphus in the previous year were negatively correlated with human TBE incidence. Conclusions Our approach suggests that a combination of landscape and climatic variables as well as host-species dynamics influence TBE infection risk in humans. The model was unable to explain some of the temporal variation, specifically the high counts in 2005 and 2006. Factors such as the exposure of humans to infected ticks and forest rodent population dynamics, for which we have no data, are likely to be explanatory factors. Such information is required to identify the determinants of TBE more reliably. Having records of TBE infection sites at a finer scale would also be necessary.

  11. Mapping the distribution of tick-borne encephalitis in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruo-Xi; Lai, Sheng-Jie; Yang, Yang; Li, Xin-Lou; Liu, Kun; Yao, Hong-Wu; Zhou, Hang; Li, Yu; Wang, Li-Ping; Mu, Di; Yin, Wen-Wu; Fang, Li-Qun; Yu, Hong-Jie; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2017-06-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has become an increasing public health threat in recent years, ranging from Europe, through far-eastern Russia to Japan and northern China. However, the neglect of its expansion and scarce analyses of the dynamics have made the overall disease burden and the risk distribution of the disease being unclear in mainland China. In this study, we described epidemiological characteristics of 2117 reported human TBE cases from 2006 to 2013 in mainland China. About 99% of the cases were reported in forest areas of northeastern China, and 93% of reported infections occurred during May-July. Cases were primarily male (67%), mostly in 30-59 years among all age-gender groups. Farmers (31.6%), domestic workers (20.1%) and forest workers (17.9%) accounted for the majority of the patients, and the proportions of patients from farmers and domestic workers were increasing in recent years. The epidemiological features of TBE differed slightly across the affected regions. The distribution and features of the disease in three main endemic areas of mainland China were also summarized. Using the Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) model, we found that the presence of TBE was significantly associated with a composite meteorological index, altitude, the coverage of broad-leaved forest, the coverage of mixed broadleaf-conifer forest, and the distribution of Ixodes persulcatus (I. persulcatus) ticks. The model-predicted probability of presence of human TBE cases in mainland China was mapped at the county level. The spatial distribution of human TBE in China was largely driven by the distributions of forests and I. persulcatus ticks, altitude, and climate. Enhanced surveillance and intervention for human TBE in the high-risk regions, particularly on the forest areas in north-eastern China, is necessary to prevent human infections. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  12. Phylogeographic Characterization of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus from Patients, Rodents and Ticks in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajs, Luka; Durmiši, Emina; Knap, Nataša; Strle, Franc; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is the most important arboviral agent causing infections of the central nervous system in central Europe. Previous studies have shown that TBEV exhibits pronounced genetic variability, which is often correlated to the geographical origin of TBEV. Genetic variability of TBEV has previously been studied predominantly in rodents and ticks, while information about the variability in patients is scarce. In order to understand the molecular relationships of TBEV between natural hosts, vectors and humans, as well as correlation between phylogenetic and geographical clustering, sequences of TBEV E and NS5 protein genes, were obtained by direct sequencing of RT-PCR products from TBE-confirmed patients as well as from rodents and ticks collected from TBE-endemic regions in Slovenia. A total of 27 partial E protein gene sequences representing 15 human, 4 rodent and 8 tick samples and 30 partial NS5 protein gene sequences representing 17 human, 5 rodent and 8 tick samples were obtained. The complete genome sequence of TBEV strain Ljubljana I was simultaneously obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the E and NS5 protein gene sequences revealed a high degree of TBEV variability in patients, ticks and rodents. Furthermore, an evident correlation between geographical and phylogenetic clustering was shown that was independent of the TBEV host. Moreover, we show the presence of a possible recombination event in the TBEV genome obtained from a patient sample, which was supported with multiple recombination event detection methods. This is the first study that simultaneously analyzed the genetic relationships of directly sequenced TBEV samples from patients, ticks and rodents and provides the largest set of patient-derived TBEV sequences up to date. In addition, we have confirmed the geographical clustering of TBEV sequences in Slovenia and have provided evidence of a possible recombination event in the TBEV genome, obtained from a patient. PMID

  13. The Burden of Tick-Borne Encephalitis in Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) for Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmit, Renata; Postma, Maarten J

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) presents an increasing burden in many parts of Europe, Asian Russia, Siberia, Asian former USSR and Far East. Incidence can be considered as one way to express the burden. A more comprehensive measure concerns disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), better characterizing the full burden of TBE. TBE burden in DALYs has not yet been estimated, nor has it been specified by the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies. The purpose of the present study is to estimate the burden of TBE in Slovenia, expressed in DALYs, both from the population and individual perspectives. We discuss the impact of TBE burden on public health and potential strategies to reduce this burden in Slovenia. The burden of TBE is estimated by using the updated DALYs' methodology first introduced in the GBD project. The DALYs᾽ calculations are based on the health outcomes of the natural course of the disease being modelled. Corrections for under-reporting and under-ascertainment are applied. The impact of uncertainty in parameters in the model was assessed using sensitivity analyses. From the population perspective, total DALYs amount to 3,450 (167.8 per 100,000 population), while from the individual perspective they amount to 3.1 per case in 2011. Notably, the consequences of TBE present a larger burden than TBE itself. TBE presents a relatively high burden expressed in DALYs compared with estimates for other infectious diseases from the GBD 2010 study for Slovenia. Raising awareness and increasing vaccination coverage are needed to reduce TBE and its consequences.

  14. Low coverage and predictors of vaccination uptake against tick-borne encephalitis in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavs, Irena

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) was introduced in 1986, Slovenia remains one of the countries with the highest reported incidence rates. For exposed occupationally or during education/training, vaccination is reimbursed by employer or within mandatory health insurance, while others have to pay. Our aim was to obtain the first national estimate of self-reported uptake of vaccination against TBE in a probability sample of the general population aged ≥15 years and identify predictors of self-paid vaccination uptake. Methods: Two questions on vaccination against TBE were added into the 2007 Slovenian version of European Health Interview Survey. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify factors independently associated with self-paid TBE vaccination uptake. Results: The overall self-reported prevalence of TBE vaccination uptake was 12.4%, of which, due to occupational exposure 3.2%, exposure during education/training 2.3% and as military recruits 2.2%. Additional 4.6% individuals reported to be vaccinated due to ‘other reasons’ (self-paid). There were no gender differences among individuals who paid for vaccination (4.5 and 4.8%, respectively). Characteristics independently associated with higher odds for self-paid vaccination against TBE were high income, not being overweight and ever being vaccinated against influenza. Conclusion: To reduce TBE morbidity in Slovenia vaccination coverage of the general population should be increased. Offering vaccination within compulsory health insurance together with intensive vaccination promotion would increase the vaccination coverage and reduce the social inequality in access. PMID:21398380

  15. Evaluation of serological tests for detecting tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) antibodies in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Christine; Beer, Martin; Saier, Regine; Schubert, Harald; Bischoff, Sabine; Süss, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in animals is not well understood yet. TBE virus (TBEV) serology in several host species could be valuable for epidemiological analyses in the field as well as for the detection of clinical cases. However, performance and suitability of the available test systems are not well assessed. Therefore, we evaluated two commercial TBEV-ELISA kits in a pilot study and compared them for their suitability in veterinary applications. For this purpose, we tested 163 field collected goat sera and evaluated the results by serum neutralization test (SNT) as "gold standard". Twenty-eight SNT positive sera (17.2%) were detected. The best suited ELISA kit was used for determination of a species-specific cutoff for horses, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, mice, dogs, rabbits and monkeys with defined sera from animals without known or with improbable contact to TBEV. The level of non-specific ELISA results does not only differ between animal species but may also be influenced by the age of the tested animals. The number of sera which tested false positive by ELISA was higher in older than in young sheep. In order to obtain defined polyclonal sera as references, two dogs, cattle, goats, sheep, rabbits and pigs each, as well as one horse and 90 mice were immunized four times with a commercially available TBEV vaccine. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that commercial TBEV-ELISA kits are suitable for application in veterinary medicine for both, verification of clinical TBE cases and epidemiological screening. However, positive ELISA results should be verified by SNT. Only a very low number of false negative ELISA-results were found.

  16. [The study of adaptation syndrome in mixed-infection of tick-borne encephalitis and borreliosis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotin, A V; Poponnikova, T V; Zinchuk, S F

    2003-01-01

    Twenty two children with mixed-infection of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and ixodic tick borreliosis (ITB) were studied. Blood hydrocortisone level was changed in 94.5% of the cases. The most significant activation of hydrocortisone secretion in combination with the most pronounced and prolonged general brain manifestations, was detected in infants. Blood hydrocortisone level correlated with clinical symptoms of combined TBE and ITB infections. Along with higher hydrocortisone level, down-regulation of production of antibodies both to B. burgdorferi and to TBE virus was specific for all children studied.

  17. Survey for hantaviruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Rickettsia spp. in small rodents in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Petra; Dobler, Gerhard; Markotić, Alemka; Kurolt, Ivan-Christian; Speck, Stephanie; Habuš, Josipa; Vucelja, Marko; Krajinović, Lidija Cvetko; Tadin, Ante; Margaletić, Josip; Essbauer, Sandra

    2014-07-01

    In Croatia, several rodent- and vector-borne agents are endemic and of medical importance. In this study, we investigated hantaviruses and, for the first time, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Rickettsia spp. in small wild rodents from two different sites (mountainous and lowland region) in Croatia. In total, 194 transudate and tissue samples from 170 rodents (A. flavicollis, n=115; A. agrarius, n=2; Myodes glareolus, n=53) were tested for antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assays (IIFT) and for nucleic acids by conventional (hantaviruses) and real-time RT-/PCRs (TBEV and Rickettsia spp.). A total of 25.5% (24/94) of the rodents from the mountainous area revealed specific antibodies against hantaviruses. In all, 21.3% (20/94) of the samples from the mountainous area and 29.0% (9/31) from the lowland area yielded positive results for either Puumala virus (PUUV) or Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) using a conventional RT-PCR. All processed samples (n=194) were negative for TBEV by IIFT or real-time RT-PCR. Serological evidence of rickettsial infection was detected in 4.3% (4/94) rodents from the mountainous region. Another 3.2% (3/94) rodents were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. None of the rodents (n=76) from the lowland area were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. Dual infection of PUUV and Rickettsia spp. was found in one M. glareolus from the mountainous area by RT-PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of Rickettsia spp. in small rodents from Croatia. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and M-segment sequences obtained from the two study sites revealed well-supported subgroups in Croatian PUUV and DOBV. Although somewhat limited, our data showed occurrence and prevalence of PUUV, DOBV, and rickettsiae in Croatia. Further studies are warranted to confirm these data and to determine the Rickettsia species present in rodents in these areas.

  18. Occurrence of antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in patients with suspected tick-borne encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Kalinová

    2015-09-01

    None of the examined patients with suspected TBE had the disease confirmed. Hoever, as shown by the results, the relative risk of occurrence of anaplasmosis is higher in people examined for some another vector-borne disease (in this case TBE. Therefore, the performance of screening examinations in patients suspected of having any tick-borne disease is very important.

  19. Reconsidering the classification of tick-borne encephalitis virus within the Siberian subtype gives new insights into its evolutionary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, S Y; Mukhacheva, T A

    2017-11-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis is widespread in Eurasia and transmitted by Ixodes ticks. Classification of its causative agent, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), includes three subtypes, namely Far-Eastern, European, and Siberian (TBEV-Sib), as well as a group of 886-84-like strains with uncertain taxonomic status. TBEV-Sib is subdivided into three phylogenetic lineages: Baltic, Asian, and South-Siberian. A reason to reconsider TBEV-Sib classification was the analysis of 186 nucleotide sequences of an E gene fragment submitted to GenBank during the last two years. Within the South-Siberian lineage, we have identified a distinct group with prototype strains Aina and Vasilchenko as an individual lineage named East-Siberian. The analysis of reclassified lineages has promoted a new model of the evolutionary history of TBEV-Sib lineages and TBEV-Sib as a whole. Moreover, we present arguments supporting separation of 886-84-like strains into an individual TBEV subtype, which we propose to name Baikalian (TBEV-Bkl). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Tick borne diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, B R

    2005-11-01

    It is known for many years that tick-borne diseases have worldwide a high economical impact on farming industry and veterinary medicine. But only in the last twenty years the importance of such diseases were notified in human medicine by the medical community and the public with emerging of the tick borne encephalitis virus and the description of Borrelia burgdorferi. It is often forgotten that many other infectious agents as bacteria, virus, Rickettsia or protozoa can be transmitted by ticks. Such diseases are rarely diagnosed in Europe either they are overlooked and misdiagnosed or they are connected with special professional activities. The development of new regions for tourism with different out door activities (adventure trips, trekking, hunting) leads to an exposure to different tick borne diseases, which are often misdiagnosed.

  1. Characterization of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) foci in Germany and Latvia (1997-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süss, Jochen; Schrader, Christina; Abel, Ulrich; Bormane, Antra; Duks, Arnis; Kalnina, Vaira

    2002-06-01

    Knowledge concerning the prevalence of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in wild living tick populations is very important for understanding the epidemiology of the disease and for immuno prophylactic strategy. In Germany high and low risk areas of TBE exist. In the years 1997-2000, 533 autochthonous clinical TBE cases were recorded, in the high-risk areas of Bavaria and Baden-Wuerttemberg 140 and 363, and in the low risk areas in Hesse (Odenwald) and Rhineland-Palatinate 22 and 8, respectively. Corresponding to these case reports we have measured the virus prevalence in free living ticks in these four risk areas and compared these findings with the situation in high-risk areas in Latvia. In the years 1997-2000, 2,797 clinical TBE cases were recorded in Latvia. For the studies in Germany, a total of 17,398 Ixodesricinus ticks (14,860 nymphs and 2,538 adults) were collected by flagging and examined for TBEV, in Latvia the corresponding numbers were 525 I. ricinus ticks (350 adults and 175 nymphs) and 281 I. persulcatus ticks (adults only). Information concerning annual and seasonal differences of the TBEV prevalence in natural TBE foci is not available in Germany. This paper is a continuation of the study (Süss et al., 1999), starting in 1997. We investigated every year, in May and September, the virus prevalence in ticks in high risk areas of Bavaria (8 foci) and Baden-Wuerttemberg (5 foci). A total of 15,400 ticks (13,100 nymphs and 2,300 adults) were examined for TBEV. The ticks were tested for the presence of TBEV-RNA using a sensitive, nested-RT-PCR. The virus prevalence in the Bavarian foci of the whole tick population ranged from 0.3 to 2.0% during these four years, in adults between 1.2 and 5.3% and in nymphs between 0.1 and 1.4%. In the high-risk areas of Baden-Wuerttemberg, in the Black Forest, the estimated virus prevalence rates of investigated ticks varied from 0.2 to 3.4%, in adults from 0 to 4.8%, and in nymphs from 0.2 to 3.4%. Using the same

  2. Analysis of Serum Levels of Cytokines, Chemokines, Growth Factors, and Monoamine Neurotransmitters in Patients With Tick-borne Encephalitis: Identification of Novel Inflammatory Markers With Implications for Pathogenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palus, Martin; Formanová, P.; Salát, J.; Žampachová, E.; Elsterová, Jana; Růžek, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 5 (2015), s. 885-892 ISSN 0146-6615 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis virus * neuroinflammation * luminex * neuroinfection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.998, year: 2015

  3. Analysis of Meteorological Effects on the Incidence of Tick-borne Encephalitis in the Czech Republic over a Thirty-year Period

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabec, Marek; Daniel, M.; Malý, Marek; Danielová, V.; Kříž, B.; Kott, I.; Beneš, Č.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2017), č. článku March 13. ISSN 2514-4138 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NT11425 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis incidence * Ixodes ricinus * ambient temperature * poisson model * generalized additive model * seasonal trends Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability

  4. Tick-borne encephalitis virus-specific RT-PCR - a rapid test for detection of the pathogen without viral RNA purification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Cihlářová, Věra; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2004), s. 167-171 ISSN 0001-723X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/1326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * tick-borne encephalitis virus * RT-PCR Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.605, year: 2004

  5. Results of the screening of Tick-Borne Encephalitis virus antibodies in human sera from eight districts collected two decades apart

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kříž, B.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Malý, M.; Daniel, M.; Straková, Petra; Betášová, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 8 (2015), s. 489-493 ISSN 1530-3667 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Serological survey * Tick-borne encephalitis Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 1.956, year: 2015

  6. A comparative analysis on the physicochemical properties of tick-borne encephalitis virus envelope protein residues that affect its antigenic properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bukin, Y. S.; Dzhioev, Y.; Tkachev, S. E.; Kozlova, I.; Paramonov, A. I.; Růžek, Daniel; Qu, Z.; Zlobin, V. I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 238, JUN 15 (2017), s. 124-132 ISSN 0168-1702 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis virus * E protein * physicochemical properties amino acid residue * antigen * antibody Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 2.628, year: 2016

  7. Reliable surveillance of tick-borne encephalitis in European countries is necessary to improve the quality of vaccine recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanoff, Pawel; Polkowska, Aleksandra; Giambi, Cristina; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; O'Flanagan, Darina; Dematte, Luca; Lopalco, Pier Luigi; Mereckiene, Jolita; Johansen, Kari; D'Ancona, Fortunato

    2011-02-01

    In July-November 2009, 26 European Union (EU) Member States (MSs), Norway and Iceland, participated in a survey seeking information on national tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccination recommendations. Information on TBE surveillance, methods used to ascertain endemic areas, vaccination recommendations, vaccine coverage and methods of monitoring of vaccine coverage were obtained. Sixteen countries (57%) reported presence of TBE endemic areas on their territory. Vaccination against TBE was recommended for the general population in 8 (28%) countries, for occupational risk groups - in 13 (46%) countries, and for tourists going abroad - in 22 (78%) countries. Although vaccination recommendations for country residents, and for tourists always referred to endemic areas, there was no uniform, standardized method used to define endemic areas. For this reason, clear recommendations for tourists need to be developed, and standardized surveillance directed to efficient assessment of TBE risk need to be implemented in European countries. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Activating effect of adrenaline, prednisolone and vincristine in the late periods of tick-borne encephalitis virus persistence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, T V; Pogodina, V V

    1984-01-01

    The activating effect of adrenalin (A), prednisolone (P), and vincristine (V) on persistent infection caused by subcutaneous inoculation of Syrian hamsters with the Vasilchenko and B-383 strains of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBE) was studied. The drugs were administered once, twice, or three times 250-270 days after virus inoculation. Complement-fixing antigen was found in the organs of the infected animals given no A, P, or V; in the organ explants synthesis of hemagglutinin was observed but no infectious virus could be isolated. After treatment of the infected hamsters with A, P, or V organ explants yielded TBE virus strains which showed either high or low virulence for white mice. The activated TBE virus strains were obtained from explants of hamster brains and spleens but not liver. V produced the most marked activating effect, A the least.

  9. [Explantation method of isolating a persistent tick-borne encephalitis virus from the organs of infected monkeys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, L S; Pogodina, V V

    1981-01-01

    The method of explantation was used to examine 63 organs from M. rhesus monkeys 92-783 days after intracerebral and subcutaneous inoculation with the Vasilchenko, Aina/1448 and 41/65 strains of tick-borne encephalitis virus. The optimal time for examination of the explants by tests of the hemagglutinating, cytopathogenic activity of the virus and its pathogenicity for mice was found to be the 15th day of cultivation. A comparative study of the properties of 3 isolates obtained from explants of the spleen, liver and subcortical cerebral ganglia 202 and 307 days after inoculation of monkeys was carried out. The isolates differed from the parental TBE virus strains by their capacity to form small plaques in PEKV cell cultures (pig embryo kidney cells in versen medium).

  10. Mice with different susceptibility to tick-borne encephalitis virus infection show selective neutralizing antibody response and inflammatory reaction in the central nervous system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palus, Martin; Vojtíšková, Jarmila; Salát, Jiří; Kopecký, Jan; Grubhoffer, Libor; Lipoldová, Marie; Demant, P.; Růžek, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, JUN 2013 (2013), s. 77 E-ISSN 1742-2094 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0006/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis * Flavivirus encephalitis * Neuroinflammation * Antibody production Subject RIV: EC - Immunology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UMG-J) Impact factor: 4.902, year: 2013

  11. Full genome sequences and molecular characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus strains isolated from human patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formanová, Petra; Černý, Jiří; Bolfíková, Barbora Černá; Valdés, James J; Kozlova, Irina; Dzhioev, Yuri; Růžek, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), one of the most important human neuroinfections across Eurasia. Up to date, only three full genome sequences of human European TBEV isolates are available, mostly due to difficulties with isolation of the virus from human patients. Here we present full genome characterization of an additional five low-passage TBEV strains isolated from human patients with severe forms of TBE. These strains were isolated in 1953 within Central Bohemia in the former Czechoslovakia, and belong to the historically oldest human TBEV isolates in Europe. We demonstrate here that all analyzed isolates are distantly phylogenetically related, indicating that the emergence of TBE in Central Europe was not caused by one predominant strain, but rather a pool of distantly related TBEV strains. Nucleotide identity between individual sequenced TBEV strains ranged from 97.5% to 99.6% and all strains shared large deletions in the 3' non-coding region, which has been recently suggested to be an important determinant of virulence. The number of unique amino acid substitutions varied from 3 to 9 in individual isolates, but no characteristic amino acid substitution typical exclusively for all human TBEV isolates was identified when compared to the isolates from ticks. We did, however, correlate that the exploration of the TBEV envelope glycoprotein by specific antibodies were in close proximity to these unique amino acid substitutions. Taken together, we report here the largest number of patient-derived European TBEV full genome sequences to date and provide a platform for further studies on evolution of TBEV since the first emergence of human TBE in Europe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. The Willingness to Pay for Vaccination against Tick-Borne Encephalitis and Implications for Public Health Policy: Evidence from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slunge, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The increasing incidence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in Sweden and several other European countries has sparked a discussion about the need for a public vaccination strategy. However, TBE vaccination coverage is incomplete and there is little knowledge about the factors influencing vaccination behavior. Based on a survey of 1,500 randomly selected respondents in Sweden, we estimate vaccination coverage in areas with different TBE risk levels and analyze the role of vaccine price and other factors influencing the demand for vaccination. First, we find that the average rate of TBE vaccination in Sweden is 33% in TBE risk areas and 18% elsewhere. Income, age and risk-related factors such as incidence of TBE in the area of residence, frequency of visits to areas with TBE risk, and experience with tick bites are positively associated with demand for TBE vaccine. Next, using contingent valuation methodology, we estimate the willingness to pay for TBE vaccination among the unvaccinated respondents and the effect of a possible subsidy. Among the unvaccinated respondents in TBE risk areas, we estimate the mean willingness to pay for the recommended three doses of TBE vaccine to be 465 SEK (approximately 46 euros or 40% of the current market price). We project that a subsidy making TBE vaccines free of charge could increase the vaccination rate in TBE risk areas to around 78%, with a larger effect on low-income households, whose current vaccination rate is only 15% in risk areas. However, price is not the only factor affecting demand. We find significant effects on vaccination behavior associated with trust in vaccine recommendations, perceptions about tick bite-related health risks and knowledge about ticks and tick-borne diseases. Hence, increasing knowledge and trust, as well as ease of access to vaccinations, can also be important measures for public health agencies that want to increase the vaccination rate.

  13. The Willingness to Pay for Vaccination against Tick-Borne Encephalitis and Implications for Public Health Policy: Evidence from Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Slunge

    Full Text Available The increasing incidence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE in Sweden and several other European countries has sparked a discussion about the need for a public vaccination strategy. However, TBE vaccination coverage is incomplete and there is little knowledge about the factors influencing vaccination behavior. Based on a survey of 1,500 randomly selected respondents in Sweden, we estimate vaccination coverage in areas with different TBE risk levels and analyze the role of vaccine price and other factors influencing the demand for vaccination. First, we find that the average rate of TBE vaccination in Sweden is 33% in TBE risk areas and 18% elsewhere. Income, age and risk-related factors such as incidence of TBE in the area of residence, frequency of visits to areas with TBE risk, and experience with tick bites are positively associated with demand for TBE vaccine. Next, using contingent valuation methodology, we estimate the willingness to pay for TBE vaccination among the unvaccinated respondents and the effect of a possible subsidy. Among the unvaccinated respondents in TBE risk areas, we estimate the mean willingness to pay for the recommended three doses of TBE vaccine to be 465 SEK (approximately 46 euros or 40% of the current market price. We project that a subsidy making TBE vaccines free of charge could increase the vaccination rate in TBE risk areas to around 78%, with a larger effect on low-income households, whose current vaccination rate is only 15% in risk areas. However, price is not the only factor affecting demand. We find significant effects on vaccination behavior associated with trust in vaccine recommendations, perceptions about tick bite-related health risks and knowledge about ticks and tick-borne diseases. Hence, increasing knowledge and trust, as well as ease of access to vaccinations, can also be important measures for public health agencies that want to increase the vaccination rate.

  14. Tick-borne encephalitis virus isolates from natural foci of the Irkutsk region: clarification of the genotype landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nikova, Ol'ga V; Adel'shin, R V; Korzun, V M; Trushina, Yu N; Andaev, E I

    The Irkutsk region is the unique territory where all known subtypes of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) circulate. In the last years, the phenomenon of changes in TBEV subtypes (substitution of the Far-Eastern subtype by the Siberian one) was noted in some regions of the Russian Federation. The results of individual investigation of 11522 Ixodes persulcatus ticks and brain specimens from 81 small mammals collected in natural foci of the Irkutsk region during 2006-2014 are presented in the article. More than 60 TBEV strains have been isolated and studied by virological methods; E gene fragments (1193 b.p.) of 68 isolates have been typed. The majority of the strains (irrespective of subtype) were of high virulence for laboratory mice (LM) in case of both intracerebral and subcutaneous inoculation of virus. All isolates from warm-blooded small mammals and humans were of high virulence for LM, but placed in the same clusters of the phylogenetic tree with ticks collected in the same area. Tick-borne strains of different virulence also did not form separate clusters on the tree. Phylogenetic analysis showed that modern TBEV genotypic landscape of the studied territory is changing toward absolute predominance of the Siberian subtype (94.1%). This subtype is represented by two groups with prototype strains “Zausaev” and “Vasilchenko”. The “Vasilchenko” group of strains is spread on the whole territory under study; the strains of “Zausaev” group were isolated previously in the Irkutsk suburbs. The European subtype of TBEV circulates in natural foci of Pribaikalie permanently (at least 5% of the random sampling); the strains are of high virulence for LM. The Far-Eastern TBEV subtype was not found within the group of isolates collected in 20062014. The phylogenetic relationship of the strains under study had a higher correlation with the place of isolation than with the year or source.

  15. Goats as sentinel hosts for the detection of tick-borne encephalitis risk areas in the Canton of Valais, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieille, Nadia; Klaus, Christine; Hoffmann, Donata; Péter, Olivier; Voordouw, Maarten J

    2017-07-11

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an important tick-borne disease in Europe. Detection of the TBE virus (TBEV) in local populations of Ixodes ricinus ticks is the most reliable proof that a given area is at risk for TBE, but this approach is time-consuming and expensive. A cheaper and simpler approach is to use immunology-based methods to screen vertebrate hosts for TBEV-specific antibodies and subsequently test the tick populations at locations with seropositive animals. The purpose of the present study was to use goats as sentinel animals to identify new risk areas for TBE in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. A total of 4114 individual goat sera were screened for TBEV-specific antibodies using immunological methods. According to our ELISA assay, 175 goat sera reacted strongly with TBEV antigen, resulting in a seroprevalence rate of 4.3%. The serum neutralization test confirmed that 70 of the 173 ELISA-positive sera had neutralizing antibodies against TBEV. Most of the 26 seropositive goat flocks were detected in the known risk areas in the canton of Valais, with some spread into the connecting valley of Saas and to the east of the town of Brig. One seropositive site was 60 km to the west of the known TBEV-endemic area. At two of the three locations where goats were seropositive, the local tick populations also tested positive for TBEV. The combined approach of screening vertebrate hosts for TBEV-specific antibodies followed by testing the local tick population for TBEV allowed us to detect two new TBEV foci in the canton of Valais. The present study showed that goats are useful sentinel animals for the detection of new TBEV risk areas.

  16. Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes ricinus tick cell lines respond to infection with tick-borne encephalitis virus: transcriptomic and proteomic analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weisheit, S.; Villar, M.; Tykalová, Hana; Popara, M.; Loecherbach, J.; Watson, M.; Růžek, Daniel; Grubhoffer, Libor; de la Fuente, J.; Fazakerley, J.K.; Bell-Sakyi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, NOV 18 2015 (2015), s. 599 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-03044S; GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 238511 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tisk * Ixodes * flavivirus * tick-borne encephalitis virus * tick cell line * innate immunity * antiviral response Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2015

  17. May early intervention with high dose intravenous immunoglobulin pose a potentially successful treatment for severe cases of tick-borne encephalitis?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžek, Daniel; Dobler, G.; Niller, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, JUL 3 2013 (2013), s. 306 ISSN 1471-2334 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0006/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Arboviruses * T-cell * inflammation * MRI * Macrophage * Neopterin * TBE * Tick-borne encephalitis * T2-weighted hyper intensity Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.561, year: 2013

  18. Presence of herpesvirus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with tick-borne encephalitis and enteroviral meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labská, Klára; Roubalová, Kateřina; Pícha, Dušan; Marešová, Vilma

    2015-07-01

    Reactivation of HHVs in the CNS due to inflammation has not been well described yet. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of HHV DNA detection in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of immunocompetent patients with meningoencephalitis of other than HHV origin. The secondary aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of herpesvirus co-infection on the clinical course and patient outcome. Ninety-six patients with clinically and laboratory proven tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and 77 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis (EVM), along with a control group of 107 patients without evidence of inflammation in the CSF were retrospectively tested by nested PCR for the presence of DNA of the neurotropic herpesviruses HSV1, HSV2, VZV, and HHV6 in the CSF. The clinical course, laboratory tests, antiviral treatment, and neurological complications in a 6-month follow-up were compared between the groups positive or negative for HHV DNA in the CSF. HHV DNA was found in the CSF of 12 (6.9%) patients (6.3% and 7.8% in the TBE and EVM groups, respectively) and in 1 (0.9%) control patient. None of the patients had recent blisters or rash. The clinical course was comparably mild in all patients. No permanent neurological sequelae were observed. Only the CSF total protein level was significantly higher in HHV DNA-positive than in HHV-negative patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Adaptation of tick-borne encephalitis virus from human brain to different cell cultures induces multiple genomic substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomareva, Eugenia P; Ternovoi, Vladimir A; Mikryukova, Tamara P; Protopopova, Elena V; Gladysheva, Anastasia V; Shvalov, Alexander N; Konovalova, Svetlana N; Chausov, Eugene V; Loktev, Valery B

    2017-10-01

    The C11-13 strain from the Siberian subtype of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) was isolated from human brain using pig embryo kidney (PEK), 293, and Neuro-2a cells. Analysis of the complete viral genome of the C11-13 variants during six passages in these cells revealed that the cell-adapted C11-13 variants had multiple amino acid substitutions as compared to TBEV from human brain. Seven out of eight amino acids substitutions in the high-replicating C11-13(PEK) variant mapped to non-structural proteins; 13 out of 14 substitutions in the well-replicating C11-13(293) variant, and all four substitutions in the low-replicating C11-13(Neuro-2a) variant were also localized in non-structural proteins, predominantly in the NS2a (2), NS3 (6) and NS5 (3) proteins. The substitutions NS2a 1067 (Asn → Asp), NS2a 1168 (Leu → Val) in the N-terminus of NS2a and NS3 1745 (His → Gln) in the helicase domain of NS3 were found in all selected variants. We postulate that multiple substitutions in the NS2a, NS3 and NS5 genes play a key role in adaptation of TBEV to different cells.

  20. Development and analysis of a tick-borne encephalitis virus infectious clone using a novel and rapid strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsun, T S; Gould, E A

    1998-12-01

    In less than 1 month we have constructed an infectious clone of attenuated tick-borne encephalitis virus (strain Vasilchenko) from 100 microl of unpurified virus suspension using long high fidelity PCR and a modified bacterial cloning system. Optimization of the 3' antisense primer concentration was essential to achieve PCR synthesis of an 11 kb cDNA copy of RNA from infectious virus. A novel system utilising two antisense primers, a 14-mer for reverse transcription and a 35-mer for long PCR, produced high yields of genomic length cDNA. Use of low copy number Able K cells and an incubation temperature of 28 degrees C increased the genetic stability of cloned cDNA. Clones containing 11 kb cDNA inserts produced colonies of reduced size, thus providing a positive selection system for full length clones. Sequencing of the infectious clone emphasised the improved fidelity of the method compared with conventional PCR and cloning methods. A simple and rapid strategy for genetic manipulation of the infectious clone is also described. These developments represent a significant advance in recombinant technology and should be applicable to positive stranded RNA viruses which cannot easily be purified or genetically manipulated.

  1. Evaluation of immune response and protective effect of four vaccines against the tick-borne encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, O V; Bakhvalova, V N; Potapova, O F; Grishechkin, A E; Isaeva, E I; Aldarov, K V; Klinov, D V; Vorovich, M F

    2014-05-23

    Among three main subtypes of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), the Siberian subtype is currently dominant in a majority of the endemic regions of Russia. However, inactivated vaccines are based on TBEV strains of the heterologous Far Eastern or the European subtypes isolated 40-77 years ago. To analyze the efficacy of the available vaccines against currently prevailing TBEV isolates of the Siberian subtype, mice were immunized subcutaneously three times (one group per each vaccine). The expression of seven cytokine genes was determined using RT-PCR. Sera were studied using homologous and heterologous ELISA, hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization tests with TBEV strains of the Far Eastern, Siberian and European subtypes. Cross-protective efficacy of the vaccines was evaluated with the TBEV strain 2689 of Siberian subtype isolated from an ixodid tick from the Novosibirsk, South-Western Siberia, Russia in 2010. The cytokine gene expression profile indicates a predominantly Th2 response due to exogenous antigen presentation. Titers for homologous combinations of vaccine strain and strain in ELISA, HI and neutralization tests exceeded those for heterologous antigen-antibody pairs. Despite antibody detection by means of ELISA, HI and neutralization tests, the mouse protection afforded by the vaccines differed significantly. Complete protection of mice challenged with 100 LD50 virus of the Siberian subtype was induced by the vaccine "Encevir" ("Microgen", Tomsk, Russia). The minimal immunization doze (MID50) of "Encevir" protecting 50% of the mice was less than 0.0016 ml. Partial protective effect of vaccines produced in Moscow, Russia and Austria revealed MID50 within recommended intervals (0.001-0.017 ml). However, the MID50 for the vaccine "Encepur" (Novartis, Germany) 0.04 ml exceeded acceptable limits with total loss of mice immunized with vaccine diluted 32, 100 and 320 fold. These results suggest regular evaluation of TBEV vaccines in regions

  2. The degree of attenuation of tick-borne encephalitis virus depends on the cumulative effects of point mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsun, T S; Desai, A; Gould, E A

    2001-07-01

    An infectious clone (pGGVs) of the tick-borne encephalitis complex virus Vasilchenko (Vs) was constructed previously. Virus recovered from pGGVs produced slightly smaller plaques than the Vs parental virus. Sequence analysis demonstrated five nucleotide differences between the original Vs virus and pGGVs; four of these mutations resulted in amino acid substitutions, while the fifth mutation was located in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR). Two mutations were located in conserved regions and three mutations were located in variable regions of the virus genome. Reverse substitutions from the conserved regions of the genome, R(496)-->H in the envelope (E) gene and C(10884)-->T in the 3'UTR, were introduced both separately and together into the infectious clone and their biological effect on virus phenotype was evaluated. The engineered viruses with R(496) in the E protein produced plaques of smaller size than viruses with H(496) at this position. This mutation also affected the growth and neuroinvasiveness of the virus. In contrast, the consequence of a T(10884)-->C substitution within the 3'UTR was noticeable only in cytotoxicity and neuroinvasiveness tests. However, all virus mutants engineered by modification of the infectious clone, including one with two wild-type mutations, H(496) and T(10884), showed reduced neuroinvasiveness in comparison with the Vs parental virus. Therefore, although the H(496)-->R and T(10884)-->C substitutions clearly reduce virus virulence, the other mutations within the variable regions of the capsid (I(45)-->F) and the NS5 (T(2688)-->A and M(3385)-->I) genes also contribute to the process of attenuation. In terms of developing flavivirus vaccines, the impact of accumulating apparently minor mutations should be assessed in detail.

  3. Analysis of tick-borne encephalitis virus-induced host responses in human cells of neuronal origin and interferon-mediated protection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Selinger, Martin; Wilkie, G. S.; Tong, L.; Gu, Q.; Schnettler, E.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Kohl, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 8 (2017), s. 2043-2060 ISSN 0022-1317 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-03044S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : blood- brain -barrier * long noncoding RNAs * double-stranded-RNA * interferon * immune-response * gene-expression * stimulated genes * human astrocytes * viral-infection * protein * tick-borne encephalitis virus * neuronal cells * transcriptome analysis * host response * interferon Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 2.838, year: 2016

  4. Mutations in the NS2B and NS3 genes affect mouse neuroinvasiveness of a Western European field strain of tick-borne encephalitis virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžek, Daniel; Gritsun, T. S.; Forrester, N. L.; Gould, E. A.; Kopecký, Jan; Golovchenko, Maryna; Rudenko, Natalia; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 374, č. 2 (2008), s. 249-255 ISSN 0042-6822 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/08/1509; GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/1479; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Grant - others:European Commission(GB) LSHG-CT-2004-511960 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis virus * neuroinvasiveness * viral phenotype Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.539, year: 2008

  5. The stress granule component TIA-1 binds tick-borne encephalitis virus RNA and is recruited to perinuclear sites of viral replication to inhibit viral translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albornoz, Amelina; Carletti, Tea; Corazza, Gianmarco; Marcello, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    Flaviviruses are a major cause of disease in humans and animals worldwide. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is the most important arthropod-borne flavivirus endemic in Europe and is the etiological agent of tick-borne encephalitis, a potentially fatal infection of the central nervous system. However, the contributions of host proteins during TBEV infection are poorly understood. In this work, we investigate the cellular protein TIA-1 and its cognate factor TIAR, which are stress-induced RNA-binding proteins involved in the repression of initiation of translation of cellular mRNAs and in the formation of stress granules. We show that TIA-1 and TIAR interact with viral RNA in TBEV-infected cells. During TBEV infection, cytoplasmic TIA-1 and TIAR are recruited at sites of viral replication with concomitant depletion from stress granules. This effect is specific, since G3BP1, another component of these cytoplasmic structures, remains localized to stress granules. Moreover, heat shock induction of stress granules containing TIA-1, but not G3BP1, is inhibited in TBEV-infected cells. Infection of cells depleted of TIA-1 or TIAR by small interfering RNA (siRNA) or TIA-1(-/-) mouse fibroblasts, leads to a significant increase in TBEV extracellular infectivity. Interestingly, TIAR(-/-) fibroblasts show the opposite effect on TBEV infection, and this phenotype appears to be related to an excess of TIA-1 in these cells. Taking advantage of a TBE-luciferase replicon system, we also observed increased luciferase activity in TIA-1(-/-) mouse fibroblasts at early time points, consistent with TIA-1-mediated inhibition at the level of the first round of viral translation. These results indicate that, in response to TBEV infection, TIA-1 is recruited to sites of virus replication to bind TBEV RNA and modulate viral translation independently of stress granule (SG) formation. This study (i) extends previous work that showed TIA-1/TIAR recruitment at sites of flavivirus replication

  6. Utilisation of ISA Reverse Genetics and Large-Scale Random Codon Re-Encoding to Produce Attenuated Strains of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus within Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fabritus, Lauriane; Nougairède, Antoine; Aubry, Fabien; Gould, Ernest A; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale codon re-encoding is a new method of attenuating RNA viruses. However, the use of infectious clones to generate attenuated viruses has inherent technical problems. We previously developed a bacterium-free reverse genetics protocol, designated ISA, and now combined it with large-scale random codon-re-encoding method to produce attenuated tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a pathogenic flavivirus which causes febrile illness and encephalitis in humans. We produced wild-type (WT) and two re-encoded TBEVs, containing 273 or 273+284 synonymous mutations in the NS5 and NS5+NS3 coding regions respectively. Both re-encoded viruses were attenuated when compared with WT virus using a laboratory mouse model and the relative level of attenuation increased with the degree of re-encoding. Moreover, all infected animals produced neutralizing antibodies. This novel, rapid and efficient approach to engineering attenuated viruses could potentially expedite the development of safe and effective new-generation live attenuated vaccines.

  7. [Characteristics of long-term persisting strains of tick-borne encephalitis virus in different forms of the chronic process in animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, T V; Pogodina, V V; Frolova, M P; Karmysheva, V Ia

    1982-01-01

    The properties of the Vasilchenko strain of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and its 3 variants isolated at various stages of persistent infection (383, 453, and 535 days) in Macaca rhesus monkeys and Syrian hamsters with different forms of the chronic TBE were studied. The process characterized by chronic focal inflammatory-degenerative changes in the brains of hamsters without the disturbance of motor functions was associated with persistence of different kinds of virus-specific antigens without virulent virus production. Brain explants of this group of hamsters yielded a virus with cytopathogenic properties but not pathogenic for mice. In a chronic disease developing without the initial acute period, a virus was recovered from hamsters which proved to be virulent for mice and to possess the hemagglutinating and high invasive activity. The most virulent strain was isolated from monkeys with continuously progressive chronic encephalitis with steady paralysis of the extremities. This isolate differed from the parental Vasilchenko strain by a high pathogenicity for hamsters by intracerebral and subcutaneous routes, and thermostability at 50 degrees C.

  8. Integration of a Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato into Mountain Ecosystems, Following a Shift in the Altitudinal Limit of Distribution of Their Vector, Ixodes ricinus (Krkonoše Mountains, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danielová, V.; Daniel, M.; Schwarzová, L.; Materna, J.; Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Holubová, J.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Kilian, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2010), s. 223-230 ISSN 1530-3667 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA310/06/1546 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies * Climate * Ixodes ricinus tick * Mountain ecosystems * Tick-borne encephalitis virus Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2010

  9. THE CYTOKINES SYNTHESIS IN VITRO IN THE TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS INFECTED CELLS AND IN THE PRESENCE OF INACTIVATED VACCINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Mesentseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE is severe neuroinfectious disease with involvement of immune mechanisms in pathogenesis. Comparative analysis of synthesis of key cytokines had been performed for the TBE virus (TBEV infected cells and in the presence of inactivated vaccine against TBE in vitro. Persistent TBEV infection of immortal tissue culture of human larynx cancer cells caused transcription activation of interferons IFNα, IFNγ, IFNλ1, interleukins IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor TNFα as well as one of apoptosis factors Fas. Comparison of transcription and production of cytokines revealed that the TBEV infection resulted in posttranscription Th1 shift of cytokine response. In the presence of inactivated vaccine against TBE based on the same strain Sofjin of the TBEV activation of transcription of cytokines IFNα, IFNλ1, IL-4, IL-10 was also observed as after the TBEV infection that together with an additional stimulation of GM-CSF production might serve as an evidence of Th2 response. Involvement of IFNIII type (IFNλ1 both during persistent infection and after addition of inactivated vaccines was found in the first time. Differences in dynamics of cytokines IL-2, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNFα response during the TBEV infection and in the presence of inactivated vaccine are described.

  10. Experimental infection of goats with tick-borne encephalitis virus and the possibilities to prevent virus transmission by raw goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Zsuzsanna; Egyed, László; Ferenczi, Emőke; Bán, Enikő; Szomor, Katalin N; Takács, Mária; Berencsi, György

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection of goats and the possibilities to prevent human milk-borne infections either by immunizing animals or the heat treatment of milk. An experiment was conducted with 20 milking goats. Ten goats (half of them immunized) were challenged with live TBEV and 10 were left uninfected. Clinical signs and body temperatures of the animals were recorded and milk samples were collected daily. The presence of viral RNA and infectious virions in milk were detected by RT-PCR and intracerebral inoculation of suckling mice, respectively. Milk samples containing infectious virions were subjected to various heat treatment conditions and retested afterwards to assess the effect on infectivity. The infected goats did not show any clinical signs or fever compared to uninfected ones. Infectious virions were detected for 8-19 days from the milk samples (genome for 3-18 days by PCR) of infected goats. Immunized goats did not shed the virus. After heat treatment of the milk, the inoculated mice survived. Goats shed the virus with their milk without showing any symptoms. Human milk-borne infections can be avoided both by immunizing goats and boiling/pasteurizing infected milk. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Development of a serodiagnostic IgM-ELISA for tick-borne encephalitis virus using subviral particles with strep-tag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayasu, Miki; Hirano, Minato; Muto, Memi; Kobayashi, Shintaro; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Yoshii, Kentaro

    2018-06-23

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a zoonotic agent causing severe encephalitis in humans. IgM antibody detection is useful for the serological diagnosis of TBEV infection, because IgM has high specificity for each flavivirus and indicates a recent infection. Commercial IgM-ELISA kits are somewhat expensive and difficulties in their sensitivity have been suggested due to their format and formalin-inactivated antigens. Therefore, the development of an inexpensive IgM-ELISA with high specificity and sensitivity is needed. In this study, a μ-capture ELISA was developed to detect TBEV-specific IgM antibodies using subviral particles (SPs) with strep-tag (strep-SP-IgM-ELISA). The results of our strep-SP-IgM-ELISA were highly correlated with diagnoses made by the neutralization test (sensitivity: 94.1%), and our strep-SP-IgM-ELISA could detect anti-TBEV IgM antibodies in patients who could not be diagnosed with the neutralization test. Besides, 51 of 52 positive samples by a commercial IgM-ELISA were also diagnosed as positive by our strep-SP-IgM-ELISA (98.1%), and our strep-SP-IgM-ELISA could detect anti-TBEV IgM antibodies in all samples that were inconclusive based on the commercial IgM-ELISA. Our strep-SP-IgM-ELISA will be useful for diagnoses in TBE-endemic areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Systematic literature review comparing rapid 3-dose administration of the GSK tick-borne encephalitis vaccine with other primary immunization schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, Ilaria; Bunge, Eveline M; Hendriks, Lisa; Schludermann, Christopher; Marano, Cinzia; De Moerlooze, Laurence

    2017-09-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), which is endemic across large regions of Europe and Asia, is most effectively prevented through vaccination. Three-dose primary TBE vaccination schedules are either rapid (0,7,21-days) or conventional (0,28-84-days, 9-12-months). The second dose can also be administered at 14 days for faster priming and sero-protection). Areas covered: We used a three-step selection process to identify 21 publications comparing the immunogenicity and/or safety of different schedules. Expert commentary: Priming with two or three TBE vaccine doses was highly immunogenic. After conventional priming (0-28 days), 95% adults and ≥95% children had neutralization test (NT) titers ≥10 at 14 days post-dose-2 compared with 92% adults and 99% children at 21 days post-dose-3 (rapid schedule). Most subjects retained NT titers ≥10 at day 300. A single booster dose induced a strong immune response in all subjects irrespective of primary vaccination schedule or elapsed time since priming. GMT peaked at 42 days post-dose-1 (i.e., 21 days post-dose 3 [rapid-schedule], or 14-28 days post-dose-2 [conventional-schedule]), and declined thereafter. Adverse events were generally rare and declined with increasing doses. In the absence of data to recommend one particular schedule, the regimen choice will remain at the physician's discretion, based on patient constraints and availability.

  13. Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Structural Proteins Are the Primary Viral Determinants of Non-Viraemic Transmission between Ticks whereas Non-Structural Proteins Affect Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasnatinov, Maxim A; Tuplin, Andrew; Gritsun, Dmitri J; Slovak, Mirko; Kazimirova, Maria; Lickova, Martina; Havlikova, Sabina; Klempa, Boris; Labuda, Milan; Gould, Ernest A; Gritsun, Tamara S

    2016-01-01

    Over 50 million humans live in areas of potential exposure to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). The disease exhibits an estimated 16,000 cases recorded annually over 30 European and Asian countries. Conventionally, TBEV transmission to Ixodes spp. ticks occurs whilst feeding on viraemic animals. However, an alternative mechanism of non-viraemic transmission (NVT) between infected and uninfected ticks co-feeding on the same transmission-competent host, has also been demonstrated. Here, using laboratory-bred I. ricinus ticks, we demonstrate low and high efficiency NVT for TBEV strains Vasilchenko (Vs) and Hypr, respectively. These virus strains share high sequence similarity but are classified as two TBEV subtypes. The Vs strain is a Siberian subtype, naturally associated with I. persulcatus ticks whilst the Hypr strain is a European subtype, transmitted by I. ricinus ticks. In mammalian cell culture (porcine kidney cell line PS), Vs and Hypr induce low and high cytopathic effects (cpe), respectively. Using reverse genetics, we engineered a range of viable Vs/Hypr chimaeric strains, with substituted genes. No significant differences in replication rate were detected between wild-type and chimaeric viruses in cell culture. However, the chimaeric strain Vs[Hypr str] (Hypr structural and Vs non-structural genomic regions) demonstrated high efficiency NVT in I. ricinus whereas the counterpart Hypr[Vs str] was not transmitted by NVT, indicating that the virion structural proteins largely determine TBEV NVT transmission efficiency between ticks. In contrast, in cell culture, the extent of cpe was largely determined by the non-structural region of the TBEV genome. Chimaeras with Hypr non-structural genes were more cytotoxic for PS cells when compared with Vs genome-based chimaeras.

  14. Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Structural Proteins Are the Primary Viral Determinants of Non-Viraemic Transmission between Ticks whereas Non-Structural Proteins Affect Cytotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim A Khasnatinov

    Full Text Available Over 50 million humans live in areas of potential exposure to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV. The disease exhibits an estimated 16,000 cases recorded annually over 30 European and Asian countries. Conventionally, TBEV transmission to Ixodes spp. ticks occurs whilst feeding on viraemic animals. However, an alternative mechanism of non-viraemic transmission (NVT between infected and uninfected ticks co-feeding on the same transmission-competent host, has also been demonstrated. Here, using laboratory-bred I. ricinus ticks, we demonstrate low and high efficiency NVT for TBEV strains Vasilchenko (Vs and Hypr, respectively. These virus strains share high sequence similarity but are classified as two TBEV subtypes. The Vs strain is a Siberian subtype, naturally associated with I. persulcatus ticks whilst the Hypr strain is a European subtype, transmitted by I. ricinus ticks. In mammalian cell culture (porcine kidney cell line PS, Vs and Hypr induce low and high cytopathic effects (cpe, respectively. Using reverse genetics, we engineered a range of viable Vs/Hypr chimaeric strains, with substituted genes. No significant differences in replication rate were detected between wild-type and chimaeric viruses in cell culture. However, the chimaeric strain Vs[Hypr str] (Hypr structural and Vs non-structural genomic regions demonstrated high efficiency NVT in I. ricinus whereas the counterpart Hypr[Vs str] was not transmitted by NVT, indicating that the virion structural proteins largely determine TBEV NVT transmission efficiency between ticks. In contrast, in cell culture, the extent of cpe was largely determined by the non-structural region of the TBEV genome. Chimaeras with Hypr non-structural genes were more cytotoxic for PS cells when compared with Vs genome-based chimaeras.

  15. The impact of climate change on the expansion of Ixodes persulcatus habitat and the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis in the north of European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarevich, Nikolay K.; Tronin, Andrey A.; Blinova, Olga V.; Buzinov, Roman V.; Boltenkov, Vitaliy P.; Yurasova, Elena D.; Nurse, Jo

    2011-01-01

    Background The increase in tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) incidence is observed in recent decades in a number of subarctic countries. The reasons of it are widely discussed in scientific publications. The objective of this study was to understand if the climate change in Arkhangelsk Oblast (AO) situated in the north of European subarctic zone of Russia has real impact on the northward expansion of Ixodid ticks and stipulates the increase in TBE incidence. Methods This study analyzes: TBE incidence in AO and throughout Russia, the results of Ixodid ticks collecting in a number of sites in AO, and TBE virus prevalence in those ticks, the data on tick bite incidence in AO, and meteorological data on AO mean annual air temperatures and precipitations. Results It is established that in recent years TBE incidence in AO tended to increase contrary to its apparent decrease nationwide. In last 10 years, there was nearly 50-fold rise in TBE incidence in AO when compared with 1980–1989. Probably, the increase both in mean annual air temperatures and temperatures during tick active season resulted in the northward expansion of Ixodes Persulcatus, main TBE virus vector. The Ixodid ticks expansion is confirmed both by the results of ticks flagging from the surface vegetation and by the tick bite incidence in the population of AO locations earlier free from ticks. Our mathematical (correlation and regression) analysis of available data revealed a distinct correlation between TBE incidence and the growth of mean annual air temperatures in AO in 1990–2009. Conclusion Not ruling out other factors, we conclude that climate change contributed much to the TBE incidence increase in AO. PMID:22028678

  16. Stability of a Tick-Borne Flavivirus in Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Offerdahl, Danielle K.; Clancy, Niall G.; Bloom, Marshall E.

    2016-01-01

    The tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFV) occur worldwide and the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) members of the group often cause severe, debilitating neurological disease in humans. Although the primary route of infection is through the bite of an infected tick, alimentary infection through the consumption of TBEV-contaminated dairy products is also well-documented and is responsible for some disease in endemic areas. Experimental infection of goats, cattle, and sheep with TBEV shows that the...

  17. The wild life of tick-borne pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmeester, Tim R.

    2016-01-01

    Diseases that are transmitted by arthropod vectors from animal hosts to humans – so called zoonotic vector-borne diseases – have increased in incidence in the last decades. In North America and Europe, tick-borne pathogens cause the majority of vector-borne diseases, including Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. The pathogens causing these diseases are transmitted by tick species within the Ixodes ricinus complex. These are generalist ticks that have a multi-year lifecycle with thre...

  18. Tick-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratton, Robert L; Corey, Ralph

    2005-06-15

    Tick-borne diseases in the United States include Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, tularemia, babesiosis, Colorado tick fever, and relapsing fever. It is important for family physicians to consider these illnesses when patients present with influenza-like symptoms. A petechial rash initially affecting the palms and soles of the feet is associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever, whereas erythema migrans (annular macule with central clearing) is associated with Lyme disease. Various other rashes or skin lesions accompanied by fever and influenza-like illness also may signal the presence of a tick-borne disease. Early, accurate diagnosis allows treatment that may help prevent significant morbidity and possible mortality. Because 24 to 48 hours of attachment to the host are required for infection to occur, early removal can help prevent disease. Treatment with doxycycline or tetracycline is indicated for Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, and relapsing fever. In patients with clinical findings suggestive of tick-borne disease, treatment should not be delayed for laboratory confirmation. If no symptoms follow exposure to tick bites, empiric treatment is not indicated. The same tick may harbor different infectious pathogens and transmit several with one bite. Advising patients about prevention of tick bites, especially in the summer months, may help prevent exposure to dangerous vector-borne diseases.

