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Sample records for encefalocele occipital reporte

  1. Basal encephalocele associated with morning glory syndrome: case report Encefalocele basal associada a síndrome "morning glory": relato de caso

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    Ivanete Minotto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The basal encephaloceles refer to rare entities and they correspond to herniation of brain tissue through defects of skull along the cribiform plate or the sphenoid bone. A rare morning glory syndrome, with characteristic retinal defect has been reported in association with basal encephaloceles. Hypophysis hormonal deficiencies may occur. We accounted for a pituitary dwarfism with delayed diagnosed transsphenoidal encephalocele associated with morning glory syndrome, showing the alterations found in retinography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.As encefaloceles basais são entidades raras e correspondem a herniações do tecido cerebral através de um defeito do crânio, ao longo da lâmina crivosa etmoidal ou do osso esfenoidal. A rara síndrome morning glory, com alterações de fundo de olho características pode apresentar-se associada à encefalocele basal. Deficiências hormonais hipofisárias podem ocorrer. Relatamos caso de nanismo hipofisário com encefalocele transesfenoidal de diagnóstico tardio associada à síndrome de morning glory, mostrando as alterações na retinografia, tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética.

  2. Reconstrucción de encefalocele frontoetmoidal con injerto de acetábulo

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    Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El encefalocele frontoetmoidal es un defecto congénito del tubo neural caracterizado por una herniación parcial del cerebro y las meninges, a través de un defecto craneal anterior que genera deformidad facial. Se presenta el reporte de un niño de 10 años con un defecto facial en línea media que correspondió a un encefalocele frontoetmoidal. Se realizó corrección quirúrgica acompañado de colocación de injerto de acetábulo, obteniéndose una mejoría estética y anatómica favorable. Este parece ser el primer caso en la literatura en el que se utiliza el injerto de acetábulo para la reconstrucción de un encefalocele frontoetmoidal.

  3. Melanotic progonoma of temporal and occipital bones: A case report.

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    Bellarbi, S; Harmouch, A; El Ochi, M R; Fikri, M; Arkha, Y; Sefiani, S

    2013-06-01

    Melanotic progonoma is a rare tumor that primarily affects the maxilla of infants during the first year of life. Involvement in the skull is rare and can mimick other benign or malignant tumors affecting the infant's skull. The authors report a case of melanotic progonoma of right occipital and temporal bones in a 7-months' girl and discuss the histological features, immunohistochemistry study, differential diagnosis and management of this tumor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Presentation of moyamoya disease with occipital hemorrhage: a case report

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    Serkan Demir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Moyamoya disease is a cerebrovascular disease which is characterized with stenosis and occlusions at the distal part of internal carotid artery and at the proximal part of anterior and middle cerebral arteries. It rarely causes temporary or recurrent hemiparesis due to intracranial hemorrhage while symptoms like headache, convulsion, nystagmus, aphasia and ataxia may also occur. In this paper, we present a case of Moyamoya disease which was diagnosed with a 23 year old female patient who was admitted to our emergency department with headache, nausea and vomiting complaints and whose radiological findings showed occipital lobe hemorrhage.

  5. Occipital bi-transtentorial/falcine approach for falcotentorial meningioma: case report Acesso occipital bitranstentorial-falcino para abordagem de meningioma falco-tentorial: relato de caso

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    Sebastião Gusmão

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Lesions located in the bilateral posterior incisural space are difficult to treat due to limited exposure. The classical approaches to this area are limited for lesions located bilaterally and especially when the lesion extends also below the tentorium as it may occur with meningiomas. Kawashima et al. reported, in anatomic studies, a new occipital transtentorial approach: the occipital bi-transtentorial/falcine approach, to treat such lesions. We present a patient with a large falcotentorial meningioma, located bilaterally in the posterior incisural space. The occipital bi-transtentorial/falcine approach allowed an excellent surgical exposure and complete tumor removal with an excellent patient outcome.Grandes lesões que ocupam bilateralmente o espaço incisural posterior são de difícil abordagem cirúrgica pelos acessos clássicos. Recentemente, Kawashima et al. descreveram, em peças anatômicas, uma modificação do acesso occipital transtentorial, o acesso occipital bitranstentorial-falcino, para abordagem de grandes lesões que ocupam bilateralmente o espaço incisural posterior. Retata-se um caso de grande meningioma falco-tentorial que ocupava o espaço incisural posterior bilateralmente. O acesso occipital bitranstentorial-falcino permitiu exérese completa da lesão sem déficit no pós-operatório.

  6. Nevralgia do occipital maior associada a lesão osteolítica occipital: relato de caso Greater occipital neuralgia associated to an occipital osteolytic lesion: case report

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    ELCIO JULIATO PIOVESAN

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available A distribuição anatômica do nervo occipital maior durante o seu trajeto permite íntima relação com estruturas musculares, tendinosas, vasculares e ósseas. A quebra deste relacionamento pode originar a sua irritação e cefaléia. Descrevemos uma associação rara: sexo feminino; 50 anos; cefaléia com evolução de 2 anos; localizada em região occipital direita irradiando-se para região hemicrânica e supraorbitária direita; espontânea e ou desencadeada pela digito compressão sobre a região de emergência do nervo occipital maior ao nível do trapézio; duração de 30 minutos; compressiva; moderada intensidade; sem fenômenos autonômicos associados; sem resposta terapêutica com o bloqueio anestésico do nervo occipital maior. Investigação radiológica mostrou lesão osteolítica localizada e aderida ao nível da inserção do tendão do músculo trapézio. A melhora total dos sintomas após descompressão cirúrgica do nervo permite relacionar esta lesão aos sintomas álgicos apresentados, compatíveis com nevralgia do occipital maior.The anatomic distribution of the greater occipital nerve during its path permits a close relationship with muscular structures, tendons, vessels and bones. The rupture of this relationship can origin its irritation and headache. We describe an uncommon association between an osteolytic lesion on occipital bone and greater occipital nerve. The patient, female 50, has been presenting headache for two years on the right occipital region spreading to the hemicranic and ipsilateral supraorbital region. The symptoms started spontanously or by pressure on the trapezius tendon. The pain lasted about 30 minutes, compressive, mild intensity, with no autonomic symptoms and no improvement after the infiltration in the greater occipital nerve. The total improvement of the symptoms after releasing the nerve has allowed us to associate this lesion to the presence of algic symptoms.

  7. Occipital aneurysmal bone cyst rupture following head trauma: case report.

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    Garber, Sarah T; Riva-Cambrin, Jay K

    2015-03-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign, expansile, osteolytic lesions that represent 1%-2% of primary bone tumors. Cranial ABCs are even more rare and represent 3%-6% of these unique lesions. The authors describe the case of a 3-year-old girl who presented with an acute posterior fossa epidural hematoma after minor trauma. Imaging workup revealed a previously undiagnosed suboccipital ABC that appeared to have ruptured as a result of her trauma, leading to a life-threatening hemorrhage. To the authors' knowledge, a ruptured ABC has never before been presented in the pediatric literature. In this case report, the authors review the imaging findings, natural history, clinical course, and treatment of these rare lesions.

  8. Cystic solitary fibrous tumor arising from the left occipital meninges: a case report

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    Oh, Bae Geun; Hwang, Yoon Joon; Cha, Soon Joo; Hur, Gham; Kim, Yong Hoon; Kim, Su Young; Seo, Jung Wook; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Han Seung [Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University, School of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a benign mesenchymal neoplasm of a spindle-cell origin, and it usually involves the pleura. It's occurrence in various organs of the body has recently been described. Meningeal SFT is very rare. Radiologically, it is a strongly enhancing solid mass and is undistinguishable from fibrous meningioma and hemangiopericytoma. Yet we report here on a case of SFT with massive cystic degeneration that arose from the meninges of the left occipital region.

  9. A case report of prenatally detected achondrogenesis type Ⅱ with an occipital cephalocele

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    Behnaz Moradi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Achondrogenesis is a very rare lethal skeletal disorder. Here we describe a case of prenatally diagnosed achondrogenesis type Ⅱ in a 28 year-old woman at (17+4 wk. She had history of 5 first trimester missed abortions. The couple is consanguineous. Ultrasonography showed extreme micromelia, short neck and trunk, large head and prominent abdomen. Delayed ossification in sacral bones was detected and ossification of pubic rami was poor. There were associated large cystic hygroma, anasarca and also high occipital cephalocele. Posterior fossa was normal. Mild hypothelorism, depressed nasal bridge, low set ear and mild retrognathia were identified too. Amniocentesis result was compatible with a normal female fetus. Post mortem whole body radiography confirmed the diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the second case report with association of cephalocele and achondrogenesis type Ⅱ.

  10. Encefalocele basal esfenoetmoidal associada a fissura labiopalatina mediana: relato de caso

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    Maurus Marques de Almeida Holanda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Associação de encefalocele basal esfenoetmoidal com fissura labiopalatina é extremamente rara. Relatamos um caso de uma criança de nove anos de idade apresentando uma fissura facial mediana com meningocele, que era evidente através da falha do palato como uma massa mediana intranasal pulsátil. Uma análise dos aspectos clínicos e radiológicos deste caso de disrafia craniana foi realizada.

  11. Condylar Joint Fusion and Stabilization (by Screws and Plates) in Nontraumatic Atlanto-Occipital Dislocation: Technical Report of 2 Cases.

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    Chowdhury, Forhad H; Haque, Mohammod Raziul; Alam, Sarwar Murshed; Khaled Chowdhury, S M Noman; Khan, Shamsul Islam; Goel, Atul

    2017-11-01

    Nontraumatic spontaneous atlanto-occipital dislocation (AOD) is rare. In this report, we discuss the technical steps of condylar joint fusion and stabilization (by screws and plates) in nontraumatic AOD. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report of such techniques. A young girl and a young man with progressive quadriparesis due to nontraumatic spontaneous atlanto-occipital dislocation were managed by microsurgical reduction, fusion, and stabilization of the joint by occipital condylar and C1 lateral mass screw and plate fixation after mobilization of vertebral artery. In both cases, condylar joints fixation and fusion were done successfully. Condylar joint stabilization and fusion may be a good or alternative option for AOD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Congenital extra calvarial plexiform neurofibroma in occipito-cervical region with Occipital bone defect with neurofibromatosis type 1 and segmental neurofibromatosis: Case report and review of literature.

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    Kankane, Vivek Kumar; Jaiswal, Gaurav; Gupta, Tarun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Plexiform neurofibroma (PNF) of the scalp is an extremely rare lesion reported in association with neurofibromatosis (NF). Occipital location of PNF is even more infrequent; we reported one pediatric case of PNF in occipito-cervical region with multiple small occipital bone defects and associated with NF-1.

  13. Congenital extra calvarial plexiform neurofibroma in occipito-cervical region with Occipital bone defect with neurofibromatosis type 1 and segmental neurofibromatosis: Case report and review of literature

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    Vivek Kumar Kankane; Gaurav Jaiswal; Tarun Kumar Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Plexiform neurofibroma (PNF) of the scalp is an extremely rare lesion reported in association with neurofibromatosis (NF). Occipital location of PNF is even more infrequent; we reported one pediatric case of PNF in occipito-cervical region with multiple small occipital bone defects and associated with NF-1.

  14. Occipital meningoencephalocele with Cleft Lip, Cleft Palate and Limb Abnormalities- A Case Report

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    T, Sadeesh; Swer, Mary Hydrina; Rao, Sudha

    2014-01-01

    A 21-week-old still born female fetus with occipital encepholocele, cleft lip and cleft palate was received from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Pondicherry and was studied in detail. It was born to Primigravida, of a second degree consanguineous marriage, with unremarkable family history. The biometric measurements were noted which corresponded to the age of the fetus. Further the fetus was embalmed and dissected. On examination an encephalocele of 2.7×1.5 cm was seen in the occipital region with a midline defect in the occipital bone and herniated brain tissue. Other anomalies observed were right unilateral cleft lip, right cleft palate, and bilateral syndactyly of the lower limbs and associated Congenital Talipus Equino Varus of the right foot. Other internal organs were developed appropriate for the age of the fetus. PMID:25653933

  15. Eosinophilic granuloma of the occipital bone in an adult: A case report

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    Joon-Khim Loh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granuloma (EG refers to the most common and benign form of the disorder known as Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis. The disease is typically found in children and adolescents and rarely affects adults. We present a case of EG in the occipital bone in a 36-year-old man, who visited our hospital with the chief complaint of left occipital palpable tumor mass with local tenderness and pain for one month. An X-ray of the skull revealed a rounded osteolytic lesion. A computed tomography scan revealed a shadow of soft tissues in the left occipital site involving the entire thickness of the calvaria, which was indicative of marked destruction of the bone. The soft mass was successfully removed. The margins of the skull lesion were excised, and cranioplasty was performed simultaneously with bone cement. A definitive diagnosis of EG was made by histopathology and immunohistochemical detection of S-100 antigen in the tissue samples. With respect to management, we believe surgery is the best option for most accessible cranial lesions of EG. A cranioplasty with bone cement or autologous bone can be performed in the same session to repair the cranial defect.

  16. Congenital giant plexiform neurofibroma with occipital calvarial dysplasia in association with meningoencephalocele in neurofibromatosis Type 1 and segmental neurofibromatosis: report of 2 cases.

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    Dadlani, Ravi; Sadanand, Venkatraman; Ghosal, Nandita; Hegde, Alangar S

    2013-11-01

    Giant plexiform neurofibroma (GPNF) of the scalp is an extremely rare lesion reported in association with neurofibromatosis. Occipital location of GPNF is even more infrequent, especially in association with occipital dysplasia (OD). The authors report 2 pediatric cases of GPNF associated with OD. The first case had an associated meningoencephalocele, and the second had large vascular channels within the lesion and the dominant ipsilateral transverse sinus lying in the center of the calvarial defect. The authors present these 2 unusual cases with a review of literature and discuss the radiological findings, theories of etiopathogenesis of the OD, and management dilemmas.

  17. Vascular complications (splenic and hepatic artery aneurysms) in the occipital horn syndrome: report of a patient and review of the literature

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    Mentzel, H.-J. [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Jena (Germany)]|[Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Bachstrasse 18, D-07 740 Jena (Germany); Seidel, J.; Vogt, L. [Department of Paediatrics, University of Jena, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Jena/Thueringen (Germany); Vogt, S.; Kaiser, W.A. [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Jena (Germany)

    1999-01-01

    We report an 18-year-old boy with occipital horn syndrome who developed aneurysms of the splenic and hepatic arteries. Occipital horn syndrome, also called X-linked cutis laxa or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IX, is characterised by a skeletal dysplasia which includes occipital horns, broad clavicles, deformed radii, ulnae and humeri, narrow rib cage, undercalcified long bones and coxa valga. Distinctive features common to all patients are unusual facial appearance, hypermobility of finger joints, limitation of extension of elbows, chronic diarrhoea and genitourinary abnormalities. In this case report we describe the difficulties encountered in the diagnostic management of patients with EDS-related vascular lesions. (orig.) With 5 figs., 2 tabs., 12 refs.

  18. Calcificação intracraniana occipital bilateral, epilepsia e doença celíaca: relato de caso Bilateral occipital calcification, epilepsy and coeliac disease: case report

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    Carlos Henrique Souza Santos

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos o caso de uma menina com 6 anos de idade que apresentava episódios recorrentes de diarréia desde os 6 meses de vida associada a anemia ferropriva com desenvolvimento neuromotor normal. Aos 3 anos de idade começou a apresentar crises parciais que foram controladas com carbamazepina. Tomografia computadorizada de crânio aos 5 anos demonstrou calcificações girais grosseiras nas regiões occipital e parietal posterior bilateralmente. A ressonância magnética de crânio evidenciou áreas de hipossinal em T2 na região parieto-occipital bilateralmente. Realizou investigação para síndrome de mal absorção incluindo estudo da função digestivo/absortiva (teste D-xilose, avaliação sorológica (anticorpos antigliadina, antiendomísio e antitransglutaminase e biopsia de intestino delgado que demonstrou intensa atrofia de vilosidades com infiltrado linfoplasmocitário no córion compatível com doença celíaca.We report a case of a six-year-old girl with frequent diarrhea episodes associated with ferroprive anemia from 6 months of age, normal neuromotor development and partial seizures initiated in her 3rd year which was controlled with carbamazepine. CT scan in her 5th year of age demonstrated gyral calcifications in the occipital and posterior parietal regions bilaterally. MRI has shown low signal areas in the axial T2 sequences corresponding to the gyral calcifications evident on the CT. Blood investigation for coeliac disease with antigliadin, endomysial and transglutaminase antibodies was positive and the intestinal biopsy has showed villous atrophy associated with an increased number of intraepithelial lymphocytes and hypertrophic criptae compatible with coeliac disease.

  19. Occipital bending in schizophrenia.

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    Maller, Jerome J; Anderson, Rodney J; Thomson, Richard H; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of occipital bending (an occipital lobe crossing or twisting across the midline) in subjects with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls. Occipital bending prevalence was investigated in 37 patients with schizophrenia and 44 healthy controls. Ratings showed that prevalence was nearly three times higher among schizophrenia patients (13/37 [35.1%]) than in control subjects (6/44 [13.6%]). Furthermore, those with schizophrenia had greater normalized gray matter volume but less white matter volume and had larger brain-to-cranial ratio. The results suggest that occipital bending is more prevalent among schizophrenia patients than healthy subjects and that schizophrenia patients have different gray matter-white matter proportions. Although the cause and clinical ramifications of occipital bending are unclear, the results infer that occipital bending may be a marker of psychiatric illness.

  20. C1 lateral mass screw placement in occipitalization with atlantoaxial dislocation and basilar invagination: a report of 146 cases.

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    Yin, Yi-heng; Yu, Xin-guang; Qiao, Guang-yu; Guo, Sheng-li; Zhang, Jian-ning

    2014-11-15

    Retrospective study of 146 patients with the diagnosis of occipitalization, atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) and basilar invagination, using a novel surgical treatment strategy. To introduce a novel fixation and reduction technique. Atlas occipitalization associated with basilar invagination often result in fixed AAD that need reduction and occipitocervical fixation. The widely used occipitocervical fixation with suboccipital screws has several limitations such as the poor screw purchase in maldevelopment of the occipital bone, limited area available for implants in previous suboccipital craniectomy. The placement of occipitalized C1 lateral mass screw is an alternative option. From June 2007 to June 2013, 146 patients of occipitalized atlas with fixed AAD and basilar invagination, underwent fixation and reduction via C1 lateral mass and C2 pars/pedicle screw. A total of 143 patients achieved the follow-up in the range from 6 months to 4 years (average, 30 mo). Neurological improvement was seen in all the 143 patients, with the averaged Japanese Orthopedic Association scores increasing from 11.6 to 15.5. Radiographical evaluation showed that solid bony fusion was achieved in all patients, and complete reduction was attained in 95 patients, and partial reduction (>60%) in 40 patients, and no effective reduction in 8 patients who had additional transoral decompression. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that the ventral cervicomedullary compression was relieved in all patients. Although technically demanding, the C1 lateral mass placement in occipitalization is very useful in the rescue situation where more conventional stabilization alternatives are not technically possible, or as routine occipitocervical stabilization. It provides firm stabilization offering an optimum situation for bony fusion, and meanwhile the effective reduction of fixed AAD and basilar invagination. An extremely high fusion rate can be expected with minimal complications and minimal

  1. Idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis presenting with occipital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Background: Although occipital neuralgia is usually caused by degenerative arthropathy, nearly 20 other aetiologies may lead to this condition. Methods: We present the first case report of hypertrophic pachymeningitis revealed by isolated occipital neuralgia. Results and conclusions: Idiopathic hypertrophic ...

  2. Idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis presenting with occipital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although occipital neuralgia is usually caused by degenerative arthropathy, nearly 20 other aetiologies may lead to this condition. Methods: We present the first case report of hypertrophic pachymeningitis revealed by isolated occipital neuralgia. Results and conclusions: Idiopathic hypertrophic ...

  3. Giant high occipital encephalocele

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    Agrawal Amit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Encephaloceles are rare embryological mesenchymal developmental anomalies resulting from inappropriate ossification in skull through with herniation of intracranial contents of the sac. Encephaloceles are classified based on location of the osseous defect and contents of sac. Convexity encephalocele with osseous defect in occipital bone is called occipital encephalocele. Giant occipital encephaloceles can be sometimes larger than the size of baby skull itself and they pose a great surgical challenge. Occipital encephaloceles (OE are further classified as high OE when defect is only in occipital bone above the foramen magnum, low OE when involving occipital bone and foramen magnum and occipito-cervical when there involvement of occipital bone, foramen magnum and posterior upper neural arches. Chiari III malformation can be associated with high or low occipital encephaloceles. Pre-operatively, it is essential to know the size of the sac, contents of the sac, relation to the adjacent structures, presence or absence of venous sinuses/vascular structures and osseous defect size. Sometimes it becomes imperative to perform both CT and MRI for the necessary information. Volume rendered CT images can depict the relation of osseous defect to foramen magnum and provide information about upper neural arches which is necessary in classifying these lesions.

  4. Rapid recurrence and bilateral lungs, multiple bone metastasis of malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the right occipital lobe: report of a case and review.

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    Wu, Zhengrong; Yang, Hongjun; Weng, Desheng; Ding, Yanqing

    2015-07-09

    Intracranial malignant solitary fibrous tumor (MSFT) is extremely rare. The authors report a case of MSFT of the right occipital lobe with a rapid recurrence and bilateral lung, multiple bone metastasis. The patient was a 25-year-old male presenting with headache, nausea and visual disturbances without obvious cause. Three times right-side occipital craniotomies were performed and two times postoperative conformal radiotherapy were administered within one year. 4 months after the third time of right-side occipital craniotomy, the patient felt right chest pain and neck pain. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) showed tumor recurrence of the right occipital lobe and bilateral lung metastasis, multiple bone metastasis including: vertebrae, libs, the left iliac wing, sacrum, the right ischium and upper parts of both femurs. Ultrasound guided puncture biopsy of left-side back of the neck and CT guided puncture biopsy of the third lumbar vertebra were performed. General sample showed grayish white or grayish red with irregular shape. Histopathologically, the tumor was composed of areas of alternating hypercellularity and hypocellularity with spindle-shaped cells, which arranged as fascicular, storiform pattern or patternless pattern, with intervening irregular eosinophilic collagen bundles. Some areas showed hemangiopericytoma-like perivascular pattern and perivascular hyalinization. Tumor cells were pleomorphic with mitotic counts of more than 4 per 10 high power fields and showed coagulative necrosis. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were diffusely positive for vimentin and CD99, focal positive for CD34, bcl-2 and Actin. Ki-67 labelling index was more than 40%. The final pathological diagnosis was MSFT of the right occipital lobe, metastatic MSFT of left-side back of the neck and the third lumbar vertebra. The MSFT of the right occipital lobe with recurrence and bilateral lung, multiple bone metastasis is extremely rare. Although intracranial

  5. Long-term resolution of delayed onset hypoglossal nerve palsy following occipital condyle fracture: Case report and review of the literature.

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    Vadivelu, Sudhakar; Masood, Zihan; Krueger, Bryan; Marciano, Rudy; Chen, David; Houseman, Cliff; Insinga, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    The authors present the case of a patient that demonstrates resolution of delayed onset hypoglossal nerve palsy (HNP) subsequent to occipital condyle fracture following a motor vehicle accident. Decompression of the hypoglossal nerve and craniocervical fixation led to satisfactory long-term (>5 years) outcome. There is a scarcity of literature in recognizing HNPs following trauma and a lack of pathophysiological understanding to both a delayed presentation and to resolution versus persistence. This is the first report demonstrating long-term resolution of hypoglossal nerve injury following trauma to the craniocervical junction.

  6. Long-term resolution of delayed onset hypoglossal nerve palsy following occipital condyle fracture: Case report and review of the literature

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    Sudhakar Vadivelu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present the case of a patient that demonstrates resolution of delayed onset hypoglossal nerve palsy (HNP subsequent to occipital condyle fracture following a motor vehicle accident. Decompression of the hypoglossal nerve and craniocervical fixation led to satisfactory long-term (>5 years outcome. There is a scarcity of literature in recognizing HNPs following trauma and a lack of pathophysiological understanding to both a delayed presentation and to resolution versus persistence. This is the first report demonstrating long-term resolution of hypoglossal nerve injury following trauma to the craniocervical junction.

  7. Coexistence of occipital dysplasia and occipital hypoplasia/syringomyelia in the cavalier King Charles spaniel.

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    Rusbridge, C; Knowler, S P

    2006-10-01

    Concurrent occurrence of occipital dysplasia and occipital hypoplasia in two dogs is described in this report. Occipital hypoplasia results in reduced volume of the caudal fossa, leading to overcrowding of the neural structures and, in severe cases, development of syringomyelia. In occipital dysplasia, there is a failure of complete ossification of the supraoccipital bone. When the two conditions occur concurrently, it is possible that syringomyelia may develop more slowly, resulting in presentation with clinical signs in middle to old age. This has implications for screening tests for early detection of syringomyelia, with a view to using the dog for breeding purposes, as dogs with an apparently mild phenotype for occipital hypoplasia/syringomyelia may actually have a more severe genotype.

  8. Avaliação multidisciplinar de pacientes com encefalocele anterior: análise das alterações cranianas, encefálicas, neuropsicológicas e de linguagem

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    Mateus Violin da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Objetivo: Avaliar as alterações cranianas e encefálicas de pacientes com encefalocele anterior e analisar fatores relevantes ao seu desenvolvimento neuropsicológico, de linguagem e na qualidade de vida. Modelo: Estudo transversal em pacientes com encefalocele anterior submetidos à avaliação multidisciplinar (craniofacial, socioeconômica, neurorradiológica, neuropsicológica e fonoaudiológica). Local: Hospital de Reabilitação de Anomalias Craniofaciais, Universidade de São Paulo (HRAC-USP), Bau...

  9. A rare case of atlantooccipital dissociation in the context of occipitalization of the atlas, with a 2-year follow-up: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Navjot; Wang, Bill H; Gurr, Kevin R; Bailey, Stewart I; Bailey, Christopher S

    2013-02-01

    Atlantooccipital dislocation (AOD) is a rare and often fatal injury. In cases of survival, residual deficits are severe and often include cranial nerve palsy, quadriplegia, or respiratory issues. Occipitalization is defined as partial or complete congenital fusion of the occiput to the atlas and is exceptionally rare. The authors present a rare case of AOD superimposed on a congenital occipitalization of the atlas. This 39-year-old man had AOD following a motor vehicle collision. On examination, his overall motor score on the American Spinal Injury Association scale was 5/100, and his rectal tone was absent. Computed tomography demonstrated AOD in an area of occipitalization. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed ligamentous injury leading to C1-2 instability. Intervention included occipital cervical instrumentation fusion from the occiput to C-3. Six months postoperatively, imaging revealed fusion of the graft and consolidation of the fractured occipitalization. At the 2-year follow-up, the patient's strength was 3/5 for wrist extension and handgrip on the right side and full strength in the rest of the myotomes. Bladder and bowel function was also normalized. A high-velocity collision led to disruption of the atlantooccipital ligaments and fracture of the occipitalized lateral masses in this patient. Internal fixation and fusion led to good fusion postoperatively. Occipitalization probably led to abnormal joint mechanics at the C1-occiput junction, which might have altered the amount of force required to fracture the occipitalization and produce AOD. This difference may partially account for the favorable neurological outcome in the featured patient compared with traditional cases of AOD.

  10. A Case of Occipital Rudimentary Cephalocoele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garge, Saurabh; Menon, Prema; Aggarwal, Sumeet; Rao, Kln

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of a 1-month-old boy with a cystic swelling in the occipital region without intracranial communication, called atretic cephalocoele. We discuss clues to the diagnosis of atretic cephalocoeles. We also discuss common clinical findings and a possible mechanism by which these lesions develop. PMID:29114303

  11. Late-onset childhood occipital epilepsy. An unusual case in adolescence and differential diagnosis with migraine

    OpenAIRE

    Liberalesso, Paulo Breno Noronha; Silva, Izabella Celidônio Bertoldo da; Klagenberg, Karlin Fabianne; Jurkiewicz, Ari Leon; Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The new proposed classification of ILAE Task Force (2001) proposes that the occipital epilepsies should be split into two subtypes: an early-onset benign childhood occipital epilepsy (or Panayiotopoulos type) and late-onset childhood occipital epilepsy (or Gastaut type). Migraine with visual aura must be considered as a differential diagnosis in childhood and adolescents with occipital epilepsy without motor phenomena. OBJECTIVE: The goal of our paper is to report the case a 16-...

  12. Brain Herniation in Neurofibromatosis with Dysplasia of Occipital Bone and Posterior Skull Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vithal Rangarajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old female, a known case of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1, presented with a congenital swelling in the left occipital region. She had developed recent onset dysphagia and localized occipital headache. Neuroradiology revealed a left occipital meningoencephalocele and a left parapharyngeal meningocele. This was associated with ventriculomegaly. She was advised on cranioplasty along with duraplasty which she denied. She agreed to a lumbar-peritoneal shunt. She described a dramatic improvement in her symptoms following the lumbar-peritoneal shunt. Occipital dysplasias, though uncommon, have been reported in the literature. We review this case and its management and discuss relevant literature on occipital dysplasias in NF1.

  13. Occipital condyle fracture: an unusual airbag injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaglia, Elisabetta; De Leo, Domenico; Lanzara, Guido; Urbani, Urbano; Dolci, Marco

    2007-05-01

    The installation of airbags in motor vehicles, in association with the use of seat belts, has reduced the incidence of head injuries, as well as significantly decreasing morbidity and mortality in motor vehicle accidents. Nevertheless, the literature on the subject increasingly refers to lesions related to airbag deployment. These are usually minor, but in certain circumstances, severe and fatal injuries can result. This is a case report of serious injury due to airbag deployment, involving a restrained driver who suffered occipital condylar injury when his airbag deployed in a frontal collision. The range of airbag associated injuries is reported and predisposing factors, such as the probable proximity to the airbag housing, is discussed.

  14. Giant occipital meningocele in an 8-year-old child with Dandy-Walker malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamonti, Giuseppe; Picano, Marco; Debernardi, Alberto; Bolzon, Moreno; Teruzzi, Mario; D'Aliberti, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of an association between Dandy-Walker malformation and occipital meningocele is well-known. However, just an overall number of about 40 cases have been previously reported. Giant occipital meningocele has been described only in three newborns. Incidence, pathology, clinical presentation, and proper management of this association are still poorly defined. An 8-year-old boy with Dandy-Walker malformation and giant (25 cm in diameter) occipital meningocele is presented. This boy was born without any apparent occipital mass and harbored no other significant malformations including hydrocephalus. On admission, he was neurologically intact and the giant occipital mass presented partially calcified cyst walls. Treatment consisted of the excision of the occipital malformation, cranioplasty, and cysto-peritoneal shunt. Outcome was excellent. To the best of our knowledge, among the few reported patients with Dandy-Walker malformation associated to occipital meningocele, this is the oldest one and the one with the largest occipital meningocele; he is unique with calcified walls of the occipital meningocele and the only one who survived the repair of the giant malformation. In Dandy-Walker malformation, occipital meningocele may develop and grow regardless of hydrocephalus. Giant size may be reached and the cyst may become calcified. Surgical repair may warrant favorable outcome.

  15. Occipital Nerve Blocks for Pediatric Posttraumatic Headache: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Trevor A; Orr, Serena; Bodell, Lisa; Lockyer, Lisette; Rajapakse, Thilinie; Barlow, Karen M

    2015-08-01

    Posttraumatic headache is one of the most common and disabling symptoms after traumatic brain injury. However, evidence for treating posttraumatic headache is sparse, especially in the pediatric literature. This retrospective chart review evaluated the use of occipital nerve blocks in adolescents treated for posttraumatic headache following mild traumatic brain injury, presenting to the Complex Concussion and Traumatic Brain Injury clinic. Fifteen patients (mean age 15.47; range: 13-17) received occipital nerve block for posttraumatic headache. Follow-up was obtained in 14 patients at 5.57 (standard deviation = 3.52) months postinjury. The headache burden was high, with all except one having headaches 15 or more days per month (median 30, range 10-30). Sixty-four percent reported long-term response to the occipital nerve blocks, with associated improved quality of life and decreased postconcussion symptom scores (P headache. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Grievous Temporal and Occipital Injury Caused by a Bear Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampath Chandra Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bear attacks are reported from nearly every part of the world. The chance of a human encountering a bear increases as the remote bear territory diminishes. The sloth bear is one of the three species of bears found in India, which inhabits the forests of India and its neighboring countries. Here we describe a teenager who came to us with a critical injury involving the face, temporal and occipital bones inflicted by a sloth bear attack. He underwent a temporal exploration, facial nerve decompression, pinna reconstruction, and occipital bone repair to save him from fatality.

  17. Occipital bone thickness: Implications on occipital-cervical fusion. A cadaveric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Zarghooni

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The measurements demonstrated a great individual variability of bone thickness of the occipital bone. The results emphasize the role of preoperative planning for the feasibility of placement of an occipital screw.

  18. [The occipital sinus: a radioanatomic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaumont-Darcissac, M; Viart, L; Foulon, P; Le Gars, D; Havet, E; Peltier, J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the presence of an occipital sinus in both children and adults, and to detail its main associated anatomical characteristics. One hundred of patients' MRI (3D T1 EG) between 0 and 86 years old were studied, in sagittal and axial sections, with the software DxMM. Occipital sinus length, perimeter, and cerebellar falx length measurements were performed with the software's tools. Forty-three percent of patients had an occipital sinus (average perimeter was 3.02 mm, average length was 19.85 mm), and 23.26% of these patients had a cerebellar falx, 30.23% of these patients had one vein or more draining into the occipital sinus. Sixty-two percent of children had an occipital sinus (average perimeter was 2.87 mm, average length was 21.63 mm), and 29.03% of them had a cerebellar falx. Twenty-four percent of adults had an occipital sinus (average perimeter was 3.4mm, average length was 15.28 mm), and 8.33% of them had a cerebellar falx. This work highlights a link between the age and the occipital sinus existence. The perimeter of this sinus seems to be superior for adults, but its length seems to be superior for children. A cerebellar falx with the occipital sinus was found more frequently for children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. How does occipitalization influence the dimensions of the cranium?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, L M; Kjaer, I; Sonnesen, L

    2010-01-01

    To describe occipitalization on human dry skulls and to compare craniofacial morphology including the posterior cranial fossa in skulls with occipitalization and in skulls without occipitalization and with normal craniofacial morphology (controls)....

  20. Transsynaptic neuronal degeneration of optic nerves associated with bilateral occipital lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdev Mahipal

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A case is reported of a 9-year old male who presented with abnormal behaviour and progressive diminution of vision. Pupils were middilated in both eyes but the pupillary reflexes were preserved. Fundus examination revealed a bilateral optic atrophy and radiological investigations showed a bilateral occipital calcification. We hereby document a case of retrograde transsynaptic neuronal degeneration of the visual system secondary to bilateral occipital lesions. Transsynapptic neuronal degeneration of optic nerves consequent to occipital lobe lesions is a rare phenomenon. Experimentally occipital lobe ablation in non-human primates has been shown to result in optic atrophy. Herein, we document a case of retrograde transsynaptic neuronal degeneration of the visual system secondary to bilateral occipital lesions.

  1. Computed tomographic morphometric analysis of the pediatric occipital condyle for occipital condyle screw placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sheng-Lei; Xia, Dong-Dong; Chen, Wei; Li, Yao; Shen, Zhong-Hai; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Xu, Hua-Zi; Chi, Yong-Long

    2014-02-01

    This study is a computed tomographic (CT)-based morphometric analysis of the pediatric occipital condyles as related to occipital condyle screw placement. To quantify reference data concerning the dimensions of the immature occipital condyles to guide the placement of occipital condyle screw. To the best of our knowledge, no published study has provided insight into the anatomy of occipital condyle of the pediatric population with different age groups. Sixty-nine pediatric patients were divided into 4 age groups, and their occipital condyles were studied on CT scans. Condylar length, width, height, sagittal angle, and sagittal angle lengths were measured on Philips Brilliance 16 CT. The mean pediatric coronal height, sagittal length, and axial width noted statistically significant age-related differences were 9.0 mm, 21.3 mm, and 9.8 mm, respectively. The mean sagittal angle for all patients was 27.2 ± 5.1° (range, 15.1-41.0°). In 82.6% (114/138) of the occipital condyles, the anatomy could accept the occipital condyle screw (width ≥8 mm and height ≥6.5 mm). Our investigation provides insight into the anatomy of occipital condyle of the pediatric population with different age groups. As the pediatric occipital condyles have sufficient occipital bone for appropriate fixation or fusion, the occipital condyle screws fixation is a feasible technique for children. Even so, given the evolution of this technique being still in its infancy and the complexity inherent to the craniovertebral junction, a careful radiological analysis of occipital condyle must be required in preoperative planning and feasibility determination. N/A.

  2. Giant cell reparative granuloma of the occipital bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Briz, A.; Ricoy, J.R.; Martinez-Tello, F.J. [Department of Anatomical Pathology, Hospital Universitario ' ' 12 de Octubre' ' , Madrid (Spain); Lobato, R.D. [Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital Universitario ' ' 12 de Octubre' ' , Madrid (Spain); Ramos, A.; Millan, J.M. [Department of Radiology, Hospital Universitario ' ' 12 de Octubre' ' , Madrid (Spain); Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Departamento de Anatomia Patologica, Avda. de Andalucia s/n, Madrid 28041 (Spain)

    2003-03-01

    Giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG) is a non-neoplastic fibrous lesion with unevenly distributed multinucleated giant cells, areas of osseous metaplasia and hemorrhage. The small bones of the hands and feet are the most common sites, followed by the vertebral bodies and craniofacial bones. In the craniofacial bones GCRG has been reported in the temporal bone, in the frontal bone and paranasal sinus. However, to the best of our knowledge no case has been reported in the occipital bone. We report on the imaging findings and pathological features of a GCRG of the occipital bone and discuss the differential diagnosis of this entity in this particular location, especially with giant cell tumor because of the therapeutic and prognostic implications. (orig.)

  3. Sub-occipital craniectomy in a lion (Panthera leo) with occipital bone malformation and hypovitaminosis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Merav H; Shilo, Yael; Fridman, Alon; Chai, Orit; Reifen, Ram; Miara, Limor

    2008-09-01

    Neurologic dysfunction accompanied by malformation of both the skull and the cervical vertebrae has been previously described in lions kept in captivity worldwide, and this dysfunction and malformation were most often related to vitamin A deficiency. Diagnosis of the bone malformation and its effects on the neural tissue was until recently limited to postmortem examination, with characteristic thickening of the bones of the cranial vault, cerebellar herniation, compression of the foramen magnum, and enlargement of the lateral ventricles. For some mildly affected lion cubs with neurologic signs, improvement was reported with excessive vitamin A supplementation. However, definitive diagnosis was only available for those that eventually died or were euthanized. This case documents the antemortem diagnosis of the disease using computed tomographic imaging and liver biopsy. While conservative treatment failed, suboccipital craniectomy removed the thickened occipital bone and was demonstrated to be a successful surgical intervention that can be used to treat more severely affected lions.

  4. TMS of the occipital cortex induces tactile sensations in the fingers of blind Braille readers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ptito, M; Fumal, A; de Noordhout, A Martens

    2008-01-01

    Various non-visual inputs produce cross-modal responses in the visual cortex of early blind subjects. In order to determine the qualitative experience associated with these occipital activations, we systematically stimulated the entire occipital cortex using single pulse transcranial magnetic...... stimulation (TMS) in early blind subjects and in blindfolded seeing controls. Whereas blindfolded seeing controls reported only phosphenes following occipital cortex stimulation, some of the blind subjects reported tactile sensations in the fingers that were somatotopically organized onto the visual cortex...... cortical pathway between the somatosensory cortex and the visual cortex in early blind subjects. These results also add new evidence that the activity of the occipital lobe in the blind takes its qualitative expression from the character of its new input source, therefore supporting the cortical deference...

  5. Coma after greater occipital nerve blockade in a patient with previous posterior fossa surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Till; Seifert, Christian L

    2013-03-01

    We here report the case of a patient who previously underwent posterior fossa surgery and was later treated with greater occipital nerve blockade for unilateral facial pain. The patient went into coma immediately post-injection but made a full recovery without sequelae after intensive care treatment. Physicians should be aware of the risks of greater occipital nerve blockade after previous posterior fossa craniotomy. © 2012 American Headache Society.

  6. Pseudoaneurysm of the occipital artery: an unusual cause of persisting headache after minor head injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aquilina, K

    2012-02-03

    Post-traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the extracranial arteries in the scalp are uncommon sequelae of head injury. We report on a patient who presented four weeks after a minor head injury with a tender, pulsating and enlarging mass in the course of the left occipital artery. There was associated headache radiating to the vertex. Computed tomographic angiography confirmed the lesion to be a pseudoaneurysm of the occipital artery. The lump was resected with complete resolution of symptoms.

  7. Primary Occipital Ewing’s Sarcoma with Subsequent Spinal Seeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alqahtani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing’s sarcoma is a primary bone cancer that mainly affects the long bones. This malignancy is particularly common in pediatric patients. Primary cranial involvement accounts for 1% of cases, with occipital involvement considered extremely rare. In this case study, primary occipital Ewing’s sarcoma with a posterior fossa mass and subsequent relapse resulting in spinal seeding is reported. A 3-year-old patient presented with a 1-year history of left-sided headaches, localized over the occipital bone with progressive torticollis. Computed tomography (CT imaging showed a mass in the left posterior fossa compressing the brainstem. The patient then underwent surgical excision followed by adjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Two years later, the patient presented with severe lower back pain and urinary incontinence. Whole-spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF seeding from the L5 to the S4 vertebrae. Primary cranial Ewing’s sarcoma is considered in the differential diagnosis of children with extra-axial posterior fossa mass associated with destructive permeative bone lesions. Although primary cranial Ewing’s sarcoma typically has good prognosis, our patient developed metastasis in the lower spine. Therefore, with CNS Ewing’s sarcoma, screening of the entire neural axis should be taken into consideration for early detection of CSF seeding metastasis in order to decrease the associated morbidity and mortality.

  8. Headache Following Occipital Brain Lesion: A Case of Migraine Triggered by Occipital Spikes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollono, Catello; Mariotti, Paolo; Losurdo, Anna; Giannantoni, Nadia Mariagrazia; Mazzucchi, Edoardo; Valentini, Piero; De Rose, Paola; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2015-10-01

    This study describes the case of an 8-year-old boy who developed a genuine migraine after the surgical excision, from the right occipital lobe, of brain abscesses due to selective infestation of the cerebrum by Entamoeba histolytica. After the surgical treatment, the boy presented daily headaches with typical migraine features, including right-side parieto-temporal pain, nausea, vomiting, and photophobia. Electroencephalography (EEG) showed epileptiform discharges in the right occipital lobe, although he never presented seizures. Clinical and neurophysiological observations were performed, including video-EEG and polygraphic recordings. EEG showed "interictal" epileptiform discharges in the right occipital lobe. A prolonged video-EEG recording performed before, during, and after an acute attack ruled out ictal or postictal migraine. In this boy, an occipital lesion caused occipital epileptiform EEG discharges without seizures, probably prevented by the treatment. We speculate that occipital spikes, in turn, could have caused a chronic headache with features of migraine without aura. Occipital epileptiform discharges, even in absence of seizures, may trigger a genuine migraine, probably by means of either the trigeminovascular or brainstem system. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2014.

  9. Occipital lobe infarction and positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagawa, Koichi; Nagata, Ken; Shishido, Fumio (Research Inst. of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan))

    1990-08-01

    Even though the PET study revealed a total infarct in the territory of the left PCA in our 3 cases of pure alesia, it is still obscure which part of the left occipital lobe is most closely associated with the occurrence of the pure alexia. In order to elucidate the intralobar localization of the pure alexia, it is needed to have an ideal case who shows an pure alexia due to the localized lesion within the left occipital lobe. Furthermore, high-resolution PET scanner will circumvent the problem in detecting the metabolism and blood flow in the corpus callosum which plays an important role in the pathogenesis. We have shown that the occlusion of the right PCA also produced a left unilateral agnosia which is one of the common neurological signs in the right MCA infarction. To tell whether the responsible lesion for the unilateral spatial agnosia differs between the PCA occlusion and the MCA occlusion, the correlation study should be carried out in a greater number of the subjects. Two distinctive neuropsychological manifestations, cerebral color blidness and prosopagnosia, have been considered to be produced by the bilateral occipital lesion. The PET studies disclosed reduction of blood flow and oxygen metabolism in both occipital lobes in our particular patient who exibited cerebral color blindness and posopagnosia. (author).

  10. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The knowledge of the anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery is important for the surgeon. Blockage or surgical release of greater occipital nerve is clinically effective in reducing or eliminating chronic migraine symptoms. Aim: The aim of this research was to study the anatomy of ...

  11. Traumatic aneurysm of the occipital artery secondary to paintball injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Neely; Leach, James L; Rachana, Tyagi; Mangano, Francesco T

    2009-01-01

    Paintball is an "extreme sport" that has been steadily growing in popularity since the early 1980s. Although this activity is considered recreational, there are a number of inherent dangers associated. Most notably, the number of head and neck injuries due to paintball participation has been increasing in recent years. In this paper we present the first reported case of occipital artery traumatic pseudoaneurysm resulting from a paintball accident. The presentation, diagnosis and intraoperative findings are detailed. A discussion including a review of the literature is also presented. The authors recommend a re-evaluation of guidelines within the paintball sporting industry, including improvements in protective equipment.

  12. Meningocele following aplasia of the occipital bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggebø, Torbjørn M; Brathetland, Janne; Dirdal, Hege U; Houge, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    We describe a first trimester female foetus with aplasia of the occipital bone allowing a meningocele without skin coverage to be formed. The pregnancy was terminated, and on later autopsy the brain appeared to be intact. The foetus carried an apparently balanced translocation 46,XX,t(3;9)(p21.3;q22.3) inherited from a normal father and grandfather. PMID:22715167

  13. Decoding the content of visual short-term memory under distraction in occipital and parietal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Katherine C; Xu, Yaoda

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have provided conflicting accounts regarding where in the human brain visual short-term memory (VSTM) content is stored, with strong univariate fMRI responses being reported in superior intraparietal sulcus (IPS), but robust multivariate decoding being reported in occipital cortex. Given the continuous influx of information in everyday vision, VSTM storage under distraction is often required. We found that neither distractor presence nor predictability during the memory delay affected behavioral performance. Similarly, superior IPS exhibited consistent decoding of VSTM content across all distractor manipulations and had multivariate responses that closely tracked behavioral VSTM performance. However, occipital decoding of VSTM content was substantially modulated by distractor presence and predictability. Furthermore, we found no effect of target-distractor similarity on VSTM behavioral performance, further challenging the role of sensory regions in VSTM storage. Overall, consistent with previous univariate findings, our results indicate that superior IPS, but not occipital cortex, has a central role in VSTM storage.