  19. Interim Report on SNP analysis and forensic microarray probe design for South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus, henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses, Rift Valley fever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaing, C; Gardner, S

    2012-06-05

    The goal of this project is to develop forensic genotyping assays for select agent viruses, enhancing the current capabilities for the viral bioforensics and law enforcement community. We used a multipronged approach combining bioinformatics analysis, PCR-enriched samples, microarrays and TaqMan assays to develop high resolution and cost effective genotyping methods for strain level forensic discrimination of viruses. We have leveraged substantial experience and efficiency gained through year 1 on software development, SNP discovery, TaqMan signature design and phylogenetic signature mapping to scale up the development of forensics signatures in year 2. In this report, we have summarized the whole genome wide SNP analysis and microarray probe design for forensics characterization of South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis viruses and henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus and Japanese encephalitis virus.

  20. A brief history of the discovery of tick-borne encephalitis virus in the late 1930s (based on reminiscences of members of the expeditions, their colleagues, and relatives).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlobin, Vladimir I; Pogodina, Vanda V; Kahl, Olaf

    2017-10-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus is the etiological agent of a severe human disease transmitted by hard ticks. It occurs in large parts of eastern, central, and western Asia and in Europe with thousands of human cases each year. Here, the discovery of the virus by Soviet scientists in the late 1930s in the Far East is described. The pioneering work involved with this discovery, which resulted in great scientific and epidemiological achievement, was undertaken under the most difficult conditions, and some of the scientists and their technical assistants paid for it with their health and even their lives. This paper briefly outlines the steps on the way that elucidated the basic etiology and eco-epidemiology of the disease, and does not omit that, as one result of the expeditions and the political situation in the former Soviet Union at that time, some scientists were sent to prison. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. [FAB immunoglobulin fragments. I. The comparative characteristics of the serological and virus-neutralizing properties of a gamma globulin against tick-borne encephalitis and of the FAB fragments isolated from it].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barban, P S; Minaeva, V M; Pantiukhina, A N; Startseva, M G

    1976-06-01

    A comparative study was made of the serological properties and virus-neutralizing activity of antiencephalitis gamma-globulin and Fab-fragments isolated from it by gel-filtration. Horse immunoglobulins against the autumno-summer tick-borne encephalitis virus could be disintegrated with the aid of papaine to monovalent Fab-fragments which (according to the complement fixation reaction, the test of suppression of the complement fixation, and the HAIT) retained the serological activity whose level was compared with that of the serological activity of gamma-globulin. Fab-fragments possessed a marked virus-neutralizing activity. The mean value of a logarithm of the neutralization index was 2.65 +/- 0.2 for Fab-fragments and 3.74 +/- 0.38 for gamma-globulin (P less than 0.01).

  2. Sixty years of research of tick-borne encephalitis--a basis of the current knowledge of the epidemiological situation in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, M; Benes, C; Danielová, V; Kríz, B

    2011-11-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus was isolated for the first time in Central Europe in 1948 from both a patient and Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in the area where the patient had been tick bitten (the Beroun area - Central Bohemia) and concomitantly from a TBE patient in Moravia (the Vyskov area). Another priority discovery was alimentary transmission of TBE virus via the milk from tick infected grazing goats that was made during a TBE outbreak in Roznava (SE Slovakia). This outbreak of 660 cases has been the largest of its kind. Both of these discoveries were a challenge to multidisciplinary research into the natural focality of TBE. The results obtained were published by Czech and Slovak authors in the first European TBE monograph (1954) and were the stimulus for further research in this area. From the epidemiological point of view, among others, the impact of meteorological factors (on TBE incidence associated with I. ricinus host-seeking activity) and recreational nature of TBE were clearly defined then. At the same time, TBE became a notifiable disease (since 1971 laboratory confirmed TBE cases only). In the following decades, the phenomenon of natural focality of TBE (including anthropic impacts) was extensively studied and the determinants of high-risk areas in the field were analyzed. The results were used in the creation of I. ricinus and TBE risk prediction maps for the Czech Republic generated for the first time in Europe using LANDSAT 5 satellite data and GIS technology (1990). In the early 1990s (in particular since 1993), similarly to other countries, the Czech Republic reported a sharp rise in TBE cases that continues, with some fluctuations, until now. The cooperation with climatologists in the analysis of historical data, current epidemiological observations, and study of I. ricinus in the field have shown a decisive impact of the ongoing climate change. The analysis of the socio-economic conditions in high-risk areas for TBE has not revealed

  3. Impact of climate trends on tick-borne pathogen transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin eEstrada-Pena

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in climate research together with a better understanding of tick-pathogen interactions, the distribution of ticks and the diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens raise questions about the impact of environmental factors on tick abundance and spread and the prevalence and transmission of tick-borne pathogens. While undoubtedly climate plays a role in the changes in distribution and seasonal abundance of ticks, it is always difficult to disentangle factors impacting on the abundance of tick hosts from those exerted by human habits. All together, climate, host abundance and social factors may explain the upsurge of epidemics transmitted by ticks to humans. Herein we focused on tick-borne pathogens that affect humans with pandemic potential. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. (Lyme disease, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (human granulocytic anaplasmosis and tick-borne encephalitis virus (tick-borne encephalitis are transmitted by Ixodes spp. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is transmitted by Hyalomma spp. In this review, we discussed how vector tick species occupy the habitat as a function of different climatic factors, and how these factors impact on tick survival and seasonality. How molecular events at the tick-pathogen interface impact on pathogen transmission is also discussed. Results from statistically and biologically derived models are compared to show that while statistical models are able to outline basic information about tick distributions, biologically derived models are necessary to evaluate pathogen transmission rates and understand the effect of climatic variables and host abundance patterns on pathogen transmission. The results of these studies could be used to build early alert systems able to identify the main factors driving the subtle changes in tick distribution and seasonality and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens.

  4. The neurovirulence and neuroinvasiveness of chimeric tick-borne encephalitis/dengue virus can be attenuated by introducing defined mutations into the envelope and NS5 protein genes and the 3' non-coding region of the genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, Amber R.; Rumyantsev, Alexander A.; Maximova, Olga A.; Speicher, James M.; Heiss, Brian; Murphy, Brian R.; Pletnev, Alexander G.

    2010-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a severe disease affecting thousands of people throughout Eurasia. Despite the use of formalin-inactivated vaccines in endemic areas, an increasing incidence of TBE emphasizes the need for an alternative vaccine that will induce a more durable immunity against TBE virus (TBEV). The chimeric attenuated virus vaccine candidate containing the structural protein genes of TBEV on a dengue virus genetic background (TBEV/DEN4) retains a high level of neurovirulence in both mice and monkeys. Therefore, attenuating mutations were introduced into the envelope (E 315 ) and NS5 (NS5 654,655 ) proteins, and into the 3' non-coding region (Δ30) of TBEV/DEN4. The variant that contained all three mutations (vΔ30/E 315 /NS5 654,655 ) was significantly attenuated for neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence and displayed a reduced level of replication and virus-induced histopathology in the brains of mice. The high level of safety in the central nervous system indicates that vΔ30/E 315 /NS5 654,655 should be further evaluated as a TBEV vaccine.

  5. Transport of Ixodid ticks and tick-borne pathogens by migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar eHasle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Birds, particularly passerines, can be parasitized by Ixodid ticks, which may be infected with tick-borne pathogens, like Borrelia spp., Babesia spp., Anaplasma, Rickettsia/Coxiella, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. The prevalence of ticks on birds varies over years, season, locality and different bird species. The prevalence of ticks on different species depends mainly on the degree of feeding on the ground. In Europe, the Turdus spp., especially the blackbird, Turdus merula, appears to be most important for harboring ticks. Birds can easily cross barriers, like fences, mountains, glaciers, desserts and oceans, which would stop mammals, and they can move much faster than the wingless hosts. Birds can potentially transport tick-borne pathogens by transporting infected ticks, by being infected with tick-borne pathogens and transmit the pathogens to the ticks, and possibly act as hosts for transfer of pathogens between ticks through co-feeding. Knowledge of the bird migration routes and of the spatial distribution of tick species and tick-borne pathogens is crucial for understanding the possible impact of birds as spreaders of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. Successful colonization of new tick species or introduction of new tick-borne pathogens will depend on suitable climate, vegetation and hosts. Although it has never been demonstrated that a new tick species, or a new tick pathogen, actually has been established in a new locality after being seeded there by birds, evidence strongly suggests that this could occur.

  6. Detection and genetic characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) derived from ticks removed from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and isolated from spleen samples of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemeršić, Lorena; Dežđek, Danko; Brnić, Dragan; Prpić, Jelena; Janicki, Zdravko; Keros, Tomislav; Roić, Besi; Slavica, Alen; Terzić, Svjetlana; Konjević, Dean; Beck, Relja

    2014-02-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a growing public health concern in central and northern European countries. Even though TBE is a notifiable disease in Croatia, there is a significant lack of information in regard to vector tick identification, distribution as well as TBE virus prevalence in ticks or animals. The aim of our study was to identify and to investigate the viral prevalence of TBE virus in ticks removed from red fox (Vulpes vulpes) carcasses hunted in endemic areas in northern Croatia and to gain a better insight in the role of wild ungulates, especially red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the maintenance of the TBE virus in the natural cycle. We identified 5 tick species (Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes hexagonus, Haemaphysalis punctata, Dermacentor reticulatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus) removed from 40 red foxes. However, TBE virus was isolated only from adult I. ricinus and I. hexagonus ticks showing a viral prevalence (1.6%) similar to or higher than reported in endemic areas of other European countries. Furthermore, 2 positive spleen samples from 182 red deer (1.1%) were found. Croatian TBE virus isolates were genetically analyzed, and they were shown to be closely related, all belonging to the European TBE virus subgroup. However, on the basis of nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis, 2 clusters were identified. Our results show that further investigation is needed to understand the clustering of isolates and to identify the most common TBE virus reservoir hosts in Croatia. Sentinel surveys based on wild animal species would give a better insight in defining TBE virus-endemic and possible risk areas in Croatia. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. Analysis of the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphism of the CD209, IL-10, IL-28 and CCR5 D32 genes with the human predisposition to developing tick-borne encephalitis

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    Piotr Czupryna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that in the pathogenesis of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE various molecules play a significant role. The most prominent factors include IL-10, IL-28B, CD-209 and CCR5. It is reasonable to search for genetic predispositions to the development of various clinical forms of TBE related to the genetic variation of IL-10, IL-28B, CD-209 and CCR5. In this study we aimed to search for the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of the CD209, IL-10, IL-28 and 32 base pair deletion in CCR5 coding region (Δ 32 with the human predisposition to development of various clinical presentations of TBE. We tried to assess the relation between the presence of particular alleles and genotypes with laboratory and clinical parameters. Material/Methods 59 patients with TBE and 57 people, bitten by a tick who never developed TBE (Polish cohort, were included in the study. To assess the distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms, TaqMan SNP genotyping assays were used for IL10: rs1800872 and rs1800896, for CD 209 rs4804803 and rs2287886, rs12979860 for IL 28B SNPs according to the manufacturer’s protocol using real-time PCR technology on the StepOne thermal cycler. Results Comparison between TBE patients and CG showed that in SNP rs2287886 CD 209 AG heterozygotes were more frequent in the TBE group, while homozygotes GG were more frequent in the CG group. Conclusions SNP rs2287886 CD 209 AG heterozygotes predispose humans to develop TBE. Single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of the CD209, IL-10, IL-28 and CCR5 D32 genes does not correlate with the severity of TBE.

  8. Vaccines for tick-borne diseases and cost-effectiveness of vaccination : a public health challenge to reduce the diseases’ burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Renata; Postma, Maarten J

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and Lyme borreliosis (LB) are tick-borne diseases (TBDs), and both present an increasing burden worldwide. Vaccination as public health intervention could be the most effective way to reduce this burden. TBE vaccines are available, but vaccines against LB are still in

  9. Tick-Borne Encephalitis in Sheep, Romania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Salát, J.; Mihalca, A. D.; Mihaiu, M.; Modrý, D.; Růžek, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 12 (2017), s. 2065-2067 ISSN 1080-6040 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : borrelia-burgdorferi * virus * tbev Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 8.222, year: 2016

  10. ANTIDotE: anti-tick vaccines to prevent tick-borne diseases in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sprong, H.; Trentelman, J.; Seemann, I.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rego, Ryan O. M.; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Kopáček, Petr; Šíma, Radek; Nijhof, A.M.; Anguita, J.; Winter, P.; Rotter, B.; Havlíková, S.; Klempa, B.; Schetters, T.P.; Hovius, J.W.R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, FEB 2014 (2014), s. 77 ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * vaccine * Lyme borreliosis * tick-borne encephalitis * babesiosis * public health Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014

  11. [Genetic characterisation of Powassan virus (POWV) isolated from Haemophysalis longicornis ticks in Primorye and two strains of Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus): Alma-Arasan virus (AAV) isolated from Ixodes persulcatus ticks in Kazakhstan and Malyshevo virus isolated from Aedes vexans nipponii mosquitoes in Khabarovsk kray].

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Botikov, A G; Aristova, V A

    2014-01-01

    The complete genomes of the three tick-borne flaviviruses (genus Flavivirus, fam. Bunyaviridae) were sequenced: Povassan virus (POWV, strain LEIV-3070Prm, isolated from Haemophysalis logicornis in Primorsky Krai, Russia in 1977), Alma-Arasan virus (AAV, strain LEIV-1380Kaz, isolated from Ixodes persulcatus ticks in Kazakhstan in 1977) and Malyshevo virus (isolated from a pool of Aedes vexans nipponii mosquitoes, in the Khabarovsk Krai, Russia in 1978). It is shown that AAV and Malyshevo virus are the strains of Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and belong to Sibirian and Far-Eastern genotypes, respectively (GenBank ID: AAV KJ744033; strain Malyshevo KJ744034). Phylogenetically AAV is closest related (94,6% nt and 98,3% aa identity) to TBEV strains, isolated in Sibiria (Vasilchenko, Aino, Chita-653, Irkutsk-12). Malyshevo virus is closest related (96,4% nt and 98,3% nt identity) to strains of TBEV, isolated in Far Eastern part of Russia (1230, Spassk-72, Primorye-89). POWV LEIV-3070Prm has 99.7% identity with the prototype strain POWV LB, isolated in Canada and 99.5% of isolates with Far-Eastern strains of POWV (Spassk-9 and Nadezdinsk-1991).

  12. Stability of a tick-borne flavivirus in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle K Offerdahl

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFV occur worldwide and the tick-borne encephalitis virus members of the group (TBEV often cause severe, debilitating neurological disease in humans. Although the primary route of infection is through the bite of an infected tick, alimentary infection through the consumption of TBEV-contaminated dairy products is also well-documented and is responsible for some disease in endemic areas. Experimental infection of goats, cattle, and sheep with TBEV shows that virus can be excreted in the milk of infected animals. Additionally, the virus remains infectious after exposure to low pH levels, similar to those found in the stomach. To evaluate survival of virus in milk, we studied the stability of the BSL-2 TBFV, Langat virus, in unpasteurized goat milk over time and after different thermal treatments. Virus was stable in milk maintained under refrigeration conditions; however, there was a marked reduction in virus titer after incubation at room temperature. High temperature, short time pasteurization protocols completely inactivated the virus. Interestingly, simulation of a typical thermal regime utilized for cheese did not completely inactivate the virus in milk. These findings stress the importance of proper milk handling and pasteurization processes in areas endemic for TBEV.

  13. Stability of a Tick-Borne Flavivirus in Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offerdahl, Danielle K; Clancy, Niall G; Bloom, Marshall E

    2016-01-01

    The tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFV) occur worldwide and the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) members of the group often cause severe, debilitating neurological disease in humans. Although the primary route of infection is through the bite of an infected tick, alimentary infection through the consumption of TBEV-contaminated dairy products is also well-documented and is responsible for some disease in endemic areas. Experimental infection of goats, cattle, and sheep with TBEV shows that the virus can be excreted in the milk of infected animals. Additionally, the virus remains infectious after exposure to low pH levels, similar to those found in the stomach. To evaluate the survival of virus in milk, we studied the stability of the BSL-2 TBFV, Langat virus, in unpasteurized goat milk over time and after different thermal treatments. Virus was stable in milk maintained under refrigeration conditions; however, there was a marked reduction in virus titer after incubation at room temperature. High temperature, short time pasteurization protocols completely inactivated the virus. Interestingly, simulation of a typical thermal regime utilized for cheese did not completely inactivate the virus in milk. These findings stress the importance of proper milk handling and pasteurization processes in areas endemic for TBEV.

  14. Risk of acquiring tick-borne infections in forestry workers from Lazio, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The seroprevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus was evaluated in a group of forestry rangers in the Lazio region of Italy. One hundred and forty-five forestry rangers and 282 blood donors were examined by two-tiered serological tests for B. burgdorferi and TBE virus. Information on occupation, residence, tick bites, outdoor leisure activities and other risk factors was obtained. The prevalence of IgG/IgM antibodies to B. bur...

  15. The ecology of ticks and epidemiology of tick-borne viral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; de la Fuente, José

    2014-08-01

    A number of tick-borne diseases of humans have increased in incidence and geographic range over the past few decades, and there is concern that they will pose an even greater threat to public health in future. Although global warming is often cited as the underlying mechanism favoring the spread of tick-borne diseases, climate is just one of many factors that determine which tick species are found in a given geographic region, their population density, the likelihood that they will be infected with microbes pathogenic for humans and the frequency of tick-human contact. This article provides basic information needed for microbiologists to understand the many factors that affect the geographic range and population density of ticks and the risk of human exposure to infected ticks. It first briefly summarizes the life cycle and basic ecology of ticks and how ticks and vertebrate hosts interact, then reviews current understanding of the role of climate, sociodemographic factors, agricultural development and changes in human behavior that affect the incidence of tick-borne diseases. These concepts are then illustrated in specific discussions of tick-borne encephalitis and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Tick-Borne Diseases in Turkey: A Review Based on One Health Perspective.

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    Abdullah Inci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including Turkey. Global warming, environmental and ecological changes and the existence of suitable habitats increase the impact of ticks and result in frequent emergence or re-emergence of tick-borne diseases (TBDs with zoonotic characteristics. In Turkey, almost 19 TBDs have been reported in animals and men, involving four protozoa (babesiosis, theileriosis, cytauxzoonosis, hepatozoonosis, one filarial nematode (acanthocheilonemasis, ten bacterial agents (anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, aegyptianellosis, tick-borne typhus, Candidatus Rickettsia vini, Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne relapsing fever [TBRF], tularaemia, bartonellosis, and hemoplasmosis, and four viral infections (tick-borne encephalitis [TBE], Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever [CCHF], louping-ill [LI], and lumpy skin disease [LSD]. The growing number of TBD cases, in particular the fatal viral epidemics in humans, have led to increased public awareness and concern against TBDs in recent years. The World Health Organization (WHO has developed a new political concept, called the "One Health" initiative, which is especially relevant for developing strategies against tick infestations and TBD control in humans and animals. It would be beneficial for Turkey to adopt this new strategy and establish specific research and control programs in coordination with international organizations like WHO, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, and the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC to combat TBDs based on the "One Health Initiative" concept. In this article, we review the occurrence of primary TBDs in man and animals in Turkey in light of the "One Health" perspective.

  17. Equine tick-borne infections in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the emergence and establishment of equine tick-borne infections in the Netherlands, with particular attention to their diagnosis, clinical relevance and treatment. Four tick-borne agents (Borrelia burgdorferi, Theileria equi, Babesia caballi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum)

  18. Genetic recombination of tick-borne flaviviruses among wild-type strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Peter; Roth, Anette; Bergström, Tomas

    2013-06-05

    Genetic recombination has been suggested to occur in mosquito-borne flaviviruses. In contrast, tick-borne flaviviruses have been thought to evolve in a clonal manner, although recent studies suggest that recombination occurs also for these viruses. We re-analyzed the data and found that previous conclusions on wild type recombination were probably falsely drawn due to misalignments of nucleotide sequences, ambiguities in GenBank sequences, or different laboratory culture histories suggestive of recombination events in laboratory. To evaluate if reliable predictions of wild type recombination of tick-borne flaviviruses can be made, we analyzed viral strains sequenced exclusively for this study, and other flavivirus sequences retrieved from GenBank. We detected genetic signals supporting recombination between viruses within the three clades of TBEV-Eu, TBEV-Sib and TBEV-Fe, respectively. Our results suggest that the tick-borne encephalitis viruses may undergo recombination under natural conditions, but that geographic barriers restrict most recombination events to involve only closely genetically related viruses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Escape of Tick-Borne Flavivirus from 2'-C-Methylated Nucleoside Antivirals Is Mediated by a Single Conservative Mutation in NS5 That Has a Dramatic Effect on Viral Fitness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eyer, Luděk; Kondo, H.; Zouharová, D.; Hirano, M.; Valdés, James J.; Muto, M.; Kastl, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Haviernik, J.; Igarashi, K.; Kariwa, H.; Vaculovicova, M.; Černý, Jiří; Kizek, R.; Kroeger, A.; Lienenklaus, S.; Dejmek, Milan; Nencka, Radim; Palus, Martin; Salát, J.; De Clercq, E.; Yoshii, K.; Růžek, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 21 (2017), č. článku e01028-17. ISSN 0022-538X R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV16-34238A Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : antiviral agents * antiviral therapy * escape mutant * tick-borne * encephalitis virus * tick-borne pathogens Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 4.663, year: 2016

  20. Vertical distribution of the tick Ixodes ricinus and tick-borne pathogens in the Northern Moravian mountaines correlated with climate warming (Jeseníky mts., Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Daniel, M.; Materna, J.; Hönig, Václav; Metelka, L.; Danielová, V.; Harčarik, J.; Kliegrová, S.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2009), s. 139-145 ISSN 1210-7778 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies * tick-borne encephalitis virus * vertical distribution * climate warming Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology

  1. Economic downturn results in tick-borne disease upsurge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randolph Sarah E

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of zoonoses is due both to changes in human activities and to changes in their natural wildlife cycles. One of the most significant vector-borne zoonoses in Europe, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE, doubled in incidence in 1993, largely as a consequence of the socio-economic transition from communism to capitalism and associated environmental changes. Methods To test the effect of the current economic recession, unemployment in 2009 and various socio-economic indices were compared to weather indices (derived from principal component analyses as predictors for the change in TBE case numbers in 2009 relative to 2004-08, for 14 European countries. Results Greatest increases in TBE incidence occurred in Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (91, 79 and 45%, respectively. The weather was rejected as an explanatory variable. Indicators of high background levels of poverty, e.g. percent of household expenditure on food, were significant predictors. The increase in unemployment in 2009 relative to 2008 together with 'in-work risk of poverty' is the only case in which a multivariate model has a second significant term. Conclusion Background socio-economic conditions determine susceptibility to risk of TBE, while increased unemployment triggered a sudden increase in risk. Mechanisms behind this result may include reduced resistance to infection through stress; reduced uptake of costly vaccination; and more exposure of people to infected ticks in their forest habitat as they make greater use of wild forest foods, especially in those countries, Lithuania and Poland, with major marketing opportunities in such products. Recognition of these risk factors could allow more effective protection through education and a vaccination programme targeted at the economically most vulnerable.

  2. Economic downturn results in tick-borne disease upsurge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Elinor R; Randolph, Sarah E

    2011-03-15

    The emergence of zoonoses is due both to changes in human activities and to changes in their natural wildlife cycles. One of the most significant vector-borne zoonoses in Europe, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), doubled in incidence in 1993, largely as a consequence of the socio-economic transition from communism to capitalism and associated environmental changes. To test the effect of the current economic recession, unemployment in 2009 and various socio-economic indices were compared to weather indices (derived from principal component analyses) as predictors for the change in TBE case numbers in 2009 relative to 2004-08, for 14 European countries. Greatest increases in TBE incidence occurred in Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (91, 79 and 45%, respectively). The weather was rejected as an explanatory variable. Indicators of high background levels of poverty, e.g. percent of household expenditure on food, were significant predictors. The increase in unemployment in 2009 relative to 2008 together with 'in-work risk of poverty' is the only case in which a multivariate model has a second significant term. Background socio-economic conditions determine susceptibility to risk of TBE, while increased unemployment triggered a sudden increase in risk. Mechanisms behind this result may include reduced resistance to infection through stress; reduced uptake of costly vaccination; and more exposure of people to infected ticks in their forest habitat as they make greater use of wild forest foods, especially in those countries, Lithuania and Poland, with major marketing opportunities in such products. Recognition of these risk factors could allow more effective protection through education and a vaccination programme targeted at the economically most vulnerable.

  3. Rickettsial and other tick-borne infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicek, Barbara Fouts

    2007-03-01

    prophylaxsis is beneficial to the tick-bitten patient to prevent disease. It must be kept in mind that the risk of transmission of disease increases with the duration of attachment and generally requires greater than 24 to 48 hours. The degree of tick engorgement or the time since tick exposure and discovery of the tick may be used to establish the likely duration of attachment and the risk of disease transmission. Reducing and controlling tick populations is difficult. Habitat modifications, including vegetation management by cutting, burning, and herbicide treatment, and drainage of wet areas are one strategy for tick control, but their effects are often short-lived, and they can cause severe ecologic damage. Chemicals used to control ticks may cause environmental contamination, and therefore, toxicity for humans and animals. Biologic control methods for ticks include the promotion of natural predators. Natural predators of ticks are beetles, spiders, and ants, and parasites such as insects, mites and nematodes. Tick control is best based on the concept of integrated pest management, in which different control methods are adapted to one area or against one tick species with due consideration to their environmental effects. Tick-borne diseases are increasing in prevalence. Perhaps it is because people are undertaking more outdoor activities, which result in contact with ticks and their pathogens. Clinicians should be aware of the clinical sign of tick-transmitted diseases, because morbidity and mortality as a result of these diseases increases substantially if there are delays in diagnosis and treatment. Tick-borne illness occur in distinctive geographic areas. The reporting of these illnesses and diseases to the health department enables the gathering of information and statistics. The public should be informed about the risks of disease in tick-infested areas and the means of preventing infections. The most common diseases are caused by Rickettsia, Borrelia, and Ehrichia

  4. Tick Talk: Tick-borne Diseases of South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Mark K; Allison, Jay

    2017-09-01

    In addition to being a nuisance, ticks can carry disease. This article presents a brief review of ticks and associated tick-borne disease relevant to South Dakota and surrounding regions. Tick-borne diseases of special relevance in South Dakota include tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and Lyme disease. A number of others may also be encountered in the state as well. Prompt treatment of suspected cases is important to ensure a successful recovery, and tick-avoidance measures can reduce the risks of acquiring them. Most of these conditions are nationally reportable infectious diseases. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  5. The wild life of tick-borne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeester, Tim R.

    2016-01-01

    Diseases that are transmitted by arthropod vectors from animal hosts to humans – so called zoonotic vector-borne diseases – have increased in incidence in the last decades. In North America and Europe, tick-borne pathogens cause the majority of vector-borne diseases, including Lyme borreliosis

  6. Bovine Tick-borne Protozoan Diseases: Emerging Threats

    OpenAIRE

    El-Ashker MR

    2013-01-01

    Tick-borne protozoan diseases, Theileriosis and Babesiosis, are major health and management problems of cattle, small ruminants and buffaloes in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Recently, tickborne diseases were ranked high in terms of their impact on poor farming communities in developing countries. Whereas the global economic importance of ticks is particularly high for livestock, there is also a relevant impact on public health in the northern hemisphere.

  7. Complete sequence of two tick-borne flaviviruses isolated from Siberia and the UK: analysis and significance of the 5' and 3'-UTRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsun, T S; Venugopal, K; Zanotto, P M; Mikhailov, M V; Sall, A A; Holmes, E C; Polkinghorne, I; Frolova, T V; Pogodina, V V; Lashkevich, V A; Gould, E A

    1997-05-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of two tick-transmitted flaviviruses, Vasilchenko (Vs) from Siberia and louping ill (LI) from the UK, have been determined. The genomes were respectively, 10928 and 10871 nucleotides (nt) in length. The coding strategy and functional protein sequence motifs of tick-borne flaviviruses are presented in both Vs and LI viruses. The phylogenies based on maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and distance analysis of the polyproteins, identified Vs virus as a member of the tick-borne encephalitis virus subgroup within the tick-borne serocomplex, genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. Comparative alignment of the 3'-untranslated regions revealed deletions of different lengths essentially at the same position downstream of the stop codon for all tick-borne viruses. Two direct 27 nucleotide repeats at the 3'-end were found only for Vs and LI virus. Immediately following the deletions a region of 332-334 nt with relatively conserved primary structure (67-94% identity) was observed at the 3'-non-coding end of the virus genome. Pairwise comparisons of the nucleotide sequence data revealed similar levels of variation between the coding region, and the 5' and 3'-termini of the genome, implying an equivalent strong selective control for translated and untranslated regions. Indeed the predicted folding of the 5' and 3'-untranslated regions revealed patterns of stem and loop structures conserved for all tick-borne flaviviruses suggesting a purifying selection for preservation of essential RNA secondary structures which could be involved in translational control and replication. The possible implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. Climate change and Ixodes tick-borne diseases of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostfeld, Richard S; Brunner, Jesse L

    2015-04-05

    The evidence that climate warming is changing the distribution of Ixodes ticks and the pathogens they transmit is reviewed and evaluated. The primary approaches are either phenomenological, which typically assume that climate alone limits current and future distributions, or mechanistic, asking which tick-demographic parameters are affected by specific abiotic conditions. Both approaches have promise but are severely limited when applied separately. For instance, phenomenological approaches (e.g. climate envelope models) often select abiotic variables arbitrarily and produce results that can be hard to interpret biologically. On the other hand, although laboratory studies demonstrate strict temperature and humidity thresholds for tick survival, these limits rarely apply to field situations. Similarly, no studies address the influence of abiotic conditions on more than a few life stages, transitions or demographic processes, preventing comprehensive assessments. Nevertheless, despite their divergent approaches, both mechanistic and phenomenological models suggest dramatic range expansions of Ixodes ticks and tick-borne disease as the climate warms. The predicted distributions, however, vary strongly with the models' assumptions, which are rarely tested against reasonable alternatives. These inconsistencies, limited data about key tick-demographic and climatic processes and only limited incorporation of non-climatic processes have weakened the application of this rich area of research to public health policy or actions. We urge further investigation of the influence of climate on vertebrate hosts and tick-borne pathogen dynamics. In addition, testing model assumptions and mechanisms in a range of natural contexts and comparing their relative importance as competing models in a rigorous statistical framework will significantly advance our understanding of how climate change will alter the distribution, dynamics and risk of tick-borne disease.

  9. Exploring of primate models of tick-borne flaviviruses infection for evaluation of vaccines and drugs efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia S Pripuzova

    Full Text Available Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV is one of the most prevalent and medically important tick-borne arboviruses in Eurasia. There are overlapping foci of two flaviviruses: TBEV and Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV in Russia. Inactivated vaccines exist only against TBE. There are no antiviral drugs for treatment of both diseases. Optimal animal models are necessary to study efficacy of novel vaccines and treatment preparations against TBE and relative flaviviruses. The models for TBE and OHF using subcutaneous inoculation were tested in Cercopithecus aethiops and Macaca fascicularis monkeys with or without prior immunization with inactivated TBE vaccine. No visible clinical signs or severe pathomorphological lesions were observed in any monkey infected with TBEV or OHFV. C. aethiops challenged with OHFV showed massive hemolytic syndrome and thrombocytopenia. Infectious virus or viral RNA was revealed in visceral organs and CNS of C. aethiops infected with both viruses; however, viremia was low. Inactivated TBE vaccines induced high antibody titers against both viruses and expressed booster after challenge. The protective efficacy against TBE was shown by the absence of virus in spleen, lymph nodes and CNS of immunized animals after challenge. Despite the absence of expressed hemolytic syndrome in immunized C. aethiops TBE vaccine did not prevent the reproduction of OHFV in CNS and visceral organs. Subcutaneous inoculation of M. fascicularis with two TBEV strains led to a febrile disease with well expressed viremia, fever, and virus reproduction in spleen, lymph nodes and CNS. The optimal terms for estimation of the viral titers in CNS were defined as 8-16 days post infection. We characterized two animal models similar to humans in their susceptibility to tick-borne flaviviruses and found the most optimal scheme for evaluation of efficacy of preventive and therapeutic preparations. We also identified M. fascicularis to be more susceptible to

  10. Genetic Characterization of the Tick-Borne Orbiviruses

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    Manjunatha N. Belaganahalli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The International Committee for Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV recognizes four species of tick-borne orbiviruses (TBOs: Chenuda virus, Chobar Gorge virus, Wad Medani virus and Great Island virus (genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Nucleotide (nt and amino acid (aa sequence comparisons provide a basis for orbivirus detection and classification, however full genome sequence data were only available for the Great Island virus species. We report representative genome-sequences for the three other TBO species (virus isolates: Chenuda virus (CNUV; Chobar Gorge virus (CGV and Wad Medani virus (WMV. Phylogenetic comparisons show that TBOs cluster separately from insect-borne orbiviruses (IBOs. CNUV, CGV, WMV and GIV share low level aa/nt identities with other orbiviruses, in ‘conserved’ Pol, T2 and T13 proteins/genes, identifying them as four distinct virus-species. The TBO genome segment encoding cell attachment, outer capsid protein 1 (OC1, is approximately half the size of the equivalent segment from insect-borne orbiviruses, helping to explain why tick-borne orbiviruses have a ~1 kb smaller genome.

  11. A survey of canine tick-borne diseases in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Glen T

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few published reports on canine Babesia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Hepatozoon and haemotropic Mycoplasma infections in India and most describe clinical disease in individual dogs, diagnosed by morphological observation of the microorganisms in stained blood smears. This study investigated the occurrence and distribution of canine tick-borne disease (TBD pathogens using a combination of conventional and molecular diagnostic techniques in four cities in India. Results On microscopy examination, only Hepatozoon gamonts were observed in twelve out of 525 (2.3%; 95% CI: 1.2, 4 blood smears. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR, a total of 261 from 525 dogs (49.7%; 95% CI: 45.4, 54.1 in this study were infected with one or more canine tick-borne pathogen. Hepatozoon canis (30%; 95% CI: 26.0, 34.0 was the most common TBD pathogen found infecting dogs in India followed by Ehrlichia canis (20.6%; 95% CI: 17.2, 24.3, Mycoplasma haemocanis (12.2%; 95% CI: 9.5, 15.3, Anaplasma platys (6.5%; 95% CI: 4.5, 8.9, Babesia vogeli (5.5%, 95% CI: 3.7, 7.8 and Babesia gibsoni (0.2%, 95% CI: 0.01, 1.06. Concurrent infection with more than one TBD pathogen occurred in 39% of cases. Potential tick vectors, Rhipicephalus (most commonly and/or Haemaphysalis ticks were found on 278 (53% of dogs examined. Conclusions At least 6 species of canine tick-borne pathogens are present in India. Hepatozoon canis was the most common pathogen and ticks belonging to the genus Rhipicephalus were encountered most frequently. Polymerase chain reaction was more sensitive in detecting circulating pathogens compared with peripheral blood smear examination. As co-infections with canine TBD pathogens were common, Indian veterinary practitioners should be cognisant that the discovery of one such pathogen raises the potential for multiple infections which may warrant different clinical management strategies.

  12. Animal Models of Tick-Borne Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Feldmann

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne hemorrhagic fever viruses (TBHFV are detected throughout the African and Eurasian continents and are an emerging or re-emerging threat to many nations. Due to the largely sporadic incidences of these severe diseases, information on human cases and research activities in general have been limited. In the past decade, however, novel TBHFVs have emerged and areas of endemicity have expanded. Therefore, the development of countermeasures is of utmost importance in combating TBHFV as elimination of vectors and interrupting enzootic cycles is all but impossible and ecologically questionable. As in vivo models are the only way to test efficacy and safety of countermeasures, understanding of the available animal models and the development and refinement of animal models is critical in negating the detrimental impact of TBHFVs on public and animal health.

  13. Tick-Borne Transmission of Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Hajnická

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses are a large group of DNA viruses infecting mainly vertebrates. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68 is often used as a model in studies of the pathogenesis of clinically important human gammaherpesviruses such as Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. This rodent virus appears to be geographically widespread; however, its natural transmission cycle is unknown. Following detection of MHV68 in field-collected ticks, including isolation of the virus from tick salivary glands and ovaries, we investigated whether MHV68 is a tick-borne virus. Uninfected Ixodes ricinus ticks were shown to acquire the virus by feeding on experimentally infected laboratory mice. The virus survived tick molting, and the molted ticks transmitted the virus to uninfected laboratory mice on which they subsequently fed. MHV68 was isolated from the tick salivary glands, consistent with transmission via tick saliva. The virus survived in ticks without loss of infectivity for at least 120 days, and subsequently was transmitted vertically from one tick generation to the next, surviving more than 500 days. Furthermore, the F1 generation (derived from F0 infected females transmitted MHV68 to uninfected mice on which they fed, with MHV68 M3 gene transcripts detected in blood, lung, and spleen tissue of mice on which F1 nymphs and F1 adults engorged. These experimental data fulfill the transmission criteria that define an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus, the largest biological group of viruses. Currently, African swine fever virus (ASFV is the only DNA virus recognized as an arbovirus. Like ASFV, MHV68 showed evidence of pathogenesis in ticks. Previous studies have reported MHV68 in free-living ticks and in mammals commonly infested with I. ricinus, and neutralizing antibodies to MHV68 have been detected in large mammals (e.g., deer including humans. Further studies are needed to determine if these reports are the result of tick-borne transmission

  14. Reducing the Risk of Tick-Borne Diseases through Smart, Safe and Sustainable Pest Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year PestWise programs form new partnerships to address ongoing and emerging issues. Reducing the risk from ticks and tick-borne disease is an issue of importance and EPA is contributing to a larger federal effort.

  15. Strategies, Research Priorities, and Partnerships for Community IPM to Prevent Tick-Borne Diseases--2011 Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) held the Promoting Community Integrated Pest Management to Prevent Tick-Borne Diseases Conference on March 30th and 31st, 2011 in Arlington, Virginia. Read the meeting summary.

  16. Tick-borne infections in human and animal population worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Brites-Neto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and activity of ectoparasites and its hosts are affected by various abiotic factors, such as climate and other organisms (predators, pathogens and competitors presenting thus multiples forms of association (obligate to facultative, permanent to intermittent and superficial to subcutaneous developed during long co-evolving processes. Ticks are ectoparasites widespread globally and its eco epidemiology are closely related to the environmental conditions. They are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites and responsible as vectors or reservoirs at the transmission of pathogenic fungi, protozoa, viruses, rickettsia and others bacteria during their feeding process on the hosts. Ticks constitute the second vector group that transmit the major number of pathogens to humans and play a role primary for animals in the process of diseases transmission. Many studies on bioecology of ticks, considering the information related to their population dynamics, to the host and the environment, comes possible the application and efficiency of tick control measures in the prevention programs of vector-borne diseases. In this review were considered some taxonomic, morphological, epidemiological and clinical fundamental aspects related to the tick-borne infections that affect human and animal populations.

  17. Postinfectious syndrome of convalescentsixodes tick-borne borreliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Sumlivaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim: to study the psycho-vegetative status of the quantitative contents of serotonin in blood platelets in patients after the Ixodes tick-borne borreliosis, to evaluate the clinical efficiency treatment by adamantilfenilamin of postinfection asthenia.Materials and methods: there was clinical supervision and inspection conducted of 118 convalescents borreliosis after a course of inpatient treatment. All patients were examined using psychovegetative tests. Platelet serotonin concentration levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay. For the treatment of postinfectious asthenia 36 convalescents received adamantilbromfenilamin in a dose of 100 mg for 25 days.Results: when tested convalescents marked change in indicators of emotional and personality disorders. Quantitative study of blood platelet serotonin content revealed a significant decrease in this indicator relative to control values. Study the correlations between obtained when testing the psycho-emotional parameters and platelet serotonin levels showed a negative correlation between serotonin and an indicator of reactive anxiety (R = -0,81, p <0,05. To correct these violations convalescents with severe asthenia postinfection were treated adamantilfenilamin. Established clinical efficacy contributing to the improvement of the quality of life.Conclusion: the research of neurotransmitter serotonin in patients during the convalescence period after borreliosis possible to evaluate the extent of potential damage to the nervous tissue in the inflammatory process and its involvement in the formation of anxiety and depressive symptoms. adamantilbromfenilamin can be recommended for rehabilitation patients with residual effects in the form of postinfectious asthenia.

  18. To what extent has climate change contributed to the recent epidemiology of tick-borne diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Sarah E

    2010-02-10

    There is no doubt that all vector-borne diseases are very sensitive to climatic conditions. Many such diseases have shown marked increases in both distribution and incidence during the past few decades, just as human-induced climate change is thought to have exceeded random fluctuations. This coincidence has led to the general perception that climate change has driven disease emergence, but climate change is the inevitable backdrop for all recent events, without implying causality. Coincidence and causality can be disentangled using tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) as a test case, based on the excellent long-term data for this medically significant European disease system. Detailed analysis of climate records since 1970 has revealed abrupt temperature increases just prior to the dramatic upsurge in TBE incidence in many parts of central and eastern Europe. Furthermore, the seasonal patterns of this temperature change are such as might have favoured the transmission of TBE virus between co-feeding ticks. Nevertheless, the pattern of climate change is too uniform to explain the marked heterogeneity in the timing and degree of TBE upsurge, for example in different counties within each of the Baltic countries. Recent decreases as well as increases in TBE incidence must also be taken into account. Instead of a single cause, a network of interacting factors, acting synergistically but with differential force in space and time, would generate this epidemiological heterogeneity. From analysis of past and present events, it appears that human behavioural factors have played a more significant role than purely biological enzootic factors, although there is an explicit causal linkage from one to the other. This includes a range of abiotic and biotic environmental factors, together with human behaviour determined by socio-economic conditions. Many of the abrupt changes followed from the shift from planned to market economies with the fall of Soviet rule. Comparisons between eight

  19. Tick-borne pathogen – Reversed and conventional discovery of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen eTijsse Klasen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Molecular methods have increased the number of known microorganisms associated with ticks significantly. Some of these newly identified microorganisms are readily linked to human disease while others are yet unknown to cause human disease. The face of tick-borne disease discovery has changed with more diseases now being discovered in a ‘reversed way’, detecting disease cases only years after the tick-borne microorganism was first discovered. Compared to the conventional discovery of infectious diseases, this order of discoveries presents researchers with new challenges. Especially estimating public health risks of such agents is challenging, as case definitions and diagnostic procedures may initially be missing. We discuss the advantages and shortcomings of molecular methods, serology, epidemiological studies that might be used to study some fundamental questions regarding newly identified tick-borne diseases. With increased tick-exposure and improved detection methods, more tick-borne microorganisms will be added to the list of pathogens causing disease in humans in future.

  20. First detection of tick-borne "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" in Denmark 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Mølbak, Lars; Pihl, Thomas Peter Boye

    2012-01-01

    This is the first reporting of the tick-borne zoonotic bacterium "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" in Denmark. A total of 2,625 Ixodes ricinus ticks from 58 locations in Denmark were collected and analysed for "Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis". A nested PCR revealed the presence of the bacterium...

  1. Clinical, haematological and blood biochemical changes in goats after experimental infection with tick-borne fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miert, A.S.J.P.A.M. van; Duin, C.T.M. van; Schotman, A.J.H.; Franssen, F.F.

    1984-01-01

    Tick-borne fever in goats caused by Ehrlichia (Cytoecetes) phagocytophila was characterised by high fever, dullness, anorexia, tachycardia and a slight to moderate inhibition of rumen motility. The animals developed a gradual decline in the total number of circulating white blood cells. There was a

  2. Identification of tick-borne pathogens in ticks feeding on humans in Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Orkun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including Turkey. The tick-borne disease outbreaks reported in recent years and the abundance of tick species and the existence of suitable habitats increase the importance of studies related to the epidemiology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in Turkey. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of and to determine the infection rates of some tick-borne pathogens, including Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae in the ticks removed from humans in different parts of Ankara.A total of 169 ticks belonging to the genus Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus were collected by removing from humans in different parts of Ankara. Ticks were molecularly screened for Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae by PCR and sequencing analysis. We detected 4 Babesia spp.; B. crassa, B. major, B. occultans and B. rossi, one Borrelia spp.; B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and 3 spotted fever group rickettsiae; R. aeschlimannii, R. slovaca and R. hoogstraalii in the tick specimens analyzed. This is the report showing the presence of B. rossi in a region that is out of Africa and in the host species Ha. parva. In addition, B. crassa, for which limited information is available on its distribution and vector species, and B. occultans, for which no conclusive information is available on its presence in Turkey, were identified in Ha. parva and H. marginatum, respectively. Two human pathogenic rickettsia species (R. aeschlimannii and R. slovaca were detected with a high prevalence in ticks. Additionally, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was detected in unusual tick species (H. marginatum, H. excavatum, Hyalomma spp. (nymph and Ha. parva.This study investigates both the distribution of several tick-borne pathogens affecting humans and animals, and the presence of new tick-borne pathogens in Turkey

  3. Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in urban and suburban areas of Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne P. Oechslin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout Europe, Ixodes ricinus transmits numerous pathogens. Its widespread distribution is not limited to rural but also includes urbanized areas. To date, comprehensive data on pathogen carrier rates of I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Switzerland is lacking. Results Ixodes ricinus ticks sampled at 18 (sub- urban collection sites throughout Switzerland showed carrier rates of 0% for tick-borne encephalitis virus, 18.0% for Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato, 2.5% for Borrelia miyamotoi, 13.5% for Rickettsia spp., 1.4% for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, 6.2% for "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis", and 0.8% for Babesia venatorum (Babesia sp., EU1. Site-specific prevalence at collection sites with n > 45 ticks (n = 9 significantly differed for B. burgdorferi (s.l., Rickettsia spp., and "Ca. N. mikurensis", but were not related to the habitat type. Three hundred fifty eight out of 1078 I. ricinus ticks (33.2% tested positive for at least one pathogen. Thereof, about 20% (71/358 were carrying two or three different potentially disease-causing agents. Using next generation sequencing, we could detect true pathogens, tick symbionts and organisms of environmental or human origin in ten selected samples. Conclusions Our data document the presence of pathogens in the (sub- urban I. ricinus tick population in Switzerland, with carrier rates as high as those in rural regions. Carriage of multiple pathogens was repeatedly observed, demonstrating the risk of acquiring multiple infections as a consequence of a tick bite.

  4. An attempt of rationalization of tick-borne disease prevention using a multifunctional container for Tick Twister ®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Oczko-Grzesik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are reservoir and transmission vectors of many bacteria, viruses and parasites, which are pathogenic for humans. Early and correct tick removal is crucial as prevention of tick-borne diseases. The aim of the study is an attempt at rationalization of tick-borne disease prevention using a multifunctional container for Tick Twister®. In practice, it should enable people to use Tick Twister® in all circumstances contributing to the improvement of efficiency in tick-borne diseases prevention, and as a result, to a decrease in their frequency and after effects.

  5. Vaccination against ticks and the control of ticks and tick-borne disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willadsen, P.

    2005-01-01

    Economic losses due to ticks and tick-borne disease of livestock fall disproportionately on developing countries. Currently, tick control relies mostly on pesticides and parasite-resistant cattle. Release of a commercial recombinant vaccine against Boophilus microplus in Australia in 1994 showed that anti-tick vaccines are a feasible alternative. For vaccines, it is important to understand the efficacy needed for a beneficial outcome. In this, it is relevant that some tick antigens affect multiple tick species; that existing vaccines could be improved by the inclusion of additional tick antigens; and that vaccination against ticks can have an impact on tick-borne disease. Practically, although recombinant vaccine manufacture involves relatively few steps, issues of intellectual property rights (IPR) and requirements for registration of a product may affect economic viability of manufacture. Hence practical vaccines for the developing world will require both successful science and a creative 'business solution' for delivery in a cost-effective way. (author)

  6. Changing epidemiology of the tick-borne bovine parasite, Babesia divergens

    OpenAIRE

    Zintl, A; McGrath, G; O'Grady, L; Fanning, J; Downing, K; Roche, D; Casey, M; Gray, JS

    2014-01-01

    Bovine babesiosis is caused by the tick-borne blood parasite, Babesia divergens. A survey of veterinary practitioners and farmers in Ireland in the 1980’s revealed an annual incidence of 1.7% associated with considerable economic losses. However, two subsequent surveys in the 1990’s indicated a decline in clinical babesiosis. In order to determine whether any such changes have affected the incidence of bovine babesiosis in Ireland, a questionnaire survey of farmers and veterinarians was carri...

  7. Molecular survey on zoonotic tick-borne bacteria and chlamydiae in feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebani, Valentina Virginia; Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Mani, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    To determine the presence of zoonotic tick-borne bacteria in feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica) from urban areas. Spleen samples from 84 feral pigeons, found dead with traumatic injuries in urban areas, were examined by PCR to detect DNA of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia spp., and Chlamydophila spp. Twenty (23.8%) pigeons were infected by tick-borne agents, in particular 2 (2.38%) animals resulted positive for Bartonella spp., 5 (5.95%) for C. burnetii, 5 (5.95%) for Rickettsia spp., 13 (15.47%) for B. burgdorferi sensu lato. All birds scored negative for A. phagocytophilum. Moreover, 17 (20.23%) pigeons were positive for Chlamydophila spp. and among them 10 (11.9%) for Chlamydophila psittaci. Mixed infections by two or three agents were detected in 8 (9.52%) animals. Feral pigeons living in urban and periurban areas are a hazard for the human health as source of several pathogens. The obtained results confirm pigeons as reservoirs of chlamydial agents and suggest that they may be involved in the epidemiology of zoonotic tick-borne infections too. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tick-borne encephalitis: a retrospective study of clinical cases in Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Kirsten; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl

    2003-01-01

    ,000 inhabitants. At least 5 patients (37.7%) had sequelae in concordance with the postencephalitic syndrome seen after TBE. In conclusion, the risk of being infected and developing TBE is still low among the population of Bornholm, but information about the disease and its sequelae is needed to form a basis...

  9. TICK HOST-SEEKING ACTIVITY AND TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS INCIDENCE: REGRESSION AND HOMOGENEITY

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hönig, Václav; Stehlík, M.; Danielová, V.; Daniel, M.; Švec, P.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2010), s. 83-88 ISSN 1336-9180 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : regression * optimal design * model selection * homogeneity testing Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  10. Factors determining immunological response to vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis virus in older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Pontus; Wilhelmsson, Peter; Fryland, Linda; Matussek, Andreas; Haglund, Mats; Sjöwall, Johanna; Vene, Sirkka; Nyman, Dag; Forsberg, Pia; Lindgren, Per-Eric

    2014-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional study including 533 individuals (median age 61) from the highly TBE endemic Åland Islands in the archipelago between Sweden and Finland. Blood samples, questionnaires and vaccination records were obtained from all study participants. The aim was to investigate if there was any association between TBEV antibody titer and 12 health-related factors. Measurement of TBEV IgG antibodies was performed using two commercial ELISA assays (Enzygnost and Immunozym), and a third in-house rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test was used to measure TBEV neutralizing antibodies. The age of the individual and the number of vaccine doses were the two most important factors determining the immunological response to vaccination. The response to each vaccine dose declined linearly with increased age. A 35 year age difference corresponds to a vaccine dose increment from 3 to 4 to achieve the same immunological response. Participants previously vaccinated against other flaviviruses had lower odds of being seropositive for neutralizing TBEV antibodies on average, while participants with self-reported asthma had higher odds of being seropositive. By comparing the 3 serological assays we show that the Enzygnost and Immunozym assay differ due to choice of cutoffs, but not in overall accuracy.

  11. Relation of genetic phylogeny and geographical distance of tick-borne encephalitis virus in central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weidmann, M.; Růžek, Daniel; Křivanec, K.; Zoeller, G.; Essbauer, S.; Pfeffer, M.; Zanotto, P. M. de A.; Hufert, F.T.; Dobler, G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 92, Part 8 (2011), 1906-1916 ISSN 0022-1317 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP302/10/P438; GA ČR GAP502/11/2116; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : IXODES- RICINUS * NATURAL FOCI * ROE DEER * ENDEMIC AREA * RUSSIA * FLAVIVIRUSES * EVOLUTION * VECTOR * SWEDEN * JAPAN Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.363, year: 2011

  12. Molecular phylogeography of tick-borne encephalitis virus in central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weidmann, M.; Frey, S.; Freire, C.C.M.; Essbauer, S.; Růžek, Daniel; Klempa, B.; Zubrikova, D.; Vogerl, M.; Pfeffer, M.; Hufert, F.T.; Zanotto, P. M. de A.; Dobler, G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 94, SEP 2013 (2013), s. 2129-2139 ISSN 0022-1317 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0006/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus ticks * Dermacentor reticulatus * purifying selection Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.529, year: 2013

  13. Phylogenetic and Virulence Analysis of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Field Isolates From Switzerland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gaumann, R.; Růžek, Daniel; Muhlemann, K.; Strasser, M.; Beuret, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 5 (2011), 853-863 ISSN 0146-6615 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP302/10/P438; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : molecular epidemiology * envelope protein * neuroinvasiveness/virulence * European subtype * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.820, year: 2011

  14. Tick-borne encephalitis virus neutralization by high dose intravenous immunoglobulin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elsterová, Jana; Palus, Martin; Širmarová, J.; Kopecký, J.; Niller, H.H.; Růžek, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2017), s. 253-258 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV16-34238A Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : flavivirus * ticks * neutralizing antibodies * ivig * antibody-dependent enhancement * ammunotherapy Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.230, year: 2016

  15. Survival strategy of tick-borne encephalitis virus: cellular basis and environmental determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuda, M; Randolph, S E

    1999-12-01

    Although TBE virus can be transmitted in the laboratory by a wide variety of ixodid tick species to a wide variety of vertebrate host species, nevertheless in nature endemic cycles of TBE virus depend principally on just two tick species, Ixodes ricinus in the western and I. persulcatus in the eastern Palaearctic. A complete transmission cycle, from tick to tick via vertebrates, occurs most efficiently between co-feeding ticks in the absence of a systemic viraemia. This non-systemic route depends on TBE virus replication within particular immunocompetent cells in the skin, and only certain vertebrate species, notably Apodemus mice, are susceptible to this. Amongst the potential tick vectors in Europe, only I. ricinus has the correct host relationships and appropriate natural life cycle to support such non-systemic transmission cycles. Within the wide European distribution of this tick-host relationship, only in certain places do larval and nymphal ticks feed together on the same hosts with sufficient coincidence to ensure TBE virus survival. The environmental factors that determine this seasonal coincidence are being identified with the help of remotely-sensed meteorological satellite imagery to create predictive risk maps of TBE foci.