  14. Intraosseous cystic cavernous angioma with occipital skull osteolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakyo Hirai, MD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraosseous cavernous angiomas (CAs of the skull are rare, and those cases that appear are commonly localized in the frontal bone. Computed tomography (CT and Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI typically show a well-defined intradiploic lytic mass with homogeneous enhancement. We describe an intraosseous cystic CA of the occipital skull in a 46-year-old man who presented with transient right-sided deafness and posterior cervical pain. MRI revealed a large (3.7 cm × 3.2 cm × 4.1 cm extra-axial tumor, compressing the right cerebellar hemisphere, with heterogeneous peripheral enhancement. A CT scan showed osteolytic change of the occipital skull. The tumor was totally resected via a suboccipital approach. Intraoperatively, we found a mainly cystic tumor containing xanthochromic fluid. Histologically, the tumor was diagnosed as a cavernous angioma. This is the first reported case of an intraosseous CA of the skull with cyst formation. The characteristic radiological imaging of the presented case mimicked a malignant tumor with peripheral enhancement and prominent osteolytic change.

  15. Airway management for occipital encephalocele in neonatal patients: A review of 17 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Baysal Yildirim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Encephalocele, midline defect of cranial bone fusion, occurs most frequently in the occipital region. Airway management in pediatric patients with craniofacial disorders poses many challenges to the anesthesiologist. The purpose of this study is to describe the airway problems encountered for such cases, and describe how these problems were managed. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the charts of occipital encephalocele newborn that were treated by surgical correction in Harran University Hospital during 2006-2008. The collected data were categorized into preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data. Results: The mean age of the patients was 5.17 days. Of these 17 patients, eight patients (47.1% had hydrocephaly, one patient (5.8% with Dandy Walker syndrome. Micrognathia, macroglossia, restriction in neck movements were recorded as the reasons in six cases each. No major anesthetic complication was found. Conclusions: We reported perioperative management in 17 occipital encephalocele infant. Comprehensive care during peroperative period is essential for successful outcome.

  16. Alexia for Braille following bilateral occipital stroke in an early blind woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, R; Keenan, J P; Catala, M; Pascual-Leone, A

    2000-02-07

    Recent functional imaging and neurophysiologic studies indicate that the occipital cortex may play a role in Braille reading in congenitally and early blind subjects. We report on a woman blind from birth who sustained bilateral occipital damage following an ischemic stroke. Prior to the stroke, the patient was a proficient Braille reader. Following the stroke, she was no longer able to read Braille yet her somatosensory perception appeared otherwise to be unchanged. This case supports the emerging evidence for the recruitment of striate and prestriate cortex for Braille reading in early blind subjects.

  17. Anesthetic management of a newborn with occipital meningocele for magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeta, S; Upadya, Madusudhan; Pachala, Sri Sruthi

    2015-01-01

    Cranial Meningocoele is a term which represents herniation of meninges and cerebrospinal fluid through the congenital defect in the cranium. Anaesthetic challenges in the management of neonates with occipital meningocoele include airway management and proper positioning of the neonate without pressure on the meningocoele sac so as to preventthe rupture of the membranes. Associated congenital anomalies also can cause anaesthesia and procedure related complications. Other difficulties include performing a difficult airway case in an unfamiliar environment outside operation theatre. We report a case of 6 day old neonate with occipital meningocoele posted for MRI brain and the successful anaesthetic management.

  18. MEGALENCEPHALY, POLYMICROGYRIA, POLYDACTYLY AND HYDROCEPHALUS (MPPH) SYNDROME: A NEW CASE WITH OCCIPITAL ENCEPHALOCELE AND CLEFT PALATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, N; Peker, E; Gülşen I; Kaba, S; Tuncer, O

    2015-01-01

    The megalencephaly, polymicrogyria, polydactyly, and hydrocephalus (MPPH) syndrome is quite rarely seen. The four main findings in this syndrome may be accompanied by severe psychomotor retardation, blindness, hypotonia, convulsions, and facial dysmorphism. In this paper, we present a female newborn at 39 weeks gestational age born to parents who are first degree cousins. Beside the facial dysmorphism and four main features of the MPPH syndrome, the findings on the physical examination of the patient were, hypertonicity, occipital encephalocele, cleft palate, and multiple polyps in the tongue. The presence of occipital encephalocele, cleft palate, and polyps in the tongue in this patient was not reported previously in the literature.

  19. Case of viral encephalitis localized in the occipital lobe. Peculiar CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izawa, Masahiro; Okino, Teruhiko; Kagawa, Mizuo; Kitamura, Koichi

    1987-10-01

    A case is reported of a 63-year-old female admitted to our hospital in Oct., 1986, with complaints of headache and visual field disturbance. A plain CT scan showed no abnormal low-density focal area. A contrast-enhancement CT scan, however, showed a localized linear abnormal enhancement in the right occipital lobe, without any mass-effect. A dynamic CT scan demonstrated a hyperemic perfusion pattern of the right occipital lobe. A visual-field examination showed left homonymous hemianopsia with concentric narrowing. These abnormal findings on CT, EEG, and ophthalmological examination disappeared within 3 weeks.

  20. Kernohan's phenomenon associated with left ruptured occipital arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, A; Sato, H; Katayama, W; Nakai, K; Tsunoda, T; Kobayashi, E; Nose, T

    2004-05-01

    A 23-year-old woman presented with ipsilateral hemiparesia due to rupture of a left occipital arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Emergency decompression (the onset-operation interval was 46 minutes,) was carried out and the patient could leave the hospital upon recovery without neurological deficits. In general, Kernohan's phenomenon is caused by the gradual displacement of the cerebral peduncle against the tentorial edge caused by compression by the contralateral mass. This phenomenon is very rare among the cases with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage and only three cases including the present one have been reported in the literature. In all cases the onset-operation intervals of were very short. Kernohan's phenomenon associated with a ruptured AVM is a rare condition and emergency decompression is required.

  1. The occipital area in medieval dogs and the role of occipital dysplasia in dog breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Janeczek, Maciej; CHROSZCZ, Aleksander

    2014-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on 42 dog skulls from the early medieval period. The skulls were excavated in Wroclaw, Poland, and in Novgorod and Moscow, Russia. Craniometric measurements were taken. On the basis of the basion-ethmoid measurement, the shoulder height was estimated. The foramen magnum height and width were measured and the foramen magnum index was calculated. The foramen magnum was typical in shape, and any occipital dysplasia signs observed were in the skulls. The results o...

  2. TMS of the occipital cortex induces tactile sensations in the fingers of blind Braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptito, M; Fumal, A; de Noordhout, A Martens; Schoenen, J; Gjedde, A; Kupers, R

    2008-01-01

    Various non-visual inputs produce cross-modal responses in the visual cortex of early blind subjects. In order to determine the qualitative experience associated with these occipital activations, we systematically stimulated the entire occipital cortex using single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in early blind subjects and in blindfolded seeing controls. Whereas blindfolded seeing controls reported only phosphenes following occipital cortex stimulation, some of the blind subjects reported tactile sensations in the fingers that were somatotopically organized onto the visual cortex. The number of cortical sites inducing tactile sensations appeared to be related to the number of hours of Braille reading per day, Braille reading speed and dexterity. These data, taken in conjunction with previous anatomical, behavioural and functional imaging results, suggest the presence of a polysynaptic cortical pathway between the somatosensory cortex and the visual cortex in early blind subjects. These results also add new evidence that the activity of the occipital lobe in the blind takes its qualitative expression from the character of its new input source, therefore supporting the cortical deference hypothesis.

  3. Colgajo prefabricado occipital para cobertura de exposición ósea craneal Prefabricated occipital flap to cover craneal bone exposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rivas León

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La exposición del cráneo tras un tratamiento quirúrgico oncológico agresivo es un desafió reconstructivo para el cirujano plástico; los defectos pueden variar en dimensiones y complejidad, desde pequeños defectos, que pueden ser cubiertos con injertos dérmicos o colgajos locales, a defectos más extensos que requerirán de un colgajo libre para su cobertura. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 39 años de edad que presentó un defecto biparietal posterior a radioterapia y resección por carcinoma. El defecto fue cubierto con un colgajo prefabricado axial, tomado del área antebraquial e implantado bajo la piel cabelluda occipital, para posteriormente ser llevado al sitio del defecto. El colgajo axial occipital evolucionó satisfactoriamente y logramos cubrir el defecto en su totalidad, sin complicaciones. En conclusión, el colgajo prefabricado occipital aporta suficiente piel cabelluda con patrón vascular axial para cubrir hueso craneal expuesto, cuando no hay una mejor opción cosmética.Cranial bone exposition after an aggressive oncological treatment is a challenge for plastic surgeon; defects can range in size and complexity, from small defects which can be covered only with skin graft or local flaps, to extensive defects that will require a free flap cover. We report a case of a 39 years-old man, who presented soft tissue defect of biparietal area following to radiotherapy and carcinoma resection. This defect was covered by prefabricated axial flap, which was harvest of forearm area and implanted under occipital hair skin and subsequently transported to the defect. The axial occipital flap healed uneventfully with a good outcome; we managed to cover the scalp defect completely without complications. As a conclusion, prefabricated occipital flap provides enough hair skin, with axial vascularity pattern to cover cranial bone exposed, when there is not a better cosmetical option.

  4. Occipital MEG Activity in the Early Time Range (

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lau M; Pedersen, Michael N; Sandberg, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Two electrophysiological components have been extensively investigated as candidate neural correlates of perceptual consciousness: An early, occipitally realized component occurring 130–320 ms after stimulus onset and a late, frontally realized component occurring 320–510 ms after stimulus onset...... when decoding perceptual consciousness from the 2 components using sources from occipital and frontal lobes. We found that occipital sources during the early time range were significantly more accurate in decoding perceptual consciousness than frontal sources during both the early and late time ranges...... consciousness, especially theories emphasizing the role of frontal sources...

  5. Temporary occipital fixation in young children with severe cervical-thoracic spinal deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Brian J; Minkara, Anas A; Angevine, Peter D; Vitale, Michael G; Lenke, Lawrence G; Anderson, Richard C E

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE The long-term effects of instrumentation and fusion of the occipital-cervical-thoracic spine on spinal growth in young children are poorly understood. To mitigate the effects of this surgery on the growing pediatric spine, the authors report a novel technique used in 4 children with severe cervical-thoracic instability. These patients underwent instrumentation from the occiput to the upper thoracic region for stabilization, but without bone graft at the craniovertebral junction (CVJ). Subsequent surgery was then performed to remove the occipital instrumentation, thereby allowing further growth and increased motion across the CVJ. METHODS Three very young children (15, 30, and 30 months old) underwent occipital to thoracic posterior segmental instrumentation due to cervical or upper thoracic dislocation, progressive kyphosis, and myelopathy. The fourth child (10 years old) underwent similar instrumentation for progressive cervical-thoracic scoliosis. Bone graft was placed at and distal to C-2 only. After follow-up CT scans demonstrated posterior arthrodesis without unintended fusion from the occiput to C-2, 3 patients underwent removal of the occipital instrumentation. RESULTS Follow-up cervical spine flexion/extension radiographs demonstrated partial restoration of motion at the CVJ. One patient has not had the occipital instrumentation removed yet, because only 4 months have elapsed since her operation. CONCLUSIONS Temporary fixation to the occiput provides increased biomechanical stability for spinal stabilization in young children, without permanently eliminating motion and growth at the CVJ. This technique can be considered in children who require longer instrumentation constructs for temporary stabilization, but who only need fusion in more limited areas where spinal instability exists.

  6. Improvement in clinical outcomes after dry needling in a patient with occipital neuralgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Bryan M.; Kinslow, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this case report is to outline the diagnosis, intervention and clinical outcome of a patient presenting with occipital neuralgia. Upon initial presentation, the patient described a four-year history of stabbing neck pain and headaches. After providing informed consent, the patient underwent a total of four dry needling (DN) sessions over a two-week duration. During each of the treatment sessions, needles were inserted into the trapezii and suboccipital muscles. Post-intervention, the patient reported a 32-point change in her neck disability index score along with a 28-point change in her headache disability index score. Thus, it appears that subsequent four sessions of DN over two weeks, our patient experienced meaningful improvement in her neck pain and headaches. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report describing DN to successfully improve clinical outcomes in a patient diagnosed with occipital neuralgia. PMID:26136602

  7. Improvement in clinical outcomes after dry needling in a patient with occipital neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Bryan M; Kinslow, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    The primary purpose of this case report is to outline the diagnosis, intervention and clinical outcome of a patient presenting with occipital neuralgia. Upon initial presentation, the patient described a four-year history of stabbing neck pain and headaches. After providing informed consent, the patient underwent a total of four dry needling (DN) sessions over a two-week duration. During each of the treatment sessions, needles were inserted into the trapezii and suboccipital muscles. Post-intervention, the patient reported a 32-point change in her neck disability index score along with a 28-point change in her headache disability index score. Thus, it appears that subsequent four sessions of DN over two weeks, our patient experienced meaningful improvement in her neck pain and headaches. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report describing DN to successfully improve clinical outcomes in a patient diagnosed with occipital neuralgia.

  8. Coexistence of occipital and infratorcular meningocele with cervical split cord anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyar, Orhan; Ismailoglu, Ozgur; Albayrak, Baki

    2012-07-01

    In this case report, we present an 18-year-old girl with occipital and infratorcular meningocele and coexisting split cervical cord. She had been admitted into the hospital for cosmetic considerations due to an inborn swelling in the back of the head and neck. Her mental status and neurologic examination were surprisingly intact. We discuss a very rare case of meningocele associated with split cord anomaly in the light of the current literature.

  9. Recruitment of occipital cortex during sensory substitution training linked to subjective experience of seeing in people with blindness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Ortiz

    Full Text Available Over three months of intensive training with a tactile stimulation device, 18 blind and 10 blindfolded seeing subjects improved in their ability to identify geometric figures by touch. Seven blind subjects spontaneously reported 'visual qualia', the subjective sensation of seeing flashes of light congruent with tactile stimuli. In the latter subjects tactile stimulation evoked activation of occipital cortex on electroencephalography (EEG. None of the blind subjects who failed to experience visual qualia, despite identical tactile stimulation training, showed EEG recruitment of occipital cortex. None of the blindfolded seeing humans reported visual-like sensations during tactile stimulation. These findings support the notion that the conscious experience of seeing is linked to the activation of occipital brain regions in people with blindness. Moreover, the findings indicate that provision of visual information can be achieved through non-visual sensory modalities which may help to minimize the disability of blind individuals, affording them some degree of object recognition and navigation aid.

  10. Stereoscopic vision in the absence of the lateral occipital cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny C A Read

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Both dorsal and ventral cortical visual streams contain neurons sensitive to binocular disparities, but the two streams may underlie different aspects of stereoscopic vision. Here we investigate stereopsis in the neurological patient D.F., whose ventral stream, specifically lateral occipital cortex, has been damaged bilaterally, causing profound visual form agnosia. Despite her severe damage to cortical visual areas, we report that DF's stereo vision is strikingly unimpaired. She is better than many control observers at using binocular disparity to judge whether an isolated object appears near or far, and to resolve ambiguous structure-from-motion. DF is, however, poor at using relative disparity between features at different locations across the visual field. This may stem from a difficulty in identifying the surface boundaries where relative disparity is available. We suggest that the ventral processing stream may play a critical role in enabling healthy observers to extract fine depth information from relative disparities within one surface or between surfaces located in different parts of the visual field.

  11. Occipital condyle to cervical spine fixation in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosnik-Infinger, Libby; Glazier, Steven S; Frankel, Bruce M

    2014-01-01

    Fixation at the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) is necessary in a variety of pediatric clinical scenarios. Traditionally an occipital bone to cervical fusion is preformed, which requires a large amount of hardware to be placed on the occiput of a child. If a patient has previously undergone a posterior fossa decompression or requires a decompression at the time of the fusion procedure, it can be difficult to anchor a plate to the occipital bone. The authors propose a technique that can be used when faced with this difficult challenge by using the occipital condyle as a point of fixation for the construct. Adult cadaveric and a limited number of case studies have been published using occipital condyle (C-0) fixation. This work was adapted for the pediatric population. Between 2009 and 2012, 4 children underwent occipital condyle to axial or subaxial spine fixation. One patient had previously undergone posterior fossa surgery for tumor resection, and 1 required decompression at the time of operation. Two patients underwent preoperative deformity reduction using traction. One child had a Chiari malformation Type I. Each procedure was performed using polyaxial screw-rod constructs with intraoperative neuronavigation supplemented by a custom navigational drill guide. Smooth-shanked 3.5-mm polyaxial screws, ranging in length from 26 to 32 mm, were placed into the occipital condyles. All patients successfully underwent occipital condyle to cervical spine fixation. In 3 patients the construct extended from C-0 to C-2, and in 1 from C-0 to T-2. Patients with preoperative halo stabilization were placed in a cervical collar postoperatively. There were no new postoperative neurological deficits or vascular injuries. Each patient underwent postoperative CT, demonstrating excellent screw placement and evidence of solid fusion. Occipital condyle fixation is an effective option in pediatric patients requiring occipitocervical fusion for treatment of deformity and/or instability at

  12. Benign occipital lobe seizures: Natural progression and atypical evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithika Chary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign occipital seizure syndromes are benign childhood epilepsy syndromes and are mainly of two types, Panayiotopoulos syndrome, an autonomic epilepsy and idiopathic childhood occipital epilepsy of Gastaut (ICOE-G including the idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy. Although both these types are categorized as occipital seizures, they are distinct in presentation and management. They can also be tricky to diagnose as visual symptoms may not always be the presenting feature and it is also not very easy to elicit visual hallucinations during history taking. These seizures have a good response to treatment; however, there could be atypical evolution and refractoriness to treatment especially with ICOE-G. We describe three children who presented with visual and non-visual symptoms and the electroencephalography (EEG in all the three cases showed occipital paroxysms. We have emphasized the clues in the clinical history and EEG leading to the diagnosis of these distinct epilepsy syndromes. We have also discussed the natural course of these epilepsy syndromes with some atypical evolution, which clinicians need to be aware of during treatment of these children.

  13. Parieto-occipital suppression eliminates implicit bidirectionality in grapheme-colour synaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothen, Nicolas; Nyffeler, Thomas; von Wartburg, Roman; Müri, René; Meier, Beat

    2010-10-01

    Synaesthesia is a condition in which the input of one sensory modality triggers extraordinary additional experiences. On an explicit level, subjects affected by this condition normally report unidirectional experiences. In grapheme-colour synaesthesia for example, the letter A printed in black may trigger a red colour experience but not vice versa. However on an implicit level, at least for some types of synaesthesia, bidirectional activation is possible. In this study we tested whether bidirectional implicit activation is mediated by the same brain areas as explicit synaesthetic experiences. Specifically, we demonstrated suppression of implicit bidirectional activation with the application of transcranial magnetic stimulation over parieto-occipital brain areas. Our findings indicate that parieto-occipital regions are not only involved in explicit but also implicit synaesthetic binding. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Human V4 and ventral occipital retinotopic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winawer, Jonathan; Witthoft, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    The ventral surface of the human occipital lobe contains multiple retinotopic maps. The most posterior of these maps is considered a potential homolog of macaque V4, and referred to as human V4 (‘hV4’). The location of the hV4 map, its retinotopic organization, its role in visual encoding, and the cortical areas it borders have been the subject of considerable investigation and debate over the last 25 years. We review the history of this map and adjacent maps in ventral occipital cortex, and consider the different hypotheses for how these ventral occipital maps are organized. Advances in neuroimaging, computational modeling, and characterization of the nearby anatomical landmarks and functional brain areas have improved our understanding of where human V4 is and what kind of visual representations it contains. PMID:26241699

  15. Fetal transient occipital bone protuberance during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Ori; Bronshtein, Moshe

    2010-09-01

    To describe the prenatal sonographic findings and pregnancy outcome of fetuses with transient occipital bone protuberance (TOBP). Five fetuses with TOBP were identified at routine 14 to 15 weeks ultrasound. The sonographic examination was repeated during pregnancy and the neonates were examined after birth. The occipital bone protuberance disappeared by 24 weeks in all five cases, and the postnatal examination of the skull was normal. Isolated TOBP is rare during early pregnancy. Ultrasound follow-up is suggested and disappearance of the lesion can be expected in most, if not all the cases with normal skull at birth. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Outcomes of greater occipital nerve injections in pediatric patients with chronic primary headache disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Amy A; Reider, Amanda C; Goadsby, Peter J

    2014-02-01

    Chronic migraine is common in pediatrics and generally disabling. In adults, infiltration of the area around the greater occipital nerve can provide short- to medium-term benefit in some patients. This study reports the efficacy of greater occipital nerve infiltrations in pediatric patients with chronic primary headache disorders. Retrospective chart review of patients headache disorder undergoing a first-time injection. Infiltrations were unilateral and consisted of a mixture of methylprednisolone acetate, adjusted for weight, and lidocaine 2%. Forty-six patients were treated. Thirty-five (76%) had chronic migraine, 9 (20%) new daily persistent headache (NDPH), and 2 (4%) a chronic trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia. Medication overuse was present in 26%. Ages ranged from 7 to 17 years. Follow-up data were available for 40 (87%). Overall, 53% (21/40) benefitted, and 52% (11/21) benefitted significantly. Benefit onset ranged from 0 to 14 days, mean 4.7 (SD 4.3), with mean benefit duration of 5.4 (SD 4.9) weeks. In chronic migraine, 62% (18/29) benefitted, and 56% (10/18) significantly benefitted. In NDPH, 33% (3/9) benefitted; 33% (n = 1) significantly. Neither child with a chronic trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia benefitted. In logistic regression modeling, medication overuse, age, sex, and sensory change in the distribution of the infiltrated nerve did not predict outcome. There were no serious side effects. Greater occipital nerve injections benefitted 53% of pediatric patients with chronic primary headache disorders. Efficacy appeared greater in chronic migraine than NDPH. Given the benign side effect profile, a greater occipital nerve infiltration seems appropriate before more aggressive approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Coherent activity in bilateral parieto-occipital cortices during P300-BCI operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouji eTakano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The visual P300 brain computer interface (BCI, a popular system for EEG-based BCI, uses the P300 event-related potential to select an icon arranged in a flicker matrix. In earlier studies, we used green/blue luminance and chromatic changes in the P300 BCI system and reported that this luminance and chromatic flicker matrix was associated with better performance and greater subject comfort compared with the conventional white/gray luminance flicker matrix. To highlight areas involved in improved P300-BCI performance, we used simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings and showed enhanced activities in bilateral and right lateralized parieto-occipital areas. Here, to capture coherent activities of the areas during P300-BCI, we collected whole-head 306-channel MEG data. When comparing functional connectivity between the right and left parieto-occipital channels, significantly greater functional connectivity in the alpha band was observed under the green/blue flicker matrix condition than under the white/gray flicker matrix condition. Current sources were estimated with a narrow-band adaptive spatial filter, and mean imaginary coherence (MIC was computed in the alpha band. Significantly greater coherence was observed in the right posterior parietal cortex under the green/blue than under the white/gray condition. Reanalysis of previous EEG-based P300-BCI data showed significant correlations between the power of the coherence of the bilateral parieto-occipital cortices and their performance accuracy. These results suggest that coherent activity in the bilateral parieto-occipital cortices plays a significant role in effectively driving the P300-BCI.

  18. Reading epilepsy from the dominant temporo-occipital region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaret, Martine; Guedj, Eric; Koessler, Laurent; Trébuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnès; Aubert, Sandrine; Mundler, Olivier; Chauvel, Patrick; Bartolomei, Fabrice

    2010-07-01

    Reading epilepsy is a rare form of epilepsy, classified among idiopathic, age- and localisation-related (partial) epilepsies as a reflex epilepsy syndrome. Seizures usually consist of myoclonic jerks restricted to the jaw. However, distinct ictal features including visual symptoms and paroxysmal a- or dyslexia are described in some patients. The anatomical substrate of ictogenesis in reading epilepsy remains poorly understood. The authors report here the case of a primary reading epilepsy for which ictal semiology was characterised by visual symptoms and dyslexia, investigated by MRI, interictal high-resolution EEG and PET, ictal video-EEG and SPECT. Brain MRI was normal. Interictal high-resolution EEG was performed with 64 scalp channels, a realistic head model and different algorithms to solve the inverse problem. Interictal source localisations highlighted the left occipito-temporal junction. Interictal PET demonstrated bilateral occipito-temporal hypometabolism with left-sided predominance. Ictal EEG showed a rhythmic discharge in left temporo-parieto-occipital junction channels, with left occipito-temporal predominance. MRI fusion of the coregistered subtraction between ictal and interictal SPECT individualised relative hyperperfusion affecting (a) the left occipito-parietal junction area, (b) the left lateral middle and inferior temporal gyri and (c) the left inferior frontal area. Besides reading-induced myoclonic jerks of the jaw, a second variant of reading epilepsy exists with clearly partial seizures manifested by visual symptoms and a- or dyslexia. These seizures originate from the occipito-temporal region of the dominant hemisphere, corresponding to the posterior part of the neural network that underlies the function of reading.

  19. Benign Occipital Epilepsies of Childhood: Clinical Features and Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Isabella; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Kivity, Sara; Scheffer, Ingrid E.

    2008-01-01

    The early and late benign occipital epilepsies of childhood (BOEC) are described as two discrete electro-clinical syndromes, eponymously known as Panayiotopoulos and Gastaut syndromes. Our aim was to explore the clinical features, classification and clinical genetics of these syndromes using twin and multiplex family studies to determine whether…

  20. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nancy Mohamed El Sekily

    2014-08-19

    Aug 19, 2014 ... Figure 1. A photograph of right half of head and neck specimen (posterior view) showing the greater occipital nerve (GON) emerging on the lower border of inferior oblique(IO) muscle in suboccipital triangle before piercing semispinalis capitis(SSC). (RC: rectus capitis minor and major –TR: trapezius). 200.

  1. Seizure semiology of occipital lobe epilepsy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Hout, B M; Van der Meij, W; Wieneke, G H; Van Huffelen, A C; Van Nieuwenhuizen, O

    1997-11-01

    Occipital lobe epilepsy in children occurs as an idiopathic form, i.e., Benign Epilepsy with Occipital Paroxysms (BEOP), and a symptomatic form. This study attempted to determine whether seizure semiology could distinguish between the two forms. Fifty children (34 boys, 16 girls) with clinical seizures and interictal EEGs presenting occipital spikes were included consecutively in the study. Seizure onset was between the ages of 2 months and 15 years. Epilepsy was considered symptomatic when psychomotor retardation and/or abnormalities at neurological and/or neuroradiological examination were found: 17 children were classified as idiopathic, and the remaining 33 children were classified as symptomatic. Seizure semiology was assessed by means of a structured interview of the children and their parents, using a detailed questionnaire. Seizure semiology was determined to comprise motor (versive or other movements of the eyes, versive movements of the head, (hemiconvulsions), visual, other signs (e.g. vomiting and headache), and impairment of consciousness. There were no statistically significant differences in seizure semiology between the two groups. Seizure semiology cannot distinguish between different forms of occipital lobe epilepsy: Further clinical examination, clinical neurophysiological investigations, and neuroimaging studies are needed for a correct classification.

  2. Unconscious errors enhance prefrontal-occipital oscillatory synchrony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael X Cohen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (MFC is critical for our ability to learn from previous mistakes. Here we provide evidence that neurophysiological oscillatory long-range synchrony is a mechanism of post-error adaptation that occurs even without conscious awareness of the error. During a visually signaled Go/No-Go task in which half of the No-Go cues were masked and thus not consciously perceived, response errors enhanced tonic (i.e., over 1-2 seconds oscillatory synchrony between MFC and occipital cortex leading up to and during the subsequent trial. Spectral Granger causality analyses demonstrated that MFC >  occipital cortex directional synchrony was enhanced during trials following both conscious and unconscious errors, whereas transient stimulus-induced occipital >  MFC directional synchrony was independent of errors in the previous trial. Further, the strength of pre-trial MFC-occipital synchrony predicted individual differences in task performance. Together, these findings suggest that synchronous neurophysiological oscillations are a plausible mechanism of MFC-driven cognitive control that is independent of conscious awareness.

  3. Occipital GABA correlates with cognitive failures in daily life☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Kristian; Blicher, Jakob Udby; Dong, Mia Yuan; Rees, Geraint; Near, Jamie; Kanai, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    The brain has limited capacity, and so selective attention enhances relevant incoming information while suppressing irrelevant information. This process is not always successful, and the frequency of such cognitive failures varies to a large extent between individuals. Here we hypothesised that individual differences in cognitive failures might be reflected in inhibitory processing in the sensory cortex. To test this hypothesis, we measured GABA in human visual cortex using MR spectroscopy and found a negative correlation between occipital GABA (GABA +/Cr ratio) and cognitive failures as measured by an established cognitive failures questionnaire (CFQ). For a second site in parietal cortex, no correlation between CFQ score and GABA +/Cr ratio was found, thus establishing the regional specificity of the link between occipital GABA and cognitive failures. We further found that grey matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule (SPL) correlated with cognitive failures independently from the impact of occipital GABA and together, occipital GABA and SPL grey matter volume statistically explained around 50% of the individual variability in daily cognitive failures. We speculate that the amount of GABA in sensory areas may reflect the potential capacity to selectively suppress irrelevant information already at the sensory level, or alternatively that GABA influences the specificity of neural representations in visual cortex thus improving the effectiveness of successful attentional modulation. PMID:24188817

  4. Occipital GABA correlates with cognitive failures in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Kristian; Blicher, Jakob Udby; Dong, Mia Yuan; Rees, Geraint; Near, Jamie; Kanai, Ryota

    2014-02-15

    The brain has limited capacity, and so selective attention enhances relevant incoming information while suppressing irrelevant information. This process is not always successful, and the frequency of such cognitive failures varies to a large extent between individuals. Here we hypothesised that individual differences in cognitive failures might be reflected in inhibitory processing in the sensory cortex. To test this hypothesis, we measured GABA in human visual cortex using MR spectroscopy and found a negative correlation between occipital GABA (GABA+/Cr ratio) and cognitive failures as measured by an established cognitive failures questionnaire (CFQ). For a second site in parietal cortex, no correlation between CFQ score and GABA+/Cr ratio was found, thus establishing the regional specificity of the link between occipital GABA and cognitive failures. We further found that grey matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule (SPL) correlated with cognitive failures independently from the impact of occipital GABA and together, occipital GABA and SPL grey matter volume statistically explained around 50% of the individual variability in daily cognitive failures. We speculate that the amount of GABA in sensory areas may reflect the potential capacity to selectively suppress irrelevant information already at the sensory level, or alternatively that GABA influences the specificity of neural representations in visual cortex thus improving the effectiveness of successful attentional modulation. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [A patient with prosopagnosia which developed after an infarction in the left occipital lobe in addition to an old infarction in the right occipital lobe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Keisuke; Satoh, Akira; Satoh, Hideyo; Seto, Makiko; Ochi, Makoto; Tsujihata, Mitsuhiro

    2011-05-01

    A 66-year-old, right-handed male, was admitted to our hospital with difficulty in recognizing faces and colors. He had suffered a stroke in the right occipital region three years earlier that had induced left homonymous hemianopsia, but not prosopagnosia. A neurological examination revealed prosopagnosia, color agnosia, constructional apraxia, and topographical disorientation, but not either hemineglect or dressing apraxia. The patient was unable to distinguish faces of familiar persons such as his family and friends, as well as those of unfamiliar persons such as doctors and nurses. Brain MRI demonstrated an old infarction in the right medial occipital lobe and a new hemorrhagic infarction in the left medial occipital lobe, including the fusiform and lingual gyrus. It is unclear whether a purely right medial occipital lesion can be responsible for prosopagnosia, or whether bilateral medial occipital lesions are necessary for this occurrence. The current case indicated that bilateral medial occipital lesions play an important role in inducing porsopagnosia.

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. The complex history of the fronto-occipital fasciculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmahmann, Jeremy D; Pandya, Deepak N

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the history of the fronto-occipital fasciculus (FOF) and related tracts in the cerebral white matter because of their contemporary relevance for connectional neuroanatomy, magnetic resonance tractography, and clinical neurology. The term "FOF" originated with Forel and Onufrowicz who misidentified aberrant longitudinally oriented callosal fibers in patients with callosal agenesis. This error was soon recognized, and Dejerine described an actual FOF linking frontal and occipital lobes, but gross dissection and lesion-degeneration methods could not distinguish the FOF from the subcallosal fasciculus of Muratoff and neighboring white matter bundles. Subsequent descriptions of a probably nonexistent "inferior FOF" have led to the FOF being misnamed post-hoc "superior FOF," and other imprecise anatomical concepts and terminologies from the early literature are still perpetuated. Our analysis of brain fiber pathways using isotope anterograde tract tracers (Schmahmann & Pandya, 2006) resolves the earlier uncertainties and provides hypotheses regarding functions of these fiber pathways.

  15. Large occipital aneurysmal bone cyst causing obstructive hydrocephalus in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Brian R; Petteys, Rory J; Rossi, Christopher T; Keating, Robert F; Magge, Suresh N

    2012-12-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an uncommon benign, tumorlike lesion of bone that is usually located in the long bones and spine. On rare occasions, ABCs are found in the bones of the cranial vault and skull base, occasionally causing mass effect and cranial nerve findings. In this report the authors detail the case of a patient who presented with incidentally discovered hydrocephalus due to a large ABC of the occipital bone that produced mass effect and obstruction of CSF. The diagnosis, imaging findings, and surgical management of this interesting and rare case are discussed.

  16. Decreased occipital cortical glutamate levels in response to successful cognitive-behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy for major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Chadi G; Niciu, Mark J; Fenton, Lisa R; Fasula, Madonna K; Jiang, Lihong; Black, Anne; Rothman, Douglas L; Mason, Graeme F; Sanacora, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that antidepressant medication and electroconvulsive therapy increase occipital cortical γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in major depressive disorder (MDD), but a small pilot study failed to show a similar effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on occipital GABA. In light of these findings we sought to determine if baseline GABA levels predict treatment response and to broaden the analysis to other metabolites and neurotransmitters in this larger study. A total of 40 MDD outpatients received baseline proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and 30 subjects completed both pre- and post-CBT 1H-MRS; 9 CBT nonresponders completed an open-label medication phase followed by an additional/3rd 1H-MRS. The magnitude of treatment response was correlated with occipital amino acid neurotransmitter levels. Baseline GABA did not predict treatment outcome. Furthermore, there was no significant effect of CBT on GABA levels. However, we found a significant group × time interaction (F1, 28 = 6.30, p = 0.02), demonstrating reduced glutamate in CBT responders, with no significant glutamate change in CBT nonresponders. These findings corroborate the lack of effect of successful CBT on occipital cortical GABA levels in a larger sample. A reduction in glutamate levels following treatment, on the other hand, correlated with successful CBT and antidepressant medication response. Based on this finding and other reports, decreased occipital glutamate may be an antidepressant response biomarker. Healthy control comparator and nonintervention groups may shed light on the sensitivity and specificity of these results.

  17. Failure of ossification of the occipital bone in mandibuloacral dysplasia type B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haye, Damien; Dridi, Hend; Levy, Jonathan; Lambert, Véronique; Lambert, Maurice; Agha, Mohamed; Adjimi, Frédéric; Kohlhase, Jürgen; Lipsker, Dan; Verloes, Alain

    2016-10-01

    Mandibuloacral dysplasia with type B lipodystrophy is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by atrophic skin, lipodystrophy, and skeletal features. It is caused by mutations in ZMPSTE24, a gene encoding a zinc metalloproteinase involved in the post-translational modification of lamin. Nine distinct pathogenic variants have been identified in 11 patients from nine unrelated families with this disorder. We report a 12-year-old boy with mandibuloacral dysplasia with type B lipodystrophy and a novel homozygous c.1196A>G; p.(Tyr399Cys) mutation in ZMPSTE24. The patient had typical dermatological and skeletal features of mandibuloacral dysplasia with type B lipodystrophy, sparse hair, short stature, mild microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, and a striking failure of ossification of the interparietal region of the occipital bone, up to the position where transverse occipital suture can be observed. Newly recognized signs for mandibuloacral dysplasia with type B lipodystrophy were gaze palsy and ptosis. Delayed closure of cranial sutures and Wormian bones have been described in three patients, but an ossification failure strictly limited to the occipital bone, as seen in the present patient, appears to be unique for mandibuloacral dysplasia with type B lipodystrophy. This observation illustrates that ZMPSTE24 could play a specific role in membranous ossification in the interparietal part of the squama (Inca bone) but not in the intracartilaginous ossification of the supraoccipital. This failure of ossification in the squama appears to be a useful feature for the radiological diagnosis of mandibuloacral dysplasia with type B lipodystrophy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Vertebral artery dissection complicating occipital injection of heparin for treatment of thoracic outlet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinek, Judy; Hart, Amy P

    2012-03-01

    A 38-year-old woman with a 2-year history of chronic neck pain radiating down her right arm underwent radiological and neurological evaluations, which revealed no anatomical cause for her pain. She sought alternative therapies including intramuscular heparin injections. Following a right occipital injection of heparin, cyanocobalamin, and lidocaine, she had a sudden cardiorespiratory arrest and was successfully resuscitated, but did not regain consciousness.Computed tomography of the head and neck and subsequent autopsy revealed a right vertebral artery dissection, but at autopsy, no significant subarachnoid hemorrhage was noted at the base of the brain. This is the first case report where heparin (a potent anticoagulant) used in an occipital injection was documented to cause a vertebral artery dissection. It is also the first reported case where radiographically and histologically documented vertebral artery dissection did not present with overwhelming subarachnoid hemorrhage at the base of the brain. The subtle gross anatomical findings in this case highlight the importance of evaluating the cervical spinal cord in any case of sudden cardiorespiratory arrest following even apparently minor neck injury.

  19. Pediatric giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath of the craniocervical junction involving the occipital condyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin Mo; Chang, Jong Hee; Kim, Sun Ho; Lee, Kyu Sung

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCTTS), also called pigmented villonodular synovitis, is a common lesion of the synovial membrane of the hand joint, but it uncommonly involves the axial skeleton, especially in pediatric populations. Furthermore, GCTTS originating from the occipital condyle has not been reported previously. A 15-year-old girl presented with a palpable neck mass for 1 year, and imaging studies revealed a less demarcated and heterogeneously enhanced mass in the suboccipital region. The tumor was originating from the occipital condyle that eroded the skull and atlas, and it was completely resected via a far lateral transcondylar approach followed by transarticular screw fixation. After the resection, we performed occipitocervical fusion to prevent spinal instability. The patient made an uneventful recovery after surgery. Recurrence has not been observed after 5 years of follow-up. We report this rare case and briefly review the general features and unusual locations of GCTTS with recommendations for treatment modalities.

  20. "Seeing but not identifying": pure alexia coincident with prosopagnosia in occipital arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Chi; Wang, An-Guor; Yen, May-Yung

    2011-07-01

    Pure alexia and prosopagnosia are two separate and uncommon disorders of visual recognition in neuro-ophthalmology. We report an extremely rare case of pure alexia coincident with prosopagnosia secondary to occipital arteriovenous malformation. The manifestations of these two visual recognition disorders are also described. A 35-year-old, left-handed women had suffered from severe blurred vision when recognizing her family's faces and was unable to read or associate separate parts of a word into a whole word. Her visual field revealed slight right homonymous hemianopia. Computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance images were arranged and vertebral angiography confirmed the diagnosis of left occipital arteriovenous malformation. Gamma-knife stereoscopic radiotherapy was performed. Two months after the treatment, the ability to recognize faces and read improved and the visual field recovered. Ophthalmologists should keep in mind that usual complaints of "blurred vision" might correlate with unusual visual recognition disorders. Pure alexia and prosopagnosia have not been reported to occur together and the left-handed- dominance in our case leads to this scarce concurrence.

  1. A novel nonsense ATP7A pathogenic variant in a family exhibiting a variable occipital horn syndrome phenotype

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    Maria Teresa Bonati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on a family with occipital horn syndrome (OHS diagnosed in the proband's late fifties. A novel ATP7A pathogenic variant (c.4222A>T, p.(Lys1408*, representing the first nonsense variant and the second late truncation causing OHS rather than classic Menkes disease, was found to segregate in the family. The predicted maintenance of transmembrane domains is consistent with a residual protein activity, which may explain the mild clinical presentation.

  2. Parieto-occipital cortex shows early target selection to faces in a reflexive orienting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, Stéphanie M; Harvey, Monika; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène

    2014-04-01

    It is well established that human faces induce stronger involuntary orienting responses than other visual objects. Yet, the timing of this preferential orienting response at the neural level is still unknown. Here, we used an antisaccade paradigm to investigate the neural dynamics preceding the onset of reflexive and voluntary saccades elicited by human faces and nonface visual objects, normalized for their global low-level visual properties. High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in observers as they performed interleaved pro- and antisaccades toward a lateralized target. For reflexive saccades, we report an ERP modulation specific to faces as early as 40-60 ms following stimulus onset over parieto-occipital sites, further predicting the speed of saccade execution. This was not linked to differences in the programming of the saccadic eye movements, as it occurred early in time. For the first time, we present electrophysiological evidence of early target selection to faces in reflexive orienting responses over parieto-occipital cortex that facilitates the triggering of saccades toward faces. We argue for a 2-stage process in the representation of a face in involuntary spatial orienting with an initial, rapid implicit processing of the visual properties of a face, followed by subsequent stimulus categorization depicted by the N170 component.

  3. Injury Threshold of Rectus Capitis Muscles at the Atlanto-occipital Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Richard C

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to collect muscle stiffness data from the 4 rectus capitis (RC) muscles to better understand their role in stabilizing the atlanto-occipital joint. The passive load displacement properties of these muscles have not been previously reported. Rectus capitis muscles were removed from 3 unembalmed head and neck specimens. Passive length-force (stiffness) data were collected by using a servo-controlled hydraulic test machine. Multivariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction was used to assess the significance of the differences among passive stiffness within the elastic region of each muscle and the load and strain at the yield points. Rectus capitis lateralis (RCL) muscles failed at significantly higher levels of load and strain compared with the other 3 pairs of muscles. Passive stiffness of both RCL and RC anterior muscles was significantly higher than the other 2 pairs of muscles. The anatomic location of the RCL muscles, along with their high levels of passive stiffness, would be expected to facilitate the maintenance of atlanto-occipital joint congruence during normal daily activities. The level at which the RC posterior minor muscles failed could put them at risk of a strain injury during a rear end motor vehicle accident. Diagnostic and treatment protocols that apply forces to the upper cervical spine should be tailored to consider the patient's age, gender, and history of previous injuries to avoid overstretching RC muscles. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Conceito anátomo-fisiológico do lobo occipital Functional anatomy of the occipital lobe

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    M. Caetano de Barros

    1972-03-01

    Full Text Available Apenas do ponto de vista estritamente anatômico o lobo occipital pode ser delimitado com relativa facilidade. Aparentemente constitui uma unidade morfológica, séde de estruturas basicamente relacionados com a percepção visual, aí entendidos também certos mecanismos integrativos óculo-motores que, em última análise, não são senão componentes dêste complexo fenômeno perceptivo. Depois de revistos alguns detalhes da anatomia convencional do lobo occipital (limites, área cortical estriada, peri-estriada e para-estriada é feita uma tentativa, à base de estudo da literatura, no sentido de indicar as principais conexões destas áreas (radiações ópticas, feixes de associação, fibras de projeção e fibras comissurais com diferentes estruturas do sistema nervoso central. A vascularização do lobo occipital é revisada com o auxílio de preparações anátomo-radiológicas seriadas e seletivas de diferentes troncos arteriais, nas quais se constatam intercomunicações entre os setores "terminais" dos sistemas das artérias cerebral posterior, média e anterior. Algumas variações morfológicas dos cornos occipitais são também postas em evidência com recursos de técnicas anátomo-radiológicas. Todavia, dados puramente anatômicos não são suficientes para compreensão das funções psico-fisiológicas do lobo occipital que pode ser conceituado como parte de um sistema perceptivo — o sistema óptico — altamente complexo, funcionando integradamente com múltiplos sectores do sistema nervoso e envolvendo diferentes mecanismos. Muito provàvelmente êste sistema, à maneira de muitos outros sistemas biológicos, está composto de vários circuitos mutuamente conjugados agindo sob o princípio de servo-mecanismos, devendo sua ação ser encaixada dentro do conceito das "totalidades" (Gestalten, cuja funcionalidade não deriva da soma dos seus componentes, mas da relação funcional que estes mantém entre sí para a atua

  5. Acoustic noise improves visual perception and modulates occipital oscillatory states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiss, Stephanie; Kayser, Christoph

    2014-04-01

    Perception is a multisensory process, and previous work has shown that multisensory interactions occur not only for object-related stimuli but also for simplistic and apparently unrelated inputs to the different senses. We here compare the facilitation of visual perception induced by transient (target-synchronized) sounds to the facilitation provided by continuous background noise like sounds. Specifically, we show that continuous acoustic noise improves visual contrast detection by systematically shifting psychometric curves in an amplitude-dependent manner. This multisensory benefit was found to be both qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that induced by a transient and target synchronized sound in the same paradigm. Studying the underlying neural mechanisms using electric neuroimaging (EEG), we found that acoustic noise alters occipital alpha (8-12 Hz) power and decreases beta-band (14-20 Hz) coupling of occipital and temporal sites. Task-irrelevant and continuous sounds thereby have an amplitude-dependent effect on cortical mechanisms implicated in shaping visual cortical excitability. The same oscillatory mechanisms also mediate visual facilitation by transient sounds, and our results suggest that task-related sounds and task-irrelevant background noises could induce perceptually and mechanistically similar enhancement of visual perception. Given the omnipresence of sounds and noises in our environment, such multisensory interactions may affect perception in many everyday scenarios.

  6. [Brain neuroplasticity in occipital areas in blind teenagers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, T; Poch-Broto, J; Requena, C; Santos, J M; Martínez, A; Barcia-Albacar, J A

    2010-03-03

    Neuroplasticity is a process by which neurons increase their connectivity with other neurons in a stable fashion as a consequence of experience, learning and both sensitive and cognitive stimulation. Different authors have shown a huge process of brain plasticity in blind subjects towards other sensorial areas, mainly auditive and visual ones. From an anatomical standpoint many data show significant differences in blind subjects brains, mainly in visual pathways and structures as a result of lack of activity on those areas. This brings a lesser neuroplasticity and, therefore, a decrease in structural volumes. They have also found differences in subcortical structures volumes related to vision, such as splenium or corpus callosum istmus. An adolescent was administered passive tactile stimulation with an 1,500 taxels stimulator. This was carried out daily for an hour, for three months, and stimulation consisted of vertical, horizontal and oblique lines. The results obtained in an adolescent indicate a clear progression of EEG activity from tactile sensory parietal areas to visual occipital ones as stimulation progresses. Therefore one can speculate if systematic and organized repetition of tactile stimuli in blind subjects leads to a greater neuroplasticity which expands towards occipital areas, largely responsible for human vision.

  7. Left hemispatial visual neglect associated with a combined right occipital and splenial lesion: another disconnection syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Key Chung; Jeong, Yong; Lee, Byung Hwa; Kim, Eun-Joo; Kim, Gyung Moon; Heilman, Kenneth M; Na, Duk L

    2005-10-01

    Damage to the left occipital lobe and the splenium or forceps major is often associated with pure alexia, thought to be an occipital-temporoparietal disconnection syndrome. A patient with the parallel lesion, a combined right occipital and splenial lesion, showed severe left-sided visual spatial neglect, but no significant neglect in other sensory modalities. This visual neglect might be related to a disconnection between the visual information processed by the left occipital lobe and the right posterior temporal-inferior parietal areas that mediate attention in the left hemispace.

  8. [Congenital solitary infantile myofibroma: report of two cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasso Betancor, C E; Vázquez Rueda, F; Vargas Cruz, V; Ayala Montoro, J; Ruiz, Hierro C; Gómez Beltrán, O

    2011-08-01

    The infantile myofibromatosis is a rare pathology usually affecting children under 2 years. More than half are congenital, located in head and neck in a 30% of the cases. Myofibroma is a benign mesenchymal tumor that appear an isolated lesion or multiple, with or without visceral involvement. Case 1: A newborn girl that presents lump in scalp suspected of encefalocele. Ultrasound and RM: solid and heterogeneous mass 4 x 2 cm with increased peripheral vascularisation. Case 2: A 7-month-old baby boy with lump in right occipital zone detected at 4 months. Ultrasound and RM: injury 1 x 1.5 cm in head esplenio muscle suggestive of hemangioma. After surgical total resection, the histological study and immunohistochemical identified the lesion as myofibroma. The evaluation of disease dissemination was normal and the recovery of the patients was favorable. The differential diagnosis of myofibroma must be carried out with other mesenchymal tumors and with non neoplastic injuries characteristics of the region affects. The visceral location and multiple forms worsen the prognosis, so is important do an exhaustive study. Treatment is conservative surgery, but if there is no risk to the child, the possibility of spontaneous regression makes the abstention therapeutic a correct alternative.

  9. Diagnóstico clínico e radiográfico de luxação traumática da articulação atlanto-occipital em dois cães Clinical and radiographic diagnosis of traumatic dislocation of the atlanto-occipital joint in two dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Araújo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A luxação da articulação atlanto-occipital é considerada uma afecção incomum no homem e nos animais. Radiografias laterais são recomendadas para o diagnóstico. No entanto, estão sujeitas a erros relacionados ao ângulo de radiação, ao alvo da imagem, à distância e à sobreposição óssea. Objetivou-se neste relato descrever os achados clínicos e radiográficos de dois cães com luxação traumática da articulação atlanto-occipital que apresentavam tetraparesia, dor cervical cranial, incapacidade de elevar a cabeça e déficits de nervos cranianos. No primeiro animal, observaram-se deslocamento craniodorsal do processo articular do atlas em relação a um dos côndilos do occipital, ausência de sobreposição dos forames vertebrais laterais e sobreposição do côndilo do occipital ao processo articular do atlas, no lado direito, caracterizando uma luxação unilateral. No segundo animal, observou-se deslocamento craniodorsal dos processos articulares do atlas em relação aos côndilos do occipital, com sobreposição dos forames vertebrais laterais e ausência de visibilização dos côndilos do occipital em virtude da projeção cranial dos processos articulares do atlas em direção ao crânio, caracterizando luxação bilateral. Conclui-se que o exame radiográfico simples, nas projeções laterolateral e ventrodorsal, apesar da dificuldade de ser interpretado, é eficiente para confirmar o diagnóstico da luxação atlanto-occipital traumática, tanto a simétrica quanto a assimétrica.Atlanto-occipital luxation is considered rare in both humans and animals. Lateral radiographs are recommended for diagnosis, however, errors may occur related to the angle of radiation, image target, distance and overlapping of bone. Our objective is to report the clinical and radiographic findings in two dogs with traumatic atlanto-occipital luxation, which had tetraparesis, cranial neck pain, and inability to raise the head and cranial

  10. A Rare Occipital Condyle Fracture in a Patient With A Minor Head Injury

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    Da-Wei Huang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Occipital condyle fracture (OCF is an uncommon but potentially fatal disease entity. It is most commonly identified in patients suffering from severe craniocerebral trauma. The advent of computed tomography has made early detection possible. Traditional treatment using a hard neck collar is sufficient to produce solid fusion in most OCF patients. Delayed diagnosis, however, may result in neurologic deterioration due to potential displacement of fractured condylar fragments. Here we report a case of isolated, stable OCF in a patient with a minor head injury. A high level of clinical awareness of this rare disease entity is imperative for the management of traumatized patients, especially for those who have minor head injuries but persistent neck pain.

  11. Human Occipital and Parietal GABA Selectively Influence Visual Perception of Orientation and Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chen; Sandberg, Kristian; Andersen, Lau Møller; Blicher, Jakob Udby; Rees, Geraint

    2017-09-13

    GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in human brain. The level of GABA varies substantially across individuals, and this variability is associated with interindividual differences in visual perception. However, it remains unclear whether the association between GABA level and visual perception reflects a general influence of visual inhibition or whether the GABA levels of different cortical regions selectively influence perception of different visual features. To address this, we studied how the GABA levels of parietal and occipital cortices related to interindividual differences in size, orientation, and brightness perception. We used visual contextual illusion as a perceptual assay since the illusion dissociates perceptual content from stimulus content and the magnitude of the illusion reflects the effect of visual inhibition. Across individuals, we observed selective correlations between the level of GABA and the magnitude of contextual illusion. Specifically, parietal GABA level correlated with size illusion magnitude but not with orientation or brightness illusion magnitude; in contrast, occipital GABA level correlated with orientation illusion magnitude but not with size or brightness illusion magnitude. Our findings reveal a region- and feature-dependent influence of GABA level on human visual perception. Parietal and occipital cortices contain, respectively, topographic maps of size and orientation preference in which neural responses to stimulus sizes and stimulus orientations are modulated by intraregional lateral connections. We propose that these lateral connections may underlie the selective influence of GABA on visual perception.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT GABA, the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in human visual system, varies substantially across individuals. This interindividual variability in GABA level is linked to interindividual differences in many aspects of visual perception. However, the widespread influence of GABA raises the

  12. The transperiosteal "inside-out" occipital artery harvesting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, Arnau; Tabani, Halima; Ding, Xinmin; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Rodriguez Rubio, Roberto; Tayebi Meybodi, Ali; Nisson, Peyton; Kola, Olivia; Gandhi, Sirin; Yousef, Sonia; Lawton, Michael T

    2018-01-26

    OBJECTIVE The occipital artery (OA) is a frequently used donor vessel for posterior circulation bypass procedures due to its proximity to the recipient vessels and its optimal caliber, length, and flow rate. However, its tortuous course through multiple layers of suboccipital muscles necessitates layer-by-layer dissection. The authors of this cadaveric study aimed to describe a landmark-based novel anterograde approach to harvest OA in a proximal-to-distal "inside-out" fashion, which avoids multilayer dissection. METHODS Sixteen cadaveric specimens were prepared for surgical simulation, and the OA was harvested using the classic (n = 2) and novel (n = 14) techniques. The specimens were positioned three-quarters prone, with 45° contralateral head rotation. An inverted hockey-stick incision was made from the spinous process of C-2 to the mastoid tip, and the distal part of the OA was divided to lift up a myocutaneous flap, including the nuchal muscles. The OA was identified using the occipital groove (OG), the digastric muscle (DM) and its groove (DG), and the superior oblique muscle (SOM) as key landmarks. The OA was harvested anterogradely from the OG and within the flap until the skin incision was reached (proximal-to-distal technique). In addition, 35 dry skulls were assessed bilaterally (n = 70) to study additional craniometric landmarks to infer the course of the OA in the OG. RESULTS The OA was consistently found running in the OG, which was found between the posterior belly of the DM and the SOM. The mean total length of the mobilized OA was 12.8 ± 1.2 cm, with a diameter of 1.3 ± 0.1 mm at the suboccipital segment and 1.1 ± 0.1 mm at the skin incision. On dry skulls, the occipitomastoid suture (OMS) was found to be medial to the OG in the majority of the cases (68.6%), making it a useful landmark to locate the OG and thus the proximal OA. CONCLUSIONS The anterograde transperiosteal inside-out approach for harvesting the OA is a fast and easy technique

  13. Frontal and occipital perfusion changes in dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Unal, Seher N; Ozturk, Erdinc

    2007-12-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate if there were any characteristics of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in dissociative identity disorder. Twenty-one drug-free patients with dissociative identity disorder and nine healthy volunteers participated in the study. In addition to a clinical evaluation, dissociative psychopathology was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders, the Dissociative Experiences Scale and the Clinician-Administered Dissociative States Scale. A semi-structured interview for borderline personality disorder, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were also administered to all patients. Normal controls had to be without a history of childhood trauma and without any depressive or dissociative disorder. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with Tc99m-hexamethylpropylenamine (HMPAO) as a tracer. Compared with findings in the control group, the rCBF ratio was decreased among patients with dissociative identity disorder in the orbitofrontal region bilaterally. It was increased in median and superior frontal regions and occipital regions bilaterally. There was no significant correlation between rCBF ratios of the regions of interest and any of the psychopathology scale scores. An explanation for the neurophysiology of dissociative psychopathology has to invoke a comprehensive model of interaction between anterior and posterior brain regions.

  14. Cognitive Findings in Benign Childhood Epilepsy with Occipital Paroxysms

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    Ebru Kolsal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cognitive and visual perceptive functions in children with childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms (CEOP. Material and Method: Hospital charts of children ages 1 to 18 years who admitted to pediatric neurology out-patient clinic between 2009 and 2010 were reviewed. Twenty one children with a diagnosis of CEOP were identified. Sixteen of these children who accepted to include the study were evaluated with neuropsychological tests. Results: Two of five patients who were evaluated with Denver developmental screening test were found to have lower scores than their reference standards. Remaining 11 patients were evaluated with Wechsler Scales of Intelligence tests, 4 were mildly mental retarded and 1 had null intelligence. Eleven patients were also evaluated with Bender Gestalt Visual Motor Test and 7of them had disturbances in visual perception. Reading speed and writing norm tests were applied to 9 literate patients and 7 of them showed slower reading ability and writing ability was found worse in 6 patients. Discussion: The absence of neurological and neuropsylogical deficits has long been considered as a prerequisite for diagnosis of benign childhood partial epilepsies. However, only a few studies describing the cognitive profile of patients with CEOP have been published. The present study has demonstrated that the patients with CEOP had varying degree of cognitive dysfunction and disturbance in visual perception. In order to provide appropriate intervention, cognitive functions should be assessed in children with CEOP.

  15. MRI diagnosis of suspected atlanto-occipital dissociation in childhood

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    Grabb, B.C.; Frye, T.A.; Hedlund, G.L.; Vaid, Y.N.; Royal, S.A. [Department of Radiology, The Children`s Hospital of Alabama, Birmingham (United States); Grabb, P.A. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Objective. To demonstrate the utility of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the diagnosis of complete and partial ligamentous injuries in patients with suspected atlanto-occipital dissociation (AOD). Materials and methods. Five patients with suspected AOD had MR imaging performed within an average of 4 days after injury. MR scans were reviewed with specific analysis of craniocervical ligamentous structures. Charts were reviewed to obtain clinical information regarding presentation, treatment, hospital course, and outcome. Results. Two patients demonstrated MR evidence of complete AOD. One had disruption of all visualized major ligamentous structures at the craniocervical junction with anterolisthesis and evidence of cord damage. The second had injuries to the tectorial membrane, superior band of the cruciform ligament, apical ligament, and interspinous ligament at C 1-2. The remaining three patients sustained incomplete severance of the ligamentous structures at the craniocervical junction. All patients demonstrated subtle radiographic findings suggestive of AOD, including soft tissue swelling at the craniocervical junction without fracture. The two patients with complete AOD died. The three patients with partial AOD were treated with stabilization. On follow-up, these three children were asymptomatic following their craniocervical injury. Conclusion. MR imaging of acute AOD provides accurate identification of the craniocervical ligaments injured, classification of full versus partial ligamentous disruption, and analysis of accompanying spinal cord injury. This information is important for early appropriate neurosurgical management and preservation of neurologic function in survivors. (orig.) With 7 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs.

  16. MRI diagnosis of suspected atlanto-occipital dissociation in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabb, B C; Frye, T A; Hedlund, G L; Vaid, Y N; Grabb, P A; Royal, S A

    1999-04-01

    To demonstrate the utility of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the diagnosis of complete and partial ligamentous injuries in patients with suspected atlanto-occipital dissociation (AOD). Five patients with suspected AOD had MR imaging performed within an average of 4 days after injury. MR scans were reviewed with specific analysis of craniocervical ligamentous structures. Charts were reviewed to obtain clinical information regarding presentation, treatment, hospital course, and outcome. Two patients demonstrated MR evidence of complete AOD. One had disruption of all visualized major ligamentous structures at the craniocervical junction with anterolisthesis and evidence of cord damage. The second had injuries to the tectorial membrane, superior band of the cruciform ligament, apical ligament, and interspinous ligament at C 1-2. The remaining three patients sustained incomplete severance of the ligamentous structures at the craniocervical junction. All patients demonstrated subtle radiographic findings suggestive of AOD, including soft tissue swelling at the craniocervical junction without fracture. The two patients with complete AOD died. The three patients with partial AOD were treated with stabilization. On follow-up, these three children were asymptomatic following their craniocervical injury. MR imaging of acute AOD provides accurate identification of the craniocervical ligaments injured, classification of full versus partial ligamentous disruption, and analysis of accompanying spinal cord injury. This information is important for early appropriate neurosurgical management and preservation of neurologic function in survivors.

  17. Diagnosis of occipital condyle fractures; Diagnostik von Frakturen der Okzipitalkondylen

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    Hefele-Roedel, B. [Radiologische Klinik Innenstadt, Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Vogl, T.J. [Radiologische Klinik Innenstadt, Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Lochbuehler, H. [Dr. v. Haunersches Kinderspital, Kinderchirurgische Klinik, Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Lissner, J. [Radiologische Klinik Innenstadt, Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    1995-01-01

    Following the conventional X-ray diagnosis of the skull and upper cervical spine, CT proved to be the primary diagnostic method after a skull and brain injury: For all 4 cases we succeeded in detecting the occipital condyle fracture and in determing its size and location by reconstructions (coronal, sagittal, 3-D). In the case of complex occompanying injuries like soft tissue hematomas (cerebral, in the spinal cord, and the soft tissue of the neck) or for the detection of brain stem contusion, MRT had significant advantages. MRT can offer a higher image quality in soft tissue, especially in the spinal cord and the brain. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Anschluss an die konventionelle Roentgendiagnostik des Schaedels und der Halswirbelsaeule, erwies sich die Computertomographie als primaer einzusetzendes diagnostisches Verfahren, nach erlittenem Schaedel-Hirn-Trauma. In allen Faellen gelang der exakte Frakturnachweis an den Okzipitalkondylen, die Bestimmung des Frakturausmasses und die genaue Frakturlokalisation in Rekonstruktionen (koronar, sagittal, 3-D). Bei komplexen Begleitverletzungen, wie Blutungen (zerebral, spinal und in den Halsweichteilen) oder zum Nachweis einer Hirnstammkontusion, erwies sich der Einsatz der MRT als vorteilhaft. Mit der MRT laesst sich ein deutlich hoeherer Weichteilkontrast, insbesondere spinal und zerebral, erzielen. (orig.)

  18. Widespread temporo-occipital lobe dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewe, Kristian; Machts, Judith; Kaufmann, Jörn; Petri, Susanne; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Borgelt, Christian; Harris, Joseph Allen; Vielhaber, Stefan; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) lie on a single clinical continuum. However, previous neuroimaging studies have found only limited involvement of temporal lobe regions in ALS. To better delineate possible temporal lobe involvement in ALS, the present study aimed to examine changes in functional connectivity across the whole brain, particularly with regard to extra-motor regions, in a group of 64 non-demented ALS patients and 38 healthy controls. To assess between-group differences in connectivity, we computed edge-level statistics across subject-specific graphs derived from resting-state functional MRI data. In addition to expected ALS-related decreases in functional connectivity in motor-related areas, we observed extensive changes in connectivity across the temporo-occipital cortex. Although ALS patients with comorbid FTD were deliberately excluded from this study, the pattern of connectivity alterations closely resembles patterns of cerebral degeneration typically seen in FTD. This evidence for subclinical temporal dysfunction supports the idea of a common pathology in ALS and FTD.

  19. An Unusual Case of Isolated Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy Secondary to Osteophytic Projection from the Atlanto-Occipital Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Satya Narayana; Torres, Carlos; Riascos, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Summary We describe an unusual and rare case of isolated left hypoglossal nerve palsy secondary to compression from a prominent degenerative osteophyte from the left atlanto-occipital joint. The hypoglossal nerve is a purely motor cranial nerve innervating the tongue musculature. Palsy of the hypoglossal nerve is frequently associated with other cranial nerve palsies and can be related to vascular, neoplastic, infectious or traumatic conditions. Isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy is quite rare and very few cases have been reported in the literature to date. PMID:24976205

  20. Multiple routes from occipital to temporal cortices during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Fiona M; Seghier, Mohamed L; Leff, Alex P; Thomas, Michael S C; Price, Cathy J

    2011-06-01

    Contemporary models of the neural system that supports reading propose that activity in a ventral occipitotemporal area (vOT) drives activity in higher-order language areas, for example, those in the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and anterior superior temporal sulcus (aSTS). We used fMRI with dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to investigate evidence for other routes from visual cortex to the left temporal lobe language areas. First we identified activations in posterior inferior occipital (iO) and vOT areas that were more activated for silent reading than listening to words and sentences; and in pSTS and aSTS areas that were commonly activated for reading relative to false-fonts and listening to words relative to reversed words. Second, in three different DCM analyses, we tested whether visual processing of words modulates activity from the following: (1) iO→vOT, iO→pSTS, both, or neither; (2) vOT→pSTS, iO→pSTS, both or neither; and (3) pSTS→aSTS, vOT→aSTS, both, or neither. We found that reading words increased connectivity (1) from iO to both pSTS and vOT; (2) to pSTS from both iO and vOT; and (3) to aSTS from both vOT and pSTS. These results highlight three potential processing streams in the occipitotemporal cortex: iO→pSTS→aSTS; iO→vOT→aSTS; and iO→vOT→pSTS→aSTS. We discuss these results in terms of cognitive models of reading and propose that efficient reading relies on the integrity of all these pathways.

  1. On the relationship between occipital cortex activity and inhibition of return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prime, David J; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2009-11-01

    The present study explored the relationship between inhibition of return (IOR) and visual processes by seeking evidence that IOR and changes in event-related potential (ERP) indices of occipital cortex activity covary in response to experimental manipulation. The presence or absence of a central reorienting event was manipulated within the context of a cue-target experiment. When a reorienting event was presented in the interval between cue and target, IOR was accompanied by reductions in the amplitudes of early occipital ERP peaks on validly cued trials relative to invalidly cued trials. When a reorienting event was not presented, neither IOR nor modulations of the occipital ERP peaks was observed. These results provide strong evidence that IOR arises from changes in occipital visual processing. We propose that IOR arises from a slowing of response-selection processes on validly cued trials due differences in the perceptual input to the decision-making process.

  2. [Definition of the anterolateral occipital lobe limit in anatomical specimens and image examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmão, Sebastião; Reis, Cassius; Tazinaffo, Uedson; Mendonça, Celso; Silveira, Roberto Leal

    2002-03-01

    The anterolateral limit of the occipital lobe was studied in anatomical specimens and with neuroimaging. Seven human cadaver heads, 103 normal CT-scan and 104 MRJ of the brain were studied. There was a fold of the dura mater on the transverse sinus (preoccipital tentorial plica) and a bony protuberance related directly to the preoccipital notch. It was also determined the mean distance between the parieto-occipital sulcus and the lambdoid suture. In the imaging studies, especially magnetic resonance, it was possible to identify the preoccipital notch and/or a protuberance in the cranial vault related to this notch, besides the parieto-occipital sulcus and lambdoid suture, making possible, therefore, the definition of the anterolateral limit of the occipital lobe.

  3. Posterior atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial area and its surgical interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton José Godoy Pimenta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Classic anatomical studies describe two membranes – atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial in the posterior aspect of the craniocervical region. During many surgical procedures in this area, however, we have not found such membranes. Objective To clarify the anatomical aspects and structures taking part of the posterior atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial area. Method Analysis of histological cuts of three human fetuses and anatomical studies of 8 adult human cadavers. Results In both atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial areas, we have observed attachment between suboccipital deep muscles and the spinal cervical dura. However, anatomical description of such attachments could not be found in textbooks of anatomy. Conclusion Our study shows the absence of the classical atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial membranes; the occipito-C1 and C1-C2 posterior intervals are an open area, allowing aponeurotic attachment among cervical dura mater and posterior cervical muscles.

  4. Alternative psychosis and dysgraphia accompanied by forced normalization in a girl with occipital lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, Yoshifumi; Morimoto, Masafumi; Nishimura, Akira; Osamura, Toshio; Sugimoto, Tohru

    2008-04-01

    An 11-year-old girl who had been given antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for occipital lobe epilepsy was hospitalized with alternative psychosis and dysgraphia accompanied by forced normalization of the EEG. Her epileptic seizures and psychosis disappeared after administration of carbamazepine. She developed dysgraphia for Kanji words (Japanese morphograms). The EEG showed sporadic spikes predominantly in the left occipital region, and [123I]iomazenil single-photon-emission computed tomography (IMZ-SPECT) imaging revealed an area of hypoperfusion in the left occipital lobe. Interestingly, the left posterior inferior temporal area is known to play an important role in writing Kanji words. It is assumed that abnormal discharges in the left occipital lobe were projected into the left posterior inferior temporal area and that a functional disorder in that area led to dysgraphia; however, further exploration is needed.

  5. Craniocervical fixation with occipital condyle screws: biomechanical analysis of a novel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Juan S; Ramos, Edwin; Youssef, A Samy; Levine, Nick; Turner, Alexander W L; Johnson, Wesley M; Vale, Fernando L

    2010-04-20

    A human cadaveric biomechanical study comparing craniocervical fixation techniques. To quantitatively compare the biomechanical stability of a new technique for occipitocervical fixation using the occipital condyles with an established method for craniocervical spine fusion. Stabilization of the occipitocervical junction remains a challenge. The occiput does not easily accommodate instrumentation because of access and spatial constraints. In fact, the area available for the implant fixation is limited and can be restricted further when a suboccipital craniectomy has been performed, posing a challenge to current fixation techniques. Occipital screws are also associated with the potential for intracranial complications. Six fresh frozen cadaveric specimens occiput-C4 were tested intact, after destabilization and after fixation as follows: (1) occipital plate with C1 lateral mass screws and C2 pars screws and (2) occipital condyle screws with C1 lateral mass screws and C2 pars screws. Specimens were loaded in a custom spine testing apparatus and subjected to the following tests, all performed under 50-N unconstrained axial preload: flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation at 1.5 Nm. The constructs were statistically compared with a one-way analysis of variance and compared with the intact condition. Motions were reduced by approximately 80% compared with the intact condition for both configurations under all motions. There were no statistically significant differences in the range of motion (ROM) between the 2 instrumentation conditions. The mean values indicated decreased ROM with the novel occipital condyle screw construct in comparison with the standard occipital plate and rod system. Craniocervical stabilization using occipital condyle screws as the sole cephalad fixation point is biomechanically equivalent with regard to the modes tested (ROM and stiffness) to the standard occipital plate construct.

  6. Three Cases with Visual Hallucinations following Combined Ocular and Occipital Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Paradowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Charles Bonnet syndrome is an underrecognized disease that involves visual hallucinations in visually impaired patients. We present the cases of three patients who experienced complex visual hallucinations following various pathomechanisms. In two cases, diagnosis showed coexistence of occipital lobe damage with ocular damage, while in the third case it showed occipital lobe damage with retrobulbar optic neuritis. Theories of pathogenesis and the neuroanatomical basis of complex visual hallucinations are discussed and supported by literature review.

  7. Occipital cortex of blind individuals is functionally coupled with executive control areas of frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Ben; Saxe, Rebecca; Bedny, Marina

    2015-08-01

    In congenital blindness, the occipital cortex responds to a range of nonvisual inputs, including tactile, auditory, and linguistic stimuli. Are these changes in functional responses to stimuli accompanied by altered interactions with nonvisual functional networks? To answer this question, we introduce a data-driven method that searches across cortex for functional connectivity differences across groups. Replicating prior work, we find increased fronto-occipital functional connectivity in congenitally blind relative to blindfolded sighted participants. We demonstrate that this heightened connectivity extends over most of occipital cortex but is specific to a subset of regions in the inferior, dorsal, and medial frontal lobe. To assess the functional profile of these frontal areas, we used an n-back working memory task and a sentence comprehension task. We find that, among prefrontal areas with overconnectivity to occipital cortex, one left inferior frontal region responds to language over music. By contrast, the majority of these regions responded to working memory load but not language. These results suggest that in blindness occipital cortex interacts more with working memory systems and raise new questions about the function and mechanism of occipital plasticity.

  8. Occipital nerve stimulation with the Bion® microstimulator for the treatment of medically refractory chronic cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Natalie H; Trentman, Terrence L; Vargas, Bert B; Dodick, David W

    2011-01-01

    Chronic cluster headache is a severely disabling neurological disorder. Evidence from open-label case series suggest that occipital nerve stimulation may be effective for the treatment of chronic cluster headache. To evaluate the effectiveness of a microstimulator for chronic cluster headache. Prospective, observational feasibility study plus medical record review. Academic medical center. Four patients with medically refractory chronic cluster headache underwent implantation of a unilateral bion microstimulator. In-person follow-up was conducted for 12 months after implantation, and a prospective follow-up chart review was carried out to assess long term outcome. Three of the participants returned their headache diaries for evaluation. The mean duration of chronic cluster headache was 14.3 years (range 3 to 29 years). Pain was predominantly or exclusively retroocular/periocular. One participant demonstrated a positive response (> 50% reduction in cluster headache frequency) at 3 months post-implant, while there were 2 responders at 6 months. At least one of the participants continued to show > 60% reduction in headache frequency at 12 months. A chart review showed that at 58-67 months post-implant, all 3 participants reported continued use and benefit from stimulation. No side-shift in attacks was noted in any participant. Adverse events were limited to 2 participants with neck pain and/or cramping with stimulation at high amplitudes; one required revision for a faulty battery. Small patient population without control group. Not blinded or randomized. Unilateral occipital nerve stimulation, using a minimally invasive microstimulator, may be effective for the treatment of medically refractory chronic cluster headache. This benefit may occur immediately after implantation, remain sustained up to 5 years after implantation, and occur despite the anterior location of the pain. Prospective, randomized controlled trials of occipital nerve stimulation in chronic cluster

  9. Complete medulla/cervical spinal cord transection after atlanto-occipital dislocation: an extraordinary case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautschi, O P; Woodland, P R; Zellweger, R

    2007-05-01

    Case report. Traumatic atlanto-occipital dislocation (AOD) with a complete medulla/spinal cord transection is rare and believed to be fatal owing to the high level of the spinal cord injury. Clinical outcome is poor. Consequently, relatively few case reports of adult patients surviving this injury appear in the literature. OBJECTIVES AND RESULT: We present the case of a 20-year-old male, who sustained an AOD with a complete medulla/spinal cord transection in a motorcycle accident to discuss the possibility of long-term survival with this condition. The patient underwent occipito-cervical stabilization. With an Injury Severity Score of 75, by definition unsurvivable, the patient is 16 months after the injury, ventilated and fully dependent for all care. Long-term survival following AOD with a complete medulla/spinal cord transection is possible if immediate resuscitation at the scene is available. Nevertheless, it remains questionable whether or not a patient with such a devastating injury and without any prospect of functional recovery should be kept alive under all circumstances.

  10. Comparison of W-Plasty and Straight-Line Trichophytic Closure on Aesthetic Outcomes of Occipital Hairline Scars in Rhytidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sudeep; Buckingham, Edward D

    2017-08-24

    Incision placement and design in rhytidectomy is critical for patient satisfaction. To evaluate the aesthetic outcome of W-plasty vs traditional straight-line (SL) trichophytic closure techniques on posterior occipital hairline scars in rhytidectomy. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at the Buckingham Center for Facial Plastic Surgery. Clinical history and operative reports were reviewed for 46 patients who underwent rhytidectomy (23 using W-plasty and 23 using SL technique) between June 1, 2014 and August 31, 2015. Blinded photographic analysis of 1-year postoperative photographs was performed. The posterior occipital hairline incision was primarily closed with either a W-plasty or SL trichophytic technique. Standard photographs of the posterior occipital incision site obtained after the 1-year postoperative mark were reviewed and scored in a blinded fashion by 3 nonphysician medical staff members using a modified Manchester Scar Scale (MSS: from 0 [best possible outcome] to 24 [worst possible outcome]). Interrater reliability was assessed via Cronbach α testing. There were 23 patients in each group. The W-plasty and SL groups were similar in terms of age (mean [SD] age, 59.6 [6.3] years and 64.1 [7.3] years, respectively), sex (21 [91%] and 21 [91%] women, respectively), race-ethnicity, and absence of risk factors (smoking and diabetes) predisposing to poor wound healing (0 and 0 smoking/diabetes, respectively). Mean (SD) follow-up times for the W-plasty and SL groups were 388 (38.8) and 475 (100.1) days, respectively. No statistical difference was demonstrated in the mean aggregate MSS scores from all evaluators between the W-plasty group and the SL group (reviewer 1: 5.69 vs 5.86, P = .60; reviewer 2: 10.09 vs 9.56, P = .65; and reviewer 3: 5.30 vs 6.17, P = .08). Overall interrater reliability for the MSS scores was 0.56. Primary W-plasty and SL trichophytic closures in the posterior occipital hairline appear to yield highly acceptable

  11. Occipital artery to middle cerebral artery bypass in cases of unavailable superficial temporal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Tsukasa; Mikami, Takeshi; Suzuki, Hime; Hirano, Toru; Kimura, Yusuke; Komatsu, Katusya; Akiyama, Yukinori; Wanibuchi, Masahiko; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2018-01-22

    In neurosurgery, extracranial-to-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery is necessary for patients who have undergone surgery in which the superficial temporal artery (STA) was already used for a different bypass procedure or was damaged. Here, we report our experience with EC-IC bypass using the occipital artery (OA) in cases in which the STA is unavailable, and discuss the technical considerations and pitfalls. Five patients with ischemic-onset moyamoya disease and atherosclerotic disease were included. Two patterns of skin incisions were planned according to the OA pathway and recipient artery location. In one method, a skin incision is made above the OA and a craniotomy is performed under this incision after OA dissection. In the other method, a skin incision is made above the OA to enable its dissection and a craniotomy is performed via a separate skin incision. No major perioperative complications developed in any of the five cases, and bypass patency was confirmed in all patients. There was a significant difference between the pre- and postoperative asymmetry ratio of the mean transit time values. OA-to- middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass is a simple and effective method in patients in whom the STA was already used or was damaged by previous intracranial revascularization or a craniotomy. This procedure could be an alternative to STA-MCA bypass in patients without an available STA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Benign occipital epilepsy of childhood: Panayiotopoulos syndrome in a 3 year old child

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    Menon Narayanankutty Sunilkumar , Vadakut Krishnan Parvathy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Panayiotopoulos syndrome (PS is a relatively frequent and benign epileptic syndrome seen in children in the age group of 3-6 years and is characterised by predominantly autonomic symptoms and/or simple motor focal seizures followed or not by impairment of consciousness. Although multifocal spikes with high amplitude sharp-slow wave complexes at various locations can be present in the EEG, interictal electroencephalogram (EEG in children with this particular type of epilepsy characteristically shows occipital spikes. This syndrome has known to be a masquerader and can imitate gastroenteritis, encephalitis, syncope, migraine, sleep disorders or metabolic diseases. In the absence of thorough knowledge of types of benign epilepsy syndromes and their various clinical presentations, epilepsy such as PS can be easily missed. The peculiar aspects of this type of epilepsy in children should be known not only by paediatricians but also by general doctors because a correct diagnosis would avoid aggressive interventions and concerns on account of its benign outcome. In this case study, we report a case of PS in a 3 year old child.

  13. Childhood Epilepsy with Occipital Paroxysm: Classification, Atypical Evolution and Long-Term Prognosis in 35 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Ayşe; Haliloğlu, Göknur; Yalnızoğlu, Dilek; Turanlı, Güzide

    2015-01-01

    We studied childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms (CEOP) with regard to typical and/or atypical ictal symptoms, EEG findings, as well as atypical evolution and outcome. This report focuses on the main clinical and EEG features of CEOP underlying its atypical symptoms and its management. Thirty-five patients with CEOP were subdivided into Panayiotopoulos syndrome (n=15), Gastaut syndrome (n=11), and mixed type (n=9). Nine patients (25%) with CEOP (mixed type) had shown atypical ictal manifestations and presented combinations of vomiting (100%) along with visual symptoms (66%), and/or eye deviation (66%), and headaches (44%). Five patients with CEOP had atypical evolution. However, the dictate for strict delineation into either the early-onset or late-onset forms of CEOP should be discarded because many children will present mixed clinical findings at varying ages. We think a detailed evaluation should be carried out as to why certain patients who apply have atypical findings, and whether each patient has age related evolution or not.

  14. [Controversies and problems in the diagnosis of benign occipital epilepsies in infancy, childhood and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, J

    2006-10-10

    To review the changes introduced by the new proposal of diagnostic scheme for people with epilepsy made by the International League Against Epilepsy in the categorization of the idiopathic occipital epilepsies of childhood and the diagnostic challenges of these disorders. The term occipital paroxysms has disappeared and two major forms are distinguished: one with early onset or Panayiotopoulos type, officially recognized as a syndrome, and one with late onset or Gastaut type. To these entities we have to add the recently described idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy, also included in the new list of syndromes. Detailed electroencephalogram investigations are crucial to reveal all the neurophysiological diagnostic aspects of these disorders. These investigations may suggest a close relationship with rolandic epilepsies. The characterization of the Panayiotopoulos' syndrome as a focal occipital epilepsy has been questioned. The limits of the idiopathic photosensitive epilepsy with other photosensitive epilepsies are not well defined yet. The variant of Gastaut might be sometimes difficult to distinguish from migraine with visual aura. Its long term prognosis is not clear yet, in part because this overlap with other entities. The persistence of seizures beyond adolescence in some patients and the development of learning disorders and mild cognitive dysfunction cast some doubts about its good prognosis. The characterization of the idiopathic occipital epilepsies and its relationships with other childhood epilepsies are a fascinating area of development in epileptology. Further research is necessary to define the limits of these disorders and their long-term prognosis.

  15. Right occipital cortex suppresses male rat testosterone secretion by a pituitary-independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, Gianluca; Zedda, Marco; Gerendai, Ida; Csernus, Valér; Gadau, Sergio; Manca, Paolo; Chisu, Valentina; Farina, Vittorio

    2006-08-01

    In addition to being regulated by the hypothalamo-hypophyseal system, testosterone (T) secretion is influenced by a number of less understood mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to examine whether defined areas of the right cerebral cortex could modulate T production. In adult male Wistar rats right frontal or occipital decortication, anterior or posterior callosotomy and corresponding sham-operations were performed. After 7-day survival time, T secretion in vitro, serum T and LH concentrations were measured by RIA. Right occipital decortication and posterior callosotomy resulted in an increase in T secretion in vitro when compared to the corresponding sham-operated controls. In contrast, right frontal decortication or anterior callosotomy did not interfere with steroidogenesis. Serum LH concentration was not altered by any interventions. The right occipital but not the right frontal cortex is involved in the control of T secretion. The caudal part of the corpus callosum accommodating the fibers originating from the occipital cortex might have a similar function. The fact that LH remained unchanged in all experimental groups suggests that the right occipital cortex and the caudal part of the corpus callosum influence testicular steroidogenesis by a pituitary-independent mechanism.

  16. Complete occipitalization of the atlas with bilateral external auditory canal atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenšek, Janez; Cvetko, Erika; Snoj, Žiga; Meznaric, Marija

    2017-02-18

    Fusion of the atlas with the occipital bone is a rare congenital dysplasia known as occipitalization of the atlas, occipitocervical synostosis, assimilation of the atlas, or atlanto-occipital fusion. It is a component of the paraxial mesodermal maldevelopment and commonly associated with other dysplasias of the craniovertebral junction. External auditory canal atresia or external aural atresia is a rare congenital absence of the external auditory canal. It occurs as the consequence of the maldevelopment of the first pharyngeal cleft due to defects of cranial neural crest cells migration and/or differentiation. It is commonly associated with the dysplasias of the structures derived from the first and second pharyngeal arches including microtia. We present the coexistence of the occipitalization of the atlas and congenital aural atresia, an uncommon combination of the paraxial mesodermal maldevelopment, and defects of cranial neural crest cells. The association is most probably syndromic as minimal diagnostic criteria for the oculoariculovertebral spectrum are fulfilled. From the clinical point of view, it is important to be aware that patients with microtia must obtain also appropriate diagnostic imaging studies of the craniovetebral junction due to eventual concomitant occipitalization of the atlas and frequently associated C1-C2 instability.

  17. Differential roles for parietal and occipital cortices in visual working memory.

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    Daisuke Matsuyoshi

    Full Text Available Visual working memory (VWM is known as a highly capacity-limited cognitive system that can hold 3-4 items. Recent studies have demonstrated that activity in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS and occipital cortices correlates with the number of representations held in VWM. However, differences among those regions are poorly understood, particularly when task-irrelevant items are to be ignored. The present fMRI-based study investigated whether memory load-sensitive regions such as the IPS and occipital cortices respond differently to task-relevant information. Using a change detection task in which participants are required to remember pre-specified targets, here we show that while the IPS exhibited comparable responses to both targets and distractors, the dorsal occipital cortex manifested significantly weaker responses to an array containing distractors than to an array containing only targets, despite that the number of objects presented was the same for the two arrays. These results suggest that parietal and occipital cortices engage differently in distractor processing and that the dorsal occipital, rather than parietal, activity appears to reflect output of stimulus filtering and selection based on behavioral relevance.

  18. A rare case of giant occipital meningocele with Dandy Walker Syndrome: Can it grow bigger than this?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankotia, Dipanker Singh; Satyarthee, Guru Dutta; Singh, Bhoopendra; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2016-01-01

    Association of Dandy–Walker syndrome with occipital meningocele (OMC) is extremely rare and about thirty cases are reported till date in the Western literature. However, OMC is classified by Talamonti et al. into small, large, and giant categories with respective diameters were upto 5 cm in small, large with 5–9 cm, and giant with >9 cm. Usually the size of OMC progressively increases as raised intracranial pressure leads to compensatory cerebrospinal fluid escape into sac with the growth of children. Authors report an interesting case of an 18-month-old female child with extra-gigantic OMC, whose size was almost same since birth, representing the first case of its kind, who underwent successful surgical repair. Clinical presentation, radiological features, and surgical management options in literature are reviewed briefly for this rare disease association. PMID:28217162

  19. A rare case of giant occipital meningocele with Dandy Walker Syndrome: Can it grow bigger than this?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankotia, Dipanker Singh; Satyarthee, Guru Dutta; Singh, Bhoopendra; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2016-01-01

    Association of Dandy-Walker syndrome with occipital meningocele (OMC) is extremely rare and about thirty cases are reported till date in the Western literature. However, OMC is classified by Talamonti et al . into small, large, and giant categories with respective diameters were upto 5 cm in small, large with 5-9 cm, and giant with >9 cm. Usually the size of OMC progressively increases as raised intracranial pressure leads to compensatory cerebrospinal fluid escape into sac with the growth of children. Authors report an interesting case of an 18-month-old female child with extra-gigantic OMC, whose size was almost same since birth, representing the first case of its kind, who underwent successful surgical repair. Clinical presentation, radiological features, and surgical management options in literature are reviewed briefly for this rare disease association.

  20. Antecedent occipital alpha band activity predicts the impact of oculomotor events in perceptual switching

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    Hironori eNakatani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oculomotor events such as blinks and saccades transiently interrupt the visual input and, even though this mostly goes undetected, these brief interruptions could still influence the percept. In particular, both blinking and saccades facilitate switching in ambiguous figures such as the Necker cube. To investigate the neural state antecedent to these oculomotor events during the perception of an ambiguous figure, we measured the human scalp electroencephalogram (EEG. When blinking led to perceptual switching, antecedent occipital alpha band activity exhibited a transient increase in amplitude. When a saccade led to switching, a series of transient increases and decreases in amplitude was observed in the antecedent occipital alpha band activity. Our results suggest that the state of occipital alpha band activity predicts the impact of oculomotor events on the percept.

  1. Death from atlanto-occipital dislocation in a boy due to personal water craft collision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Henry J; Martin Johnson, J

    2002-12-01

    Injuries associated with use of personal water craft (PWC) typically include fractures, lacerations, or head injuries. Deaths are rare. We recently encountered an unusual case of a collision between two PWCs in which a 9-year-old boy was struck on the left side, causing the vehicle to rock and him to twist upward and to the right. There was rapid extension, flexion, and rotation of his head. At postmortem examination, it was established that the boy died from atlanto-occipital dislocation and brainstem transection. The risk of atlanto-occipital dislocation is high in children under 10. The tectoral ligament which stabilizes the upper cervical spine can be torn or ruptured by hyperextension-flexion injury. Some atlanto-occipital dislocations in children can be stabilized and recovery is possible, but in this case of complete ligament rupture and brainstem transection, death was immediate.

  2. Bilateral abducens paralysis revealing bipartite spheno-occipital synchondrosis fracture in a child: case based update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicot, Benjamin; Peltier, Johann; Capel, Cyrille; Lefranc, Michel; Fichten, Anthony; Desenclos, Christine; Toussaint, Patrick; Le Gars, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    After reviewing the literature about sella turcica and spheno-occipital synchondrosis fracture, we present the case of a 6-year-old girl who suffered complex sphenoid bone fracture produced by an indirect mechanism. The girl fell from her height after a blunt head injury due to a falling lamppost. Computer tomography (CT) scan showed occipital, sellar and clival fractures with pneumatocephalus. The probable fracture mechanism is contre-coup injury linked to osseous and brain oscillations after head trauma. Two complications, abducens nerve palsy and cerebrospinal fluid fistula, are observed and discussed.

  3. Brain metabolite changes in alcoholism: Localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of the occipital lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modi, Shilpi; Bhattacharya, Manisha; Kumar, Pawan [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India); Deshpande, Smita N. [Department of Psychiatry, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi (India); Tripathi, Rajendra Prasad [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India); Khushu, Subash, E-mail: skhushu@yahoo.com [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Chronic alcoholism is associated with altered brain metabolism, morphology and cognitive abilities. Besides deficits in higher order cognitive functions, alcoholics also show a deficit in the processing of basic sensory information viz. visual stimulation. To assess the metabolic changes associated with this deficit, {sup 1}H MRS was carried out in the occipital lobe of alcohol dependents. A significant increase in Cho/Cr ratio (p < 0.015) was observed in occipital lobe in the alcoholic group indicating altered cell membrane metabolism, which may probably be associated with the alterations in the cognitive abilities associated with vision.

  4. Definição do limite anterolateral do lobo occipital em peças anatômicas e exames de imagem Definition of the anterolateral occipital lobe limit in anatomical specimens and with neuroimaging

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    Sebastião Gusmão

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de definir o limite anterolateral do lobo occipital foram estudados sete segmentos cefálicos de cadáveres humanos, 103 exames de tomografia computadorizada e 104 exames de ressonância magnética do encéfalo considerados normais. Foram encontradas uma prega da dura-máter sobre o seio transverso (plica tentorial pré-occipital e uma protuberância óssea relacionadas diretamente com a incisura pré-occipital. Foi calculada, também, a distância média entre o sulco parieto-occipital e a sutura lambdóide. Nos exames de imagem, especialmente na ressonância magnética, foi possível identificar a incisura pré-occipital e/ou a protuberância na parede craniana relacionada a ela, bem como o sulco parieto-occipital e a sutura lambdóide, referências que permitem a definição do limite anterolateral do lobo occipital.The anterolateral limit of the occipital lobe was studied in anatomical specimens and with neuroimaging. Seven human cadaver heads, 103 normal CT-scan and 104 MRJ of the brain were studied. There was a fold of the dura mater on the transverse sinus (preoccipital tentorial plica and a bony protuberance related directly to the preoccipital notch. It was also determined the mean distance between the parieto-occipital sulcus and the lambdoid suture. In the imaging studies, especially magnetic resonance, it was possible to identify the preoccipital notch and/or a protuberance in the cranial vault related to this notch, besides the parieto-occipital sulcus and lambdoid suture, making possible, therefore, the definition of the anterolateral limit of the occipital lobe.

  5. Hypothalamic-Optochiasmatic Pilocytic Astrocytoma Associated with Occipital and Sacral Spinal Cavernomas: A Mere Coincidence or a True Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Al-Shaar, Hussam; Raheja, Amol; Palmer, Cheryl A; Schmidt, Meic H; Couldwell, William T

    2016-06-01

    The co-occurrence of cerebral gliomas and cavernous angiomas is rarely encountered in clinical practice. All reported cases with such association have occurred within the brain with none involving the spinal cord. The authors report the case of a hypothalamic-optochiasmatic pilocytic astrocytoma coexisting with right occipital and sacral spinal cavernomas. This 30-year-old man had an 8-year history of chronic lower back pain. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated an 8.2-cm expansile multilobulated heterogeneously enhancing intradural mass within the sacral spinal canal, extending into the bilateral S1 and left S2 foramina. Brain MRI depicted a 2.9-cm lobulated heterogeneously enhancing sellar-suprasellar solid and cystic mass expanding the sella and displacing the infundibulum to the right, with a normal-appearing pituitary gland inside the sella, and an extensive supratentorial and infratentorial superficial hemosiderosis. L5-S4 laminectomy and pterional craniotomy were performed for the resection of these lesions. Histopathologic examination revealed a sacral spinal cavernoma and a suprasellar hypothalamic-optochiasmatic pilocytic astrocytoma. The coexistence of hypothalamic-optochiasmatic pilocytic astrocytoma and occipital and sacral spinal cavernomas has not been reported previously. Especially for radiologically atypical suprasellar lesions, hypothalamic-optochiasmatic glioma should be included in the differential diagnosis of masses that can expand the sella. Besides previously postulated hypotheses of viral-induced or angiogenic factor-induced glial growth, we hypothesize that neoplastic origins of hypothalamic-optochiasmatic glioma might be due to the irritative mechanisms resulting from the frequent bleeds occurring from the spinal or cranial cavernoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Paroxysmal stabbing headache in the multiple dermatomes of the head and neck: a variant of primary stabbing headache or occipital neuralgia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J H; Song, H K; Lee, J H; Kim, W K; Chu, M K

    2007-10-01

    A paroxysmal stabbing or icepick-like headache in the multiple nerve dermatomes, especially involving both trigeminal and cervical nerves, has not been fully explained or classified by the International Classification of Headache Disorder, 2(nd) Edition (ICHD-II). Of patients with acute-onset paroxysmal stabbing headache who had visited the Hallym University Medical Center during the last four years, 28 subjects with a repeated stabbing headache involving multiple dermatomes at the initial presentation or during the course were prospectively enrolled. All patients were neurologically and otologically symptom free. A coincidental involvement of both trigeminal and cervical nerve dermatomes included seven cases. Six cases involved initially the trigeminal and then cervical nerve dermatomes. Five cases showed an involvement of the cervical and then trigeminal nerve dermatomes. The remaining patients involved multiple cervical nerve branches (the lesser occipital, greater occipital and greater auricular). Pain lasted very shortly and a previous history of headache with the same nature was reported in 13 cases. Preceding symptom of an infection and physical and/or mental stress were manifested in seven and six subjects, respectively. All patients showed a self-limited benign course and completely recovered within a few hours to 30 days. Interestingly, a seasonal gradient in occurrence of a stabbing headache was found in this study. A paroxysmal stabbing headache manifested on multiple dermatomes can be explained by the characteristics of pain referral, and may be considered to be a variant of primary stabbing headache or occipital neuralgia.