  16. Electron Tomography Analysis of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Infection in Human Neurons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílý, Tomáš; Palus, Martin; Eyer, L.; Elsterová, Jana; Vancová, Marie; Růžek, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, JUN 15 2015 (2015), s. 10745 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : dengue virus * replication sites * arboviruses Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2015

  17. Prevention of infectious tick-borne diseases in humans: Comparative studies of the repellency of different dodecanoic acid-formulations against Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dautel Hans

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks of the species Ixodes ricinus are the main vectors of Lyme Borreliosis and Tick-borne Encephalitis – two rapidly emerging diseases in Europe. Repellents provide a practical means of protection against tick bites and can therefore minimize the transmission of tick-borne diseases. We developed and tested seven different dodecanoic acid (DDA-formulations for their efficacy in repelling host-seeking nymphs of I. ricinus by laboratory screening. The ultimately selected formulation was then used for comparative investigations of commercially available tick repellents in humans. Methods Laboratory screening tests were performed using the Moving-object (MO bioassay. All test formulations contained 10% of the naturally occurring active substance DDA and differed only in terms of the quantitative and qualitative composition of inactive ingredients and fragrances. The test procedure used in the human bioassays is a modification of an assay described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and recommended for regulatory affairs. Repellency was computed using the equation: R = 100 - NR/N × 100, where NR is the number of non-repelled ticks, and N is the respective number of control ticks. All investigations were conducted in a controlled laboratory environment offering standardized test conditions. Results All test formulations strongly repelled nymphs of I. ricinus (100-81% protection as shown by the MO-bioassay. The majority of ticks dropped off the treated surface of the heated rotating drum that served as the attractant (1 mg/cm2 repellent applied. The 10% DDA-based formulation, that produced the best results in laboratory screening, was as effective as the coconut oil-based reference product. The mean protection time of both preparations was generally similar and averaged 8 hours. Repellency investigations in humans showed that the most effective 10% DDA-based formulation (~1.67 mg/cm2 applied strongly avoided the

  18. Tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from birds in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chien Kuo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of human diseases transmitted by arthropod vectors, including ticks, are emerging around the globe. Birds are known to be hosts of ticks and can disperse exotic ticks and tick-borne pathogens. In Taiwan, previous studies have focused predominantly on mammals, leaving the role of birds in the maintenance of ticks and dissemination of tick-borne pathogens undetermined. Methods Ticks were collected opportunistically when birds were studied from 1995 to 2013. Furthermore, to improve knowledge on the prevalence and mean load of tick infestation on birds in Taiwan, ticks were thoroughly searched for when birds were mist-netted at seven sites between September 2014 and April 2016 in eastern Taiwan. Ticks were identified based on both morphological and molecular information and were screened for potential tick-borne pathogens, including the genera Anaplasma, Babesia, Borrelia, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia. Finally, a list of hard tick species collected from birds in Taiwan was compiled based on past work and the current study. Results Nineteen ticks (all larvae were recovered from four of the 3096 unique mist-netted bird individuals, yielding a mean load of 0.006 ticks/individual and an overall prevalence of 0.13%. A total of 139 ticks from birds, comprising 48 larvae, 35 nymphs, 55 adults and one individual of unknown life stage, were collected from 1995 to 2016, and 11 species of four genera were identified, including three newly recorded species (Haemaphysalis wellingtoni, Ixodes columnae and Ixodes turdus. A total of eight tick-borne pathogens were detected, with five species (Borrelia turdi, Anaplasma sp. clone BJ01, Ehrlichia sp. BL157-9, Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis not previously isolated in Taiwan. Overall, 16 tick species of five genera have been recorded feeding on birds, including nine species first discovered in this study. Conclusion Our study demonstrates the paucity of information on ticks of

  19. Climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases: The butterfly effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Dantas-Torres

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We have killed wild animals for obtaining food and decimated forests for many reasons. Nowadays, we are burning fossil fuels as never before and even exploring petroleum in deep waters. The impact of these activities on our planet is now visible to the naked eye and the debate on climate change is warming up in scientific meetings and becoming a priority on the agenda of both scientists and policy decision makers. On the occasion of the Impact of Environmental Changes on Infectious Diseases (IECID meeting, held in the 2015 in Sitges, Spain, I was invited to give a keynote talk on climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases. The aim of the present article is to logically extend my rationale presented on the occasion of the IECID meeting. This article is not intended to be an exhaustive review, but an essay on climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases. It may be anticipated that warmer winters and extended autumn and spring seasons will continue to drive the expansion of the distribution of some tick species (e.g., Ixodes ricinus to northern latitudes and to higher altitudes. Nonetheless, further studies are advocated to improve our understanding of the complex interactions between landscape, climate, host communities (biodiversity, tick demography, pathogen diversity, human demography, human behaviour, economics, and politics, also considering all ecological processes (e.g., trophic cascades and other possible interacting effects (e.g., mutual effects of increased greenhouse gas emissions and increased deforestation rates. The multitude of variables and interacting factors involved, and their complexity and dynamism, make tick-borne transmission systems beyond (current human comprehension. That is, perhaps, the main reason for our inability to precisely predict new epidemics of vector-borne diseases in general.

  20. Search for tick-borne pathogens in the Svalbard archipelago and Jan Mayen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elsterová, Jana; Černý, Jiří; Müllerová, Jana; Šíma, Radek; Coulson, S.J.; Lorentzen, E.; Strøm, H.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 34, 20 October 2015 (2015), s. 27466 ISSN 0800-0395 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA ČR GAP502/11/2116; GA ČR GAP302/12/2490; GA ČR GP13-12816P EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010009 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick * Ixodes uriae * tick-borne pathogens * arboviruses * Borrelia spirochetes * Babesia apicomplexans Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.728, year: 2015

  1. Prevalence of antibodies to tickborne encephalitis and West Nile flaviviruses and the clinical signs of tickborne encephalitis in dogs in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimeš, J.; Juřicová, Zina; Literák, I.; Schánilec, P.; Trachta e Silva, E.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 1 (2001), s. 17-20 ISSN 0042-4900 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.145, year: 2001 http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/cgi/content/abstract/148/1/17

  2. Molecular investigation of tick-borne pathogens in dogs from Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Luís; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Granada, Sara; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Gilad, Matan; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Sousa, Sérgio Ramalho; Vilhena, Hugo; Baneth, Gad

    2016-05-10

    No molecular data have been available on tick-borne pathogens that infect dogs from Angola. The occurrence of agents from the genera Anaplasma, Babesia, Ehrlichia and Hepatozoon was assessed in 103 domestic dogs from Luanda, by means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequence analysis. Forty-six dogs (44.7 %) were positive for at least one pathogen. Twenty-one animals (20.4 %) were found infected with Anaplasma platys, 18 (17.5 %) with Hepatozoon canis, six (5.8 %) with Ehrlichia canis, six (5.8 %) with Babesia vogeli, one (1.0 %) with Babesia gibsoni and one (1.0 %) with an unnamed Babesia sp. The molecular frequency of single infections taken together was 37.9 % and that of co-infections with several combinations of two pathogens accounted for 6.8 % of the animals. This is the first report of A. platys, B. vogeli, B. gibsoni, E. canis and H. canis infections diagnosed by PCR in domestic dogs from Angola. The present study provides evidence that dogs in Luanda are widely exposed to, and at risk of becoming infected with, tick-borne pathogens. Further investigation is needed, including a larger number of animals, canine populations from other cities and provinces of the country, as well as potential vector ticks, aiming at better characterizing and controlling canine vector-borne diseases in Angola.

  3. Synanthropic Mammals as Potential Hosts of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio E Bermúdez

    Full Text Available Synanthropic wild mammals can be important hosts for many vector-borne zoonotic pathogens. The aim of this study was determine the exposure of synanthropic mammals to two types of tick-borne pathogens in Panama, spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR and Borrelia relapsing fever (RF spirochetes. One hundred and thirty-one wild mammals were evaluated, including two gray foxes, two crab-eating foxes (from zoos, four coyotes, 62 opossum and 63 spiny rats captured close to rural towns. To evaluate exposure to SFGR, serum samples from the animals were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA using Rickettsia rickettsii and Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii antigen. Immunoblotting was performed using Borrelia turicatae protein lysates and rGlpQ, to assess infection caused by RF spirochetes. One coyote (25% and 27 (43% opossums showed seroreactivity to SFGR. Of these opossums, 11 were seroreactive to C. R. amblyommii. Serological reactivity was not detected to B. turicatae in mammal samples. These findings may reflect a potential role of both mammals in the ecology of tick-borne pathogens in Panama.

  4. Limited sharing of tick-borne hemoparasites between sympatric wild and domestic ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Ria R; Mutinda, Mathew; Ezenwa, Vanessa O

    2016-08-15

    Tick-borne hemoparasites (TBHs) are a group of pathogens of concern in animal management because they are associated with a diversity of hosts, including both wild and domestic species. However, little is known about how frequently TBHs are shared across the wildlife-livestock interface in natural settings. Here, we compared the TBHs of wild Grant's gazelle (Nanger granti) and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in a region of Kenya where these species extensively overlap. Blood samples collected from each species were screened for piroplasm and rickettsial TBHs by PCR-based amplification of 18S/16S ribosomal DNA, respectively. Overall, 99% of gazelle and 66% of sheep were positive for Babesia/Theileria, and 32% of gazelle and 47% sheep were positive for Anaplasma/Ehrlichia. Sequencing a subset of positive samples revealed infections of Theileria and Anaplasma. Sequences sorted into seven phylogenetically distinct genotypes-two Theileria, and five Anaplasma. With the exception of a putatively novel Anaplasma lineage from Grant's gazelle, these genotypes appeared to be divergent forms of previously described species, including T. ovis, A. ovis, A. bovis, and A. platys. Only one genotype, which clustered within the A. platys clade, contained sequences from both gazelle and sheep. This suggests that despite niche, habitat, and phylogenetic overlap, the majority of circulating tick-borne diseases may not be shared between these two focal species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Translating ecology, physiology, biochemistry and population genetics research to meet the challenge of tick and tick-borne diseases in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging and re-emerging tick-borne diseases threaten public health and the wellbeing of domestic animals and wildlife globally. The adoption of an evolutionary ecology framework aimed to diminish the impact of tick-borne diseases needs to be part of strategies to protect human and animal population...

  6. Translating ecology, physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology research to meet grand challenge of tick and tick-borne diseases in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging and re-emerging tick-borne diseases threaten public health and the wellbeing of domestic animals and wildlife globally. The use of science-based technology to diminish the impact of tick-borne diseases should be an active research effort aimed to protect human and animal populations. Here, ...

  7. Effect of Climate and Land Use on the Spatio-Temporal Variability of Tick-Borne Bacteria in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosà, Roberto; Andreo, Veronica; Tagliapietra, Valentina; Baráková, Ivana; Arnoldi, Daniele; Hauffe, Heidi C.; Manica, Mattia; Rosso, Fausta; Blaňarová, Lucia; Bona, Martin; Derdáková, Marketa; Hamšíková, Zuzana; Kazimírová, Maria; Kraljik, Jasna; Kocianová, Elena; Mahríková, Lenka; Minichová, Lenka; Mošanský, Ladislav; Slovák, Mirko; Stanko, Michal; Špitalská, Eva; Ducheyne, Els; Neteler, Markus; Hubálek, Zdenek; Rudolf, Ivo; Venclikova, Kristyna; Silaghi, Cornelia; Overzier, Evelyn; Farkas, Robert; Földvári, Gábor; Hornok, Sándor; Takács, Nóra; Rizzoli, Annapaola

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of tick-borne diseases caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. has been rising in Europe in recent decades. Early pre-assessment of acarological hazard still represents a complex challenge. The aim of this study was to model Ixodes

  8. Targeting a global health problem: Vaccine design and challenges for the control of tick-borne diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de la Fuente, J.; Contreras, M.; Estrada-Peňa, A.; Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 38 (2017), s. 5089-5094 ISSN 0264-410X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick * vaccine * immunology * tick-borne diseases * risk * omics Subject RIV: EC - Immunology OBOR OECD: Immunology Impact factor: 3.235, year: 2016

  9. Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens of the Caribbean: Current Understanding and Future Directions for More Comprehensive Surveillance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gondard, M.; Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Charles, R. A.; Vayssier-Taussat, M.; Albina, E.; Moutailler, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, NOV 29 (2017), č. článku 490. ISSN 2235-2988 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne pathogens * ticks * Caribbean * epidemiology * newhigh-throughput technologies * surveillance Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  10. The molecular biology of nairoviruses, an emerging group of tick-borne arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasecka, Lidia; Baron, Michael D

    2014-06-01

    The nairoviruses are a rapidly emerging group of tick-borne bunyaviruses that includes pathogens of humans (Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus [CCHFV]) and livestock (Nairobi sheep disease virus [NSDV], also known as Ganjam virus), as well as a large number of viruses for which the normal vertebrate host has not been established. Studies on this group of viruses have been fairly limited, not least because CCHFV is a BSL4 human pathogen, restricting the number of labs able to study the live virus, while NSDV, although highly pathogenic in naive animals, is not seen as a threat in developed countries, making it a low priority. Nevertheless, recent years have seen significant progress in our understanding of the biology of these viruses, particularly that of CCHFV, and this article seeks to draw together our existing knowledge to generate an overall picture of their molecular biology, underlining areas of particular ignorance for future studies.

  11. Survey on tick-borne pathogens in thoroughbred horses in the Hidaka district, Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybañez, Adrian Patalinghug; Sato, Fumio; Nambo, Yasuo; Fukui, Takashi; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Ohashi, Norio; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Kishimoto, Toshio; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2013-01-31

    A total of 87 Thoroughbred horses and 10 ixodid ticks from a ranch in Hidaka district, Hokkaido were tested for tick-borne diseases. Using the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) method, 3.4, 92.0 and 97.7% of the horses showed antibody titers of ≥ 80 against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, and Borrelia garinii, respectively. This is the first report of infection with the 3 pathogens in horses in Japan. Using PCR, DNAs from the peripheral blood of all horses were found negative with any Anaplasma, Rickettsia and Borrelia spp., while those from Haemaphysalis megaspinosa ticks were found positive for Anaplasma sp. closely related to A. phagocytophilum in Japan, and A. bovis. B. japonica was also detected in an H. flava tick for the first time.

  12. Current updates on diagnostic methodologies for tick-borne hemoparasitic diseases in equids: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawan Adamu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne diseases (TBDs or otherwise called equine piroplasmosis (EP are the foremost economic limitations to equids production. Thus, reducing the breeding capability and athletic performance of equids globally. Identification of these haemoparasites is crucial in understanding their distribution in the population and it is imperative to discern between species and subspecies that are responsible for the occurrence of the disease conditions. Conventional procedures such as microscopic and serological evaluations do not usually meet these prerequisites. Diagnostic contrivances, such as the complement fixation test (CFT, the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA have been efficaciously used for many years. Furthermore, DNA-based investigations for identification, differentiation and classification of different haemoparasites have also been established. Molecular diagnostic procedures, such as DNA hybridization, polymerase chain reaction (PCR, transcriptomics, proteomics, metagenomics and metabolomics, permit the uncovering of parasites in blood, tissues or ticks with optimal sensitivity, specificity and consistency. In addition, these procedures can be exploited to detect definite species and subspecies. The prerequisite of these investigations must include proper premeditation and validation, these investigations provide an effective device for molecular studies, with greater benefits of flexibility to standardization. The application of these procedures for studying TBDs or EP globally will be irreplaceable for a long period from now. Therefore, the aim of this review is to draw up the specifics of the procedures in more convenient form for practitioners and researchers. KEY WORDS: Diagnosis, equids, molecular, transcriptomics, proteomics, metagenomics, metabolomics, haemoparasites, tick-borne diseases [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 84-91

  13. Human babesiosis – a little-known tick-borne disease

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    Patrycja Gajda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Babesiosis is an infectious, tick-borne disease caused by the parasitic species of Babesia. Transmission via blood transfusion or transplacental infections are much rarer. Most cases of human babesiosis occur in the United States, whereas only single cases have been reported in Europe, including Poland. Anaemia due to erythrocyte haemolysis, which in more severe cases may result in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death, particularly in immunocompromised patients, is a typical sign of babesiosis. Immunocompetent patients are asymptomatic or develop mild infection accompanied by fever, osteoarticular pain and erythrocyturia. The diagnostics of babesiosis should be considered in patients with flu-like symptoms who live or are temporarily residing in endemic areas as well as in patients diagnosed with other tick-borne diseases. Final diagnosis should be based on microscopic examination of thin blood smears (Wright or Giemsa staining followed by examination under oil immersion or PCR-based amplification of the babesial genetic material. Treatment with atovaquone and azithromycin or clindamycin and quinine usually allows for a complete recovery and prevents complications. Severe cases of babesiosis require exchange transfusion. The infection is frequently combated by the immune system without the use of antibiotics in patients with mild or asymptomatic babesiosis. The prevention of babesiosis primarily involves protective measures that minimize the exposure to ticks, which are the only source of infection.

  14. A Roadmap for Tick-Borne Flavivirus Research in the “Omics” Era

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    Jeffrey M. Grabowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFs affect human health globally. Human vaccines provide protection against some TBFs, and antivirals are available, yet TBF-specific control strategies are limited. Advances in genomics offer hope to understand the viral complement transmitted by ticks, and to develop disruptive, data-driven technologies for virus detection, treatment, and control. The genome assemblies of Ixodes scapularis, the North American tick vector of the TBF, Powassan virus, and other tick vectors, are providing insights into tick biology and pathogen transmission and serve as nucleation points for expanded genomic research. Systems biology has yielded insights to the response of tick cells to viral infection at the transcript and protein level, and new protein targets for vaccines to limit virus transmission. Reverse vaccinology approaches have moved candidate tick antigenic epitopes into vaccine development pipelines. Traditional drug and in silico screening have identified candidate antivirals, and target-based approaches have been developed to identify novel acaricides. Yet, additional genomic resources are required to expand TBF research. Priorities include genome assemblies for tick vectors, “omic” studies involving high consequence pathogens and vectors, and emphasizing viral metagenomics, tick-virus metabolomics, and structural genomics of TBF and tick proteins. Also required are resources for forward genetics, including the development of tick strains with quantifiable traits, genetic markers and linkage maps. Here we review the current state of genomic research on ticks and tick-borne viruses with an emphasis on TBFs. We outline an ambitious 10-year roadmap for research in the “omics era,” and explore key milestones needed to accomplish the goal of delivering three new vaccines, antivirals and acaricides for TBF control by 2030.

  15. Molecular and serological detection of tick-borne pathogens in donkeys (Equus asinus) in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Fabrizia; Morganti, Giulia; Ravagnan, Silvia; Laus, Fulvio; Spaterna, Andrea; Diaferia, Manuela; Moretti, Annabella; Fioretti, Daniela Piergili; Capelli, Gioia

    2014-10-10

    Donkeys, owing to the frequent outdoor activity, are exposed to a high risk of infection with tick-borne pathogens. This work aimed to detect exposure to Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. of donkeys reared in Central Italy. For this purpose 122 adult donkeys were selected within 11 herds and submitted to blood collection. IgG antibodies to T. equi, B. caballi, A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. were detected by IFAT. Conventional PCRs targeting the genes MSP2 and the flagellin were used for the detection of A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. respectively and a Real Time PCR Sybr Green was used to detect Babesia/Theileria spp…. The species identity was determined by amplicons sequencing. Forty eight (39.3%) and 58 (47.5%) animals tested positive for T. equi and B. caballi antibodies, respectively; nine animals (7.4%) were found positive for antibodies against A. phagocytophilum whereas negative results were obtained for B. burgdorferi s.l. Twenty-six (21.3%) animals showed antibodies for both T. equi and B. caballi. Twenty-three (18.8%) donkeys were positive to Babesia/Theileria spp. PCR assay. Out of 21 sequenced amplicons, 20 were identified as T. equi, belonging to three main groups designated A, B and D and one as B. caballi group A. Neither A. phagocytophilum nor B. burgdorferi PCR results were positive. The study showed a high exposure of donkeys to tick-borne pathogens and provides information on the genetic identity of the T. equi strains circulating in Central Italy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular detection of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa in cervids and wild boars from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, André; Parreira, Ricardo; Nunes, Mónica; Casadinho, Afonso; Vieira, Maria Luísa; Campino, Lenea; Maia, Carla

    2016-05-10

    Wildlife can act as reservoir of different tick-borne pathogens, such as bacteria, parasites and viruses. The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa with veterinary and zoonotic importance in cervids and wild boars from the Centre and South of Portugal. One hundred and forty one blood samples from free-ranging ungulates including 73 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 65 wild boars (Sus scrofa) and three fallow deer (Dama dama) were tested for the presence of Anaplasma marginale/A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp., Babesia/Theileria spp., Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) (s.l.), and Rickettsia spp. DNA by PCR. Anaplasma spp. DNA was detected in 33 (43.4 %) cervids (31 red deer and two fallow deer) and in two (3.1 %) wild boars while Theileria spp. were found in 34 (44.7 %) cervids (32 red deer and two fallow deer) and in three (4.6 %) wild boar blood samples. Sequence analysis of msp4 sequences identified A. marginale, A. ovis, while the analysis of rDNA sequence data disclosed the presence of A. platys and A. phagocytophilum and T. capreoli and Theileria sp. OT3. Anaplasma spp./Theileria spp. mixed infections were found in 17 cervids (22.4 %) and in two wild boars (3.1 %). All samples were negative for Babesia sp., B. burgdorferi (s.l.), Ehrlichia sp. or Rickettsia sp. This is the first detection of Anaplasma marginale, A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, A. platys, Theileria capreoli and Theileria sp. OT3 in cervids and wild boars from Portugal. Further studies concerning the potential pathogenicity of the different species of  Anaplasma and Theileria infecting wild ungulates, the identification of their vector range, and their putative infectivity to domestic livestock and humans should be undertaken.

  17. Small risk of developing symptomatic tick-borne diseases following a tick bite in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofhuis Agnetha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In The Netherlands, the incidence of Lyme borreliosis is on the rise. Besides its causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., other potential pathogens like Rickettsia, Babesia and Ehrlichia species are present in Ixodes ricinus ticks. The risk of disease associated with these microorganisms after tick-bites remains, however, largely unclear. A prospective study was performed to investigate how many persons with tick-bites develop localized or systemic symptoms and whether these are associated with tick-borne microorganisms. Results In total, 297 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from 246 study participants who consulted a general practitioner on the island of Ameland for tick bites. Ticks were subjected to PCR to detect DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp. or Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp.. Sixteen percent of the collected ticks were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., 19% for Rickettsia spp., 12% for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and 10% for Babesia spp.. At least six months after the tick bite, study participants were interviewed on symptoms by means of a standard questionnaire. 14 out of 193 participants (8.3% reported reddening at the bite site and 6 participants (4.1% reported systemic symptoms. No association between symptoms and tick-borne microorganisms was found. Attachment duration ≥24 h was positively associated with reddening at the bite site and systemic symptoms. Using logistic regression techniques, reddening was positively correlated with presence of Borrelia afzelii, and having 'any symptoms' was positively associated with attachment duration. Conclusion The risk of contracting acute Lyme borreliosis, rickettsiosis, babesiosis or ehrlichiosis from a single tick bite was

  18. Molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens in cattle from Southwestern Ethiopia.

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    Zerihun Hailemariam

    Full Text Available Tick-borne diseases (TBDs cause significant losses among livestock and impact the livelihoods of resource-poor farming communities worldwide. In Ethiopia, detailed studies on the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs in cattle using sensitive molecular detection methods are scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and species composition of bovine TBPs of veterinary significance in local cattle populations. A comprehensive cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in cattle populations of Illubabor zone in Southwestern Ethiopia from June to August 2013. For this purpose, blood samples were collected from 392 cattle. A combination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR and a Reverse Line Blot (RLB hybridization assay was employed for the detection of TBPs in these samples. The PCR/RLB results of the 392 blood samples indicated a high overall prevalence of 96.9% for TBPs, including Theileria mutans (66.1%, Theileria orientalis (51.8%, Anaplasma sp. Omatjenne (25.5%, Anaplasma marginale (14.5%, Babesia bigemina (14.0% and Theileria velifera (13.0% and minor occurrences of Ehrlichia ruminantium (0.5% and Ehrlichia minasensis (0.26%. Moreover, three novel Anaplasma genotypes were detected in bovine blood samples. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that they most likely represent three, but at least two, new species. The prevalence of the three novel Anaplasma species, preliminary designated as Anaplasma sp. Hadesa, Anaplasma sp. Saso and Anaplasma sp. Dedessa, was 12.5%, 14.3% and 5.6%, respectively. Overall, a total of 227 cattle (57.9% were found to be co-infected with two or more TBPs simultaneously and 86 different species combinations were observed. The findings show a very high burden of infection of cattle with TBPs in Ethiopia. The high frequency of co-infections suggests that clinical manifestations might be complex. Further research is required to determine the pathogenicity, host cell types and vector of

  19. Non-pet dogs as sentinels and potential synanthropic reservoirs of tick-borne and zoonotic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Hornok, Sandor; Denes, Bela; Meli, Marina L.; Tanczos, Balazs; Fekete, Lilla; Gyuranecz, Miklos; de la Fuente, Jose; Fernandez de Mera, Isabel G.; Farkas, Robert; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Blood samples were collected from 100 shepherd dogs, 12 hunting dogs and 14 stray dogs (apparently healthy) in southern Hungary to screen for the presence of emerging tick-borne pathogens. Based on real-time PCR results, 14 dogs (11%) had single or dual haemoplasma infection, and a same number of samples were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In one sample Coxiella burnetii was molecularly identified, and 20.3% of dogs seroconverted to the Q fever agent. Rickettsaemia (sensu stricto) wa...

  20. Evaluation of haemato-biochemical and oxidative indices in naturally infected concomitant tick borne intracellular diseases in dogs

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    Kalyan Sarma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore haemato-biochemical and oxidative stress indices due to concomitant tick borne intracellular diseases in dogs presented at Referral Veterinary Polyclinic, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly during May 2010 to May 2012. Methods: Microscopy of Giemsa blood smear and ELISA test (SNAP 4D伊 were carried out in suspected cases to confirm haemo-parasitic infection. Blood and serum samples were analyzed for oxidative stress indices and haemato-biochemical changes. All the ailing conditions were recorded to investigate the clinical pattern of concomitant tick borne diseases. Ultrasonographic study was carried out to obtain the hepatic involvement. Results: Examination of 3 650 dogs revealed that 2.77% dog were positive for various tick borne diseases, out of which 21.78% were with concomitant infection. Clinical symptoms were noted with overall mean clinical score of 9.95依0.30. Ultrasonographic examination revealed hepatomegaly, distension of gall bladder, and ascites. Haemato-biochemical evaluation confirmed anaemia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperglobulinemia and hyperbilirubinemia with increased serum alanine amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in concomitant infected dogs. The lipid peroxidation level of concomitant infection was significantly higher (P<0.05 than healthy group whereas superoxide dismutase, glutathione-reduced and catalase activity in concomitant infected group were decreased. Conclusions: The severity of infection was more pronounced in dogs harboring Ehrlichia, Babesia and Hepatozoon and the oxidative stress may have a pathophysiological role in concomitant infection in dogs.

  1. Ixodid ticks and tick-borne infections in the republic of Cuba – literature review and rationale for risk assessment

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    Khasnatinov M.A.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Cuba is a popular destination for Russian tourists and about 30-50 thousands of Russian citizens visit Cuba annually. However, the recreational activity is often associated with the risk of Ixodid ticks bites and infection with tick-borne pathogens. According to published literature, the fauna of the hard tick in Cuba is represented by nine species including Ixodes capromydis, Amblyomma albopictum, A. cajennense, A. dissimile, A. quadricavum, A. torrei, Dermacentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and R. (Boophilus microplus. Five of these species, i.e. A. cajennense, A. dissimile, D. nitens, R. sanguineus and R. (Boophilus microplus, were reported as human parasites. Ticks are spread over the most part of the island territory. Several tick-borne pathogens should be considered as a potential threat for the bitten humans in Cuba, including Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Rickettsia sp., Anaplasma sp., Ehrlichia sp., Coxiella sp., thogotovirus and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Implications for the epidemiology of tick-borne infections in the Russian Federation are discussed.

  2. Survey for Tick-Borne Zoonoses in the State of Espirito Santo, Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolidorio, Mariana G.; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Machado, Rosangela Z.; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Zago, Augusto M.; Donatele, Dirlei M.; Pinheiro, Sônia R.; Silveira, Iara; Caliari, Késia M.; Yoshinari, Natalino H.

    2010-01-01

    Blood samples collected from 201 humans, 92 dogs, and 27 horses in the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, were tested by polymerase chain reaction, indirect immunofluorescence assays, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for tick-borne diseases (rickettsiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, borreliosis, babesiosis). Our results indicated that the surveyed counties are endemic for spotted fever group rickettsiosis because sera from 70 (34.8%) humans, 7 (7.6%) dogs, and 7 (25.9%) horses were reactive to at least one of the six Rickettsia species tested. Although there was evidence of ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis) and babesiosis (Babesia canis vogeli, Theileria equi) in domestic animals, no human was positive for babesiosis and only four individuals were serologically positive for E. canis. Borrelia burgdorferi-serologic reactive sera were rare among humans and horses, but encompassed 51% of the canine samples, suggesting that dogs and their ticks can be part of the epidemiological cycle of the causative agent of the Brazilian zoonosis, named Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome. PMID:20595502

  3. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, an emerging tick-borne zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; He, Biao; Huang, Si-Yang; Wei, Feng; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-08-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging haemorrhagic fever that was first described in rural areas of China. The causative agent, SFTS virus (SFTSV), is a novel phlebovirus in the Bunyaviridae family. Since the first report in 2010, SFTS has been found in 11 provinces of China, with about 2500 reported cases, and an average case-fatality rate of 7·3%. The disease was also reported in Japan and Korea in 2012; Heartland virus, another phlebovirus genetically closely related to SFTSV, was isolated from two patients in the USA. The disease has become a substantial risk to public health, not only in China, but also in other parts of the world. The virus could undergo rapid evolution by gene mutation, reassortment, and homologous recombination in tick vectors and vertebrate reservoir hosts. No specific treatment of SFTS is available, and avoiding tick bites is an important measure to prevent the infection and transmission of SFTSV. This Review provides information on the molecular characteristics and ecology of this emerging tick-borne virus and describes the epidemiology, clinical signs, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of human infection with SFTSV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neoehrlichiosis: an emerging tick-borne zoonosis caused by Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaghi, Cornelia; Beck, Relja; Oteo, José A; Pfeffer, Martin; Sprong, Hein

    2016-03-01

    Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis is an emerging tick-borne pathogen causing a systemic inflammatory syndrome mostly in persons with underlying hematologic or autoimmune diseases. As it is neither well-known nor well-recognized, it might be misdiagnosed as recurrence of the underlying disease or as an unrelated arteriosclerotic vascular event. The pathogen is transmitted by hard ticks of the genus Ixodes and is closely associated with rodents in which transplacental transmission occurs. Transovarial transmission in ticks has not yet been shown. Infection rates vary greatly in ticks and rodents, but the causes for its spatiotemporal variations are largely unknown. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the geographical distribution and clinical importance of Ca. N. mikurensis. By elucidating the life history traits of this pathogen and determining more accurately its incidence in the human population, a better assessment of its public health relevance can be made. Most urgent research needs are the in vitro-cultivation of the pathogen, the development of specific serological tests, the determination of the full genomic sequence, the routine implementation of molecular diagnosis in diseased patients with a particular panel of underlying diseases, and promoting the knowledge about neoehrlichiosis among general practitioners, hospital physicians and the risk groups such as forest workers or immune-compromised people to raise awareness about this disease that can easily be treated when correctly diagnosed.

  5. HAEMATOLOGICAL IMPACT OF NATURALLY OCCURING TICK BORNE HAEMOPARASITIC INFECTIONS IN CATTLE OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurba Debbarma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Haemoparasites reduces productivity and may lead to high mortality among animals. The present study was carried out to evaluate the heamotological change in cattle of different districts in West Bengal, India affected with naturally occurring tick- borne haemoparasitic diseases (TBHD. A total of 310 cattle blood samples were screened for the presence of haemoparasites from July, 2015 to June, 2016. The blood samples were examined for haemoparasites by making thin blood smear and staining with Giemsa’s stain. The result showed that108 (34.84% cattle were found positive with TBHD, out of which 22.9% were Theileria sp, 5.8% were Babesia sp., 11.93% Anaplasma sp., and 5.8% were having mixed infection, respectively. The positive samples were subjected to estimations of haematological parameters i. e. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, total erythrocyte count (TEC and Total leucocytes count (TLC using standard protocol. The haematological analysis showed statistically a significant (p<0.01 decreased levels of Hb, PCV, TEC and TLC in infected groups of cattle compared to infection free group cattle. This is probably the first systematic report in West Bengal, India. The result showed the haemoparasites have a negative impact on haematological parameters. This study may be useful in disease epidemiological map preparation, parasitic control policy preparation of the study areas.

  6. Sero-epidemiological survey on bovine tick-borne diseases in the Lesser Antilles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camus, E.; Maran, M.; Montenegro-James, S.; Accipe, A.

    1998-01-01

    As part of a tick-borne disease control programme in the Lesser Antilles, studies were undertaken to determine the prevalence of cowdriosis, babesiosis and anaplasmosis in an effort to determine what the impact of tick eradication would be. The epidemiological situation for bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis is unstable in all the islands of the Lesser Antilles, but the clinical cases are only recorded in imported breeds, which represent less than 5% of the cattle population. The native cattle population react as if naturally resistant. When the A. variegatum tick eradication campaign begins, it will be necessary, by the end of the acaricide treatment regime, to immunize all the imported cattle born during that period, and possibly all of the seronegative imported cattle already on the islands. Both Antigua and Guadeloupe have a long history of infestation with the tick and both have experienced clinical cases of cowdriosis. On the other islands, less than 6% of the sera were positive and this correlates well also with an apparent absence of clinical cases of cowdriosis. (author)

  7. [Pain syndromes in tick-borne neuroborreliosis. Clinical aspects and differential diagnosis.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, J; Thoden, U

    1987-09-01

    Tick-borne borreliosis (Borrelia burgdorferi) is a common and complex disorder affecting the skin, the joints and the nervous system. It progresses through different clinical stages. The clinical spectrum of neuroborreliosis has expanded since the introduction and widespread application of specific serological tests. We have investigated 41 patients with Bannwarth's meningopolyneuritis (MPN) as the classical form of neuroborreliosis, in a prospective (26 patients) and a retrospective (15 patients) study. When questioned, 19/41 patients reported a tick bite and only 15/41, erythema migrans as the characteristic early skin lesion. In 34/41 patients typical MPN characterized by painful radiculoneuritis and/or cranial neuritis, especially facial palsy, were seen. Among these, 3 had a complicated form with a progressive remitting relapsing course or focal central nervous system involvement (hemiparesis, cerebellar syndrome); 2 had mild meningitis and facial nerve palsy bilaterally without radicular pain; and in 5 radicular pain was the only symptom. MPN associated with Lyme arthritis was observed only once. In 2 patients in the retrospective study (no antibiotics in the acute stage) we saw a chronic spinal cord disorder with spastic paresis several years after uncomplicated MPN, accompanied in 1 of them by acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (ACA), the typical late-onset borrelia-induced dermatosis. In the acute stage of the disease 40/41 patients had a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) syndrome compatible with MPN (mononuclear pleocytosis, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, elevated IgG and/or oligoclonal bands). IgG antibody titers against borrelia antigen were elevated in all patients in the serum and in 21/30 also in the CSF. In all patients pain was an early and prominent symptom; the first symptoms are usually felt in the region of the tick bite or the erythema, initially as diffuse myalgia, arthralgia or pain in the connective tissue. In the further course the migrating

  8. Challenges posed by tick-borne rickettsiae: eco-epidemiology and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremeeva, Marina E; Dasch, Gregory A

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsiae are obligately intracellular bacteria that are transmitted to vertebrates by a variety of arthropod vectors, primarily by fleas and ticks. Once transmitted or experimentally inoculated into susceptible mammals, some rickettsiae may cause febrile illness of different morbidity and mortality, and which can manifest with different types of exhanthems in humans. However, most rickettsiae circulate in diverse sylvatic or peridomestic reservoirs without having obvious impacts on their vertebrate hosts or affecting humans. We have analyzed the key features of tick-borne maintenance of rickettsiae, which may provide a deeper basis for understanding those complex invertebrate interactions and strategies that have permitted survival and circulation of divergent rickettsiae in nature. Rickettsiae are found in association with a wide range of hard and soft ticks, which feed on very different species of large and small animals. Maintenance of rickettsiae in these vector systems is driven by both vertical and horizontal transmission strategies, but some species of Rickettsia are also known to cause detrimental effects on their arthropod vectors. Contrary to common belief, the role of vertebrate animal hosts in maintenance of rickettsiae is very incompletely understood. Some clearly play only the essential role of providing a blood meal to the tick while other hosts may supply crucial supplemental functions for effective agent transmission by the vectors. This review summarizes the importance of some recent findings with known and new vectors that afford an improved understanding of the eco-epidemiology of rickettsiae; the public health implications of that information for rickettsial diseases are also described. Special attention is paid to the co-circulation of different species and genotypes of rickettsiae within the same endemic areas and how these observations may influence, correctly or incorrectly, trends, and conclusions drawn from the surveillance of

  9. [Tick-borne relapsing fever in a rural area of southern Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croche Santander, B; Sánchez Carrión, A; Campos, E; Toro, C; Marcos, L; Vargas, J C; Tort, T

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is a zoonotic disease caused by spirochetes of the genus Borrelia. This disease is underdiagnosed in our area due to a low index of suspicion among clinicians, as well as its difficult diagnosis. This study aims to present our experience in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of TBRF and a literature review. A retrospective medical chart review was carried out on children diagnosed of TBRF from 2002 to 2012 in our hospital, and included clinical, epidemiological, microbiological, treatment, and outcome data. Nine children with TBRF were identified. Median age was 11 years. All cases occurred during warm months. The most frequent presenting clinical findings were fever, chills, headache, vomiting, myalgia and abdominal pain. Meningeal involvement was identified in 2 cases. In the case of 2 patients, Borrelia infection was identified in several relatives at the time of diagnosis. Mean C-protein reactive was 187 mg/L, and low platelet counts were observed in 56% of the cases. Borreliaspp. was visualized in peripheral blood smears in 67% of cases. All of the patients received antibiotic treatment. Doxycycline was used in children older than 8 years and erythromycin and penicillin in the younger ones. Jarisch-Herxheiner reaction occurred in one patient. All cases resolved without sequelae. We emphasize the importance of maintaining a high level of suspicion in endemic regions of TBRF. Early diagnosis and a correct therapy can prevent the appearance of subsequent fever recurrences and potential complications. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Laboratory diagnosis of tick-borne African relapsing fevers: latest developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien eFotso Fotso

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, relapsing fevers caused by ectoparasite-borne Borrelia species are transmitted by ticks, with the exception of Borrelia recurrentis, which is a louse-borne spirochete. These tropical diseases responsible for mild to deadly spirochetemia. Cultured B. crocidurae, B. duttonii and B. hispanica circulate alongside at least six species which have not yet been cultured in vectors. Direct diagnosis is hindered by the use of non-specific laboratory tools. Indeed, microscopic observation of Borrelia spirochaeta in smears of peripheral blood taken from febrile patients lacks sensitivity and specificity. Although best visualised using dark-field microscopy, the organisms can also be detected using Wright-Giemsa or acridine orange stains.. PCR-based detection of specific sequences in total DNA extracted from a specimen can be used to discriminate different relapsing fever Borreliae. In our laboratory, we developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay for the specific detection of B. duttonii/recurrentis and B. crocidurae: Multispacer Sequence Typing accurately identified cultured relapsing fever borreliae and revealed diversity among them. Other molecular typing techniques, such as multilocus sequence analysis of tick-borne relapsing fever borreliae, showed the potential risk of human infection in Africa. Recent efforts to culture and sequence relapsing fever borreliae have provided new information for reassessment of the diversity of these bacteria. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been reported as a means of identifying cultured borreliae and of identifying both vectors and vectorised pathogens such as detecting relapsing fever borreliae directly in ticks. The lack of a rapid diagnosis test restricts the management of such diseases. We produced monoclonal antibodies against Borrelia crocidurae in order to develop cheap assays for the rapid detection of relapsing fever borreliae. In this paper

  11. Life history and demographic drivers of reservoir competence for three tick-borne zoonotic pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S Ostfeld

    Full Text Available Animal and plant species differ dramatically in their quality as hosts for multi-host pathogens, but the causes of this variation are poorly understood. A group of small mammals, including small rodents and shrews, are among the most competent natural reservoirs for three tick-borne zoonotic pathogens, Borrelia burgdorferi, Babesia microti, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, in eastern North America. For a group of nine commonly-infected mammals spanning >2 orders of magnitude in body mass, we asked whether life history features or surrogates for (unknown encounter rates with ticks, predicted reservoir competence for each pathogen. Life history features associated with a fast pace of life generally were positively correlated with reservoir competence. However, a model comparison approach revealed that host population density, as a proxy for encounter rates between hosts and pathogens, generally received more support than did life history features. The specific life history features and the importance of host population density differed somewhat between the different pathogens. We interpret these results as supporting two alternative but non-exclusive hypotheses for why ecologically widespread, synanthropic species are often the most competent reservoirs for multi-host pathogens. First, multi-host pathogens might adapt to those hosts they are most likely to experience, which are likely to be the most abundant and/or frequently bitten by tick vectors. Second, species with fast life histories might allocate less to certain immune defenses, which could increase their reservoir competence. Results suggest that of the host species that might potentially be exposed, those with comparatively high population densities, small bodies, and fast pace of life will often be keystone reservoirs that should be targeted for surveillance or management.

  12. Host specialization in ticks and transmission of tick-borne diseases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Karen D; Léger, Elsa; Dietrich, Muriel

    2013-01-01

    Determining patterns of host use, and the frequency at which these patterns change, are of key importance if we are to understand tick population dynamics, the evolution of tick biodiversity, and the circulation and evolution of associated pathogens. The question of whether ticks are typically host specialists or host generalists has been subject to much debate over the last half-century. Indeed, early research proposed that morphological diversity in ticks was linked to host specific adaptations and that most ticks were specialists. Later work disputed this idea and suggested that ticks are largely limited by biogeographic conditions and tend to use all locally available host species. The work presented in this review suggests that the actual answer likely lies somewhere between these two extremes. Although recent observational studies support the view that phylogenetically diverse host species share ticks when found on similar ecological ranges, theory on host range evolution predicts that host specialization should evolve in ticks given their life history characteristics. Contemporary work employing population genetic tools to examine host-associated population structure in several tick systems support this prediction and show that simple species records are not enough to determine whether a parasite is a true host generalist; host specialization does evolve in ticks at local scales, but may not always lead to speciation. Ticks therefore seem to follow a pattern of being global generalists, local specialists. Given this, the notion of host range needs to be modified from an evolutionary perspective, where one simply counts the number of hosts used across the geographic distribution, to a more ecological view, where one considers host use at a local scale, if we are to better understand the circulation of tick-borne pathogens and exposure risks for humans and livestock.

  13. Visual pathways involvement in children with acute viral encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voitenkov Vladislav Borisovich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate extent and nature of visual pathways involvement in children with acute viral encephalitis. METHODS: Thirty patients(age 5-12 yearswith acute viral encephalitis underwent visual evoked potentials(VEPinvestigation within 12 days from the appearance of the first signs of disease. Latency and amplitude of P100 peak were compared with normative data and between patients with varicella and tick-borne encephalitis. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between children with these two forms of encephalitis. In the whole group in 40% of the cases signs of the visual cortex dysfunction(P100 amplitude loweringand mild slowing of the conductivity along the visual pathways(P100 latency lengtheningwere seen. In 3% of the cases retrobulbar optic neuritis was diagnosed. CONCLUSION:The results indicate that visual pathway have good endurance to the viral encephalitis anatomically, but functionally visual cortex is quite vulnerable towards general disturbances caused by this kind of illness.

  14. Incidence of Cercopithifilaria bainae in dogs and probability of co-infection with other tick-borne pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Antonio Nascimento Ramos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cercopithifilaria bainae is a filarioid parasite that infects dogs, being transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus group ticks in many countries of the Mediterranean basin. This study assessed the incidence density rate (IDR of infection by C. bainae in dogs and the probability of co-infection with other tick-borne pathogens (i.e., Anaplasma platys, Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis, in an area of high endemicity in southern Italy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From March 2011 to October 2012, a field study involving 58 young dogs naturally exposed to tick infestation was conducted. Skin and blood samples obtained from each dog six times during an 18-month period were tested for C. bainae by parasite detection within skin snip sediments, with subsequent confirmation through PCR and DNA sequencing. Dogs examined monthly for ticks and A. platys, B. vogeli and H. canis were microscopically and/or molecularly diagnosed and after the first and the second summer seasons, the IDR for positive animal-month at risk was 3.8% and 1.7% in November 2011 and October 2012, respectively. All 58 C. bainae-infected dogs were simultaneously infected with at least one other tick-borne pathogen. After the first summer season (assessment in November 2011, a C. bainae-infected dog had a 33% probability of being infected with H. canis or A. platys, whereas after the second tick season (assessment in October 2012 the probability of co-infection was 78%, 22% and 11% for H. canis, A. platys and B. vogeli, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that tick-infested dogs are at risk of acquiring infection by C. bainae. In addition, the detection of C. bainae microfilariae indicates a prior tick exposure and, should stimulate testing for other tick-borne disease causing pathogens.

  15. Morphological anomalies in Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes inopinatus collected from tick-borne encephalitis natural foci in Central Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia; Bestehorn, Malena; Bröker, Michael

    2017-01-01

    in Germany, Slovakia and Denmark. A total of 278 (1.9%) out of 14,602 nymph and adult ticks showed morphological anomalies. The anomalies were divided into general anomalies (body asymmetry) and local anomalies (anomalies of appendages, malformation of capitulum, exoskeleton anomalies and anal groove......, palps and exoskeleton. Anal groove deformation was observed in three females and three nymphs. In 2016, the frequency of anomalies in I. inopinatus was found five times higher (9.3%) than in I. ricinus (1.9%). This is the first report of anomaly (ectromely, leg atrophy, idiosoma deformation) in flagged...

  16. [Evaluation of serum levels of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus antibodies after administration of FSME inject vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancewicz, Sławomir A; Hermanowska-Szpakowicz, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the changes of anti-TBE virus antibodies serum concentration 3 months after administration of FSME Inject vaccine. The detection of IgG antibodies against TBE virus was performed in sera of 106 forest workers aged mean = 41.5. These sera were examined twice before and after vaccine administration using FSME Kombi-Kit. According to producer's information the "safe" concentration, which protects from TBE virus infection, is over 11VE. In examination 126 (24.5%) sera showed concentration of examined antibodies lower than 11 VE but in 80 (75.5%) sera antibodies concentration was from 12 to 47 VE (mean = 24.15 VE). In the examination 2 significant increase of antibodies concentration was stated. In all sera the concentration ranged from 9 to 62 VE (mean = 39.83 VE). The administration of TBE vaccine booster causes quick increase of antibodies against TBE virus to the level which is considered to be protective against TBE virus infection.

  17. Seroprevalence of tick-borne-encephalitis virus in wild game in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (north-eastern Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimmel, Silvius; Leister, Matthias; Löbermann, Micha; Feldhusen, Frerk; Seelmann, Matthias; Süss, Jochen; Reisinger, Emil Christian

    2016-10-01

    Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, a federal state in the north east of Germany, has never been a risk area for TBEV infection, but a few autochthonous cases, along with TBEV-RNA detection in ticks, have shown a low level of activity in natural foci of the virus in the past. As wild game and domestic animals have been shown to be useful sentinels for TBEV we examined sera from wild game shot in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania for the prevalence of TBEV antibodies. A total of 359 sera from wild game were investigated. All animals were shot in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in 2012. Thirteen of 359 sera tested positive or borderline for anti-TBEV-IgG with ELISA and four samples tested positive using NT. The four TBEV-positive sera confirmed by NT constitute the first detection of TBEV-antibodies in sera of wild game in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania since 1986-1989. This underlines that the serological examination of wild game can be a useful tool in defining areas of possible TBEV infection, especially in areas of low TBEV-endemicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Tick-borne relapsing fever in a new highland endemic focus of western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moemenbellah-Fard, M D; Benafshi, O; Rafinejad, J; Ashraf, H

    2009-09-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is a neglected zoonotic disease caused by infection with spirochaetes of the genus Borrelia. Humans usually contract it from the bite of infected soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros. In Iran, where the disease is endemic in the mountainous north-western provinces, reports of over 200 cases annually probably under-estimate the true incidence. The species, distribution and infection of ticks that are potential vectors of Borrelia and the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the local TBRF cases were recently investigated in the villages in and around the county town of Bijar, in north-western Iran. A blood sample from each suspected case of TBRF was checked for B. persica by dark-field microscopy, data were collected on the demographics and clinical manifestations of each confirmed case, and the prevalence of tick infection with borreliae and the monthly incidence of TBRF were evaluated. Between 2000 and 2007, 148 cases of TBRF (each with fever, chills and headache) were passively detected in the town. Most (115) of these were confirmed by microscopy, with the other subjects categorized as probable (21) or suspected cases (12) of TBRF. Most (91%) of the 148 subjects were young people, and most came from rural areas and lived in large households in the old mud-and-thatch houses of Bijar. Most (82%) of the cases occurred during the summer or early autumn. Overall, 8543 soft ticks (Ornithodoros tholozani, O. lahorensis, Argas persicus and A. reflexus) were collected by clustered random sampling. When a random sample of the O. tholozani ticks (96 of the 577 collected) was checked for B. persica infection, by being crushed and then inoculated intraperitoneally into a mouse or suckling Syrian hamster, 19 were found infected. Peaks in the monthly incidence of TBRF occurred as the numbers of O. tholozani in the tick collections peaked, and it seems likely that most of the cases were caused by B. persica transmitted by O

  19. Tick-borne relapsing fever imported from West Africa: diagnosis by quantitative buffy coat analysis and in vitro culture of Borrelia crocidurae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, A. P.; van Gool, T.; Wetsteyn, J. C.; Dankert, J.

    1999-01-01

    West African tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is difficult to diagnose due to the low number of spirochetes in the bloodstream of patients. Previously, the causative microorganism, Borrelia crocidurae, had never been cultured in vitro. TBRF was rapidly diagnosed for two patients returning from

  20. Development and optimization of an in vitro cultivation protocol allows for isolation of Borrelia miyamotoi from patients with hard tick-borne relapsing fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsveld, Joris; Kolyasnikova, Nadezhda M.; Wagemakers, Alex; Toporkova, Marina G.; Sarksyan, Denis S.; Oei, Anneke; Platonov, Alexander E.; Hovius, Joppe W.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Borrelia miyamotoi has been shown to infect humans in Eurasia and North America causing hard tick-borne relapsing fever (HTBRF). In vitro cultivation of B. miyamotoi was described recently; but clinical isolation of relapsing fever Borrelia is cumbersome. Our aim was to develop a

  1. The presence of tick-borne diseases in domestic dogs and cats living on Iriomote-jima and Tsushima islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    JIKUYA, Mao; TATENO, Morihiro; TAKAHASHI, Masashi; ENDO, Yasuyuki

    2017-01-01

    The Iriomote cat and Tsushima leopard cat are endangered wildcats in Japan and inhabit only Iriomote-jima and Tsushima islands, respectively. Domestic dogs and cats living on Iriomote-jima and Tsushima islands were surveyed to clarify the interrelationship between wildcats and domestic animals regarding tick-borne disease transmission. Pathogen-derived DNA in blood samples was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Babesia gibsoni was detected in dogs of Iriomote-jima, and Hepatozoon felis and hemoplasmas were detected in domestic cats of Tsushima. Because the H. felis detected in this study was closely related to that isolated from wildcats, we suspect that common H. felis is harbored and transmitted among wildcats and domestic cats via ticks in Tsushima. PMID:28484147

  2. An Emerging Tick-Borne Disease of Humans Is Caused by a Subset of Strains with Conserved Genome Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbet, Anthony F.; Al-Khedery, Basima; Stuen, Snorre; Granquist, Erik G.; Felsheim, Roderick F.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of tick-borne diseases is increasing worldwide. One such emerging disease is human anaplasmosis. The causative organism, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is known to infect multiple animal species and cause human fatalities in the U.S., Europe and Asia. Although long known to infect ruminants, it is unclear why there are increasing numbers of human infections. We analyzed the genome sequences of strains infecting humans, animals and ticks from diverse geographic locations. Despite extensive variability amongst these strains, those infecting humans had conserved genome structure including the pfam01617 superfamily that encodes the major, neutralization-sensitive, surface antigen. These data provide potential targets to identify human-infective strains and have significance for understanding the selective pressures that lead to emergence of disease in new species. PMID:25437207

  3. Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Tick-Borne Disease Cases among Humans and Canines in Illinois (2000-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Herrmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four tick-borne diseases (TBDs, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, Lyme disease (LD, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF, are endemic in Illinois. The prevalence of human and canine cases of all four TBDs rose over the study period with significant differences in geographic distribution within the state. Among human cases, there were associations between cases of RMSF and LD and total forest cover, seasonal precipitation, average mean temperature, racial-ethnic groups, and gender. Estimated annual prevalence of three canine TBDs exceeded human TBD cases significantly in each region. There was concordance in the number of human and canine cases by county of residence, in annual prevalence trends, and in time of year at which they were diagnosed. To account for multiple environmental risk factors and to facilitate early diagnosis of cases, integrated surveillance systems must be developed and communication between veterinarians, physicians, and public health agencies must be improved.

  4. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, John; Yeh, Kenneth B; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Shapieva, Zhanna; Omasheva, Gulnara; Deryabin, Pavel; Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Ayazbayev, Timur; Andryushchenko, Alexei; Zhunushov, Asankadyr; Hewson, Roger; Farris, Christina M; Richards, Allen L

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post-Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review, we describe in detail the successes, challenges, and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

  5. Study of the climatic change impact on vector-borne diseases in West Africa: the case of tick-borne borreliosis and malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trape, J.F.

    2005-04-01

    Malaria and tick-borne borreliosis are the two first causes of morbidity due to vector-borne diseases in a large part of Sudan-sahelian West Africa. They are also the two tropical diseases which have been the most affected by climatic change in recent years. In the case of tick-borne borreliosis it has been shown in Senegal that the persistence of drought since the years 70 has been associated with a considerable extension of the geographic range of diseases and the vector tick A-sonrai, a species that was in the past limited to the Sahara and Sahel. In the case of malaria, drought has strongly reduced in these same regions of Africa the distribution, abundance and infection rate of Anopheline mosquitoes, but without any significant reduction of the burden of malaria for most populations concerned. The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs only explain part of this phenomenon. (A.L.B.)

  6. Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever Imported from West Africa: Diagnosis by Quantitative Buffy Coat Analysis and In Vitro Culture of Borrelia crocidurae

    OpenAIRE

    van Dam, Alje P.; van Gool, Tom; Wetsteyn, José C. F. M.; Dankert, Jacob

    1999-01-01

    West African tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is difficult to diagnose due to the low number of spirochetes in the bloodstream of patients. Previously, the causative microorganism, Borrelia crocidurae, had never been cultured in vitro. TBRF was rapidly diagnosed for two patients returning from western Africa with fever of unknown origin by quantitative buffy coat (QBC) analysis. Diagnosis was confirmed by intraperitoneal inoculation of blood specimens from patients into laboratory mice. In v...

  7. The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in Mbale District, Uganda: The effect of agro-ecological zone, grazing management and age of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rubaire-Akiiki

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60% was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50% were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified.