  7. Occipital nerve stimulation for chronic migraine--a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Fu Chen

    Full Text Available Chronic migraine is a debilitating headache disorder that has significant impact on quality of life. Stimulation of peripheral nerves is increasingly being used to treat chronic refractory pain including headache disorders. This systematic review examines the effectiveness and adverse effects of occipital nerve stimulation (ONS for chronic migraine.Databases, including the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and clinical trial registers were searched to September 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs, other controlled and uncontrolled observational studies and case series (n≥ 10 were eligible. RCTs were assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis was carried out using a random-effects model. Findings are presented in summary tables and forest plots.Five RCTs (total n=402 and seven case series (total n=115 met the inclusion criteria. Pooled results from three multicenter RCTs show that ONS was associated with a mean reduction of 2.59 days (95% CI 0.91 to 4.27, I2=0% of prolonged, moderate to severe headache per month at 3 months compared with a sham control. Results for other outcomes generally favour ONS over sham controls but quantitative analysis was hampered by incomplete publication and reporting of trial data. Lead migration and infections are common and often require revision surgery. Open-label follow-up of RCTs and case series suggest long-term effectiveness can be maintained in some patients but evidence is limited.While the effectiveness of ONS compared to sham control has been shown in multiple RCTs, the average effect size is modest and may be exaggerated by bias as achieving effective blinding remains a methodological challenge. Further measures to reduce the risk of adverse events and revision surgery are needed.this systematic review is an update and expanded work of part of a broader review registered with PROSPERO. Registration No. CRD42012002633.

  8. Eight to Twelve Hertz Occipital EEG Training with Moderate and Severely Retarded Epileptic Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrud, Eric; Striefel, Sebastian

    1981-01-01

    Three retarded epileptic individuals (17 to 22 years old) with a variety of seizure disorders were provided with 8 to 12 Hz occipital EEG biofeedback training. While seizures were not totally eliminated in any of the Ss, the results of the study indicated that all Ss exhibited decreases in some aspect of their seizure activity. (Author)

  9. Lateralized occipital degeneration in posterior cortical atrophy predicts visual field deficits

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    Rebecca S Millington

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Detailed brain imaging shows that the asymmetric visual field deficits in patients with PCA reflect the pattern of degeneration of both white and gray matter in the occipital lobe. Understanding the nature of both visual field deficits and the neurodegenerative brain changes in PCA may improve diagnosis and understanding of this disease.

  10. Prevalence of atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial instability in adults with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khouri, Marcelo; Mourão, Marcelo Alves; Tobo, Andrea; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo; Herrero, Carlos Fernando Pereira; Riberto, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the presence of atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial instabilities as well as their clinical significance in patients with Down syndrome. The present study retrospectively evaluated 80 adults with Down syndrome for the presence of atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial instability in lateral craniocervical radiographic images. Atlanto-occipital instability was defined by the Rules of 12 or Harris measurements, using the values of the basion-dens interval or the basion-axial interval. Atlantoaxial instability was radiologically identified by the space between the anterior border of the odontoid apophysis and the posterior border of the atlas arch, as well as by the Wiesel-Rothman line. Eighty patients were assessed; 14 (17.5%) presented with atlanto-occipital instability and 9 (11.2%) with atlantoaxial instability. Only 3 patients (3.8%) had specific symptoms for cervical instability. There was no statistical correlation with patient age or gender. High cervical instability in patients with Down syndrome can also be observed among adults, and there is a low correlation between the radiological findings and symptoms. These findings emphasize the importance of periodic follow-up on these patients, particularly when sports activities are considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Opsoclonus-induced occipital deactivation with a region-specific distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, BM; van Weerden, TW; Haaxma, R

    The cerebral distribution of 2-[18F]fluoro 2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake in a patient with opsoclonus was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) and subsequently compared with the distribution in ten normal subjects. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) revealed a decreased occipital FDG

  12. High refractive index of melanin in shiny occipital feathers of a bird of paradise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Leertouwer, Heinrich; Osorio, Daniel C.; Wilts, Bodo D.

    Male Lawes's Parotia, a bird of paradise, use the highly directional reflection of the structurally colored, brilliant-silvery occipital feathers in their courtship display. As in other birds, the structural coloration is produced by ordered melanin pigmentation. The barbules of the Parotia's

  13. Atlanto-occipital dislocation--part 2: The clinical use of (occipital) condyle-C1 interval, comparison with other diagnostic methods, and the manifestation, management, and outcome of atlanto-occipital dislocation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Dachling; Nemzek, William R; Zovickian, John

    2007-11-01

    The diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dislocation (AOD) remains problematic as a result of a lack of reliable radiodiagnostic criteria. In Part 1 of the AOD series, we showed that the normal occiput-C1 joint in children has an extremely narrow joint gap (condyle-C1 interval [CCI]) with great left-right symmetry. In Part 2, we used a CCI of 4 mm or greater measured on reformatted computed tomographic (CT) scans as the indicator for AOD and tested the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of CCI against published criteria. The clinical manifestation, neuroimaging findings, management, and outcome of our series of patients with AOD are also reported. For diagnostic sensitivity, we applied the CCI criterion on 16 patients who fulfilled one or more accepted radiodiagnostic criteria of AOD and who showed clinical and imaging hallmarks of the syndrome. All 16 patients had plain cervical spine x-rays, head CT scans, axial cervical spine CT scans with reconstruction, and magnetic resonance imaging scans. The diagnostic yield and false-negative rate of CCI were compared with those of four published "standard" tests, namely Wholey's dens-basion interval, Powers' ratio, Harris' basion-axis interval, and Sun's interspinous ratio. The diagnostic value of "nonstandard" indicators such as cervicomedullary deficits, tectorial membrane and other ligamentous damage, perimedullary subarachnoid hemorrhage, and extra-axial blood at C1-C2 were also assessed. For diagnostic specificity, we applied CCI and the "standard" and "nonstandard" tests on 10 patients from five classes of non-AOD upper cervical injuries. The false-positive diagnostic rates for AOD of all respective tests were documented. The CCI criterion was positive in all 16 patients with AOD with a diagnostic sensitivity of 100%. Fourteen patients had bilateral AOD with disruption and widening of both OC1 joints. Two patients had unilateral AOD with only one joint wider than 4 mm. The abnormal CCI varied from 5 to 34 mm. Eight

  14. Cerebellar dermoid tumor and occipital meningocele in a monozygotic twin : clues to the embryogenesis of craniospinal dysraphism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, R J; van Ouwerkerk, W J

    A case of monochorionic/monoamnionic twin with discordant occipital developmental malformations is presented. One female twin appeared to have an occipital meningocele with cerebellar aplasia and died immediately after birth. The other twin presented with signs and symptoms of raised intracranial

  15. Intralobar fibres of the occipital lobe: a post mortem dissection study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, Francesco; Mahmood, Sajedha; Morris, Cristopher M; Mitchell, Patrick; Forkel, Stephanie J

    2014-07-01

    The atlas by Heinrich Sachs (1892) provided an accurate description of the intralobar fibres of the occipital lobe, with a detailed representation of the short associative tracts connecting different parts of the lobe. Little attention has been paid to the work of Sachs since its publication. In this study, we present the results of the dissection of three hemispheres, performed according to the Klingler technique (1935). Our anatomical findings are then compared to the original description of the occipital fibres anatomy as detailed by Sachs. Three hemispheres were dissected according to Klingler's technique (1935). Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and frozen at -15 °C for two weeks. After defreezing, dissection of the white matter fibres was performed with blunt dissectors. Coronal sections were obtained according to the cuts originally described by Sachs. In addition, medial to lateral and lateral to medial dissection of the white matter of the occipital lobe was also performed. A network of short association fibres was demonstrated in the occipital lobe, comprising intralobar association fibres and U-shaped fibres, which are connecting neighbouring gyri. Lateral to the ventricles, longitudinal fibres of the stratum sagittale were also identified that are arranged as external and internal layers. Fibres of the forceps major were also found to be in direct contact with the ventricular walls. We were able to replicate all tracts originally described by Sachs. In addition, a previously unrecognised tract, connecting the cuneus to the lingual gyrus, was identified. This tract corresponds to the "sledge runner", described in tractography studies. The occipital lobe shows a rich network of intralobar fibres, arranged around the ventricular wall. Good concordance was observed between the Klingler dissection technique and the histological preparations of Sachs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Diagnosis and treatment of atlanto-occipital ruptures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, A; Plaue, R

    1988-12-01

    Atlantooccipital rupture is a rare ligamentous injury, which is usually accompanied by multiple trauma. Literature and personal communications report of 30 patients with such an injury. Long term survival is known in 18 cases, but there were severe neurological deficits in two cases. Reports of five of our own patients are presented. Death occurred after a few hours in three cases. One patient survived for four weeks, and one girl fully recovered after timely atlantooccipital fusion. In seven of 18 cases who have survived for a long time, the diagnosis was made only at a late stage. This underscores the necessity of including the occipitocervical transition in the diagnosis of the cervical spine. This applies in particular to unconscious accident casualties. Standard X-rays of the upper cervical spine (supplemented if necessary by cautious radiographic control under mild head extension) verify the diagnosis. In treatment, an early fusion of the cervicooccipital transition is to be given preference. Only in this way can stable healing and thus the most important precondition for neurological restitution be fulfilled.

  17. Activity in the lateral occipital cortex between 200 and 300 ms distinguishes between physically identical seen and unseen stimuli

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    Ying eLiu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is converging evidence that electrophysiological responses over posterior cortical regions in the 200-300 ms range distinguish between physically identical stimuli that reach consciousness or remain unseen. Here, we attempt at determining the sources of this awareness-related activity using MEG. Fourteen subjects were presented with faint colored gratings at threshold for contrast and reported on each trial whether the grating was seen or unseen. Subjects were primed with a color cue that could be congruent or incongruent with the color of the grating, to probe to what extent two co-localized features (color and orientation would be bound in consciousness. The contrast between neural responses to seen and unseen physically identical gratings revealed a sustained posterior difference between 190 and 350 ms, thereby replicating prior studies. We further show that the main sources of the awareness-related activity were localized bilaterally on the lateral convexity of the occipito-temporal region, in the lateral occipital (LO complex, as well as in the right posterior infero-temporal region. No activity differentiating seen and unseen trials could be observed in frontal or parietal regions in this latency range, even at lower threshold. Color congruency did not improve gratings' detection, and the awareness-related activity was independent from color congruency. However, at the neural level, color congruency was processed differently in grating-present and grating-absent trials. The pattern of results suggests the existence of a neural process of color congruency engaging left parietal regions that is affected by the mere presence of another feature, whether this feature reaches consciousness or not. Altogether, our results reveal an occipital source of visual awareness insensitive to color congruency, and a simultaneous parietal source not engaged in visual awareness, but sensitive to the manipulation of co-localized features.

  18. Sex Prediction using Foramen Magnum and Occipital Condyles Computed Tomography Measurements in Sudanese Population

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    Usama Mohamed El-Barrany

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sex determination is important in establishing the identity of an individual. The foramen magnum is an important landmark of the skull base. The present research aimed to study the value of foramen magnum measurements to determine sex using computed tomography (CT among Sudanese individuals. Foramen magnum CT scans of 400 Sudanese individuals (200 males and 200 females aged 18 - 83 years were included in this study. Foramen magnum (length and width, right occipital condyle (length and width, left occipital condyle (length and width, minimum intercondylar distance, maximum bicondylar distance and maximum medial intercondylar distance were measured. All data were subjected to discriminant functions analysis. All nine measurements were significantly higher in males than females. Among these measurements, the right condyle length, minimum intercondylar distance, and foramen magnum width were able to determine sex in Sudanese individuals with an accuracy rate of 83 %.

  19. Does Occipital Alpha Neurofeedback Require Critical Branching to Causally Influence LTRCs and Deterministic ERPs?

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    Campbell, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Critical branching is a form of theoretical interaction between simple units, which, in the case of the human brain are assumed to be neuronal elements. Zhigalov, Kaplan, & Palva (Clin Neurophysiol 2016;127:288-89) revealed that neurofeedback flash stimulation phase-locked to high-amplitude occipital alpha influences the stimulus-locked occipital alpha-band averages and the power scaling of long-range temporal correlations of alpha-band amplitude fluctuations. At first, it might seem that neurofeedback influenced critical branching alongside there being an interaction between ongoing neuronal activity and evoked responses. However, the causal relations between these neuronal Long Range Temporal Correlations, sustained attention, and any avalanche dynamics are called into question, as is the assertion of Zhigalov et al. that the neurofeedback flashes are unconsciously processed rather than capturing attention. Uncorrected concerns about false discovery rate and an objective mathematical error in the cited ...

  20. Pure alexia after right temporo-occipital hemorrhage in a right-handed female

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    Buse Rahime Hasırcı

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Alexia without agraphia is a rare clinical disorder which is characterized by impairment of reading in spite of protection of writing ability. It usually results from infarction within the vascular territory of the posterior cerebral artery. The lesions of left occipital lobe or splenium of corpus callosum can cause alexia without agraphia by the deterioration of connection between the right occipital lobe and left parietal lobe. We describe the case of a 70-year-old right-handed woman who was presented with moderate headache and blurred vision and affected by alexia without agraphia and aphasia. Our case indicates that pure alexia may arise as a consequence of damage to the right hemisphere in right-handed patients and may lead to a severe reading disorder, as in individuals with left-hemisphere dominance for language.

  1. A Case of Asymptomatic Occipital Condyle Fracture with Incomplete Occipitocervical Dislocation: How Did It Happen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anania, Pasquale; Fiaschi, Pietro; Sbaffi, Pier Filippo; Zona, Gianluigi

    2018-01-01

    Atlanto-occipital dislocation (AOD) is a lesion rarely observed in a trauma center, because of high mortality in the preclinical phase. The number of AOD survivors is increasing thanks to the improvement in prehospital resuscitation. Our goal is to describe a case of incomplete atlanto-occipital dislocation presented without any neurologic, cardiorespiratory, or metabolic problems, which remained constant even after surgical treatment. Our purpose is also to discuss treatment approaches to minimize subsequent neurologic deficits. We recommend a rapid immobilization with spine table and cervical collar, the consensual stabilization of hemodynamic and respiratory parameters, and a successive prompt occipitocervical stabilization. C2 should be included in the stabilization because of the ligamentous conformation of craniocervical joint. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prenatal ultrasound and MRI findings of temporal and occipital lobe dysplasia in a twin with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugash, D; Lehman, A M; Langlois, S

    2014-09-01

    Thanatophoric dysplasia, hypochondroplasia and achondroplasia are all caused by FGFR3 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 3) mutations. Neuropathological findings of temporal lobe dysplasia are found in thanatophoric dysplasia, and temporal and occipital lobe abnormalities have been described recently in brain imaging studies of children with hypochondroplasia. We describe twins discordant for achondroplasia, in one of whom the prenatal diagnosis was based on ultrasound and fetal MRI documentation of temporal and occipital lobe abnormalities characteristic of hypochondroplasia, in addition to the finding of short long bones. Despite the intracranial findings suggestive of hypochondroplasia, achondroplasia was confirmed following postnatal clinical and genetic testing. These intracranial abnormalities have not been previously described in a fetus with achondroplasia. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Evaluation of spheno-occipital synchondrosis: A review of literature and considerations from forensic anthropologic point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2013-01-01

    Cranial sutures and synchondrosis have long been studied by forensic scientists, human anatomists, and anthropologists for estimation of age in different population groups. Observation of the closure of spheno-occipital synchondrosis has an important role to play in the estimation of age in the examination of unknown human remains when a skull is brought for examination. The present article reviews the studies conducted on the closure of spheno-occipital synchondrosis and presents a few valuable considerations that would be essential for carrying out research related to closure of spheno-occipital synchondrosis in humans. PMID:24255553

  4. Q-ball of inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and beyond.

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    Eduardo Caverzasi

    Full Text Available The inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF is historically described as the longest associative bundle in the human brain and it connects various parts of the occipital cortex, temporo-basal area and the superior parietal lobule to the frontal lobe through the external/extreme capsule complex. The exact functional role and the detailed anatomical definition of the IFOF are still under debate within the scientific community. In this study we present a fiber tracking dissection of the right and left IFOF by using a q-ball residual-bootstrap reconstruction of High-Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI data sets in 20 healthy subjects. By defining a single seed region of interest on the coronal fractional anisotropy (FA color map of each subject, we investigated all the pathways connecting the parietal, occipital and posterior temporal cortices to the frontal lobe through the external/extreme capsule. In line with recent post-mortem dissection studies we found more extended anterior-posterior association connections than the "classical" fronto-occipital representation of the IFOF. In particular the pathways we evidenced showed: a diffuse projections in the frontal lobe, b fronto-parietal lobes connections trough the external capsule in almost all the subjects and c widespread connections in the posterior regions. Our study represents the first consistent in vivo demonstration across a large group of individuals of these novel anterior and posterior terminations of the IFOF detailed described only by post-mortem anatomical dissection. Furthermore our work establishes the feasibility of consistent in vivo mapping of this architecture with independent in vivo methodologies. In conclusion q-ball tractography dissection supports a more complex definition of IFOF, which includes several subcomponents likely underlying specific function.

  5. Spheno-occipital synchondrosis: Examining the degree of fusion in a South African Black skeletal sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Trisha-Jean; Friedling, Louise Jacqui; Gordon, Guinevere Marianne

    2017-09-01

    Estimating age-at-death is one of the many biological demographics that a forensic anthropologist needs to determine for a set of unknown skeletal remains. A useful skeletal developmental marker, which can aid in estimating age in sub-adult remains, is the state of fusion of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis. This study aimed to determine the repeatability of a three-stage scoring method and the age at which the spheno-occipital synchondrosis begins and completes fusion in a Black South African sample. A total of 147 male and female skeletal individuals aged between 12-30 years from the Raymond A. Dart Collection of Human Skeletons were included. The mean age-at-death noted for the commencement of fusion at the spheno-occipital synchondrosis was 16.2 (±2.9) years in females and 16.7 (±1.2) years in males, with females displaying signs of fusion taking place approximately three years before their male counterparts. Complete fusion of this skeletal developmental marker was observed in 100% of the sample over the age of 20 years, regardless of sex. A Kappa value of 1.0 was achieved when the repeatability and reproducibility of the three-stage scoring method was tested. Complete fusion of this synchondrosis occurred slightly later in this South African sample than that noted in previous literature. This finding may be attributed to the differences in health and socio-economic statuses between these different population groups, reiterating the need for population-specific data to be developed. The importance of noting the state of fusion of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis during the examination of relevant forensic cases may aid in the formation of a narrower age-at-death range for sub-adult and young adult skeletal remains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of blindness onset on the functional organization and the connectivity of the occipital cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, Olivier; Dormal, Giulia; Albouy, Geneviève; Vandewalle, Gilles; Voss, Patrice; Phillips, Christophe; Lepore, Franco

    2013-09-01

    Contrasting the impact of congenital versus late-onset acquired blindness provides a unique model to probe how experience at different developmental periods shapes the functional organization of the occipital cortex. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to characterize brain activations of congenitally blind, late-onset blind and two groups of sighted control individuals while they processed either the pitch or the spatial attributes of sounds. Whereas both blind groups recruited occipital regions for sound processing, activity in bilateral cuneus was only apparent in the congenitally blind, highlighting the existence of region-specific critical periods for crossmodal plasticity. Most importantly, the preferential activation of the right dorsal stream (middle occipital gyrus and cuneus) for the spatial processing of sounds was only observed in the congenitally blind. This demonstrates that vision has to be lost during an early sensitive period in order to transfer its functional specialization for space processing toward a non-visual modality. We then used a combination of dynamic causal modelling with Bayesian model selection to demonstrate that auditory-driven activity in primary visual cortex is better explained by direct connections with primary auditory cortex in the congenitally blind whereas it relies more on feedback inputs from parietal regions in the late-onset blind group. Taken together, these results demonstrate the crucial role of the developmental period of visual deprivation in (re)shaping the functional architecture and the connectivity of the occipital cortex. Such findings are clinically important now that a growing number of medical interventions may restore vision after a period of visual deprivation.

  7. Treatment of intractable chronic cluster headache by occipital nerve stimulation: a cohort of 51 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S; Watkins, L; Matharu, M

    2017-02-01

    Chronic cluster headache is a rare, highly disabling primary headache condition. When medically intractable, occipital nerve stimulation can offer effective treatment. Open-label series have provided data on small cohorts only. We analyzed 51 subjects to evaluate the long-term outcomes of highly intractable chronic cluster headache with occipital nerve stimulation. Patients with intractable chronic cluster headache were implanted with occipital nerve stimulators during the period 2007-2014. The primary endpoint was improvement in daily attack frequency. Secondary endpoints included attack severity, attack duration, quality-of-life measures, headache disability scores and adverse events. We studied 51 patients [35 males; mean age at implant 47.78 (range 31-70) years; mean follow-up 39.17 (range 2-81) months]. Nineteen patients had other chronic headache types in addition in chronic cluster headache. At final follow-up, there was a 46.1% improvement in attack frequency (P cluster headache alone and 40.3% (P = 0.036) in those with multiple phenotypes. There were no significant differences in response in those with or without multiple headache types. The overall response rate (defined as at least a 50% improvement in attack frequency) was 52.9%. Significant reductions were also seen in attack duration and severity. Improvements were noted in headache disability scores and quality-of-life measures. Triptan use of responders dropped by 62.56%, resulting in significant cost savings. Adverse event rates were highly favorable. Occipital nerve stimulation appears to be a safe and efficacious treatment for highly intractable chronic cluster headache even after a mean follow-up of over 3 years. © 2016 EAN.

  8. Dissociation between Conceptual and Perceptual Implicit Memory: Evidence from Patients with Frontal and Occipital Lobe Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Liang; Wang, JiHua; Yang, XuDong; Feng, Lei; Li, Xiu; Gu, Cui; Wang, MeiHong; Hu, JiaYun; Cheng, Huaidong

    2016-01-01

    The latest neuroimaging studies about implicit memory (IM) have revealed that different IM types may be processed by different parts of the brain. However, studies have rarely examined what subtypes of IM processes are affected in patients with various brain injuries. Twenty patients with frontal lobe injury, 25 patients with occipital lobe injury, and 29 healthy controls (HC) were recruited for the study. Two subtypes of IM were investigated by using structurally parallel perceptual (picture identification task) and conceptual (category exemplar generation task) IM tests in the three groups, as well as explicit memory (EM) tests. The results indicated that the priming of conceptual IM and EM tasks in patients with frontal lobe injury was poorer than that observed in HC, while perceptual IM was identical between the two groups. By contrast, the priming of perceptual IM in patients with occipital lobe injury was poorer than that in HC, whereas the priming of conceptual IM and EM was similar to that in HC. This double dissociation between perceptual and conceptual IM across the brain areas implies that occipital lobes may participate in perceptual IM, while frontal lobes may be involved in processing conceptual memory. PMID:26793093

  9. Measurement of the occipital alpha rhythm and temporal tau rhythm by using magnetoencephalography

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    Kim, J. E.; Gohel, Bakul; Kim, K.; Kwon, H.; An, Kyung Min [Center for Biosignals, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science(KRISS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Developing Magnetoencephalography (MEG) based on Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) facilitates to observe the human brain functions in non-invasively and high temporal and high spatial resolution. By using this MEG, we studied alpha rhythm (8-13 Hz) that is one of the most predominant spontaneous rhythm in human brain. The 8–13 Hz rhythm is observed in several sensory region in the brain. In visual related region of occipital, we call to alpha rhythm, and auditory related region of temporal call to tau rhythm, sensorimotor related region of parietal call to mu rhythm. These rhythms are decreased in task related region and increased in task irrelevant regions. This means that these rhythms play a pivotal role of inhibition in task irrelevant region. It may be helpful to attention to the task. In several literature about the alpha-band inhibition in multi-sensory modality experiment, they observed this effect in the occipital and somatosensory region. In this study, we hypothesized that we can also observe the alpha-band inhibition in the auditory cortex, mediated by the tau rhythm. Before that, we first investigated the existence of the alpha and tau rhythm in occipital and temporal region, respectively. To see these rhythms, we applied the visual and auditory stimulation, in turns, suppressed in task relevant regions, respectively.

  10. Dissociative Disturbance in Hangul-Hanja Reading after a Left Posterior Occipital Lesion

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    Key-Chung Park

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Korean language has two distinct writing systems, phonogram (Hangul and ideogram (Hanja: Chinese characters, alexia can present with dissociative disturbances in reading between the two systems. A 74-year-old right-handed man presented with a prominent reading impairment in Hangul with agraphia of both Hangul and Hanja after a left posterior occipital- parietal lesion. He could not recognize single syllable words and nonwords in Hangul, and visual errors were predominant in both Hanja reading and the Korean Boston Naming Test. In addition, he had difficulties in visuoperceptual tests including Judgment of Line Orientation, Hierarchical Navon figures, and complex picture scanning. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that Hangul reading impairment results from a general visual perceptual deficit. However, this assumption cannot explain why performance on visually complex Hanja was better than performance on visually simple Hanja in our patient. In addition, the patient did not demonstrate higher accuracy on Hanja characters with fewer strokes than on words with more strokes. Thus, we speculate that the left posterior occipital area may be specialized for Hangul letter identification in this patient. This case demonstrates that Hangul-Hanja reading dissociation impairment can occur after occipital-parietal lesions.

  11. Inattention Predicts Increased Thickness of Left Occipital Cortex in Men with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörös, Peter; Bachmann, Katharina; Lam, Alexandra P; Kanat, Manuela; Hoxhaj, Eliza; Matthies, Swantje; Feige, Bernd; Müller, Helge H O; Thiel, Christiane; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood is a serious and frequent psychiatric disorder with the core symptoms inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The principal aim of this study was to investigate associations between brain morphology, i.e., cortical thickness and volumes of subcortical gray matter, and individual symptom severity in adult ADHD. Surface-based brain morphometry was performed in 35 women and 29 men with ADHD using FreeSurfer. Linear regressions were calculated between cortical thickness and the volumes of subcortical gray matter and the inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity subscales of the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS). Two separate analyses were performed. For the first analysis, age was included as additional regressor. For the second analysis, both age and severity of depression were included as additional regressors. Study participants were recruited between June 2012 and January 2014. Linear regression identified an area in the left occipital cortex of men, covering parts of the middle occipital sulcus and gyrus, in which the score on the CAARS inattention subscale predicted increased mean cortical thickness [ F (1,27) = 26.27, p  gray matter and the scores on CAARS subscales, neither in men nor in women. These results remained stable when severity of depression was included as additional regressor, together with age. Increased cortical thickness in the left occipital cortex may represent a mechanism to compensate for dysfunctional attentional networks in male adult ADHD patients.

  12. The Disruption of Geniculocalcarine Tract in Occipital Neoplasm: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

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    Yan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Investigate the disruption of geniculocalcarine tract (GCT in different occipital neoplasm by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Methods. Thirty-two subjects (44.1 ± 3.6 years who had single occipital neoplasm (9 gliomas, 6 meningiomas, and 17 metastatic tumors with ipsilateral GCT involved and thirty healthy subjects (39.2 ± 3.3 years underwent conventional sequences scanning and diffusion tensor imaging by a 1.5T MR scanner. The diffusion-sensitive gradient direction is 13. Compare the fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD values of healthy GCT with the corresponding values of GCT in peritumoral edema area. Perform diffusion tensor tractography (DTT on GCT by the line propagation technique in all subjects. Results. The FA values of GCT in peritumoral edema area decreased (P=0.001 while the MD values increased (P=0.002 when compared with healthy subjects. There was no difference in the FA values across tumor types (P=0.114 while the MD values of GCT in the metastatic tumor group were higher than the other groups (P=0.001. GCTs were infiltrated in all the 9 gliomas cases, with displacement in 2 cases and disruption in 7 cases. GCTs were displaced in 6 meningiomas cases. GCTs were displaced in all the 7 metastatic cases, with disruption in 7 cases. Conclusions. DTI represents valid markers for evaluating GCT’s disruption in occipital neoplasm. The disruption of GCT varies according to the properties of neoplasm.

  13. Fractures of the occipital condyle clinical spectrum and course in eight patients

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    Antonio Krüger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Occipital condyle fractures (OCFs are considered to be rare injuries. OCFs are now diagnosed more often because of the widespread use of computed tomography. Our aim is to report the incidence, treatment and long term outcome of 8 patients with OCFs. Materials and Methods: All patients presenting with multiple trauma from 1993 to 2006 were analyzed retrospectively. Characteristics and course of the treatment were evaluated. Follow-up was performed after 11,7 years (range 5,9 to 19,3 years. Results: Nine cases of OCF in 8 patients were identified. All injuries resulted from high velocity trauma. The average scores on the ISS Scale were 39,6 (24-75 and 7,3 (3-15 on the GCS. According to Anderson′s classification, 5 cases of Type III and 4 cases of Type I fractures were identified. According to Tuli′s classification, 5 cases of Type IIA and 4 cases of Type I were found. Indications for immobilization with the halo-vest were type III injuries according to Anderson′s classification or Tuli′s type IIA injuries, respectively. Patients with Tuli′s type I injuries were treated with a Philadelphia collar for 6 weeks. In one patient with initial complete tetraplegia and one with incomplete neurological deficits the final follow-up neurologic examination showed no neurological impairment at all (Frankel-grade A to E, respectively B to E. At follow-up, 3 patients were asymptomatic. Four patients suffered from mild pain when turning their head, pain medication was necessary in one case only. Discussion: OCF`s are virtually undetectable using conventional radiography. In cases of high velocity, cranio-cervical trauma or impaired consciousness, high resolution CT-scans of the craniocervical junction must be performed. We suggest immobilization using a halo device for type III injuries according to Anderson′s classification or Tuli′s type IIa injuries, respectively. Patients with Tuli′s type I injuries should be treated with a

  14. Occipital Neuralgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skeletal Syndrome (COFS) Information Page Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Information Page Chorea Information Page Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) Information Page Coffin Lowry Syndrome Information ...

  15. Visual Hypo and Hypergnosia as Exemplars of Poles of Psychic Tonus in the Occipital Lobes: Multiple Case Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Claude M. J.; Guimond, Anik

    2008-01-01

    The “psychic tonus” model or PTM [1] of hemispheric specialization states that the left hemisphere is a psychic and behavioral activator and that the right hemisphere is an inhibitor. The PTM predicts that the tonus of visual representation ought to manifest hemispheric specialization in the occipital lobes. Specifically PTM predicts that pathological positive visual tonus (visual hallucination) ought to be associated more frequently with right occipital lesions. PTM also predicts that pathol...

  16. The right vertebral artery originating from the right occipital artery and the absence of the transverse foramen: a rare anatomical variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öner, Zülal; Öner, Serkan; Kahraman, Ayşegül Sağır

    2017-12-01

    Variations in the origin of the vertebral artery (VA) is a congenital anomaly that occurs during embryological development. Multiple variations related to VA origin have been reported in the literature. Abnormal VA origin is usually determined as incidental findings during angiographic or postmortem anatomical studies. Although most of the cases are asymptomatic, in patients with VA anomaly symptoms such as dizziness have been described. The anomalous variation in the origin of the right VA is rare and separated into three categories: (1) originating from the aorta, (2) originating from the carotid arteries, (3) duplicated origin. In this case, we aimed to present the right VA originating from the right occipital artery and concomitant anomalies of the transverse foramen that have not been reported previously according to our knowledge in literature. In a 32-year-old female patient referred to our hospital because of dizziness, the right VA was not observed on magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography angiography (CTA) examination was performed. CTA showed hypoplasia of the right transverse foramen at the levels of the C1, C5 and C6 vertebrae and aplasia of the right transverse foramen at the levels of the C2, C3 and C4 vertebrae. The right VA originating from the right occipital artery continues to its normal course by entering the cranium through the foramen magnum at the level of the atlantooccipital junction.

  17. Survival Analysis of Occipital Nerve Stimulator Leads Placed under Fluoroscopic Guidance with and without Ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James H; Brown, Alison; Moyse, Daniel; Qi, Wenjing; Roy, Lance

    2017-11-01

    Electrical stimulation of the greater occipital nerves is performed to treat pain secondary to chronic daily headaches and occipital neuralgia. The use of fluoroscopy alone to guide the surgical placement of electrodes near the greater occipital nerves disregards the impact of tissue planes on lead stability and stimulation efficacy. We hypothesized that occipital neurostimulator (ONS) leads placed with ultrasonography combined with fluoroscopy would demonstrate increased survival rates and times when compared to ONS leads placed with fluoroscopy alone. A 2-arm retrospective chart review. A single academic medical center. This retrospective chart review analyzed the procedure notes and demographic data of patients who underwent the permanent implant of an ONS lead between July 2012 and August 2015. Patient data included the diagnosis (reason for implant), smoking tobacco use, disability, and age. ONS lead data included the date of permanent implant, the imaging modality used during permanent implant (fluoroscopy with or without ultrasonography), and, if applicable, the date and reason for lead removal. A total of 21 patients (53 leads) were included for the review. Chi-squared tests, Fishers exact tests, 2-sample t-tests, and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to compare fluoroscopy against combined fluoroscopy and ultrasonography as implant methods with respect to patient demographics. These tests were also used to evaluate the primary aim of this study, which was to compare the survival rates and times of ONS leads placed with combined ultrasonography and fluoroscopy versus those placed with fluoroscopy alone. Survival analysis was used to assess the effect of implant method, adjusted for patient demographics (age, smoking tobacco use, and disability), on the risk of lead explant. Data from 21 patients were collected, including a total of 53 ONS leads. There was no statistically significant difference in the lead survival rate or time, disability, or patient age

  18. Myoclonic occipital photosensitive epilepsy with dystonia (MOPED): A familial epilepsy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, Lynette G; Paterson, Sarah; Smith, Katherine R; Redshaw, Natalie; Ranta, Annemarei; Kalnins, Renate; Berkovic, Samuel F; Bahlo, Melanie; Hildebrand, Michael S; Scheffer, Ingrid E

    2015-08-01

    To describe clinical and EEG phenotypes of a family with an unusual familial epilepsy syndrome characterized by myoclonus and dystonia. Family members underwent electroclinical phenotyping including review of EEGs and MRI. DNA from family members was genotyped using Illumina OmniExpress genotyping arrays. Parametric and nonparametric linkage analyses were performed using MERLIN. The disorder followed autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance and affected seven individuals over two generations. Seizures began at a mean of 14.5 years. Six individuals had spontaneous myoclonic seizures, of which five also had photic-induced myoclonus and four had photic-induced occipital seizures. Six individuals had convulsive seizures; generalized in two and focal in four. Photosensitivity was prominent with generalized spike wave and polyspike wave in four individuals of which two also had occipital spikes. MRI scans were normal in the four individuals tested. Extensive metabolic investigation was normal. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) occurred in two; and JME overlapping with idiopathic photosensitive epilepsy (IPOE) in four individuals. All three affected males had a more severe disorder than the four affected females. Two males had a progressive neurological disorder with progressive myoclonus epilepsy and deterioration in their early 30s. They developed episodes of paroxysmal cervical dystonia with cognitive decline during periods of poor seizure control. One plateaued after years of poor seizure control but remained intractable with periods of deterioration. The other deteriorated with episodes of status dystonicus and status epilepticus, ataxia and a progressive ophthalmoplegia before succumbing at 38 years. Parametric linkage analysis identified three peaks achieving a maximum LOD score of 1.21. Nonparametric analysis identified eight peaks achieving LOD scores above 0.80. These were not statistically significant. This is a novel autosomal dominant familial epilepsy syndrome

  19. Abnormal activation of the occipital lobes during emotion picture processing in major depressive disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianying; Xu, Cheng; Cao, Xiaohua; Gao, Qiang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yanfang; Peng, Juyi; Zhang, Kerang

    2013-06-25

    A large number of studies have demonstrated that depression patients have cognitive dysfunction. With recently developed brain functional imaging, studies have focused on changes in brain function to investigate cognitive changes. However, there is still controversy regarding abnormalities in brain functions or correlation between cognitive impairment and brain function changes. Thus, it is important to design an emotion-related task for research into brain function changes. We selected positive, neutral, and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Patients with major depressive disorder were asked to judge emotion pictures. In addition, functional MRI was performed to synchronously record behavior data and imaging data. Results showed that the total correct rate for recognizing pictures was lower in patients compared with normal controls. Moreover, the consistency for recognizing pictures for depressed patients was worse than normal controls, and they frequently recognized positive pictures as negative pictures. The consistency for recognizing pictures was negatively correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Functional MRI suggested that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, limbic lobe, and cerebellum was enhanced, but that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, parietal lobe and occipital lobe was weakened while the patients were watching positive and neutral pictures compared with normal controls. The activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, and limbic lobe was enhanced, but the activation of some areas in the occipital lobe were weakened while the patients were watching the negative pictures compared with normal controls. These findings indicate that patients with major depressive disorder have negative cognitive disorder and extensive brain dysfunction. Thus, reduced activation of the occipital lobe may be an initiating factor for

  20. Consecutive TMS-fMRI reveals remote effects of neural noise to the "occipital face area".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon-Harris, Lily M; Rafique, Sara A; Steeves, Jennifer K E

    2016-11-01

    The human cortical system for face perception comprises a network of connected regions including the middle fusiform gyrus ("fusiform face area" or FFA), the inferior occipital gyrus ("occipital face area" or OFA), and the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). Here, we sought to investigate how transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the OFA affects activity within the face processing network. We used offline repetitive TMS to temporarily introduce neural noise in the right OFA in healthy subjects. We then immediately performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure changes in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal across the face network using an fMR-adaptation (fMR-A) paradigm. We hypothesized that TMS to the right OFA would induce abnormal face identity coding throughout the face processing network in regions to which it has direct or indirect connections. Indeed, BOLD signal for face identity, but not non-face (butterfly) identity, decreased in the right OFA and FFA following TMS to the right OFA compared to both sham TMS and TMS to a control site, the nearby object-related lateral occipital area (LO). Further, TMS to the right OFA decreased face-related activation in the left FFA, without any effect in the left OFA. Our findings indicate that TMS to the right OFA selectively disrupts face coding at both the stimulation site and bilateral FFA. TMS to the right OFA also decreased BOLD signal for different identity stimuli in the right pSTS. Together with mounting evidence from patient studies, we demonstrate connectivity of the OFA within the face network and that its activity modulates face processing in bilateral FFA as well as the right pSTS. Moreover, this study shows that deep regions within the face network can be remotely probed by stimulating structures closer to the cortical surface. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Inattention Predicts Increased Thickness of Left Occipital Cortex in Men with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sörös

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adulthood is a serious and frequent psychiatric disorder with the core symptoms inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The principal aim of this study was to investigate associations between brain morphology, i.e., cortical thickness and volumes of subcortical gray matter, and individual symptom severity in adult ADHD.MethodsSurface-based brain morphometry was performed in 35 women and 29 men with ADHD using FreeSurfer. Linear regressions were calculated between cortical thickness and the volumes of subcortical gray matter and the inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity subscales of the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS. Two separate analyses were performed. For the first analysis, age was included as additional regressor. For the second analysis, both age and severity of depression were included as additional regressors. Study participants were recruited between June 2012 and January 2014.ResultsLinear regression identified an area in the left occipital cortex of men, covering parts of the middle occipital sulcus and gyrus, in which the score on the CAARS inattention subscale predicted increased mean cortical thickness [F(1,27 = 26.27, p < 0.001, adjusted R2 = 0.4744]. No significant associations were found between cortical thickness and the scores on CAARS subscales in women. No significant associations were found between the volumes of subcortical gray matter and the scores on CAARS subscales, neither in men nor in women. These results remained stable when severity of depression was included as additional regressor, together with age.ConclusionIncreased cortical thickness in the left occipital cortex may represent a mechanism to compensate for dysfunctional attentional networks in male adult ADHD patients.

  2. Abnormal activation of the occipital lobes during emotion picture processing in major depressive disorder patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianying; Xu, Cheng; Cao, Xiaohua; Gao, Qiang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yanfang; Peng, Juyi; Zhang, Kerang

    2013-01-01

    A large number of studies have demonstrated that depression patients have cognitive dysfunction. With recently developed brain functional imaging, studies have focused on changes in brain function to investigate cognitive changes. However, there is still controversy regarding abnormalities in brain functions or correlation between cognitive impairment and brain function changes. Thus, it is important to design an emotion-related task for research into brain function changes. We selected positive, neutral, and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Patients with major depressive disorder were asked to judge emotion pictures. In addition, functional MRI was performed to synchronously record behavior data and imaging data. Results showed that the total correct rate for recognizing pictures was lower in patients compared with normal controls. Moreover, the consistency for recognizing pictures for depressed patients was worse than normal controls, and they frequently recognized positive pictures as negative pictures. The consistency for recognizing pictures was negatively correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Functional MRI suggested that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, limbic lobe, and cerebellum was enhanced, but that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, parietal lobe and occipital lobe was weakened while the patients were watching positive and neutral pictures compared with normal controls. The activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, and limbic lobe was enhanced, but the activation of some areas in the occipital lobe were weakened while the patients were watching the negative pictures compared with normal controls. These findings indicate that patients with major depressive disorder have negative cognitive disorder and extensive brain dysfunction. Thus, reduced activation of the occipital lobe may be an initiating factor for

  3. The similarities between the hallucinations associated with the partial epileptic seizures of the occipital lobe and ball lightning observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, G. K.; Cooray, V.

    2007-12-01

    Ball Lightning was seen and described since antiquity and recorded in many places. Ball lightning is usually observed during thunderstorms but large number of ball lightning observations is also reported during fine weather without any connection to thunderstorms or lightning. However, so far no one has managed to generate them in the laboratory. It is photographed very rarely and in many cases the authenticity of them is questionable. It is possible that many different phenomena are grouped together and categorized simply as ball lightning. Indeed, the visual hallucinations associated with simple partial epileptic seizures, during which the patient remains conscious, may also be categorized by a patient unaware of his or her condition as ball lightning observation. Such visual hallucinations may occur as a result of an epileptic seizure in the occipital, temporo-occipital or temporal lobes of the cerebrum [1,2,3]. In some cases the hallucination is perceived as a coloured ball moving horizontally from the periphery to the centre of the vision. The ball may appear to be rotating or spinning. The colour of the ball can be red, yellow, blue or green. Sometimes, the ball may appear to have a solid structure surrounded by a thin glow or in other cases the ball appears to generate spark like phenomena. When the ball is moving towards the centre of the vision it may increase its intensity and when it reaches the centre it can 'explode' illuminating the whole field of vision. During the hallucinations the vision is obscured only in the area occupied by the apparent object. The hallucinations may last for 5 to 30 seconds and rarely up to a minute. Occipital seizures may spread into other regions of the brain giving auditory, olfactory and sensory sensations. These sensations could be buzzing sounds, the smell of burning rubber, pain with thermal perception especially in the arms and the face, and numbness and tingling sensation. In some cases a person may experience only

  4. Linkage to chromosome 2q36.1 in autosomal dominant Dandy-Walker malformation with occipital cephalocele and evidence for genetic heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Ali; Aldinger, Kimberly A.; Chary, Ajit; Mclone, David G.; Bowman, Robin M.; Le, Luan Cong; Jardine, Phillip; Newbury-Ecob, Ruth; Mallick, Andrew; Jafari, Nadereh; Russell, Eric J.; Curran, John; Nguyen, Pam; Ouahchi, Karim; Lee, Charles; Dobyns, William B.; Millen, Kathleen J.; Pina-Neto, Joao M.; Kessler, John A.; Bassuk, Alexander G.

    2010-01-01

    We previously reported a Vietnamese-American family with isolated autosomal dominant occipital cephalocele. Upon further neuroimaging studies, we have recharacterized this condition as autosomal dominant Dandy-Walker with occipital cephalocele (ADDWOC). A similar ADDWOC family from Brazil was also recently described. To determine the genetic etiology of ADDWOC, we performed genome-wide linkage analysis on members of the Vietnamese-American and Brazilian pedigrees. Linkage analysis of the Vietnamese-American family identified the ADDWOC causative locus on chromosome 2q36.1 with a multipoint parametric LOD score of 3.3, while haplotype analysis refined the locus to 1.1 Mb. Sequencing of the five known genes in this locus did not identify any protein-altering mutations. However, a terminal deletion of chromosome 2 in a patient with an isolated case of Dandy-Walker malformation also encompassed the 2q36.1 chromosomal region. The Brazilian pedigree did not show linkage to this 2q36.1 region. Taken together, these results demonstrate a locus for ADDWOC on 2q36.1 and also suggest locus heterogeneity for ADDWOC. PMID:18204864

  5. CLOSURE TIME OF SPHENO-OCCIPITAL SUTURE IN THE MALE CADAVERS REFERRED TO LEGAL MEDICINE ORGANIZATION

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    M. Akhlaghi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The identity of dead is an essential part of post-mortem examination. The identification of unknown human remnants begins with the creation of an anthropological profile, which includes sex, biological age, stature and individualizing features. The estimation of age at death is based on the bodily biological changes that occur throughout life. Closure of spheno occipital synchondrosis is one of factors used for age estimation although its importance and reliability has been challenged with different authors. We studied its closure time among Iranian 8 to 26 years old male cadavers with direct inspection during autopsy. We divided synchondrosis situation depending on its fusion state into three categories: open, semi closed and closed. During 2004-5, 106 cases studied. Mean age of open, semi closed and closed were 12.78, 16.86 and 21.36 years, respectively. Their difference was significant (p< 0.05. Partial fusion (semi closed was seen at 12 years while complete fusion (closed should be 15 years or above. Spearman's correlation ratio coefficient showed linear correlation between age and suture situation (rho = 0.684, P < 0.05. Our results showed that closure of spheno occipital suture can be used as a good indicator for age estimation in males. With sensitivity of 88.31% and specificity of 79.31% males can be correctly grouped above or below 16 years.