  8. Molecular and serological detection of tick-borne pathogens in dogs from an area endemic for Leishmania infantumin Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyla Carstens Marques de Sousa

    Full Text Available Tick-borne pathogens affect a wide range of vertebrate hosts. To identify tick-borne pathogens among dogs from Campo Grande, MS, Brazil testing seropositive for Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi, a serological and molecular study was conducted to detectEhrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys and Babesia vogeli in 60 serum and spleen samples. A confirmatory diagnosis ofL. infantum based on serological and molecular assays was also performed, as was sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis to assess the identity of the parasite species infecting these animals. IgG antibodies toEhrlichia spp., B. vogeli and L. infantum were found, respectively, in 39 (65%, 49 (81.6% and 60 (100% of the sampled dogs. Twenty-seven (45%, fifty-four (90%, fifty-three (88.3%, two (3.3% and one (1.6% dog were positive, respectively, forE. canis, Leishmania spp., Leishmania donovani complex, Babesia sp. and Anaplasma sp. in PCR assays. After sequencing, the amplicons showed 99% of identity with E. canis, B. vogeli, A. platys andLeishmania chagasi isolates. The findings of this study indicate that L. infantum-seropositive dogs from Campo Grande are exposed to multiple tick-borne pathogens, which should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis of dogs with clinical suspicion of leishmaniasis.

  9. Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever Outbreak Among a High School Football Team at an Outdoor Education Camping Trip, Arizona, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jefferson M; Hranac, Carter R; Schumacher, Mare; Horn, Kim; Lee, Darlene M; Terriquez, Joel; Engelthaler, David M; Peoples, Marie; Corrigan, Jennifer; Replogle, Adam; Souders, Nina; Komatsu, Kenneth K; Nieto, Nathan C

    2016-09-07

    During August 2014, five high school students who had attended an outdoor education camp were hospitalized with a febrile illness, prompting further investigation. Ten total cases of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) were identified-six cases confirmed by culture or visualization of spirochetes on blood smear and four probable cases with compatible symptoms (attack rate: 23%). All patients had slept in the campsite's only cabin. Before the camp, a professional pest control company had rodent proofed the cabin, but no acaricides had been applied. Cabin inspection after the camp found rodents and Ornithodoros ticks, the vector of TBRF. Blood samples from a chipmunk trapped near the cabin and from patients contained Borrelia hermsii with identical gene sequences (100% over 630 base pairs). Health departments in TBRF endemic areas should consider educating cabin owners and pest control companies to apply acaricides during or following rodent proofing, because ticks that lack rodents for a blood meal might feed on humans. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. Historical review and insights on the livestock tick-borne disease research of a developing country: The Philippine scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybañez, Adrian P; Mingala, Claro N; Ybañez, Rochelle Haidee D

    2018-04-01

    Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) remain to be a global animal health threat. Developing countries like the Philippines is not exempt to this. Despite the potential impact TBDs can give to these countries, local government initiatives and researches remain to be limited. In the Philippines, most epidemiological studies were confined only to specific areas, and predominantly in the Northern Area. Due to its unique geography and limited studies, the current nationwide status of most TBDs could not be clearly established. This review mainly covered published studies and presented challenges in the conduct of TBD research in the Philippines, which may be similar to other Southeast Asian or developing countries. To date, reported livestock TBD pathogens in the Philippines include Anaplasma, Babesia, Theileria, and Mycoplasma spp. With the ubiquitous presence of the Rhipicephalus microplus ticks in the country, it is highly probable that other pathogens transmitted by these vectors could be present. Despite studies on different TBDs in the livestock sector, the Philippine government has not yet heightened its efforts to implement tick control measures as part of the routine animal health program for local farmers. Further studies might be needed to determine the nationwide prevalence of TBDs and the presence of other possible tick species and TBD pathogens. The Philippine scenario may present situations that are similar to other developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens and putative symbionts of black bears (Ursus americanus floridanus) from Georgia and Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Michael J; Nims, Todd N; Savage, Mason Y; Durden, Lance A

    2009-10-01

    Ticks were collected from 38 black bears (Ursus americanus floridanus) from northwestern Florida (n = 18) from 2003 to 2005 and southern Georgia (n = 20) in 2006. Five species (Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis, and I. affinis) were collected from Florida bears, and 4 species (A. americanum, A. maculatum, D. variabilis, I. scapularis) were collected from bears in Georgia. Ixodes scapularis was the most frequently collected tick, followed by D. variabilis, A. americanum, A. maculatum, and I. affinis. The collection of I. affinis from a Florida bear represents a new host record. A subset of ticks was screened for pathogens and putative symbionts by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The zoonotic tick-borne pathogens Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Rickettsia parkeri were detected in 1 of 23 (4.3%) A. americanum and 1 of 12 (8.3%) A. maculatum, respectively. The putative zoonotic pathogen "Rickettsia amblyommii" was detected in 4 (17.4%) A. americanum and 1 (8.3%) A. maculatum. Other putative symbiotic rickettsiae detected included R. bellii and R. montanensis in D. variabilis, a Rickettsia cooleyi-like sp. and Rickettsia sp. Is-1 in I. scapularis, and Rickettsia TR39-like sp. in I. scapularis and A. americanum. All ticks were PCR-negative for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Panola Mountain Ehrlichia sp., E. ewingii, Francisella tularensis, and Borrelia spp.

  12. Effect of Climate and Land Use on the Spatio-Temporal Variability of Tick-Borne Bacteria in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosà

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of tick-borne diseases caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. has been rising in Europe in recent decades. Early pre-assessment of acarological hazard still represents a complex challenge. The aim of this study was to model Ixodes ricinus questing nymph density and its infection rate with B. burgdorferi s.l., A. phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. in five European countries (Italy, Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary in various land cover types differing in use and anthropisation (agricultural, urban and natural with climatic and environmental factors (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI, Land Surface Temperature (LST and precipitation. We show that the relative abundance of questing nymphs was significantly associated with climatic conditions, such as higher values of NDVI recorded in the sampling period, while no differences were observed among land use categories. However, the density of infected nymphs (DIN also depended on the pathogen considered and land use. These results contribute to a better understanding of the variation in acarological hazard for Ixodes ricinus transmitted pathogens in Central Europe and provide the basis for more focused ecological studies aimed at assessing the effect of land use in different sites on tick–host pathogens interaction.

  13. Molecular detection of tick-borne protozoan parasites in a population of domestic cats in midwestern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Ísis Assis; de Souza Ramos, Dirceu Guilherme; Marcili, Arlei; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Taques, Isis Indaiara Gonçalves Granjeiro; Amude, Alexandre Mendes; Chitarra, Cristiane Silva; Nakazato, Luciano; Dutra, Valéria; de Campos Pacheco, Richard; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2016-07-01

    Some tick-borne pathogens that infect domestic cats have been considered emergent in veterinary medicine. Occurrences of Hepatozoon spp., Babesia spp. and Cytauxzoon spp. have been described in several regions of Brazil. This paper offers a comprehensive analysis of the 18S rRNA gene of a Hepatozoon sp. strain detected in domestic cats in the metropolitan area of Cuiabá, in Midwestern Brazil. Based on a molecular analysis, we detected the presence of Hepatozoon species circulating among cats in this region. The aforementioned strain is closely related to other isolates of H. felis detected in wild felids. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis indicates that this genotype is grouped into a clade of 18S rRNA sequences previously described for the genus Hepatozoon in wild felids around the world. Hepatozoon felis strains detected in cats from Spain and Israel showed, respectively, 98% and 97% identity to our sequence and are clustered on a separate branch of the phylogenetic tree. This finding suggests a high diversity of Hepatozoon genotypes occurring in cats in Europe and South America. None of the analyzed cats were positive for Babesia spp. or Cytauxzoon spp. by PCR analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Reducing Tick-Borne Disease in Alabama: Linking Health Risk Perception with Spatial Analysis Using the NASA Earth Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, S.; Renneboog, N.; Firsing, S.; Capilouto, E.; Harden, J.; Hyden, R.; Tipre, M.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Lyme disease (LD) accounts for most vector-borne disease reports in the U.S., and although its existence in Alabama remains controversial, other tick-borne illnesses (TBI) such as Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness (STARI) pose a health concern in the state. Phase One of the Marshall Space Flight Center-UAB DEVELOP study of TBI identified the presence of the chain of infection for LD (Ixodes scapularis ticks carrying Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria) and STARI (Amblyomma americanum ticks and an as-yet-unconfirmed agent) in Alabama. Both LD and STARI are associated with the development of erythema migrans rashes around an infected tick bite, and while treatable with oral antibiotics, a review of educational resources available to state residents revealed low levels of prevention information. To improve prevention, recognition, and treatment of TBI in Alabama, Phase Two builds a health communication campaign based on vector habitat mapping and risk perception assessment. NASA Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite imagery identified likely tick habitats using remotely sensed measurements of vegetation vigor (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and soil moisture. Likely tick habitats, identified as those containing both high vegetation density and soil moisture, included Oak Mountain State Park, Bankhead National Forest, and Talladega National Forest. To target a high-risk group -- outdoor recreation program participants at Alabama universities -- the study developed a behavior survey instrument based on existing studies of LD risk factors and theoretical constructs from the Social Ecological Model and Health Belief Model. The survey instrument was amended to include geographic variables in the assessment of TBI knowledge, attitudes, and prevention behaviors, and the vector habitat model will be expanded to incorporate additional environmental variables and in situ data. Remotely sensed environmental data combined with

  15. Synaptogyrin-2 Promotes Replication of a Novel Tick-borne Bunyavirus through Interacting with Viral Nonstructural Protein NSs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiyu; Qi, Xian; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Xiaodong; Liang, Mifang; Li, Chuan; Li, Dexin; Cardona, Carol J; Xing, Zheng

    2016-07-29

    Synaptogyrin-2 is a non-neuronal member of the synaptogyrin family involved in synaptic vesicle biogenesis and trafficking. Little is known about the function of synaptogyrin-2. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease characterized by high fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytopenia with high mortality, caused by a novel tick-borne phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. Our previous studies have shown that the viral nonstructural protein NSs forms inclusion bodies (IBs) that are involved in viral immune evasion, as well as viral RNA replication. In this study, we sought to elucidate the mechanism by which NSs formed the IBs, a lipid droplet-based structure confirmed by NSs co-localization with perilipin A and adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP). Through a high throughput screening, we identified synaptogyrin-2 to be highly up-regulated in response to SFTS bunyavirus (SFTSV) infection and to be a promoter of viral replication. We demonstrated that synaptogyrin-2 interacted with NSs and was translocated into the IBs, which were reconstructed from lipid droplets into large structures in infection. Viral RNA replication decreased, and infectious virus titers were lowered significantly when synaptogyrin-2 was silenced in specific shRNA-expressing cells, which correlated with the reduced number of the large IBs restructured from regular lipid droplets. We hypothesize that synaptogyrin-2 is essential to promoting the formation of the IBs to become virus factories for viral RNA replication through its interaction with NSs. These findings unveil the function of synaptogyrin-2 as an enhancer in viral infection. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Synaptogyrin-2 Promotes Replication of a Novel Tick-borne Bunyavirus through Interacting with Viral Nonstructural Protein NSs*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiyu; Qi, Xian; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Xiaodong; Liang, Mifang; Li, Chuan; Li, Dexin; Cardona, Carol J.; Xing, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Synaptogyrin-2 is a non-neuronal member of the synaptogyrin family involved in synaptic vesicle biogenesis and trafficking. Little is known about the function of synaptogyrin-2. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease characterized by high fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytopenia with high mortality, caused by a novel tick-borne phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. Our previous studies have shown that the viral nonstructural protein NSs forms inclusion bodies (IBs) that are involved in viral immune evasion, as well as viral RNA replication. In this study, we sought to elucidate the mechanism by which NSs formed the IBs, a lipid droplet-based structure confirmed by NSs co-localization with perilipin A and adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP). Through a high throughput screening, we identified synaptogyrin-2 to be highly up-regulated in response to SFTS bunyavirus (SFTSV) infection and to be a promoter of viral replication. We demonstrated that synaptogyrin-2 interacted with NSs and was translocated into the IBs, which were reconstructed from lipid droplets into large structures in infection. Viral RNA replication decreased, and infectious virus titers were lowered significantly when synaptogyrin-2 was silenced in specific shRNA-expressing cells, which correlated with the reduced number of the large IBs restructured from regular lipid droplets. We hypothesize that synaptogyrin-2 is essential to promoting the formation of the IBs to become virus factories for viral RNA replication through its interaction with NSs. These findings unveil the function of synaptogyrin-2 as an enhancer in viral infection. PMID:27226560

  17. A study on ovine tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites (Theileria and Babesia) in the East Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Kursat; Dumanli, Nazir; Aktas, Munir

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the frequency of Theileria and Babesia species was assessed via reverse line blotting and blood smear-based diagnostic methods in small ruminants. A total of 201 apparently healthy animals from 26 randomly selected herds located in 4 locations (Artvin, Giresun, Gumushane, and Tokat) of East Black Sea Region of Turkey were investigated for the blood protozoans. In a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the hypervariable V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified with a set of general primers specific for all Theileria and Babesia species. The PCR products were hybridized against catchall and species-specific (Theileria spp., Theileria lestoquardi, Theileria ovis, Theileria sp. OT1, Theileria sp., OT3, Theileria sp., MK, Theileria luwenshuni, Theileria uilenbergi, Babesia spp., Babesia ovis, Babesia motasi, and Babesia crassa) probes. Theileria piroplasms were identified in nine (4.47%) samples by microscopic examination. Reverse line blotting (RLB) detected the infection in 19.90% of the samples. The infection rate of sheep (28.90%) was higher than goats (4.10%). T. ovis, Theileria sp., MK, and Theileria sp. OT3 were detected by RLB. The most prevalent Theileria species was T. ovis (18.90%) followed by Theileria sp. MK (0.99%). Theileria sp. OT3 was detected in one sample (0.43%). A single animal was infected as mix with T. ovis and Theileria sp. MK. The other Theileria (T. lestoquardi, Theileria sp. OT1, T. luwenshuni, and T. uilenbergi) and Babesia (B. ovis, B. motasi, and B. crassa) species were not detected. This study is the first molecular survey on ovine tick-borne protozoans in East Black Sea Region of Turkey.

  18. A three-dimensional comparison of tick-borne flavivirus infection in mammalian and tick cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle K Offerdahl

    Full Text Available Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFV are sustained in nature through cycling between mammalian and tick hosts. In this study, we used African green monkey kidney cells (Vero and Ixodes scapularis tick cells (ISE6 to compare virus-induced changes in mammalian and arthropod cells. Using confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and electron tomography (ET, we examined viral protein distribution and the ultrastructural changes that occur during TBFV infection. Within host cells, flaviviruses cause complex rearrangement of cellular membranes for the purpose of virus replication. Virus infection was accompanied by a marked expansion in endoplasmic reticulum (ER staining and markers for TBFV replication were localized mainly to the ER in both cell lines. TEM of Vero cells showed membrane-bound vesicles enclosed in a network of dilated, anastomosing ER cisternae. Virions were seen within the ER and were sometimes in paracrystalline arrays. Tubular structures or elongated vesicles were occasionally noted. In acutely and persistently infected ISE6 cells, membrane proliferation and vesicles were also noted; however, the extent of membrane expansion and the abundance of vesicles were lower and no viral particles were observed. Tubular profiles were far more prevalent in persistently infected ISE6 cells than in acutely infected cells. By ET, tubular profiles, in persistently infected tick cells, had a cross-sectional diameter of 60-100 nm, reached up to 800 nm in length, were closed at the ends, and were often arranged in fascicle-like bundles, shrouded with ER membrane. Our experiments provide analysis of viral protein localization within the context of both mammalian and arthropod cell lines as well as both acute and persistent arthropod cell infection. Additionally, we show for the first time 3D flavivirus infection in a vector cell line and the first ET of persistent flavivirus infection.

  19. Seasonal Activity of Ticks and their Importance in Tick-Borne Infectious Diseases in West Azerbaijan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Salari Lak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: West Azerbaijan is considered as a main region for domestic animal breeding. Due to importance of herd as a main host and ticks as a vector of relapsing fever and CCHF, a comprehensive study was undertaken in the region.Methods: Outdoor, indoor collection as well as ticks stick to the animals' body were collected and identified. The study was conducted during the whole seasons in 2004-2005.Results: During four seasons a total of 2728 ticks of two families (Ixodidae and Argasidae were collected compris­ing 7 genera of 5 hard ticks and two genera of soft ticks including Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Rhipicepha­lus, Boophilus and Dermacentor. The soft ticks were Ornithodoros and Argas. These 7 genera included 18 species. The main species were Haemaphysalis inermis, H. punctata, H. sulcata, H. numidiana, H. concinna, Hyalomma mar­gi­natum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. detritum, Hy. dromedarii, Hy. asiaticum, Hy. schulzei, H. aegyptium, Rhipicephalus bursa, R. sangiuneus, Dermacentor marginatus, Boophilus annulatus, Ornithodoros lahorensis, and Argas persicus. Fre­quency of ticks during different seasons was different. A pyrethroid insecticide, cypermethrin, which is widely used for tick control was tested against soft ticks. The test method was based on WHO recommendation. At the LD50 level A. persicus needs more concentration than O. lahorensis.Conclusion: Ornithodoros and Argas are the more prevalent soft ticks in the region. Distribution and prevalence of hard ticks was varied in different seasons. Results of this study will provide a clue for vectors of tick-borne diseases in the region for local authorities for implementation of tick control.

  20. Spatially heterogeneous land cover/land use and climatic risk factors of tick-borne feline cytauxzoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Ram K; Almes, Kelli; Goodin, Doug G; Harrington, John A; Stackhouse, Paul W

    2014-07-01

    Feline cytauxzoonosis is a highly fatal tick-borne disease caused by a hemoparasitic protozoan, Cytauxzoon felis. This disease is a leading cause of mortality for cats in the Midwestern United States, and no vaccine or effective treatment options exist. Prevention based on knowledge of risk factors is therefore vital. Associations of different environmental factors, including recent climate were evaluated as potential risk factors for cytauxzoonosis using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). There were 69 cases determined to be positive for cytauxzoonosis based upon positive identification of C. felis within blood film examinations, tissue impression smears, or histopathologic examination of tissues. Negative controls totaling 123 were selected from feline cases that had a history of fever, malaise, icterus, and anorexia but lack of C. felis within blood films, impression smears, or histopathologic examination of tissues. Additional criteria to rule out C. felis among controls were the presence of regenerative anemia, cytologic examination of blood marrow or lymph node aspirate, other causative agent diagnosed, or survival of 25 days or greater after testing. Potential environmental determinants were derived from publicly available sources, viz., US Department of Agriculture (soil attributes), US Geological Survey (land-cover/landscape, landscape metrics), and NASA (climate). Candidate variables were screened using univariate logistic models with a liberal p value (0.2), and associations with cytauxzoonosis were modeled using a global multivariate logistic model (p<0.05). Spatial heterogeneity among significant variables in the study region was modeled using a geographically weighted regression (GWR) approach. Total Edge Contrast Index (TECI), grassland-coverage, humidity conditions recorded during the 9(th) week prior to case arrival, and an interaction variable, "diurnal temperature range × percent mixed forest area" were significant risk factors for

  1. Prevalence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens: Babesia and Borrelia species in ticks infesting cats of Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Saran; Abdullah, Swaid; Helps, Chris; Tasker, Séverine; Newbury, Hannah; Wall, Richard

    2017-09-15

    In a study of tick and tick-borne pathogen prevalence, between May and October 2016, 278 veterinary practices in Great Britain examined 1855 cats. Six-hundred and one cats were found to have attached ticks. The most frequently recorded tick species was Ixodes ricinus (57.1%), followed by Ixodes hexagonus (41.4%) and Ixodes trianguliceps (1.5%). Male cats, 4-6 years of age living in rural areas were most likely to be carrying a tick; hair length and tick treatment history had no significant association with attachment. For cats that were parasitized by ticks in large urban areas, I. hexagonus was the most frequent species recorded. Molecular analysis was possible for 541 individual tick samples, others were too damaged for analysis; Babesia spp., and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were identified in 1.1% (n=6) and 1.8% (n=10) of these, respectively. Babesia spp. included Babesia vulpes sp. nov./Babesia microti-like (n=4) in I. hexagonus and Babesia venatorum (n=2) in I. ricinus. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. species included Borrelia garinii (n=6) and Borrelia afzelii (n=4). The majority of B. burgorferi s.l. cases were found in I. ricinus, with B. afzelii in one I. hexagonus nymph. No Borrelia or Babesia spp. were present in I. trianguliceps. To determine a true prevalence for ticks on cats, practices that only submitted questionnaires from cats with ticks and practices that submitted fewer than 5 returns per week were removed; amongst those considered to have adhered strictly to the collection protocol, feline tick prevalence amongst cats that had access to the outdoors was 6.6%. These results show that ticks can be found on cats throughout Great Britain, which harbour a range of species of Babesia and B. burgdorferi s.l. and that cats, particularly in green spaces within urban areas, may form an important host for I. hexagonus, a known vector of pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Tick-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9, 2017 Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  3. Breakdown of the Blood-Brain Barrier during Tick-Borne Encephalitis in Mice Is Not Dependent on CD8(+) T-Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžek, Daniel; Salát, Jiří; Singh, S. K.; Kopecký, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 5 (2011), e20472 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP302/10/P438; GA ČR GAP502/11/2116; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM * WEST-NILE-VIRUS * MICROVASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS * TIGHT JUNCTION PROTEINS * MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS * INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE * PERMEABILITY CHANGES Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.092, year: 2011

  4. The supposedly attenuated Hy-HK variant of highly virulent Hypr strain of Tick-borne encephalitis virus is obviously a strain of Langat virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžek, Daniel; Štěrba, Ján; Kopecký, Jan; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2006), s. 277-278 ISSN 0001-723X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/1479 Grant - others:Grant Agency of the University of South Bohemia(CZ) 35/2005/P-BF Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : TBE virus * Langat virus * Hy-HK attenuated variant Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.788, year: 2006

  5. Expression of a second open reading frame present in the genome of tick-borne encephalitis virus strain Neudoerfl is not detectable in infected cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, Jiří; Selinger, Martin; Palus, Martin; Vavrušková, Zuzana; Tykalová, Hana; Bell-Sakyi, L.; Štěrba, Ján; Grubhoffer, Libor; Růžek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2016), s. 309-316 ISSN 0920-8569 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116; GA ČR GA15-03044S; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : TBEV * uORF * TuORF * Immunoblotting * Immunofluorescence Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.431, year: 2016

  6. Tick-borne relapsing fever imported from West Africa: diagnosis by quantitative buffy coat analysis and in vitro culture of Borrelia crocidurae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, A P; van Gool, T; Wetsteyn, J C; Dankert, J

    1999-06-01

    West African tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is difficult to diagnose due to the low number of spirochetes in the bloodstream of patients. Previously, the causative microorganism, Borrelia crocidurae, had never been cultured in vitro. TBRF was rapidly diagnosed for two patients returning from western Africa with fever of unknown origin by quantitative buffy coat (QBC) analysis. Diagnosis was confirmed by intraperitoneal inoculation of blood specimens from patients into laboratory mice. In vitro experiments showed that QBC analysis may be as much as 100-fold more sensitive than thick smear. Spirochetes were also cultured from blood samples from both patients in modified Kelly's medium and were identified as B. crocidurae by partial sequencing of the PCR-amplified rrs gene.

  7. Ex-Ante Financial Analysis of Methods Applied for Integrated Control of Tick-Borne Diseases and Trypanosomosis in the Coastal Lowlands of Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraguri, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    A study was carried out in the coastal lowlands region of kilifi and Kwale districts to evaluate the financial impacts of two methods applied by smallholder farmers for concurrent control of ticks and tick-born diseases and trypanosomosis. the two strategies were application of synthetic pyrethroid pour-ons and rearing of cattle in netted zero-grazing units. the data was collected using rapid appraisals and cross-sectional surveys. A static simulation method was used to analyse the data. Both control strategies resulted in positive benefit cost ratios of approximately 1.5. It was concluded that these methods were economically viable and could be applied for integrated control of TBDs and trypanosomosis in areas where both are endemic

  8. PCR diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens in Maharashtra state, India indicates fitness cost associated with carrier infections is greater for crossbreed than native cattle breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil W Kolte

    Full Text Available Tick-borne pathogens (TBP are responsible for significant economic losses to cattle production, globally. This is particularly true in countries like India where TBP constrain rearing of high yielding Bos taurus, as they show susceptibility to acute tick borne disease (TBD, most notably tropical theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata. This has led to a programme of cross breeding Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian or Jersey with native Bos indicus (numerous breeds to generate cattle that are more resistant to disease. However, the cost to fitness of subclinical carrier infection in crossbreeds relative to native breeds is unknown, but could represent a significant hidden economic cost. In this study, a total of 1052 bovine blood samples, together with associated data on host type, sex and body score, were collected from apparently healthy animals in four different agro-climatic zones of Maharashtra state. Samples were screened by PCR for detection of five major TBPs: T. annulata, T. orientalis, B. bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma spp.. The results demonstrated that single and co-infection with TBP are common, and although differences in pathogen spp. prevalence across the climatic zones were detected, simplistic regression models predicted that host type, sex and location are all likely to impact on prevalence of TBP. In order to remove issues with autocorrelation between variables, a subset of the dataset was modelled to assess any impact of TBP infection on body score of crossbreed versus native breed cattle (breed type. The model showed significant association between infection with TBP (particularly apicomplexan parasites and poorer body condition for crossbreed animals. These findings indicate potential cost of TBP carrier infection on crossbreed productivity. Thus, there is a case for development of strategies for targeted breeding to combine productivity traits with disease resistance, or to prevent transmission of TBP in India for economic

  9. PCR diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens in Maharashtra state, India indicates fitness cost associated with carrier infections is greater for crossbreed than native cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolte, Sunil W; Larcombe, Stephen D; Jadhao, Suresh G; Magar, Swapnil P; Warthi, Ganesh; Kurkure, Nitin V; Glass, Elizabeth J; Shiels, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    Tick-borne pathogens (TBP) are responsible for significant economic losses to cattle production, globally. This is particularly true in countries like India where TBP constrain rearing of high yielding Bos taurus, as they show susceptibility to acute tick borne disease (TBD), most notably tropical theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata. This has led to a programme of cross breeding Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian or Jersey) with native Bos indicus (numerous) breeds to generate cattle that are more resistant to disease. However, the cost to fitness of subclinical carrier infection in crossbreeds relative to native breeds is unknown, but could represent a significant hidden economic cost. In this study, a total of 1052 bovine blood samples, together with associated data on host type, sex and body score, were collected from apparently healthy animals in four different agro-climatic zones of Maharashtra state. Samples were screened by PCR for detection of five major TBPs: T. annulata, T. orientalis, B. bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma spp.. The results demonstrated that single and co-infection with TBP are common, and although differences in pathogen spp. prevalence across the climatic zones were detected, simplistic regression models predicted that host type, sex and location are all likely to impact on prevalence of TBP. In order to remove issues with autocorrelation between variables, a subset of the dataset was modelled to assess any impact of TBP infection on body score of crossbreed versus native breed cattle (breed type). The model showed significant association between infection with TBP (particularly apicomplexan parasites) and poorer body condition for crossbreed animals. These findings indicate potential cost of TBP carrier infection on crossbreed productivity. Thus, there is a case for development of strategies for targeted breeding to combine productivity traits with disease resistance, or to prevent transmission of TBP in India for economic benefit.

  10. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens at the cutaneous interface: host defenses, tick countermeasures, and a suitable environment for pathogen establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eWikel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are unique among hematophagous arthropods by continuous attachment to host skin and blood feeding for days; complexity and diversity of biologically active molecules differentially expressed in saliva of tick species; their ability to modulate the host defenses of pain and itch, hemostasis, inflammation, innate and adaptive immunity, and wound healing; and, the diverse array of infectious agents they transmit. All of these interactions occur at the cutaneous interface in a complex sequence of carefully choreographed host defense responses and tick countermeasures resulting in an environment that facilitates successful blood feeding and establishment of tick-borne infectious agents within the host. Here, we examine diverse patterns of tick attachment to host skin, blood feeding mechanisms, salivary gland transcriptomes, bioactive molecules in tick saliva, timing of pathogen transmission, and host responses to tick bite. Ticks engage and modulate cutaneous and systemic immune defenses involving keratinocytes, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, T cell subpopulations (Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg , B cells, neutrophils, mast cells, basophils, endothelial cells, cytokines, chemokines, complement, and extracellular matrix. A framework is proposed that integrates tick induced changes of skin immune effectors with their ability to respond to tick-borne pathogens. Implications of these changes are addressed. What are the consequences of tick modulation of host cutaneous defenses? Does diversity of salivary gland transcriptomes determine differential modulation of host inflammation and immune defenses and therefore, in part, the clades of pathogens effectively transmitted by different tick species? Do ticks create an immunologically modified cutaneous environment that enhances specific pathogen establishment? Can tick saliva molecules be used to develop vaccines that block pathogen transmission?

  11. Encephalitis Lethargica

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as a year after the illness. View Full Definition Treatment Treatment for encephalitis lethargica is symptomatic. Levodopa and other antiparkinson drugs often produce dramatic responses. × Treatment Treatment for encephalitis ...

  12. [Early-summer meningo-encephalitis (ESME) and ESME-vaccination: status 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, U; Bernhard, G; Böhm, G; Groman, E

    2000-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a public health problem very well under control in Austria because of a vaccination programme using a safe, efficient and well tolerated vaccine and a carefully designed social marketing concept. The Austrian vaccine underwent another technological updating and is now marketed under a new brand name (TicoVac) on the basis of an EU registration. A second product is also available (Encepur), but some limitations of use have to be taken into account. To improve the epidemiological situation even further (only 41 hospital cases in 1999) special attention has to be given to the age group 50 years and older as this is the segment of the population where the majority of cases is observed. TBE is a growing international health problem as awareness increases and cases are identified in many European countries, even in regions where TBE so far was not diagnosed. An "International Scientific Working-group on Tick-borne encephalitis (ISW-TBE)" was established to coordinate research and public health activities.

  13. A Rare Case of Mediterranean Spotted Fever and Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sousa Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean spotted fever is a tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by Rickettsia conorii. It is transmitted by the dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. It usually presents as a benign self-limited disease characterized by a skin rash, high fever, and, sometimes, a characteristic ulcer at the tick bite site called tache noir. The course of this disease is usually benign, although severe manifestations have been previously described, mainly in adults. Neurological manifestations are very unusual. We present a case of Mediterranean spotted fever with encephalitis to highlight the importance of clinical suspicion, mainly in endemic areas, the potential severity of this disease, and the need of early initiation of therapy in order to prevent severe complications.

  14. Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Pathogen Diversities in Ticks from Livestock and Reptiles along the Shores and Adjacent Islands of Lake Victoria and Lake Baringo, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Omondi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although diverse tick-borne pathogens (TBPs are endemic to East Africa, with recognized impact on human and livestock health, their diversity and specific interactions with tick and vertebrate host species remain poorly understood in the region. In particular, the role of reptiles in TBP epidemiology remains unknown, despite having been implicated with TBPs of livestock among exported tortoises and lizards. Understanding TBP ecologies, and the potential role of common reptiles, is critical for the development of targeted transmission control strategies for these neglected tropical disease agents. During the wet months (April–May; October–December of 2012–2013, we surveyed TBP diversity among 4,126 ticks parasitizing livestock and reptiles at homesteads along the shores and islands of Lake Baringo and Lake Victoria in Kenya, regions endemic to diverse neglected tick-borne diseases. After morphological identification of 13 distinct Rhipicephalus, Amblyomma, and Hyalomma tick species, ticks were pooled (≤8 individuals by species, host, sampling site, and collection date into 585 tick pools. By supplementing previously established molecular assays for TBP detection with high-resolution melting analysis of PCR products before sequencing, we identified high frequencies of potential disease agents of ehrlichiosis (12.48% Ehrlichia ruminantium, 9.06% Ehrlichia canis, anaplasmosis (6.32% Anaplasma ovis, 14.36% Anaplasma platys, and 3.08% Anaplasma bovis,, and rickettsiosis (6.15% Rickettsia africae, 2.22% Rickettsia aeschlimannii, 4.27% Rickettsia rhipicephali, and 4.95% Rickettsia spp., as well as Paracoccus sp. and apicomplexan hemoparasites (0.51% Theileria sp., 2.56% Hepatozoon fitzsimonsi, and 1.37% Babesia caballi among tick pools. Notably, we identified E. ruminantium in both Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus pools of ticks sampled from livestock in both study areas as well as in Amblyomma falsomarmoreum (66.7% and Amblyomma nuttalli (100

  15. Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Pathogen Diversities in Ticks from Livestock and Reptiles along the Shores and Adjacent Islands of Lake Victoria and Lake Baringo, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omondi, David; Masiga, Daniel K; Fielding, Burtram C; Kariuki, Edward; Ajamma, Yvonne Ukamaka; Mwamuye, Micky M; Ouso, Daniel O; Villinger, Jandouwe

    2017-01-01

    Although diverse tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) are endemic to East Africa, with recognized impact on human and livestock health, their diversity and specific interactions with tick and vertebrate host species remain poorly understood in the region. In particular, the role of reptiles in TBP epidemiology remains unknown, despite having been implicated with TBPs of livestock among exported tortoises and lizards. Understanding TBP ecologies, and the potential role of common reptiles, is critical for the development of targeted transmission control strategies for these neglected tropical disease agents. During the wet months (April-May; October-December) of 2012-2013, we surveyed TBP diversity among 4,126 ticks parasitizing livestock and reptiles at homesteads along the shores and islands of Lake Baringo and Lake Victoria in Kenya, regions endemic to diverse neglected tick-borne diseases. After morphological identification of 13 distinct Rhipicephalus, Amblyomma , and Hyalomma tick species, ticks were pooled (≤8 individuals) by species, host, sampling site, and collection date into 585 tick pools. By supplementing previously established molecular assays for TBP detection with high-resolution melting analysis of PCR products before sequencing, we identified high frequencies of potential disease agents of ehrlichiosis (12.48% Ehrlichia ruminantium , 9.06% Ehrlichia canis ), anaplasmosis (6.32% Anaplasma ovis , 14.36% Anaplasma platys , and 3.08% Anaplasma bovis ,), and rickettsiosis (6.15% Rickettsia africae , 2.22% Rickettsia aeschlimannii , 4.27% Rickettsia rhipicephali , and 4.95% Rickettsia spp.), as well as Paracoccus sp. and apicomplexan hemoparasites (0.51% Theileria sp., 2.56% Hepatozoon fitzsimonsi , and 1.37% Babesia caballi ) among tick pools. Notably, we identified E. ruminantium in both Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus pools of ticks sampled from livestock in both study areas as well as in Amblyomma falsomarmoreum (66.7%) and Amblyomma nuttalli (100%) sampled

  16. Survey of canine tick-borne diseases in Lábrea, Brazilian Amazon: ‘accidental’ findings of Dirofilaria immitis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Sousa Soares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples were collected from 99 domestic dogs from the urban and rural areas of the Lábrea municipality, state of Amazonas, Brazil. Canine serum samples were tested by immunofluorescence assay against Rickettsia spp., which revealed that only 3.0% (1/33 and 7.6% (5/66 of the dogs from urban and rural areas, respectively, reacted positively to at least one Rickettsia species. DNA was extracted from canine blood and tested by a battery of PCR assays targeting protozoa of the genera Babesia and Hepatozoon, and bacteria of the genera Rickettsia and Ehrlichia and family Anaplasmataceae. All samples were negative in the PCR assays targeting the genera Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia. For Anaplasmataceae, 3% (1/33 and 39.4% (26/66 of the urban and rural dogs, respectively, yielded amplicons that generated DNA sequences 100% identical to the corresponding sequence of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Dirofilaria immitis. Because of these results, all canine DNA samples were further tested in a PCR assay targeting filarial nematodes, which was positive for 18.2% (6/33 and 57.6% (38/66 urban and rural dogs, respectively. Filarial-PCR products generated DNA sequences 100% identical to D. immitis. While tick-borne infections were rare in Lábrea, D. immitis infection rates were among the highest reported in South America.

  17. Veterinary entomology, colonial science and the challenge of tick-borne diseases in South Africa during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K

    2008-12-01

    This article provides an historical overview of developments in veterinary entomology during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. During that period state employed entomologists and veterinary scientists discovered that ticks were responsible for transmitting a number of livestock diseases in South Africa. Diseases such as heartwater, redwater and gallsickness were endemic to the country. They had a detrimental effect on pastoral output, which was a mainstay of the national economy. Then in 1902 the decimating cattle disease East Coast fever arrived making the search for cures or preventatives all the more urgent. Vaccine technologies against tick-borne diseases remained elusive overall and on the basis of scientific knowledge, the South African state recommended regularly dipping animals in chemical solutions to destroy the ticks. Dipping along with quarantines and culls resulted in the eradication of East Coast fever from South Africa in the early 1950s. However, from the 1930s some ticks evolved a resistance to the chemical dips meaning that diseases like redwater were unlikely to be eliminated by that means. Scientists toiled to improve upon existing dipping technologies and also carried out ecological surveys to enhance their ability to predict outbreaks. Over the longer term dipping was not a panacea and ticks continue to present a major challenge to pastoral farming.

  18. A comparison of DNA extraction protocols from blood spotted on FTA cards for the detection of tick-borne pathogens by Reverse Line Blot hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Zerihun; Ahmed, Jabbar Sabir; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Nijhof, Ard Menzo

    2017-01-01

    An essential step in the molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in blood is the extraction of DNA. When cooled storage of blood under field conditions prior to DNA extraction in a dedicated laboratory is not possible, the storage of blood on filter paper forms a promising alternative. We evaluated six DNA extraction methods from blood spotted on FTA Classic ® cards (FTA cards), to determine the optimal protocol for the subsequent molecular detection of TBPs by PCR and the Reverse Line Blot hybridization assay (RLB). Ten-fold serial dilutions of bovine blood infected with Babesia bovis, Theileria mutans, Anaplasma marginale or Ehrlichia ruminantium were made by dilution with uninfected blood and spotted on FTA cards. Subsequently, DNA was extracted from FTA cards using six different DNA extraction protocols. DNA was also isolated from whole blood dilutions using a commercial kit. PCR/RLB results showed that washing of 3mm discs punched from FTA cards with FTA purification reagent followed by DNA extraction using Chelex ® resin was the most sensitive procedure. The detection limit could be improved when more discs were used as starting material for the DNA extraction, whereby the use of sixteen 3mm discs proved to be most practical. The presented best practice method for the extraction of DNA from blood spotted on FTA cards will facilitate epidemiological studies on TBPs. It may be particularly useful for field studies where a cold chain is absent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Using participatory epidemiology to investigate management options and relative importance of tick-borne diseases amongst transhumant zebu cattle in Karamoja Region, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byaruhanga, C; Oosthuizen, M C; Collins, N E; Knobel, D

    2015-12-01

    A participatory epidemiological (PE) study was conducted with livestock keepers in Moroto and Kotido districts, Karamoja Region, Uganda, between October and December 2013 to determine the management options and relative importance of tick-borne diseases (TBDs) amongst transhumant zebu cattle. Data collection involved 24 focus group discussions (each comprising 8-12 people) in 24 settlement areas (manyattas), key informant interviews (30), direct observation, a review of surveillance data, clinical examination, and laboratory confirmation of cases of TBDs. Methods used in group discussions included semi-structured interviews, simple ranking, pairwise ranking, matrix scoring, proportional piling and participatory mapping. The results of pairwise comparison showed the Ngakarimojong-named diseases, lokit (East Coast fever, ECF), lopid (anaplasmosis), loukoi (contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, CBPP), lokou (heartwater) and lokulam (babesiosis), were considered the most important cattle diseases in Moroto in that order, while ECF, anaplasmosis, trypanosomosis (ediit), CBPP and nonspecific diarrhoea (loleo) were most important in Kotido. Strong agreement between informant groups (Kendall's coefficient of concordance W=0.568 and 0.682; panimals that suffered from ECF, anaplasmosis, heartwater and babesiosis died, as the respective median scores for case fatality rates (CFR) were 89.5% (42, 100), 82.8% (63, 100), 66.7% (20, 100) and 85.7% (0, 100). In Kotido, diseases with high incidence scores were ECF (21% [6,32]), anaplasmosis (17% [10,33]) and trypanosomosis (8% [2,18]). The CFRs for ECF and anaplasmosis were 81.7% (44, 100) and 70.7% (48, 100), respectively. Matrix scoring revealed that disease indicators showed strong agreement (W=0.382-0.659, pimportant diseases in this pastoral region. Results from this study may assist in the design of feasible control strategies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tick-borne diseases in North Carolina: is "Rickettsia amblyommii" a possible cause of rickettsiosis reported as Rocky Mountain spotted fever?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperson, Charles S; Engber, Barry; Nicholson, William L; Mead, Daniel G; Engel, Jeffrey; Yabsley, Michael J; Dail, Kathy; Johnson, Joey; Watson, D Wesley

    2008-10-01

    Cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) in North Carolina have escalated markedly since 2000. In 2005, we identified a county in the Piedmont region with high case numbers of RMSF. We collected ticks and examined them for bacterial pathogens using molecular methods to determine if a novel tick vector or spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) might be emerging. Amblyomma americanum, the lone star tick, comprised 99.6% of 6,502 specimens collected in suburban landscapes. In contrast, Dermacentor variabilis, the American dog tick, a principal vector of Rickettsia rickettsii, comprised < 1% of the ticks collected. Eleven of 25 lone star tick pools tested were infected with "Rickettsia amblyommii," an informally named SFGR. Sera from patients from the same county who were presumptively diagnosed by local physicians with a tick-borne illness were tested by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) assay to confirm clinical diagnoses. Three of six patients classified as probable RMSF cases demonstrated a fourfold or greater rise in IgG class antibody titers between paired acute and convalescent sera to "R. amblyommii" antigens, but not to R. rickettsii antigens. White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, are preferred hosts of lone star ticks. Blood samples collected from hunter-killed deer from the same county were tested by IFA test for antibodies to Ehrlichia chaffeensis and "R. amblyommii." Twenty-eight (87%) of 32 deer were positive for antibodies to E. chaffeensis, but only 1 (3%) of the deer exhibited antibodies to "R. amblyommii," suggesting that deer are not the source of "R. amblyommii" infection for lone star ticks. We propose that some cases of rickettsiosis reported as RMSF may have been caused by "R. amblyommii" transmitted through the bite of A. americanum.

  1. An integrated database on ticks and tick-borne zoonoses in the tropics and subtropics with special reference to developing and emerging countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesco, Umberto; Knap, Nataša; Labruna, Marcelo B; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Bechara, Gervasio H; Gueye, Arona; Lakos, Andras; Grindatto, Anna; Conte, Valeria; De Meneghi, Daniele

    2011-05-01

    Tick-borne zoonoses (TBZ) are emerging diseases worldwide. A large amount of information (e.g. case reports, results of epidemiological surveillance, etc.) is dispersed through various reference sources (ISI and non-ISI journals, conference proceedings, technical reports, etc.). An integrated database-derived from the ICTTD-3 project ( http://www.icttd.nl )-was developed in order to gather TBZ records in the (sub-)tropics, collected both by the authors and collaborators worldwide. A dedicated website ( http://www.tickbornezoonoses.org ) was created to promote collaboration and circulate information. Data collected are made freely available to researchers for analysis by spatial methods, integrating mapped ecological factors for predicting TBZ risk. The authors present the assembly process of the TBZ database: the compilation of an updated list of TBZ relevant for (sub-)tropics, the database design and its structure, the method of bibliographic search, the assessment of spatial precision of geo-referenced records. At the time of writing, 725 records extracted from 337 publications related to 59 countries in the (sub-)tropics, have been entered in the database. TBZ distribution maps were also produced. Imported cases have been also accounted for. The most important datasets with geo-referenced records were those on Spotted Fever Group rickettsiosis in Latin-America and Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever in Africa. The authors stress the need for international collaboration in data collection to update and improve the database. Supervision of data entered remains always necessary. Means to foster collaboration are discussed. The paper is also intended to describe the challenges encountered to assemble spatial data from various sources and to help develop similar data collections.

  2. Rasmussen's Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cognitive deficits, and problems with speech. In some cases, the disease can progress to involve the opposite brain hemisphere. Clinical Trials Throughout the U.S. and Worldwide NINDS Clinical ... Definition Rasmussen’s encephalitis is a rare, chronic inflammatory neurological ...

  3. Encephalitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... West Nile encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, and Western Equine encephalitis. Over the last several years in the ... lack of muscle control. Speech, physical, or occupational therapy may be needed in these cases. It's difficult ...

  4. The occurrence of Ixodes ricinus ticks and important tick-borne pathogens in areas with high tick-borne encephalitis prevalence in different altitudinal levels of the Czech Republic Part II. Ixodes ricinus ticks and genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Daniel, M.; Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Danielová, V.; Fialová, A.; Kříž, B.; Malý, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 2 (2016), s. 182-192 ISSN 1210-7913 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * Borrelia afezelii * B. garinii * B. burgdorferi s. s. * B. bavariensis * B. valaisiana * B. spielmanii * B. lusitaniae * B. bissettii * distribution * altitude * season * medical importance Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2016

  5. Vaccination against Louping Ill Virus Protects Goats from Experimental Challenge with Spanish Goat Encephalitis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, L M; Casais, R; García Marín, J F; Dalton, K P; Royo, L J; Del Cerro, A; Gayo, E; Dagleish, M P; Alberdi, P; Juste, R A; de la Fuente, J; Balseiro, A

    2017-05-01

    Spanish goat encephalitis virus (SGEV) is a recently described member of the genus Flavivirus belonging to the tick-borne encephalitis group of viruses, and is closely related to louping ill virus (LIV). Naturally acquired disease in goats results in severe, acute encephalitis and 100% mortality. Eighteen goats were challenged subcutaneously with SGEV; nine were vaccinated previously against LIV and nine were not. None of the vaccinated goats showed any clinical signs of disease or histological lesions, but all of the non-vaccinated goats developed pyrexia and 5/9 developed neurological clinical signs, primarily tremors in the neck and ataxia. All non-vaccinated animals developed histological lesions restricted to the central nervous system and consistent with a lymphocytic meningomyeloencephalitis. Vaccinated goats had significantly (P goats throughout the experiment, but increased rapidly and were significantly (P goats against LIV confers highly effective protection against SGEV; this is probably mediated by IgG and prevents an increase in viral RNA load in serum such that vaccinated animals would not be an effective reservoir of the virus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Japanese Encephalitis: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the vaccine, what should I do? What is Japanese encephalitis? Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a potentially severe ... cause inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). Where does Japanese encephalitis occur? JE occurs in Asia and parts ...

  7. Comparative analysis of complete genome sequences of European subtype tick-borne encephalitis virus strains isolated from Ixodes persulcatus ticks, long-tailed ground squirrel (Spermophilus undulatus), and human blood in the Asian part of Russia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Demina, T. V.; Tkachev, S. E.; Kozlova, I. V.; Doroshchenko, E. K.; Lisak, O. V.; Suntsova, O. V.; Verkhozina, M. M.; Dzhioev, Y. P.; Paramonov, A. I.; Tikunov, A. Y.; Tikunova, N. V.; Zlobin, V. I.; Růžek, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2017), s. 547-553 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : TBEV * complete genome * European subtype * Western Siberia * Eastern Siberia * nucleotide * Amino acid sequence Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology OBOR OECD: Infectious Diseases Impact factor: 3.230, year: 2016

  8. GENETIC POLYMORPHISM AND CYTOGENETIC CHANGES IN THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD T-LYMPHOCYTES OF PATIENTS WITH ARTHRITIS ASSOCIATED WITH IXODES TICK-BORNE BORRELIOSIS IN THE NORTHERN REGIONS OF SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Ilyinskikh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors have previously conducted studies that demonstrate the increased level of cytogenetic disturbances in patients with Ixodes tick-borne borreliosis (ITB. The severity of arthritis associated with ITB (AITB is also ascertained to depend on whether the patient has certain HLA-DRB1 alleles.Objective: to assess the association between HLA-DRB1 gene polymorphism and cytogenetic changes in the peripheral blood T lymphocytes of patients with AITB.Subjects and methods. 146 patients with AITB, 100 clinically healthy convalescents with ITB (CITB, and a control group of 98 healthy blood donors (HBDs without a history of tick-borne infections were examined using cytogenetic (micronucleus analysis of cytokinesis-blocked peripheral blood T lymphocytes and molecular genetic (PCR analysis of HLA-DRB1 gene polymorphism methods.Results and discussion. The frequency of cytokinesis-blocked lymphocytes with micronuclei in the AITB group was significantly higher than that in the CITB and HBD groups (p<0.01 with the exception of the results obtained in the subgroup of patients with AITB who had the DRB1*10 allele (p>0.05. The highest levels of lymphocytes with micronuclei were observed in AITB patients with the DRB1*17(03, *01, and *04 alleles as compared to those in the CITB and HBD groups (p<0.001. The CITB group showed the most significant increase in the detection rate of lymphocytes with micronuclei in people with the DRB1*01, DRB1*04, or *17(03 alleles. At the same time, there were no significant differences in the number of lymphocytes with micronuclei in the HBD group, depending on the HLA-DRB1 gene alleles (p>0.05. Thus, the patients with AITB had the highest frequency of cytogenetic disorders with the exception of individuals with the DRB1*10 allele.

  9. Study of the climatic change impact on vector-borne diseases in West Africa: the case of tick-borne borreliosis and malaria; Etude de l'impact du changement climatique sur les maladies a transmission vectorielle en Afrique de l'Ouest: le cas de la borreliose a tiques et du paludisme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trape, J.F

    2005-04-15

    Malaria and tick-borne borreliosis are the two first causes of morbidity due to vector-borne diseases in a large part of Sudan-sahelian West Africa. They are also the two tropical diseases which have been the most affected by climatic change in recent years. In the case of tick-borne borreliosis it has been shown in Senegal that the persistence of drought since the years 70 has been associated with a considerable extension of the geographic range of diseases and the vector tick A-sonrai, a species that was in the past limited to the Sahara and Sahel. In the case of malaria, drought has strongly reduced in these same regions of Africa the distribution, abundance and infection rate of Anopheline mosquitoes, but without any significant reduction of the burden of malaria for most populations concerned. The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs only explain part of this phenomenon. (A.L.B.)

  10. Serosurvey for tick-borne diseases in dogs from the Eastern Amazon, Brazil Pesquisa Sorológica por doenças transmitidas por carrapatos em cães da Amazônia oriental, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Granziera Spolidorio

    Full Text Available Canine ehrlichiosis and babesiosis are the most prevalent tick-borne diseases in Brazilian dogs. Few studies have focused attention in surveying tick-borne diseases in the Brazilian Amazon region. A total of 129 blood samples were collected from dogs living in the Brazilian eastern Amazon. Seventy-two samples from dogs from rural areas of 19 municipalities and 57 samples from urban stray dogs from Santarém municipality were collected. Serum samples were submitted to Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA with antigens of Babesia canis vogeli, Ehrlichia canis, and six Rickettsia species. The frequency of dogs containing anti-B. canis vogeli, anti-E. canis, and anti-Rickettsia spp. antibodies was 42.6%, 16.2%, and 31.7%, respectively. Anti-B. canis vogeli antibodies were detected in 59.6% of the urban dogs, and in 29.1% of the rural dogs (P Ehrliquiose canina e babesiose canina são as doenças parasitárias transmitidas por carrapatos de maior prevalência em cães do Brasil. Poucos estudos pesquisaram doenças transmitidas por carrapatos na região da Amazônia brasileira. Um total de 129 amostras de sangue foram colhidas de cães da Amazônia oriental brasileira. Setenta e dois cães eram de áreas rurais de 19 municípios do Estado do Pará, e 57 amostras foram colhidas de cães errantes vadios da área urbana do município de Santarém-PA. As amostras de soro foram submetidas ao ensaio de imunofluorescência indireta, com antígenos de Babesia canis vogeli, Ehrlichia canis, e seis espécies de Rickettsia. A frequência de cães com anticorpos anti-B. canis vogeli, anti-E. canis, e anti-Rickettsia spp. foi de 42,6%, 16,2% e 31,7%, respectivamente. Anticorpos anti-B. canis vogeli foram detectados em 59,6% dos cães urbanos, e em 29,1% dos cães rurais (P < 0.05. Para E. canis, a soroprevalência foi parecida entre os cães urbanos (15,7% e rurais (16,6%. Para Rickettsia spp., cães rurais apresentaram prevalência (P < 0.05 significativamente

  11. Herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, J.S.; Camenga, D.L.; Glazier, M.C.; Coughlan, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Early institution of therapy with acyclovir is essential for the successful outcome in herpes simplex encephalitis. Brain biopsy remains the only conclusive means of establishing the diagnosis, but many fear possible biobsy complications. Thus, therapy is often instituted when the diagnosis is clinically suspected, even though cerebral computed tomography and other diagnostic studies may be inconclusive. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR) has proven to be a sensitive tool for diagnosing presumptive herpes simplex encephalitis. This case presentation demonstrates the superiority of cerebral NMR over computerized tomography for detecting early temporal lobe changes consistent with acute herpes simplex encephalitis

  12. Tick borne illness-Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Larry M; Vazquez-Pertejo, Maria T

    2018-05-01

    Lyme disease is the most commonly reported tick-borneillness in the United States. Thecausative spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi is transmitted by 4 species of Ixodes tick species. Over 90% of US cases occur in northeasternstates from Maine to Virginia, and in Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan. Infection also takes place in northern California and Oregon. Lyme borreliosis is also diagnosed in parts of Europe, China, and Japan. The white-footed mouse is the primary animal reservoir for B. burgdorferi in the U.S. and the preferred host for nymphal and larval forms of the deer tick. Deer are hosts for the adult ticks but do not carry the spirochete. Signs and symptomsof infection occur in 3 stages; early localized, typified by erythema migrans; early disseminated with a flu-like syndrome, neurologic, and cardiac manifestations; and late, characteristically with arthritis. Although, the term 'Chronic Lyme Disease' has been assigned to many patients with a variety of unexplained symptoms, experts in the field question the validity of this diagnosis and warn against prolonged unproven antimicrobial therapies. Diagnosis relies upon clinical evaluation and is supported by serologic testing using a 2-step process which requires careful interpretation. Treatmentvaries with stage of disease, but normally includes doxycycline, amoxicillin,and ceftriaxone. Currently, no preventative vaccine is available. In some geographic areas, patients may be confected with Babesia, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma since the same Ixodes ticks transmit these pathogens. Copyright © 2018 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. St. Louis Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Treatment Diagnosis Links & References Fact Sheet Other diseases transmitted by mosquitoes Chikungunya virus Dengue Eastern Equine Encephalitis ... Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  14. Mycoplasma pneumoniae encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, H.; Korinthenberg, R.; Fahrendorf, G.

    1987-07-01

    Clinical, CT and, in one case, autopsy findings indicated a diagnosis of a severe necrotising encephalitis in two patients. Although usually herpes simplex virus is blamed for this form of encephalitis, it was possible to prove in these two patients that mycoplasma was the causative agent of the disease. It is concluded that this organism can produce a serious disease in the central nervous system similar to that caused by herpes simplex.

  15. Mycoplasma pneumoniae encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.; Korinthenberg, R.; Fahrendorf, G.; Muenster Univ.

    1987-01-01

    Clinical, CT and, in one case, autopsy findings indicated a diagnosis of a severe necrotising encephalitis in two patients. Although usually herpes simplex virus is blamed for this form of encephalitis, it was possible to prove in these two patients that mycoplasma was the causative agent of the disease. It is concluded that this organism can produce a serious disease in the central nervous system similar to that caused by herpes simplex. (orig.) [de

  16. Paraneoplastic brain stem encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaes, Franz

    2013-04-01

    Paraneoplastic brain stem encephalitis can occur as an isolated clinical syndrome or, more often, may be part of a more widespread encephalitis. Different antineuronal autoantibodies, such as anti-Hu, anti-Ri, and anti-Ma2 can be associated with the syndrome, and the most frequent tumors are lung and testicular cancer. Anti-Hu-associated brain stem encephalitis does not normally respond to immunotherapy; the syndrome may stabilize under tumor treatment. Brain stem encephalitis with anti-Ma2 often improves after immunotherapy and/or tumor therapy, whereas only a minority of anti-Ri positive patients respond to immunosuppressants or tumor treatment. The Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) in children, almost exclusively associated with neuroblastoma, shows a good response to steroids, ACTH, and rituximab, some patients do respond to intravenous immunoglobulins or cyclophosphamide. In adults, OMS is mainly associated with small cell lung cancer or gynecological tumors and only a small part of the patients show improvement after immunotherapy. Earlier diagnosis and treatment seem to be one major problem to improve the prognosis of both, paraneoplastic brain stem encephalitis, and OMS.

  17. CT scans in encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, Masami; Morimoto, Tetsuya; Iida, Noriyuki; Hisanaga, Manabu; Kinugawa, Kazuhiko

    1980-01-01

    Generally, CT scans reveal a decrease in the volume of the ventricular system, sylvian fissures and cortical sulci in the acute stage of encephalitis, and softening of the cerebral lobes with dilatation of the lateral ventricles and subarachnoidian dilated spaces in the chronic stage. We encountered three cases of encephalitis: mumps (case 1), herpes simplex (case 2), and syphilis (case 3). In case 1, brain edema was seen in the acute stage and brain atrophy in the chronic stage. In case 2, necrosis of the temporal pole, which is pathognomonic in herpes simplex encephalitis, was recognized. And in case 3, multiple lesions whose CT appearance was enhanced by contrast materials were found scattered over the whole brain. These lesions were diagnosed as inflammatory granuloma by histological examination. (author)

  18. Raccoon roundworm encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, Pareen; Boyd, Zachary [University of Missouri, Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO (United States); Cully, Brent [University of Missouri, Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO (United States); Children' s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Raccoon roundworm encephalitis is a rare but devastating infection characterized by progressive neurological decline despite attempted therapy. Patients present with deteriorating neurological function, eosinophilia, and history of pica or geophagia resulting in ingestion of the parasite. Neuroimaging studies demonstrate nonspecific findings of progressive white matter inflammation and cortical atrophy. (orig.)

  19. Raccoon roundworm encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Pareen; Boyd, Zachary; Cully, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Raccoon roundworm encephalitis is a rare but devastating infection characterized by progressive neurological decline despite attempted therapy. Patients present with deteriorating neurological function, eosinophilia, and history of pica or geophagia resulting in ingestion of the parasite. Neuroimaging studies demonstrate nonspecific findings of progressive white matter inflammation and cortical atrophy. (orig.)

  20. Encephalitis in primary HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, M; Kirk, O

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of primary HIV encephalitis, which initially presented as acute psychosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was suggestive of vasculitis and multiple infarctions, whereas a brain biopsy after six weeks of symptoms showed HIV encephalitis with microglial nodules, but no signs...... of vasculitis. We review previous reported cases and radiological findings in HIV encephalitis and discuss the role of antiretroviral therapy and steroids in its management....

  1. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borucki, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-05

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus capable of causing large outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and horses. In North America, EEEV infection has a very high mortality rate in humans, and survivors often suffer severe neurological sequelae. Interestingly, EEEV infections from South American isolates are generally subclinical. Although EEEV is divided into two antigenic varieties and four lineages, only eleven isolates have been sequenced and eight of these are from the North American variety (Lineage I). Most sequenced strains were collected from mosquitoes and only one human isolate has been sequenced. EEEV isolates exist from a variety of hosts, vectors, years, and geographical locations and efforts should focus on sequencing strains that represent this diversity.

  2. Moyamoya Disease Mimicking Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khalesi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Moyamoya disease is a rare vaso-occlusive illness with an unknown etiology characterized by stenosis of the internal carotid arteries with spontaneous development of a collateral vascular network. A 15-month-old girl was referred to the emergency ward of Imam Reza Hospital due to decreased level of consciousness, focal seizures and fever during the previous 24 hours with an impression of encephalitis. Physical examination revealed left side hemiparesis; however brain CT-Scan did not show any significant lesions. Initial therapy with vancomycin, ceftriaxone and acyclovir was administered. CSF analysis did not show any abnormality and the blood as well as CSF cultures results were negative. Brain MRI showed hyperintensity at right frontal and parietal regions, suggesting vascular lesion. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA showed bilaterally multiple torsions in vessels at the basal ganglia consistent with moyamoya vessels. In all children exhibiting encephalitis, vascular events such as moyamoya disease should be considered. Brain MRI is a critical tool for this purpose. Common causes of encephalitis such as herpes simplex should also be ruled out.

  3. Multiphasic presentation of Rasmussen's encephalitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avbersek, A.; Miserocchi, A.; McEvoy, A.W.; Patel, A.V.; Aronica, E.; Blumcke, I.; Jacques, T.S.; Acheson, J.; Thom, M.; Sisodiya, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Rasmussen's encephalitis is a rare, chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown cause, characterised by drug-resistant focal epilepsy that may rarely present in adolescence or adulthood. We present a case of Rasmussen's encephalitis with prominent recurrent fluctuation in symptoms and well-documented

  4. [Herpetic encephalitis: a clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryhant, L P; Sereda, V H; Kushpiĭ, O V; Tkachenko, V V; Kravchuk, N A; Inhula, N I; Sizina, A V; Sachko, Iu Iu; Andrusenko, A S; Tytenko, Iu I; Babirad, A M

    2012-01-01

    An example of diagnostics and treatment of patient is in-process made with herpetic encephalitis. It is well-proven in researches, that a herpetic encephalitis is 11.5% among sharp encephalitises. Morbidity is sporadic, some researchers specify on an increase its spring. An infection can be passed tiny and pin a way. Seasonal vibrations are not incident to the herpetic encephalitis. Two peaks of morbidity are on 5-30 years and age more senior 50 years. More than in 95% cases the virus of simple herpes of type serves as an exciter of herpetic encephalitis 1. A characteristic triad of herpetic encephalitis is the sharp feverish beginning, development of cramps of dzheksonovskogo type and violation of consciousness, developing usually after a brief respirator infection. Sometimes sudden development of cramps and loss of consciousness is preceded a fever. Example of such development of disease is made an in our work.

  5. Autoimmune encephalitis and sleep disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan HUANG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that autoimmune encephalitis is associated with sleep disorders. Paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS with Ma2 antibodies can cause sleep disorders, particularly narcolepsy and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD. Limbic encephalitis (LE and Morvan syndrome, associated with voltage - gated potassium channel (VGKC-complex antibodies, which include leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1 antibody and contactin-associated protein 2 (Caspr2, can result in profound insomnia and other sleep disorders. Central neurogenic hypoventilation are found in patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor encephalitis, whereas obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, stridor and parasomnia are prominent features of encephalopathy associated with IgLON5 antibodies. Sleep disorders are cardinal manifestations in patients with autoimmune encephalitis. Immunotherapy possiblely can improve clinical symptoms and prognosis in a positive way. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.10.004

  6. Prostate cancer may trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kristian; Zakharia, Elias Raja; Boysen, Anders Kindberg Fossø

    2013-01-01

    -Hu antibody test the patient was diagnosed with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis related to prostate cancer. The patient died within 6 months. We review the literature on prostate cancer-related paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. High-risk prostate cancer can trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis...

  7. Vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Karin Linda; Samuel, Miny; Wai, Kim Lay

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaccination is recognized as the only practical measure for preventing Japanese encephalitis. Production shortage, costs, and issues of licensure impair vaccination programmes in many affected countries. Concerns over vaccine effectiveness and safety also have a negative impact...... on acceptance and uptake. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis in terms of effectiveness, adverse events, and immunogenicity. SEARCH STRATEGY: In March 2007, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 1......), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, BIOSIS, and reference lists. We also attempted to contact corresponding authors and vaccine companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including cluster-RCTs, comparing Japanese encephalitis vaccines with placebo (inert agent or unrelated vaccine...

  8. CT images of infantile viral encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Tateo; Okazaki, Hitoshi; Woo, Man

    1985-01-01

    Cranial CT scanning was undertaken in 40 patients with infantile viral encephalitis seen from 1977 to 1983. According to the pathogenic viruses, abnormal CT findings were detected most frequently in cases of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), followed by non-eruptive viral encephalitis, measles encephalitis, and rubella encephalitis in that order, which coincided well with neurological prognosis. Although CT findings lay within a normal range in cases of measles encephalitis, except a case in which cerebral ventricle was slightly dilated, the degree of consciousness disturbance was unfavorable and it persisted long. This revealed that there is no distinct correlation between the degree of consciousness disturbance and CT findings. Normal CT findings were detected in 13% of patients aged less than 5 years and 76.5% of patients aged 5 years or more. In many patients who had an attack of viral encephalitis at the age of 5 years or more, epileptic seizures occurred frequently, even though CT findings were normal. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Human Parechovirus and Neonatal Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Clinical presentation, cranial ultrasound (cUS and MRi findings, and neurodevelopmental outcome of 10 neonates (70% term with human parechovirus (HPeV encephalitis are described by researchers at University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands; University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and Universitaire de Quebec, Canada.

  10. [Autoimmune Associated Encephalitis and Dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2016-04-01

    Antibodies against various neural surface antigens induce cognitive impairments. Anti-VGKC (voltage gated potassium channel) complex antibodies are well known as one of the causative autoantibodies. An anti-VGKC antibody was identified as the autoantibody in acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome), which causes muscle cramps and difficulty in opening the palm of the hands. However, this antibody also tests positive in autoimmune limbic encephalitis, which has a subacute progress and causes poor memory or epilepsy attacks. Typical cases have a distinctive adult-onset, frequent, brief dystonic seizure semiology that predominantly affects the arms and ipsilateral face. It has now been termed faciobrachial dystonic seizures. In recent years, the true target antigens of the anti-VGKC antibody of this VGKC limbic encephalitis have been recognized as leucine rich glioma inactivated protein (LGI)-1 and others. These antibodies to amnesia-related LGI-1 in limbic encephalitis neutralize the LGI-1-ADAM22 (an anchor protein) interaction and reduce synaptic AMPA receptors. There have been reports of limbic encephalitis associated with anti-VGKC complex antibodies mimicking Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Less than 2% of the patients with sporadic CJD (sCJD) develop serum anti-VGKC complex antibodies and, when positive, only at low titres. Low titres of these antibodies occur only rarely in suspected patients with sCJD, and when present, should be interpreted with caution.

  11. [Anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis and paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tomotaka; Tsuji, Shoji

    2010-08-01

    Anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis (or anti-Ma2 encephalitis) is a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS) characterized by isolated or combined limbic, diencephalic, or brainstem dysfunction. Anti-Ma2 antibodies detected in the serum or cerebrospinal fluid of patients are highly specific for this disease entity and belong to a group of well-characterized onconeuronal antibodies (or classical antibodies). The corresponding antigen, Ma2 is selectively expressed intracellularly in neurons and tumors as is the case with other onconeuronal antigens targeted by classical antibodies. However, in most cases the clinical pictures are different from those of classical PNS and this creates a potential risk of underdiagnosis. Although limbic dysfunction is the most common manifestation in patients with anti-Ma2 encephalitis which is one of the major causes of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (LE), it has been reported that less than 30% of the patients with anti-Ma2 LE exhibit clinical presentations typical of the classical description of LE. Of the remaining, many exhibit excessive daytime sleepiness, vertical ophthalmoparesis, or both associated with LE, because of frequent involvement of the diencephalon and/or upper brainstem. Anti-Ma2 LE can also be manifested as a pure psychiatric disturbance such as obsessive-compulsive disorder in a few cases. Some patients develop mesodiencephalic encephalitis with minor involvement of the limbic system, and some may manifest severe hypokinesis. About 40% of the patients with anti-Ma2 antibodies also have antibodies against different epitopes on Ma1, a homologue of Ma2. These patients may have predominant cerebellar and/or brainstem dysfunctions due to more extensive involvement of subtentorial structures. Anti-Ma2 encephalitis is outstanding among other PNS associated with classical antibodies in that the response rate to treatment is relatively high. While it can cause severe neurological deficits or death in a substantial

  12. Biogeography of tick-borne Bhanja virus (Bunyaviridae) in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2009, č. 372691 (2009), s. 1-11 ISSN 1687-708X EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Bhanja virus * biogeography * arboviruses Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  13. International Symposium on Tick-Borne Arboviruses (Excluding Group B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    observed relationships on which these groups, are based vary in degree. In the Ganjam , Kaisodi and Uukuniemi groups, for example, the members are distantly...estimated diameters as follows: Chen- uda and Kemerovo, about 60 to 80 mp; Bhanja, CTF, Ganjam , Hughes, Kaisodi, Mutucare, Quaranfil, Silverwater...Cal Ar 883 Ganjam IG 619 Qalyub Eg Ar 370 Grand Arbaud Argas 27 Quaranfil Eg Ar 1095 Hazara JC 280 Sawgrass TA 14-64A-1247 Hughes Dry Tortugas Seletar

  14. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014. In the last three years in Poland, about 3000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology were recorded annually. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014, was based on the results of the analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2014”. In 2014 in Poland 3488 cases of bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. Almost 61.3% of these were viral infections. In 2014, in comparison to 2013, a 1.1% increase in the number of cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis was observed and 91% with viral etiology.

  15. Vaccination against Bm86 Homologues in Rabbits Does Not Impair Ixodes ricinus Feeding or Oviposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumou, Jeroen; Wagemakers, Alex; Trentelman, Jos J.; Nijhof, Ard M.; Hovius, Joppe W.

    2014-01-01

    Human tick-borne diseases that are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus, such as Lyme borreliosis and tick borne encephalitis, are on the rise in Europe. Diminishing I. ricinus populations in nature can reduce tick exposure to humans, and one way to do so is by developing an anti-vector vaccine against

  16. Paraneoplastic syndromes and autoimmune encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Myrna R.; Titulaer, Maarten J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary We review novel findings in paraneoplastic syndromes including the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, and then focus on the novel disorders associated with antibodies against cell surface antigens, discussing the importance and caveats of antibody testing, and providing an algorithm for interpretation of results. In anti-NMDAR encephalitis 2 novel findings include the recognition of a characteristic EEG pattern (“extreme delta brush”) in 30% of patients and the demonstration of a fronto-temporo-occipital gradient of glucose metabolism that correlates with disease activity. In limbic encephalitis, antibodies to GABA(B) receptor are the most frequently detected in patients with small-cell lung cancer who are anti-Hu negative, and antibodies to mGluR5 distinctively associate with Hodgkin lymphoma (Ophelia syndrome). We also address the syndromes associated with “VGKC-complex antibodies,” a problematic term that groups well-characterized immune-mediated disorders (LGI1, Caspr2) with others that lack syndrome specificity, are less responsive to treatment, and for which the target antigens are unknown. PMID:23634368

  17. [Limbic encephalitis with antibodies against intracellular antigens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Akihiko; Kamei, Satoshi

    2010-04-01

    Limbic encephalitis is a paraneoplastic syndrome that is often associated with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), breast cancer, testicular tumors, teratoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma and thymoma. The common clinical manifestations of limbic encephalitis are subacute onset, cognitive dysfunction, seizures and psychiatric symptoms. Paraneoplastic neurological disorders are considered to occur because of cytotoxic T cell responses and antibodies against target neuronal proteins that are usually expressed by an underlying tumor. The main intracellular antigens related to limbic encephalitis are Hu, Ma2, and less frequently CV2/CRMP5 and amphiphysin. The anti-Hu antibody, which is involved in cerebellar degeneration and extensive or multifocal encephalomyelitis such as limbic encephalitis is closely associated with a history of smoking and SCLC. The anti-Ma2 antibody is associated with encephalitis of the limbic system, hypothalamus and brain-stem. For this reason, some patients with limbic encephalitis have sleep disorders (including REM sleep abnormalities), severe hypokinesis and gaze palsy in addition to limbic dysfunction. In men aged less than 50 years, anti-Ma2 antibody encephalitis is almost always associated with testicular germ-cell tumors that are occasionally difficult to detect. In older men and women, the most common tumors are non-SCLC and breast cancer. Limbic encephalitis associated with cell-surface antigens (e.g., voltage-gated potassium channels, NMDA receptors) is mediated by antibodies and often improves after a reduction in the antibody titer and after tumor resection. Patients with antibodies against intracellular antigens, except for those with anti-Ma2 antibodies and testicular tumors, are less responsive. Early diagnosis and treatment with immunotherapy, tumor resection or both are important for improving or stabilizing the condition of limbic encephalitis.

  18. Imaging of limbic para-neoplastic encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimmelin, A.; Sellat, F.; Morand, G.; Quoix, E.; Clouet, P.L.; Dietemann, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis is a rare syndrome mostly associated with small cell lung cancer. We present the case of a 69-year-old man with selective amnesia suggesting limbic encephalitis. A neuroendocrine cell lung cancer was found, confirming the diagnostics of para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis. Contrast-enhanced cerebral CT was normal whether magnetic resonance imaging showed signal abnormalities of the medial part of temporal lobes and hippocampal regions. Because neurologic improvement may follow treatment of the primary tumor, early diagnosis is important. (authors)

  19. Radionuclide imaging in herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlin, C.A.; Robinson, R.G.; Hinthorn, D.R.; Liu, C.

    1978-01-01

    Eight patients with herpes simplex encephalitis among the 10 cases diagnosed at the University of Kansas Medical Center from 1966 to 1976 were studied with /sup 99m/Tc early in their diagnostic work-up. The images were unilaterally positive in the temporal lobe area in all 8 patients. Radionuclide studies can suggest herpes simplex as the specific etiology in cases of encephalitis and can also indicate the best site for brain biopsy to confirm the diagnosis by fluorescent antibody techniques. Appropriate antiviral therapy should be instituted as soon as possible to alter the course of this destructive form of viral encephalitis

  20. Rasmussen's encephalitis | Dawodu | Nigerian Journal of Clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    complicated meningo.encephalitis and the third episode was associated with receptive aphasia, hemiparesis and intellectual impairment. Neuroimaging studies revealed cerebellar atrophy and infarction of territory of the middle cerebral artery.

  1. Natural course of LGI1 encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szots, Monika; Marton, Annamaria; Kover, Ferenc

    2014-01-01

    . Follow-up brain MRI indicated early hippocampal sclerosis and global brain atrophy in one case characterized by more pronounced cognitive deficit. Memory and verbal fluency were affected most during the natural course of LGI1 encephalitis. LGI1 encephalitis had a monophasic course and spontaneously...... improved, suggesting that a relatively benign natural course may contribute to the favorable outcome observed after immunotherapy. Our data also indicate that LGI1 antibodies can be present in the sera without clinical disease activity....

  2. Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bacteria such as Lyme disease , syphilis, and tuberculosis Parasites such as roundworms, cysticercosis , and toxoplasmosis in people with HIV/AIDS and other people who have a weakened immune system The effects of cancer Symptoms Some people may have symptoms of a ...

  3. Relevance of Neuroinflammation and Encephalitis in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet eKern

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many studies indicate that children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD diagnosis have brain pathology suggestive of ongoing neuroinflammation or encephalitis in different regions of their brains. Evidence of neuroinflammation or encephalitis in ASD includes: microglial and astrocytic activation, a unique and elevated proinflammatory profile of cytokines, and aberrant expression of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells. A conservative estimate based on the research suggests that at least 69% of individuals with an ASD diagnosis have microglial activation or neuroinflammation. Encephalitis, which is defined as inflammation of the brain, is medical diagnosis code G04.90 in the International Classification of Disease, 10th revision; however, children with an ASD diagnosis are not generally assessed for a possible medical diagnosis of encephalitis. This is unfortunate because if a child with ASD has neuroinflammation, then treating the underlying brain inflammation could lead to improved outcomes. The purpose of this review of the literature is to examine the evidence of neuroinflammation/encephalitis in those with an ASD diagnosis and to address how a medical diagnosis of encephalitis, when appropriate, could benefit these children by driving more immediate and targeted treatments.

  4. Rare case of acute dengue encephalitis with correlated MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, Rishi Philip; Basti, Ram Shenoy; Hegde, Pavan; Devdas, Jaidev M.; Khan, Habeeb Ullah; Bukelo, Mario Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Dengue encephalitis is extremely rare, with most patients showing no significant abnormality on neuroimaging (CT/MRI). We report one of the very few documented cases of dengue encephalitis, with abnormal signal intensities on all major sequences on brain MRI.

  5. Adult-onset Rasmussen encephalitis associated with focal cortical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenbichler, Katharina; Lelotte, Julie; Lhommel, Renaud; Tahry, Riëm El; Vrielynck, Pascal; Santos, Susana Ferrao

    2017-12-01

    Rasmussen encephalitis is a rare, devastating condition, typically presenting in childhood. Cases of adult-onset Rasmussen have also been described, but the clinical picture is less defined, rendering final diagnosis difficult. We present a case of adult-onset Rasmussen encephalitis with dual pathology, associated with focal cortical dysplasia and encephalitis. We interpreted the Rasmussen encephalitis to be caused by severe and continuous epileptic activity due to focal cortical dysplasia. The best therapeutic approach for such cases remains unclear.

  6. Investigations into shaking mink syndrome: an encephalomyelitis of unknown cause in farmed mink (Mustela vison) kits in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavier-Widen, Dolores; Brojer, Caroline; Dietz, Hans Henrik

    2004-01-01

    diseases (canine distemper, Borna disease, Louping ill, West Nile virus infection, tick-borne encephalitis, Aleutian disease), tests for protozoa (Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Encephalitozoon cuniculi), bacteria (general culture, listeria, Clamydophila psittaci), and intracerebral inoculation...

  7. Flåtbårne infektioner i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bo Bødker; Ocias, Lukas Frans; Andersen, Nanna Skaarup

    2017-01-01

    The castor bean tick, Ixodes ricinus, is common in woodlands in most of Denmark. Besides Borrelia burgdorferi, it can harbour a number of pathogenic microorganisms such as tick-borne encephalitis virus, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Francisella tularensis, Candidatus Neoehrlichia...

  8. Dietary quality and encephalization in platyrrhine primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kari L.; Kay, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    The high energetic costs of building and maintaining large brains are thought to constrain encephalization. The ‘expensive-tissue hypothesis’ (ETH) proposes that primates (especially humans) overcame this constraint through reduction of another metabolically expensive tissue, the gastrointestinal tract. Small guts characterize animals specializing on easily digestible diets. Thus, the hypothesis may be tested via the relationship between brain size and diet quality. Platyrrhine primates present an interesting test case, as they are more variably encephalized than other extant primate clades (excluding Hominoidea). We find a high degree of phylogenetic signal in the data for diet quality, endocranial volume and body size. Controlling for phylogenetic effects, we find no significant correlation between relative diet quality and relative endocranial volume. Thus, diet quality fails to account for differences in platyrrhine encephalization. One taxon, in particular, Brachyteles, violates predictions made by ETH in having a large brain and low-quality diet. Dietary reconstructions of stem platyrrhines further indicate that a relatively high-quality diet was probably in place prior to increases in encephalization. Therefore, it is unlikely that a shift in diet quality was a primary constraint release for encephalization in platyrrhines and, by extrapolation, humans. PMID:21831898

  9. Dietary quality and encephalization in platyrrhine primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kari L; Kay, Richard F

    2012-02-22

    The high energetic costs of building and maintaining large brains are thought to constrain encephalization. The 'expensive-tissue hypothesis' (ETH) proposes that primates (especially humans) overcame this constraint through reduction of another metabolically expensive tissue, the gastrointestinal tract. Small guts characterize animals specializing on easily digestible diets. Thus, the hypothesis may be tested via the relationship between brain size and diet quality. Platyrrhine primates present an interesting test case, as they are more variably encephalized than other extant primate clades (excluding Hominoidea). We find a high degree of phylogenetic signal in the data for diet quality, endocranial volume and body size. Controlling for phylogenetic effects, we find no significant correlation between relative diet quality and relative endocranial volume. Thus, diet quality fails to account for differences in platyrrhine encephalization. One taxon, in particular, Brachyteles, violates predictions made by ETH in having a large brain and low-quality diet. Dietary reconstructions of stem platyrrhines further indicate that a relatively high-quality diet was probably in place prior to increases in encephalization. Therefore, it is unlikely that a shift in diet quality was a primary constraint release for encephalization in platyrrhines and, by extrapolation, humans.

  10. PD-1 Checkpoint Inhibitor Associated Autoimmune Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Schneider

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report first-hand narrative experience of autoimmune encephalitis and to briefly review currently available evidence of autoimmune encephalitis in cancer patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Setting: A case study is presented on the management of a patient who developed autoimmune encephalitis during nivolumab monotherapy occurring after 28 weeks on anti-PD-1 monotherapy (nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks for non-small cell lung cancer. Results: No substantial improvement was observed by antiepileptic treatment. After administration of 80 mg methylprednisolone, neurologic symptoms disappeared within 24 h and the patient fully recovered. Conclusions: Immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment can lead to autoimmune encephalitis. Clinical trial data indicate a frequency of autoimmune encephalitis of ≥0.1 to <1% with a higher probability during combined or sequential anti-CTLA-4/anti-PD-1 therapy than during anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 monotherapy. Further collection of evidence and translational research is warranted.

  11. Children and encephalitis lethargica: a historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilensky, Joel A; Foley, Paul; Gilman, Sid

    2007-08-01

    Between 1917 and the late 1920s, encephalitis lethargica was an epidemic and often lethal neurologic disease. In adults, it typically elicited severe somatic effects, and in particular, various forms of cranial nerve and motor dysfunction. In children, the psychiatric effects were often as severe as the physical consequences. Approximately one third of affected children underwent a rapid transformation from normal behavior to delinquency, often leading to institutionalization. Many neurologic and psychological theories were advanced to explain these severe behavioral changes, and the therapeutic approaches employed ranged from training in dedicated schools to frontal leucotomy. Whereas epidemiologic associations provide both positive and negative support for an etiologic relationship between encephalitis lethargica and the approximately contemporaneous "Spanish" influenza epidemic, previously unutilized data from children provide some of the strongest links between influenza and encephalitis lethargica. Encephalitis lethargica triggered behavioral changes in children that are not duplicated by any other neurologic condition, with the possible exception of traumatic brain injury. These unique behavioral abnormalities may provide the earliest clear indication of new encephalitis lethargica cases, whether alone or in concert with an influenza epidemic.

  12. Putaminal involvement in Rasmussen encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajesh, Bhagavatheeswaran; Ashalatha, Radhakrishnan [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Neurology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India); Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Thomas, Bejoy [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India)

    2006-08-15

    Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a rare devastating disease of childhood causing progressive neurological deficits and intractable seizures, typically affecting one hemisphere. Characteristic MRI features include progressive unihemispheric focal cortical atrophy and grey- or white-matter high-signal changes and basal ganglion involvement, particularly of the caudate nucleus. To analyse the pattern of involvement of different brain structures in a series of patients with RE and to attempt clinical correlation. We reviewed the medical records and neuroimaging data of 12 patients diagnosed with RE satisfying the European Consensus Statement diagnostic criteria. The disease manifested as seizures in all patients and was refractory; epilepsia partialis continua was a notable feature (nine patients). Hemiparesis of varying grades was noted in all but one patient; none had extrapyramidal signs. Neuroimaging showed cortical involvement in the insular/periinsular regions in 11 patients. Caudate atrophy was noted in ten patients. Putaminal atrophy was seen in nine patients, six of whom had additional hyperintense signal changes. Our study highlights frequent putaminal atrophy and signal changes in RE, which suggests a more extensive basal ganglion involvement than emphasized previously. Recognition of putaminal changes may be a useful additional tool in the radiological diagnosis of RE. (orig.)

  13. Putaminal involvement in Rasmussen encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, Bhagavatheeswaran; Ashalatha, Radhakrishnan; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Thomas, Bejoy

    2006-01-01

    Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a rare devastating disease of childhood causing progressive neurological deficits and intractable seizures, typically affecting one hemisphere. Characteristic MRI features include progressive unihemispheric focal cortical atrophy and grey- or white-matter high-signal changes and basal ganglion involvement, particularly of the caudate nucleus. To analyse the pattern of involvement of different brain structures in a series of patients with RE and to attempt clinical correlation. We reviewed the medical records and neuroimaging data of 12 patients diagnosed with RE satisfying the European Consensus Statement diagnostic criteria. The disease manifested as seizures in all patients and was refractory; epilepsia partialis continua was a notable feature (nine patients). Hemiparesis of varying grades was noted in all but one patient; none had extrapyramidal signs. Neuroimaging showed cortical involvement in the insular/periinsular regions in 11 patients. Caudate atrophy was noted in ten patients. Putaminal atrophy was seen in nine patients, six of whom had additional hyperintense signal changes. Our study highlights frequent putaminal atrophy and signal changes in RE, which suggests a more extensive basal ganglion involvement than emphasized previously. Recognition of putaminal changes may be a useful additional tool in the radiological diagnosis of RE. (orig.)

  14. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis: a common cause of encephalitis in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueping; Li, Jin-Mei; Liu, Fan; Wang, Qiong; Zhou, Dong; Lai, Xiaohui

    2016-12-01

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis (anti-NMDAR encephalitis) is the most common type of immune-mediated encephalitis. This study aimed to assess the incidence and mortality of anti-NMDAR encephalitis in intensive care unit (ICU) to evaluate the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, managements and outcomes, and to compare these characteristics with patients with non-anti-NMDAR encephalitis admitted to ICU. Patients admitted to the neurological ICU with suspected encephalitis were included between January 1, 2012 and July 31, 2015. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of enrolled patients was screened for anti-NMDAR antibodies using a cell-based assay. 72 critically ill patients with encephalitis of uncertain etiology were investigated, and 16 patients were positive for anti-NMDAR antibodies in CSF. Compared to patients with non-anti-NMDAR encephalitis, patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis were younger, more likely to present with the psychiatric symptoms, dyskinesia, and autonomic dysfunction, and had longer ICU stays. The abnormal movements were so difficult to control that complicated the management. The outcome was favorable in ten patients 1 year after the disease onset, and the mortality was as high as 25 % overall. The incidence of anti-NMDAR encephalitis is high among critically ill patients with encephalitis of uncertain etiology. Controlling dyskinesia proved to be a challenge. Persistent dysautonomias were additional difficult to manage confounders. Same points being highlighted in this study may aid clinicians in the management of patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis in intensive care practice.

  15. [Autoimmune encephalitis: possibilities in the laboratory investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böröcz, Katalin; Hayden, Zsófia; Mészáros, Viktória; Csizmadia, Zsuzsanna; Farkas, Kornélia; Kellermayer, Zoltán; Balogh, Péter; Nagy, Ferenc; Berki, Tímea

    2018-01-01

    The role of autoimmune responses against central nervous system (CNS) antigens in encephalitis presenting with non-classified neurologic or psychiatric symptoms has been appreciated in the past decade. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis has a poor prognosis and is most commonly associated with lung, ovarium, and testicular neoplasms, leading to immune reactions against intracellular antigens (anti-Hu/ANNA1, anti-Ri/ANNA2, anti-CV2/CRMP5 and anti-Ma2/Ta). In contrast, the recently described autoimmune encephalitis subtypes present with a broad spectrum of symptoms, respond to autoimmune therapies well and usually associate with autoantibodies against neuronal cell surface receptors (NMDAR, GABA B R, AMPAR) or synaptic proteins (LGI1, CASPR2). Our aim is to bring to awareness the increasing number of autoimmune encephalitis patients requiring neurologic, psychiatric and intensive care and to emphasize the significance of detecting various autoantibodies in diagnosing patients. In the past 6 years, our laboratory received 836 autoimmune encephalitis diagnostic test requests from a total of 717 patients. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were analysed with indirect immunofluorescence using a BIOCHIP consisting of cell lines transfected with 6 different receptor proteins. IgG autoantibodies against receptor proteins were present in 7.5% of patients. The frequency of positive samples was the following: NMDAR > LGI1 > GABA B R > CASPR2. Detecting autoantibodies facilitates the diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis in an early stage. Patients diagnosed early can be effectively treated with plasmapheresis and immunosuppressive drugs. The efficiency of therapies can be monitored by autoantibody detection. Therefore, the diagnostic immune laboratory plays an important role in proper diagnosis and in the prevention of rapidly progressing symptoms. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(3): 107-112.

  16. Mycotic encephalitis: predilection for grey matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaap, M.S. van der; Valk, J.; Jansen, G.H.; Kapelle, L.J.; Nieuwenhuizen, O. van

    1993-01-01

    In mycotic infections of the brain three patterns of abnormality may be observed: meningitis, granuloma, and encephalitis. The first two, consisting of diffuse meningeal enhancement and mass lesion respectively, can easily be visualised by CT or MRI, but are nonspecific. The third pattern has been described histopathologically; as the clinical picture is nonspecific and the diagnosis is often unsuspected, especially in immunocompetent patients, acquaintance with the characteristic CT and MRI patterns of mycotic encephalitis may help in establishing the correct diagnosis, with important therapeutic consequences. (orig.)

  17. Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as focal cortical dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. O'Rourke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rasmussen's encephalitis is a rare syndrome characterized by intractable seizures, often associated with epilepsia partialis continua and symptoms of progressive hemispheric dysfunction. Seizures are usually the hallmark of presentation, but antiepileptic drug treatment fails in most patients and is ineffective against epilepsia partialis continua, which often requires surgical intervention. Co-occurrence of focal cortical dysplasia has only rarely been described and may have implications regarding pathophysiology and management. We describe a rare case of dual pathology of Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as a focal cortical dysplasia (FCD and discuss the literature on this topic.

  18. Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as focal cortical dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, D.J.; Bergin, A.; Rotenberg, A.; Peters, J.; Gorman, M.; Poduri, A.; Cryan, J.; Lidov, H.; Madsen, J.; Harini, C.

    2014-01-01

    Rasmussen's encephalitis is a rare syndrome characterized by intractable seizures, often associated with epilepsia partialis continua and symptoms of progressive hemispheric dysfunction. Seizures are usually the hallmark of presentation, but antiepileptic drug treatment fails in most patients and is ineffective against epilepsia partialis continua, which often requires surgical intervention. Co-occurrence of focal cortical dysplasia has only rarely been described and may have implications regarding pathophysiology and management. We describe a rare case of dual pathology of Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as a focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and discuss the literature on this topic. PMID:25667877

  19. Mycotic encephalitis: predilection for grey matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaap, M.S. van der (Dept. of Child Neurology, Free Univ. Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Valk, J. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Free Univ. Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Jansen, G.H. (Dept. of Pathology, Subdivision of Neuropathology, Univ. Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands)); Kapelle, L.J. (Dept. of Neurology, Univ. Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands)); Nieuwenhuizen, O. van (Dept. of Child Neurology, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands))

    1993-10-01

    In mycotic infections of the brain three patterns of abnormality may be observed: meningitis, granuloma, and encephalitis. The first two, consisting of diffuse meningeal enhancement and mass lesion respectively, can easily be visualised by CT or MRI, but are nonspecific. The third pattern has been described histopathologically; as the clinical picture is nonspecific and the diagnosis is often unsuspected, especially in immunocompetent patients, acquaintance with the characteristic CT and MRI patterns of mycotic encephalitis may help in establishing the correct diagnosis, with important therapeutic consequences. (orig.)

  20. Intracerebral hematoma complicating herpes simplex encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sainz, Aida; Escalza-Cortina, Inés; Guio-Carrión, Laura; Matute-Nieves, Alexandra; Gómez-Beldarrain, Marian; Carbayo-Lozano, Guillermo; Garcia-Monco, Juan Carlos

    2013-10-01

    To describe two patients who developed an intracranial hematoma as a complication of temporal lobe encephalitis due to herpes simplex type 1 virus, and to review the literature. The first patient, a 45-year-old woman developed a brain hematoma in the location of the encephalitic lesion on day 9 after the onset of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) that required surgical evacuation. The second patient, a 53-year-old woman was being treated for HSE; on day 8 after admission a temporal lobe hematoma with midline shift was disclosed due to persistent headache. Both patients survived but were left with sequelae. We conducted a PubMed/MEDLINE search from 1986 to April 2013 on this topic. We have found 20 additional cases reported in the literature and review their characteristics. Hemorrhage was present on admission in 35% of pooled patients, and consistently involved the area of encephalitis. Clinical presentation of intracranial hemorrhage overlapped the encephalitic symptoms in two-thirds of the patients. Half of patients underwent surgery. Overall, mortality rate was low (5.2%), and half of patients fully recovered. Intracranial bleeding, although infrequent, can complicate the evolution of herpes simplex encephalitis and should be borne in mind since its presence may require neurosurgery. Although its presentation may overlap the encephalitic features, the lack of improvement or the worsening of initial symptoms, particularly during the second week of admission, should lead to this suspicion and to perform a neuroimaging study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Viral encephalitis virus, a new bioterrorist menace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaudeau, Sophie; Micol, Romain; Bricaire, François; Bossi, Philippe

    2005-01-29

    Often responsible for little known infections, today viral encephalitis viruses appear as a new bioterrorist menace, because of their easy production and their great pathogenic potential. Spraying is the best way to permit the rapid diffusion of certain encephalitis viruses. Diagnosis of viral encephalitis, predominating in tropical surroundings, is difficult. In the majority of cases, symptoms differ little from those of common flu. With supplementary examinations, the biological abnormalities are usually non-specific. There are no characteristic images on scans or MRI. Identification of the virus in the nasopharynx, blood or cerebrospinal fluid, in serology, PCR or RT-PCR permits confirmation of the virus. Treatment is essentially symptomatic and relies on appropriate reanimation measures. Ribavirin can be indicated in some cases such as the Rift Valley fever, but is formally contraindicated in West Nile encephalitis. The aim of terrorist groups who would use this type of weapon is more to provoke panic and disorganisation than to kill as many people as possible.

  2. Joint determination of biological encephalization, economic specialization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horan, R.D.; Shogren, J.F.; Bulte, E.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a paleoeconomic model of the co-evolution of economic specialization and encephalization-the common physiological measure of intelligence as reflected by brain mass relative to total body mass. Our economic analysis links ecological and social intelligence theories of

  3. Japanese encephalitis virus: from genome to infectome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Unni, S. K.; Růžek, Daniel; Chhatbar, C.; Mishra, R.; Johri, M. K.; Singh, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2011), 312-321 ISSN 1286-4579 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Japanese encephalitis * Neurotropic infection * Neuropathogenesis * Mosquito borne infections * Arboviral infections Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.101, year: 2011

  4. [Rasmussen encephalitis and non-herpetic acute limbic encephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Kubota, Yuko; Yamasaki, Etsuko; Matsuda, Kazumi

    2008-03-01

    Rasmussen syndrome (RS) and non-herpetic acute limbic encephalitis (NHALE) have pathophysiological background related with autoimmunity to glutamate receptors (GluRs) after infections. RS and NHALE were reviewed, depending mainly on our recent studies. RS is the prototype of autoimmune-mediated epilepsy. In patients with RS, several kinds of autoantibodies against neuronal molecules, for example, GluR3, GluRepsilon2 (NMDA-R2B), etc., are reported. These autoantibodies are not specific for RS. About autoantibodies against GluR3, significance and stimulating effects to GluR3 are controversial. Autoantibodies against GluRepsilon2 were detected in all patients within six months from epilepsy onset, and in some patients at chronic stage. These data suggest that autoantibodies against GluRepsilon2 may be involved in the pathological mechanisms in the early stage, but we could not confirm the effect of the autoantibodies from RS patients on excitatory postsynaptic NMDA current using patch clump methods. However, anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies in patients with SLE are reported to cross-react with n-terminal of GluRepsilon2, and cause neuronal apoptosis in rat hippocampus, ensuing memory impairment, and emotional behavior impairment in mice. Therefore, autoantibodies against GluRepsilon2 may contribute to the cognitive and behavioral changes in RS. Concerning about cellular immunity in RS, lymphocytes stimulating tests revealed peripheral lymphocytes sensitized by antigens containing GluRepsilon2. Cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) excreting Granzyme B were reported in resected brain tissue, and we confirmed the elevated levels of Granzyme B, not in sera, but in CSF. These data suggest that CTLs activated by infection invade into CNS, and recognize neural antigens, and excrete Granzyme B. The incidence of NHALE is 4.1/1 million/year in Japanese adults. Our study in 91 adult patients with NHALE revealed the following characteristics. Mean onset age was 35.2 +/- 16.9 years old

  5. Japanese encephalitis in a French traveler to Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarde, S; Lagier, J-C; Charrel, R; Quérat, G; Vanhomwegen, J; Desprès, P; Pelletier, J; Kaphan, E

    2014-02-01

    Japanese encephalitis is frequent in Asia, with a severe prognosis, but rare in travelers. Culex mosquitoes transmit Japanese encephalitis virus. Risk factors are destination, duration of stay, summer and fall seasons, outdoor activities, and type of accommodation. We report the case of a French traveler to Nepal with neutralization-based serological confirmed Japanese encephalitis. He presented classical clinical (viral syndrome before an encephalitis status with behavioral disorder, global hypotonia, mutism, movement disorders, seizure, and coma), radiological (lesions of thalami, cortico-spinal tracts, and brainstem) and biological features (lymphocytic meningitis). Nowadays, the presence of Japanese encephalitis virus in Nepal, including mountain areas, is established but Japanese encephalitis remains rare in travelers returning from this area and neurologist physicians need to become familiar with this. We recommend vaccination for travelers spending a long period of time in Nepal and having at-risk outdoor activities.

  6. Acute encephalitis associated with measles: MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.Y.; Cho, W.H.; Kim, S.H. [Department of Radiology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University, 760-1 Sanggye-7 dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139707 (Korea); Kim, H.D. [Department of Paediatrics, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University, 760-1 Sanggye-7 dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139707 (Korea); Kim, I.O. [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 28, Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul 110744 (Korea)

    2003-02-01

    We document the MRI features in six patients aged 5-14 years with acute encephalitis following measles. The diagnosis was made on a characteristic morbiliform rash and detection of specific IgM and IgG antibodies. The symptoms of encephalitis occurred 1-11 days after the appearance of the rash. All patients underwent MRI within 1-4 days of the onset of neurological symptoms. Diffusion weighted images (DWI) were obtained in three patients. In all patients, T2-weighted images showed widely distributed, multifocal high signal in both cerebral hemispheres with swelling of the cortex, with bilateral, symmetrical involvement of the putamen and caudate nucleus. The lesions had showed low apparent diffusion coefficients. Three patients showed subacute gyriform haemorrhage, and asymmetrical gyriform contrast enhancement on follow-up MRI. (orig.)

  7. Decompressive craniectomy in herpes simplex encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Jasim Abdul Jalal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial hypertension is a common cause of morbidity in herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE. HSE is the most common form of acute viral encephalitis. Hereby we report a case of HSE in which decompressive craniectomy was performed to treat refractory intracranial hypertension. A 32-year-old male presented with headache, vomiting, fever, and focal seizures involving the right upper limb. Cerebrospinal fluid-meningoencephalitic profile was positive for herpes simplex. Magnetic resonance image of the brain showed swollen and edematous right temporal lobe with increased signal in gray matter and subcortical white matter with loss of gray, white differentiation in T2-weighted sequences. Decompressive craniectomy was performed in view of refractory intracranial hypertension. Decompressive surgery for HSE with refractory hypertension can positively affect patient survival, with good outcomes in terms of cognitive functions.

  8. Sarcocystis neurona encephalitis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, A J; Barr, B; Rejmanek, D

    2007-11-01

    A 1.5-year-old male Feist dog was presented to a veterinarian for reluctance to stand on the hind legs. Treatment included dexamethasone and resulted in a favorable initial response, but posterior paresis returned and progressed to recumbency, hyperesthesia, and attempts to bite the owner. The dog was euthanized. The brain was negative for rabies by fluorescent antibody analysis. Multiple foci of encephalitis were found in the cerebrum and particularly in the cerebellum. Protozoa morphologically consistent with Sarcocystis sp. were identified at sites of intense inflammation and malacia. Additionally, multiple schizonts were identified in areas without inflammation. Immunohistochemistry using both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific for Sarcocystis neurona was strongly positive. No reaction to polyclonal antisera for Toxoplasma gondii or Neospora caninum was found. Polymerase chain reaction confirmed that the protozoa were S. neurona. Additional aberrant hosts for S. neurona other than horses have been identified, but S. neurona encephalitis has not been documented previously in the dog.

  9. Brain biopsy for diagnosis of chlamydia encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Voznyuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the case of encephalitis associated with chlamydia infection of central nervous system. The diagnostic protocol of the patient included: a careful observation of somatic and neurological status, laboratory tests of blood and cerebrospinal fluid, neurovisualization. The results of the diagnostic protocol suggest that laboratory tests blood and cerebrospinal fluid possess low sensitivity and specificity. The MRI study has revealed the localization and inflammatory character of the changes in brain tissue; it has also helped to choose the most favorable area for the stereotaxic biopsy. The obtained tissue was evaluated by means of light (immunohistochemistry and electronic microscopy. The active chlamydia infection was estimated. The subsequent antibacterial etiotropic therapy resulted in the regression of the neurologic symptoms and remission.The intravitalpathomorphology study of the brain could be recommended for the management of the severe encephalitis of the unknown origin. 

  10. Early maternal death due to acute encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vidanapathirana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Maternal death in an unmarried woman poses a medico-legal challenge. A 24-year-old unmarried schoolteacher, residing at a boarding place, had been admitted to hospital in a state of cardiac arrest. At the autopsy, mild to moderate congestion of subarachnoid vessels and oedema of the brain was noted. An un-interfered foetus of 15 weeks with an intact sac and placental tissues were seen. Genital tract injuries were not present. Histopathological examination showed diffuse perivascular cuffing by mononuclear cells suggestive of viral encephalitis, considering the circumstances of death and the social stigma of pregnancy in this unmarried teacher, the possibility of attempted suicide by ingestion of a poison was considered. Abrus precatorius (olinda seeds commonly found in the area is known to produce acute encephalitis as well as haemorrhagic gastroenteritis and pulmonary congestion was also considered as a possible cause for this unusual presentation

  11. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis: neuroradiological diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struffert, T.; Reith, W.

    2000-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) is the most frequent viral encephalitis, as a rule with the starting point and centre within the temporal lobe. If untreated, HSE is usually fatal, thus diagnosis has to be established rapidly. Treatment with Acyclovir should begin as soon possible. As MRI is extremely sensitive in detecting the early inflammatory changes, it should be initially performed, especially as in the early stadium CT may be unspecific. We recommend the following examination protocol: coronar T1-weighted MR imaging before and after administration of gadopentetate dimeglumine, coronar FLAIR sequence and axial T2-weighted imaging. The diagnostic proof is to show the evidence of viral DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in cerebrospinal liquor. (orig.) [de

  12. Herpes simplex encephalitis with thalamic, brainstem and cerebellar involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Meenal; Kulkarni, Shilpa; Udwadia Hegde, Anaita

    2018-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus encephalitis is a common and treatable cause of acute encephalitis in all age groups. Certain radiological features such as temporal parenchymal involvement facilitate the diagnosis. The use of herpes simplex virus polymerase chain reaction has expanded the clinical and imaging spectrum. We report the case of a young patient who presented with a movement disorder and predominant involvement of thalami, brainstem and cerebellum on magnetic resonance imaging, and was diagnosed with herpes simplex virus encephalitis. Differentiation from Japanese encephalitis may be difficult in these patients, especially in endemic areas, and may necessitate the use of relevant investigations in all patients.

  13. Serial CT scannings in herpes simplex encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, M.; Sawada, T.; Kuriyama, Y.; Kinugawa, H.; Yamaguchi, T. (National Cardivascular Center, Osaka (Japan))

    1981-10-01

    Two patients with serologically confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis were studied by serial CT scannings. Case 1, a 60-year-old woman, was admitted to National Cardiovascular Center because of headache, fever, and attacks of Jacksonian seizure. Case 2, a 54-year-old man, was admitted because of fever, consciousness disturbance and right hemiparesis. Pleocytosis (mainly lymphocytes) and elevation of protein content in cerebrospinal fluid were observed in both cases. Both patients presented ''das apallische Syndrom'' one month after admission. The diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis was confirmed by typical clinical courses and by greater than fourfold rises in serum antibody titer for herpes simplex virus as well as that in cerebrospinal fluid in case 1. Characteristic CT findings observed in these two cases were summarized as follows: Within a week after the onset, no obvious abnormalities could be detected on CT scans (Case 1). Two weeks after the onset, a large low-density area appeared in the left temporal lobe and in the contralateral insular cortex with midline shift toward the right side (Case 2). One month later, an ill-defined linear and ring-like high-density area (Case 1), or a well-defined high-density area (Case 2), that was enhanced after contrast administration, was observed in the large low-density area in the temporal lobe. These findings were considered as characteristic for hemorrhagic encephalitis. These high-density areas disappeared two months later, however, widespread and intensified low-density areas still remained. In both cases, the basal ganglia and thalamus were completely spared on CT scans. From these observations, it can be concluded that serial CT scannings are quite useful for diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis.

  14. Serial CT scannings in herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Masashi; Sawada, Tohru; Kuriyama, Yoshihiro; Kinugawa, Hidekazu; Yamaguchi, Takenori

    1981-01-01

    Two patients with serologically confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis were studied by serial CT scannings. Case 1, a 60-year-old woman, was admitted to National Cardiovascular Center because of headache, fever, and attacks of Jacksonian seizure. Case 2, a 54-year-old man, was admitted because of fever, consciousness disturbance and right hemipare sis. Pleocytosis (mainly lymphocytes) and elevation of protein content in cerebrospinal fluid were observed in both cases. Both patients presented ''das apallische Syndrom'' one month after admission. The diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis was confirmed by typical clinical courses and by greater than fourfold rises in serum antibody titer for herpes simplex virus as well as that in cerebrospinal fluid in case 1. Characteristic CT findings observed in these two cases were summarized as follows: Within a week after the onset, no obvious abnormalities could be detected on CT scans (Case 1). Two weeks after the onset, a large low-density area appeared in the left temporal lobe and in the contralateral insular cortex with midline shift toward the right side (Case 2). One month later, an ill-defined linear and ring-like high-density area (Case 1), or a well-defined high-density area (Case 2), that was enhanced after contrast administration, was observed in the large low-density area in the temporal lobe. These findings were considered as characteristic for hemorrhagic encephalitis. These high-density areas disappeared two months later, however, widespread and intensified low-density areas still remained. In both cases, the basal ganglia and thalamus were completely spared on CT scans. From these observations, it can be concluded that serial CT scannings are quite useful for diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. (author)

  15. Computed tomography of herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodiek, S.O.; Backmund, H.; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Psychiatrie, Muenchen

    1984-01-01

    Referring to 9 patients of our own material we report on the pattern of distribution and the development of CT-changes in herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Our cases include the outstanding findings of a primarily hemorrhagic HSE and an extensive calcification at the residual stage on the borderline of widespread tissue necrosis on a baby. With respect to literature we receive a quite homogenous picture, reflecting the crucial characteristics of the disease as known from neuropathology. (orig.) [de

  16. [VGKC antibodies associated with limbic encephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, B M; Urbach, H; Elger, C E; Bien, C G; Beyenburg, S

    2005-06-01

    Since the initial description of limbic encephalitis (LE) in 1960/1968, several subforms of this clinico-neuropathological syndrome have been identified. The best known is paraneoplastic LE. However, non-paraneoplastic forms have been reported, too. Very recently, autoantibodies against voltage-gated potassium channels have been described in association with LE. The diagnostic workup of such a case and the apparently typical good response to long-term immunotherapy of this LE subform are described.

  17. [Autoimmune Encephalitis Associated with Malignant Tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inuzuka, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    Autoimmune encephalitis consists of limbic symptoms and signs associated with antibodies against neuronal cell-surface antigens or intracellular antigens. Some cases are known to be associated with anti-channel or anti-receptor-related molecule antibodies. Whether these cases are paraneoplastic depends on the kinds of antigens that the antibodies are produced against. Other cases due to well-characterized onco-neural antibodies are almost always paraneoplastic and are generally resistant to anti-tumor therapy and/or immunotherapy. An exception is anti-Ma2 antibody-positive encephalitis associated with a testicular tumor. Antibodies for intracellular antigens are considered not to be pathogenic. Rather, the T-cell response is thought to be responsible. These antibodies are useful markers for the diagnosis of paraneoplastic disorders and in the search for underlying cancer, as neurological symptoms often precede tumor diagnosis. There is a relationship among onco-neural antibodies, clinical features, tumor types, and response to immunotherapy. Here we describe the characteristics of autoimmune encephalitis cases with antibodies against different intracellular antigens, such as Hu, Ma2, CRMP5, or amphiphysin.

  18. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis, a mimicker of acute infectious encephalitis and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis has become an increasingly recognized etiology of acute psychosis in young patients. The diverse constellation of symptoms allows for misdiagnosis as an infectious, psychological, or toxicological entity resulting in delays in treatment with increasing morbidity. We describe a case of anti-NMDAR encephalitis that was a particular challenge to diagnose. Practitioners should maintain a high index of suspicion for anti-NMDAR and related neuroautoimmune syndromes, especially in young patients that present with acute mental status decline or dyskinesia.

  19. Operculum syndrome: unusual feature of herpes simplex encephalitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, J. C.; Haenggeli, C. A.; Overweg-Plandsoen, W. C.

    1995-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis in adults and young patients carries a high mortality and morbidity. Its presentation may be nonspecific, sometimes hampering early diagnosis. Two young children are reported with herpes simplex encephalitis in whom the operculum syndrome was an outstanding feature. This

  20. Influenza-associated Encephalitis/Encephalopathy Identified by the Australian Childhood Encephalitis Study 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Philip N; Dale, Russell C; Blyth, Christopher C; Macartney, Kristine; Crawford, Nigel W; Marshall, Helen; Clark, Julia E; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Webster, Richard I; Cheng, Allen C; Booy, Robert; Jones, Cheryl A

    2017-11-01

    Influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy (IAE) is an important cause of acute encephalitis syndrome in children. IAE includes a series of clinicoradiologic syndromes or acute encephalopathy syndromes that have been infrequently reported outside East Asia. We aimed to describe cases of IAE identified by the Australian Childhood Encephalitis study. Children ≤ 14 years of age with suspected encephalitis were prospectively identified in 5 hospitals in Australia. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, imaging, and outcome at discharge data were reviewed by an expert panel and cases were categorized by using predetermined case definitions. We extracted cases associated with laboratory identification of influenza virus for this analysis; among these cases, specific IAE syndromes were identified where clinical and radiologic features were consistent with descriptions in the published literature. We identified 13 cases of IAE during 3 southern hemisphere influenza seasons at 5 tertiary children's hospitals in Australia; 8 children with specific acute encephalopathy syndromes including: acute necrotizing encephalopathy, acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late diffusion restriction, mild encephalopathy with reversible splenial lesion, and hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia syndrome. Use of influenza-specific antiviral therapy and prior influenza vaccination were infrequent. In contrast, death or significant neurologic morbidity occurred in 7 of the 13 children (54%). The conditions comprising IAE are heterogeneous with varied clinical features, magnetic resonance imaging changes, and outcomes. Overall, outcome of IAE is poor emphasizing the need for optimized prevention, early recognition, and empiric management.