  6. A Patient with Giant Rippled-Pattern Sebaceoma in the Occipital Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Takahashi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A 72-year-old male visited a nearby hospital with a large tumor in his occipital region, which had existed since 20 years. Since malignant tumor was suspected, he was referred to our department. At the initial consultation, an elastic-hard, yellow-brown, sessile tumor, measuring 8 × 7 × 5 cm and with a flat surface, was observed in the occipital region. The tumor was resected and covered with artificial dermis. Histopathologically, the lesion was composed of basal-cell-like cells with nest formation in the dermis. A rippled pattern, or the single-line arrangement of tumor cells involving the stroma, was present. In addition, some tumor clusters revealed the differentiation to sebaceous glands, and these cells were positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3 and epithelial membrane antigen, which is consistent with the staining of sebaceous glands. On the contrary, tumor cells were negative for epithelial antigen (Ber-EP4, and Ki67 (MIB1 index was 5% or lower. Therefore, we diagnosed the tumor as rippled-pattern sebaceoma and not as basal cell carcinoma. Although this case was quite unique in its large size, immunostaining was useful for the definite diagnosis.

  7. Timing and rate of spheno-occipital synchondrosis closure and its relationship to puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhazmi, Anwar; Vargas, Eduardo; Palomo, J Martin; Hans, Mark; Latimer, Bruce; Simpson, Scott

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS) closure and puberty onset in a modern American population. It also investigates the timing and the rate of SOS closure in males and females. The sample includes cross-sectional and longitudinal 3D Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scans of 741 individuals (361 males and 380 females) aged 6-20 years. Each CBCT scan is visualized in the mid-sagittal plane, and the spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS) is scored as completely open, partially fused, mostly fused, and completely fused. The Menarche commencement is used as an indicator of puberty onset in females. Mean ages of open, partially-fused, mostly-fused, and completely fused SOS were 11.07, 12.95, 14.44, and 16.41 years in males, and 9.75, 11.67, 13.25, and 15.25 in females, respectively. The results show there is a significant association between the SOS closure stage and the commencement of menarche (Fisher's Exact Test p puberty onset and SOS closure, suggesting its closure is at least partially affected by systemic, hormonal changes in the growing adolescent. Also, SOS closure occurs at a faster rate and at an earlier age in females compared to males.

  8. The Classical Pathways of Occipital Lobe Epileptic Propagation Revised in the Light of White Matter Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini, Francesco; Hjortberg, Mats; Aldskogius, Håkan; Ryttlefors, Mats

    2015-01-01

    The clinical evidences of variable epileptic propagation in occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) have been demonstrated by several studies. However the exact localization of the epileptic focus sometimes represents a problem because of the rapid propagation to frontal, parietal, or temporal regions. Each white matter pathway close to the supposed initial focus can lead the propagation towards a specific direction, explaining the variable semiology of these rare epilepsy syndromes. Some new insights in occipital white matter anatomy are herein described by means of white matter dissection and compared to the classical epileptic patterns, mostly based on the central position of the primary visual cortex. The dissections showed a complex white matter architecture composed by vertical and longitudinal bundles, which are closely interconnected and segregated and are able to support specific high order functions with parallel bidirectional propagation of the electric signal. The same sublobar lesions may hyperactivate different white matter bundles reemphasizing the importance of the ictal semiology as a specific clinical demonstration of the subcortical networks recruited. Merging semiology, white matter anatomy, and electrophysiology may lead us to a better understanding of these complex syndromes and tailored therapeutic options based on individual white matter connectivity.

  9. The Classical Pathways of Occipital Lobe Epileptic Propagation Revised in the Light of White Matter Dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini, Francesco; Hjortberg, Mats; Aldskogius, Håkan; Ryttlefors, Mats

    2015-01-01

    The clinical evidences of variable epileptic propagation in occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) have been demonstrated by several studies. However the exact localization of the epileptic focus sometimes represents a problem because of the rapid propagation to frontal, parietal, or temporal regions. Each white matter pathway close to the supposed initial focus can lead the propagation towards a specific direction, explaining the variable semiology of these rare epilepsy syndromes. Some new insights in occipital white matter anatomy are herein described by means of white matter dissection and compared to the classical epileptic patterns, mostly based on the central position of the primary visual cortex. The dissections showed a complex white matter architecture composed by vertical and longitudinal bundles, which are closely interconnected and segregated and are able to support specific high order functions with parallel bidirectional propagation of the electric signal. The same sublobar lesions may hyperactivate different white matter bundles reemphasizing the importance of the ictal semiology as a specific clinical demonstration of the subcortical networks recruited. Merging semiology, white matter anatomy, and electrophysiology may lead us to a better understanding of these complex syndromes and tailored therapeutic options based on individual white matter connectivity. PMID:26063964

  10. Ictal Generalized EEG Attenuation (IGEA and hypopnea in a child with occipital type 1 cortical dysplasia - Is it a biomarker for SUDEP?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganne Chaitanya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An interesting association of ictal hypopnea and ictal generalized EEG attenuation (IGEA as possible marker of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP is reported. We describe a 5-years-old girl with left focal seizures with secondary generalization due to right occipital cortical dysplasia presenting with ictal hypopnea and IGEA. She had repeated episodes of the ictal apnoea in the past requiring ventilator support and intensive care unit (ICU admission during episodes of status epilepticus. The IGEA lasted for 0.26-4.68 seconds coinciding with the ictal hypopnea during which both clinical seizure and electrical epileptic activity stopped. Review of literature showed correlation between post-ictal apnoea and post ictal generalized EEG suppression and increased risk for SUDEP. The report adds to the growing body of literature on peri-ictal apnea, about its association with IGEA might be considered as a marker for SUDEP. She is seizure free for 4 months following surgery.

  11. Natural evolution from idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy to idiopathic generalized epilepsy in an untreated young patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Francesca; Egeo, Gabriella; Fattouch, Jinan; Fanella, Martina; Morano, Alessandra; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2014-04-01

    Idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy (IPOE) is an idiopathic localization-related epilepsy characterized by age-related onset, specific mode of precipitation, occipital photic-induced seizures--frequently consisting of visual symptoms--and good prognosis. This uncommon epilepsy, which usually starts in childhood or adolescence, has rarely been observed in families in which idiopathic generalized epilepsy also affects other members. We describe a nuclear family in which the proband showed electro-clinical features of idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy in childhood, which subsequently evolved into absences and a single generalized tonico-clonic seizure in early adolescence. His mother had features suggestive of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. This case illustrates a continuum between focal and generalized entities in the spectrum of the so-called idiopathic (genetically determined) epileptic syndromes. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploratory Metabolomic Analyses Reveal Compounds Correlated with Lutein Concentration in Frontal Cortex, Hippocampus, and Occipital Cortex of Human Infant Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieblein-Boff, Jacqueline C; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Kennedy, Adam D; Lai, Chron-Si; Kuchan, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Lutein is a dietary carotenoid well known for its role as an antioxidant in the macula, and recent reports implicate a role for lutein in cognitive function. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in both pediatric and geriatric brain tissue. In addition, cognitive function in older adults correlated with macular and postmortem brain lutein concentrations. Furthermore, lutein was found to preferentially accumulate in the infant brain in comparison to other carotenoids that are predominant in diet. While lutein is consistently related to cognitive function, the mechanisms by which lutein may influence cognition are not clear. In an effort to identify potential mechanisms through which lutein might influence neurodevelopment, an exploratory study relating metabolite signatures and lutein was completed. Post-mortem metabolomic analyses were performed on human infant brain tissues in three regions important for learning and memory: the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and occipital cortex. Metabolomic profiles were compared to lutein concentration, and correlations were identified and reported here. A total of 1276 correlations were carried out across all brain regions. Of 427 metabolites analyzed, 257 were metabolites of known identity. Unidentified metabolite correlations (510) were excluded. In addition, moderate correlations with xenobiotic relationships (2) or those driven by single outliers (3) were excluded from further study. Lutein concentrations correlated with lipid pathway metabolites, energy pathway metabolites, brain osmolytes, amino acid neurotransmitters, and the antioxidant homocarnosine. These correlations were often brain region-specific. Revealing relationships between lutein and metabolic pathways may help identify potential candidates on which to complete further analyses and may shed light on important roles of lutein in the human brain during development.

  13. Exploratory Metabolomic Analyses Reveal Compounds Correlated with Lutein Concentration in Frontal Cortex, Hippocampus, and Occipital Cortex of Human Infant Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline C Lieblein-Boff

    Full Text Available Lutein is a dietary carotenoid well known for its role as an antioxidant in the macula, and recent reports implicate a role for lutein in cognitive function. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in both pediatric and geriatric brain tissue. In addition, cognitive function in older adults correlated with macular and postmortem brain lutein concentrations. Furthermore, lutein was found to preferentially accumulate in the infant brain in comparison to other carotenoids that are predominant in diet. While lutein is consistently related to cognitive function, the mechanisms by which lutein may influence cognition are not clear. In an effort to identify potential mechanisms through which lutein might influence neurodevelopment, an exploratory study relating metabolite signatures and lutein was completed. Post-mortem metabolomic analyses were performed on human infant brain tissues in three regions important for learning and memory: the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and occipital cortex. Metabolomic profiles were compared to lutein concentration, and correlations were identified and reported here. A total of 1276 correlations were carried out across all brain regions. Of 427 metabolites analyzed, 257 were metabolites of known identity. Unidentified metabolite correlations (510 were excluded. In addition, moderate correlations with xenobiotic relationships (2 or those driven by single outliers (3 were excluded from further study. Lutein concentrations correlated with lipid pathway metabolites, energy pathway metabolites, brain osmolytes, amino acid neurotransmitters, and the antioxidant homocarnosine. These correlations were often brain region-specific. Revealing relationships between lutein and metabolic pathways may help identify potential candidates on which to complete further analyses and may shed light on important roles of lutein in the human brain during development.

  14. Conceito anátomo-fisiológico do lobo occipital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Caetano de Barros

    1972-03-01

    Full Text Available Apenas do ponto de vista estritamente anatômico o lobo occipital pode ser delimitado com relativa facilidade. Aparentemente constitui uma unidade morfológica, séde de estruturas basicamente relacionados com a percepção visual, aí entendidos também certos mecanismos integrativos óculo-motores que, em última análise, não são senão componentes dêste complexo fenômeno perceptivo. Depois de revistos alguns detalhes da anatomia convencional do lobo occipital (limites, área cortical estriada, peri-estriada e para-estriada é feita uma tentativa, à base de estudo da literatura, no sentido de indicar as principais conexões destas áreas (radiações ópticas, feixes de associação, fibras de projeção e fibras comissurais com diferentes estruturas do sistema nervoso central. A vascularização do lobo occipital é revisada com o auxílio de preparações anátomo-radiológicas seriadas e seletivas de diferentes troncos arteriais, nas quais se constatam intercomunicações entre os setores "terminais" dos sistemas das artérias cerebral posterior, média e anterior. Algumas variações morfológicas dos cornos occipitais são também postas em evidência com recursos de técnicas anátomo-radiológicas. Todavia, dados puramente anatômicos não são suficientes para compreensão das funções psico-fisiológicas do lobo occipital que pode ser conceituado como parte de um sistema perceptivo — o sistema óptico — altamente complexo, funcionando integradamente com múltiplos sectores do sistema nervoso e envolvendo diferentes mecanismos. Muito provàvelmente êste sistema, à maneira de muitos outros sistemas biológicos, está composto de vários circuitos mutuamente conjugados agindo sob o princípio de servo-mecanismos, devendo sua ação ser encaixada dentro do conceito das "totalidades" (Gestalten, cuja funcionalidade não deriva da soma dos seus componentes, mas da relação funcional que estes mantém entre sí para a atua

  15. Agnosia integrativa causada por una epilepsia focal occipital izquierda: estudio de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Mauricio Aguilar Mejía

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La agnosia integrativa es un tipo de agnosia visual asociada a lesiones occipitales bilaterales que se caracteriza por la incapacidad para identificar estímulos en fondos complejos, especialmente, cuando se trata de formas superpuestas o entrelazadas. Existen dificultades para codificar y agrupar el todo a partir de las partes del estímulo. Se presenta un caso de una paciente de 14 años, con una agnosia integrativa como consecuencia de una epilepsia focal sintomática refractaria, con un foco epileptogénico occipital izquierdo. Se plantean las características clínicas de la paciente y se hace un análisis de sus procesos de reconocimiento visual discutidos a partir de los diferentes modelos teóricos que tratan de explicar la percepción visual.

  16. Bilateral occipital lobe infarction with altitudinal field loss following radiofrequency cardiac catheter ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Celia S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bilateral stroke following radiofrequency catheter ablation is an unusual complication and may result in bilateral altitudinal visual field defects. Bilateral altitudinal visual field defects usually result from prechiasmal pathology causing damage to both retinas or optic nerves and rarely from bilateral symmetric damage to the post chiasmal visual pathways. Case presentation A 48-year-old man complained of visual disturbance on wakening following radiofrequency catheter ablation. The patient had a CHADS score of 1 pre-operatively and no complications were noted intra-operatively. Examination revealed a bilateral superior altitudinal defect and MRI of the brain showed multifocal areas of infarction predominantly involving the occipital lobes which correlated to with the visual deficits. Conclusion While the risk of thromboembolism and perioperative stroke during radiofrequency catheter ablation is small, it is not insignificant.

  17. Role of chiropractic and sacro-occipital technique in asthma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Charles L

    2002-01-01

    Asthma is a multifactorial dysfunction of the respiratory system. Nutritional, environmental, genetic, and emotional factors all play animportant part in the etiology of this condition. One form of chiropractic, Sacro Occipital Technique (SOT), offers some conservative alternatives to the treatment of asthma. SOT expands the chiropractic armamentarium of techniques available, allowing methods putatively affecting the viscera, vertebra, post and preganglionic reflexes, as well as cranial and sacral influences on the primary respiratory mechanism. Though more research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of chiropractic care of asthma, the conservative nature of chiropractic care with its minimal side effects, warrants patient and a health practitioner's consideration prior to embarking on any course of treatment that might have serious side effects.

  18. Occipital nerve stimulation in medically intractable, chronic cluster headache. The ICON study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilbrink, Leopoldine A; Teernstra, Onno Pm; Haan, Joost

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: About 10% of cluster headache patients have the chronic form. At least 10% of this chronic group is intractable to or cannot tolerate medical treatment. Open pilot studies suggest that occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) might offer effective prevention in these patients. Controlled...... neuromodulation studies in treatments inducing paraesthesias have a general problem in blinding. We have introduced a new design in pain neuromodulation by which we think we can overcome this problem. METHODS/DESIGN: We propose a prospective, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group international clinical study...... in medically intractable, chronic cluster headache patients of high- versus low-amplitude ONS. Primary outcome measure is the mean number of attacks over the last four weeks. After a study period of six months there is an open extension phase of six months. Alongside the randomised trial an economic evaluation...

  19. Timing and rate of spheno-occipital synchondrosis closure and its relationship to puberty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Alhazmi

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS closure and puberty onset in a modern American population. It also investigates the timing and the rate of SOS closure in males and females.The sample includes cross-sectional and longitudinal 3D Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT scans of 741 individuals (361 males and 380 females aged 6-20 years. Each CBCT scan is visualized in the mid-sagittal plane, and the spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS is scored as completely open, partially fused, mostly fused, and completely fused. The Menarche commencement is used as an indicator of puberty onset in females.Mean ages of open, partially-fused, mostly-fused, and completely fused SOS were 11.07, 12.95, 14.44, and 16.41 years in males, and 9.75, 11.67, 13.25, and 15.25 in females, respectively. The results show there is a significant association between the SOS closure stage and the commencement of menarche (Fisher's Exact Test p < 0.001. It was found that females had a higher SOS closure rate (38.60% per year than males at the age of 10 years. The closure rate in males appears slower than females at age 10, but it lasts a longer time, ranging between 22 and 26% per year from age 11 to 14 years.There is a significant relationship between puberty onset and SOS closure, suggesting its closure is at least partially affected by systemic, hormonal changes in the growing adolescent. Also, SOS closure occurs at a faster rate and at an earlier age in females compared to males.

  20. Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma--a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi S

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A Case of extraosseous mesenchymal chondrosarcoma occurring in the occipital region in a 26 year old male is being reported. The patient remained free from recurrence on any metastasis even after 2 years of the tumor resection.

  1. Tailored Double-Barrel Bypass Surgery Using an Occipital Artery Graft for Unstable Intracranial Vascular Occlusive Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yeongu; Lee, Sung Ho; Ryu, Jiwook; Kim, Johnho; Chung, Sang Bong; Choi, Seok Keun

    2017-05-01

    This report describes the need for a tailored approach for intracranial vascular occlusive disease and introduces the usefulness of the OA as a donor artery for interposition graft. A 65-year-old male patient suffered from repeated transient ischemic attack (TIA). Imaging studies revealed complete occlusion of the proximal left side of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and multiple infarction in the watershed zone. We planned superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass to restore cerebral blood flow and to prevent the progression of infarction. However, the parietal branch of the STA was too small in diameter and not suitable as a single donor for the bypass in order to supply sufficient blood flow. Moreover, the frontal branch of the STA had collateral channels through the periorbital anastomosis into the cerebral cortex that could result in infarction during clamping for anastomosis. We determined that tailored treatment planning was necessary for successful revascularization under these conditions. Thus, we performed a bypass between the parietal branch of the STA and a cortical branch of the MCA as an "insurance bypass." Then we performed another bypass between the frontal branch of the STA and a cortical branch of the MCA using an ipsilateral occipital artery (OA) interposition graft. The patient had no perioperative complications, and postoperative imaging confirmed the restoration of cerebral blood flow. When end-to-side anastomosis in single-branch bypass is not appropriate for cerebral revascularization, a tailored double-barrel "insurance bypass" with an OA interposed graft could be a good alternative treatment modality. In addition, an OA interposition graft is a useful option for double-barrel bypass surgery in such cases of intracranial vascular occlusive disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. MEG reveals a fast pathway from somatosensory cortex to occipital areas via posterior parietal cortex in a blind subject

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    Andreas A Ioannides

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cross-modal activity in visual cortex of blind subjects has been reported during performance of variety of non-visual tasks. A key unanswered question is through which pathways non-visual inputs are funneled to the visual cortex. Here we used tomographic analysis of single trial magnetoencephalography (MEG data recorded from one congenitally blind and two sighted subjects after stimulation of the left and right median nerves at three intensities: below sensory threshold, above sensory threshold and above motor threshold; the last sufficient to produce thumb twitching. We identified reproducible brain responses in the primary somatosensory (S1 and motor (M1 cortices at around 20 ms post-stimulus, which were very similar in sighted and blind subjects. Time-frequency analysis revealed strong 45 to 70 Hz activity at latencies of 20 to 50 ms in S1 and M1, and posterior parietal cortex Brodmann areas (BA 7 and 40, which compared to lower frequencies, were substantially more pronounced in the blind than the sighted subjects. Critically, at frequencies from α-band up to 100 Hz we found clear, strong and widespread responses in the visual cortex of the blind subject, which increased with the intensity of the somatosensory stimuli. Time-delayed mutual information (MI revealed that in blind subject the stimulus information is funneled from the early somatosensory to visual cortex through posterior parietal BA 7 and 40, projecting first to visual areas V5 and V3, and eventually V1. The flow of information through this pathway occured in stages characterized by convergence of activations into specific cortical regions. In sighted subjects, no linked activity was found that led from the somatosensory to the visual cortex through any of the studied brain regions. These results provide the first evidence from MEG that in blind subjects, tactile information is routed from primary somatosensory to occipital cortex via the posterior parietal cortex.

  3. MEG reveals a fast pathway from somatosensory cortex to occipital areas via posterior parietal cortex in a blind subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, Andreas A; Liu, Lichan; Poghosyan, Vahe; Saridis, George A; Gjedde, Albert; Ptito, Maurice; Kupers, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Cross-modal activity in visual cortex of blind subjects has been reported during performance of variety of non-visual tasks. A key unanswered question is through which pathways non-visual inputs are funneled to the visual cortex. Here we used tomographic analysis of single trial magnetoencephalography (MEG) data recorded from one congenitally blind and two sighted subjects after stimulation of the left and right median nerves at three intensities: below sensory threshold, above sensory threshold and above motor threshold; the last sufficient to produce thumb twitching. We identified reproducible brain responses in the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor (M1) cortices at around 20 ms post-stimulus, which were very similar in sighted and blind subjects. Time-frequency analysis revealed strong 45-70 Hz activity at latencies of 20-50 ms in S1 and M1, and posterior parietal cortex Brodmann areas (BA) 7 and 40, which compared to lower frequencies, were substantially more pronounced in the blind than the sighted subjects. Critically, at frequencies from α-band up to 100 Hz we found clear, strong, and widespread responses in the visual cortex of the blind subject, which increased with the intensity of the somatosensory stimuli. Time-delayed mutual information (MI) revealed that in blind subject the stimulus information is funneled from the early somatosensory to visual cortex through posterior parietal BA 7 and 40, projecting first to visual areas V5 and V3, and eventually V1. The flow of information through this pathway occurred in stages characterized by convergence of activations into specific cortical regions. In sighted subjects, no linked activity was found that led from the somatosensory to the visual cortex through any of the studied brain regions. These results provide the first evidence from MEG that in blind subjects, tactile information is routed from primary somatosensory to occipital cortex via the posterior parietal cortex.

  4. Increased BOLD Variability in the Parietal Cortex and Enhanced Parieto-Occipital Connectivity during Tactile Perception in Congenitally Blind Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Leo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies in early blind individuals posited a possible role of parieto-occipital connections in conveying nonvisual information to the visual occipital cortex. As a consequence of blindness, parietal areas would thus become able to integrate a greater amount of multimodal information than in sighted individuals. To verify this hypothesis, we compared fMRI-measured BOLD signal temporal variability, an index of efficiency in functional information integration, in congenitally blind and sighted individuals during tactile spatial discrimination and motion perception tasks. In both tasks, the BOLD variability analysis revealed many cortical regions with a significantly greater variability in the blind as compared to sighted individuals, with an overlapping cluster located in the left inferior parietal/anterior intraparietal cortex. A functional connectivity analysis using this region as seed showed stronger correlations in both tasks with occipital areas in the blind as compared to sighted individuals. As BOLD variability reflects neural integration and processing efficiency, these cross-modal plastic changes in the parietal cortex, even if described in a limited sample, reinforce the hypothesis that this region may play an important role in processing nonvisual information in blind subjects and act as a hub in the cortico-cortical pathway from somatosensory cortex to the reorganized occipital areas.

  5. Visual Hypo and Hypergnosia as Exemplars of Poles of Psychic Tonus in the Occipital Lobes: Multiple Case Analyses

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    Claude M. J. Braun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The “psychic tonus” model or PTM [1] of hemispheric specialization states that the left hemisphere is a psychic and behavioral activator and that the right hemisphere is an inhibitor. The PTM predicts that the tonus of visual representation ought to manifest hemispheric specialization in the occipital lobes. Specifically PTM predicts that pathological positive visual tonus (visual hallucination ought to be associated more frequently with right occipital lesions. PTM also predicts that pathological negative visual tonus (loss of visual imagery ought to result more often from left occipital lesions. We reviewed 78 cases of post lesion hallucination and 12 cases of post lesion loss of evocation of images, all following a unilateral lesion. Analyses of these relevant previously published cases support the predictions. In accordance with previously published demonstrations of hemispheric specialization for auditory tonus in the temporal lobes and for somesthetic tonus in the parietal lobes, the present findings extend the psychic tonus model of hemispheric specialization to vision in the occipital lobes.

  6. The Occipital Face Area Is Causally Involved in Facial Viewpoint Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kietzmann, Tim C; Poltoratski, Sonia; König, Peter; Blake, Randolph; Tong, Frank; Ling, Sam

    2015-12-16

    Humans reliably recognize faces across a range of viewpoints, but the neural substrates supporting this ability remain unclear. Recent work suggests that neural selectivity to mirror-symmetric viewpoints of faces, found across a large network of visual areas, may constitute a key computational step in achieving full viewpoint invariance. In this study, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to test the hypothesis that the occipital face area (OFA), putatively a key node in the face network, plays a causal role in face viewpoint symmetry perception. Each participant underwent both offline rTMS to the right OFA and sham stimulation, preceding blocks of behavioral trials. After each stimulation period, the participant performed one of two behavioral tasks involving presentation of faces in the peripheral visual field: (1) judging the viewpoint symmetry; or (2) judging the angular rotation. rTMS applied to the right OFA significantly impaired performance in both tasks when stimuli were presented in the contralateral, left visual field. Interestingly, however, rTMS had a differential effect on the two tasks performed ipsilaterally. Although viewpoint symmetry judgments were significantly disrupted, we observed no effect on the angle judgment task. This interaction, caused by ipsilateral rTMS, provides support for models emphasizing the role of interhemispheric crosstalk in the formation of viewpoint-invariant face perception. Faces are among the most salient objects we encounter during our everyday activities. Moreover, we are remarkably adept at identifying people at a glance, despite the diversity of viewpoints during our social encounters. Here, we investigate the cortical mechanisms underlying this ability by focusing on effects of viewpoint symmetry, i.e., the invariance of neural responses to mirror-symmetric facial viewpoints. We did this by temporarily disrupting neural processing in the occipital face area (OFA) using transcranial magnetic

  7. Variations of Occipital Artery-Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Bypass: Anatomic Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Ken; Matsuo, Satoshi; Komune, Noritaka; Kohno, Michihiro; Lister, J Richard

    2017-07-07

    Advances in diagnosis of posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms have revealed the high frequency of distal and/or dissecting PICA aneurysms. Surgical treatment of such aneurysms often requires revascularization of the PICA including but not limited to its caudal loop. To examine the microsurgical anatomy involved in occipital artery (OA)-PICA anastomosis at various anatomic segments of the PICA. Twenty-eight PICAs in 15 cadaveric heads were examined with the operating microscope to take morphometric measurements and explore the specific anatomy of bypass procedures. OA bypass to the p2, p3, p4, or p5 segment was feasible with a recipient vessel of sufficient diameter. The loop wandering near the jugular foramen in the p2 segment provided sufficient length without requiring cauterization of any perforating arteries to the brainstem. Wide dissection of the cerebellomedullary fissure provided sufficient exposure for the examination of some p3 segments and all p4 segments hidden by the tonsil. OA-p5 bypass was placed at the main trunk before the bifurcation in 5 hemispheres and at the larger hemispheric trunk in others. Understanding the possible variations of OA-PICA bypass may enable revascularization of the appropriate portion of the PICA when the parent artery must be occluded. A detailed anatomic understanding of each segment clarifies important technical nuances for the bypass on each segment. Dissection of the cerebellomedullary fissure helps to achieve sufficient exposure for the bypass procedures on most of the segments.

  8. Object working memory performance depends on microstructure of the frontal-occipital fasciculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Megan; Montojo, Caroline A; Sheu, Yi-Shin; Marchette, Steven A; Harrison, Daniel M; Newsome, Scott D; Zhou, Feng; Shelton, Amy L; Courtney, Susan M

    2011-01-01

    Re-entrant circuits involving communication between the frontal cortex and other brain areas have been hypothesized to be necessary for maintaining the sustained patterns of neural activity that represent information in working memory, but evidence has so far been indirect. If working memory maintenance indeed depends on such temporally precise and robust long-distance communication, then performance on a delayed recognition task should be highly dependent on the microstructural integrity of white-matter tracts connecting sensory areas with prefrontal cortex. This study explored the effect of variations in white-matter microstructure on working memory performance in two separate groups of participants: patients with multiple sclerosis and age- and sex-matched healthy adults. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed to reveal cortical regions involved in spatial and object working memory, which, in turn, were used to define specific frontal to extrastriate white-matter tracts of interest via diffusion tensor tractography. After factoring out variance due to age and the microstructure of a control tract (the corticospinal tract), the number of errors produced in the object working memory task was specifically related to the microstructure of the inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus. This result held for both groups, independently, providing a within-study replication with two different types of white-matter structural variability: multiple sclerosis-related damage and normal variation. The results demonstrate the importance of interactions between specific regions of the prefrontal cortex and sensory cortices for a nonspatial working memory task that preferentially activates those regions.

  9. Neural associations of the early retinotopic cortex with the lateral occipital complex during visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delong Zhang

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that the early retinotopic cortex (ERC, i.e., V1/V2/V3 is highly associated with the lateral occipital complex (LOC during visual perception. However, it remains largely unclear how to evaluate their associations in quantitative way. The present study tried to apply a multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA to quantify the neural activity in ERC and its association with that of the LOC when participants saw visual images. To this end, we assessed whether low-level visual features (Gabor features could predict the neural activity in the ERC and LOC according to a voxel-based encoding model (VBEM, and then quantified the association of the neural activity between these regions by using an analogical VBEM. We found that the Gabor features remarkably predicted the activity of the ERC (e.g., the predicted accuracy was 52.5% for a participant instead of that of the LOC (4.2%. Moreover, the MVPA approach can also be used to establish corresponding relationships between the activity patterns in the LOC and those in the ERC (64.2%. In particular, we found that the integration of the Gabor features and LOC visual information could dramatically improve the 'prediction' of ERC activity (88.3%. Overall, the present study provides new evidences for the possibility of quantifying the association of the neural activity between the regions of ERC and LOC. This approach will help to provide further insights into the neural substrates of the visual processing.

  10. Atypical Balance between Occipital and Fronto-Parietal Activation for Visual Shape Extraction in Dyslexia

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    Zhang, Ying; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2013-01-01

    Reading requires the extraction of letter shapes from a complex background of text, and an impairment in visual shape extraction would cause difficulty in reading. To investigate the neural mechanisms of visual shape extraction in dyslexia, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain activation while adults with or without dyslexia responded to the change of an arrow’s direction in a complex, relative to a simple, visual background. In comparison to adults with typical reading ability, adults with dyslexia exhibited opposite patterns of atypical activation: decreased activation in occipital visual areas associated with visual perception, and increased activation in frontal and parietal regions associated with visual attention. These findings indicate that dyslexia involves atypical brain organization for fundamental processes of visual shape extraction even when reading is not involved. Overengagement in higher-order association cortices, required to compensate for underengagment in lower-order visual cortices, may result in competition for top-down attentional resources helpful for fluent reading. PMID:23825653

  11. Occipital Artery Function during the Development of 2-Kidney, 1-Clip Hypertension in Rats

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    Stephen P. Chelko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the contractile responses elicited by angiotensin II (AII, arginine vasopressin (AVP, and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT in isolated occipital arteries (OAs from sham-operated (SHAM and 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K-1C hypertensive rats. OAs were isolated and bisected into proximal segments (closer to the common carotid artery and distal segments (closer to the nodose ganglion and mounted separately on myographs. On day 9, 2K-1C rats had higher mean arterial blood pressures, heart rates, and plasma renin concentrations than SHAM rats. The contractile responses to AII were markedly diminished in both proximal and distal segments of OAs from 2K-1C rats as compared to those from SHAM rats. The responses elicited by AVP were substantially greater in distal than in proximal segments of OAs from SHAM rats and that AVP elicited similar responses in OA segments from 2K-1C rats. The responses elicited by 5-HT were similar in proximal and distal segments from SHAM and 2K-1C rats. These results demonstrate that continued exposure to circulating AII and AVP in 2K-1C rats reduces the contractile efficacy of AII but not AVP or 5-HT. The diminished responsiveness to AII may alter the physiological status of OAs in vivo.

  12. Greater occipital nerve block for the acute treatment of prolonged or persistent migraine aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, María L; Aledo-Serrano, Ángel; López-Ruiz, Pedro; Gutiérrez-Viedma, Álvaro; Fernández, Cristina; Orviz, Aida; Arias, José A

    2017-07-01

    Background Presently, there is no evidence to guide the acute treatment of migraine aura. We aimed to describe the effect of greater occipital nerve (GON) anaesthetic block as a symptomatic treatment for long-lasting (prolonged or persistent) migraine aura. Methods Patients who presented with migraine aura lasting > 2 hours were consecutively recruited during one year at the Headache Unit and the Emergency Department of a tertiary hospital. All patients underwent a bilateral GON block with bupivacaine 0.5%. Patients were followed up for 24 hours. Results A total of 22 auras were treated in 18 patients. Auras consisted of visual ( n = 13), visual and sensory ( n = 4) or sensory symptoms alone ( n = 5). Eleven episodes met diagnostic criteria for persistent aura (>1 week) without infarction. The response was complete without early recurrence in 11 cases (50%), complete with recurrence in auras lasting auras (72.7% vs. 27.3%; p = 0.033). Conclusions GON block could be an effective symptomatic treatment for prolonged or persistent migraine aura. Randomised controlled trials are still required to confirm these results.

  13. Timing of emotion representation in right and left occipital region: Evidence from combined TMS-EEG.

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    Mattavelli, Giulia; Rosanova, Mario; Casali, Adenauer G; Papagno, Costanza; Romero Lauro, Leonor J

    2016-07-01

    Neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies provide evidence of hemispheric differences in processing faces and, in particular, emotional expressions. However, the timing of emotion representation in the right and left hemisphere is still unclear. Transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) was used to explore cortical responsiveness during behavioural tasks requiring processing of either identity or expression of faces. Single-pulse TMS was delivered 100ms after face onset over the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) while continuous EEG was recorded using a 60-channel TMS-compatible amplifier; right premotor cortex (rPMC) was also stimulated as control site. The same face stimuli with neutral, happy and fearful expressions were presented in separate blocks and participants were asked to complete either a facial identity or facial emotion matching task. Analyses performed on posterior face specific EEG components revealed that mPFC-TMS reduced the P1-N1 component. In particular, only when an explicit expression processing was required, mPFC-TMS interacted with emotion type in relation to hemispheric side at different timing; the first P1-N1 component was affected in the right hemisphere whereas the later N1-P2 component was modulated in the left hemisphere. These findings support the hypothesis that the frontal cortex exerts an early influence on the occipital cortex during face processing and suggest a different timing of the right and left hemisphere involvement in emotion discrimination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The occipital face area is causally involved in the formation of identity-specific face representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, Géza Gergely; Dotzer, Maria; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Kovács, Gyula

    2017-12-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and neuroimaging studies suggest a role of the right occipital face area (rOFA) in early facial feature processing. However, the degree to which rOFA is necessary for the encoding of facial identity has been less clear. Here we used a state-dependent TMS paradigm, where stimulation preferentially facilitates attributes encoded by less active neural populations, to investigate the role of the rOFA in face perception and specifically in image-independent identity processing. Participants performed a familiarity decision task for famous and unknown target faces, preceded by brief (200 ms) or longer (3500 ms) exposures to primes which were either an image of a different identity (DiffID), another image of the same identity (SameID), the same image (SameIMG), or a Fourier-randomized noise pattern (NOISE) while either the rOFA or the vertex as control was stimulated by single-pulse TMS. Strikingly, TMS to the rOFA eliminated the advantage of SameID over DiffID condition, thereby disrupting identity-specific priming, while leaving image-specific priming (better performance for SameIMG vs. SameID) unaffected. Our results suggest that the role of rOFA is not limited to low-level feature processing, and emphasize its role in image-independent facial identity processing and the formation of identity-specific memory traces.

  15. Evaluation of Posterior Hippocampal Epileptogenicity During Epilepsy Surgery For Temporal Lobe Cavernoma by the Occipital Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Yukinori; Suzuki, Kengo; Ochi, Satoko; Miyamoto, Susumu; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2015-11-01

    Cavernomas frequently are associated with intractable epilepsy. When cavernomas located in the temporal lobe are associated with intractable epilepsy, the hippocampus also may have an epileptic focus. The objective in the present study was to clarify the importance of evaluation of the posterior hippocampal epileptogenicity during epilepsy surgery for posteromedial temporal lobe cavernoma. In this study, we describe 2 rare cases of medically intractable epilepsy in patients with posteromedial temporal lobe cavernomas who underwent surgery via the occipital approach. Using longitudinal insertion of depth electrodes into the hippocampus, we evaluated epileptogenicity in both patients from the cavernoma cavity and its surrounding hemosiderin, as well as from the posterior hippocampus near the cavernoma. We show that the transoccipital approach to the posteromedial temporal lobe is compatible with depth electrode insertion and subdural electrode placement on the temporal lobe, enabling an accurate evaluation of potential epileptogenic zones in the posterior part of the hippocampus. Both patients did not experience any seizures and had no postoperative neurologic deficits, and their cognitive functions were intact. The transoccipital approach enables the optimization of the extent of posterior hippocampectomy while avoiding unnecessary resection for seizure control. We suggest resecting the posterior part of the hippocampus in addition to the cavernoma and surrounding areas in patients with medically refractory epilepsy due to a posteromedial temporal cavernoma. Tailored systematic resection guided by intraoperative electrocorticography and electroencephalography with a depth electrode was important and necessary in the present cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Morphometric analysis of hypoglossal canal of the occipital bone in Iranian dry skulls

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    Bayat Parvindokht

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hypoglossal canal (HC is in basal part of cranium that transmits the nerve that supplies the motor innervations to the muscles of tongue. Study on morphometry of (HC and its variations has been a considerable interest field to neurosurgeons and research workers especially because of their racial and regional. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, 26 adult dry human crania of no sex known were studied for (HC and its variants. Thirty five skulls were observed for any damage of post cranial fossa and those in good condition (26 skullswere selected. Sliding Vernier caliper was used for morphometric analysis. Results: There were significant difference between distances of: a-(HC till anterior tip of condyles (right and left, b-(HC till posterior tip of condyles (right and left, c-(HCtill lower border of occipital condyles (right and left, d-(HC till external border of foramen jugular (right and left, e-(HC till opisthion(right and left, f-(HC till carotid canal (right and left, g-(HC till jugular tubercle (right and left. There wasn′t significant difference in other parameters. Conclusion: Detailed morphometric analysis of (HC will help in planning of surgical intervention of skull base in safer and easier ways.

  17. Altered spontaneous neural activity in the occipital face area reflects behavioral deficits in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanfang; Li, Jingguang; Liu, Xiqin; Song, Yiying; Wang, Ruosi; Yang, Zetian; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) exhibit severe difficulties in recognizing faces and to a lesser extent, also exhibit difficulties in recognizing non-face objects. We used fMRI to investigate whether these behavioral deficits could be accounted for by altered spontaneous neural activity. Two aspects of spontaneous neural activity were measured: the intensity of neural activity in a voxel indexed by the fractional amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF), and the connectivity of a voxel to neighboring voxels indexed by regional homogeneity (ReHo). Compared with normal adults, both the fALFF and ReHo values within the right occipital face area (rOFA) were significantly reduced in DP subjects. Follow-up studies on the normal adults revealed that these two measures indicated further functional division of labor within the rOFA. The fALFF in the rOFA was positively correlated with behavioral performance in recognition of non-face objects, whereas ReHo in the rOFA was positively correlated with processing of faces. When considered together, the altered fALFF and ReHo within the same region (rOFA) may account for the comorbid deficits in both face and object recognition in DPs, whereas the functional division of labor in these two measures helps to explain the relative independency of deficits in face recognition and object recognition in DP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Deep white matter hyperintensity in occipital lobe on T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, M; Hashimoto, T

    1991-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 270 patients with various neurologic complaints (1-15 Y) with a 0.5 tesla superconducting imaging system (MRT-50 A, Toshiba Co.) using a field echo sequence (TR/TE: 300 ms/14 ms) and a spine echo sequence (TR/TE: 2,000 ms/100 ms or 2,000 ms/120 ms, and 2,000 ms/30 ms). The slice thickness was 10 mm. Hyperintensity areas on T2-weighted images were noted at the occipital lobe in 33 patients (12.2%). Twenty-seven of them had hyperintensity within the deep white matter, which revealed iso- or hypointensity on T1-weighted images. The diagnosis for the 27 patients included medulloblastoma after multidisciplinary therapy (1), congenital heart disease (1), neurofibromatosis (1), tuberous sclerosis (1), congenital muscular dystrophy (1), congenital myotonic dystrophy (2), febrile convulsion (2), autism (3), epilepsy (9) and unknown causes (6). Because the hyperintensity areas are age-dependent, they may result from delayed myelination in the central nervous system.

  19. First-drug treatment failures in 42 Turkish children with idiopathic childhood occipital epilepsies

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    Faruk Incecik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The early and late benign occipital epilepsies of childhood (BOEC are described as two discrete electro-clinical syndromes, eponymously known as Panayiotopoulos and Gastaut syndromes. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of failure to respond to the initial antiepileptic drug (AED. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 children with BOEC were enrolled. Predictive factors were analyzed by survival methods. Results: Among the 42, 25 patients (59.5% were boys and 17 (40.5% were girls and the mean age at the seizure onset was 7.46 ± 2.65 years (4-14 years. Of the 42 patients, 34 (81.0% were treated relatively successfully with the first AED treatment, and 8 (19.0% were not responded initial AED treatment. There was no correlation between response to initial AED treatment and sex, consanguinity, epilepsy history of family, age of seizure onset, frequency of seizures, history of status epilepticus, duration of starting first treatment, findings on electroencephalogram. However, history of febrile seizure and type of BOEC were significantly associated with failure risk. Conclusions: Factors predicting failure to respond to the AED were history of febrile seizure and type of BOEC in children with BOEC.

  20. Atlanto-axial approach for cervical myelography in a Thoroughbred horse with complete fusion of the atlanto-occipital bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Monica; Dimock, Abigail N.; Wisner, Erik R.; Prutton, Jamie W.; Madigan, John E.

    2014-01-01

    A 2-year-old Thoroughbred gelding with clinical signs localized to the first 6 spinal cord segments (C1 to C6) had complete fusion of the atlanto-occipital bones which precluded performing a routine myelogram. An ultrasound-assisted myelogram at the intervertebral space between the atlas and axis was successfully done and identified a marked extradural compressive myelopathy at the level of the atlas and axis, and axis and third cervical vertebrae. PMID:25392550

  1. Geometry of the articular facets of the lateral atlanto-axial joints in the case of occipitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryniewicz, A M; Skrzat, J; Ryniewicz, A; Ryniewicz, W; Walocha, J

    2010-08-01

    This study investigates if atlanto-occipital fusion affects the size and geometrical configuration of the articular facets of the atlanto-axial joint. Morphometric analysis was performed on the male adult skull, the occipital bone of which is assimilated with the first cervical vertebrae (the atlas). The perimeter, Feret's diameter, surface area, and circularity of the inferior articular fa-cets were measured. However, we did not observe significant bilateral differences in size of the inferior articular facets of the assimilated atlas compared to normal first cervical vertebrae. Geometrical conformation of the articular facets of the atlas and axis was assessed using a coordinate measuring machine (PMM - 12106, Leitz). The results obtained from this machine indicated that the inferior articular facets of the assimilated atlas presented asymmetrical orientation compared to the normal anatomy of the atlas. Hence, in the case of occipitalization, the gap between the articulating facets of the atlas and the axis was measured to be greater than in the normal atlanto-axial joint. Computer assisted tomography was applied to visualise the anatomical relationship between the inferior articular facets of the assimilated atlas and the corresponding facets located on the axis. In this case, radiographic examination revealed that the bilaterally articulating facets (inferior and superior) showed disproportion in their adjustment within the lateral atlanto-axial joints. Thus, we concluded that the fusion of the atlas with the occipital bone altered the geometry of the inferior articular facets of the atlas and influenced the orientation of the superior articular facets of the axis.

  2. Effects of Increase in Amplitude of Occipital Alpha & Theta Brain Waves on Global Functioning Level of Patients with GAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashi, Mohsen; Birashk, Behrooz; Taremian, Farhad; Asgarnejad, Ali Asghar; Momtazi, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    The basic objective of this study is to investigate the effects of alpha and theta brain waves amplitude increase in occipital area on reducing the severity of symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder and to increase the global functioning level in patients with GAD. This study is a quasi-experimental study with pre-test and post-test with two groups. For this purpose, 28 patients who had been referred to Sohrawardi psychiatric and clinical psychology center in Zanjan were studied based on the interview with the psychiatrist, clinical psychologist and using clinical diagnostic criteria for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders text revision - the DSM-IV-TR Fourth Edition diagnosis of GAD, 14 subjects were studied in neurofeedback treatment group and 14 subjects in the waiting list group. Patients in both groups were evaluated at pre-test and post-test with General Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and Global Assessment Functioning Scale (GAFs). The treatment group received fifteen 30-minute alpha training sessions and fifteen 30-minute theta brain training sessions in occipital area by neurofeedback training (treatment group). This evaluation was performed according to the treatment protocol to increase the alpha and theta waves. And no intervention was done in the waiting list group. But due to ethical issues after the completion of the study all the subjects in the waiting list group were treated. The results showed that increase of alpha and theta brain waves amplitude in occipital area in people with GAD can increase the global functioning level and can reduce symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder in a treatment group, but no such change was observed in the waiting list group. Increase of alpha and theta brain waves amplitude in occipital area can be useful in the treatment of people with GAD.

  3. Emotional face expression modulates occipital-frontal effective connectivity during memory formation in a bottom-up fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Daiming; Geiger, Maximilian J; Klaver, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of bottom-up and top-down neural mechanisms in the processing of emotional face expression during memory formation. Functional brain imaging data was acquired during incidental learning of positive ("happy"), neutral and negative ("angry" or "fearful") faces. Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) was applied on the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to characterize effective connectivity within a brain network involving face perception (inferior occipital gyrus and fusiform gyrus) and successful memory formation related areas (hippocampus, superior parietal lobule, amygdala, and orbitofrontal cortex). The bottom-up models assumed processing of emotional face expression along feed forward pathways to the orbitofrontal cortex. The top-down models assumed that the orbitofrontal cortex processed emotional valence and mediated connections to the hippocampus. A subsequent recognition memory test showed an effect of negative emotion on the response bias, but not on memory performance. Our DCM findings showed that the bottom-up model family of effective connectivity best explained the data across all subjects and specified that emotion affected most bottom-up connections to the orbitofrontal cortex, especially from the occipital visual cortex and superior parietal lobule. Of those pathways to the orbitofrontal cortex the connection from the inferior occipital gyrus correlated with memory performance independently of valence. We suggest that bottom-up neural mechanisms support effects of emotional face expression and memory formation in a parallel and partially overlapping fashion.

  4. Loss of Binocular Vision in Monocularly Blind Patients Causes Selective Degeneration of the Superior Lateral Occipital Cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Doety; Jansonius, Nomdo M; Cornelissen, Frans W

    2017-02-01

    Chronic ocular pathology, such as glaucoma and macular degeneration, is associated with neuroanatomic changes in the visual pathways. It is a challenge to determine the mechanism responsible for these changes. This could be functional deprivation or transsynaptic degeneration. Acquired monocular blindness provides a unique opportunity to establish which mechanism underlies neuroanatomic changes in ocular pathology in general, since the loss of input is well defined, and it causes selective functional deprivation due to the loss of stereopsis. Here, we assessed whether acquired monocular blindness is associated with neuroanatomic changes, and if so, where these changes are located. High-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained in 15 monocularly blind patients and 18 healthy controls. We used voxel- and surface-based morphometry to compare gray and white matter volume, cortical thickness, mean curvature, and surface area between these groups. The gray matter volume in the bilateral superior lateral occipital cortices was decreased in the monocular blind patients, in the absence of volumetric differences in their early visual cortex. The volumetric decrease in the superior lateral occipital cortices is consistent with specific functional deprivation, as the superior lateral occipital cortices play an important role in depth perception. Moreover, in the absence of differences in the early visual cortex, the decrease is inconsistent with transsynaptic degeneration propagating from the degenerated retinal axons.

  5. Does shape discrimination by the mouth activate the parietal and occipital lobes? - near-infrared spectroscopy study.

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    Tomonori Kagawa

    Full Text Available A cross-modal association between somatosensory tactile sensation and parietal and occipital activities during Braille reading was initially discovered in tests with blind subjects, with sighted and blindfolded healthy subjects used as controls. However, the neural background of oral stereognosis remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether the parietal and occipital cortices are activated during shape discrimination by the mouth using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS. Following presentation of the test piece shape, a sham discrimination trial without the test pieces induced posterior parietal lobe (BA7, extrastriate cortex (BA18, BA19, and striate cortex (BA17 activation as compared with the rest session, while shape discrimination of the test pieces markedly activated those areas as compared with the rest session. Furthermore, shape discrimination of the test pieces specifically activated the posterior parietal cortex (precuneus/BA7, extrastriate cortex (BA18, 19, and striate cortex (BA17, as compared with sham sessions without a test piece. We concluded that oral tactile sensation is recognized through tactile/visual cross-modal substrates in the parietal and occipital cortices during shape discrimination by the mouth.

  6. Dissociation between conceptual and perceptual implicit memory:Evidence from patients with frontal and occipital lobe lesions

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    Liang eGong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The latest neuroimaging studies about implicit memory have revealed that different implicit memory types may be processed by different parts of the brain. However, studies have rarely examined what subtypes of implicit memory processes are affected in patients with various brain-injuries. Twenty patients with frontal lobe injury, 25 patients with occipital lobe injury, and 29 healthy controls were recruited for the study. Two subtypes of implicit memory were investigated by using structurally parallel perceptual (picture identification task and conceptual (category exemplar generation task implicit memory tests in the three groups, as well as explicit memory tests. The results indicated that the priming of conceptual implicit memory and explicit memory tasks in patients with frontal lobe injury was poorer than that observed in healthy controls, while perceptual implicit memory was identical between the two groups. In contrast, the priming of perceptual implicit memory in patients with occipital lobe injury was poorer than that in healthy controls, while the priming of conceptual implicit memory and explicit memory was similar to that in healthy controls. This double dissociation between perceptual and conceptual implicit memory across the brain areas implies that occipital lobes may participate in perceptual implicit memory, while frontal lobes may be involved in processing conceptual memory.

  7. Does Shape Discrimination by the Mouth Activate the Parietal and Occipital Lobes? – Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Tomonori; Narita, Noriyuki; Iwaki, Sunao; Kawasaki, Shingo; Kamiya, Kazunobu; Minakuchi, Shunsuke

    2014-01-01

    A cross-modal association between somatosensory tactile sensation and parietal and occipital activities during Braille reading was initially discovered in tests with blind subjects, with sighted and blindfolded healthy subjects used as controls. However, the neural background of oral stereognosis remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether the parietal and occipital cortices are activated during shape discrimination by the mouth using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Following presentation of the test piece shape, a sham discrimination trial without the test pieces induced posterior parietal lobe (BA7), extrastriate cortex (BA18, BA19), and striate cortex (BA17) activation as compared with the rest session, while shape discrimination of the test pieces markedly activated those areas as compared with the rest session. Furthermore, shape discrimination of the test pieces specifically activated the posterior parietal cortex (precuneus/BA7), extrastriate cortex (BA18, 19), and striate cortex (BA17), as compared with sham sessions without a test piece. We concluded that oral tactile sensation is recognized through tactile/visual cross-modal substrates in the parietal and occipital cortices during shape discrimination by the mouth. PMID:25299397

  8. Occipital foramina development involves localised regulation of mesenchyme proliferation and is independent of apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbareian, Sophia E; Pitsillides, Andrew A; Macharia, Raymond G; McGonnell, Imelda M

    2015-01-01

    Cranial foramina are holes within the skull, formed during development, allowing entry and exit of blood vessels and nerves. Once formed they must remain open, due to the vital structures they contain, i.e. optic nerves, jugular vein, carotid artery, and other cranial nerves and blood vessels. Understanding cranial foramina development is essential as cranial malformations lead to the stenosis or complete closure of these structures, resulting in blindness, deafness, facial paralysis, raised intracranial pressure and lethality. Here we focus on describing early events in the formation of the jugular, carotid and hypoglossal cranial foramina that form in the mesoderm-derived, endochondral occipital bones at the base of the embryonic chick skull. Whole-mount skeletal staining of skulls indicates the appearance of these foramina from HH32/D7.5 onwards. Haematoxylin & eosin staining of sections shows that the intimately associated mesenchyme, neighbouring the contents of these cranial foramina, is initially very dense and gradually becomes sparser as development proceeds. Histological examination also revealed that these foramina initially contain relatively large-diameter nerves, which later become refined, and are closely associated with the blood vessel, which they also innervate within the confines of the foramina. Interestingly cranial foramina in the base of the skull contain blood vessels lacking smooth muscle actin, which suggests these blood vessels belong to glomus body structures within the foramina. The blood vessel shape also appears to dictate the overall shape of the resulting foramina. We initially hypothesised that cranial foramina development could involve targeted proliferation and local apoptosis to cause ‘mesenchymal clearing’ and the creation of cavities in a mechanism similar to joint cavitation. We find that this is not the case, and propose that a mechanism reliant upon local nerve/blood vessel-derived restriction of ossification may

  9. Occipital transcranial magnetic stimulation discriminates transient neurological symptoms of vascular origin from migraine aura without headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeije, Gilles; Fogang, Yannick; Ligot, Noémie; Mavroudakis, Nicolas

    2017-09-01

    The diagnosis of transient neurological attacks (TNA) relies on medical history. Transient ischemic attack is often considered until proven otherwise, because of lack of objective paraclinical tools that can help discriminate TIA from differential diagnoses such as migraine aura. This may lead to needless and potentially harmful stroke secondary prevention in many cases. This study aimed at determining the yield of occipital transcranial magnetic stimulation (oTMS) in discriminating TNA of vascular origin from migraine aura without headache (MAWH). Ten patients with acute TNA of vascular origin and ten patients with migraine aura without headache (MAWH), without prior history of migrainous headache, were prospectively included. TNA of vascular origin were considered for individuals presenting unilateral focal symptoms with full resolution within 24hours and positive diffusion weighted imaging (DWI+). For individuals with MAWH, diagnostic criteria were either ICHD-III beta or Fischer criteria for a first episode of MAWH. All participants underwent one session of oTMS. Induction and threshold of phosphene induction were recorded. In TNA of vascular origin, MRI disclosed cortical lesions in nine and one sub-cortical lesion. Phosphenes were induced in 9/10 subjects with MAWH with a mean threshold of 66% of the maximal intensity, whereas oTMS induced phosphenes in only one subject with TNA of vascular origin at a threshold of 85%. In this pilot study, oTMS was found to be an effective tool to discriminate between MAWH and transient neurological symptoms of vascular origin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Invasive occipital nerve stimulation for refractory chronic cluster headache: what evolution at long-term? Strengths and weaknesses of the method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, Delphine; Gérard, Pascale; Schoenen, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Invasive Occipital Nerve Stimulation (iONS) is a costly technique which appears effective in drug-refractory chronic cluster headache (drCCH) management. Available data on long-term effectiveness and safety of iONS in this indication are scarce, though they could be useful to neurologists and patients in daily practice. The purpose of this short report is to discuss the very long-term outcome of a drCCH cohort, including adverse events. Previously, favourable results were obtained with iONS in 15 drCCH patients: 80 % were significantly improved and 60 % were pain free. We report here the very long-term follow-up (up to nine years) of 10 patients belonging to this cohort. Meanwhile 5 patients had to be definitively explanted because of device infection (3) or paresthesia intolerance (2). Four patients (40 %) evolved to an episodic form of CH. Six remained chronic but their attack frequency was decreased by 70 % on average. Intake of preventive drugs is still necessary in 80 % of patients. All patients needed at least one battery replacement. Up to nine years after implantation, iONS is still effective in most patients with drCCH. Concomitant preventive drugs remain often necessary. Forty percent of patients reverse to episodic CH, possibly by natural history. iONS is not a benign procedure but device-related complications appear similar to those reported with other invasive neurostimulators.

  11. Combined diffusion-weighted and functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals a temporal-occipital network involved in auditory-visual object processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Ludwig Beer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed that the superior temporal and occipital cortex are involved in multisensory integration. Probabilistic fiber tracking based on diffusion-weighted MRI suggests that multisensory processing is supported by white matter connections between auditory cortex and the temporal and occipital lobe. Here, we present a combined functional MRI and probabilistic fiber tracking study that reveals multisensory processing mechanisms that remained undetected by either technique alone. Ten healthy participants passively observed visually presented lip or body movements, heard speech or body action sounds, or were exposed to a combination of both. Bimodal stimulation engaged a temporal-occipital brain network including the multisensory superior temporal sulcus (msSTS, the lateral superior temporal gyrus (lSTG, and the extrastriate body area (EBA. A region-of-interest analysis showed multisensory interactions (e.g., subadditive responses to bimodal compared to unimodal stimuli in the msSTS, the lSTG, and the EBA region. Moreover, sounds elicited responses in the medial occipital cortex. Probabilistic tracking revealed white matter tracts between the auditory cortex and the medial occipital, the inferior-occipital cortex, and the superior temporal sulcus (STS. However, STS terminations of auditory cortex tracts showed limited overlap with the msSTS region. Instead, msSTS was connected to primary sensory regions via intermediate nodes in the temporal and occipital cortex. Similarly, the lSTG and EBA regions showed limited direct white matter connections but instead were connected via intermediate nodes. Our results suggest that multisensory processing in the STS is mediated by separate brain areas that form a distinct network in the lateral temporal and inferior occipital cortex.

  12. Bloqueio bilateral do nervo occipital maior para tratamento de cefaleia pós-punção dural após cesarianas

    OpenAIRE

    Uyar Türkyilmaz, Esra; Camgöz Eryilmaz, Nuray; Aydin Güzey, Nihan; Moraloğlu, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) is an important complication of neuroaxial anesthesia and more frequently noted in pregnant women. The pain is described as severe, disturbing and its location is usually fronto-occipital. The conservative treatment of PDPH consists of bed rest, fluid theraphy, analgesics and caffeine. Epidural blood patch is gold standard theraphy but it is an invasive method. The greater occipital nerve (GON) is formed of sensory fibers that originat...

  13. Bilateral occipital endoscopic choroid plexus cauterization for persistent hydrocephalus following frontal endoscopic third ventriculostomy and choroid plexus cauterization--the "bowling ball" technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Hannah E; Kennedy, Benjamin C; Santos, Junia; Anderson, Richard C E; Feldstein, Neil A

    2016-04-01

    Endoscopic third ventriculostomy with choroid plexus cauterization (ETV/CPC) as a primary treatment for hydrocephalus is gaining popularity in North America, particularly among the infant population. Unfortunately, despite considerable experience with ETV/CPC at several centers, treatment failures still exist. Early reports have suggested that greater than 90 % cauterization of the choroid plexus is associated with improved clinical outcomes. However, individual patient anatomy and smaller overall ventricular size can limit the amount of choroid plexus cauterization that is technically possible through a single frontal burr hole. Furthermore, the degree of cauterization achieved by surgeons using this technique is difficult to quantify objectively. In this report, we describe the case of an infant who failed initial ETV/CPC but then had successful resolution of hydrocephalus after additional choroid plexus cauterization performed through bilateral occipital burr holes. The child remains shunt-free over a year after treatment, suggesting that this three-pronged CPC approach (the "bowling ball" technique) may be successful in some young children with persistent hydrocephalus after ETV/CPC from a single frontal burr hole.

  14. Autonomic seizures and autonomic status epilepticus in early onset benign childhood occipital epilepsy (Panayiotopoulos syndrome Crises autonômicas e status epilepticus autonômico na epilepsia occipital benigna da infância de início precoce (síndrome de Panayiotopoulos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Maria Almeida Souza Tedrus

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available To study clinical and EEG features of children with ictal vomiting and no underlying brain lesions (Panayiotopoulos syndrome. The subjects were 36 children aged 2-13 years. The onset of seizures occurred between 1 and 5 years of age. Fourteen children (38.8% had a single seizure. Fourteen children (38.8% had autonomic status epilepticus. Impairment of consciousness was reported in 30 (83.3% children, eye deviation in 10 (27.7% other autonomic symptoms and head deviation in 9, generalization in 8, visual symptoms in one child, and, speech arrest or hemifacial motor symptoms in 8 cases. The EEG showed occipital spikes or spike-wave complexes in 27 (75.0% children, blocked by opening of the eyes in 8 (22.2% cases. Nine patients (25% also had rolandic spikes and 3 had extraoccipital spikes. Six (16.6% patients had normal EEG. No clinical differences were observed between patients having occipital or extraoccipital spikes. In children only with autonomic seizures, the spikes are predominantly occipital but blockage by opening of the eyes is a less frequent feature. In some children there is an overlapping of different focal childhood idiopathic syndromes.Estudar aspectos clínico-eletrencefalográficos de crianças com vômito ictal e sem sinais de lesão cerebral (síndrome de Panayiotopoulos. Foram estudadas 36 crianças na faixa etária de 2-13 anos. O início das crises ocorreu entre 1 e 5 anos de idade. Quatorze crianças tiveram crise única. Status epilepticus foi observado em 14 (38,8% casos. Distúrbio da consciência foi relatado em 83,3% das crianças, desvio ocular em 27,7%, outros sintomas autonômicos e desvio da cabeça em 26,4%, generalização em 23,5%, bloqueio da fala ou sintomas motores da hemiface em 23,5% das crianças e sintomas visuais em um caso. O EEG mostrou pontas ou complexos de ponta-onda em 27 (75,0% casos, bloqueados pela abertura dos olhos em 8 (22,2% pacientes. Nove pacientes tiveram também pontas rolândicas e 3

  15. Understanding the Course of Vertebral Artery at Craniovertebral Junction in Occipital Assimilation of Atlas: Made Simplified Using Conventional Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagetia, Anita; Mewda, Tushit; Bishnoi, Ishu; Bhutte, Manoj; Singh, Hukum; Srivastava, A K; Singh, Daljit

    2017-04-01

    Introduction Preoperative assessment of vertebral artery (VA) is important to avoid its injury during surgery at craniovertebral junction (CVJ). The main concern is the course of third segment of VA (V3) while performing instrumentation at CVJ, that is, segment of VA from its course through transverse foramen of C2 to its course along the posterior arch of C1. This segment of VA includes its passage through C1 transverse foramen as well. This observational study was done to analyze the course, curvature, and termination of VA in patients with occipital assimilation of atlas at CVJ, a complex congenital anomaly, and compared with the normal course for better understanding especially by young neurosurgeons and spine surgeons. Materials and Method This is an observational study that included patients with occipitalized C1 with or without associated anomalies. Out of 30 patients of CVJ anomalies, 16 patients had occipitalized atlas. Digital subtraction angiography was done in all cases. It was done by selectively catheterizing the VA using standard Seldinger's technique and both anteroposterior and lateral projections were taken. Results The course of VA was not identical on either side in any individual. It was lengthened and tortuous in all patients. Different types of anomalous course were encountered like bypassing transverse foramen of C1, close relation with C1-2 facet joints, variable course along the posterior arch of C1, abnormal termination and fenestration of VA. Conclusion Craniovertebral junction anomalies are not only bony or neural, but are vascular too. Complex CVJ anomalies are associated with higher incidence of anomalous course of the VA, an important surgical consideration.

  16. Differential contribution of right and left temporo-occipital and anterior temporal lesions to face recognition disorders

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    Guido eGainotti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the study of prosopagnosia, several issues (such as the specific or non-specific manifestations of prosopagnosia, the unitary or non-unitary nature of this syndrome and the mechanisms underlying face recognition disorders are still controversial. Two main sources of variance partially accounting for these controversies could be the qualitative differences between the face recognition disorders observed in patients with prevalent lesions of the right or left hemisphere and in those with lesions encroaching upon the temporo-occipital or the (right anterior temporal cortex.Results of our review seem to confirm these suggestions. Indeed, they show that (a the most specific forms of prosopagnosia are due to lesions of a right posterior network including the OFA and the FFA, whereas (b the face identification defects observed in patients with left temporo-occipital lesions seem due to a semantic defect impeding access to person-specific semantic information from the visual modality. Furthermore, face recognition defects resulting from right anterior temporal lesions can usually be considered as part of a multimodal people recognition disorder.The implications of our review are, therefore, the following: (1 to consider the components of visual agnosia often observed in prosopagnosic patients with bilateral temporo-occipital lesions as part of a semantic defect, resulting from left-sided lesions (and not from prosopagnosia proper; (2 to systematically investigate voice recognition disorders in patients with right anterior temporal lesions to determine whether the face recognition defect should be considered a form of ‘associative prosopagnosia’ or a form of the ‘multimodal people recognition disorder’.

  17. Abordaje fisioterapéutico en la neuralgia occipital. Revisión bibliográfica.

    OpenAIRE

    Albalate Narro, María

    2017-01-01

    Introducción. La neuralgia occipital (ON) corresponde a un dolor unilateral o bilateral a nivel de la parte posterior del cuero cabelludo que sigue el recorrido de los nervios occipitales (mayor, menor y tercero), aunque puede irradiar a otras zonas. Se caracteriza por ser paroxístico o punzante, puede cursar con síntomas asociados y se produce por compresión y/o irritación de los citados nervios por causas muy diversas. La incidencia y la prevalencia de esta patología no han sido estudiadas ...

  18. Mutations in extracellular matrix genes NID1 and LAMC1 cause autosomal dominant Dandy-Walker malformation and occipital cephaloceles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbro, Benjamin W; Mahajan, Vinit B; Gakhar, Lokesh; Skeie, Jessica M; Campbell, Elizabeth; Wu, Shu; Bing, Xinyu; Millen, Kathleen J; Dobyns, William B; Kessler, John A; Jalali, Ali; Cremer, James; Segre, Alberto; Manak, J Robert; Aldinger, Kimerbly A; Suzuki, Satoshi; Natsume, Nagato; Ono, Maya; Hai, Huynh Dai; Viet, Le Thi; Loddo, Sara; Valente, Enza M; Bernardini, Laura; Ghonge, Nitin; Ferguson, Polly J; Bassuk, Alexander G

    2013-08-01

    We performed whole-exome sequencing of a family with autosomal dominant Dandy-Walker malformation and occipital cephaloceles and detected a mutation in the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein-encoding gene NID1. In a second family, protein interaction network analysis identified a mutation in LAMC1, which encodes a NID1-binding partner. Structural modeling of the NID1-LAMC1 complex demonstrated that each mutation disrupts the interaction. These findings implicate the ECM in the pathogenesis of Dandy-Walker spectrum disorders. © 2013 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  19. Early (N170/M170 face-sensitivity despite right lateral occipital brain damage in acquired prosopagnosia

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    Esther eAlonso Prieto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared to objects, pictures of faces elicit a larger early electromagnetic response at occipito-temporal sites on the human scalp, with an onset of 130 ms and a peak at about 170 ms. This N170 face effect is larger in the right than the left hemisphere and has been associated with the early categorization of the stimulus as a face. Here we tested whether this effect can be observed in the absence of some of the visual areas showing a preferential response to faces as typically identified in neuroimaging. Event related potentials were recorded in response to faces, cars and their phase-scrambled versions in a well-known brain-damaged case of prosopagnosia (PS. Despite the patient’s right inferior occipital gyrus lesion encompassing the most posterior cortical area showing preferential response to faces (occipital face area, OFA, we identified an early face-sensitive component over the right occipito-temporal hemisphere of the patient that was identified as the N170. A second experiment supported this conclusion, showing the typical N170 increase of latency and amplitude in response to inverted faces. In contrast, there was no N170 in the left hemisphere, where PS has a lesion to the middle fusiform gyrus and shows no evidence of face-preferential response in neuroimaging (no left fusiform face area, or lFFA. These results were replicated by a magneto-encephalographic (MEG investigation of the patient, disclosing a M170 component only in the right hemisphere. These observations indicate that face preferential activation in the inferior occipital cortex is not necessary to elicit early visual responses associated with face perception (N170/M170 on the human scalp. These results further suggest that when the right inferior occipital cortex is damaged, the integrity of the middle fusiform gyrus and/or the superior temporal sulcus – two areas showing face preferential responses in the patient’s right hemisphere - might be necessary to generate

  20. Direct Anastomosis Using Occipital Artery for Additional Revascularization in Moyamoya Disease After Combined Superficial Temporal Artery-Middle Cerebral Artery and Indirect Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazumata, Ken; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu; Saito, Hisayasu; Maruichi, Katsuhiko; Ito, Masaki; Uchino, Haruto; Nakayama, Naoki; Kuroda, Satoshi; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2017-04-01

    The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is involved in approximately 30% of moyamoya disease (MMD) cases. However, there have been insufficient reports describing revascularization techniques in the posterior portion of the brain, particularly of direct anastomosis. To perform a technical assessment in patients with MMD who underwent either occipital artery (OA)-PCA bypass or OA-middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass. A total of 428 revascularization procedures in 368 patients were retrospectively assessed by reviewing clinical charts and radiological data. Ten patients (3.5%) were treated with direct bypass after the anterior revascularization with a median interval of 30 months (range, 5 months-16 years). Seven patients were bypass and in 8 hemispheres with an OA-PCA bypass. Patency of the direct bypass was confirmed on angiogram in 7 of 7 patients who underwent conventional angiogram performed within 1 year after the surgery. None of the 10 patients demonstrated cerebral infarctions after the posterior revascularization. In MMD, symptomatic PCA regression after anterior revascularization was found predominantly in children and young adults. Direct anastomosis in the posterior portion of the brain can be successfully achieved and is effective in preventing ischemic events.

  1. Prosopagnosia Induced by a Left Anterior Temporal lobectomy Following a Right Temporo-occipital Resection in a Multicentric Diffuse Low-Grade Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrivetti, Francesco; Herbet, Guillaume; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Duffau, Hugues

    2017-01-01

    Face recognition is a complex function sustained by a distributed large-scale neural network, with a core system involving the ventral occipitotemporal cortex, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), and the splenial commissural fibers. This circuit seems to be bilaterally organized, but with a right hemispheric dominance. According to this anatomic functional model, prosopagnosia is usually, but not exclusively, generated by a damage of the right part of this brain network. This report describes an original case of a multicentric diffuse low-grade glioma, with a right occipitotemporal tumor and a left anterior temporoinsular tumor. Awake surgery for the right occipitotemporal lesion, involving fusiform and inferior occipital gyri and ILF, was achieved in a first step without causing any neurologic deficit. A subsequent resection of the left anterior temporoinsular lesion, with removal of the anterior left ILF, was achieved 1 year later. Surprisingly, the patient experienced a strong and permanent prosopagnosia after this second surgery. The authors investigate the possible causes resulting in this prosopagnosia. Specifically, they suggest a decompensation within a reorganized neural network after the first operation, because of a disconnection syndrome induced by a bilateral surgical damage of the ventral occipitotemporal structural connectivity. These original data can be useful for neurosurgeons, especially when achieving resection for multicentric tumors involving both ventral streams, to inform patients before surgery about the possible risk of face recognition deficit, and to adapt the cognitive tasks intraoperatively during awake procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An unusual case of cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy with occipital lobe involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavesh Trikamji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL is an autosomal dominant angiopathy caused by a mutation in the notch 3 gene on chromosome 19. Clinically, patients may be asymptomatic or can present with recurrent ischemic episodes and strokes leading to dementia, depression, pseudobulbar palsy, and hemi- or quadraplegia. Additional manifestations that have been described include migraine (mostly with aura, psychiatric disturbances, and epileptic seizures. Neuroimaging is essential to the diagnosis of CADASIL. On imaging CADASIL is characterized by symmetric involvement by confluent lesions located subcortically in the frontal and temporal lobes as well as in the insula, periventricularly, in the centrum semiovale, in the internal and external capsule, basal ganglia, and brain stem; with relative sparing of the fronto-orbital and the occipital subcortical regions. We describe a 49 year old male with CADASIL with absence of temporal lobe findings on MRI but predominant lesions within the periventricular white matter, occipital lobes with extension into the subcortical frontal lobes, corpus callosum and cerebellar white matter. Although CADASIL characteristically presents with anterior temporal lobe involvement, these findings may be absent and our case addresses the atypical imaging findings in CADASIL.

  3. A comparative anatomic study of a modified temporal-occipital transtentorial transpetrosal-ridge approach and a transpetrosal presigmoid approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haifeng; Zhao, Gang

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the anatomic features of a modified temporal-occipital transtentorial transpetrosal-ridge approach versus the conventional approach for surgery of petroclival tumors. The conventional transpetrosal presigmoid approach or the modified temporal-occipital transtentorial transpetrosal-ridge approach was performed on different sides of the heads from 10 adult Chinese cadavers to compare incision site, exposure area, and operating space. In the modified approach, only medial and median parts of the petrous ridge were removed. No significant differences in maximal visual angle and operative depth were found between the two approaches (P > 0.05). The modified approach required a much smaller bone window compared with the presigmoid approach. The exposure in the middle of the ventral brainstem in the modified approach was much greater than in the presigmoid approach. The angle required for exposure of the temporal lobe via the ventral medulla oblongata in the modified approach was much smaller than in the presigmoid approach (P approach is a feasible surgical approach to remove petroclival tumors. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Temporal Evolution of Target Representation, Movement Direction Planning, and Reach Execution in Occipital-Parietal-Frontal Cortex: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappadocia, David C; Monaco, Simona; Chen, Ying; Blohm, Gunnar; Crawford, J Douglas

    2017-11-01

    The cortical mechanisms for reach have been studied extensively, but directionally selective mechanisms for visuospatial target memory, movement planning, and movement execution have not been clearly differentiated in the human. We used an event-related fMRI design with a visuospatial memory delay, followed by a pro-/anti-reach instruction, a planning delay, and finally a "go" instruction for movement. This sequence yielded temporally separable preparatory responses that expanded from modest parieto-frontal activation for visual target memory to broad occipital-parietal-frontal activation during planning and execution. Using the pro/anti instruction to differentiate visual and motor directional selectivity during planning, we found that one occipital area showed contralateral "visual" selectivity, whereas a broad constellation of left hemisphere occipital, parietal, and frontal areas showed contralateral "movement" selectivity. Temporal analysis of these areas through the entire memory-planning sequence revealed early visual selectivity in most areas, followed by movement selectivity in most areas, with all areas showing a stereotypical visuo-movement transition. Cross-correlation of these spatial parameters through time revealed separate spatiotemporally correlated modules for visual input, motor output, and visuo-movement transformations that spanned occipital, parietal, and frontal cortex. These results demonstrate a highly distributed occipital-parietal-frontal reach network involved in the transformation of retrospective sensory information into prospective movement plans. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A previously unreported variant of the synostotic sagittal suture: Case report and review of salient literature

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    Madison Budinich

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: To our knowledge, a synostotic sagittal suture has not been reported that extended posteriorly it involve the occipital bone. Those who interpret imaging or operate on this part of the skull should consider such a variation.

  6. Inherited occipital hypoplasia/syringomyelia in the cavalier King Charles spaniel: experiences in setting up a worldwide DNA collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusbridge, Clare; Knowler, Penny; Rouleau, Guy A; Minassian, Berge A; Rothuizen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Inherited diseases commonly emerge within pedigree dog populations, often due to use of repeatedly bred carrier sire(s) within a small gene pool. Accurate family records are usually available making linkage analysis possible. However, there are many factors that are intrinsically difficult about collecting DNA and collating pedigree information from a large canine population. The keys to a successful DNA collection program include (1) the need to establish and maintain support from the pedigree breed clubs and pet owners; (2) committed individual(s) who can devote the considerable amount of time and energy to coordinating sample collection and communicating with breeders and clubs; and (3) providing means by which genotypic and phenotypic information can be easily collected and stored. In this article we described the clinical characteristics of inherited occipital hypoplasia/syringomyelia (Chiari type I malformation) in the cavalier King Charles spaniel and our experiences in establishing a pedigree and DNA database to study the disease.

  7. The role of the lateral occipital cortex in aesthetic appreciation of representational and abstract paintings: a TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Lega, Carlotta; Ferrari, Chiara; Vecchi, Tomaso; Cela-Conde, Camilo José; Silvanto, Juha; Nadal, Marcos

    2015-04-01

    Neuroimaging studies of aesthetic appreciation have shown that activity in the lateral occipital area (LO)-a key node in the object recognition pathway-is modulated by the extent to which visual artworks are liked or found beautiful. However, the available evidence is only correlational. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate the putative causal role of LO in the aesthetic appreciation of paintings. In our first experiment, we found that interfering with LO activity during aesthetic appreciation selectively reduced evaluation of representational paintings, leaving appreciation of abstract paintings unaffected. A second experiment demonstrated that, although the perceived clearness of the images overall positively correlated with liking, the detrimental effect of LO TMS on aesthetic appreciation does not owe to TMS reducing perceived clearness. Taken together, our findings suggest that object-recognition mechanisms mediated by LO play a causal role in aesthetic appreciation of representational art. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of sacro occipital technique category II blocking on spinal ranges of motion: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Jerry I

    2005-01-01

    To describe changes in lumbar and cervical range of motion measurements after supine pelvic blocking as used in Sacro Occipital Technique (SOT). Five subjects with sacroiliac distortion and instability were recruited and selected for SOT. Cervical and lumbar ranges of motion were measured before and after category II blocking procedures used to change pelvic mechanics. Pre- and post-measurements were taken by a blinded assessor using a Zebris ultrasonic motion detector. Changes were found in the lumbar spine only. Increased ranges of lumbar motion occurred in all planes except extension (21%-57%). Supine pelvic blocking as used in SOT affected lumbar ranges of motion in these 5 cases. This may indicate that functional change in the pelvis results in changes in lumbar motion, especially lumbar flexion. Larger data sets are needed for further study.

  9. Reduced repetition suppression in the occipital visual cortex during repeated negative Chinese personality-trait word processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Fuqiang; Zheng, Li; Li, Lin; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Qianfeng

    2014-12-01

    Reduced neural activation have been consistently observed during repeated items processing, a phenomenon termed repetition suppression. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether and how stimuli of emotional valence affects repetition suppression by adopting Chinese personality-trait words as materials. Seventeen participants were required to read the negative and neutral Chinese personality-trait words silently. And then they were presented with repeated and novel items during scanning. Results showed significant repetition suppression in the inferior occipital gyrus only for neutral personality-trait words, whereas similar repetition suppression in the left inferior temporal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus was revealed for both the word types. These results indicated common and distinct neural substrates during processing Chinese repeated negative and neutral personality-trait words. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Selective frontal neurodegeneration of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfgren Christina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical presentation in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, an atypical parkinsonian disorder, includes varying degrees of frontal dysexecutive symptoms. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and tractography (DTT, we investigated whether diffusion changes and atrophy of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFO occurs in PSP and if these changes correlate with disease stage and clinical phenotype. The corticospinal tract (CST, which is often involved in PSP, was investigated for comparison. Methods DTI of the whole brain was performed with a 3 T MR scanner using a single shot-EPI sequence with diffusion encoding in 48 directions. Scans were obtained in patients with PSP (n = 13 and healthy age-matched controls (n = 12. DTT of the IFO and CST was performed with the PRIDE fibre tracking tool (Philips Medical System. Fractional anisotropy (FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC were calculated and correlated with disease stage and clinical phenotype. Results In patients with PSP, significantly decreased FA and increased ADC was found in the frontal part of IFO compared with the medial and occipital parts of IFO, as well as compared to controls. Four of the thirteen patients with PSP showed a marked decrease in the number of tracked voxels in the frontal part of IFO. These findings were most pronounced in patients with severe frontal cognitive symptoms, such as dysexecutive problems, apathy and personality change. There was a strong correlation (r2 = -0.84; p Conclusions DTT for identification of neuronal tracts with subsequent measurement of FA and ADC is a useful diagnostic tool for demonstrating patterns of neuronal tract involvement in neurodegenerative disease. In selected tracts, FA and ADC values might act as surrogate markers for disease stage.

  11. Facial expression recognition takes longer in the posterior superior temporal sulcus than in the occipital face area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, David

    2014-07-02

    Neuroimaging studies have identified a face-selective region in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (rpSTS) that responds more strongly during facial expression recognition tasks than during facial identity recognition tasks, but precisely when the rpSTS begins to causally contribute to expression recognition is unclear. The present study addressed this issue using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In Experiment 1, repetitive TMS delivered over the rpSTS of human participants, at a frequency of 10 Hz for 500 ms, selectively impaired a facial expression task but had no effect on a matched facial identity task. In Experiment 2, participants performed the expression task only while double-pulse TMS (dTMS) was delivered over the rpSTS or over the right occipital face area (rOFA), a face-selective region in lateral occipital cortex, at different latencies up to 210 ms after stimulus onset. Task performance was selectively impaired when dTMS was delivered over the rpSTS at 60-100 ms and 100-140 ms. dTMS delivered over the rOFA impaired task performance at 60-100 ms only. These results demonstrate that the rpSTS causally contributes to expression recognition and that it does so over a longer time-scale than the rOFA. This difference in the length of the TMS induced impairment between the rpSTS and the rOFA suggests that the neural computations that contribute to facial expression recognition in each region are functionally distinct. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/349173-05$15.00/0.

  12. Differential Contribution of Right and Left Temporo-Occipital and Anterior Temporal Lesions to Face Recognition Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainotti, Guido; Marra, Camillo

    2011-01-01

    In the study of prosopagnosia, several issues (such as the specific or non-specific manifestations of prosopagnosia, the unitary or non-unitary nature of this syndrome and the mechanisms underlying face recognition disorders) are still controversial. Two main sources of variance partially accounting for these controversies could be the qualitative differences between the face recognition disorders observed in patients with prevalent lesions of the right or left hemisphere and in those with lesions encroaching upon the temporo-occipital (TO) or the (right) anterior temporal cortex. Results of our review seem to confirm these suggestions. Indeed, they show that (a) the most specific forms of prosopagnosia are due to lesions of a right posterior network including the occipital face area and the fusiform face area, whereas (b) the face identification defects observed in patients with left TO lesions seem due to a semantic defect impeding access to person-specific semantic information from the visual modality. Furthermore, face recognition defects resulting from right anterior temporal lesions can usually be considered as part of a multimodal people recognition disorder. The implications of our review are, therefore, the following: (1) to consider the components of visual agnosia often observed in prosopagnosic patients with bilateral TO lesions as part of a semantic defect, resulting from left-sided lesions (and not from prosopagnosia proper); (2) to systematically investigate voice recognition disorders in patients with right anterior temporal lesions to determine whether the face recognition defect should be considered a form of “associative prosopagnosia” or a form of the “multimodal people recognition disorder.” PMID:21687793

  13. Occipital Nerve Field Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Normalizes Imbalance Between Pain Detecting and Pain Inhibitory Pathways in Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ridder, Dirk; Vanneste, Sven

    2017-04-01

    Occipital nerve field (OCF) stimulation with subcutaneously implanted electrodes is used to treat headaches, more generalized pain, and even failed back surgery syndrome via unknown mechanisms. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can predict the efficacy of implanted electrodes. The purpose of this study is to unravel the neural mechanisms involved in global pain suppression, mediated by occipital nerve field stimulation, within the realm of fibromyalgia. Nineteen patients with fibromyalgia underwent a placebo-controlled OCF tDCS. Electroencephalograms were recorded at baseline after active and sham stimulation. In comparison with healthy controls, patients with fibromyalgia demonstrate increased dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, increased premotor/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity, and an imbalance between pain-detecting dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and pain-suppressing pregenual anterior cingulate cortex activity, which is normalized after active tDCS but not sham stimulation associated with increased pregenual anterior cingulate cortex activation. The imbalance improvement between the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex is related to clinical changes. An imbalance assumes these areas communicate and, indeed, abnormal functional connectivity between the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex is noted to be caused by a dysfunctional effective connectivity from the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, which improves and normalizes after real tDCS but not sham tDCS. In conclusion, OCF tDCS exerts its effect via activation of the descending pain inhibitory pathway and de-activation of the salience network, both of which are abnormal in fibromyalgia.

  14. Causal Interactions between Frontalθ – Parieto-Occipitalα2 Predict Performance on a Mental Arithmetic Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Stavros I.; Sun, Yu; Thakor, Nitish V.; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2016-01-01

    Many neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the different functional contributions of spatially distinct brain areas to working memory (WM) subsystems in cognitive tasks that demand both local information processing and interregional coordination. In WM cognitive task paradigms employing electroencephalography (EEG), brain rhythms such as θ and α have been linked to specific functional roles over given brain areas, but their functional coupling has not been extensively studied. Here we analyzed an arithmetic task with five cognitive workload levels (CWLs) and demonstrated functional/effective coupling between the two WM subsystems: the central executive located over frontal (F) brain areas that oscillates on the dominant θ rhythm (Frontalθ/Fθ) and the storage buffer located over parieto-occipital (PO) brain areas that operates on the α2 dominant brain rhythm (Parieto-Occipitalα2/POα2). We focused on important differences between and within WM subsystems in relation to behavioral performance. A repertoire of brain connectivity estimators was employed to elucidate the distinct roles of amplitude, phase within and between frequencies, and the hierarchical role of functionally specialized brain areas related to the task. Specifically, for each CWL, we conducted a) a conventional signal power analysis within both frequency bands at Fθ and POα2, b) the intra- and inter-frequency phase interactions between Fθ and POα2, and c) their causal phase and amplitude relationship. We found no significant statistical difference of signal power or phase interactions between correct and wrong answers. Interestingly, the study of causal interactions between Fθ and POα2 revealed frontal brain region(s) as the leader, while the strength differentiated between correct and wrong responses in every CWL with absolute accuracy. Additionally, zero time-lag between bilateral Fθ and right POa2 could serve as an indicator of mental calculation failure. Overall, our study

  15. Treatment of hemicrania continua by occipital nerve stimulation with a bion device: long-term follow-up of a crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Brian; Watkins, Laurence; Goadsby, Peter J

    2008-11-01

    Hemicrania continua (HC) is a primary headache that comprises persistent unilateral pain, is associated with cranial autonomic features, and is responsive to indometacin. Some patients are unable to tolerate this treatment or it is contraindicated; for these patients, the medical options for therapy are restricted. Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) is an effective treatment for medically intractable primary headache, but only three cases of HC treated with ONS have been reported. Here, we report long-term safety and efficacy data for ONS in six patients with HC. ONS was provided by a unilateral neurostimulation device, known as a bion, which might be described as a second-generation ONS device. Six patients aged 18 years or older who were diagnosed with HC had a suboccipital bion device implanted ipsilateral to their headache and received continuous unilateral ONS. A crossover study design was used: the bion was on for the first 3 months, off for the fourth month, and on again during long-term follow-up. Detailed prospective headache diaries were kept for 1 month before implantation and for 5 months afterwards. Long-term data were obtained from patients' estimates of their outcome. The outcome of this study was assessed by a comparison of headache pain severity before and after ONS. At a median follow-up of 13.5 months (range 6-21 months), five of six patients reported sufficient benefit to recommend the device to other patients with HC. At long-term follow-up, four of six patients reported a substantial improvement (80-95%), one patient reported a 30% improvement, and one patient reported that his pain was worse by 20%. The onset of the benefit of ONS was delayed by days to weeks, and headaches did not recur for a similar period when the device was switched off. Adverse events were mild and associated with transient overstimulation. ONS appears to be a safe and effective treatment for HC, particularly when indometacin is not tolerated or is contraindicated. The

  16. Efficacy of Sodium Valproate in the Treatment of Photosensitive Epilepsy (PSE and the Probable Reasons for the Persistence of Occipital Spikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebere C. Anyanwu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent photic stimulation (IPS in patients with photosensitive epilepsy (PSE leads to EEG abnormalities, which include generalized discharges with spike and wave activity. This paper investigates 33 PSE patients, 14 (42% males and 19 (58% females. The age range was between 8 and 45 years. After the treatment of the patients with sodium valproate (VPA, the EEG examinations showed that the generalized discharges disappeared, while the occipital spikes persisted. The mechanism of action of VPA was re-evaluated in order to ascertain whether or not the persistent occipital was due to a failure in inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP. It was concluded that the possible causes of VPA's inefficacy in abolishing occipital spikes in PSE was not necessarily due to a failure in IPSP, but rather it could be due to a time-dependent failure of certain cells of the visual system to respond positively to the VPA's modulatory activity, probably involving the ionic channels, neurotransmitters, and the second messenger systems. The relationship between occipital spikes and visual evoked response is discussed. The extent to which metabolic processes and neurotransmitters are involved is also evaluated.

  17. Le mal de pott sous occipital révélé par un abcès rétro pharyngien a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnosis of suboccipital Pott's disease associated with pulmonar tuberculosis was done. The anti-tuberculosis drug was mentained for 11 months with a good recovery. The follow-up was 6 years. Discussion : The sub occipital pain Pott localisation was rare. The cervicalgy was the important clinical sign of consultation.

  18. Intestinal mucosa on top of a rudimentary occipital meningocele in amniotic rupture sequence: disorganization-like syndrome, homeotic transformation, abnormal surface encounter or endoectodermal adhesion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, H.J. ten; Hamel, B.C.J.; Hartman, E.H.M.; Lier, J.A. van; Wesseling, P.

    2002-01-01

    We present a case of a peculiar rudimentary occipital meningocele that was surgically removed when the patient (a boy) was 5 months of age. The patient also had distal transverse defects of both hands. The association of congenital scalp defects and distal congenital hand anomalies is relatively

  19. Asymmetric oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, and simultanagnosia with right hemispatial neglect from a predominantly left-sided lesion of the parieto-occipital area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Fujimoto, Masanori; Hamada, Kensuke; Sugimoto, Izumi

    2018-01-01

    Bálint's syndrome involves bilateral damage to the parieto-occipital area. The extent of the effect of unilateral damage on the Bálint's triad (oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, and simultanagnosia) remains unknown. We examined a 63-year-old, right-handed woman who developed right hemianopia, oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, simultanagnosia, and hemispatial neglect (HSN) for the right after a cerebral infarction, with detailed neuropsychological tests, magnetic resonance imaging, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Neuropsychological examination showed that oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, and simultanagnosia were more pronounced in the right hemi-space, probably due to the limited eye movement in the right visual field, whereas HSN was restricted to the right hemi-space. Diffusion-weighted MR images revealed hyperintensity in the left parieto-temporo-occipital region, and several spotty areas of the bilateral frontal and parietal subcortical regions. SPECT revealed hypoperfusion in the left parieto-occipital region and frontal operculum and small areas of the right superior parietal lobule. The case suggests that asymmetric (more pronounced in the right hemi-space) oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, and simultanagnosia occur in an extensive lesion of the left parieto-occipital cortices. Although HSN is not a prerequisite for simultanagnosia, the coexistence of HSN aggravates simultanagnosia in the hemi-space opposite the lesion.

  20. Acute bilateral vision loss in emergency department: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren sen Tanrikulu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stroke occurs due to the interruption of blood flow to the brain and it is divided into ischemic and hemorrhagic. In the ischemic strokes, while the most commonly affected vessel is median cerebral artery (MCA, it is particularly affected bilateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA is very rare condition. In this study, a case of sudden loss of vision and bilateral occipital infarct associated with bilateral vertebral system pathology and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene mutation were reported. A 62-year-old man was admitted with sudden loss of vision complaint starting 10 h before applying to emergency department. The patient was oriented and cooperative. On neurological examination, there was complete loss of vision in the right eye and only a response to light in the left eye. On the brain computerized tomography (CT, ischemic lesions were observed in the bilateral occipital areas and on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, there were foci showing diffusion limitation in cortico-subcortical areas of bilateral parieto-occipital region. On the detailed examination at the clinic, MTHFR (a1298c gene mutation was detected. Bilateral occipital infarction is rare and its diagnosis can be difficult because of its atypical symptoms. Therefore, occipital infarction should be suspected when the only sign is isolated vision loss in patients with risk factor for thromboembolism in their history and detailed visual-neurological examination of these patients should be performed. Keywords: MTHFR, Occipital infarctus, Visual loss

  1. Sounds facilitate visual motion discrimination via the enhancement of late occipital visual representations

    OpenAIRE

    Kayser, Stephanie J.; Philiastides, Marios G.; Kayser, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Sensory discriminations, such as judgements about visual motion, often benefit from multisensory evidence. Despite many reports of enhanced brain activity during multisensory conditions, it remains unclear which dynamic processes implement the multisensory benefit for an upcoming decision in the human brain. Specifically, it remains difficult to attribute perceptual benefits to specific processes, such as early sensory encoding, the transformation of sensory representations into a motor respo...