  1. Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis and encephalomyelitis: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shian, W.J.; Chi, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the clinical and brain MR characteristics of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encephalitis and encephalomyelitis. Clinical and 30 MR findings of 29 patients with EBV encephalitis or encephalomyelitis were retrospectively reviewed. Patients included 24 with encephalitis, 3 with encephalomyelitis, and 2 with brain-stem encephalitis. Altered consciousness, seizures, visual hallucination, and acute psychotic reaction were the common presentations. Eight patients had positive MR findings. These included T2 prolongation over gray and white matter, periventricular leukomalacia, and brain atrophy. Transient T2 prolongation over gray and white matter was found in one patient. Our results indicate that EBV encephalitis and encephalomyelitis have a wide range of both clinical and MR findings. The MR lesions may disappear in a short period, so the timing for the MR scan may be critical. (orig.). With 5 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis and encephalomyelitis: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shian, W.J. [Department of Pediatrics, Tao-Yuan Veterans Hospital, No. 100, Sec 3, Cheng-Kung Rd, City of Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (Taiwan, Province of China); Chi, C.S. [Department of Pediatrics, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the clinical and brain MR characteristics of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encephalitis and encephalomyelitis. Clinical and 30 MR findings of 29 patients with EBV encephalitis or encephalomyelitis were retrospectively reviewed. Patients included 24 with encephalitis, 3 with encephalomyelitis, and 2 with brain-stem encephalitis. Altered consciousness, seizures, visual hallucination, and acute psychotic reaction were the common presentations. Eight patients had positive MR findings. These included T2 prolongation over gray and white matter, periventricular leukomalacia, and brain atrophy. Transient T2 prolongation over gray and white matter was found in one patient. Our results indicate that EBV encephalitis and encephalomyelitis have a wide range of both clinical and MR findings. The MR lesions may disappear in a short period, so the timing for the MR scan may be critical. (orig.). With 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1 Encephalitis Mimicking Glioblastoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke A. Cunha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM often presents as a brain mass with encephalitis. In a patient with GBM, subsequent presentation with new onset encephalitis may be due to another GBM or Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 encephalitis. We present a case of HSV-1 encephalitis mimicking GBM in a patient with previous GBM.

  4. Four cases of gabab receptor encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szots, Monika; Blaabjerg, M.; Kondziella, D

    2016-01-01

    loss of short-term memory, but no epilepsy. Without immunotherapy, his memory spontaneously improved up to mild cognitive impairment in six weeks. GABAbR antibodies persisted in his serum, and 18 months later, FDG-PET detected abnormal mediastinal lymph nodes and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Another...... in three patients. Only the patient, who spontaneously improved, survived for more than 24 months. In summary, our cases show that (i) GABAbR encephalitis may develop without epilepsy; (ii) the severe short-term memory loss can spontaneously improve; (iii) persistent hyponatremia can be present...

  5. What should you know about limbic encephalitis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Machado

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune encephalitis is an inflammatory disorder characterized by a subacute impairment of short-term memory, psychiatric features and seizures. It is often associated with a variety of other neurological symptoms, and its differential diagnosis is wide, leading to challenges in its recognition. It used to be regarded as a rare disease, usually paraneoplastic and with poor prognosis. However, with the recent recognition of membrane-surface directed antibodies, it is now known that in a substantial proportion of cases there is no association with any malignancy and there is a good prognosis if treated. Hence, early recognition and prompt initiation of immunotherapies are of great importance.

  6. Case of Herpes encephalitis followed-up by CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Y.; Nagai, S.; Nishibayashi, Y.; Okamoto, H.; Goishi, J. (Matsuyama Red Cross Hospital, Ehime (Japan))

    1982-03-01

    A 9-month-old girl was admitted with lethargy, fever and convulsion. EGG showed localized slow waves in the right temporal region. CT showed a localized low density area accompanied by a hemorrhagic focus in the right frontal lobe. Herpes encephalitis was suspected, and cytosine arabinoside was administered. The antibody titers of the serum and cerebrospinal fluid against herpes simplex virus type I significantly rose. Clinically the patient recovered without serious sequelae. CT revealed marked cerebral atrophy and subdural hematoma which were surgically treated. The importance of CT in the diagnosis and prognosis of herpes encephalitis was argued, and CT findings of herpes encephalitis were discussed.

  7. CT findings in a case of Japanese encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyomasu, Teruo; Nakashima, Kenichi; Matsumoto, Tomie; Shida, Kenshiro

    1982-01-01

    A 44-year-old man was admitted to a hospital on August 1980, with chief complaints of high fever and consciousness disturbance. Three months later he was referred to our hospital. Neurological examination revealed mental deterioration, amnesia, bilateral pyramidal signs, tremor, truncal ataxia and others. Serum CF titer to Japanese encephalitis virus was 1 : 16. He was diagnosed as having Japanese encephalitis from the clinical features and serological response. CT scans showed low density areas in bilateral thalami, the left ganglia, left internal capsule, left substantia nigra and others. It is noticeable that the CT findings were compatible with the pathological changes of Japanese encephalitis. (author)

  8. Limbic Encephalitis Driven by a Pleural Mesothelioma: A Paraneoplastic Complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob O. Day

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes have only been described with pleural mesothelioma in five cases. We have described a 72-year-old man who developed anterograde amnesia 27 months after diagnosis of epithelioid pleural mesothelioma. Investigations revealed a limbic encephalitis with no alternative causes identified. Limbic encephalitis is a classical paraneoplastic syndrome and presentation within five years of a cancer with no other causes identified is sufficient to diagnose a paraneoplastic etiology. This is the first case of isolated paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis driven by a pleural mesothelioma.

  9. A case of Herpes encephalitis followed-up by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Yukiko; Nagai, Shinya; Nishibayashi, Yohei; Okamoto, Hirofumi; Goishi, Junji

    1982-01-01

    A 9-month-old girl was admitted with lethargy, fever and convulsion. EGG showed localized slow waves in the right temporal region. CT showed a localized low density area accompanied by a hemorrhagic focus in the right frontal lobe. Herpes encephalitis was suspected, and cytosine arabinoside was administered. The antibody titers of the serum and cerebrospinal fluid against herpes simplex virus type I significantly rose. Clinically the patient recovered without serious sequelae. CT revealed marked cerebral atrophy and subdural hematoma which were surgically treated. The importance of CT in the diagnosis and prognosis of herpes encephalitis was argued, and CT findings of herpes encephalitis were discussed. (Chiba, N.)

  10. Anti-N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Severe, Potentially Reversible Autoimmune Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cai-yun; Zheng, Xiang-Yu; Ma, Chi

    2017-01-01

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is potentially lethal, but it is also a treatable autoimmune disorder characterized by prominent psychiatric and neurologic symptoms. It is often accompanied with teratoma or other neoplasm, especially in female patients. Anti-NMDAR antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum are characteristic features of the disease, thereby suggesting a pathogenic role in the disease. Here, we summarize recent studies that have clearly documented that both clinical manifestations and the antibodies may contribute to early diagnosis and multidisciplinary care. The clinical course of the disorder is reversible and the relapse could occur in some patients. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis coexisting with demyelinating disorders makes the diagnosis more complex; thus, clinicians should be aware of the overlapping diseases. PMID:28698711

  11. Biopsy histopathology in herpes simplex encephalitis and in encephalitis of undefined etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booss, J.; Kim, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    The histopathology of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) has been described principally from postmortem studies which reveal end-stage disease. Biopsy material, which selects an earlier stage in disease development, has been used principally to isolate virus, identify viral particles, and locate viral antigens. Further, little attention has been paid to the histopathology of biopsies of encephalitis of undefined etiology. In the present study, sections from biopsies which yielded virus and those which were negative for virus were evaluated in a systematic and controlled manner. Biopsies yielding virus were characterized by meningeal inflammation, perivascular infiltrates, and glial nodules. Biopsies which did not yield virus and which failed to reveal another diagnosis were characterized by nonspecific gliosis. Thus the early histiopathology of HSE is characterized by early signs of inflammation in the absence of necrosis and generally differs from biopsies in which virus is not isolated. PMID:6098083

  12. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of the envelope gene of the Vasilchenko strain of TBE virus; comparison with other flaviviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsun, T S; Frolova, T V; Pogodina, V V; Lashkevich, V A; Venugopal, K; Gould, E A

    1993-02-01

    A strain of tick-borne encephalitis virus known as Vasilchenko (Vs) exhibits relatively low virulence characteristics in monkeys, Syrian hamsters and humans. The gene encoding the envelope glycoprotein of this virus was cloned and sequenced. Alignment of the sequence with those of other known tick-borne flaviviruses and identification of the recognised amino acid genetic marker EHLPTA confirmed its identity as a member of the TBE complex. However, Vs virus was distinguishable from eastern and western tick-borne serotypes by the presence of the sequence AQQ at amino acid positions 232-234 and also by the presence of other specific amino acid substitutions which may be genetic markers for these viruses and could determine their pathogenetic characteristics. When compared with other tick-borne flaviviruses, Vs virus had 12 unique amino acid substitutions including an additional potential glycosylation site at position (315-317). The Vs virus strain shared closest nucleotide and amino acid homology (84.5% and 95.5% respectively) with western and far eastern strains of tick-borne encephalitis virus. Comparison with the far eastern serotype of tick-borne encephalitis virus, by cross-immunoelectrophoresis of Vs virions and PAGE analysis of the extracted virion proteins, revealed differences in surface charge and virus stability that may account for the different virulence characteristics of Vs virus. These results support and enlarge upon previous data obtained from molecular and serological analysis.

  13. Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis among Acute Encephalitis Syndrome Cases in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Japanese encephalitis (JE is the most important cause of acute and epidemic viral encephalitis. Every year sporadic JE cases are reported from the various districts of West Bengal, indicating its endemicity in this state. JE vaccination programme has been undertaken by the State Health Department of West Bengal. This study was aimed at seeing the present scenario of JE among acute encephalitis syndrome (AES cases in West Bengal. Materials and Methods. Blood and/or CSF samples were referred from suspected AES cases to the referral virology laboratory of the Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine from different hospitals of Kolkata. IgM antibody capture ELISA was performed on the CSF and serum samples by JE virus MAC ELISA kit supplied by the National Institute of Virology, Pune. Results. The present study reveals that 22.76% and 5% of the AES cases were positive for JE IgM in 2011 and 2012, respectively. JE is mainly prevalent in children and adolescents below 20 years of age with no gender predilection. Although the percentages of JE positive cases were high in 2011, it sharply decreased thereafter possibly due to better awareness programs, due to mass vaccination, or simply due to natural epidemiological niche periodicity due to herd immunity.

  14. Neuronal surface antigen antibodies in limbic encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graus, F; Saiz, A; Lai, M; Bruna, J; López, F; Sabater, L; Blanco, Y; Rey, M J.; Ribalta, T; Dalmau, J

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To report the frequency and type of antibodies against neuronal surface antigens (NSA-ab) in limbic encephalitis (LE). Methods: Analysis of clinical features, neuropathologic findings, and detection of NSA-ab using immunochemistry on rat tissue and neuronal cultures in a series of 45 patients with paraneoplastic (23) or idiopathic (22) LE. Results: NSA-ab were identified in 29 patients (64%; 12 paraneoplastic, 17 idiopathic). Thirteen patients had voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC)-ab, 11 novel NSA (nNSA)-ab, and 5 NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-ab. nNSA-ab did not identify a common antigen and were more frequent in paraneoplastic than idiopathic LE (39% vs 9%; p = 0.03). When compared with VGKC-ab or NMDAR-ab, the nNSA associated more frequently with intraneuronal antibodies (11% vs 73%; p = 0.001). Of 12 patients (9 nNSA-ab, 2 VGKC-ab, 1 NMDAR-ab) with paraneoplastic LE and NSA-ab, concomitant intraneuronal antibodies occurred in 9 (75%). None of these 12 patients improved with immunotherapy. The autopsy of three of them showed neuronal loss, microgliosis, and cytotoxic T cell infiltrates in the hippocampus and amygdala. These findings were compatible with a T-cell mediated neuronal damage. In contrast, 13 of 17 (76%) patients with idiopathic LE and NSA-ab (8 VGKC-ab, 4 NMDAR-ab, 1 nNSA-ab) and 1 of 5 (20%) without antibodies had clinical improvement (p = 0.04). Conclusions: In paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (LE), novel antibodies against neuronal surface antigens (nNSA-ab) occur frequently, coexist with antibodies against intracellular antigens, and these cases are refractory to immunotherapy. In idiopathic LE, the likelihood of improvement is significantly higher in patients with NSA-ab than in those without antibodies. GLOSSARY GAD = glutamic acid decarboxylase; LE = limbic encephalitis; NMDAR = N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor; NSA = neuronal surface antigens; nNSA = novel NSA; SCLC = small-cell lung cancer; VGKC = voltage-gated potassium channels

  15. Hemorrhagic Transformation of Scrub Typhus Encephalitis: A Rare Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-C; Yoon, K-W; Yoo, D-S; Cho, C-S

    2015-12-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement of scrub typhus infection is well known. Most CNS involvement of scrub typhus infection present as meningitis or encephalitis. We report on a patient suffering from hemorrhagic transformation of intracranial lesions caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. A 53-year-old female farmer who was infected by scrub typhus was treated with doxycycline and recovered from the systemic illness. However, headache persisted. Brain radiologic studies revealed acute intracranial hemorrhage and enhancing lesion, which implied a CNS involvement. Hemorrhagic transformation of encephalitis by scrub typhus is very rare complication and to our best knowledge, this is the first report of hemorrhagic transformation of scrub typhus encephalitis. Clinician should consider the possibility of hemorrhagic transformation of encephalitis in cases of scrub typhus infection.

  16. Enterovirus 71 Brainstem Encephalitis and Cognitive and Motor Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Follow-up studies were conducted in 63 previously healthy children with enterovirus 71 brainstem encephalitis (49 stage II, 7 stage Ilia, and 7 stage Illb at National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan.

  17. Frequent rhabdomyolysis in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Soon-Tae; Kim, Tae-Joon; Moon, Jangsup; Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Byun, Jung-Ick; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Jung, Ki-Young; Chu, Kon; Lee, Sang Kun

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical presentation and provocation factors of rhabdomyolysis in anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Among the 16 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis in our institutional cohort, nine patients had elevated CK enzyme levels and clinical evidence of rhabdomyolysis. Rhabdomyolysis was more frequent after immunotherapy. The use of dopamine receptor blocker (DRB) increased the risk of rhabdomyolysis. None of the patients without rhabdomyolysis received DRBs. Rhabdomyolysis is a frequent complication in anti-NMDAR encephalitis and more common after immunotherapy and the use of DRBs increases the risk. Therefore, DRBs should be administered carefully in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. MRI findings of herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, In One; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Sang Joon

    1992-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the MR findings of 12 patients with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) (8 months - 64 years old). MR imaging was performed on either a 0.5T (6 patients) or 2.0T (6 patients) superconducting unit with spin echo pulse sequences. The most common and characteristic MR finding consisted of non-hemorrhagic lesions in the cortices of the temporal lobes(12), and insular(6), either bilateral(7) or unilateral(5). The frontal lobe and cingulate gyrus were involved in 4 and 2 patients respectively. Petechial hemorrhage was found in 3 patients. Non-hemorrhagic lesions were shown as high signal intensities on proton and T2WI, and iso- or low signal intensities on T1WI. In conclusion, MR imaging findings described above appear to be characteristic of HSE and were found to be extremely valuable in the diagnosis of HSE

  19. Milrinone in Enterovirus 71 Brain Stem Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHIH-MIN eWANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 was implicated in a widespread outbreak of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD across the Asia Pacific area since 1997 and has also been reported sporadically in patients with brain stem encephalitis. Neurogenic shock with pulmonary edema (PE is a fatal complication of EV71 infection. Among inotropic agents, milrinone is selected as a therapeutic agent for EV71- induced PE due to its immunopathogenesis. Milrinone is a type III phosphodiesterase inhibitor that has both inotropic and vasodilator effects. Its clinical efficacy has been shown by modulating inflammation, reducing sympathetic over-activity, and improving survival in patients with EV71-associated PE. Milrinone exhibits immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects in the management of systemic inflammatory responses in severe EV71 infection.

  20. Fluent Aphasia From Herpes Simplex Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Yadegari

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The present case report introduces a patient with fluent aphasia, anterograde amnesia and anosmia due to herpes simplex encephalitis after her first delivery. The left medial temporal lobe was one of the main areas involved. On aphasia testing she showed severe anomia on both confrontation and free recall, agraphia, alexia, repetition disorder and some auditory comprehension impairments. Therapy was focused on the following issues: phonological output lexicon , using graphemes as a source of reestablishing phonological representation; describing pictures to reinforce free recall and self-cuing word retrieval strategies; sequencing the events for language memory reinforcement, etc. Results showed improvement in confrontational naming, free recall, correct responses without priming, writing on dictation, spontaneous writing and reading comprehension.

  1. A rat model for embolic encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Aalbæk, Bent

    2011-01-01

    have recently shown that sepsis is a common cause of microabscesses in the brain, and that S. aureus is one of the most common organisms isolated from these abscesses. This raises the question whether the blood-brain barrier truly makes the brain an immune-privileged organ or not. This makes the brain...... a most interesting organ in sepsis patients. However, symptoms of brain infection may be confused with systemic responses and gross neuropathologic lesions may be absent. Brain infection in sepsis patients is therefore prone to misclassification or diagnostic delay, and when the diagnosis is made...... it is difficult to obtain tissue for further examination. This puts a hard demand on animal models of brain lesions in sepsis. We hereby present a novel animal model of embolic encephalitis. Our model introduces bacteria by an embolus to an area of brain necrosis and damage to the blood-brain...

  2. Computed tomographic brain scan findings in Q fever encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Aranda, F.; Romero Acebal, M.; Maestre Moreno, J.; Pachon Diaz, J.; Lopez Cortes, L.; Navarro Rodriguez, A.

    1984-07-01

    Neurological involvement in Q Fever is unusual. We present a case of encephalitis due to Coxiella Burnetii with neuroradiologic findings on CT not described previously, consisting in areas of decreased absorption coefficient in the subcortical white matter of both hemispheres, predominantly in the right. Differential diagnosis must be established from viral encephalitis, of similar clinical presentation, which may show similar CT lesions to those in this case.

  3. Adult herpes simplex encephalitis: fifteen years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera-Mestre, Antoni; Gubieras, Laura; Martínez-Yelamos, Sergio; Cabellos, Carmen; Fernández-Viladrich, Pedro

    2009-03-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most frequent cause of sporadic necrotizing encephalitis in adults. The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of HSE and the factors influencing its outcome. Retrospective study of patients diagnosed with HSE in a tertiary care teaching hospital over a 15-year period. Diagnosis was based on a consistent clinical profile for HSE, plus either a PCR-positive CSF HSV study or consistent brain neuroimaging findings. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the modified Rankin Scale: good outcome (Grades =3). Thirty-five patients were included. Mean age was 53.9 years. More than half presented febricula or fever, headache, disorientation, behavioral changes, decreased level of consciousness, or neurological deficit. CSF glucose concentration was normal in all patients and WBC count was normal in 8 (23%). PCR for HSV was positive in 92% and cranial MRI was suggestive of HSE in 100% of patients. Mortality was 8.6%. In relation to outcome, age (OR=1.079; 95% CI, 1.023-1.138) and serum albumin level at admission (OR=0.87; 95% CI, 0.794-0.954) were independent prognostic factors at discharge. At 6 months, days of fever after initiation of acyclovir therapy (OR=1.219; 95% CI, 1.046-1.422) and serum albumin level at admission (OR=0.917; 95% CI, 0.87-0.967) were independent prognostic factors. Normal brain MRI or detection of low CSF glucose concentration requires consideration of diagnoses other than HSE. Age, serum albumin level at admission, and days of fever after initiation of acyclovir therapy were independent prognostic factors of the disease.

  4. Japanese Encephalitis in Malaysia: An Overview and Timeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kiven; Arshad, Siti Suri; Selvarajah, Gayathri Thevi; Abu, Jalila; Toung, Ooi Peck; Abba, Yusuf; Yasmin, A R; Bande, Faruku; Sharma, Reuben; Ong, Bee Lee

    2018-05-29

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). It causes encephalitis in human and horses, and may lead to reproductive failure in sows. The first human encephalitis case in Malaya (now Malaysia) was reported during World War II in a British prison in 1942. Later, encephalitis was observed among race horses in Singapore. In 1951, the first JEV was isolated from the brain of an encephalitis patient. The true storyline of JE exposure among humans and animals has not been documented in Malaysia. In some places such as Sarawak, JEV has been isolated from mosquitoes before an outbreak in 1992. JE is an epidemic in Malaysia except Sarawak. There are four major outbreaks reported in Pulau Langkawi (1974), Penang (1988), Perak and Negeri Sembilan (1998-1999), and Sarawak (1992). JE is considered endemic only in Sarawak. Initially, both adults and children were victims of JE in Malaysia, however, according to the current reports; JE infection is only lethal to children in Malaysia. This paper describes a timeline of JE cases (background of each case) from first detection to current status, vaccination programs against JE, diagnostic methods used in hospitals and factors which may contribute to the transmission of JE among humans and animals in Malaysia. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Shell Vial culture Assay for the rapid diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and Dengue-2 viral encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrinath S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Encephalitis caused by flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV and West Nile virus (WNV is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in many endemic countries. Dengue-2 (Den-2 virus is a recent addition to the list of encephalitogenic viruses, after its Central Nervous System (CNS invasion capability has been established. There is a wide array of laboratory tools that have helped us not only in the diagnosis of these conditions but also in understanding their pathogenesis and pathology. However, there are no reports of Shell Vial Culture (SVC, a centrifuge enhanced tissue culture assay that has revolutionized viral culturing in terms of rapidity and sensitivity being optimized for these flaviviral encephalitic conditions. The present study is an attempt to standardize and evaluate the usefulness of SVC for the laboratory diagnosis of JE, WN and Den-2 encephalitis cases and to compare it with Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF technique that detects cell associated virus antigen. Analysis of the various clinical parameters with respect to viral etiology has also been carried out. Results Pediatric patients constituted the major group involved in the study (92%. Etiological diagnosis of viral encephalitis could be established in twenty nine (58% patients. JE encephalitis was the commonest with 19 (39% cases being positive followed by, WN (9 cases-18% and Den-2 (one case. IIF test could detect antigens of JE, WN and Den-2 viruses in 16(32%, 7(14% and 1 case respectively. Shell vial culture assay picked up all cases that were positive by IIF test. In addition, SVC assay could detect 3 and 2 more cases of JE and WN encephalitis respectively, that were negative by the IIF test. Conclusion Shell vial culture is a rapid and efficient tool for the etiological diagnosis of JE, WN and Den-2 encephalitis cases. Early, prompt collection, transport and processing of the CSF samples, would make SVC a better method for the

  6. Unusual acute encephalitis involving the thalamus: imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sam Soo [Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Kee Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won; Han Moon Hee [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Ho; Nam, Hyun Woo [Seoul City Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyu Ho [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Woo Ho [Sanggyo Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    To describe the brain CT and MR imaging findings of unusual acute encephalitis involving the thalamus. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and CT and/or MR imaging findings of six patients with acute encephalitis involving the thalamus. CT (n=6) and MR imaging (n=6) were performed during the acute and/or convalescent stage of the illness. Brain CT showed brain swelling (n=2), low attenuation of both thalami (n=1) or normal findings (n=3). Initial MR imaging indicated that in all patients the thalamus was involved either bilaterally (n=5) or unilaterally (n=1). Lesions were also present in the midbrain (n=5), medial temporal lobe (n=4), pons (n=3), both hippocampi (n=3) the insular cortex (n=2), medulla (n=2), lateral temporal lobe cortex (n=1), both cingulate gyri (n=1), both basal ganglia (n=1), and the left hemispheric cortex (n=1). These CT or MR imaging findings of acute encephalitis of unknown etiology were similar to a combination of those of Japanese encephalitis and herpes simplex encephalitis. In order to document the specific causative agents which lead to the appearance of these imaging features, further investigation is required.

  7. VGKC antibodies in pediatric encephalitis presenting with status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, J; Brenner, T; Gill, D; Brilot, F; Antony, J; Vincent, A; Lang, B; Dale, R C

    2011-04-05

    Voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies (VGKC Ab) are associated with limbic encephalitis and neuromyotonia in adults. There have been no systematic investigations in children to date. We looked for antibodies that are associated with CNS syndromes in adults including antibodies to VGKCs, NMDARs, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), and glycine receptor (GlyR) in the stored acute serum from 10 children with unexplained encephalitis presenting with encephalopathy and status epilepticus. We also looked for antibodies to leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (Lgi1) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2), which are now known to be tightly complexed with VGKCs in vivo. Sixty-nine pediatric controls were used for comparison. An elevated VGKC Ab (>100 pM) was detected in 4/10 patients with encephalitis compared to only 1/69 controls (p VGKC Ab-positive patients with encephalitis was variable including good recovery (n = 1), cognitive impairment (n = 3), temporal lobe epilepsy (n = 2), and mesial temporal sclerosis (n = 1). No other antibodies were detected, including those to Lgi1 and Caspr2. Encephalitis associated with VGKC Ab occurs in children and presents with status epilepticus and focal epilepsy. These antibodies are not directed against Lgi1 or Caspr2.

  8. Herpes simplex encephalitis : from virus to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, Flore; Deback, Claire; Agut, Henri

    2011-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the cause of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), a devastating human disease which occurs in 2-4 cases per million/year. HSE results either from a primary infection or virus reactivation, in accordance with the common pattern of HSV infection which is a chronic lifelong process. However its pathophysiology remains largely unknown and its poor prognosis is in contrast with the usually good tolerance of most clinical herpetic manifestations. HSE is due to HSV type 1 (HSV-1) in most cases but HSV type 2 (HSV-2) may be also implicated, especially in infants in the context of neonatal herpes. Polymerase chain reaction detection of HSV DNA in cerebrospinal fluid is the diagnosis of choice for HSE. Acyclovir, a nucleoside analogue which inhibits viral DNA polymerase activity, is the reference treatment of HSE while foscarnet constitutes an alternative therapy and the efficacy of cidofovir is currently uncertain in that context. The emergence of HSV resistance to acyclovir, a phenomenon which is mainly observed among immunocompromised patients, is a current concern although no case of HSE due to an acyclovir-resistant HSV strain has been reported to date. Nevertheless the identification and development of novel therapeutic strategies against HSV appears to be a non dispensable objective for future research in virology.

  9. Computer tomography in herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacke, W.; Zeumer, H.

    1981-01-01

    The CT findings in six patients with confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis were analysed and compared with the literature. Thirty-four examinations were performed, 27 within the first 14 days of the illness. The early findings show three characteristic features: The CT may be entirely normal up to the fourth day. Consistent with clinical and E.E.G. findings there then develops a hypodense temporal lesion which, even at this stage, acts as an expanding lesion in half the patients. Between the sixth and eighth day there is frequently involvement of the contra-lateral temporal lobe, not as a continuation, but as a new lesion. At the same time, or after several days, there is involvement of the basal portions of the frontal lobes. In this late phase there may be necrosis in the basal ganglia, thalamus or other parts of the brain. The CT findings in this late phase are uniform and characteristic of the disease. For early diagnosis and treatment the early clinical, electrophysiological and neuro-radiological findings are important. A normal CT scan two days after the onset of clinical symptoms may be regarded as significant. (orig.) [de

  10. Japanese encephalitis can trigger anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiannan; Zhang, Ting; Jiang, Li

    2017-06-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is usually a monophasic disease; however, in rare cases, patients with JE may have an early relapse after a partial recovery, giving rise to a biphasic pattern for the disease. In this study, we report three pediatric cases in which post-JE relapse was characterized by movement disorder and/or behavioral problems, and was related to anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) immunoglobulin G (IgG). Serum and cerebrospinal fluid were examined for anti-NMDAR IgG in three patients who had confirmed JE and then developed relapsing symptoms which were similar to those of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. The main symptoms of the two young children were choreoathetosis, irritability, and sleep disorder; while for the teenager, agitation, mutism, rigidity, and sleep disorder were the main symptoms. Samples of cerebrospinal fluid from all patients were positive for anti-NMDAR IgG, and all patients gradually improved with immunotherapy. Testing for NMDAR antibodies is highly recommend in patients with JE, especially those with a relapsing syndrome involving movement disorder and/or behavioral problems, as these patients may benefit from immunotherapy.

  11. Nipah virus encephalitis: A cause for concern for Indian neurologists?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halder Amit

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The first and only recorded outbreak of Nipah virus (NV encephalitis in India occurred in the winter of 2001, although the causative organism could only be identified 5 years down the line in 2006. The first ever-recorded outbreak of NV encephalitis occurred in the Malaysian peninsula in 1998-99; though between 2001 and 2005, at least four outbreaks occurred in our neighboring country of Bangladesh. The threat of further outbreaks of this dangerous disease looms large on the Indian subcontinent, given the natural reservoir of the definitive host, namely, fruit-eating bats of the genus Pteropus. This review would briefly highlight the epidemiology, clinical aspects and diagnosis of NV encephalitis to enlighten the neurological community of the country for early detection and implementation of preventive measures in the event of further outbreaks, especially those which are generally passed of as ′mystery diseases′ in the lay press and even by governmental agencies.

  12. Japanese encephalitis: a review of the Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Tiwari

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV causes Japanese encephalitis, which is a leading form of viral encephalitis in Asia, with around 50,000 cases and 10,000 deaths per year in children below 15 years of age. The JEV has shown a tendency to extend to other geographic regions. Case fatality averages 30% and a high percentage of the survivors are left with permanent neuropsychiatric sequelae. Currently, there is no cure for JEV, and treatment is mainly supportive. Patients are not infectious, but should avoid further mosquito bites. A number of antiviral agents have been investigated; however, none of these have convincingly been shown to improve the outcome of JEV. In this review, the current knowledge of the epidemiology and the pathogenesis of this deadly disease have been summarized.

  13. Japanese encephalitis: a review of the Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Tiwari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV causes Japanese encephalitis, which is a leading form of viral encephalitis in Asia, with around 50,000 cases and 10,000 deaths per year in children below 15 years of age. The JEV has shown a tendency to extend to other geographic regions. Case fatality averages 30% and a high percentage of the survivors are left with permanent neuropsychiatric sequelae. Currently, there is no cure for JEV, and treatment is mainly supportive. Patients are not infectious, but should avoid further mosquito bites. A number of antiviral agents have been investigated; however, none of these have convincingly been shown to improve the outcome of JEV. In this review, the current knowledge of the epidemiology and the pathogenesis of this deadly disease have been summarized.

  14. A rare case of autoimmune limbic encephalitis: an uncharted territory!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hatim; Al Jasser, Abdulelah N; Khan, Sonia A; Tlili, Kalthoum G

    2017-10-01

    Autoimmune encephalitis is rare. Several auto- antibodies are described in autoimmune encephalitis. We describe a case of autoimmune limbic encephalitis associated with positive voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) antibodies and positive leucine-rich glioma inactivated protein 1 antibodies (LGI1). A 33-year-old Saudi housewife, she presented with 2 months history of cognitive deterioration and recurrent left facio-brachial dystonic seizures followed by generalized tonic clonic seizures. At times the seizures are preceded by rising epigastric aura and shortness of breath. The neurological examination was normal apart from upgoing left plantar reflex. She had borderline IQ of 76 with impaired verbal fluency and impaired visual and verbal memory. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed right mesial temporal non-enhancing lesion. Cerebrospinal fluid examination was positive for LGI1 and VGKC. Optimal seizure control was achieved with immunotherapy.

  15. Epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in the Philippines: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lena Lopez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV is an important cause of encephalitis in most of Asia, with high case fatality rates and often significant neurologic sequelae among survivors. The epidemiology of JE in the Philippines is not well defined. To support consideration of JE vaccine for introduction into the national schedule in the Philippines, we conducted a systematic literature review and summarized JE surveillance data from 2011 to 2014.We conducted searches on Japanese encephalitis and the Philippines in four databases and one library. Data from acute encephalitis syndrome (AES and JE surveillance and from the national reference laboratory from January 2011 to March 2014 were tabulated and mapped.We identified 29 published reports and presentations on JE in the Philippines, including 5 serologic surveys, 18 reports of clinical cases, and 8 animal studies (including two with both clinical cases and animal data. The 18 clinical studies reported 257 cases of laboratory-confirmed JE from 1972 to 2013. JE virus (JEV was the causative agent in 7% to 18% of cases of clinical meningitis and encephalitis combined, and 16% to 40% of clinical encephalitis cases. JE predominantly affected children under 15 years of age and 6% to 7% of cases resulted in death. Surveillance data from January 2011 to March 2014 identified 73 (15% laboratory-confirmed JE cases out of 497 cases tested.This comprehensive review demonstrates the endemicity and extensive geographic range of JE in the Philippines, and supports the use of JE vaccine in the country. Continued and improved surveillance with laboratory confirmation is needed to systematically quantify the burden of JE, to provide information that can guide prioritization of high risk areas in the country and determination of appropriate age and schedule of vaccine introduction, and to measure the impact of preventive measures including immunization against this important public health threat.

  16. Case Report: Magnetic resonance imaging in rabies encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Arekapudi Subramanyaswara; Varma, Dandu Ravi; Chalapathi Rao, Mamidi Venkata; Mohandas, Surat

    2009-01-01

    Rabies encephalitis is an invariably fatal disease characterized by typical clinical symptoms. Although the diagnosis of this condition can be made on the basis of the patient's history and the classical clinical presentation, neuroimaging may still play a role, especially for establishing an early diagnosis in cases with atypical presentations or when the history of animal bite is not forthcoming. We report the MRI findings in a case of furious rabies encephalitis and describe the utility of diffusion imaging in its diagnosis

  17. Hemorrhagic herpes encephalitis: A difficult diagnosis in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, N.U.; Albert, H.H. von

    1982-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most common sporadically appearing encephalitis in Central Europe. Differential diagnosis to brain tumors or spontaneous intercerebral hemorrhage is difficult. There are CT scan findings which are characteristic of HSE but there are no pathognomonic patterns. These characteristic findings are helpful in differential diagnosis to neoplastic or vascular processes. Thus, other diagnostic procedures (i.e. brain biopsy) to confirm diagnosis of HSE and effective therapy may be carried out in time. The difficulties in differential diagnosis are shown by the presented case. (orig.) [de

  18. Glioblastoma as differential diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogrig, Alberto; Joubert, Bastien; Ducray, Francois; Thomas, Laure; Izquierdo, Cristina; Decaestecker, Kévin; Martinaud, Olivier; Gerardin, Emmanuel; Grand, Sylvie; Honnorat, Jérome

    2018-03-01

    To identify the clinical and radiological features that should raise suspicion for the autoimmune encephalitis (AE)-like presentation of glioblastoma. This is an observational, retrospective case series of patients referred to the French National Reference Center on Paraneoplastic Neurological Diseases for suspected AE (possible, probable or definite, using the 2016 criteria) who later received a final diagnosis of glioblastoma according to 2016 WHO criteria. An extensive literature search was also conducted for similar existing cases. Between 2014 and 2016, 306 patients were referred to our center for suspected AE. Six of these patients (2%) later developed pathologically confirmed glioblastoma. Thirteen patients (9 male) were included for analysis (6 from the present series and 7 from the literature); median age was 63. Initially, a diagnosis of AE was clinically suspected based on: working memory deficits (77%), seizures (62%) (including status epilepticus in 23%), and psychiatric symptoms (46%). Initial brain MRI was not in favor of a typical glioblastoma pattern and showed bilateral (54%) or unilateral selective limbic involvement. Five patients exhibited initial slight contrast enhancement. A clear inflammatory CSF was present in five patients and three from the literature showed autoantibody positivity (NMDAR, VGKC, GluRepsilon2). Median delay between suspicions of AE to GBM diagnosis was 3 months (range 1.5-24) and one patient from the literature was diagnosed post-mortem. An alternative diagnosis of glioblastoma should be considered in patients presenting initially as AE, especially in patients who do not fulfill the criteria for definite AE and in those with a poor clinical evolution despite initial improvement.

  19. Genetic Diversity of Tick-Borne Rickettsial Pathogens; Insights Gained from Distant Strains

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    Sebastián Aguilar Pierlé

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to capture genetic variation with unprecedented resolution improves our understanding of bacterial populations and their ability to cause disease. The goal of the pathogenomics era is to define genetic diversity that results in disease. Despite the economic losses caused by vector-borne bacteria in the Order Rickettsiales, little is known about the genetic variants responsible for observed phenotypes. The tick-transmitted rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma marginale infects cattle in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, including Australia. Genomic analysis of North American A. marginale strains reveals a closed core genome defined by high levels of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs. Here we report the first genome sequences and comparative analysis for Australian strains that differ in virulence and transmissibility. A list of genetic differences that segregate with phenotype was evaluated for the ability to distinguish the attenuated strain from virulent field strains. Phylogenetic analyses of the Australian strains revealed a marked evolutionary distance from all previously sequenced strains. SNP analysis showed a strikingly reduced genetic diversity between these strains, with the smallest number of SNPs detected between any two A. marginale strains. The low diversity between these phenotypically distinct bacteria presents a unique opportunity to identify the genetic determinants of virulence and transmission.

  20. Advances in disease control of tick and tick-borne diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.nfection and treatment method ofimmunisation has been devised ... providing research and training and in extension work on. TBDs. ... systems, cattle types, level of disease risk, disease control policies ... This paper highlights tick .control,.

  1. Molecular Detection and Characterization of Tick-borne Pathogens in Dogs and Ticks from Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, Joshua; Baneth, Gad; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya E.; Eyal, Osnat; Guthmann, Yifat; Harrus, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    Background Only limited information is currently available on the prevalence of vector borne and zoonotic pathogens in dogs and ticks in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to use molecular techniques to detect and characterize vector borne pathogens in dogs and ticks from Nigeria. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood samples and ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Heamaphysalis leachi) collected from 181 dogs from Nigeria were molecularly screened for human and animal vector-borne pathogens by PCR and sequencing. DNA of Hepatozoon canis (41.4%), Ehrlichia canis (12.7%), Rickettsia spp. (8.8%), Babesia rossi (6.6%), Anaplasma platys (6.6%), Babesia vogeli (0.6%) and Theileria sp. (0.6%) was detected in the blood samples. DNA of E. canis (23.7%), H. canis (21.1%), Rickettsia spp. (10.5%), Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (5.3%) and A. platys (1.9%) was detected in 258 ticks collected from 42 of the 181 dogs. Co- infections with two pathogens were present in 37% of the dogs examined and one dog was co-infected with 3 pathogens. DNA of Rickettsia conorii israelensis was detected in one dog and Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick. DNA of another human pathogen, Candidatus N. mikurensis was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Heamaphysalis leachi ticks, and is the first description of Candidatus N. mikurensis in Africa. The Theileria sp. DNA detected in a local dog in this study had 98% sequence identity to Theileria ovis from sheep. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study indicate that human and animal pathogens are abundant in dogs and their ticks in Nigeria and portray the potential high risk of human exposure to infection with these agents. PMID:23505591

  2. Factors affecting the sustainability of tick and tick-borne disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Six major types of malpractice were identified. These include delivery of ... based on exotic, more productive but susceptible stock (De. Castro, 1997). The global ..... First Edition, Central News Agency Ltd., Cape Town,. 298 – 329. MAAIF .

  3. Survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and tick-borne pathogens in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russart, Nathan M; Dougherty, Michael W; Vaughan, Jefferson A

    2014-09-01

    Ticks were sampled at nine locations throughout North Dakota during early summer of 2010, using flagging techniques and small mammals trapping. In total, 1,762 ticks were collected from eight of the nine locations. The dominant species were Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (82%), found throughout the state, and Ixodes scapularis Say (17%), found in northeastern counties. A few nymphal and adult I. scapularis tested positive for Borrelia burgdorferi (3%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8%). This is the first report of I. scapularis and associated pathogens occurring in North Dakota and provides evidence for continued westward expansion of this important vector tick species in the United States.

  4. Tick-borne disease infections in the traditional cattle farming system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The percentages of East Coast fever-infected herds (p = 0.0000252) and animals (p = 0.000842) that were sprayed once per month were significantly higher than those ... The apparent low community's motivation to adopt the dipping scheme which has been revived through government support calls for further investigation.

  5. Zoonotic tick-borne bacteria among wild boars (Sus scrofa in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Virginia Ebani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to estimate the occurrence of infections by the three zoonotic bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l. and Coxiella burnetii in wild boars (Sus scrofa in Central Italy. The spleen samples from 100 hunted wild boars were submitted to DNA extraction and PCR assays were carried out to detect the three agents. One (1% animal was positive for A. phagocytophilum, and three (3% for B. burgdorferi s.l. No positive reactions were observed for Coxiella burnetii. Wild boars did not seem to play an important role in the epidemiology of the three investigated agents. However, the detection of A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. in the spleen of the tested animals showed that wild boars can harbor these pathogens, thus ticked that feeding on infected wild boars are likely to become infected, too, which represents a source of infection for other animals and humans. This is the first detection of A. phagocytophilum in wild boars in Italy.

  6. Induction and suppression of tick cell antiviral RNAi responses by tick-borne flaviviruses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schnettler, E.; Tykalová, Hana; Watson, M.; Sharma, M.; Sterken, M.G.; Obbard, D.J.; Lewis, S.H.; McFarlane, M.; Bell-Sakyi, L.; Barry, G.; Weisheit, S.; Best, S.M.; Kuhn, R.J.; Pijlman, G.P.; Chase-Topping, M.E.; Gould, E. A.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Fazakerley, J.K.; Kohl, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 14 (2014), s. 9436-9446 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/12/2490 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Forest-virus replicon * interferon antagonist * immunity * replication * Drosophila * identification * mosquitos Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.112, year: 2014

  7. [Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of marseilles (mediterranean tick-borne) fever in the Crimea Autonomous Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymchuk, M D; Lezhentsev, B M; Andrukhiv, I Iu

    2002-01-01

    In the paper, new data are submitted on natural focality of Marseilles fever in the territory of the Crimean Peninsula. Identified in the above territory was a high activity of previously unknown natural foci that manifested themselves by an epidemic outbreak (Saki, 1996) and by sporadic diseases in people. A clinical-and-epidemiological characterization is given of rickettsiosis in the Crimea Autonomous Republic.

  8. Molecular detection and characterization of tick-borne pathogens in dogs and ticks from Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Kamani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Only limited information is currently available on the prevalence of vector borne and zoonotic pathogens in dogs and ticks in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to use molecular techniques to detect and characterize vector borne pathogens in dogs and ticks from Nigeria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood samples and ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Heamaphysalis leachi collected from 181 dogs from Nigeria were molecularly screened for human and animal vector-borne pathogens by PCR and sequencing. DNA of Hepatozoon canis (41.4%, Ehrlichia canis (12.7%, Rickettsia spp. (8.8%, Babesia rossi (6.6%, Anaplasma platys (6.6%, Babesia vogeli (0.6% and Theileria sp. (0.6% was detected in the blood samples. DNA of E. canis (23.7%, H. canis (21.1%, Rickettsia spp. (10.5%, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (5.3% and A. platys (1.9% was detected in 258 ticks collected from 42 of the 181 dogs. Co- infections with two pathogens were present in 37% of the dogs examined and one dog was co-infected with 3 pathogens. DNA of Rickettsia conorii israelensis was detected in one dog and Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick. DNA of another human pathogen, Candidatus N. mikurensis was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Heamaphysalis leachi ticks, and is the first description of Candidatus N. mikurensis in Africa. The Theileria sp. DNA detected in a local dog in this study had 98% sequence identity to Theileria ovis from sheep. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of this study indicate that human and animal pathogens are abundant in dogs and their ticks in Nigeria and portray the potential high risk of human exposure to infection with these agents.

  9. Evolution and molecular characterization of tick-borne Anaplasmataceae and implications for pathogen diagnostics and control.

    OpenAIRE

    Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Esta tesis se concentra en la caracterización molecular de patógenos transmitidos por garrapatas, los cuales han cobrado una gran importancia en los últimos años debido a su impacto en la economía agropecuaria, y en la salub pública de países tanto desarrollados como en vía de desarrollo (Perez y col., 2006; Rikihisa, 2010; Aubry y Geale, 2011). Particularmente la tesis usa una combinación de herramientas moleculares, bioinformaticas y filogenéticas para estudiar la variación genética de dos...

  10. Tick-Pathogen Interactions and Vector Competence: Identification of Molecular Drivers for Tick-Borne Diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de la Fuente, J.; Antunes, S.; Bonnet, S.; Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Domingos, A.G.; Estrada-Peňa, A.; Johnson, N.; Kocan, K.M.; Mansfield, K. L.; Nijhof, A.M.; Papa, A.; Rudenko, Natalia; Villar, M.; Alberdi, P.; Torina, A.; Ayllón, N.; Vancová, Marie; Golovchenko, Maryna; Grubhoffer, Libor; Caracappa, S.; Fooks, A. R.; Gortazar, C.; Rego, Ryan O. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, APR 7 (2017), č. článku 114. ISSN 2235-2988 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick * Anaplasma * flavivirus * Babesia * Borrelia * Microbiome * immunology * vaccine Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  11. Stray dogs of northern Jordan as reservoirs of ticks and tick-borne hemopathogens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Qablan, M.; Kubelová, M.; Široký, P.; Modrý, David; Amr, Z. S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 1 (2012), s. 301-307 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Grant - others:GA CR(CZ) GA524/09/0715 Keywords : ANAPLASMA-PHAGOCYTOPHILUM * GRANULOCYTIC EHRLICHIOSIS * MOLECULAR EVIDENCE * CANINE BABESIOSIS * HEPATOZOON-CANIS * ISRAEL * IXODIDAE * ACARI * COINFECTION * INFECTION Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.852, year: 2012

  12. High-throughput screening of tick-borne pathogens in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelet, Lorraine; Delannoy, Sabine; Devillers, Elodie

    2014-01-01

    was conducted on 7050 Ixodes ricinus nymphs collected from France, Denmark, and the Netherlands using a powerful new high-throughput approach. This advanced methodology permitted the simultaneous detection of 25 bacterial, and 12 parasitic species (including; Borrelia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia......, Bartonella, Candidatus Neoehrlichia, Coxiella, Francisella, Babesia, and Theileria genus) across 94 samples. We successfully determined the prevalence of expected (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Babesia divergens, Babesia...

  13. Integrated tick and tick-borne disease control trials in crossbred dairy cattle in Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Whiteland, A. P.; Mfitilodze, M. W.

    1996-01-01

    Crossbred dairy heifers on a farm in an East Coast fever (ECF) endemic area in Malawi were immunised against Theileria parva, Anaplasma spp., Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Cowdria ruminantium. They were treated at infrequent intervals with chlorfenvinphos to limit infestation with adult tic...

  14. Epidemiology of Lyme borreliosis and other tick-borne diseases in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, Agnetha

    2017-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato bacteria, and transmitted through tick bites. The disease most commonly manifests as erythema migrans, a slowly expanding skin lesion at the site of the tick bite. Disseminated Lyme borreliosis can develop when the infection spreads to

  15. Strategies for new and improved vaccines against ticks and tick-borne diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de la Fuente, J.; Kopáček, Petr; Lew-Tabor, A.; Maritz-Olivier, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 12 (2016), s. 754-769 ISSN 0141-9838 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11043S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : interactomics * reverse genetics * systems biology * tick * vaccine * vaccinology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.493, year: 2016

  16. Neglected tick-borne pathogens in the Czech Republic, 2011–2014

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Venclíková, Kristýna; Mendel, Jan; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; Jedličková, Petra; Straková, Petra; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Rudolf, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2016), s. 107-112 ISSN 1877-959X EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * Rickettsia spp. * Candidatus N. mikurensis * Anaplasma phagocytophilum * Babesia spp. Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 3.230, year: 2016

  17. Molecular identification of tick-borne hemoparasites in equines from Northwestern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeison Agudelo-Ruíz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. To detect and identify Anaplasmataceae agents and piroplasms in equines from the slaughterhouse “La Rinconada” at Rionegro municipality in Antioquia. Materials and Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on equines selected by convenience during a period of 2015. Information about species, sex, age and origin of the animals. Whole blood was collected for DNA extraction procedure, and a PCR targeting a 360bp of Anaplasmataceae 16S ribosomal gene and 450bp of 18S ribosomal gene of Piroplasm were used for detection. PCR amplicons selected were submitted to direct sequencing for identification of hemoparasites through genetic analysis. Results. 135 equine samples from Antioquia, Cordoba y Sucre were analyzed. 78% were horses, 16% were donkeys and 6% were mules. Anaplasmataceae agents were not detected in any sample, meanwhile 13% were positive to piroplasm PCR. Sequence analysis reveals the circulation of Theileria equi in northwestern Colombia. Conclusion. This work presents the first molecular evidence of at least three genotypes of T. equi in equines of northwestern Colombia.

  18. Nucleic acid probes as a diagnostic method for tick-borne hemoparasites of veterinary importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, J V; Buening, G M

    1995-03-01

    An increased number of articles on the use of nucleic acid-based hybridization techniques for diagnostic purposes have been recently published. This article reviews nucleic acid-based hybridization as an assay to detect hemoparasite infections of economic relevance in veterinary medicine. By using recombinant DNA techniques, selected clones containing inserts of Anaplasma, Babesia, Cowdria or Theileria genomic DNA sequences have been obtained, and they are now available to be utilized as specific, highly sensitive DNA or RNA probes to detect the presence of the hemoparasite DNA in an infected animal. Either in an isotopic or non-isotopic detection system, probes have allowed scientists to test for--originally in samples collected from experimentally infected animals and later in samples collected in the field--the presence of hemoparasites during the prepatent, patent, convalescent, and chronic periods of the infection in the host. Nucleic acid probes have given researchers the opportunity to carry out genomic analysis of parasite DNA to differentiate hemoparasite species and to identify genetically distinct populations among and within isolates, strains and clonal populations. Prevalence of parasite infection in the tick vector can now be accomplished more specifically with the nucleic acid probes. Lately, with the advent of the polymerase chain reaction technique, small numbers of hemoparasites can be positively identified in the vertebrate host and tick vector. These techniques can be used to assess the veterinary epidemiological situation in a particular geographical region for the planning of control measures.

  19. Rasmussen encephalitis with dual pathology in a patient without seizures: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra, Vijay M; Mazur, Marcus D; Mohila, Carrie A; Sweney, Matthew T; Hersh, Aimee; Bollo, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Rasmussen encephalitis without seizures is rare. We report a case of Rasmussen encephalitis and cortical dysplasia without epilepsy as well as describe the imaging, pathology, and clinical course and review the literature to investigate whether this may represent a rare subset of Rasmussen encephalitis. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl with a history of cognitive decline and right arm weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated diffuse left hemispheric cortical and subcortical atrophy suggestive of Rasmussen encephalitis. The patient had no clinical history of seizures, and electroencephalography did not demonstrate epileptiform abnormalities. Craniotomy for open brain biopsy was performed, and histopathologic evaluation identified Rasmussen encephalitis with cortical dysplasia (dual pathology). To the best of our knowledge, this is the third case of Rasmussen encephalitis diagnosed by both imaging and histopathology that had no clinical or electroencephalographic evidence of seizures and is the only case of Rasmussen encephalitis with cortical dysplasia without epilepsy.

  20. Scrub Typhus Leading to Acute Encephalitis Syndrome, Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Siraj A; Bora, Trishna; Laskar, Basanta; Khan, Abdul M; Dutta, Prafulla

    2017-01-01

    To determine the contribution of Orientia tsutsugamushi, the agent of scrub typhus, as a cause of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) in Assam, India, we conducted a retrospective study of hospital patients with symptoms of AES during 2013-2015. Our findings suggest that O. tsutsugamushi infection leads to AES and the resulting illness and death.

  1. Group A Rotavirus Associated with Encephalitis in Red Fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busi, Chiara; Martella, Vito; Papetti, Alice; Sabelli, Cristiano; Lelli, Davide; Alborali, G Loris; Gibelli, Lucia; Gelmetti, Daniela; Lavazza, Antonio; Cordioli, Paolo; Boniotti, M Beatrice

    2017-09-01

    In 2011, a group A rotavirus was isolated from the brain of a fox with encephalitis and neurologic signs, detected by rabies surveillance in Italy. Intracerebral inoculation of fox brain homogenates into mice was fatal. Genome sequencing revealed a heterologous rotavirus of avian origin, which could provide a model for investigating rotavirus neurovirulence.

  2. West Nile Virus Encephalitis in a Barbary Macaque (Macaca sylvanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Ian K.; Crawshaw, Graham J.; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Drebot, Michael A.; Andonova, Maya

    2004-01-01

    An aged Barbary ape (Macaca sylvanus) at the Toronto Zoo became infected with naturally acquired West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis that caused neurologic signs, which, associated with other medical problems, led to euthanasia. The diagnosis was based on immunohistochemical assay of brain lesions, reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction, and virus isolation. PMID:15200866

  3. Infectious meningitis and encephalitis in adults in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodilsen, Jacob; Storgaard, Merete; Larsen, Lykke

    2018-01-01

    -haemolytic streptococci (n=14). Meningococcal meningitis was rare (n=11). In encephalitis, Herpes simplex virus-1 was most common (n=37) followed by Varicella zoster virus (n=20), while Varicella zoster virus (n=61) was most common in viral meningitis followed by enterovirus (n=50) and Herpes simplex virus-2 (n=46). Case...

  4. Affinity (tropism) of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus for brain cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, explant cultures prepared from the brain of new-born goat-kid were infected with. Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE) virus- a retrovirus affecting goats. The specific brain cell types infected by the (CAE) virus were determined using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) and transmission ...

  5. Reducing Vulnerability to the Threat of Japanese Encephalitis in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-25

    Apr 25, 2016 ... The Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus results in between 30,000 to 50,000 reported ... members and health officials to promote sustainable solutions. ... little or no education and have a limited understanding of the disease. ... Tourism is an important driver of economic growth throughout Southeast Asia.

  6. Human parechovirus causes encephalitis with white matter injury in Neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboon-Maciolek, Malgorzata A.; Groenendaal, Floris; Hahn, Cecil D.; Hellmann, Jonathan; van Loon, Anton M.; Boivin, Guy; de Vries, Linda S.