  2. Causal interactions between Frontalθ – Parieto-Occipitalα2 predict performance in a mental arithmetic task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros I Dimitriadis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the different functional contribution of spatial distinct anatomical brain areas to working memory (WM subsystems in various cognitive tasks that demand both local information processing and a coordinated mechanism between them. In WM cognitive tasks using electroencephalography (EEG, brain rhythms, such as θ and α, have been linked to a specific functional role located over a brain area but their functional coupling has not been yet studied extensively. In the present study, analyzing an arithmetic task designed with five cognitive workload levels (CWLs, we demonstrated the functional/effective coupling between the two subsystems of the WM, the central executive located over frontal (F brain areas that oscillates on the dominant θ rhythm (Frontalθ/Fθ and the storage buffer located over parieto-occipital (PO brain areas that operates on the α2 dominant brain rhythm (Parieto-Occipitalα2 / POα2. Our analysis focused on demonstrating important differences between and within WM subsystems in relation to behavioral performance. Attempting to uncover the distinct role of amplitude, phase within and between frequencies and also the hierarchical role of functionally specialized brain areas related to the task, we employed a repertoire of brain connectivity estimators. Specifically, for each CWL, we conducted a a conventional signal power analysis within both frequency bands at Fθ and POα2 ,b the intra and inter-frequency phase interactions between Fθ and POα2 and c their causal phase and amplitude relationship. We found no significant statistical difference of signal power and of phase interactions between correct and wrong answers. Interestingly, the study of causal interactions between Fθ and POα2 revealed frontal brain region(s as the leader, while the strength was able to differentiate correct from wrong responses, in every CWL with absolute accuracy. Additionally, zero time-lag between

  3. Causal Interactions between Frontal(θ) - Parieto-Occipital(α2) Predict Performance on a Mental Arithmetic Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Stavros I; Sun, Yu; Thakor, Nitish V; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2016-01-01

    Many neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the different functional contributions of spatially distinct brain areas to working memory (WM) subsystems in cognitive tasks that demand both local information processing and interregional coordination. In WM cognitive task paradigms employing electroencephalography (EEG), brain rhythms such as θ and α have been linked to specific functional roles over given brain areas, but their functional coupling has not been extensively studied. Here we analyzed an arithmetic task with five cognitive workload levels (CWLs) and demonstrated functional/effective coupling between the two WM subsystems: the central executive located over frontal (F) brain areas that oscillates on the dominant θ rhythm (Frontal(θ)/F(θ)) and the storage buffer located over parieto-occipital (PO) brain areas that operates on the α2 dominant brain rhythm (Parieto-Occipital(α2)/PO(α2)). We focused on important differences between and within WM subsystems in relation to behavioral performance. A repertoire of brain connectivity estimators was employed to elucidate the distinct roles of amplitude, phase within and between frequencies, and the hierarchical role of functionally specialized brain areas related to the task. Specifically, for each CWL, we conducted a) a conventional signal power analysis within both frequency bands at F(θ) and PO(α2), b) the intra- and inter-frequency phase interactions between F(θ) and PO(α2), and c) their causal phase and amplitude relationship. We found no significant statistical difference of signal power or phase interactions between correct and wrong answers. Interestingly, the study of causal interactions between F(θ) and PO(α2) revealed frontal brain region(s) as the leader, while the strength differentiated between correct and wrong responses in every CWL with absolute accuracy. Additionally, zero time-lag between bilateral F(θ) and right PO(a2) could serve as an indicator of mental calculation failure

  4. Visual object agnosia is associated with a breakdown of object-selective responses in the lateral occipital cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, Radek; Lazeyras, François; Di Pietro, Marie; Schnider, Armin; Simon, Stéphane R

    2014-07-01

    Patients with visual object agnosia fail to recognize the identity of visually presented objects despite preserved semantic knowledge. Object agnosia may result from damage to visual cortex lying close to or overlapping with the lateral occipital complex (LOC), a brain region that exhibits selectivity to the shape of visually presented objects. Despite this anatomical overlap the relationship between shape processing in the LOC and shape representations in object agnosia is unknown. We studied a patient with object agnosia following isolated damage to the left occipito-temporal cortex overlapping with the LOC. The patient showed intact processing of object structure, yet often made identification errors that were mainly based on the global visual similarity between objects. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) we found that the damaged as well as the contralateral, structurally intact right LOC failed to show any object-selective fMRI activity, though the latter retained selectivity for faces. Thus, unilateral damage to the left LOC led to a bilateral breakdown of neural responses to a specific stimulus class (objects and artefacts) while preserving the response to a different stimulus class (faces). These findings indicate that representations of structure necessary for the identification of objects crucially rely on bilateral, distributed coding of shape features. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Anodal-tDCS over the human right occipital cortex enhances the perception and memory of both faces and objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Marica; Negrini, Marcello; Nitsche, Michael A; Rivolta, Davide

    2016-01-29

    Accurate face processing skills are pivotal for typical social cognition, and impairments in this ability characterise various clinical conditions (e.g., prosopagnosia). No study to date has investigated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can causally enhance face processing. In addition, the category- and the process-specificity of tDCS effects, as well as the role of the timing of neuromodulation with respect to the execution of cognitive tasks are still unknown. In this single-blind, sham-controlled study, we examined whether the administration of anodal-tDCS (a-tDCS) over the right occipital cortex of healthy volunteers (N=64) enhances performance on perceptual and memory tasks involving both face and object stimuli. Neuromodulation was delivered in two conditions: online (a-tDCS during task execution) and offline (a-tDCS before task execution). The results demonstrate that offline a-tDCS enhances the perception and memory performance of both faces and objects. There was no effect of online a-tDCS on behaviour. Furthermore, the offline effect was site-specific since a-tDCS over the sensory-motor cortex did not lead to behavioural changes. Our results add relevant information about the breadth of cognitive processes and visual stimuli that can be modulated by tDCS, and about the design of effective neuromodulation protocols, which have implications for advancing theories in cognitive neuroscience and clinical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bodies are Represented as Wholes Rather Than Their Sum of Parts in the Occipital-Temporal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandman, Talia; Yovel, Galit

    2016-02-01

    Behavioral studies suggested that bodies are represented as wholes rather than in a part-based manner. However, neural selectivity for body stimuli is found for both whole bodies and body parts. It is therefore undetermined whether the neural representation of bodies is configural or part-based. We used functional MRI to test the role of first-order configuration on body representation in the human occipital-temporal cortex by comparing the response to a whole body versus the sum of its parts. Results show that body-selective areas, whether defined by selectivity to headless bodies or body parts, preferred whole bodies over their sum of parts and successfully decoded body configuration. This configural representation was specific to body stimuli and not found for faces. In contrast, general object areas showed no preference for wholes over parts and decoded the configuration of both bodies and faces. Finally, whereas effects of inversion on configural face representation were specific to face-selective mechanisms, effects of body inversion were not unique to body-selective mechanisms. We conclude that the neural representation of body parts is strengthened by their arrangement into an intact body, thereby demonstrating a central role of first-order configuration in the neural representation of bodies in their category-selective areas. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The efficacy of greater occipital nerve block for the treatment of migraine: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hehui; Yang, Xiaokai; Lin, Yijun; Chen, Linglong; Ye, Hua

    2018-02-01

    Greater occipital nerve (GON) block has some potential in treating migraine. We conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the impact of GON block on pain management of migraine. We have systematically searched randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of GON block versus placebo for migraine in various databases including PubMed, EMbase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane library databases. The primary outcome is pain intensity. Meta-analysis is performed using the random-effect model. Seven RCTs are included in the meta-analysis. Compared with control intervention in migraine patients, GON block intervention can significantly reduce pain intensity (Mean difference = -1.24; 95% CI = -1.98 to -0.49; P = 0.001) and analgesic medication consumption (Mean difference = -1.10; 95% CI = -2.07 to -0.14; P = 0.02), but has no remarkable impact on head duration (Mean difference = -6.96; 95% CI = -14.09 to 0.18; P = 0.0.06) and adverse events (RR = 0.93; 95% CI = 0.52 to 1.65; P = 0.80). GON block intervention is able to significantly reduce pain intensity and analgesic medication consumption in migraine patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ultrasonographic assessment of the atlanto-occipital space in healthy Thoroughbred foals and Thoroughbred foals with neonatal maladjustment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, C J; Haggett, E F; Pinchbeck, G L; Marr, C M

    2017-05-01

    Ultrasonography of the atlanto-occipital (AO) space may be useful as a non-invasive diagnostic tool in neonatal foals. The aims of the study were establish a range of values for ultrasonographic measurements of the AO space in healthy Thoroughbred foals and to compare these variables in healthy foals with foals diagnosed with neonatal maladjustment syndrome (NMS). Ultrasonography of the AO space was performed on 38 healthy Thoroughbred foals and 28 Thoroughbred foals with NMS≤4days of age. Transverse image spinal cord height (P=0.001), width (P<0.001) and spinal cord cross sectional area (P<0.001), and longitudinal image dorsoventral diameter of the ventral spinal artery, were significantly smaller in foals with NMS than in healthy foals. Ratios of spinal canal to cord width and cross sectional area were significantly smaller in healthy foals than in foals with NMS (P<0.001). Spinal canal variables were not significantly different between groups. Several ultrasonographic measurements of the AO space were significantly different between healthy foals and foals with NMS. Further investigation is warranted to investigate the clinical application of this technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. R + C Factors and Sacro Occipital Technique Orthopedic Blocking: a pilot study using pre and post VAS assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Charles L

    2015-06-01

    The concept of a systematic or predictive relationship between distant vertebral levels distinct from accumulative functional compensatory mechanisms, such as in scoliosis, has been perpetuated within chiropractic technique systems based on clinical observation and experience. This study seeks to investigate this relationship between the cervical and lumbar vertebrae. Patients (experimental group n=26 and control group n=12) were selected from the patient base of one office, and were limited to patients that had sensitivity at specific cervical reflex points. Using a pre and post outcome measurement and sacro occipital technique R + C protocols, the related lumbar vertebra was adjusted in the direction indicated by the cervical vertebral sensitivity. Statistical analysis revealed there was a statistically significant difference between pre- and post-VAS measurements and found that the notable difference in mean change in VAS scores were statistically significantly different between the experimental and control groups (p < .001). The findings of this study suggest that further research into cervical and lumbar vertebra interrelationships, and the efficacy of orthopedic block treatment, may be warranted. Further studies are needed to confirm whether a causal relationship exists between lumbar manipulation and decreased cervical spine sensitivity.

  10. Occipital nerve stimulation for intractable chronic cluster headache or migraine: a critical analysis of direct treatment costs and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Oliver; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Dammann, Philipp; Rabe, Kasja; Hagel, Vincent; Sure, Ulrich; Gaul, Charly

    2013-12-01

    Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) has been shown to be effective for selected patients with intractable headache disorders. We performed a prospective critical evaluation of complications and direct treatment costs. Twenty-seven patients with chronic cluster headache (CCH, N  = 24) or chronic migraine (CM, N = 3) underwent a trial phase with bilateral ONS and subsequent implantation of a permanent generator (IPG), if responsive to treatment according to predefined criteria. Procedural and long-term complications as well as direct treatment costs of neuromodulation therapy of ONS were recorded over a mean follow-up period of 20 months (range 5-47 months). Twenty-five of 27 patients (93%) responded to treatment. Twenty-one complications in 14 patients were identified, necessitating reoperation in 13 cases. Overall treatment costs were €761,043, including hardware-related costs of €506,019, costs for primary hospital care of €210,496, and complications related to hospitalization costs of €44,528. This results in a per case-based cost of €9445 for hospitalization and €18,741 for hardware costs, totaling €28,186. ONS for treatment of refractory CCH and CM is a cost-intensive treatment option with a significant complication rate. Nevertheless, patients with refractory primary headache disorders may experience substantial relief of pain attacks, and headache days, respectively.

  11. Síndrome de Meckel con onfalocele y labio fisurado

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, María Lucia; Saldarriaga, Wilmar; Isaza, Carolina; Pachajoa, Harry

    2017-01-01

    El s{í}ndrome de Meckel es un desorden autos{ó}mico recesivo, raro y letal. Se caracteriza por m{ú}ltiples malformaciones, entre estas, la triada de encefalocele occipital, ri{ñ}ones poliqu{í}sticos y polidactilia. Se presenta un caso con m{ú}ltiples malformaciones incluyendo las menos frecuentes como el onfalocele, la hipospadia y el labio fisurado.

  12. Oxidative and glicolytic metabolism of the frontal cortex (latero-frontal) and of the posterior cortex (latero-occipital) in relation with the sexual activity of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Patterson, A; Florez-Lozano, J A; Marin, B

    1976-01-01

    The authors of this paper have ascertained the glycolytic metabolism and the oxidative metabolism (intake of QO2), of the frontal and posterior cortex in female rats at different stages of the sexual cycle, as also in ovariectomized animals, by the intake of glucose and the production of lactates. The results indicate a statistically significant increase of the oxidative metabolism of the posterior cortex (latero-occipital) in the estrual and proestrual phases, in comparisons with the diestral phase. The frontal cortex (latero-frontal) did not show any significant difference; moreover, the glycolitic metabolism did not alter in any of the tissues under observation. These findings, seem to suggest possible participation of the posterior cortex (latero-occipital) on the regulation of sexual cycle of the rat. The activation of this cortex occurs through the preponderant imbricantion of the tri-carboxylic acid cycle.

  13. Parieto-occipital hypoaccumulation of {sup 123}I-IMP in the brain SPECT associated with maternal inheritance of diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiko; Atsumi, Yoshihito; Hosokawa, Kazuhiro; Shimada, Akira; Asahina, Takayuki; Matsuoka, Kempei [Saiseikai Central Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Hata, Takashi; Taniyama, Matsuo

    1997-07-01

    To determine the latent effect of diabetes inheritance on central nervous system, thirty diabetic patients were examined (14 male, 16 female). Seventeen patients had a mother with diabetes, and the other thirteen had non-diabetic mothers. They were previously determined to not have the 3243 mitochondrial tRNA mutation in peripheral leukocytes. Patients were tested for parieto-occipital hypoaccumulation of {sup 123}I-IMP of brain SPECT, a characteristic neurofinding of mitochondrial diabetes mellitus due to the 3243 tRNA mutation. Seven (41.2%) out of 17 subjects with material inheritance had the parieto-occipital abnormality, whereas one (7.7%) out of 13 subjects with non-maternal inheritance had the abnormality. Seventeen (94.4%) out of 18 patients diabetes due to mitochondrial tRNA mutation at position 3243 showed the abnormality. Our results suggest that the material inheritance of diabetes is associated with the hypoaccumulation of {sup 123}I-IMP of brain SPECT. We speculate that, because the patients with maternal inheritance might have subclinical mitochondrial dysfunction due to unknown mitochondrial DNA abnormalities, the mitochondrial DNA abnormality might cause their subclinical brain damage in the parieto-occipital area. (author)

  14. Influence of greater occipital nerve block on pain severity in migraine patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongguo; Kang, Junfang; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xuejun

    2017-11-01

    Greater occipital nerve (GON) block may be a promising approach to treat migraine. However, the results remained controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the efficacy of GON block in migraine patients. PubMed, EMbase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane library databases were systematically searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of GON block versus placebo in migraine patients were included. Two investigators independently searched articles, extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies. Meta-analysis was performed using the random-effect model. Six RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, compared with control intervention in migraine patients, GON block intervention was found to significantly reduce pain score (Std. mean difference=-0.51; 95% CI=-0.81 to -0.21; P=0.0008), number of headache days (Std. mean difference=-0.68; 95% CI=-1.02 to -0.35; P<0.0001), and medication consumption (Std. mean difference=-0.35; 95% CI=-0.67 to -0.02; P=0.04), but demonstrated no influence on duration of headache per four weeks (Std. mean difference=-0.07; 95% CI=-0.41 to 0.27; P=0.70). Compared to control intervention, GON block intervention can significantly alleviate pain, reduce the number of headache days and medication consumption, but have no significant influence on the duration of headache per four weeks for migraine patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Faciotopy—A face-feature map with face-like topology in the human occipital face area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Linda; Mur, Marieke; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    The occipital face area (OFA) and fusiform face area (FFA) are brain regions thought to be specialized for face perception. However, their intrinsic functional organization and status as cortical areas with well-defined boundaries remains unclear. Here we test these regions for “faciotopy”, a particular hypothesis about their intrinsic functional organisation. A faciotopic area would contain a face-feature map on the cortical surface, where cortical patches represent face features and neighbouring patches represent features that are physically neighbouring in a face. The faciotopy hypothesis is motivated by the idea that face regions might develop from a retinotopic protomap and acquire their selectivity for face features through natural visual experience. Faces have a prototypical configuration of features, are usually perceived in a canonical upright orientation, and are frequently fixated in particular locations. To test the faciotopy hypothesis, we presented images of isolated face features at fixation to subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The responses in V1 were best explained by low-level image properties of the stimuli. OFA, and to a lesser degree FFA, showed evidence for faciotopic organization. When a single patch of cortex was estimated for each face feature, the cortical distances between the feature patches reflected the physical distance between the features in a face. Faciotopy would be the first example, to our knowledge, of a cortical map reflecting the topology, not of a part of the organism itself (its retina in retinotopy, its body in somatotopy), but of an external object of particular perceptual significance. PMID:26235800

  16. Faciotopy-A face-feature map with face-like topology in the human occipital face area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Linda; Mur, Marieke; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2015-11-01

    The occipital face area (OFA) and fusiform face area (FFA) are brain regions thought to be specialized for face perception. However, their intrinsic functional organization and status as cortical areas with well-defined boundaries remains unclear. Here we test these regions for "faciotopy", a particular hypothesis about their intrinsic functional organisation. A faciotopic area would contain a face-feature map on the cortical surface, where cortical patches represent face features and neighbouring patches represent features that are physically neighbouring in a face. The faciotopy hypothesis is motivated by the idea that face regions might develop from a retinotopic protomap and acquire their selectivity for face features through natural visual experience. Faces have a prototypical configuration of features, are usually perceived in a canonical upright orientation, and are frequently fixated in particular locations. To test the faciotopy hypothesis, we presented images of isolated face features at fixation to subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The responses in V1 were best explained by low-level image properties of the stimuli. OFA, and to a lesser degree FFA, showed evidence for faciotopic organization. When a single patch of cortex was estimated for each face feature, the cortical distances between the feature patches reflected the physical distance between the features in a face. Faciotopy would be the first example, to our knowledge, of a cortical map reflecting the topology, not of a part of the organism itself (its retina in retinotopy, its body in somatotopy), but of an external object of particular perceptual significance. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. CASE REPORT Spontaneous lateral sphenoid cerebrospinal fluid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case report. We present the case of a 53-year-old man who presented with a primary complaint of a lateral tongue tumour. During admission for surgery, a large lesion was noticed on his occiput. An MRI revealed a large occipital meningioma for which he had a subtotal resection. Postoperatively he presented with an ...

  18. SU-F-T-631: Linear Accelerator-Based Frameless Extracranial Radiosurgery for Treatment of Occipital Neuralgia for Non-Surgical Candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, T; Howe, J [Associates In Medical Physics, Louisville, KY (United States); Spalding, A [The Norton Cancer Institute Radiation Center, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Occipital neuralgia is a condition wherein pain is transmitted by the occipital nerves. Non-invasive therapies generally alleviate symptoms; however, persistent or recurring pain may require invasive procedures. Repeated invasive procedures upon failure are considered higher risk and are often contraindicated due to compounding inherent risk. SRS has not been explored as a treatment option largely due to the extracranial nature of the target (as opposed to the similar, more established trigeminal neuralgia), but advances in linear-accelerator frameless-based SRS now present an opportunity to evaluate the novel potential of this modality for this application. Methods: Patient presented with severe occipital pain following decompression and fusion of the cervical vertebrae with prior intervention attempted via radiofrequency ablation yielding temporary pain cessation. A 0.6 mm slice spacing CT was obtained for treatment planning, and a cervical spine oriented 1.0 mm slice spacing CT myelogram was obtained for the purpose of defining the targeted C2 occipital dorsal root ganglion (to receive 80 Gy to the isocenter) and spinal cord. Results: The spinal cord was most proximally 12.0 mm from the isocenter receiving a maximum dose of 3.36 Gy, and doses to 0.35 and 1.2 cc of 1.84 Gy and 0.79 Gy, respectively. The brain maximum dose was 2.29 Gy. The treatment was successfully performed with a NovalisTX (Varian) equipped with ExacTrac stereoscopic x-ray image guidance (BrainLAB). Treatment time was 59 minutes for 18,323 MUs. Imaging was performed prior to each arc delivery resulting in twenty-one imaging sessions (twelve requiring positional corrections with the remaining verified within tolerance). The average deviation magnitude requiring a positional or rotational correction was 0.96±0.25 mm, 0.8±0.41° while the average deviation magnitude deemed within tolerance was 0.41±0.12 mm, 0.57±0.28°. Conclusion: Linear accelerator-based frameless radiosurgery

  19. Epilepsia occipital benigna da infância de início precoce (tipo Panayiotopoulos: aspectos clínicos e eletrencefalográficos evolutivos em 14 crianças Early-onset benign childhood occipital epilepsy (Panayiotopoulos type: clinical and electroencephalographic features in 14 children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineu Correa Fonseca

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas as características evolutivas clínico-eletrencefalográficas de 14 crianças com epilepsia occipital benigna da infância de início precoce (tipo Panayiotopoulos. O tempo médio de segmento foi 50,5 meses. A idade média na primeira crise foi 3,7 anos. O número total de crises foi até 3 crises em 11 casos, numerosas em 3; o período médio entre a primeira e a última crise foi 14,5 meses. Em 4 casos as crises tiveram duração prolongada, constituindo estado de mal parcial. Atividade epileptiforme (AE occipital foi observada em todos os casos no primeiro EEG e, foi também, extra-occipital, em 3 casos. Houve bloqueio da AE occipital, pela abertura dos olhos, em 4 casos; em 3 casos foram observadas, também, pontas evocadas. O EEG normalizou-se em 9 casos, em um período médio de 29 meses.We studied clinical and electroencephalographic features of 14 children, age range of 2 -8 years, with no neurological or neuroradiological evidence of brain damage and with occipital epileptiform activity in the EEG. Seizures were numerous in 3 cases. Age at onset was between 1-7 years. In 4 cases the seizures last for more than 20 min. Spikes were observed in 6 cases and spike and slow-wave complex in 8. Discharges blocking by eyes opening were confirmed in 4 cases. Somatosensory evoked spikes by foot stimulation were observed in 2 cases. Autonomic and versive seizures are the main clinical manifestations of Panayiotopoulos syndrome. Discharges blocking by eyes opening are a less frequent feature.

  20. Photoreactivity of the occipital cortex measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging-blood oxygenation level dependent in migraine patients and healthy volunteers: pathophysiological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Helena; Sánchez del Río, Margarita; de Silanes, Carlos López; Álvarez-Linera, Juan; Hernández, Juan Antonio; Pareja, Juan A

    2011-01-01

    The brain of migraineurs is hyperexcitable, particularly the occipital cortex, which is probably hypersensitive to light. Photophobia or hypersensitivity to light may be accounted for by an increased excitability of trigeminal, the visual pathways, and the occipital cortex. To study light sensitivity and photophobia by assessing the response to light stimuli with functional magnetic resonance imaging-blood oxygenation level dependent (fMRI-BOLD) of the occipital cortex in migraineurs and in controls. Also, to try to decipher the contribution of the occipital cortex to photophobia and whether the cortical reactivity of migraineurs may be part of a constitutional (defensive) mechanism or represents an acquired (sensitization) phenomenon. Nineteen patients with migraine (7 with aura and 12 without aura) and 19 controls were studied with fMRI-BOLD during 4 increasing light intensities. Eight axial image sections of 0.5 cm that covered the occipital cortex were acquired for each intensity. We measured the extension and the intensity of activation for every light stimuli. Photophobia was estimated according to a 0 to 3 semiquantitative scale of light discomfort. Migraineurs had a significantly higher number of fMRI-activated voxels at low (320.4 for migraineurs [SD = 253.9] and 164.3 for controls [SD = 102.7], P = .027) and medium-low luminance levels (501.2 for migraineurs [SD = 279.5] and 331.1 for controls [SD = 194.3], P = .034) but not at medium-high (579.5 for migraineurs [SD = 201.4] and 510.2 for controls [SD = 239.5], P = .410) and high light stimuli (496.2 for migraineurs [SD = 216.2] and 394.7 for controls [SD = 240], P = .210). No differences were found with respect to the voxel activation intensity (amplitude of the BOLD wave) between migraineurs and controls (8.98 [SD = 2.58] vs 7.99 [SD = 2.57], P = .25; 10.82 [SD = 3.27] vs 9.81 [SD = 3.19], P = .31; 11.90 [SD = 3.18] vs 11.06 [SD = 2.56], P = .62; 11.45 [SD = 2.65] vs 10.25 [SD = 2.22], P = .16). Light

  1. Unedited in vivo detection and quantification of γ-aminobutyric acid in the occipital cortex using short-TE MRS at 3 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near, Jamie; Andersson, Jesper; Maron, Eduard; Mekle, Ralf; Gruetter, Rolf; Cowen, Philip; Jezzard, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Short-TE MRS has been proposed recently as a method for the in vivo detection and quantification of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the human brain at 3 T. In this study, we investigated the accuracy and reproducibility of short-TE MRS measurements of GABA at 3 T using both simulations and experiments. LCModel analysis was performed on a large number of simulated spectra with known metabolite input concentrations. Simulated spectra were generated using a range of spectral linewidths and signal-to-noise ratios to investigate the effect of varying experimental conditions, and analyses were performed using two different baseline models to investigate the effect of an inaccurate baseline model on GABA quantification. The results of these analyses indicated that, under experimental conditions corresponding to those typically observed in the occipital cortex, GABA concentration estimates are reproducible (mean reproducibility error, TE MRS in the occipital cortex of 14 healthy volunteers. Short-TE MRS measurements of GABA exhibited a significant positive correlation with edited GABA measurements (R = 0.58, p TE measurements of GABA correspond well with measurements made using spectral editing techniques. Finally, within-session reproducibility was assessed in the same 14 subjects using four consecutive short-TE GABA measurements in the occipital cortex. Across all subjects, the average coefficient of variation of these four GABA measurements was 8.7 ± 4.9%. This study demonstrates that, under some experimental conditions, short-TE MRS can be employed for the reproducible detection of GABA at 3 T, but that the technique should be used with caution, as the results are dependent on the experimental conditions. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Radiographic aspects and angioarchitectural arrangements in corrosion casts of the blood supply to the human sternocleidomastoid muscle by the sternocleidomastoid branch of the occipital artery Aspectos radiográficos e da microvasculatura do músculo esternocleidomastóideo pelo pelo ramo da artéria occipital

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Bernardo Fróes; Erasmo Magalhães Castro de Tolosa; Roberto Souza Camargo; Eduardo Pompeu; Edson Aparecido Liberti

    1999-01-01

    The contribution of the sternocleidomastoid branch of the occipital artery (superior arterial pedicle - SAP) to the irrigation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) was evaluated in fresh human cadavers by injecting radiological dye and a resin for microvasculature corrosion casts. From its insertion in the mastoid process of the temporal bone, the SCM was divided into superior, medium, and inferior thirds. In most of the SCM, The SAP are formed by two longitudinal parallel branches. In all...

  3. Impaired Picture Arrangement subscores (WAIS-III) associated with decreased place orientation and frontal/occipital blood flow in Alzheimer's disease: Implications for social judgment dysfunction. The Osaki-Tajiri Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yuka; Meguro, Kenichi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Nakamura, Kei; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Satoshi

    2016-10-30

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients manifest not only memory impairment but also deficit of social judgment. However, contrary to frequently recognized deficit, only two neuropsychological tests have been established for assessing "judgment" : the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument domain Abstraction & judgment and the Picture Arrangement subscale of WAIS-III. For the former, we previously reported an association with decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the left parietal lobe. Herein, we analyzed the scores of the Picture Arrangement test. Forty-nine AD patients were classified into two groups, i.e., the high and low PA score groups. The 99m Tc-ECD SPECT investigation was performed with the voxel-based analysis using SPM5. The Mini-Mental State Examination subscores of "place orientation" showed a correlation with the PA scores. The low PA score group exhibited significantly decreased rCBFs in the Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus (LIFG), Left Superior Frontal Gyrus (LSFG) and Right Occipital Lobe (ROL), compared with the high PA score group. The ability of PA may be associated with the place orientation, which may be necessary to re-arrange the pictures. The ROL was related to visual recognition. The LSFG may be involved in executive function or "frontal reasoning." Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A new method for automated high-dimensional lesion segmentation evaluated in vascular injury and applied to the human occipital lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Yee-Haur; Jager, Rolf; Kennard, Christopher; Husain, Masud; Nachev, Parashkev

    2014-07-01

    Making robust inferences about the functional neuroanatomy of the brain is critically dependent on experimental techniques that examine the consequences of focal loss of brain function. Unfortunately, the use of the most comprehensive such technique-lesion-function mapping-is complicated by the need for time-consuming and subjective manual delineation of the lesions, greatly limiting the practicability of the approach. Here we exploit a recently-described general measure of statistical anomaly, zeta, to devise a fully-automated, high-dimensional algorithm for identifying the parameters of lesions within a brain image given a reference set of normal brain images. We proceed to evaluate such an algorithm in the context of diffusion-weighted imaging of the commonest type of lesion used in neuroanatomical research: ischaemic damage. Summary performance metrics exceed those previously published for diffusion-weighted imaging and approach the current gold standard-manual segmentation-sufficiently closely for fully-automated lesion-mapping studies to become a possibility. We apply the new method to 435 unselected images of patients with ischaemic stroke to derive a probabilistic map of the pattern of damage in lesions involving the occipital lobe, demonstrating the variation of anatomical resolvability of occipital areas so as to guide future lesion-function studies of the region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Surgical Treatment of Occipitocervical Dislocation with Atlas Assimilation and Klippel-Feil Syndrome Using Occipitalized C1 Lateral Mass and C2 Fixation and Reduction Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yi-Heng; Qiao, Guang-Yu; Yu, Xin-Guang

    2016-11-01

    To introduce and assess a surgical treatment of occipitocervical (OC) dislocation with atlas assimilation and Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) using occipitalized C1 lateral mass and C2 fixation and reduction technique. From January 2007 to August 2013, 58 symptomatic patients with OC dislocation and KFS of C2-3 congenital fusion and atlas assimilation were surgically treated in our institution via this technique. After opening the C1-2 facet joints via a posterior approach, OC reduction was conducted by intraoperative manipulation and C1 lateral mass and C2 pedicle screw and rod fixation. The instrument position, fusion status, and clinical outcome were analyzed. The average follow-up was 36 months (range, 18-52 months). Radiologically, effective reduction was achieved in 56 patients (96.6%) and atlas assimilation, posterior manipulative reduction combined with occipitalized C1 lateral mass and C2 fixation provides a reliable and effective treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A key role for the caudoventral pontine tegmentum in the simultaneous generation of eye saccades in bursts and associated ponto-geniculo-occipital waves during paradoxical sleep in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni-Mercier, G; Debilly, G

    1998-09-01

    Ponto-geniculo-occipital waves and rapid eye movements (eye saccades) are two prominent phasic events of paradoxical sleep which occur in conjunction. Although they have been studied intensively, the neuronal link between these two events is still poorly understood. On the basis of our previous results, combining brainstem transections and carbachol microinjections, we postulated that the oculomotor and ponto-geniculo-occipital systems do not work in series, but in parallel, and that the caudoventral pontine tegmentum might represent a structure controlling and/or co-ordinating the simultaneous production of the two phenomena. This hypothesis was further supported by the demonstration that, during paradoxical sleep, the instantaneous velocity of eye saccades in bursts is higher than that of isolated ones which, in turn, are more rapid than waking saccades. This acceleration of eye saccades in bursts also seems to be under the cholinergic control of the caudoventral pontine tegmentum. In order to test the hypothesis that this area may be a prime mover leading to the simultaneous appearance of these two phasic events as a whole, we investigated, in the present study, the effects of pharmacological stimulation (with carbachol) and inhibition (with atropine) of the caudoventral pontine tegmentum on the production and the characteristics of eye saccades and ponto-geniculo-occipital waves. Cats' eye movements were recorded using the technique of the scleral search coil in a magnetic field, together with sleep-waking parameters. We found that: (i) unilateral microinjections of carbachol (0.4 microg) induced, during waking, a majority of long bursts of ponto-geniculo-occipital waves (i.e. bursts containing at least five waves) which had intra-burst intervals similar to natural ones (48-259 ms) and decreased the frequency of isolated ponto-geniculo-occipital waves; (ii) unilateral microinjections of atropine (2.4 microg) strongly decreased, during paradoxical sleep, the

  7. Parieto-occipital areas involved in efficient filtering in search: a time course analysis of visual marking using behavioural and functional imaging procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humphreys, Glyn W; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Watson, Derrick G.

    2004-01-01

    . Furthermore, the reductions in reaction time across time in the preview condition varied nonlinearly with the display size, suggesting that old items were discounted from search in parallel. In Experiment 2 we examined the neural locus of this filtering effect over time, using positron emission tomography...... (PET). We show that regions of parieto-occipital cortex are selectively activated in a preview search condition relative to a detection baseline. These regions also increase in activation as the preview interval increases (and search then becomes easier), consistent with them modulating the parallel...... filtering of distractors from targets in spatial search. Interestingly, the same areas as those activated in preview search were also active in conjunction search relative to its own detection baseline. Thus these regions either modulate parallel filtering in conjunction search too, or they modulate...

  8. Lateralized frontal eye field activity precedes occipital activity shortly before saccades: evidence for cortico-cortical feedback as a mechanism underlying covert attention shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteling, Tjerk P; van Ettinger-Veenstra, Helene M; Kenemans, J Leon; Neggers, Sebastiaan F W

    2010-09-01

    When an eye movement is prepared, attention is shifted toward the saccade end-goal. This coupling of eye movements and spatial attention is thought to be mediated by cortical connections between the FEFs and the visual cortex. Here, we present evidence for the existence of these connections. A visual discrimination task was performed while recording the EEG. Discrimination performance was significantly improved when the discrimination target and the saccade target matched. EEG results show that frontal activity precedes occipital activity contralateral to saccade direction when the saccade is prepared but not yet executed; these effects were absent in fixation conditions. This is consistent with the idea that the FEF exerts a direct modulatory influence on the visual cortex and enhances perception at the saccade end-goal.

  9. A morphometric study of the atlas occipitalization and coexisted congenital anomalies of the vertebrae and posterior cranial fossa with neurological importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Lyrtzis, Christos; Totlis, Trifon; Anastasopoulos, Nikolaos; Piagkou, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Our study highlights the morphometry of the partial and complete atlas occipitalization (AOZ), its coexistence with fusions of the 2nd and 3rd cervical vertebrae and morphological and morphometric abnormalities of the posterior cranial fossa that are of paramount neurological importance. One hundred and eighty adult dry skulls, the atlas and axis vertebrae were examined. Four skulls (2.2 %) showed AOZ. Two of them (1.1 %) presented a partial AOZ, one male skull (0.6 %) a complete AOZ and a female skull (0.6 %) had a fused left hemiatlas with the occipital bone and a fusion of the 2nd and 3rd cervical vertebrae. The inner anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the foramen magnum (FM) in the control group were 34.6 ± 3.46 and 29.3 ± 3.47 mm. Only the skull with the complete AOZ had a reduced outer anteroposterior diameter of the FM (29.8 mm), while no specimen was found with a reduced transverse diameter. A wide total decrease (range 13.1-50.9 %) in the surface area of the FM in skulls with AOZ was detected. Extracranial, the clivus length in two skulls with AOZ was smaller than the normal range. No skull was detected with a reduction in the intracranial length of the clivus. All skulls with the AOZ had a vermian fossa. The study adds important morphometric details about the partial and complete AOZ and correlates the phenomenon of synostosis with the narrowing of the FM, particularly in the case of complete AOZ. Awareness of the AOZ and other fusions of the upper cervical vertebrae and their topographical relations and attendant problems are of paramount importance to surgeons, when operate to the craniocervical junction, or interpret imaging studies to plan a safe surgery for nerve or spinal tissue decompression.

  10. The Role of Parieto-Occipital Junction in the Interaction between Dorsal and Ventral Streams in Disparity-Defined Near and Far Space Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aijun; Li, You; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychological and functional MRI data suggest that two functionally and anatomically dissociable streams of visual processing exist: a ventral perception-related stream and a dorsal action-related stream. However, relatively little is known about how the two streams interact in the intact brain during the production of adaptive behavior. Using functional MRI and a virtual three-dimensional paradigm, we aimed at examining whether the parieto-occipital junction (POJ) acts as an interface for the integration and processing of information between the dorsal and ventral streams in the near and far space processing. Virtual reality three-dimensional near and far space was defined by manipulating binocular disparity, with -68.76 arcmin crossed disparity for near space and +68.76 arcmin uncrossed disparity for near space. Our results showed that the POJ and bilateral superior occipital gyrus (SOG) showed relative increased activity when responded to targets presented in the near space than in the far space, which was independent of the retinotopic and perceived sizes of target. Furthermore, the POJ showed the enhanced functional connectivity with both the dorsal and ventral streams during the far space processing irrespective of target sizes, supporting that the POJ acts as an interface between the dorsal and ventral streams in disparity-defined near and far space processing. In contrast, the bilateral SOG showed the enhanced functional connectivity only with the ventral stream if retinotopic sizes of targets in the near and far spaces were matched, which suggested there was a functional dissociation between the POJ and bilateral SOG.

  11. The Role of Parieto-Occipital Junction in the Interaction between Dorsal and Ventral Streams in Disparity-Defined Near and Far Space Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijun Wang

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological and functional MRI data suggest that two functionally and anatomically dissociable streams of visual processing exist: a ventral perception-related stream and a dorsal action-related stream. However, relatively little is known about how the two streams interact in the intact brain during the production of adaptive behavior. Using functional MRI and a virtual three-dimensional paradigm, we aimed at examining whether the parieto-occipital junction (POJ acts as an interface for the integration and processing of information between the dorsal and ventral streams in the near and far space processing. Virtual reality three-dimensional near and far space was defined by manipulating binocular disparity, with -68.76 arcmin crossed disparity for near space and +68.76 arcmin uncrossed disparity for near space. Our results showed that the POJ and bilateral superior occipital gyrus (SOG showed relative increased activity when responded to targets presented in the near space than in the far space, which was independent of the retinotopic and perceived sizes of target. Furthermore, the POJ showed the enhanced functional connectivity with both the dorsal and ventral streams during the far space processing irrespective of target sizes, supporting that the POJ acts as an interface between the dorsal and ventral streams in disparity-defined near and far space processing. In contrast, the bilateral SOG showed the enhanced functional connectivity only with the ventral stream if retinotopic sizes of targets in the near and far spaces were matched, which suggested there was a functional dissociation between the POJ and bilateral SOG.

  12. Paleoneurology of two new neandertal occipitals from El Sidrón (asturias, Spain) in the context of homo endocranial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Melián, Angel; Rosas, Antonio; García-Tabernero, Antonio; Bastir, Markus; De La Rasilla, Marco

    2011-08-01

    The endocranial surface description and comparative analyses of two new neandertal occipital fragments (labelled SD-1149 and SD-370a) from the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain) reveal new aspects of neandertal brain morphological asymmetries. The dural sinus drainage pattern, as observed on the sagittal-transverse system, as well as the cerebral occipito-petalias, point out a slightly differential configuration of the neandertal brain when compared to other Homo species, especially H. sapiens. The neandertal dural sinus drainage pattern is organized in a more asymmetric mode, in such a way that the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) drains either to the right or to the left transverse sinuses, but in no case in a confluent mode (i.e. simultaneous continuation of SSS with both right (RTS) and left (LTS) transverse sinuses). Besides, the superior sagittal sinus shows an accentuated deviation from of the mid-sagittal plane in its way to the RTS in 35% of neandertals. This condition, which increases the asymmetry of the system, is almost nonexistent neither in the analyzed Homo fossil species sample nor in that of anatomically modern humans. Regarding the cerebral occipito-petalias, neandertals manifest one of the lowest percentages of left petalia of the Homo sample (including modern H. sapiens). As left occipito-petalia is the predominant pattern in hominins, it seems as if neandertals would have developed a different pattern of brain hemispheres asymmetry. Finally, the relief and position of the the cerebral sulci and gyri impressions observed in the El Sidrón occipital specimens look similar to those observed in modern H. sapiens. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. An oculocerebral hypopigmentation syndrome: a case report with clinical, histochemical, and ultrastructural findings.

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, M A; Baraitser, M; Heagerty, A H; Eady, R A

    1987-01-01

    A 4 year old boy is reported with tyrosinase positive hypopigmentation, mental retardation, ataxia, and myopia. Radiological investigation showed occipital cerebral atrophy, coxa valga, and generalised osteoporosis. The skin histology and electron microscopy are reported and discussed. The clinical features are similar to those of the oculocerebral hypopigmentation syndrome described by Preus et al.

  14. Rapid detection of K650E mutation in FGFR3 using uncultured amniocytes in a pregnancy affected with fetal cloverleaf skull, occipital pseudoencephalocele, ventriculomegaly, straight short femurs, and thanatophoric dysplasia type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: A prenatal diagnosis of cloverleaf skull, short limbs, straight femurs, and occipital pseudoencephalocele should include a differential diagnosis of TD2. A molecular analysis of FGFR3 using uncultured amniocytes is useful for the rapid confirmation of TD2 at prenatal diagnosis.

  15. Diagnóstico clínico e radiográfico de luxação traumática da articulação atlanto-occipital em dois cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Araújo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A luxação da articulação atlanto-occipital é considerada uma afecção incomum no homem e nos animais. Radiografias laterais são recomendadas para o diagnóstico. No entanto, estão sujeitas a erros relacionados ao ângulo de radiação, ao alvo da imagem, à distância e à sobreposição óssea. Objetivou-se neste relato descrever os achados clínicos e radiográficos de dois cães com luxação traumática da articulação atlanto-occipital que apresentavam tetraparesia, dor cervical cranial, incapacidade de elevar a cabeça e déficits de nervos cranianos. No primeiro animal, observaram-se deslocamento craniodorsal do processo articular do atlas em relação a um dos côndilos do occipital, ausência de sobreposição dos forames vertebrais laterais e sobreposição do côndilo do occipital ao processo articular do atlas, no lado direito, caracterizando uma luxação unilateral. No segundo animal, observou-se deslocamento craniodorsal dos processos articulares do atlas em relação aos côndilos do occipital, com sobreposição dos forames vertebrais laterais e ausência de visibilização dos côndilos do occipital em virtude da projeção cranial dos processos articulares do atlas em direção ao crânio, caracterizando luxação bilateral. Conclui-se que o exame radiográfico simples, nas projeções laterolateral e ventrodorsal, apesar da dificuldade de ser interpretado, é eficiente para confirmar o diagnóstico da luxação atlanto-occipital traumática, tanto a simétrica quanto a assimétrica.

  16. Exploratory metabolomic analyses reveal compounds correlated with lutein concentration in frontal cortex, hippocampus, and occipital cortex of human infant brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutein is a dietary carotenoid well known for its role as an antioxidant in the macula and recent reports implicate a role for lutein in cognitive function. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in both pediatric and geriatric brain tissue. In addition, cognitive function in older adults correlated with...

  17. Reparación endoscópica de encefalocele esfenoidal, secundario a persistencia del canal de Sternberg

    OpenAIRE

    Arias A,Roberto; Bogado,Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Las fístulas de líquido cefalorraquídeo (FLCR) nasales se producen por la comunicación entre el espacio subaracnoídeo y el tracto aerodigestivo. Pueden ser adquiridas (secundarias a trauma o iatrogenia) o espontáneas. Éstas últimas pueden ser de origen congénito, tumoral o idiopáticas. El canal lateral craneofaríngeo o de Sternberg se produce por la falta de fusión de los puntos de osificación del seno esfenoidal durante el período embrionario. Esta región, ubicada posterolateral a la pared i...

  18. Morphometric analysis of superior articular facets of atlas vertebra and its clinical applications in ergonomics of atlanto-occipital joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motagi, Manjunath V; Ranganath, Vallabhajosyula

    2013-12-01

    The classic variants in superior articular facets of atlas such as, variability in shape, presence of notch, constrictions, partial or complete separation of facets, and presence of pressure facets, have been reported to a limited extent in relation to ergonomics of cranio-vertebral joint. The objectives of the present study were to report the analyzed morphological features and metrical values of superior articular facets of the atlas. The morphological features which were included in this study were variability in shapes, constrictions and partial or complete separation of facets. The metrical measure included the surface area measurement of the facets. This study was carried out on 50 (100 sides) dry atlas vertebrae from the Department of Anatomy, St John's Medical College, Bangalore, India. The superior articular facets were studied for the shape and symmetry, constrictions and partial or complete separation of facets. The surface area of the facets were measured by using Image J (Image processing and analysis in JAVA) tool, that was primarily designed to measure and analyze different metrics. The mean surface area on the right side was 157.3 ± 29.02, and on the left side, it was 158.5 ± 24.85. Oval, irregular, kidney and figure of eight shapes were observed either on both sides or on one side. Bilateral constrictions of facets were seen in 58 % of vertebrae. Bilateral, complete separations of facets were seen in 30% of vertebrae. The observations of the present study are important to understand the ergonomics of the cranio-vertebral joint and they are helpful for academicians, neuro-surgeons, clinicians and radiologists in day to day clinical practice.

  19. Neural adaptation to thin and fat bodies in the fusiform body area and middle occipital gyrus: an fMRI adaptation study.

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    Hummel, Dennis; Rudolf, Anne K; Brandi, Marie-Luise; Untch, Karl-Heinz; Grabhorn, Ralph; Hampel, Harald; Mohr, Harald M

    2013-12-01

    Visual perception can be strongly biased due to exposure to specific stimuli in the environment, often causing neural adaptation and visual aftereffects. In this study, we investigated whether adaptation to certain body shapes biases the perception of the own body shape. Furthermore, we aimed to evoke neural adaptation to certain body shapes. Participants completed a behavioral experiment (n = 14) to rate manipulated pictures of their own bodies after adaptation to demonstratively thin or fat pictures of their own bodies. The same stimuli were used in a second experiment (n = 16) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation. In the behavioral experiment, after adapting to a thin picture of the own body participants also judged a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa, resembling a typical aftereffect. The fusiform body area (FBA) and the right middle occipital gyrus (rMOG) show neural adaptation to specific body shapes while the extrastriate body area (EBA) bilaterally does not. The rMOG cluster is highly selective for bodies and perhaps body parts. The findings of the behavioral experiment support the existence of a perceptual body shape aftereffect, resulting from a specific adaptation to thin and fat pictures of one's own body. The fMRI results imply that body shape adaptation occurs in the FBA and the rMOG. The role of the EBA in body shape processing remains unclear. The results are also discussed in the light of clinical body image disturbances. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Successful Removal of a Metastatic Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor in the Craniovertebral Junction using an Occipital Artery to Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Bypass

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    Yukitomo Ishi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are rare mesenchymal neoplasms arising from the gastrointestinal tract. The authors present a case of the successful removal of a metastatic GIST in the craniovertebral junction, using an occipital artery to posterior inferior cerebellar artery (OA-PICA bypass. The patient is a 54-year-old male who underwent his first surgery for a small-bowel tumor at the age of 45 and was diagnosed with GIST. Nine years after his primary diagnosis, the patient suffered from severe neck pain. MRI demonstrated a large demarcated mass adjacent to the right atlas. The right vertebral artery (VA, completely engulfed by the tumor, showed a narrowing and ended in the PICA. Poor collateral blood supply in the right PICA territory was presumed. To prevent ischemic complications, an OA-PICA bypass was performed prior to the tumor resection. After the OA-PICA bypass, the tumor associated with the right VA was successfully removed, and the patient was discharged without any neurological deficits.