    Objective: To assess the role of human parechoviruses (HPeVs) as a cause of neonatal cerebral infection and to report neuroimaging findings of newborn infants with encephalitis caused by HPeVs. Methods: Clinical presentation, cranial ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and

  7. Pathologically confirmed autoimmune encephalitis in suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, P.; de Beukelaar, J.W.; Jansen, C.; Schuur, M.; van Duijn, C.M.; van Coevorden, M.H.; de Graaff, E.; Titulaer, E.; Rozemuller, A.J.M.; Sillevis Smitt, P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical features and presence in CSF of antineuronal antibodies in patients with pathologically proven autoimmune encephalitis derived from a cohort of patients with suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Methods: The Dutch Surveillance Centre for Prion Diseases

  8. HHV-6 symptoms in central nervous system. Encephalitis and encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinari, Satoshi; Hamano, Shinichiro

    2007-01-01

    Described is the present knowledge of central nervous symptoms, mainly encephalitis and encephalopathy, caused by the primary infection of human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) in the pediatric field. Discovery of HHV-6 is in 1986, the virus, normally latent, has a high nervous affinity, and most infants are infected until the age of 3 years. Encephalitis and encephalopathy caused by the primary infection can be derived from direct viral invasion in nervous system or secondary like that through angitis. Most of early clinical symptoms are febrile convulsion. Imaging of the head by MRI particularly with diffusion weighted imaging and by cerebral blood flow SPECT with 123 I-infetamine (IMP) is important for classification of encephalitis and encephalopathy by HHV-6: Four types of them are defined according to the area of lesion observed in abnormal images, the basal nuclei-diencephalon-brainstem, frontal lobe-dominant one, cerebral hemisphere and diffusive one. Further reviewed are the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis together with other HHV-6 related problems like infection in neonate, temporal lobe epilepsy and drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. Current topics are related with activation of latent HHV-6. Despite numerous findings, many remain to be elucidated in acute encephalitis and encephalopathy which are most important in pediatrics. (R.T.)

  9. Computed tomography in young children with herpes simplex virus encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, T.; Woo, M.; Okazaki, H.; Nishida, N.; Hara, T.; Yasuhara, A.; Kasahara, M.; Kobayashi, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) scans were obtained from eight infants and young children with herpes simplex virus encephalitis. In two cases the initial scan showed diffuse edematous changes as a mass effect without laterality. Unilateral localized low attenuation in the initial scan was evident 4 days after the onset in one patient, and high attenuation in the initial scan appeared on the 6th day in another patient, but in general, it was not possible to establish an early diagnosis of herpes simplex virus encephalitis from CT scan. In the longitudinal study the calcification with ventriculomegaly appeared in 3 of 5 survivors, and gyriform calcification in 2 of 3 patients, respectively. The appearance of multicystic encephalomalacia was evident in one patient 6 months after the onset of neonatal herpes simplex encephalitis. It is shown that the CT findings of neonates and young children with herpes simplex encephalitis are different from those of older children and adults, and the importance of longitudinal CT studies was stressed in clarifying the pathophysiology of the central nervous system involvement in survivors. (orig.)

  10. Affinity (tropism) of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus for brain cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... Full Length Research Paper. Affinity (tropism) of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus for brain cells. Adebayo, I. A.1*, Awoniyi, T. A. M. 1 and Olaleye, O. D.2. 1Department of Animal Production and Health, Animal Parasitology and Microbiology Research Unit, Federal University of Technology, P M B 704, ...

  11. Von Willebrand Factor Gene Variants Associate with Herpes simplex Encephalitis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abdelmagid, N.; Bereczky-Veress, B.; Atanur, S.; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Saba, L.; Warnecke, A.; Khademi, M.; Studahl, M.; Aurelius, E.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Garcia-Dias, A.; Denis, C. V.; Bergström, T.; Sköldenberg, B.; Kockum, I.; Aitman, T.; Hübner, N.; Olsson, T.; Pravenec, Michal; Diez, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 5 (2016), e0155832 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10067; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Von Willebrand Factor gene * Herpes simplex encephalitis * rat * humans Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  12. Acute measles encephalitis in partially vaccinated adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Fox

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of acute measles encephalitis (AME is poorly understood. Treatment with immune-modulators is based on theories that post-infectious autoimmune responses cause demyelination. The clinical course and immunological parameters of AME were examined during an outbreak in Vietnam.Fifteen measles IgM-positive patients with confusion or Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score below 13, and thirteen with uncomplicated measles were enrolled from 2008-2010. Standardized clinical exams were performed and blood collected for lymphocyte and measles- and auto-antibody analysis. The median age of AME patients was 21 years, similar to controls. Eleven reported receiving measles vaccination when aged one year. Confusion developed a median of 4 days after rash. Six patients had GCS <8 and four required mechanical ventilation. CSF showed pleocytosis (64% and proteinorrhachia (71% but measles virus RNA was not detected. MRI revealed bilateral lesions in the cerebellum and brain stem in some patients. Most received dexamethasone +/- IVIG within 4 days of admission but symptoms persisted for ≥3 weeks in five. The concentration of voltage gated calcium channel-complex-reactive antibodies was 900 pM in one patient, and declined to 609 pM ∼ 3 months later. Measles-reactive IgG antibody avidity was high in AME patients born after vaccine coverage exceeded 50% (∼ 25 years earlier. AME patients had low CD4 (218/µl, p = 0.029 and CD8 (200/µl, p = 0.012 T-cell counts compared to controls.Young adults presenting with AME in Vietnam reported a history of one prior measles immunization, and those aged <25 years had high measles-reactive IgG avidity indicative of prior vaccination. This suggests that one-dose measles immunization is not sufficient to prevent AME in young adults and reinforces the importance of maintaining high coverage with a two-dose measles immunization schedule. Treatment with corticosteroids and IVIG is common practice, and should be

  13. Effect of high-dose dexamethasone on the outcome of acute encephalitis due to Japanese encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, C H; Vaughn, D W; Nisalak, A; Intralawan, P; Poolsuppasit, S; Jongsawas, V; Titsyakorn, U; Johnson, R T

    1992-04-01

    Death due to Japanese encephalitis usually occurs in the first 5 days of hospitalization as a result of deepening coma with respiratory arrest. Death may result from edema-induced increases in intracranial pressure that might be reduced by the administration of steroids. Sixty-five patients presenting in Thailand to four hospitals with a diagnosis of acute Japanese encephalitis were randomized in a double-masked fashion and stratified by initial mental status into a placebo group (saline) or a treatment group (dexamethasone 0.6 mg/kg intravenously as a loading dose followed by 0.2 mg/kg every 6 h for 5 days). Fifty-five of the 65 had confirmed Japanese encephalitis as demonstrated by detection of virus or by Japanese encephalitis virus-specific IgM antibody. Important outcome measures included mortality (24%, treatment group; 27%, control group), days to alert mental status (3.9 vs. 6.2), and neurologic status 3 months after discharge (45% abnormal in each group). No statistically significant benefit of high-dose dexamethasone could be detected.

  14. TIME AND PLACE DISTRIBUTION OFACUTE ENCEPHALITIS SYNDROME (AES JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS (JE CASES IN GORAKHPUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G K Singh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: 1000 children below the age of 15 years died from encephalitis in the states of UP, Bihar and Assam since 1978. JE vaccinations in 2010 and deep bore wells in 60 districts in India are the two preventive measures in use. Hypothesis generation through a time, place distribution study followed by a risk factor study would help target preventive and curative measures. A spatial temporal analysis of the 2012 encephalitis epidemic in the district of Gorakhpur, having the most cases, is reported. Material and Method Government of UP data on 714 cases of AES/JE occurring during 2012 in Gorakhpur district was analysed. Time and place distribution is described. Various hypotheses on mode of transmission besides other important features of the epidemic were generated. Data was used to create video maps of the 2012 AESJE epidemic using Epi-info 7. Onset of symptoms was used on the time axis and longitude-latitude data from residential details was used to describe the place distribution. Videos were interpreted to draw important inferences which may be used in planning a strategy to break the 2013 epidemic Result: Thirty (4.20% of 714 patients fitting case definitions were confirmed cases of Japanese encephalitis. 148 (20% died. 669 (93.69% were below 15 years of age. Male to female ratio was 1.45:1. On 9th Aug 2012 the usual 5 cases per day mark was crossed with 10 cases/day reported. On 22th August the peak of 19 cases/day was reached. On 11th September the epidemic started receding at rates slower than the rise showing multiple spurts. The medical college had 1.5 times the cases than anywhere else. On 10th Dec the daily incidence had returned to under 5 levels. District wise place distribution of the 2009, 2011 and 2012 cases shows Gorakhpur as having 714 i.e. twice the number of cases than anywhere else in 2012. Conclusion: The epidemic is seasonal and perhaps spreads man to man. Mosquito having a life time range of 5 miles cannot spread

  15. Updating the mild encephalitis hypothesis of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechter, K

    2013-04-05

    Schizophrenia seems to be a heterogeneous disorder. Emerging evidence indicates that low level neuroinflammation (LLNI) may not occur infrequently. Many infectious agents with low overall pathogenicity are risk factors for psychoses including schizophrenia and for autoimmune disorders. According to the mild encephalitis (ME) hypothesis, LLNI represents the core pathogenetic mechanism in a schizophrenia subgroup that has syndromal overlap with other psychiatric disorders. ME may be triggered by infections, autoimmunity, toxicity, or trauma. A 'late hit' and gene-environment interaction are required to explain major findings about schizophrenia, and both aspects would be consistent with the ME hypothesis. Schizophrenia risk genes stay rather constant within populations despite a resulting low number of progeny; this may result from advantages associated with risk genes, e.g., an improved immune response, which may act protectively within changing environments, although they are associated with the disadvantage of increased susceptibility to psychotic disorders. Specific schizophrenic symptoms may arise with instances of LLNI when certain brain functional systems are involved, in addition to being shaped by pre-existing liability factors. Prodrome phase and the transition to a diseased status may be related to LLNI processes emerging and varying over time. The variability in the course of schizophrenia resembles the varying courses of autoimmune disorders, which result from three required factors: genes, the environment, and the immune system. Preliminary criteria for subgrouping neurodevelopmental, genetic, ME, and other types of schizophrenias are provided. A rare example of ME schizophrenia may be observed in Borna disease virus infection. Neurodevelopmental schizophrenia due to early infections has been estimated by others to explain approximately 30% of cases, but the underlying pathomechanisms of transition to disease remain in question. LLNI (e.g. from

  16. Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis in the Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Knut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prüss, H; Leubner, J; Wenke, N K; Czirják, G Á; Szentiks, C A; Greenwood, A D

    2015-08-27

    Knut the polar bear of the Berlin Zoological Garden drowned in 2011 following seizures and was diagnosed as having suffered encephalitis of unknown etiology after exhaustive pathogen screening. Using the diagnostic criteria applied to human patients, we demonstrate that Knut's encephalitis is almost identical to anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis which is a severe autoimmune disease representing the most common non-infectious encephalitis in humans. High concentrations of antibodies specific against the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor were detected in Knut's cerebrospinal fluid. Histological examination demonstrated very similar patterns of plasma cell infiltration and minimal neuronal loss in affected brain areas. We conclude that Knut suffered anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis making his the first reported non-human case of this treatable disease. The results suggest that anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis may be a disease of broad relevance to mammals that until now has remained undiagnosed.

  17. Serum uric acid and anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yaqing; Wang, Yuge; Lu, Tingting; Li, Rui; Sun, Xiaobo; Li, Jing; Chang, Yanyu; Hu, Xueqiang; Lu, Zhengqi; Qiu, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Uric acid (UA) levels are associated with autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorders, but their relationship with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is unknown. UA levels were evaluated in 58 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and 58 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (CTLs). Follow-up evaluations of 30 out of the 58 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis were conducted 3 months after admission. Modified Rankin scale (mRS) scores and clinical and cerebrospinal fluid parameters were evaluated in all anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients. Serum UA levels were significantly lower in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis than those in CTLs (p anti-NMDAR encephalitis are reduced during attacks compared with those in CTLs, are normalized after treatment, and are associated with disease severity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC with cerebellar involvement in a teenager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M Langille

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC typically presents with limbic encephalitis and medial temporal lobe involvement on neuroimaging. We describe a case of 13 year girl female with encephalitis due to antibodies to VGKC with signal changes in the cerebellar dentate nuclei bilaterally and clinical features that suggested predominant cerebellar involvement. These have never been reported previously in the literature. Our case expands the phenotypic spectrum of this rare condition.

  19. New Onset Insomnia in a Pediatric Patient: A Case of Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar N. Goldberg; Michael F. Cellucci

    2017-01-01

    Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is becoming more widely recognized as a cause of encephalopathy in both adults and children. Certain clinical features such as mood lability, movement disorders, speech dysfunction, seizures, and autonomic instability in a pediatric patient should prompt immediate concern and evaluation for autoimmune encephalitis among providers. We present the case of a pediatric patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis in which the symptom prompting medical evaluation was insomnia. Inso...

  20. Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) with cerebellar involvement in a teenager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, Megan M; Desai, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) typically presents with limbic encephalitis and medial temporal lobe involvement on neuroimaging. We describe a case of 13 year girl female with encephalitis due to antibodies to VGKC with signal changes in the cerebellar dentate nuclei bilaterally and clinical features that suggested predominant cerebellar involvement. These have never been reported previously in the literature. Our case expands the phenotypic spectrum of this rare condition.

  1. Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) with cerebellar involvement in a teenager

    OpenAIRE

    Langille, Megan M.; Desai, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) typically presents with limbic encephalitis and medial temporal lobe involvement on neuroimaging. We describe a case of 13 year girl female with encephalitis due to antibodies to VGKC with signal changes in the cerebellar dentate nuclei bilaterally and clinical features that suggested predominant cerebellar involvement. These have never been reported previously in the literature. Our case expands the phenotypic spectrum ...

  2. Upbeat nystagmus in anti-Ma2 encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reitboeck, Pablo; Thompson, Graham; Johns, Paul; Al Wahab, Yasir; Omer, Salah; Griffin, Colette

    2014-02-01

    Anti-Ma2 encephalitis is a paraneoplastic disorder characterised by brainstem and/or limbic involvement. Eye movement abnormalities can occur in this condition, often with confusion or somnolence. We describe a patient with progressive oscillopsia (with upbeat nystagmus) and unsteadiness, followed by acute pancreatitis. She did not respond to immunomodulatory treatment and subsequently died of complications related to pancreatitis and sepsis. There was no tumour identified at autopsy, but the anti-Ma2 antibodies in her serum and the discovery of a brainstem-predominant inflammatory infiltrate at autopsy strongly suggest a paraneoplastic disorder. Our case illustrates that upbeat nystagmus can be a predominant feature in anti-Ma2 encephalitis; clinicians should consider testing for anti-Ma2 antibodies in patients with upbeat nystagmus of unknown cause.

  3. Dengue Haemorrhagic Encephalitis: Rare Case Report with Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutiyal, Aditya Singh; Malik, Chetanya; Hyanki, Gitika

    2017-07-01

    Dengue is an endemic arboviral infection prevalent especially in tropical countries including Southern and Southeast Asia. Central Nervous System (CNS) involvement in dengue infection is uncommon. Haemorrhagic encephalitis is a rare presentation in dengue. This is a case of a 58-year-old male who presented with fever, petechial rash and altered sensorium. Dengue serology IgM was reactive and MRI brain was suggestive of haemorrhagic encephalitis. Patient was managed in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) but eventually succumbed to his illness. We report this fatal outcome of a common viral infection with unusual neurological presentation to propose an association between dengue and neurotropism and the need to look at dengue infection beyond its classical features.

  4. Limbic encephalitis presenting as a post-partum psychiatric condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotkine, Marc; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Vincent, Angela; Vaknin-Dembinsky, Adi

    2011-09-15

    We describe a woman who presented with a psychiatric disorder post-partum and subsequently developed seizures and cognitive dysfunction prompting further investigation. A diagnosis of limbic encephalitis (LE) was made and antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKC) detected. These antibodies are found in many non-paraneoplastic patients with LE. Although antibody-mediated conditions tend to present or relapse post-partum, VGKC-LE in the post-partum period has not been described. Case report. Clinical and imaging data were consistent with limbic encephalitis. High titres of anti-VGKC-complex antibodies confirmed the diagnosis of VGKC-LE. The similarities between the psychiatric symptomatology of VGKC-LE and post-partum psychiatric disorders raise the possibility that some instances of post-partum psychiatric conditions are manifestations of immune-mediated, non-paraneoplastic LE. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hypothermia in VGKC antibody-associated limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, S; Irani, S R; Rajabally, Y A; Grubneac, A; Walters, R J; Yazaki, M; Clover, L; Vincent, A

    2008-02-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channel antibody (VGKC-Ab)-associated limbic encephalitis (LE) is a recently described syndrome that broadens the spectrum of immunotherapy-responsive central nervous system disorders. Limbic encephalitis is typically characterised by a sub-acute onset of disorientation, amnesia and seizures, but the clinical spectrum is not yet fully defined and the syndrome could be under-diagnosed. We here describe the clinical profile of four patients with VGKC-Ab-associated LE who had intermittent, episodic hypothermia. One of the patients also described a prodrome of severe neuropathic pain preceding the development of limbic symptoms. Both of these novel symptoms responded well to immunosuppressive therapy, with concurrent amelioration of amnesia/seizures.

  6. Unusual Clinical Presentation and Role of Decompressive Craniectomy in Herpes Simplex Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Sahu, Jitendra Kumar; Kumar, Nuthan; Vyas, Sameer; Vasishta, Rakesh Kumar; Aggarwal, Ashish

    2015-08-01

    Decompressive craniectomy in pediatric central nervous infections with refractory intracranial hypertension is less commonly practiced. We describe improved outcome of decompressive craniectomy in a 7-year-old boy with severe herpes simplex encephalitis and medically refractory intracranial hypertension, along with a brief review of the literature. Timely recognition of refractory intracranial hypertension and surgical decompression in children with herpes simplex encephalitis can be life-saving. Additionally, strokelike atypical presentations are being increasingly recognized in children with herpes simplex encephalitis and should not take one away from the underlying herpes simplex encephalitis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Diagnostic Pathways as Social and Participatory Practices: The Case of Herpes Simplex Encephalitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Cooper

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus (HSV encephalitis is a potentially devastating disease, with significant rates of mortality and co-morbidities. Although the prognosis for people with HSV encephalitis can be improved by prompt treatment with aciclovir, there are often delays involved in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. In response, National Clinical Guidelines have been produced for the UK which make recommendations for improving the management of suspected viral encephalitis. However, little is currently known about the everyday experiences and processes involved in the diagnosis and care of HSV encephalitis. The reported study aimed to provide an account of the diagnosis and treatment of HSV encephalitis from the perspective of people who had been affected by the condition. Thirty narrative interviews were conducted with people who had been diagnosed with HSV encephalitis and their significant others. The narrative accounts reveal problems with gaining access to a diagnosis of encephalitis and shortfalls in care for the condition once in hospital. In response, individuals and their families work hard to obtain medical recognition for the problem and shape the processes of acute care. As a consequence, we argue that the diagnosis and management of HSV encephalitis needs to be considered as a participatory process, which is co-produced by health professionals, patients, and their families. The paper concludes by making recommendations for developing the current management guidelines by formalising the critical role of patients and their significant others in the identification, and treatment of, HSV encephalitis.

  8. Diagnostic Pathways as Social and Participatory Practices: The Case of Herpes Simplex Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jessie; Kierans, Ciara; Defres, Sylviane; Easton, Ava; Kneen, Rachel; Solomon, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is a potentially devastating disease, with significant rates of mortality and co-morbidities. Although the prognosis for people with HSV encephalitis can be improved by prompt treatment with aciclovir, there are often delays involved in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. In response, National Clinical Guidelines have been produced for the UK which make recommendations for improving the management of suspected viral encephalitis. However, little is currently known about the everyday experiences and processes involved in the diagnosis and care of HSV encephalitis. The reported study aimed to provide an account of the diagnosis and treatment of HSV encephalitis from the perspective of people who had been affected by the condition. Thirty narrative interviews were conducted with people who had been diagnosed with HSV encephalitis and their significant others. The narrative accounts reveal problems with gaining access to a diagnosis of encephalitis and shortfalls in care for the condition once in hospital. In response, individuals and their families work hard to obtain medical recognition for the problem and shape the processes of acute care. As a consequence, we argue that the diagnosis and management of HSV encephalitis needs to be considered as a participatory process, which is co-produced by health professionals, patients, and their families. The paper concludes by making recommendations for developing the current management guidelines by formalising the critical role of patients and their significant others in the identification, and treatment of, HSV encephalitis.

  9. Clinical and cerebrospinal fluid findings contribute to the early differentiation between infectious and noninfectious encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Wilken

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Early recognition and prompt specific treatment are crucial factors influencing the outcome of patients with acute encephalitis. The aim of this study was to determine the main causes of acute encephalitis in our population and to find predictors that may lead to specific diagnosis. Adult patients admitted to our hospital with suspected diagnosis of encephalitis in the period 2006-2013 were included. One hundred and five medical records were analyzed. Eighty-two patients with infectious encephalitis were identified (78% of total cases, 53 (65% men and 29 (35% women, mean age 47.8 years. The most common microorganisms identified were: HSV-1 (11%, VZV (10%, HSV-2 (5% and EBV (5%. Twenty-three patients (22% of the series had non-infectious encephalitis. Headache (p < 0.0001 and fever (p = 0.008 were more frequent in encephalitis of infectious origin. Protein levels and white blood cell counts in the cerebrospinal fluid were significantly higher in patients affected by infectious encephalitis than in those affected by noninfectious encephalitis (OR 95% CI 12.3 [2.9-51.7] and OR 95% CI 7.4 [2-27], respectively. Identifying specific causal agents of acute encephalitis remains a major challenge. Cerebrospinal fluid markers, as well as specific clinical findings, may however contribute to initial differentiation between infectious and noninfectious causes.

  10. Western equine encephalitis with rapid onset of parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D R; Barthal, J S; Garrett, G

    1977-11-01

    A patient with confirmed western equine encephalitis had the rapid onset of postencephalitic parkinsonian sequelae. This observation corroborates similar previous but rare reports. Response to therapy with levodopa, dopa decarboxylase inhibitor, and trihexyphenidyl was dramatic. However, remission maintained for 12 months without medication suggests that the parkinsonism would have remitted spontaneously. In either case, this has not previously been reported with the western equine togavirus.

  11. Imaging findings of neonatal herpes simplex virus type 2 encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vossough, Arastoo; Zimmerman, Robert A.; Bilaniuk, Larissa T.; Schwartz, Erin M. [University of Pennsylvania, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-04-15

    The CT, MR, and diffusion-weighted initial and follow-up imaging findings in neonatal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) encephalitis were assessed. The clinical, laboratory and imaging findings in 12 patients (eight girls and four boys) with proven neonatal HSV-2 encephalitis with follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. Patterns of brain involvement and distribution of lesions were studied and the contribution of diffusion-weighted imaging to the imaging diagnosis of this disease was explored. A total of 24 CT and 22 MRI studies were performed with a mean follow-up time of 38 months. Neonatal HSV-2 encephalitis can be multifocal or limited to only the temporal lobes, brainstem, or cerebellum. The deep gray matter structures were involved in 57% of patients, and hemorrhage was seen in more than half of the patients. CT images were normal or showed mild abnormalities in the early stages of the disease. Conventional MR images may be normal in the early stages of the disease. Lesions were initially seen only by diffusion-weighted imaging in 20% of the patients and this modality showed a substantially more extensive disease distribution in an additional 50% of patients. In 40% of patients, watershed distribution ischemic changes were observed in addition to areas of presumed direct herpetic necrosis. Neonatal HSV-2 encephalitis has a variable imaging appearance. Diffusion-weighted MRI is an important adjunct in the imaging evaluation of this disease. Watershed distribution ischemia in areas remote from the primary herpetic lesions may be seen. (orig.)

  12. Contrast enhancement of the gyri in herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, K.A.; Langer, M.; Langer, R.

    1982-01-01

    A case of herpes simplex encephalitis was examined by computer tomography. Both cerebral hemispheres showed contrast enhancement of the gyri. The cause of this is considered. The increased contrast medium accumulation in the affected areas is probably due to the marked vascular proliferation which can be demonstrated anatomically, and to the rapid escape of contrast from the capillaries into the interstitial spaces. The findings of other authors, which differ somewhat, are discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. Investigations of Caspr2, an autoantigen of encephalitis and neuromyotonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Eric; Huijbers, Maartje GM; Bar, Vered; Boronat, Anna; Wong, Andrew; Martinez-Hernandez, Eugenia; Wilson, Christina; Jacobs, Dina; Lai, Meizan; Walker, Russell W; Graus, Francesc; Bataller, Luis; Illa, Isabel; Markx, Sander; Strauss, Kevin A.; Peles, Elior; Scherer, Steven S; Dalmau, Josep

    2010-01-01

    Objective To report clinical and immunological investigations of contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2), an autoantigen of encephalitis and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability (PNH) previously attributed to voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC). Methods Clinical analysis of patients with encephalitis, PNH, or both. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry were used to identify the antigen and to develop an assay with Caspr2-expressing cells. Immunoabsorption with Caspr2 and comparative immunostaining of brain and peripheral nerve of wild-type and Caspr2-null mice were used to assess antibody specificity. Results Using Caspr2-expressing cells, antibodies were identified in 8 patients but not in 140 patients with several types of autoimmune or viral encephalitis, PNH, or mutations of the Caspr2-encoding gene. Patients’ antibodies reacted with brain and peripheral nerve in a pattern that co-localized with Caspr2. This reactivity was abrogated after immunoabsorption with Caspr2 and was absent in tissues from Caspr2-null mice. Of the 8 patients with Caspr2 antibodies, 7 had encephalopathy or seizures, 5 neuropathy or PNH, and 1 isolated PNH. Three patients had also myasthenia gravis, bulbar weakness, or symptoms that initially suggested motor neuron disease. None of the patients had active cancer; 7 responded to immunotherapy and were healthy or only mildly disabled at last follow-up (median 8 months, range 6–84). Interpretation Caspr2 is an autoantigen of encephalitis and PNH previously attributed to VGKC antibodies. The occurrence of other autoantibodies may result in a complex syndrome that at presentation could be mistaken for a motor neuron disorder. Recognition of this disorder is important because it responds to immunotherapy. PMID:21387375

  14. Limbic encephalitis presenting as a post-partum psychiatric condition.

    OpenAIRE

    Gotkine, Marc; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Vincent, Angela; Vaknin-Dembinsky, Adi

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We describe a woman who presented with a psychiatric disorder post-partum and subsequently developed seizures and cognitive dysfunction prompting further investigation. A diagnosis of limbic encephalitis (LE) was made and antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKC) detected. These antibodies are found in many non-paraneoplastic patients with LE. Although antibody-mediated conditions tend to present or relapse post-partum, VGKC-LE in the post-partum period has not b...

  15. MR and CT imaging patterns in post-varicella encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, C.F. [Div. of Neuroimaging, Children`s Memorial Center, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Larsen, M.B. [Div. of Neurology, Children`s Memorial Center, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Byrd, S.E. [Div. of Neuroimaging, Children`s Memorial Center, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Radkowski, M.A. [Div. of Neuroimaging, Children`s Memorial Center, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Palka, P.S. [Div. of Neuroimaging, Children`s Memorial Center, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Allen, E.D. [Div. of Neuroimaging, Children`s Memorial Center, Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The aim of the investigation was to determine the patterns of cerebral involvement on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in post-varicella encephalitis. Four children between the ages of 2 and 11 years presented over a 5-year period with a diagnosis of post-varicella encephalitis. Their imaging studies and clinical data were reviewed retrospectively. The medical histories of all four children were noncontributory except for recent bouts of chickenpox 1 week to 3 months prior to hospitalization. Three children presented with parkinsonian manifestations. Bilateral, symmetric hypodense, nonenhancing basal ganglia lesions were found on CT. These areas showed nonenhancing low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images on MR. One child presented with diffuse, multiple gray and white matter lesions of similar imaging characteristics; some lesions, however, did enhance. This child had no gait disturbances. Post-varicella encephalitis can produce two patterns of dramatic CT and MR findings. With an appropriate history and clinical findings, varicella as a cause of bilateral basal ganglia or diffuse cerebral lesions can be differentiated from other possible etiologies which include trauma, anoxia, metabolic disorders and demyelinating diseases. (orig.)

  16. Outbreaks of Eastern equine encephalitis in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria L C R; Galiza, Glauco J N; Dantas, Antônio F M; Oliveira, Rafael N; Iamamoto, Keila; Achkar, Samira M; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2011-05-01

    Outbreaks of eastern equine encephalitis observed from May 2008 to August 2009 in the Brazilian states of Pernambuco, Ceará, and Paraíba are reported. The disease occurred in 93 farms affecting 229 equids with a case fatality rate of 72.92%. Main clinical signs were circling, depression or hyperexcitability, ataxia, and progressive paralysis with a clinical manifestation period of 3-15 days. Main histologic lesions were a diffuse lymphocytic encephalomyelitis with neuronal death, satellitosis, neuronophagia, and hemorrhages being more severe in the cerebral gray matter of the telencephalon, diencephalon, and mesencephalon. Some animals also had areas of malacia in the telencephalon, thalamus, and basal nuclei. From 1 case, the virus was isolated by mice inoculation, and in other 13 cases was identified as Eastern equine encephalitis virus by semi-nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. After DNA sequencing, all samples were identified as eastern equine encephalitis through the BLASTn analysis, but samples from the Ceará and Paraíba states corresponded to the same cluster, while the sample from the state of Pernambuco corresponded to a different cluster. © 2011 The Author(s)

  17. Delays in initiation of acyclovir therapy in herpes simplex encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Peter S; Jackson, Alan C

    2012-09-01

    Diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is based on clinical findings, MRI, and detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using polymerase chain reaction amplification. Delays in starting treatment are associated with poorer clinical outcomes. We assessed the timing of initiation of acyclovir therapy in HSE. Inpatient databases from seven hospitals in Winnipeg, Manitoba were used to identify individuals diagnosed with encephalitis and HSE from 2004 to 2009. The time taken to initiate therapy with acyclovir and the reasons for delays were determined. Seventy-seven patients were identified; 69 (90%) received acyclovir; in the others a non-HSV infection was strongly suspected. Thirteen patients were subsequently confirmed to have HSE. Acyclovir was initiated a median of 21 hours (3-407) after presentation in encephalitis cases, and a median of 11 hours (3-118) in HSE. The most common reason for delay was a failure to consider HSE in the differential diagnosis, despite suggestive clinical features. Where therapy was delayed in HSE patients, the decision to begin acyclovir was prompted by transfer of the patient to a different service (55%), recommendations by consultants (18%), imaging results (18%), and CSF pleocytosis (9%). Delays in initiating acyclovir for HSE are common, and are most often due to a failure to consider HSE in a timely fashion on presentation. In order to improve patient outcomes, physicians should be more vigilant for HSE, and begin acyclovir therapy expeditiously on the basis of clinical suspicion rather than waiting for confirmatory tests.

  18. Silent circulation of St. Louis encephalitis virus prior to an encephalitis outbreak in Cordoba, Argentina (2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Adrian Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available St. Louis encephalitis virus is a complex zoonoses. In 2005, 47 laboratory-confirmed and probable clinical cases of SLEV infection were reported in Córdoba, Argentina. Although the causes of 2005 outbreak remain unknown, they might be related not only to virological factors, but also to ecological and environmental conditions. We hypothesized that one of the factors for SLE reemergence in Córdoba, Argentina, was the introduction of a new SLEV genotype (SLEV genotype III, with no previous activity in the area. In order to evaluate this hypothesis we carried out a molecular characterization of SLEV detections from mosquitoes collected between 2001 and 2004 in Córdoba city. A total of 315 mosquito pools (11,002 individuals including 12 mosquitoes species were analyzed. Overall, 20 pools (8 mosquitoes species were positive for SLEV. During this study, genotypes II, V and VII were detected. No mosquito pool infected with genotype III was detected before the 2005 outbreak. Genotype V was found every year and in the 8 sampled sites. Genotypes II and VII showed limited temporal and spatial activities. We cannot dismiss the association of genotype II and V as etiological agents during the outbreak. However, the silent circulation of other SLEV strains in Córdoba city before the 2005 outbreak suggests that the introduction of genotype III was an important factor associated to this event. Not mutually exclusive, other factors such as changes in avian hosts and mosquitoes vectors communities, driven by climatic and environmental modifications, should also be taken into consideration in further studies.

  19. Clinical analysis of anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmau, Josep; Graus, Francesc; Villarejo, Alberto; Posner, Jerome B; Blumenthal, Deborah; Thiessen, Brian; Saiz, Albert; Meneses, Patricio; Rosenfeld, Myrna R

    2004-08-01

    Increasing experience indicates that anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis differs from classical paraneoplastic limbic or brainstem encephalitis, and therefore may be unrecognized. To facilitate its diagnosis we report a comprehensive clinical analysis of 38 patients with anti-Ma2 encephalitis. Thirty-four (89%) patients presented with isolated or combined limbic, diencephalic or brainstem dysfunction, and four with other syndromes. Considering the clinical and MRI follow-up, 95% of the patients developed limbic, diencephalic or brainstem encephalopathy. Only 26% had classical limbic encephalitis. Excessive daytime sleepiness affected 32% of the patients, sometimes with narcolepsy-cataplexy and low CSF hypocretin. Additional hormonal or MRI abnormalities indicated diencephalic-hypothalamic involvement in 34% of the patients. Eye movement abnormalities were prominent in 92% of the patients with brainstem dysfunction, but those with additional limbic or diencephalic deficits were most affected; 60% of these patients had vertical gaze paresis that sometimes evolved to total external ophthalmoplegia. Three patients developed atypical parkinsonism, and two a severe hypokinetic syndrome with a tendency to eye closure and dramatic reduction of verbal output. Neurological symptoms preceded the tumour diagnosis in 62% of the patients. Brain MRI abnormalities were present in 74% of all patients and 89% of those with limbic or diencephalic dysfunction. Among the 34 patients with cancer, 53% had testicular germ-cell tumours. Two patients without evidence of cancer had testicular microcalcification and one cryptorchidism, risk factors for testicular germ-cell tumours. After neurological syndrome development, 17 of 33 patients received oncological treatment (nine also immunotherapy), 10 immunotherapy alone, and six no treatment. Overall, 33% of the patients had neurological improvement, three with complete recovery; 21% had long-term stabilization, and 46% deteriorated. Features

  20. Allergy in patients with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xin-Yue; Zhang, Le; Jiang, Xian; Abdulaziz, Ammar Taha Abdullah; Wang, Yun-Hui; Li, Jin-Mei; Zhou, Dong

    2018-02-01

    Allergy is a potential outcome of dysregulated immune system. Previous studies have shown the association of allergy and autoimmune diseases, however, there is few study to investigate the relationship between allergy and anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis. Thus, we investigate the rate of allergy in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and analyze the risk factors. The rate of allergy was investigated in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and was compared with patients with virus encephalitis. The clinical cutaneous characters were described in details. All patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis were divided into allergic and nonallergic group. Clinical factors were compared in the two groups, and logistic regression model was also used to analyze possible risk factors of allergy. Patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis had a higher rate of allergy than those with viral encephalitis (22.1% vs 9.2%, odds ratio (OR)=3.23, confidence interval (CI)=1.40-7.42, P=0.006). In patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, allergic patients exhibited longer days in hospital (30days vs 22days, P=0.005) and higher occurrence of decreased consciousness (81.5% vs 58.9%, P=0.031), higher rate of complications (77.8% vs 57.9%, P=0.046) and abnormal electroencephalography (EEG) (100% vs 78.6%, P=0.021) than patients without allergy. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) antibody titers of allergic patients during the disease course were also higher than nonallergic patients (P=0.004). However, further logistic regression analysis did not reveal independent predictors of allergy. Patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis show higher allergic rate than those with virus encephalitis. Patients with allergy show higher CSF antibody titers and greater illness severity. However, the final outcome of anti-NMDAR encephalitis was not influenced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. VGKC complex antibodies in pediatric severe acute encephalitis: a study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jainn-Jim; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Wang, Huei-Shyong; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; CHEESE Study Group

    2013-08-01

    Antibodies to surface proteins like voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complexes are increasingly found in different neurologic diseases and encephalitis in adults and recently, in children. Detecting such antibodies can help identify forms of encephalitis that may respond to immuno-therapies. However, there are few reports on VGKC complex antibodies in pediatric severe acute encephalitis. This study retrospectively reviewed antibodies to VGKC, leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (Lgi1), and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2) in 46 children with severe acute encephalitis. Published cases of VGKC complex antibodies in pediatric encephalitis in the period of 2000-2012 were also reviewed. Elevated VGKC complex antibodies (>100pM) were detected in one of the 46 children with severe acute encephalitis. The 4-year and 6-month-old girl presented with seizure and disturbed consciousness. Viral PCR/culture and serologic evidence of influenza A infection was noted. She also had complications of epilepsy, impaired cognition, and altered behavior and psychology. Antibodies to Lgi1 and Caspr2 were not detected. Ten previously published reports revealed that VGKC complex antibodies can occur in children with limbic encephalitis and acute or sub-acute encephalitis. The incidence of VGKC complex antibodies in pediatric severe acute encephalitis is not high with only one (2.2%) of 46 children in this study. And, this is the first report on the association of VGKC complex antibodies and patients with influenza A-related severe acute encephalitis. The mechanism of VGKC complex antibodies in pediatric severe acute encephalitis warrants further study. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Leucine-rich glioma inactivated-1 and voltage gated potassium channel autoimmune encephalitis associated with ischemic stroke; A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Patryce McGinley

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune encephalitis is associated with a wide variety of antibodies and clinical presentations. Voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC antibodies are a cause of autoimmune non-paraneoplastic encephalitis characterized by memory impairment, psychiatric symptoms, and seizures. We present a case of VGKC encephalitis likely preceding an ischemic stroke. Reports of autoimmune encephalitis associated with ischemic stroke are rare. Several hypothesizes linking these two disease processes are proposed.

  3. Quantification of vector and host competence for Japanese encephalitis virus: a systematic review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a virus of the Flavivirus genus that may result in encephalitis in human hosts. This vector-borne zoonosis occurs in Eastern and Southeastern Asia and an intentional or inadvertent introduction into the United States (US) will have major public health and economi...

  4. [Post-herpes simplex encephalitis chorea: Viral replication or immunological mechanism?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benrhouma, H; Nasri, A; Kraoua, I; Klaa, H; Turki, I; Gouider-Khouja, N

    2015-09-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis is a severe neurological condition, whose outcome is improved if treated early with acyclovir. Post-herpes simplex encephalitis with acute chorea has rarely been reported. We report on two observations of children presenting with post-herpes simplex encephalitis with acute chorea, related to two different pathophysiological mechanisms. The first one is an 11-month-old girl developing relapsing herpes simplex encephalitis with chorea due to resumption of viral replication. The second one is a 2-year-old boy with relapsing post-herpes simplex encephalitis acute chorea caused by an immunoinflammatory mechanism. We discuss the different neurological presentations of herpetic relapses, notably those presenting with movement disorders, as well as their clinical, paraclinical, physiopathological, and therapeutic aspects. Post-herpes simplex encephalitis with acute chorea may involve two mechanisms: resumption of viral replication or an immunoinflammatory mechanism. Treatment of post-herpes simplex encephalitis with acute chorea depends on the underlying mechanism, while prevention is based on antiviral treatment of herpes simplex encephalitis with acyclovir at the dose of 20mg/kg/8h for 21 days. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Electroconvulsive therapy in a pediatric patient with malignant catatonia and paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew; Glick, David B; Dinwiddie, Stephen H

    2006-12-01

    Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is a rare disorder that can cause memory loss, confusion, personality change, cognitive dysfunction, and psychosis. We present a case of an 11-year-old girl who was successfully treated with electroconvulsive therapy for a catatonic state associated with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis caused by an ovarian teratoma.

  6. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis during Treatment with Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Bradford, Russell D.; Pettit, April C.; Wright, Patty W.; Mulligan, Mark J.; Moreland, Larry W.; McLain, David A.; Gnann, John W.; Bloch, Karen C.

    2009-01-01

    We report 3 cases of herpes simplex virus encephalitis in patients receiving tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors for rheumatologic disorders. Although TNF-α inhibitors have been reported to increase the risk of other infectious diseases, to our knowledge, an association between anti–TNF-α drugs and herpes simplex virus encephalitis has not been previously described.

  7. DMPD: Monocyte/macrophage traffic in HIV and SIV encephalitis. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12960230 Monocyte/macrophage traffic in HIV and SIV encephalitis. Kim WK, Corey S, ...Alvarez X, Williams K. J Leukoc Biol. 2003 Nov;74(5):650-6. Epub 2003 Aug 11. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Monocyte/macrophage... traffic in HIV and SIV encephalitis. PubmedID 12960230 Title Monocyte/macrophage tr

  8. Epilepsy surgery for epileptic encephalopathy as a sequela of herpes simplex encephalitis: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Birce Dilge; Tanji, Kurenai; Feldstein, Neil A; McSwiggan-Hardin, Maureen; Akman, Cigdem I

    2017-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis can manifest with different clinical presentations, including acute monophasic illness and biphasic chronic granulomatous HSV encephalitis. Chronic encephalitis is much less common, and very rare late relapses are associated with intractable epilepsy and progressive neurological deficits with or without evidence of HSV in the cerebrospinal fluid. The authors report on an 8-year-old girl with a history of treated HSV-1 encephalitis when she was 13 months of age and focal epilepsy when she was 2 years old. Although free of clinical seizures, when she was 5, she experienced behavioral and academic dysfunction, which was later attributed to electrographic focal seizures and worsening electroencephalography (EEG) findings with electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep (ESES). Following a right temporal lobectomy, chronic granulomatous encephalitis was diagnosed. The patient's clinical course improved with the resolution of seizures and EEG abnormalities.

  9. Functions and requirements of conserved RNA structures in the 3’ untranslated region of Flaviviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agostinho Gonçalves Costa da Silva, Patrícia

    2011-01-01

    The Flavivirus genus contains nearly 80 viruses, including many important human pathogens such as dengue virus, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus. To reduce and prevent the impact of flavivirus infection on society, vaccines and effective therapies are required.

  10. Arboviruses pathogenic for domestic and wild animals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Rudolf, Ivo; Nowotny, N.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 5 (2014), s. 201-275 ISSN 0065-3527 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West-Nile virus * Tick-borne encephalitis * Louping-ill virus * Cache-Valley virus * African-swine-fever * California serogroup virus * Kyasanur-forest-disease * sparrows Passer domesticus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.571, year: 2014

  11. Využití GIS pro mapování klíšťat a klíšťaty přenášených patogenů v Jihočeském kraji

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švec, P.; Hönig, Václav; Daniel, M.; Danielová, V.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 3 (2009), s. 157-168 ISSN 1212-0014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : GIS * ticks * tick-borne encephalitis * mapping * Lyme borreliosis * ArcGIS Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  12. Climate change and infectious diseases in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parkinson, Alan J; Evengard, Birgitta; Semenza, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic, even more so than other parts of the world, has warmed substantially over the past few decades. Temperature and humidity influence the rate of development, survival and reproduction of pathogens and thus the incidence and prevalence of many infectious diseases. Higher temperatures may......., Coxiella burnetti, rabies virus, West Nile virus, Hantaviruses, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses....

  13. Risk of infections transmitted by arthropods and rodents in forestry workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. Moll van Charante; J. Groen (Jan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractOne hundred and fifty-one forestry workers and 151 matched office clerks were compared as to the presence of antibodies against Borelia burgdorferi, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Puumalavirus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Their occupational risks of being infected by Borrelia

  14. Zika virus infection: a public health emergency!

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Muhammad Salman Haider; Qureshi, Bakhtawar Wajeeha; Khan, Ramsha

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus belongs to the family of Flaviviridae. The Flaviviridae family also includes other human pathogens like West Nile virus (WNV), Yellow fever virus (YFV), mosquito transmitted Dengue virus (DENV), Tick borne encephalitic virus (TBEV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Zika virus is a mosquito-borne disease and is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito.

  15. Few vertebrate species dominate the Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Life cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeester, T.R.; Coipan, E.C.; Wieren, van S.E.; Prins, H.H.T.; Takken, W.; Sprong, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background. In the northern hemisphere, ticks of the Ixodidae family are vectors of diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tick-borne encephalitis. Most of these ticks are generalists and have a three-host life cycle for which they are dependent on three different

  16. St. Louis encephalitis virus possibly transmitted through blood transfusion-Arizona, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Heather; Adams, Laura; Sunenshine, Rebecca; Krow-Lucal, Elisabeth; Levy, Craig; Kafenbaum, Tammy; Sylvester, Tammy; Smith, Kirk; Townsend, John; Dosmann, Melissa; Kamel, Hany; Patron, Roberto; Kuehnert, Matthew; Annambhotla, Pallavi; Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Rabe, Ingrid B

    2017-12-01

    St. Louis encephalitis virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that infrequently causes epidemic central nervous system infections. In the United States, blood donors are not screened for St. Louis encephalitis virus infection, and transmission through blood transfusion has not been reported. During September 2015, St. Louis encephalitis virus infection was confirmed in an Arizona kidney transplant recipient. An investigation was initiated to determine the infection source. The patient was interviewed, and medical records were reviewed. To determine the likelihood of mosquito-borne infection, mosquito surveillance data collected at patient and blood donor residences in timeframes consistent with their possible exposure periods were reviewed. To investigate other routes of exposure, organ and blood donor and recipient specimens were obtained and tested for evidence of St. Louis encephalitis virus infection. The patient presented with symptoms of central nervous system infection. Recent St. Louis encephalitis virus infection was serologically confirmed. The organ donor and three other organ recipients showed no laboratory or clinical evidence of St. Louis encephalitis virus infection. Among four donors of blood products received by the patient via transfusion, one donor had a serologically confirmed, recent St. Louis encephalitis virus infection. Exposure to an infected mosquito was unlikely based on the patient's minimal outdoor exposure. In addition, no St. Louis encephalitis virus-infected mosquito pools were identified around the patient's residence. This investigation provides evidence of the first reported possible case of St. Louis encephalitis virus transmission through blood product transfusion. Health care providers and public health professionals should maintain heightened awareness for St. Louis encephalitis virus transmission through blood transfusion in settings where outbreaks are identified. © 2017 AABB.

  17. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Clinical manifestations and pathophysiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Takahiro; Sakai, Fumihiko

    2008-01-01

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a new category of treatment-responsive encephalitis associated with 'anti-NMDAR antibodies', which are antibodies to the NR1/NR2 heteromers of NMDAR. The antibodies are detected in the CSF/serum of young women with ovarian teratoma, who typically develop schizophrenia-like psychiatric symptoms, usually preceded by fever, headache, or viral infection-like illness. After reaching the peak of psychosis, most patients developed seizures followed by an unresponsive/catatonic state, decreased level of consciousness, central hypoventilation frequently requiring mechanical ventilation, orofacial-limb dyskinesias, and autonomic symptoms. Brain MRI is usually unremarkable but focal enhancement or medial temporal lobe abnormalities can be observed. The CSF reveals nonspecific changes. Electroencephalography (EEG) often reveals diffuse delta slowing without paroxysmal discharges, despite frequent bouts of seizures. This is a highly characteristic syndrome evolving in 5 stages, namely, the prodromal phase, psychotic phase, unresponsive phase, hyperkinetic phase, and gradual recovery phase. The hyperkinetic phase is the most prolonged and crucial. This disorder is usually severe and can be fatal, but it is potentially reversible. Once patients overcome the hyperkinetic phase, gradual improvement is expected with in months and full recovery can also be expected over 3 or more years. Ovarian teratoma-associated limbic encephalitis (OTLE) was first reported in 1997 when this syndrome was reported independently in 1 Japanese girl and 1 woman, both of whom improved following tumor resection. In 2005, Dalmau and his research group first demonstrated antibodies to novel neuronal cell membrane antigens in 4 women with OTLE in a non-permeabilized culture of hippocampal neurons. Two years later, they identified conformal extracellular epitopes present in the NR1/NR2B heteromers of NMDAR, which are expressed in the hippocampus

  18. Distemper virus encephalitis exerts detrimental effects on hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rüden, E-L; Avemary, J; Zellinger, C; Algermissen, D; Bock, P; Beineke, A; Baumgärtner, W; Stein, V M; Tipold, A; Potschka, H

    2012-08-01

    Despite knowledge about the impact of brain inflammation on hippocampal neurogenesis, data on the influence of virus encephalitis on dentate granule cell neurogenesis are so far limited. Canine distemper is considered an interesting model of virus encephalitis, which can be associated with a chronic progressing disease course and can cause symptomatic seizures. To determine the impact of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection on hippocampal neurogenesis, we compared post-mortem tissue from dogs with infection with and without seizures, from epileptic dogs with non-viral aetiology and from dogs without central nervous system diseases. The majority of animals with infection and with epilepsy of non-viral aetiology exhibited neuronal progenitor numbers below the age average in controls. Virus infection with and without seizures significantly decreased the mean number of neuronal progenitor cells by 43% and 76% as compared to age-matched controls. Ki-67 labelling demonstrated that hippocampal cell proliferation was neither affected by infection nor by epilepsy of non-viral aetiology. Analysis of CDV infection in cells expressing caspase-3, doublecortin or Ki-67 indicated that infection of neuronal progenitor cells is extremely rare and suggests that infection might damage non-differentiated progenitor cells, hamper neuronal differentiation and promote glial differentiation. A high inter-individual variance in the number of lectin-reactive microglial cells was evident in dogs with distemper infection. Statistical analyses did not reveal a correlation between the number of lectin-reactive microglia cells and neuronal progenitor cells. Our data demonstrate that virus encephalitis with and without seizures can exert detrimental effects on hippocampal neurogenesis, which might contribute to long-term consequences of the disease. The lack of a significant impact of distemper virus on Ki-67-labelled cells indicates that the infection affected neuronal differentiation and

  19. Substantia nigra depigmentation and exposure to encephalitis lethargica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Nawaz; Jicha, Gregory A; Abell, Annalisa; Dean, Dawson; Vitek, Jerrold L; Berger, Joseph R

    2012-12-01

    Parkinsonism has occasionally been reported as a consequence of infectious diseases. The present study examines the clinical and pathological correlates of parkinsonism across birth cohorts in relation to critical exposure to the encephalitis lethargica epidemic in the early 1900s. The study population consisted of 678 participants in the Nun Study, of whom 432 died and came to autopsy. Qualitative indices of substantia nigra (SN) depigmentation were verified in a subset of 40 randomly selected subjects using quantitative stereological techniques. SN depigmentation, detected neuropathologically, was correlated with clinical parameters of Parkinson disease, age, and birth cohort. SN depigmentation was detected in 57 (13.2%) of the cohort. Although qualitative SN depigmentation correlated modestly with age (p = 0.02), it correlated best with birth cohort (p = 0.009) for women born in the years 1895-1899. Quantitative measures of SN depigmentation were increased in this birth cohort compared to age matched subjects from flanking birth cohorts 1890-1894 and 1900-1904 (p < 0.001). SN depigmentation correlated with speed of 6- and 50-foot walk (p < 0.0001), up and go test (p < 0.0001), and hand coordination (p < 0.0001). Subjects in the birth cohort 1895-1899 would have been in their late teens and 20s at the onset and during the peak of the encephalitis lethargica epidemic. These were precisely the age ranges of persons who were most often affected by the illness. These data suggest the possibility that the coexistence of parkinsonism and SN depigmentation in this birth cohort may have resulted from the yet undetermined infectious agent responsible for encephalitis lethargica. Copyright © 2012 American Neurological Association.

  20. Sequential analysis of CT findings in herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Mitsuru; Tokumaru, Yukio; Ito, Naoki; Yamada, Tatsuo; Hirayama, Keizo

    1982-01-01

    CT findings of six patients with serologically confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis were analyzed sequentially. The initial change in CT scan in 3 cases was generalized cerebral edema instead of low density areas in the anterior temporal lobes, which have generally been known as the initial findings. Then, bilateral (5 cases) or unilateral (1 case) island-shaped low absorption areas in the insular cortex and the claustrum appeared within 10 days of onset in all 6 cases. These findings, especially the latter, seem to be characteristic of the acute stage and useful in the early diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. The low density areas, then, spread to the temporal lobes, rectal and cingulate gyri in the subacute stage (3 cases) and finally to the frontal and occipital lobes in the chronic stage (2 cases). In the basal ganglia, thalamus, brain stem and cerebellum, however, there were no low density areas. In 2 cases there was no progression of low density areas beyond those of the acute stage. In one case there were high density areas in the temporal lobes and parapontine cisterns bilaterally. This could correspond to the pathological findings in herpes simplex encephalitis. The improvement of CT findings (or arrest at the early stage) was noted in 2 cases in which the clinical state also improved. This might well be the effect of adenine arabinoside. The one case treated with cytosine arabinoside had extensive low density areas in CT and finally died. The importance of CT in the evaluation of adenine arabinoside therapy was stressed. (author)

  1. Efficacy of eastern equine encephalitis immunization in whooping cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G H; Turell, M J; Pagac, B B

    1997-04-01

    An epizootic of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (PWRC), Laurel, Maryland (USA), in 1989 provided an opportunity to determine if EEE immunization protected whooping cranes (Grus americana). Based on seroconversion of 31% of sympatric hatch-year sandhill cranes, Grus canadensis, and a previous 35% case fatality rate in whooping cranes, 17 (37%) of the 46 susceptible whooping cranes should have been exposed to virus and six should have died. As there were no deaths in these birds, the EEE vaccination program appeared to be efficacious in this whooping crane population.

  2. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Complicated by Cerebral Hemorrhage during Acyclovir Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Yukinori; Hara, Yuuta

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) can be complicated by adverse events in the acute phase. We herein present the case of a 71-year-old woman with HSE complicated by cerebral hemorrhage. She presented with acute deterioration of consciousness and fever and was diagnosed with HSE based on the detection of herpes simplex virus-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid by a polymerase chain reaction. The cerebral hemorrhage developed during acyclovir therapy; however, its diagnosis was delayed for 2 days. After the conservative treatment of the cerebral hemorrhage, the patient made a near-complete recovery. Cerebral hemorrhage should be considered as an acute-phase complication of HSE.

  3. Brainstem and limbic encephalitis with paraneoplastic neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussawi, Khaled; Lin, David J; Matiello, Marcelo; Chew, Sheena; Morganstern, Daniel; Vaitkevicius, Henrikas

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of disorders associated with anti-neuromyelitis optica (NMO) antibody is being extended to include infrequent instances associated with cancer. We describe a patient with brainstem and limbic encephalitis from NMO-immunoglobulin G in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in the context of newly diagnosed breast cancer. The neurological features markedly improved with excision of her breast cancer and immune suppressive therapy. This case further broadens the NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD) by an association between NMOSD and cancer and raises the question of coincidental occurrence and the appropriate circumstances to search for a tumor in certain instances of NMO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. MRI findings in eastern equine encephalitis: the "parenthesis" sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Joshua P; Kannabiran, Suma; Burbank, Heather N

    2016-01-01

    Two patients with eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) presented to a tertiary referral center. Both subjects' brain magnetic resonance imaging showed T2/FLAIR (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) hyperintensities including linear areas of hyperintensity in the external and internal capsules with sparing of the lentiform nuclei. Single case reports of imaging findings in EEE exist with nonspecific patterns of abnormality. We propose that this "( ) parentheses sign" on T2 or FLAIR imaging may distinguish EEE from other processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical study on antibody-associated limbic encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jia-wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the antibody-associated limbic encephalitis (LE has attracted attentions of more and more clinicians. The associated antibodies mainly act on neuronal cell surface antigens, including the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor, the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA receptor, the γ-aminobutyric acid B (GABAB receptor, leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1 and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2 and so on. The clinical manifestation is primarily defined by the subacute onset of short-term memory loss, seizures, confusion and psychiatric symptoms suggesting the involvement of the limbic system. These severe and protracted disorders can affect children and young adults, occurring with or without tumor association. Routine detection of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and imaging tests show no specificity, but associated antibodies can be detected in serum and (or CSF. The patients respond well to tumor resection and immunotherapies, including corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg, plasma exchange or combination of them, but may relapse. This article aims to study the clinical features and treatment of antibody-associated limbic encephalitis and to improve the diagnosis and prognosis of these diseases.

  6. Cytokine Immunopathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 Brain Stem Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Min Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is one of the most important causes of herpangina and hand, foot, and mouth disease. It can also cause severe complications of the central nervous system (CNS. Brain stem encephalitis with pulmonary edema is the severe complication that can lead to death. EV71 replicates in leukocytes, endothelial cells, and dendritic cells resulting in the production of immune and inflammatory mediators that shape innate and acquired immune responses and the complications of disease. Cytokines, as a part of innate immunity, favor the development of antiviral and Th1 immune responses. Cytokines and chemokines play an important role in the pathogenesis EV71 brain stem encephalitis. Both the CNS and the systemic inflammatory responses to infection play important, but distinctly different, roles in the pathogenesis of EV71 pulmonary edema. Administration of intravenous immunoglobulin and milrinone, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, has been shown to modulate inflammation, to reduce sympathetic overactivity, and to improve survival in patients with EV71 autonomic nervous system dysregulation and pulmonary edema.

  7. Crystal structure of the Japanese encephalitis virus envelope protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Vincent C; AbiMansour, Jad; Nelson, Christopher A; Fremont, Daved H

    2012-02-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading global cause of viral encephalitis. The JEV envelope protein (E) facilitates cellular attachment and membrane fusion and is the primary target of neutralizing antibodies. We have determined the 2.1-Å resolution crystal structure of the JEV E ectodomain refolded from bacterial inclusion bodies. The E protein possesses the three domains characteristic of flavivirus envelopes and epitope mapping of neutralizing antibodies onto the structure reveals determinants that correspond to the domain I lateral ridge, fusion loop, domain III lateral ridge, and domain I-II hinge. While monomeric in solution, JEV E assembles as an antiparallel dimer in the crystal lattice organized in a highly similar fashion as seen in cryo-electron microscopy models of mature flavivirus virions. The dimer interface, however, is remarkably small and lacks many of the domain II contacts observed in other flavivirus E homodimers. In addition, uniquely conserved histidines within the JEV serocomplex suggest that pH-mediated structural transitions may be aided by lateral interactions outside the dimer interface in the icosahedral virion. Our results suggest that variation in dimer structure and stability may significantly influence the assembly, receptor interaction, and uncoating of virions.

  8. Cortical laminar necrosis in dengue encephalitis-a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Rizvi, Imran; Ingole, Rajan; Jain, Amita; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Kumar, Neeraj; Batra, Dhruv

    2017-04-20

    Dengue encephalitis is a rare neurological manifestation of dengue fever. Its clinical presentation is similar to other viral encephalitides and encephalopathy. No single specific finding on magnetic resonance imaging of dengue encephalitis has yet been documented. They are highly variable and atypical. A 15-year boy presented with fever, the headache and altered sensorium of 12-day duration. On neurological examination, his Glasgow Coma Scale score was 10 (E3M4V3). There was no focal neurological deficit. Laboratory evaluation revealed leukopenia and marked thrombocytopenia. Dengue virus IgM antibody was positive both in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed signal changes in bilateral parietooccipital and left frontal regions (left hemisphere more involved than the right hemisphere). There was gyriform enhancement bilateral parietooccipital regions consistent with cortical laminar necrosis. Bilaterally diffuse subcortical white matter was also involved and subtle T2 hyperintensity involving both basal ganglia was noted. Gradient echo sequence revealed presence of hemorrhage in the subcortical white matter. Patient was treated conservatively and received platelet transfusion. Patient became fully conscious after 7 days. In a patient with highly suggestive dengue e\\ephalitis, we describe an unusual magnetic resonance imaging finding. This report is possibly the first instance of cortical laminar necrosis in such a setting.

  9. Sequential MRI, SPECT and PET in respiratory syncytial virus encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, K.; Sakazaki, Hiromi; Murakami, Seiko; Yonezawa, Sumiko; Fujimoto, Keiji; Seto, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Katsuji; Hattori, Hideji; Matsuoka, Osamu; Murata, Ryosuke

    1999-01-01

    We report on a 3-year-old girl with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) encephalitis manifested by disturbance of consciousness, conjugate eye deviation, anuria, truncal ataxia and intention tremor. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed hyperintense areas in the cerebellar cortex. No lesion was detected in the cerebral cortex, pons or spinal cord. The hyperintense areas in the cerebellar cortex diminished with recovery from the clinical manifestations and had resolved 2 months after onset. The MRI lesions in the cerebellum were considered to be due to oedema. SPECT and positron emission tomography (PET), performed 3 months after onset, disclosed areas of hypoperfusion and hypometabolism at the same sites. One year after onset, MRI showed mild atrophy of the cerebellum. Hypoperfusion on SPECT and hypometabolism on PET remained. Neuroimaging showed that ataxia and tremor in this case were the result of cerebellitis. The patient has no neurological deficit except for mild truncal ataxia. This patient is a rare example of RSV encephalitis. (orig.)

  10. Are Onconeural Antibodies a Clinical Phenomenology in Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNSs occur in patients with cancer and can cause clinical symptoms and signs of dysfunction of the nervous system that are not due to a local effect of the tumor or its metastases. Most of these clinical syndromes in adults are associated with lung cancer, especially small cell lung cancer (SCLC, lymphoma, and gynecological tumors. The finding of highly specific antibodies directed against onconeural antigens has revolutionized the diagnosis and promoted the understanding of these syndromes and led to the current hypothesis of an autoimmune pathophysiology. Accumulating data strongly suggested direct pathogenicity of these antibodies. The field of PNS has expanded rapidly in the past few years with the discovery of limbic encephalitis associated with glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD 65, the voltage (VGKC-gated potassium channel complex, the methyl (N-NMDA-D-aspartate, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA, and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA (B receptors, and so forth. Despite this, the clinical spectrum of these diseases has not yet been fully investigated. The clinical importance of these conditions lies in their frequent response to immunotherapies and, less commonly, their association with distinctive tumors. This review provides an overview on the pathogenesis and diagnosis of PNS, with emphasis on the role of antibodies in limbic encephalitis.

  11. West Nile Virus Encephalitis in a Patient with Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Deldar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Oftentimes, when patients with metastatic cancer present with acute encephalopathy, it is suspected to be secondary to their underlying malignancy. However, there are multiple causes of delirium such as central nervous system (CNS infections, electrolyte abnormalities, and drug adverse reactions. Because West Nile Virus (WNV neuroinvasive disease has a high mortality rate in immunosuppressed patients, a high index of suspicion is required in patients who present with fever, altered mental status, and other neurological symptoms. Observations. Our case report details a single patient with brain metastases who presented with unexplained fever, encephalopathy, and new-onset tremors. Initially, it was assumed that his symptoms were due to his underlying malignancy or seizures. However, because his unexplained fevers persisted, lumbar puncture was pursued. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis included WNV polymerase chain reaction and serologies were ordered which eventually led to diagnosis of WNV encephalitis. Conclusions and Relevance. Patients with metastatic cancer who present with encephalopathy are often evaluated with assumption that malignancy is the underlying etiology. This can lead to delays in diagnosis and possible mistreatment. Our case highlights the importance of maintaining a broad differential diagnosis and an important diagnostic consideration of WNV encephalitis in patients with cancer.

  12. Acute hemorrhagic encephalitis: An unusual presentation of dengue viral infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadarajah, Jeyaseelan; Madhusudhan, Kumble Seetharama; Yadav, Ajay Kumar; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Vikram, Naval Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is a common viral infection worldwide with presentation varying from clinically silent infection to dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and severe fulminant dengue shock syndrome. Neurological manifestation usually results from multisystem dysfunction secondary to vascular leak. Presentation as hemorrhagic encephalitis is very rare. Here we present the case of a 13-year-old female admitted with generalized tonic clonic seizures. Plain computed tomography (CT) scan of head revealed hypodensities in bilateral deep gray matter nuclei and right posterior parietal lobe without any hemorrhage. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serology were positive for IgM and IgG antibodies to dengue viral antigen. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multifocal T2 and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyperintensities in bilateral cerebral parenchyma including basal ganglia. No hemorrhage was seen. She was managed with steroids. As her clinical condition deteriorated, after being stable for 2 days, repeat MRI was done which revealed development of hemorrhage within the lesions, and diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic encephalitis of dengue viral etiology was made

  13. Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis and Rasmussen-like Syndrome: An Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcharran, Kevin; Karkare, Shefali

    2017-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an immune-mediated condition that has a broad spectrum of manifestations, including seizures, coma, psychosis, and focal neurological deficits. Although usually a diffuse process, unihemispheric involvement mimicking early stages of Rasmussen encephalitis can occur. Rasmussen's encephalitis is a unique syndrome characterized by progressive hemiplegia, drug-resistant focal epilepsy, cognitive decline, and hemispheric brain atrophy contralateral to the hemiplegia. We describe a two-year-old girl with progressive right weakness and epilepsia partialis continua, concerning for early Rasmussen's encephalitis, who tested positive for anti-NMDA receptor antibodies. She experienced complete clinical recovery after immunotherapy. Anti-NMDA receptor antibodies were absent at three weeks and again at one year after the first treatment of intravenous immunoglobulin. There are few reports of Rasmussen-like encephalitis in individuals with anti-NMDA receptor antibody positivity. Thus the clinical significance of this association is yet to be determined. In addition, several other antibodies have been documented in individuals with Rasmussen encephalitis. The lack of a consistently reported antibody in Rasmussen encephalitis patients and the temporary nature of the anti-NMDA receptor antibody in our patient raise the following question: Is the presence of anti-NMDA receptor antibodies the cause of the symptoms or secondary to the pathogenic process? Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Serum cystatin C and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Y; Chang, Y; Wu, H; Li, J; Cao, B; Sun, X; Wang, J; Peng, L; Hu, X; Yu, X; Qiu, W

    2018-05-01

    Cystatin C (CysC) is associated with many neurodegenerative disorders and autoimmune diseases, but its relationship with anti-N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is unknown. Serum levels of CysC were determined in 66 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and 115 healthy controls. Of the 66 patients, 30 had a follow-up evaluation at 3 months after admission. Association of CysC with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and its clinical parameters were evaluated in the patients. The serum levels of CysC were significantly lower in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis than in controls (0.70 ± 0.13 vs 0.83 ± 0.17 mg/mL, P anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients had significantly increased serum CysC levels (P anti-NMDAR encephalitis and its clinical parameters and that the changes in CysC levels correlate with therapeutic effect. Therefore, our findings provide new insights into the association between serum CysC and anti-NMDAR encephalitis. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ticks from Kosovo and Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtesh Sherifi; Agim Rexhepi; Kristaq Berxholi; Blerta Mehmedi; Rreze M. Gecaj; Zamira Hoxha; Anja Joachim; Georg G. Duscher

    2018-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases pose a serious threat to human health in South-Eastern Europe, including Kosovo. While Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a well-known emerging infection in this area, there are no accurate data on Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Therefore, we sampled and tested 795 ticks. Ixodes ricinus (n = 218), Dermacentor marginatus (n = 98), and Haemaphysalis spp. (n = 24) were collected from the environment by flagging (all from Kosovo), while Hyalomma mar...

  16. MRI findings in a remitting-relapsing case of Bickerstaff encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondejar, R.R.; Santos, J.M.G.; Villalba, E.F.

    2002-01-01

    A case of remitting-relapsing Bickerstaff encephalitis is reported. The article focuses on its imaging findings and their significance when a clinical differentiation between Bickerstaff encephalitis and Miller-Fisher syndrome is attempted. Signs and symptoms may occasionally overlap. However, because Miller-Fisher syndrome is related to the peripheral nervous system and Bickerstaff encephalitis is a central disease, the recognition of brain stem hypointense lesions on T1-weighted images, which are hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences, could be a reliable tool when the clinical diagnosis is unclear. (orig.)

  17. Imaging of limbic para-neoplastic encephalitis; Imagerie de l`encephalite limbique paraneoplastique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimmelin, A.; Sellat, F.; Morand, G.; Quoix, E.; Clouet, P.L.; Dietemann, J.L. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1997-09-01

    Para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis is a rare syndrome mostly associated with small cell lung cancer. We present the case of a 69-year-old man with selective amnesia suggesting limbic encephalitis. A neuroendocrine cell lung cancer was found, confirming the diagnostics of para-neoplastic limbic encephalitis. Contrast-enhanced cerebral CT was normal whether magnetic resonance imaging showed signal abnormalities of the medial part of temporal lobes and hippocampal regions. Because neurologic improvement may follow treatment of the primary tumor, early diagnosis is important. (authors). 10 refs.

  18. Limbic encephalitis and antibodies to Ma2: a paraneoplastic presentation of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, I; Winer, J; Rowlands, D; Dalmau, J

    2000-08-01

    A patient with atypical medullary breast cancer is described who presented with symptoms of limbic encephalitis. The patient's serum and CSF contained antibodies that reacted with the nervous system and the tumour. These antibodies recognised Ma2, a neuronal protein related to paraneoplastic limbic and brainstem encephalitis in men with testicular tumours. This report highlights the importance of testing for paraneoplastic antineuronal antibodies in cases of unexplained limbic encephalitis and suggests screening for breast cancer in women with antibodies predominantly directed to Ma2.

  19. Hypocretin-1 CSF levels in anti-Ma2 associated encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, S; Dalmau, J; Bataller, L; Nishino, S; Mignot, E; Verschuuren, J; Lammers, G J

    2004-01-13

    Idiopathic narcolepsy is associated with deficient hypocretin transmission. Narcoleptic symptoms have recently been described in paraneoplastic encephalitis with anti-Ma2 antibodies. The authors measured CSF hypocretin-1 levels in six patients with anti-Ma2 encephalitis, and screened for anti-Ma antibodies in patients with idiopathic narcolepsy. Anti-Ma autoantibodies were not detected in patients with idiopathic narcolepsy. Four patients with anti-Ma2 encephalitis had excessive daytime sleepiness; hypocretin-1 was not detectable in their cerebrospinal fluid, suggesting an immune-mediated hypocretin dysfunction.

  20. Histopathologic identification of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas' encephalitis in an AIDS patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimath Alyemni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas' encephalitis is an uncommon manifestation of T. cruzi infection, typically seen in immunocompromised patients. Encephalitis results from the reactivation of chronic infection predominately in individuals from endemic areas. Increased awareness of this complication is essential especially with increased migration of patients from endemic areas with concomitant HIV infection. Here we report a case of Chagas' encephalitis in an AIDS patient from Mexico in which there was no evidence of acute serologic, CSF, or blood infection by T. cruzi trypomastigotes.

  1. Treatment of VGKC complex antibody-associated limbic encephalitis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radja, Guirindhra Koumar; Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    Limbic encephalitis is an autoimmune neuropsychiatric condition characterized by subacute cognitive symptoms, seizures, and affective changes. Although limbic encephalitis is usually caused by an immune reaction secondary to neoplasms, different types of potentially treatable non-paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (nPLE) have recently been described. In particular, published studies have reported variable responses to immunosuppressive therapy in Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel (VGKC) complex antibody-associated nPLE. This systematic literature review found that the most significant improvements were reported by patients presenting with affective symptoms and consistent neuroradiological changes. In these patients, improved clinical outcomes correlated with the largest decreases in antibody titers.

  2. Clinical profile and outcome of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES patients treated in College of Medical Sciences-Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekhjung J Thapa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acute encephalitis syndrome is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in Nepal. Although Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV was thought to be a major cause for acute encephalitis syndrome, more non-Japanese encephalitis virus cases are reported. The outcome of patients with acute encephalitis syndrome is variable. Our study was designed to study the clinical profile and outcome of patients with acute encephalitis syndrome managed in tertiary care center in central Nepal. Methods: The record of patients admitted with diagnosis of acute encephalitis syndrome,from January 2010 to December 2010 in College of Medical Sciences-Teaching Hospital (CMS-TH was reviewed. They were classified clinically as meningitis, encephalitis and meningoencephalitis. The clinical details and reports of the patients were recorded and analyzed. Results: Total of 85 cases of meningitis and encephalitis were identified. Mean age was 19.18 years. Fifty-six (65.9% patients were males and 29 (34.1% were females. Sixty (70.58% patients had meningitis, 8 (9.41% had encephalitis, and 17 (20.0% had meningoencephalitis. JE serology was positive in 4 patients (4.7%. Seventy-two (84.7% patients made full recovery and were discharged from hospital. Thirteen (15.3% patients left against medical advice (LAMA. Conclusion: Acute encephalitis syndrome is still a major public health problem in Nepal. Few of these patients have Japanese Encephalitis. There is a trend towards improved outcome because of availability of improved health services. However, financial constraint remains a challenge in management of acute encephalitis syndrome. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2013, Vol-9, No-2, 31-37 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v9i2.9685

  3. A clinical case of pseudotumorous chronic parainfectious limbic encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Shnaider

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Parainfectous limbic encephalitis (PILE associated with viruses of the Herpesviridae family is one of the forms of chronic herpes encephalitis characterized by limbic system dysfunction and a prolonged course with frequent exacerbations. There are two types of the course of the disease: latent autoimmune limbic encephalitis (LE progressing to mesial temporal sclerosis and pseudotumorous granulomatous LE. The latter (inflammatory pseudotumor or granuloma is characterized by the formation of a polymorphic inflammatory infiltrate with the elements of fibrosis, necrosis, and a granulomatous reaction and by myofibroblast cells. This is a slowly growing benign pseudotumor that contains much more plasma cells than inflammatory ones. The diagnosis of pseudotumorous LE is difficult and requires the participation of a neurologist, an immunologist, an oncologist, and a neurosurgeon. Perfusion computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy give proof to the adequacy of the term inflammatory pseudotumor because it is histologically difficult to characterize the lesion as a tumor or inflammation. When a chronic lesion in the central nervous system is lately diagnosed, the prognosis of the disease may be poor and complicated by the development of resistant symptomatic focal epilepsy and emotional, volitional, and cognitive impairments. It was differentially diagnosed from brain tumors (astrocytic, oligodendroglial, and mixed gliomas, ependymal, neuronal, neuroglial, and embryonal tumors, meningiomas, cholesteatomas, dermoid cysts, teratomas, and cysts, other reactive and inflammatory processes (leukemic infiltrations, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, encephalomyelitis, hypoparathyroidism, Addison's disease, vitamin A intoxication, and the long-term use of glucocorticoids and contraceptives. The authors describe a clinical case of the pseudotumorous course of chronic PILE in a 28-year-old woman

  4. {sup 11}C-Methionine positron emission tomography may monitor the activity of encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Kenji; Shiga, Tohru; Manabe, Osamu; Tamaki, Nagara [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)], E-mail: khirata@med.hokudai.ac.jp; Fujima, Noriyuki [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Usui, Reiko [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kuge, Yuji [Central Institute of Isotope Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Encephalitis is generally diagnosed by clinical symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid examination, and imaging studies including CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and perfusion single photon emission tomography (SPECT). However, the role of positron emission tomography (PET) in diagnosis of encephalitis remains unclear. A 49-year-old woman presenting with coma and elevated inflammatory reaction was diagnosed as having encephalitis according to slow activity on electroencephalogram, broad cortical lesion in MR fluid attenuated inversion recovery image, and increased blood flow demonstrated by SPECT. PET revealed increased accumulation of {sup 11}C-methionine (MET) in the affected brain tissues. After the symptom had improved 2 months later, the accumulation of MET as well as the abnormal findings of MR imaging and SPECT was normalized. This case indicated that MET PET may monitor the activity of encephalitis.

  5. Imaging Appearance of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Encephalitis on the Diffusion Weighted Images: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hun Cheol; Yu, In Kyu; Oh, Keon Se

    2011-01-01

    Imaging finding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalitis contain bilateral, symmetric, patchy, or diffuse increased T2WI signal intensities in the basal ganglia, cerebellum, brainstem, and centrum semiovale. In particular, the centrum semiovale is most commonly involved. Most of the HIV encephalitis cases are accompanied by brain atrophy. No previous study has reported symmetric increased signal intensity at the bilateral centrum semiovale without brain atrophy on diffusion weighted images in HIV encephalitis patients. Here, we report a case of this. We suggest that radiologists should consider the possibility of HIV encephalitis if there are symmetric increases in signal intensity at the bilateral centrum semiovale on diffusion weighted images of patients with a history of HIV infection.

  6. A case of urinary retention in the early stages of herpes simplex virus type-1 encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Takuya; Nakazato, Yoshihiko; Miyake, Akifumi; Tamura, Naotoshi; Araki, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Toshimasa

    2017-06-01

    A 70-year-old man developed urinary retention in the early stages of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-1 encephalitis. A nerve conduction study suggested latent myeloradiculitis. This is the first report of human herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis followed by urinary retention at early stage from the onset like the Elsberg syndrome. Although relatively few similar cases have been reported, we consider that urinary retention is common in HSV-1 encephalitis, in which disturbances of consciousness usually require bladder catheterization from the onset. We further emphasize that urinary retention may occasionally occur in early stages of HSV-1 encephalitis, with a significant possibility of recovery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Postpartum Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doden, Tadashi; Sekijima, Yoshiki; Ikeda, Junji; Ozawa, Kazuki; Ohashi, Nobuhiko; Kodaira, Minori; Hineno, Akiyo; Tachibana, Naoko; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi

    2017-01-01

    We describe a 24-year-old woman with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis that developed 3 weeks after normal delivery. She was treated with methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasmapheresis, in addition to teratoma excision. However, her recovery was slow, and dysmnesia and mental juvenility persisted even two years after onset. To date, five patients with postpartum anti-NMDAR encephalitis have been reported. All of those patients showed psychotic symptoms and were suspected of having postpartum psychosis in the early period of the encephalitis. Changes in hormonal factors, modification of immune tolerance, or retrograde infection of the ovary may be contributing factors for postpartum anti-NMDAR encephalitis.

  8. Limbic Encephalitis in Taiwanese Children and Adolescence: A Single Center Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Jun Chou

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: This study provides evidence for a potential association between antibodies and limbic encephalitis. The presence of antibodies, especially antibodies to GAD, may serve as an indicator for immunotherapy.

  9. New Onset Insomnia in a Pediatric Patient: A Case of Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar N. Goldberg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is becoming more widely recognized as a cause of encephalopathy in both adults and children. Certain clinical features such as mood lability, movement disorders, speech dysfunction, seizures, and autonomic instability in a pediatric patient should prompt immediate concern and evaluation for autoimmune encephalitis among providers. We present the case of a pediatric patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis in which the symptom prompting medical evaluation was insomnia. Insomnia has not previously been emphasized in the literature as a presenting feature of this disease in children and has a broad differential. Recognition of the symptoms of anti-NMDAR encephalitis and its variable presentation are key to early diagnosis and prompt initiation of treatment which may help to improve outcomes.

  10. Testosterone correlates with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection in macaques

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    Koterski James

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we briefly report testosterone and cytokine responses to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV in macaques which were used as part of a larger study conducted by the Department of Defense to better characterize pathological responses to aerosolized VEEV in non-human primates. Serial samples were collected and analyzed for testosterone and cytokines prior to and during infection in 8 captive male macaques. Infected animals exhibited a febrile response with few significant changes in cytokine levels. Baseline testosterone levels were positively associated with viremia following exposure and were significantly higher than levels obtained during infection. Such findings suggest that disease-induced androgen suppression is a reasonable area for future study. Decreased androgen levels during physiological perturbations may function, in part, to prevent immunosuppression by high testosterone levels and to prevent the use of energetic resources for metabolically-expensive anabolic functions.

  11. Alexander the Great and West Nile virus encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, John S; Calisher, Charles H

    2003-12-01

    Alexander the Great died in Babylon in 323 BC. His death at age 32 followed a 2-week febrile illness. Speculated causes of death have included poisoning; assassination, and a number of infectious diseases. One incident, mentioned by Plutarch but not considered by previous investigators, may shed light on the cause of Alexander's death. The incident, which occurred as he entered Babylon, involved a flock of ravens exhibiting unusual behavior and subsequently dying at his feet. The inexplicable behavior of ravens is reminiscent of avian illness and death weeks before the first human cases of West Nile virus infection were identified in the United States. We posit that Alexander may have died of West Nile virus encephalitis.

  12. Rabies viral encephalitis with proable 25 year incubation period!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of rabies viral encephalitis in a 48-year-old male with an unusually long incubation period, historically suspected to be more than 20 years. The case was referred for histological diagnosis following alleged medical negligence to the forensic department. The histology and immunocytochemical demonstration of rabies viral antigen established the diagnosis unequivocally. The case manifested initially with hydrophobia and aggressive behavior, although he suddenly went to the bathroom and drank a small amount of water. History of dog bite 25 years back was elicited retrospectively following clinical suspicion. There was no subsequent history to suggest nonbite exposure to a rabid dog to consider recent event causing the disease, although this cannot be totally excluded.

  13. Possible anti-VGKC autoimmune limbic encephalitis associated with SIADH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Nicholas; Hamada, Hazim

    2018-03-07

    An 80-year-old woman presented with a 5-week history of increasing confusion. Examination was remarkable only for deficits in short-term memory and paranoid thoughts. Blood tests revealed hyponatraemia, and further biochemical testing was consistent with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). After an exhaustive diagnostic workup for causes of SIADH, the only abnormal finding was a mildly raised antivoltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) titre of 185 pmol/L (0-69) consistent with possible anti-VGKC autoimmune limbic encephalitis. However, other diagnostic features were absent. She is currently undergoing outpatient investigation for other causes of memory loss. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. A case of herpes simplex encephalitis without neurologic symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Nobuya; Tanaka, Tomoji; Hiramoto, Noritaka; Takazuka, Katsuya; Komatsu, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    The lack of neurologic symptoms is rare in herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). A 42-year-old woman presented with psychiatric features alone, such as Korsakoff syndrome and abortive type Kluver-Bucy syndrome. The diagnosis of HSE was confirmed by serologically elevated antibody titer. The patient underwent both X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). X-ray computed tomography showed transient contrast enhancement and low density area confined to the lateral lobe. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse areas with a high MRI signal intensity. Considering that the lack of neurologic features, as seen in the present HSE patient, may sometimes rule out the possibility of parenchymal disease, imaging modalities, especially MRI, may be of value in the detection of lesions for HSE. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Presenting with Normal CSF Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R.; Kiani, I. G.; Shah, F.; Rehman, R. N.; Haq, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    A 28 years old female presented with headache, fever, altered sensorium and right side weakness for one week. She was febrile and drowsy with right sided hemiplegia and papilledema. Tuberculous or bacterial meningitis, tuberculoma and abscess were at the top of the diagnosis list followed by Herpes simplex meningo-encephalitis (HSE). MRI showed abnormal signal intensity of left temporal lobe without significant post-contrast enhancement and midline shift. CSF examination was normal, gram stain and Ziehl-Neelsen stain showed no micro-organism, or acid fast bacilli. CSF for MTB PCR was negative. PCR DNA for Herpes simplex 1 on CSF was detected. Acyclovir was started and the patient was discharged after full recovery. A high index of suspicion is required for HSE diagnosis in Pakistan where other infections predominantly affect the brain and HSE may be overlooked as a potential diagnosis. (author)

  16. Cognitive rehabilitation of amnesia after virus encephalitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotto, Eliane Correa

    2007-01-01

    A number of memory rehabilitation techniques have targeted people with various degrees of memory impairments. However, few studies have shown the contribution of preserved non-declarative memory capacity and errorless learning in the treatment of amnesic patients. The current case report describes the memory rehabilitation of a 44-year-old man with amnesia following viral encephalitis. The patient's procedural memory capacity had an important role in the use of a motor imagery strategy to remember people's names. It was further demonstrated that the application of a verbal learning technique was helpful in recalling new verbal information. These different memory rehabilitation techniques are discussed in terms of alternative possibilities in the rehabilitation of amnesic patients.

  17. Competency of reptiles and amphibians for eastern equine encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gregory; Ottendorfer, Christy; Graham, Sean; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2011-09-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is endemic throughout most of the eastern United States. Although it is transmitted year round in Florida, transmission elsewhere is seasonal. The mechanism that enables EEEV to overwinter in seasonal foci remains obscure. In previous field studies, early season EEEV activity was detected in mosquito species that feed primarily upon ectothermic hosts, suggesting that reptiles and amphibians might represent overwintering reservoir hosts for EEEV. To determine if this might be possible, two commonly fed upon amphibian and reptile species were evaluated as hosts for the North American subtype I strain of EEEV. Neither amphibian species was a competent host. However, circulating viremias were detected in both reptile species examined. Hibernating infected garter snakes remained viremic after exiting hibernation. These data suggest that snakes may represent an overwintering host for North American EEEV.

  18. Hemorrhage listerial encephalitis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosis: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Gyu; Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Young Jun; Kim, Young Seo; Kim, Hyun Young; Sung, Won Jae [Hanyang University Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    A 31-year-old female with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presented with fever, headache, seizures and mental status changes. Brain MRI showed T2 hyperintense lesions in the cerebellum and frontal white matter and a lesion in the cerebellum exhibited hemorrhagic changes and peripheral ring enhancement. The MRI features of listerial encephalitis are difficult to differentiate from those of neuropsychiatric SLE and various other diseases. Here, we report a case of hemorrhagic listerial encephalitis in a patient with SLE.

  19. Transient isolated lesion of the splenium associated with clinically mild influenza encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapathy, Srinivas; Ey, Elizabeth H.; Wolfson, Barbara J.; Khan, Nadir

    2008-01-01

    Transient isolated lesions of the splenium with restricted diffusion are rare in the pediatric population. We report two such cases with influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy (IAEE). These reversible isolated central splenial lesions are not specific for IAEE, but the notable feature associated with this specific presentation is a comparatively milder form of encephalitis that resolves clinically and radiologically within a short time. (orig.)

  20. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: an important differential diagnosis in psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, Helen

    2012-02-01

    We present four cases of confirmed anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis; three presented initially with serious psychiatric symptoms and the other developed significant psychiatric symptoms during the initial phase of illness. Brain biopsy findings of one patient are also described. Psychiatrists should consider anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis in patients presenting with psychosis and additional features of dyskinesias, seizures and catatonia, particularly where there is no previous history of psychiatric disorder.

  1. Regional impact of climate on Japanese encephalitis in areas located near the three gorges dam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuntao Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this study, we aim to identify key climatic factors that are associated with the transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus in areas located near the Three Gorges Dam, between 1997 and 2008. METHODS: We identified three geographical regions of Chongqing, based on their distance from the Three Gorges Dam. Collectively, the three regions consisted of 12 districts from which study information was collected. Zero-Inflated Poisson Regression models were run to identify key climatic factors of the transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus for both the whole study area and for each individual region; linear regression models were conducted to examine the fluctuation of climatic variables over time during the construction of the Three Gorges Dam. RESULTS: Between 1997 and 2008, the incidence of Japanese encephalitis decreased throughout the entire city of Chongqing, with noticeable variations taking place in 2000, 2001 and 2006. The eastern region, which is closest to the Three Gorges Dam, suffered the highest incidence of Japanese encephalitis, while the western region experienced the lowest incidence. Linear regression models revealed that there were seasonal fluctuations of climatic variables during this period. Zero-Inflated Poisson Regression models indicated a significant positive association between temperature (with a lag of 1 and 3 months and Japanese encephalitis incidence, and a significant negative association between rainfall (with a lag of 0 and 4 months and Japanese encephalitis incidence. CONCLUSION: The spatial and temporal trends of Japanese encephalitis incidence that occurred in the City of Chongqing were associated with temperature and rainfall. Seasonal fluctuations of climatic variables during this period were also observed. Additional studies that focus on long-term data collection are needed to validate the findings of this study and to further explore the effects of the Three Gorges Dam on Japanese

  2. Adolescent with acute psychosis due to anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis: successful recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Jonuskaite, Dovile; Kalibatas, Paulius; Praninskiene, Ruta; Zalubiene, Asta; Jucaite, Aurelija; Cerkauskiene, Rimante

    2017-01-01

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is a relatively new autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system. We report the first case of anti-NMDAR autoimmune encephalitis combined with anti-voltage-gated potassium channel (anti-VGKC) antibodies in Lithuania in a 16-year-old girl. The patient was admitted to psychiatry unit because of an acute psychotic episode. She was unsuccessfully treated with antipsychotics, and electroconvulsive therapy was initiated because of he...

  3. Focal CA3 hippocampal subfield atrophy following LGI1 VGKC-complex antibody limbic encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, T; Chong, T; Aimola Davies, A; Ng, T; Johnson, M; Irani, S; Vincent, A; Husain, M; Jacob, S; Maddison, P; Kennard, C; Gowland, P; Rosenthal, C

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has linked chronic voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody-mediated limbic encephalitis with generalized hippocampal atrophy. However, autoantibodies bind to specific rodent hippocampal subfields. Here, human hippocampal subfield (subiculum, cornu ammonis 1-3, and dentate gyrus) targets of immunomodulation-treated LGI1 VGKC-complex antibody-mediated limbic encephalitis were investigated using in vivo ultra-high resolution (0.39 × 0....

  4. Limbic encephalitis and antibodies to Ma2: a paraneoplastic presentation of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton, I.; Winer, J.; Rowlands, D.; Dalmau, J.

    2000-01-01

    A patient with atypical medullary breast cancer is described who presented with symptoms of limbic encephalitis. The patient's serum and CSF contained antibodies that reacted with the nervous system and the tumour. These antibodies recognised Ma2, a neuronal protein related to paraneoplastic limbic and brainstem encephalitis in men with testicular tumours. This report highlights the importance of testing for paraneoplastic antineuronal antibodies in cases of unexplained l...

  5. Rabies direct fluorescent antibody test does not inactivate rabies or eastern equine encephalitis viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Jodie A; Franke, Mary A; Davis, April D

    2016-08-01

    An examination using the routine rabies direct fluorescent antibody test was performed on rabies or Eastern equine encephalitis positive mammalian brain tissue to assess inactivation of the virus. Neither virus was inactivated with acetone fixation nor the routine test, thus laboratory employees should treat all samples as rabies and when appropriate Eastern equine encephalitis positive throughout the whole procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Phylogeography of Japanese encephalitis virus: genotype is associated with climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J Schuh

    Full Text Available The circulation of vector-borne zoonotic viruses is largely determined by the overlap in the geographical distributions of virus-competent vectors and reservoir hosts. What is less clear are the factors influencing the distribution of virus-specific lineages. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV is the most important etiologic agent of epidemic encephalitis worldwide, and is primarily maintained between vertebrate reservoir hosts (avian and swine and culicine mosquitoes. There are five genotypes of JEV: GI-V. In recent years, GI has displaced GIII as the dominant JEV genotype and GV has re-emerged after almost 60 years of undetected virus circulation. JEV is found throughout most of Asia, extending from maritime Siberia in the north to Australia in the south, and as far as Pakistan to the west and Saipan to the east. Transmission of JEV in temperate zones is epidemic with the majority of cases occurring in summer months, while transmission in tropical zones is endemic and occurs year-round at lower rates. To test the hypothesis that viruses circulating in these two geographical zones are genetically distinct, we applied Bayesian phylogeographic, categorical data analysis and phylogeny-trait association test techniques to the largest JEV dataset compiled to date, representing the envelope (E gene of 487 isolates collected from 12 countries over 75 years. We demonstrated that GIII and the recently emerged GI-b are temperate genotypes likely maintained year-round in northern latitudes, while GI-a and GII are tropical genotypes likely maintained primarily through mosquito-avian and mosquito-swine transmission cycles. This study represents a new paradigm directly linking viral molecular evolution and climate.

  7. Herpes simlex encephalitis. A neuropsychological and neuroradiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Masaya

    1994-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most common causative pathogen of nonepidemic encephalitis in Japan. The mortality rate is approximately 30% and surviving patients often have severe sequelae such as amnestic syndrome. Between 1979 and 1992, 13 patients with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) were admitted to our Department. Diagnosis was based on the neurological symptoms and signs, the findings on EEG, CT and MRI, and the results of serological examination including ELISA for HSV type 1. Neuropsychological tests were performed over a period of approximatly 2 years in seven of 13 patients. The results of the tests disclosed memory impairments as follows. Namely, immediate recall was well preserved, but disturbance of recent memory and retrograde amnesia over 20 years were observed. The neuropsychological features more closely resembled those of amnestic syndrome than those of Korsakoff syndrome. The amnesia in HSE patients was characterized in the finding that it was prone to recover more gradually as compared with that following head trauma or surgical brain resection. CT scan was performed in 13 patients during the acute and convalescent stages. The low density areas were found in the temporal lobes in 60% of the patients. MRI were obtained during the convalescent stage in ten of 13 patients. In seven of the ten patients, abnormal signals were distributed uni- or bilaterally to the temporal lobe, insular and limbic system such as the hippocampus and amygdala. In the remaining three patients, the abnormal signals were localized in both hippocampi and amygdalae in one patient and only in the brain stem in another. In the last case, the MRI was normal. The findings that signal intensity on MRI showing the lesion in the temporal lobe spread continuously to the opposite limbic area or occipital lobe strongly suggested the spreading of HSV through neural fiber connections in HSE. (author)

  8. Herpes simlex encephalitis. A neuropsychological and neuroradiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Masaya [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1994-10-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most common causative pathogen of nonepidemic encephalitis in Japan. The mortality rate is approximately 30% and surviving patients often have severe sequelae such as amnestic syndrome. Between 1979 and 1992, 13 patients with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) were admitted to our Department. Diagnosis was based on the neurological symptoms and signs, the findings on EEG, CT and MRI, and the results of serological examination including ELISA for HSV type 1. Neuropsychological tests were performed over a period of approximatly 2 years in seven of 13 patients. The results of the tests disclosed memory impairments as follows. Namely, immediate recall was well preserved, but disturbance of recent memory and retrograde amnesia over 20 years were observed. The neuropsychological features more closely resembled those of amnestic syndrome than those of Korsakoff syndrome. The amnesia in HSE patients was characterized in the finding that it was prone to recover more gradually as compared with that following head trauma or surgical brain resection. CT scan was performed in 13 patients during the acute and convalescent stages. The low density areas were found in the temporal lobes in 60% of the patients. MRI were obtained during the convalescent stage in ten of 13 patients. In seven of the ten patients, abnormal signals were distributed uni- or bilaterally to the temporal lobe, insular and limbic system such as the hippocampus and amygdala. In the remaining three patients, the abnormal signals were localized in both hippocampi and amygdalae in one patient and only in the brain stem in another. In the last case, the MRI was normal. The findings that signal intensity on MRI showing the lesion in the temporal lobe spread continuously to the opposite limbic area or occipital lobe strongly suggested the spreading of HSV through neural fiber connections in HSE. (author).

  9. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis after Herpes simplex virus-associated encephalitis: an emerging disease with diagnosis and therapeutic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Flora; Gagneux-Brunon, Amandine; Antoine, Jean-Christophe; Lavernhe, Sylvie; Pillet, Sylvie; Paul, Stéphane; Frésard, Anne; Boutet, Claire; Grange, Rémi; Cazorla, Céline; Lucht, Frédéric; Botelho-Nevers, Elisabeth

    2017-08-01

    Morbidity and mortality of Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) remain high. Relapses of neurological signs may occur after initial clinical improvement under acyclovir treatment. We report here a case of post-HSE anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-mediated encephalitis in an adult and perform a systematic search on PubMed to identify other cases in adults. We identified 11 previously published cases, to discuss diagnostic and therapeutic management. Symptoms in adults are often inappropriate behaviors, confusion and agitation. Diagnosis of anti-NMDA-R encephalitis after HSE is often delayed. Treatment consists in steroids, plasma exchange, and rituximab. Prognosis is often favorable. Anti-NMDA-R antibodies should be searched in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with unexpected evolution of HSE. This emerging entity reopens the hot debate about steroids in HSE.

  10. Serial EEG findings in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: correlation between clinical course and EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Jun; Kawamoto, Michi; Hikiami, Ryota; Ishii, Junko; Yoshimura, Hajime; Matsumoto, Riki; Kohara, Nobuo

    2017-12-01

    Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is a paraneoplastic encephalitis characterised by psychiatric features, involuntary movement, and autonomic instability. Various EEG findings in patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis have been reported, however, the correlation between the EEG findings and clinical course of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis remains unclear. We describe a patient with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis with a focus on EEG findings, which included: status epilepticus, generalised rhythmic delta activity, excess beta activity, extreme delta brush, and paroxysmal alpha activity upon arousal from sleep, which we term"arousal alpha pattern". Initially, status epilepticus was observed on the EEG when the patient was comatose with conjugate deviation. The EEG then indicated excess beta activity, followed by the emergence of continuous slow activity, including generalised rhythmic delta activity and extreme delta brush, in the most severe phase. Slow activity gradually faded in parallel with clinical amelioration. Excess beta activity persisted, even after the patient became almost independent in daily activities, and finally disappeared with full recovery. In summary, our patient with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis demonstrated slow activity on the EEG, including extreme delta brush during the most severe phase, which gradually faded in parallel with clinical amelioration, with excess beta activity persisting into the recovery phase.

  11. Initial clinical presentation of young children with N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, Marion; Joubert, Bastien; Picard, Géraldine; Rogemond, Véronique; Thomas, Laure; Rheims, Sylvain; Bailhache, Marion; Villega, Frédéric; Pédespan, Jean-Michel; Berzero, Giulia; Psimaras, Dimitri; Antoine, Jean-Christophe; Desestret, Virginie; Honnorat, Jérôme

    2018-05-01

    Autoimmune encephalitis with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor autoantibodies (NMDA-R-Abs) is a recently described disease affecting adult and pediatric patients. Symptoms of the disease are now perfectly described in the adult population but the clinical presentation is less known in young children. The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical presentation and the specificities of symptoms presented by young children with NMDA-R-Abs encephalitis to improve diagnosis of this disease, and to compare these to a series of previously published female adult patients. Fifty cases of children younger than twelve years of age diagnosed with NMDA-R-Abs encephalitis between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2016 (27 females and 23 males) were retrospectively studied. The first neurological symptoms observed in young children with NMDA-R-Abs encephalitis were characterized by seizure (72%), especially focal seizure (42%), within a median of 15 days before other encephalitis symptoms; other patients mostly had behavioral disorders (26%). The seizures were frequently difficult to diagnose because of the transient unilateral dystonic or tonic posturing presentation or sudden unilateral pain in the absence of clonic movements. A post-ictal motor deficit was also frequently observed. This clinical presentation is different from that observed in adult females with NMDA-R-Abs encephalitis who initially present mainly psychiatric disorders (67%) or cognitive impairment (19%), and less frequently seizures (14%). The diagnosis of NMDA-R-Abs encephalitis should be systematically considered in young children of both sexes who present neurological symptoms suggesting recent seizures (focal or generalized) without obvious other etiology. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Respiratory syncytial virus-related encephalitis: magnetic resonance imaging findings with diffusion-weighted study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Arim; Suh, Sang-il; Seol, Hae-Young; Son, Gyu-Ri; Lee, Nam-Joon; Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyung Suk; Eun, Baik-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common pathogen causing acute respiratory infection in children. Herein, we describe the incidence and clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of RSV-related encephalitis, a major neurological complication of RSV infection. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and imaging findings of the patients over the past 7 years who are admitted to our medical center and are tested positive for RSV-RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. In total, 3,856 patients were diagnosed with RSV bronchiolitis, and 28 of them underwent brain MRI for the evaluation of neurologic symptoms; 8 of these 28 patients had positive imaging findings. Five of these 8 patients were excluded because of non-RSV-related pathologies, such as subdural hemorrhage, brain volume loss due to status epilepticus, periventricular leukomalacia, preexisting ventriculomegaly, and hypoxic brain injury. The incidence of RSV-related encephalitis was as follows: 3/3,856 (0.08 %) of the patients are positive for RSV RNA, 3/28 (10.7 %) of the patient underwent brain MRI for neurological symptom, and 3/8 (37.5 %) of patients revealed abnormal MR findings. The imaging findings were suggestive of patterns of rhombenmesencephalitis, encephalitis with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and limbic encephalitis. They demonstrated no diffusion abnormality on diffusion-weighted image and symptom improvement on the follow-up study. Encephalitis with RSV bronchiolitis occurs rarely. However, on brain MRI performed upon suspicion of neurologic involvement, RSV encephalitis is not infrequently observed among the abnormal MR findings and may mimic other viral and limbic encephalitis. Physicians should be aware of this entity to ensure proper diagnosis and neurologic care of RSV-positive patients. (orig.)

  13. Respiratory syncytial virus-related encephalitis: magnetic resonance imaging findings with diffusion-weighted study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Arim; Suh, Sang-il; Seol, Hae-Young [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Gyu-Ri; Lee, Nam-Joon [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyung Suk [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Eun, Baik-Lin [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common pathogen causing acute respiratory infection in children. Herein, we describe the incidence and clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of RSV-related encephalitis, a major neurological complication of RSV infection. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and imaging findings of the patients over the past 7 years who are admitted to our medical center and are tested positive for RSV-RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. In total, 3,856 patients were diagnosed with RSV bronchiolitis, and 28 of them underwent brain MRI for the evaluation of neurologic symptoms; 8 of these 28 patients had positive imaging findings. Five of these 8 patients were excluded because of non-RSV-related pathologies, such as subdural hemorrhage, brain volume loss due to status epilepticus, periventricular leukomalacia, preexisting ventriculomegaly, and hypoxic brain injury. The incidence of RSV-related encephalitis was as follows: 3/3,856 (0.08 %) of the patients are positive for RSV RNA, 3/28 (10.7 %) of the patient underwent brain MRI for neurological symptom, and 3/8 (37.5 %) of patients revealed abnormal MR findings. The imaging findings were suggestive of patterns of rhombenmesencephalitis, encephalitis with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and limbic encephalitis. They demonstrated no diffusion abnormality on diffusion-weighted image and symptom improvement on the follow-up study. Encephalitis with RSV bronchiolitis occurs rarely. However, on brain MRI performed upon suspicion of neurologic involvement, RSV encephalitis is not infrequently observed among the abnormal MR findings and may mimic other viral and limbic encephalitis. Physicians should be aware of this entity to ensure proper diagnosis and neurologic care of RSV-positive patients. (orig.)

  14. Recent progress in West Nile virus diagnosis and vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Filette Marina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract West Nile virus (WNV is a positive-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, a large family with 3 main genera (flavivirus, hepacivirus and pestivirus. Among these viruses, there are several globally relevant human pathogens including the mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV, yellow fever virus (YFV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV and West Nile virus (WNV, as well as tick-borne viruses such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV. Since the mid-1990s, outbreaks of WN fever and encephalitis have occurred throughout the world and WNV is now endemic in Africa, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe and the Unites States. This review describes the molecular virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and highlights recent progress regarding diagnosis and vaccination against WNV infections.

  15. 76 FR 12959 - Promoting Community Integrated Pest Management To Prevent Tick-Borne Diseases; Notice of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ...; practitioners involved in managing tick populations in parks, residential areas and military installations... children are especially at risk because of the time they spend outdoors. It is important that the Federal...

  16. Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Control of a Tick-Borne Disease- Kyasanur Forest Disease: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Z. Shah

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In South Asia, Haemaphysalis spinigera tick transmits Kyasanur Forest Disease Virus (KFDV, a flavivirus that causes severe hemorrhagic fever with neurological manifestations such as mental disturbances, severe headache, tremors, and vision deficits in infected human beings with a fatality rate of 3–10%. The disease was first reported in March 1957 from Kyasanur forest of Karnataka (India from sick and dying monkeys. Since then, between 400 and 500 humans cases per year have been recorded; monkeys and small mammals are common hosts of this virus. KFDV can cause epizootics with high fatality in primates and is a level-4 virus according to the international biosafety rules. The density of tick vectors in a given year correlates with the incidence of human disease. The virus is a positive strand RNA virus and its genome was discovered to code for one polyprotein that is cleaved post-translationally into 3 structural proteins (Capsid protein, Envelope Glycoprotein M and Envelope Glycoprotein E and 7 non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, and NS5. KFDV has a high degree of sequence homology with most members of the TBEV serocomplex. Alkhurma virus is a KFDV variant sharing a sequence similarity of 97%. KFDV is classified as a NIAID Category C priority pathogen due to its extreme pathogenicity and lack of US FDA approved vaccines and therapeutics; also, the infectious dose is currently unknown for KFD. In India, formalin-inactivated KFDV vaccine produced in chick embryo fibroblast is being used. Nevertheless, further efforts are required to enhance its long-term efficacy. KFDV remains an understudied virus and there remains a lack of insight into its pathogenesis; moreover, specific treatment to the disease is not available to date. Environmental and climatic factors involved in disseminating Kyasanur Forest Disease are required to be fully explored. There should be a mapping of endemic areas and cross-border veterinary surveillance needs to be developed in high-risk regions. The involvement of both animal and health sector is pivotal for circumscribing the spread of this disease to new areas.

  17. Cascading effect of economic globalization on human risks of scrub typhus and tick-borne rickettsial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Huang, Jing-Lun; Shu, Pei-Yun; Lee, Pei-Lung; Kelt, Douglas A; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2012-09-01

    The increase in global travel and trade has facilitated the dissemination of disease vectors. Globalization can also indirectly affect vector-borne diseases through the liberalization of cross-border trade, which has far-reaching, worldwide effects on agricultural practices and may in turn influence vectors through the modification of the ecological landscape. While the cascading effect of economic globalization on vector-borne diseases, sometimes acting synergistically with regional agricultural policy, could be substantial and have significant economic, agricultural, and public health implications, research into this remains very limited. We evaluated how abandonment of rice paddies in Taiwan after joining the World Trade Organization, along with periodic plowing, an agricultural policy to reduce farm pests in abandoned fields can unexpectedly influence risks to diseases transmitted by ticks and chiggers (larval trombiculid mites), which we collected from their small-mammal hosts. Sampling was limited to abandoned (fallow) and plowed fields due to the challenge of trapping small mammals in flooded rice paddies. Striped field mice (Apodemus agrarius) are the main hosts for both vectors. They harbored six times more ticks and three times more chiggers in fallow than in plowed plots. The proportion of ticks infected with Rickettsia spp. (etiologic agent of spotted fever) was three times higher in fallow plots, while that of Orientia tsutsugamushi (scrub typhus) in chiggers was similar in both treatments. Fallow plots had more ground cover and higher vegetation than plowed ones. Moreover, ticks and chiggers in both field types were dominated by species known to infest humans. Because ticks and chiggers should exhibit very low survival in flooded rice paddies, we propose that farm abandonment in Taiwan, driven by globalization, may have inadvertently led to increased risks of spotted fever and scrub typhus. However, periodic plowing can unintentionally mitigate vector burdens. Economic globalization can have unexpected consequences on disease risk through modification of the agricultural landscape, but the outcome may also be influenced by agricultural policies, calling for further research on vector-borne diseases and their control from broader perspectives.

  18. Tick (Amblyomma chabaudi) infestation of endemic tortoises in southwest Madagascar and investigation of tick-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Julian; Ganzhorn, Jörg U; Silaghi, Cornelia; Krüger, Andreas; Pothmann, Daniela; Ratovonamana, R Yedidya; Veit, Alexandra; Keller, Christian; Poppert, Sven

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the role of endemic ticks as vectors for bacterial and protozoan pathogens for animals and humans in Madagascar and their interaction in anthropogenic habitats where humans, their livestock and native Malagasy species (vectors and hosts) come into more frequent contact than in natural forest ecosystems. The aims of the study were (1) to test whether habitat degradation is associated with increased infestation of tortoises by ticks and (2) to investigate whether ticks carried Babesia, Borrelia or Rickettsia species that might be pathogenic for humans and livestock. We studied hard ticks of two endemic Malagasy tortoises, Astrochelys radiata and Pyxis arachnoides in March and April 2013 in southwest Madagascar. Two tortoise habitats were compared, the National Park of Tsimanampetsotsa and the adjacent degraded pasture and agricultural land at the end of the wet season. Ticks were screened for protozoan and bacterial pathogens via PCR on DNA isolated from ticks using genus-specific primers. Only one out of 42 A. radiata collected from both habitats had ticks. The low prevalence did not allow further analyses of the effect of habitat degradation. Forty-two P. arachnoides were found in the anthropogenic habitat and 36 individuals in the national park. Tick infestation rates of P. arachnoides differed significantly between the two study sites. Tortoises inside the park had lower tick prevalence than outside (8 of 36 (22%) versus 32 of 42 individuals (76%)) and infected animals tended to have fewer ticks inside than outside the park. All ticks collected in both habitats were adults of the ixodid tick Amblyomma chabaudi, which is supposed to be a host-specific tick of P. arachnoides. Screening for Borrelia sp. and Babesia sp. was negative in all ticks. But all A. chabaudi ticks were infected with Rickettsia africae, known to cause spotted fever in humans. Thus, habitat degradation seems to be linked to higher infestation of tortoises with ticks with possible consequences for humans and their livestock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Emerging horizons for tick-borne pathogens: from the "one pathogen-one disease" vision to the pathobiome paradigm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vayssier-Taussat, M.; Kazimírová, M.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Hornok, S.; Farkas, R.; Cosson, J.-F.; Bonnet, S.; Vourch, G.; Gasqui, P.; Mihalca, A. D.; Plantard, O.; Silaghi, C.; Cutler, S.; Rizzoli, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 12 (2015), s. 2033-2043 ISSN 1746-0913 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : co-infections * emerging diseases * Ixodes ricinus * new paradigm * next-generation sequencing * pathobiome * unknown pathogens * vector competence * zoonoses Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 3.637, year: 2015

  20. Arthropods and associated arthropod-borne diseases transmitted by migrating birds. The case of ticks and tick-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparagano, Olivier; George, David; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Špitalská, Eva

    2015-09-30

    Geographic spread of parasites and pathogens poses a constant risk to animal health and welfare, particularly given that climate change is expected to potentially expand appropriate ranges for many key species. The spread of deleterious organisms via trade routes and human travelling is relatively closely controlled, though represents only one possible means of parasite/pathogen distribution. The transmission via natural parasite/pathogen movement between geographic locales, is far harder to manage. Though the extent of such movement may be limited by the relative inability of many parasites and pathogens to actively migrate, passive movement over long distances may still occur via migratory hosts. This paper reviews the potential role of migrating birds in the transfer of ectoparasites and pathogens between geographic locales, focusing primarily on ticks. Bird-tick-pathogen relationships are considered, and evidence provided of long-range parasite/pathogen transfer from one location to another during bird migration events. As shown in this paper not only many different arthropod species are carried by migrating birds but consequently these pests carry many different pathogens species which can be transmitted to the migrating birds or to other animal species when those arthropods are dropping during these migrations. Data available from the literature are provided highlighting the need to understand better dissemination paths and disease epidemiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.