  1. Relationship between Stereoscopic Vision, Visual Perception, and Microstructure Changes of Corpus Callosum and Occipital White Matter in the 4-Year-Old Very Low Birth Weight Children

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    Przemko Kwinta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the relationship between stereoscopic vision, visual perception, and microstructure of the corpus callosum (CC and occipital white matter, 61 children born with a mean birth weight of 1024 g (SD 270 g were subjected to detailed ophthalmologic evaluation, Developmental Test of Visual Perception (DTVP-3, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI at the age of 4. Results. Abnormal stereoscopic vision was detected in 16 children. Children with abnormal stereoscopic vision had smaller CC (CC length: 53±6 mm versus 61±4 mm; p<0.01; estimated CC area: 314±106 mm2 versus 446±79 mm2; p<0.01 and lower fractional anisotropy (FA values in CC (FA value of rostrum/genu: 0.7±0.09 versus 0.79±0.07; p<0.01; FA value of CC body: 0.74±0.13 versus 0.82±0.09; p=0.03. We found a significant correlation between DTVP-3 scores, CC size, and FA values in rostrum and body. This correlation was unrelated to retinopathy of prematurity. Conclusions. Visual perceptive dysfunction in ex-preterm children without major sequelae of prematurity depends on more subtle changes in the brain microstructure, including CC. Role of interhemispheric connections in visual perception might be more complex than previously anticipated.

  2. Correlation between spheno-occipital synchondrosis, dental age, chronological age and cervical vertebrae maturation in Turkish population: is there a link?

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    Demirturk Kocasarac, Husniye; Altan, Ayse Burcu; Yerlikaya, Canan; Sinanoglu, Alper; Noujeim, Marcel

    2017-03-01

    To assess the correlation between third molar mineralization (TMM), spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS) fusion, chronologic age and cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM) for skeletal maturation. Radiographs for 116 patients between 8 and 28 years were evaluated for age determination using mandibular TMM, SOS fusion and CVM. Spearman Correlation and Kappa test analyses were used to assess the relationship between variables and for intraobserver reliability. Strong correlation was found between chronological age and TMM for males (r = .802) and females (r = .842), very strong correlation was found between age and CVM for males (r = .812) and moderate for females (r = .449), it was strong between age and SOS fusion for males (r = .810) and females (r = .643). Correlation between TMM and SOS was found to be strong for males (r = .759) and moderate for females (r = .534), it was strong between TMM and CVM for males (r = .723) and weak for females (r = .371). Very strong correlation was found between CVM and SOS fusion for males (r = .851) and strong correlation for females (r = .618). Good correlation was found between the degrees of TMM, fusion of SOS and CVM in young Turkish population.

  3. The role of the occipital face area in holistic processing involved in face detection and discrimination: A tDCS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzi, Chiara; Ferrari, Chiara; Schiavi, Susanna; Pisoni, Alberto; Papagno, Costanza; Vecchi, Tomaso; Antal, Andrea; Cattaneo, Zaira

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of occipital face area (OFA) in mediating observers' tendency to perceive faces as "wholes" (holistic processing) both when detecting and discriminating faces. To investigate this issue, we modulated OFA activity using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). In Experiment 1, participants performed a face detection task (the Mooney faces task) and a face discrimination task (the Composite faces task), which both assess holistic face processing. In Experiment 2, participants were asked to detect both Mooney faces and Mooney objects, to test face selectivity of OFA. In each experimental session, the tasks were presented once before (pre) and once after (post) administration of 20 min of excitability increasing anodal tDCS (real) and sham stimulation over the putative OFA. Compared with sham stimulation, we found that real anodal tDCS interfered with both Mooney faces and objects detection, whereas it had no effect on holistic processing involved in face discrimination, as measured by the Composite faces task. Our results suggest that OFA is causally implicated in facial detection at least in degraded conditions (i.e., when the "face" signal needs to be extracted from a noisy background). In turn, our data do not implicate OFA in holistic processing in face discrimination. Finally, our data suggest a possible role of OFA in categorization of other nonface stimuli, a conclusion that must be taken with caution, as stimulation over OFA may affect object-selective adjacent regions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Report

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    Akin Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gossypiboma (GP is a term used to express the mass resulting from forgotten cotton sponge in operations. Rarely, a transmural migration may occur into the gastrointestinal lumen without creating any defect by GP. Laparotomy or endoscopic removal may be required, by the way it can be taken out of the body itself by intestinal ways. In this study, we reported a case of mechanical intestinal obstruction causing GP. Case. The fifty-one-year-old female patient admitted to the emergency department with the complaints of mechanical intestinal obstruction and had a history of open cholecystectomy 20 years ago. There were the findings of intestinal obstruction in abdominal plain radiography and computerized tomography. The sponge that obstructed the lumen completely 40 cm proximal to the ileocecal valve was identified in the laparotomy with the diagnosis of brid ileus. The small intestine was closed over double-fold after removal of sponge. Transmural migration of abdominal-remained sponge was thought to be occurred without creating a defect after cholecystectomy. Postoperatively, the patient was discharged without having any problems at 4th day of hospitalization. Conclusion. Although it is a rare situation in routine clinical practice, GP should be considered as a differential diagnosis in the patients who had a diagnosis of mechanical intestinal obstruction, and laparotomy was applied before. As GP may lead to situations which cause mortality, all precautions should be taken to prevent it.

  5. The Occipital Artery as an Alternative Donor for Low-Flow Bypass to Anterior Circulation After Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion Failure prior to Exenteration for an Atypical Cavernous Sinus Meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanakita, Shunya; Lenck, Stéphanie; Labidi, Moujahed; Watanabe, Kentaro; Bresson, Damien; Froelich, Sébastien

    2018-01-01

    In skull base tumors involving the cavernous sinus, indications for aggressive resection are sparse and must be carefully examined because of their invasiveness. With careful evaluation, techniques including internal carotid artery sacrifice with or without extracranial-intracranial bypass may still be an option in some cases. Moreover, previous surgery with the sacrifice of potential donor vessels requires adjusting the revascularization strategy. We describe an occipital artery-middle cerebral artery bypass before skull base tumor resection. A 47-year-old woman with a recurrent cavernous sinus meningioma was referred to our department. Because of tumor recurrence after radiotherapy and its rapid progression, radical resection, including part of the cavernous sinus, was planned. A balloon test occlusion was performed and showed good tolerance. An endovascular internal carotid artery occlusion was performed. The patient eventually experienced motor deficits and aphasia after surgery. Therefore, bypass surgery using an occipital artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis was performed. The patient showed no exacerbation of symptoms after bypass surgery and subsequently underwent tumor resection. The reliability of balloon test occlusion in the management of giant aneurysms may not be similarly applicable to skull base tumors. If hypoperfusion symptoms occur after occlusion of the internal carotid artery, a surgical revascularization procedure should be considered because of the risk of ischemic stroke following tumor resection. For patients whose superficial temporal artery is not available, the occipital artery can be a valuable alternative donor for low-flow bypass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Focusing on the delayed complications of fusing occipital squama to cervical spine for stabilization of congenital atlantoaxial dislocation and basilar invagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunke, Pravin; Sahoo, Sushanta K; Sood, Sudhir; Mukherjee, Kanchan K; Gupta, Sunil K

    2016-06-01

    Occipito-cervical(OC) fusion is often practiced for congenital atlanto-axial dislocation (CAAD) and basilar invagination (BI) with claims of good long term outcome. Little has been discussed about the delayed complications following fusing occipital squama to cervical spine (OC fusion). We have described and analyzed delayed complications with OC fusion in our patients that helps us understand the underlying dynamics and biomechanics. Twenty seven patients of CAAD and BI underwent OC fusion (between 2008 and 11) after transoral odontoidectomy or direct posterior reduction with OC distraction. OC fusion was achieved using either sublaminar wiring or with precurved rods and screws or contoured loop. One patient was referred after OC fusion with contoured loop and wires with additional C1 laminectomy. The outcome (>12months) and delayed complications in these patients were analyzed. Five types of delayed complications were noticed in 6 of the 28 patients who underwent OC fusion. Five of 6 patients were adults. Vertical redislocation with posterior midline fusion (n=2), adjacent level angular listhesis (n=1) and swan neck deformity (n=1) was seen in cases of OC fusion with sublaminar wires alone. Progressive C1 dislocation was seen in the lone patient who was referred after OC fusion with loop and wires. Vertical and angular dislocation was seen in 1 patient of OC fusion with precurved rod and screws. Progressive redislocation and adjacent level dislocation are delayed complications seen after OC2 fusion. These complications are more often seen in adults, especially with sublaminar wiring/semi rigid OC fixation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Meckel syndrome with omphalocele and cleft lip

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    Pachajoa Londoño, Harry Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    El síndrome de Meckel es un desorden autosómico recesivo, raro y letal. Se caracteriza por múltiples malformaciones, en tre estas, la triada de encefalocele occipital, riñones poliquísticos y polidacti lia. Se presenta un caso con múltiples malformaciones incluyendo las menos frecuentes como el onfalocele, la hipospadia y el labio fisurado The Meckel Gruber syndrome is a lethal , rare and autosomal disorder. It is characterized by multiple malformation s...

  8. Radiographic aspects and angioarchitectural arrangements in corrosion casts of the blood supply to the human sternocleidomastoid muscle by the sternocleidomastoid branch of the occipital artery Aspectos radiográficos e da microvasculatura do músculo esternocleidomastóideo pelo pelo ramo da artéria occipital

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    Luis Bernardo Fróes

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of the sternocleidomastoid branch of the occipital artery (superior arterial pedicle - SAP to the irrigation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM was evaluated in fresh human cadavers by injecting radiological dye and a resin for microvasculature corrosion casts. From its insertion in the mastoid process of the temporal bone, the SCM was divided into superior, medium, and inferior thirds. In most of the SCM, The SAP are formed by two longitudinal parallel branches. In all specimens, the radiological dye injected into the SAP reached or trespassed the middle part of the studied SCM. The SAP was poorly distributed in the lowermost region of the inferior third of the SCM, suggesting the contribution of other arteries or pedicles. The corrosion casts of the microvasculature showed a profuse network of microscopic vessels in those levels where the SAP was detected.A contribuição do ramo esternocleidomastóideo da artéria occipital para a irrigação do músculo esternocleidomastóideo foi avaliada em cadáveres humanos não fixados, através da injeção de contraste radiográfico e de resina polimerizável para estudo da microvasculatura. O músculo foi dividido nos terços superior, médio e inferior, a partir da sua inserção no processo mastóideo do osso temporal. Na maioria dos músculos, o pedículo superior apresentou-se formado por dois ramos paralelos longitudinais. Em todos os casos, o contraste radiográfico atingiu ou ultrapassou a parte média do músculo. Na parte mais distal do terço inferior, há pouca ou nenhuma contribuição do pedículo superior para a irrigação dessa região muscular sugerindo a contribuição de outros vasos para a sua irrigação. Os modelos de corrosão demonstraram a presença de uma profusa rede vascular no interior do músculo.

  9. Thermochemoradiation Therapy Using Superselective Intra-arterial Infusion via Superficial Temporal and Occipital Arteries for Oral Cancer With N3 Cervical Lymph Node Metastases

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    Mitsudo, Kenji, E-mail: mitsudo@yokohama-cu.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Koizumi, Toshiyuki; Iida, Masaki; Iwai, Toshinori; Oguri, Senri [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Yamamoto, Noriyuki [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Yoshiyuki [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Kioi, Mitomu; Hirota, Makoto; Tohnai, Iwai [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic results and histopathological effects of treatment with thermochemoradiation therapy using superselective intra-arterial infusion via the superficial temporal and occipital arteries for N3 cervical lymph node metastases of advanced oral cancer. Methods and Materials: Between April 2005 and September 2010, 9 patients with N3 cervical lymph node metastases of oral squamous cell carcinoma underwent thermochemoradiation therapy using superselective intra-arterial infusion with docetaxel (DOC) and cisplatin (CDDP). Treatment consisted of hyperthermia (2-8 sessions), superselective intra-arterial infusions (DOC, total 40-60 mg/m{sup 2}; CDDP, total 100-150 mg/m{sup 2}) and daily concurrent radiation therapy (total, 40-60 Gy) for 4-6 weeks. Results: Six of 9 patients underwent neck dissection 5-8 weeks after treatment. In four of these 6 patients, all metastatic lymph nodes, including those at N3, were grade 3 (non-viable tumor cells present) or grade 4 (no tumor cells present) tumors, as classified by the system by Shimosato et al (Shimosato et al Jpn J Clin Oncol 1971;1:19-35). In 2 of these 6 patients, the metastatic lymph nodes were grade 2b (destruction of tumor structures with a small amount of residual viable tumor cells). The other 3 patients did not undergo neck dissection due to distant metastasis after completion of thermochemoradiation therapy (n=2) and refusal (n=1). The patient who refused neck dissection underwent biopsy of the N3 lymph node and primary sites and showed grade 3 cancer. During follow-up, 5 patients were alive without disease, and 4 patients died due to pulmonary metastasis (n=3) and noncancer-related causes (n=1). Five-year survival and locoregional control rates were 51% and 88%, respectively. Conclusions: Thermochemoradiation therapy using intra-arterial infusion provided good histopathologic effects and locoregional control rates in patients with N3 metastatic lymph nodes. However, patients with N3

  10. [A clinical study of the number processing system: decimal size effects on reading numbers in patients with left parieto-occipital gliomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, F M; Cohen, L; Lopes, M; Denvil, D; Capelle, L; Duffau, H; Van Effenterre, R

    2005-04-01

    An increasing number of studies are focusing on the anatomo-functional organisation of number processing and some cognitive models have been recently developed. Nevertheless, relationships between areas implicated in number processing, and language areas and circuits remain unclear. Recently, Dehaene and Cohen, in their "triple-code model of number processing", (Dehaene and Cohen, 1995) distinguished two alternative number representation and processing systems: one depending on verbal processes, the other representing a quantity manipulation. According to this model, the retrieval of "arithmetical facts" (AF), learned by rote at school and memorised in a verbal form (such as the multiplication table or simple addition problems) can be considered as a verbal automatism; conversely, subtraction problems, which require mental manipulation of the quantities, represent an abstract, semantic elaboration: "Actual Calculation" (AC). The anatomical correlate of the retrieval of AF (depending on automatic verbal associations) seems to correspond to the left-hemispheric perisylvian areas, while impairment of the actual calculation (AC) depends on the intraparietal region, particularly in the left dominant hemisphere. The present study describes the neuropsychological assessment of three patients, tested after surgery for left parieto-occipital tumors. Two of them were affected by an anaplasic glioma, the third by a low-grade glioma. The cognitive evaluation included: words of Rey, numeral (directed and reversed) span, reading of "simple" numbers (from 1 to 10) and of "complex" numbers (many decimals), writing (dictation) and reading a standard text, finger denomination and right-left distinction. All patients showed language disturbances, dysgraphia and severe dyslexia. In reading numbers, we identified two types of errors: lexical and syntactic. "Lexical errors" consisted in a wrong choice among words in the number's lexicon. For instance, all patients made errors in reading

  11. Fraturas do côndilo occipital: atualização da experiência em nosso serviço e revisão da literatura

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    Henrique Gomes Noronha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos neste trabalho a casuística de fraturas de côndilo occipital diagnosticada e tratada em nosso serviço nos últimos 10 anos. O presente estudo dá continuidade ao levantamento epidemiológico já realizado no período de 1993 a 2000. No período de 2001 a 2011, foram diagnosticados seis casos de fraturas de côndilo occipital e todos eles foram tratados de forma conservadora, exceto um, no qual se colocou um halo craniano inicialmente. Nos cinco casos tratados de modo conservador, observaram-se bons resultados, com estabilidade do segmento nas radiografias funcionais, ausência de limitação de movimento e ausência de dor. O paciente que foi tratado com halo apresentava tetraplegia parcial FRANKEL C e fraturas associadas (C5, C6, L1 e L2 e não apresentou melhora do quadro neurológico, verificando-se limitação do movimento cervical. Destacamos ainda a importância da investigação ativa de lesões na transição occipitocervical, principalmente nos casos decorrentes de trauma de alta energia, pois além das implicações clínicas da detecção precoce da fratura, o melhor emprego dos exames subsidiários tem sido um fator relevante para o aumento da incidência de fraturas do côndilo occipital. Como é historicamente relatado, o tratamento conservador ainda é eficaz e com baixo índice de complicações, e o tratamento cirúrgico deve ser indicado em casos com instabilidade definida.

  12. Ultrasonography of Midline Scalp Masses : A Preliminary Report

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    Choi, Hyo Kyeong; Lee, Ho Kyu; Choi, Choong Gon; Kim, Kyeong Sook; Jung, Seung Mun; Suh, Dae Chul [Asan Medical Center University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    We report our ultrasonographic experiences in the evaluation of small midline scalp masses. Ultrasonography was performed in four patients with midline scalp mass less than 3cm and its connecting tract into the cranialcavity. Ultrasonographic findings were correlated with pathologic results. There were three cephaloceles and one cystic lymph angioma. Two encephalomenin-goceles, located in occipital region, were mixed cystic and solid lesions and one atretic meningocele in parietal region was a solid lesion. Ultrasonogram of all three cases showed calvarial defect and connecting tract into the cranial cavity. On the contrary, a cystic lymph angioma in occipital region was a purely cystic mass without an associated calvarial defect. We suppose that ultrasonography could be a useful screening tool in the evaluation of midline scalp masses

  13. Off-center yaw rotation: effect of naso-occipital linear acceleration on the nystagmus response of normal human subjects and patients after unilateral vestibular loss.

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    Curthoys, I S; Haslwanter, T; Black, R A; Burgess, A M; Halmagyi, G M; Topple, A N; Todd, M J

    1998-12-01

    Dual search coils were used to record horizontal, vertical and torsional eye movement components of one eye during nystagmus caused by off-center yaw rotation (yaw centrifugation). Both normal healthy human subjects (n=7) and patients with only one functioning labyrinth (n=12) were studied in order to clarify how the concomitant linear acceleration affected the nystagmus response. Each subject was seated with head erect on the arm of a fixed-chair human centrifuge, 1 m away from the center of the rotation, and positioned to be facing along a radius; either towards (facing-in) or away from (facing-out) the center of rotation. Both yaw right and yaw left angular accelerations of 10 degrees s(-2) from 0 to 200 degrees/s were studied. During rotation a centripetal linear acceleration (increasing from 0 to 1.24xg units) was directed along the subject's naso-occipital axis resulting in a shift of the resultant angle of the gravitoinertial acceleration (GIA) of 51 degrees in the subject's pitch plane and an increase in the total GIA magnitude from 1.0 to 1.59xg. In normal subjects during the angular acceleration off-center there were, in addition to the horizontal eye velocity components, torsional and vertical eye velocities present. The magnitude of these additional components, although small, was larger than observed during similar experiments with on-center angular acceleration (Haslwanter et al. 1996), and the change in these components is attributed to the additional effect of the linear acceleration stimulation. In the pitch plane the average size of the shift of the axis of eye velocity (AEV) during the acceleration was about 8 degrees for a 51 degrees shift of the GIA (around 16% of the GIA shift) so that the AEV-GIA alignment was inadequate. There was a very marked difference in the size of the AEV shift depending on whether the person was facing-in [AEV shift forward (i.e. non-compensatory) of about 4 degrees] or facing-out [AEV shift forward (i.e. compensatory

  14. Occipital and external acoustic meatus to axis angle as a predictor of the oropharyngeal space in healthy volunteers: a novel parameter for craniocervical junction alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizane, Kazuaki; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Neo, Masashi; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Otsuki, Bungo; Kawata, Tomotoshi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2017-09-28

    The occipito-C2 angle (O-C2a) influences the oropharyngeal space. However, O-C2a has several limitations. There is no normal value of O-C2a because of the wide individual variations, and O-C2a does not reflect translation of the cranium to the axis, another factor influencing the oropharyngeal space in patients with atlantoaxial subluxation. The objective of this study was to propose a novel parameter that accounts for craniocervical junction alignment (CJA) and the oropharyngeal space. This is a post hoc analysis of craniocervical radiological parameters from another study. Forty healthy volunteers were included in the study. Craniocervical measurement parameters included the occipital and external acoustic meatus to axis angle (O-EAa), the C2 tilting angle (C2Ta), O-C2a, and the anterior-posterior distance of the narrowest oropharyngeal airway space (nPAS). We collected 40 healthy volunteers' lateral cervical radiographs in neutral, flexion, extension, protrusion, and retraction positions. We measured O-C2a, C2Ta (formed by the inferior end plate of C2 and a line connecting the external acoustic meatus and the midpoint of the inferior end plate of C2 [EA-line]), O-EAa (formed by the McGregor line and the EA-line), and nPAS. We evaluated the inter-rater and intrarater reliability of O-EAa and C2Ta, and the associations between each of the measured parameters. The inter-rater and intrarater reliabilities of measuring O-EAa and C2Ta were excellent. The neutral position O-EAa values remained in a narrower range (mean±standard deviation, 90.0°±5.0°) than O-C2a (15.6°±6.7°) (Levene test of equality of variances, p=.044). In the linear mixed-effects models, sex, O-C2a, C2Ta, and O-EAa were significantly associated with nPAS. The marginal R2 values for the mixed-effect models, which express the variance explained by fixed effects, were 0.605 and 0.632 for the O-C2a and O-EAa models, respectively. In all models, the subaxial alignment (C2-C6a) had no significant

  15. Interparietal (Inca bone: a case report

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    Udupi S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The squamous part of occipital bone consists of two parts, supraoccipital and interparietal. The interparietal portion ossifies intramembranously and in rare cases may be separated from the supraoccipital part by a suture. It is then called as the interparietal or Inca bone. The occurrence of Inca variable is rare in humans. The authors here report a case of true interparietal or Inca bone in adult human skull. Knowledge of Inca ossicles in human skulls may be useful to neurosurgeons orthopedic surgeons, anthropologists, radiologists and forensic experts.

  16. Intraventricular racemose type neurocysticercosis with anterior interhemispheric fissure cyst: A rare case report

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    Pankaj Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Racemose type of neurocysticercosis (NCC is a rare form of parasitic infestation of central nervous system. Most commonly it is found in fourth ventricle and cisterns. On reviewing the PubMed and Google databases, we found that this would be the first reported case of racemose type NCC in occipital horn of lateral ventricle with obstructive hydrocephalus, along with an incidental interhemispheric fissure arachnoid cyst.

  17. Intradiploic epidermoid cyst with intracranial hypertension syndrome: Report of two cases and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    J.C. Moreira-Holguin; Medélez-Borbonio, R.; E. Quintero-Lopez; U. García-González; J.L. Gómez-Amador

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Intradiploic epidermoid intracranial cysts (IEIC) derive from ectodermal cells and are covered with stratified squamous epithelium. They are extremely rare, and most common locations are in the occipital, frontal and parietal bones. They have a very slow growth and can be asymptomatic until becoming evident by the deformation produced. The treatment is based on the removal of the lesion, and subsequent histopathological confirmation. Presentation of case: Two cases are report...

  18. Central Variant of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome ��� A Rare Case Report

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    Srinivasan, KG; Balasubramanian, Padhmini; Mayilvaganan, KR; Kannan, Usha Nandhini; Bilal, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) is a clinicoradiological condition associated with headache, altered mental status, dizziness and white matter vasogenic oedema in parieto-occipital region. It is often associated with hypertension but can also occur in diverse clinical settings like immunosuppression, eclampsia, etc. It is due to failure of autoregulatory mechanism of posterior circulation in response to change in blood pressure. We hereby report a rare case of central vari...

  19. The immediate effects of atlanto-occipital joint manipulation and suboccipital muscle inhibition technique on active mouth opening and pressure pain sensitivity over latent myofascial trigger points in the masticatory muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Campelo, Natalia M; Rubens-Rebelatto, José; Martí N-Vallejo, Francisco J; Alburquerque-Sendí N, Francisco; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2010-05-01

    A randomized controlled trial. To investigate the immediate effects on pressure pain thresholds over latent trigger points (TrPs) in the masseter and temporalis muscles and active mouth opening following atlanto-occipital joint thrust manipulation or a soft tissue manual intervention targeted to the suboccipital muscles. Previous studies have described hypoalgesic effects of neck manipulative interventions over TrPs in the cervical musculature. There is a lack of studies analyzing these mechanisms over TrPs of muscles innervated by the trigeminal nerve. One hundred twenty-two volunteers, 31 men and 91 women, between the ages of 18 and 30 years, with latent TrPs in the masseter muscle, were randomly divided into 3 groups: a manipulative group who received an atlanto-occipital joint thrust, a soft tissue group who received an inhibition technique over the suboccipital muscles, and a control group who did not receive an intervention. Pressure pain thresholds over latent TrPs in the masseter and temporalis muscles, and active mouth opening were assessed pretreatment and 2 minutes posttreatment by a blinded assessor. Mixed-model analyses of variance (ANOVA) were used to examine the effects of interventions on each outcome, with group as the between-subjects variable and time as the within-subjects variable. The primary analysis was the group-by-time interaction. The 2-by-3 mixed-model ANOVA revealed a significant group-by-time interaction for changes in pressure pain thresholds over masseter (Platent TrPs and also for active mouth opening (Platent TrPs in the masseter and temporalis muscles and an increase in maximum active mouth opening. Nevertheless, the effects of both interventions were small and future studies are required to elucidate the clinical relevance of these changes. Therapy, level 1b.J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2010;40(5):310-317, Epub 12 April 2010. doi:10.2519/jospt.2010.3257.

  20. Acquired craniomeningocele in an infant with craniosynostosis: a case report

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    Yazdani Shahrooz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Craniosynostosis can affect the skull in various ways. The most common forms are abnormal skull shape and beaten copper pattern, while Lückenschädel (or lacunar skull is one of the least common forms. Case presentation We report the case of a 3-month-old Caucasian boy with multiple suture craniosynostosis and with acquired craniomeningocele presenting as a bulging mass in the lateral occipital area. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with multiple suture craniosynostosis and acquired craniomeningocele.

  1. Giant cell ependymoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamek, Dariusz; Dec, Malgorzata; Sobol, Grazyna; Urbanowicz, Barbara; Jaworski, Marian

    2008-02-01

    Ependymomas account for 3-9% of all neuroepithelial tumors. A peculiar variant of ependymoma known as "giant cell ependymoma" ("GCE") is especially rarely reported, it may pose some difficulties for the diagnosing neuropathologist. Here we present a case of a giant cell ependymoma occuring in a 17-year-old patient with the history of 2-year recurrent headaches and a 1-month history of vision impairment. CT scanning demonstrated a mass in the left occipital lobe, arising from the occipital horn of the lateral ventricle. Histological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic findings were consistent with high-grade ependymoma. Especially striking was the presence of bizzare pleomorphic giant cells which predominated in the tumor tissue. As a result the diagnosis of GCE was established. This type of neoplasm necessitates, at least in theory, differentiation with anaplastic oligodendroglioma, clear cell ependymoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, giant cell glioblastoma, and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. To date giant cell ependymomas (GCEs) were reported in seven cases in the literature. To the best of our knowledge this is the 8th case in the literature. In spite of apparently "worrisome" histology GCE seems to be a neoplasm with a relatively good prognosis.

  2. Estudo das alterações decorrentes do uso do aparelho extrabucal de tração occipital na correção da má oclusão de Classe II, 1ª divisão Study of alterations in the Class II division 1 malocclusion in young individuals treated with occipital headgear (IHG

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    Rafael Pinelli Henriques

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o presente trabalho propôs avaliar as alterações em jovens com má oclusão de Classe II, 1ª divisão, tratados com o aparelho extrabucal de tração occipital (Interlandi headgear - IHG. METODOLOGIA: o grupo experimental foi comparado a um grupo controle, que apresetava a mesma má oclusão, pareados pelo gênero, idade e tempo de observação. Um total de 100 telerradiografias em norma lateral de 50 jovens fez parte da amostra, dividido em dois grupos de 25. Os jovens do grupo experimental apresentaram idade média inicial de 10,51 anos e foram acompanhados por um período de 1,32 anos. Os jovens do grupo controle apresentaram uma idade inicial de 10,06 anos e foram observados pelo período médio de 1,35 anos. RESULTADOS: o deslocamento anterior da maxila foi restringido significantemente no grupo experimental. A relação maxilomandibular melhorou significantemente, a movimentação de distalização dos molares superiores foi significante e o lábio superior demonstrou uma maior retrusão no grupo experimental, com diferença estatística significante. CONCLUSÃO: verificou-se que este protocolo de tratamento propiciou alterações clínicas relevantes para a correção da má oclusão de Classe II, 1ª divisão.AIM: This study conducted a cephalometric evaluation in young individuals with Class II division 1 malocclusion treated with IHG (Interlandi headgear. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 100 lateral cephalograms of 50 young individuals were analyzed, which were divided into two groups with 25 individuals each. The individuals in the experimental group, with an average age of 10.51 years at the beginning of treatment, was followed for 1.32 years. The subjects in the other group were kept as controls, with an average age of 10.06 years at the beginning of treatment and followed for a period of 1.35 years. RESULTS: The interception of the Class II division 1 malocclusion in the study group was significant. The anterior

  3. [Simultanagnosia and scene agnosia induced by right posterior cerebral artery infarction: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yasutaka; Muramatsu, Tomoko; Sato, Mamiko; Hayashi, Hiromi; Miura, Toyoaki

    2015-01-01

    A 68-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for rehabilitation of topographical disorientation. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed infarction in the right medial side of the occipital lobe. On neuropsychological testing, he scored low for the visual information-processing task; however, his overall cognitive function was retained. He could identify parts of the picture while describing the context picture of the Visual Perception Test for Agnosia but could not explain the contents of the entire picture, representing so-called simultanagnosia. Further, he could morphologically perceive both familiar and new scenes, but could not identify them, representing so-called scene agnosia. We report this case because simultanagnosia associated with a right occipital lobe lesion is rare.

  4. le mal de pott sous occipital révélé par un abcès rétro pharyngien

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sation orthopédique ou chirurgicale de la charnière cervico-occipitale. Mots-clés : mal de Pott, tuberculose, rachis cervical, IRM, Bacille de Koch. SUMMARY. Introduction : Pott's disease is the most frequent localisation of osteo-articular tuberculosis. The suboccipital localisation remains rare. Case report : A 12-years old ...

  5. [Paget's disease as a cause for symptomatic basilar impression--a case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrovski, N; Uzunov, K; Gabrovski, S; Krŭstev, E; Pontodorov, G; Kondov, S; Laleva, M

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of a 52-years old women with Paget's disease. A secondary symptomatic basilar impression was observed, causing quadriparesis, bulbar palsy and ataxia We report a case of a 52-year old woman with history of/periodic headache. In the last 6 months the complaints became more intensive and continuous. Additionally quadriparesis, disphagia, hoarsness and gait instability occurred. A cranial form of Paget's disease was found and a secondary basilar impression with compression of the cerebellum and brain stem was proven. A median suboccipital decompression and C1 laminectomy were performed. The occipital bone was thick, porous, with lacunas full of blood, causing unusually intensive hemorrhage. The postoperative period was uneventful with resolution of the preoperative symptomatology. In cases with Paget's disease a secondary basilary impression with ensuing cerebellar and brain stem compression may be observed. Decompressive suboccipital craniectomy may be a therapeutic option. The surgical team should be prepared for an excessive hemorrhage from the porous occipital bone.

  6. Diplegia facial traumatica Traumatic facial diplegia: a case report

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    J. Fortes-Rego

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available É relatado um caso de paralisia facial bilateral, incompleta, associada a hipoacusia esquerda, após traumatismo cranioencefálico, com fraturas evidenciadas radiológicamente. Algumas considerações são formuladas tentando relacionar ditas manifestações com fraturas do osso temporal.A case of traumatic facial diplegia with left partial loss of hearing following head injury is reported. X-rays showed fractures on the occipital and left temporal bones. A review of traumatic facial paralysis is made.

  7. Diagnosing an atypical site of giant cell arteritis with magnetic resonance angiography: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Boon L; Liu, Jonathan J; Yong, Tuck Y; Tan, Chrismin C; Li, Jordan Y

    2016-06-23

    Giant cell arteritis typically involves the temporal arteries, but can involve other cranial arteries. Temporal artery biopsy is the mainstay for the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis; however, biopsy may be problematic if giant cell arteritis involves other cranial arteries that are inaccessible for sampling. In these situations, magnetic resonance angiography is a useful, non-invasive adjunctive method in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. In this case report, we describe a case of giant cell arteritis involving only the occipital artery which was revealed by magnetic resonance angiography. A 67-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to our hospital with a 4-week history of malaise, fever, and mild occipital headaches. There were no other positive findings on physical examination. Laboratory studies were remarkable for normocytic anemia, raised inflammatory markers, and mildly deranged liver function tests. To exclude intracranial pathology, he underwent a cranial magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium, which demonstrated a thickened wall and mural enhancement of his right occipital artery, consistent with giant cell arteritis. His temporal arteries were normal. His occipital arteries were not accessible for biopsy and he was commenced on high-dose prednisolone (60 mg daily). His symptoms resolved completely after a week of glucocorticoid steroid treatment and he was well on 5 mg of prednisolone once a day on follow-up. While magnetic resonance angiography may not replace the need for biopsy, it may have a diagnostic role in suspected giant cell arteritis, such as when the involved arteries are inaccessible for biopsy.

  8. Preliminary Evidence of “Other-Race Effect”-Like Behavior Induced by Cathodal-tDCS over the Right Occipital Cortex, in the Absence of Overall Effects on Face/Object Processing

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    Andrea I. Costantino

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuromodulation techniques such as tDCS have provided important insight into the neurophysiological mechanisms that mediate cognition. Albeit anodal tDCS (a-tDCS often enhances cognitive skills, the role of cathodal tDCS (c-tDCS in visual cognition is largely unexplored and inconclusive. Here, in a single-blind, sham-controlled study, we investigated the offline effects of 1.5 mA c-tDCS over the right occipital cortex of 86 participants on four tasks assessing perception and memory of both faces and objects. Results demonstrated that c-tDCS does not overall affect performance on the four tasks. However, post-hoc exploratory analysis on participants' race (Caucasian vs. non-Caucasians, showed a “face-specific” performance decrease (≈10% in non-Caucasian participants only. This preliminary evidence suggests that c-tDCS can induce “other-race effect (ORE-like” behavior in non-Caucasian participants that did not show any ORE before stimulation (and in case of sham stimulation. Our results add relevant information about the breadth of cognitive processes and visual stimuli that can be modulated by c-tDCS, about the design of effective neuromodulation protocols, and have important implications for the potential neurophysiological bases of ORE.

  9. Use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 as an adjunct for instrumented posterior arthrodesis in the occipital cervical region: An analysis of safety, efficacy, and dosing

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    D Kojo Hamilton

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There have been few reports on the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2 in posterior spine. However, no study has investigated the dosing, safety, and efficacy of its use in the posterior atlantoaxial, and/or craniovertebral junction. Recent case report of the cytokine-mediated inflammatory reaction, following off label use of rhBMP-2 as an adjunct for cervical fusion, particularly in complex cases, has increased concern about complications associated with the product. Objective: To assess the safety, efficacy, and dosing of rhBMP-2 as an adjunct for instrumented posterior atlantoaxial and/or craniovertebral junction arthrodesis. Materials and Methods: We included all patients treated by the senior author that included posterior atlantoaxial and/or craniovertebral junction instrumented fusion using rhBMP-2 from 2003 to 2008 with a minimum two year follow-up. Diagnosis, levels fused, rhBMP-2 dose, complications, and fusion were assessed. Results: Twenty three patients with a mean age of 60.9 years (range 4 - 89 years and an average follow-up of 45 months (range 27 to 84 months met inclusion criteria. The indications for surgery included, atlantoaxial instability (n = 16, basilar invagination (n = 6, and kyphoscoliosis (n = 1. The specific pathologic diagnosis included type 2 dens fracture (n = 7, complex C1 and C2 ring fracture (n = 2, chordoma (n = 2, degenerative/osteoporosis (n = 3, rheumatoid disease (n = 8, and pseudogout (n = 1. The average rhBMP-2 dose was 2.38 mg/level, with a total of 76 levels treated (average 3.3 levels, SD= 1.4 levels. There were no complications. During the most recent follow-up, all patients had achieved fusion. Conclusions: In a series of patients with complex pathology and/or rheumatoid arthritis, 100% fusion rate was achieved with adjunct use of rhBMP-2, with a safe and effective average rhBMP-2 dose of 2.38 mg per level.

  10. [Cerebral cysticercosis presenting as a solitary cyst. Diagnosis and treatment with CT-guided stereotactic biopsy--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, T; Takashima, T; Iwabuchi, K; Sueyoshi, K

    1989-06-01

    The patient, a 52-year-old male, experienced a generalized convulsive seizure. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a solitary, noncalcified cyst, 1 x 2 cm in diameter, in the left occipital lobe, without contrast enhancement. No other lesions were found in systemic soft tissues, skeletal muscles, or the eyes. A CT-guided stereotactic biopsy was performed through an occipital burr hole, and the diagnosis was cerebral cysticercosis. Although cysticercosis is still common in Mexico, Chile, and India, its occurrence has rarely been reported in Japan, especially since World War II. Intraparenchymal calcification and cystic lesions are common CT findings. However, in this case, a non-enhancing solitary cyst was the only CT finding. The authors review the literature and discuss the CT features and the usefulness of CT-guided stereotactic biopsy in the diagnosis and treatment of cysticercosis.

  11. Pontas positivas occipitais transitórias no eletrencefalograma de pacientes epilépticos submetidos a privação do sono Sleep occipital positive transient spikes seen at EEG of epileptic patients submitted to sleep deprivation

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    Gilson Edmar Gonçalves e Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o aparecimento do grafoelemento de ponta positiva occipital transitória do sono em eletrencefalograma (EEG de pacientes epilépticos com e sem privação do sono, como método de ativação. MÉTODO: Foram analisados 40 EEG de 20 pacientes epilépticos com idade variando de 12 a 43 anos sendo 60% do sexo masculino, atendidos no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, no período de 1995 a 2000. Foram incluídos pacientes com epilepsia diagnosticada clinicamente e EEG sem alteração. Cada paciente foi submetido a um EEG sem privação de sono e outro após 36 horas de privação. O registro dos dois EEG foi separado por intervalo de 48 horas, obedecendo ao protocolo padrão. O efeito da privação do sono foi avaliado pelo aparecimento do grafoelemento PPOTS durante o estágio NREM do sono. RESULTADOS: No EEG sem privação do sono, a PPOTS foi identificada em 6 (30% pacientes no estágio I e em 1 (5% paciente em ambos os estágios I e II NREM. Após privação do sono, PPOTS estiveram ausentes em apenas um paciente, mas presentes em 25% casos no estágio I NREM e em 70%, nos estágios I e II NREM. CONCLUSÃO: O aumento da freqüência de PPOTS após privação do sono, parece indicar a existência da liberação de neurotransmissores excitatórios, o que pode contribuir significativamente para a investigação da excitabilidade cerebral.OBJECTIVE: To compare the presence of "sleep occipital positive transient spikes" (SOPTS in the electroencephalogram (EEG of epileptic patients without sleep deprivation (SD to those with SD, as an activation method. METHOD: The author analyzed 40 EEG of 20 epileptic patients, aging from 12 to 43 years, 60%, males. Those patients were attempted at the Clinics Hospital of Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, from 1995 to 2000. Every patient included in this study had epilepsy clinically diagnosed and all EEG without abnormalities. Each subject was submitted to one EEG

  12. Meckel gruber syndrome: Report of two cases with review of literature

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    Aneel Myageri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Meckel Gruber syndrome (MKS is a lethal, autosomal, recessive, multisystemic disorder, associated with mutations affecting ciliogenesis. Since the time it was first reported; only 200 cases have been reported. From January 2004 to December 2010, we evaluated 268 fetal autopsies in our institute, in the Department of Pathology; two of these fetuses were diagnosed as MKS. MKS is characterized by occipital meningoencephalocele, cystic kidneys, postaxial polydactyly, and fibrosis in the liver. MKS cases show genetic heterogeneity. MKS results in 100% fetal or neonatal mortality. As MKS has a high risk (25% of recurrence; parents should be counseled for future pregnancies.

  13. prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of discordant occipital encephalocele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    an urban maternity in Edo State to the antenatal centre of the University of. Benin Teaching Hospital for a ... instances, one may encounter orbital encephelocele; in such cases, the sphenoid bone is defective and brain tissue protrudes into the orbit to form sphenoidal encepheloceles (6%).4-7. Encephaloceles usually are ...

  14. [Cerebral actinomycosis pseudotumor: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battikh, R; M'Sadek, F; Bougrine, F; Madhi, W; Ben Abdelhafidh, N; Bouziani, A; Yedeas, M; Othmani, S

    2011-03-01

    Cerebral actinomycosis is rare and difficult to diagnose. We report a case of a 45-year-old man hospitalized for seizures associated with fever and left hemiparesis. The white cell count and C-reactive protein were elevated. HIV serology was negative. Blood cultures remained sterile. The CT scan revealed hyperdense nodular lesions in the occipital area, with annular contrast uptake and peripheral edema causing a mass effect, suggestive of brain metastasis. The pathology examination of a surgical specimen disclosed cerebral actinomycosis. A dental origin of the infection was suspected. Hemiparesis remained after a 12-month antibiotic regimen associated with dental care and short-term corticosteroid therapy. Actinomycosis should be discussed as a possible diagnosis for all cerebral lesions, particularly in patients with a potential dental infection. Histology is required for positive diagnosis. Antibiotic therapy alone is generally sufficient; surgery is often performed for diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: A case report

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    Kostić Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is characterized by the following symptoms: seizures, impaired consciousness and/or vision, vomiting, nausea, and focal neurological signs. Diagnostic imaging includes examination by magnetic resonance (MR and computed tomography (CT, where brain edema is visualized bi-laterally and symmetrically, predominantly posteriorly, parietally, and occipitally. Case report. We presented a 73-year-old patient with the years-long medical history of hipertension and renal insufficiency, who developed PRES with the symptomatology of the rear cranium. CT and MR verified changes in the white matter involving all lobes on both sides of the brain. After a two-week treatment (antihypertensive, hypolipemic and rehydration therapy clinical improvement with no complications occurred, with complete resolution of changes in the white matter observed on CT and MR. Conclusion. PRES is a reversible syndrome in which the symptoms withdraw after several days to several weeks if early diagnosis is made and appropriate treatment started without delay.

  16. Cerebral hemorrhage without manifest motor paralysis. Reports of 5 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taketani, T.; Dohi, I.; Miyazaki, T.; Handa, A. (Central Hospital of JNR, Tokyo (Japan))

    1982-01-01

    Before the introduction of computerized tomography (CT) there were some cases of intracerebral bleeding who were wrongly diagnosed as hypertensive encephalopathy or senile psychosis. We here report 5 cases who did not show any sign of motor paralysis. The clinical aspects of these cases were nausea and vomiting with dizziness (case 1), nausea and vomiting with slight headache (case 2), agnosia of left side with several kinds of disorientation (case 3), nausea and vomiting (case 4), and visual disturbance of right, lower quadrant (case 5). All of these cases showed no motor paralysis or abnormal reflex activities. By examination with CT each of them exhibited a high density area in the subcortical area of the right parietal lobe, the subcortical area of the right occipital lobe, the right temporal and parietal lobe, rather small portion of the left putamen and external capsule, and the subcortical area of left occipital lobe, respectively. Patients of cerebral hemorrhage without motor or sensory disturbances might often be taken for some psychic abnormality. We here have emphasized the importance of CT in such a group of patients. But for this technique, most of them would not be given adequate treatment and might be exposed to lifethreatening situations.

  17. Síndrome de las bandas amnióticas estudio anatomopatológico genético y por imagen de un caso

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    Celis LG.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por objeto, caracterizar un posible caso del Síndrome de bandasamnióticas mediante un estudio Anatomopatológico, Genético y por imagen. Un mortinato de 6meses, de 34 cm de longitud, sexo femenino y producto de un embarazo gemelar remitido paraestudio, presentó linfangioma quístico cavernoso congénito localizado en la región occipital,cervical, torácica y mediastinal, el cerebro presentaba holoprosoencefalia, encefalocele y signosde inmadurez con presencia de lisencefalia; igualmente, presentaba agenesia de miembro superiorizquierdo, agenesia renal izquierda con riñón único, multilobulado, agenesia de pabellón au-ricular, y globo ocular izquierdo, en el miembro superior derecho ausencia de radio, mano zambacon 3 dedos. En los miembros inferiores el derecho con 3 metatarsianos y 3 falanges, el izquierdosolo con 2 falanges.

  18. One glasses too many: A case report of Benson′s syndrome

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    Shivani Grover

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of Benson′s Syndrome, a form of occipital Alzheimer′s disease, with posterior cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging, in a 62-year-old male, who presented with visual problems, ascribed to the eyes, and had even undergone cataract/intraocular lens surgery in the right eye; and change of glasses 21 times over the past 2 years, with no apparent benefit. This case is of interest both on account of its rarity, and to highlight its features since the diagnosis may be missed in an ophthalmological setting where such patient may go for first consult.

  19. Recurrent Alternate-Sided Homonymous Hemianopia Due to Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy with Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-Like Episodes (MELAS): A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysko, Kristen M; Sundaram, Arun N E

    2017-02-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) can rarely cause alternate-sided homonymous hemianopia due to stroke-like episodes involving the occipital lobes, as reported in three previously published cases. The authors report an interesting case of a 16-year-old presenting with myoclonic epilepsy due to MELAS with the rare ND3 mitochondrial mutation T10191C, with recurrent alternate-sided homonymous hemianopia. Visual field and corresponding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are presented. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of recurrent alternate-sided homonymous hemianopia in MELAS with documented visual field and MRI findings with resolution between each episode.

  20. First reported case of human Australian bat Lyssavirus encephalitis - A case report and imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, S.E.; Walker, D.; Fomg, W.F. [Royal Brisbane Hospital, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology

    1998-06-01

    Full text: In late 1996, a bat carer from Rockhampton died from diffuse encephalitis. She had sustained several scratches to her left arm by fruit bats over the preceding month. She initially complained of left arm pain and numbness but her condition rapidly deteriorated with loss of consciousness and death. Australian bat Lyssavirus (ABL) was detected in her cerebrospinal fluid and neutralising antibodies to classical rabies virus in her serum. Other viral serology was negative. Autopsy revealed neuronal intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions and electron microscopy showed bullet shaped viral particles. A Tc-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) brain scan demonstrated extensive bilateral areas of severely reduced tracer uptake in both cerebral hemispheres with the subfrontal and parieto-occipital regions the worst affected. Importantly, there was excellent correlation with the magnetic resonance image which showed diffuse cortical high signal on all pulse sequences most marked in the parieto-occipital areas. The CT scan performed at presentation had been normal and an earlier MRI had shown only a small enhancing pontine lesion. This is the first reported case of human infection by the newly identified ABL that has previously only been isolated in fruit bats. The virus belongs to the Rhabdovirus family and Lyssavirus genus and joins six other genotypes, one of which is the classic rabies virus. It has now been identified in four species of Australian fruit bats from north Queensland to Victoria. There is a paucity of knowledge relating to the distribution and transmission of the virus and research is underway to determine the potential public health risk

  1. Considerações clínicas e etiológicas das síndromes epilépticas sintomáticas com paroxismos occipitais bloqueados à abertura dos olhos Clinical and ethiological considerations about the symptomatic epileptic syndromes with occipital paroxism bloqued when the eyes open

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Edmar Gonçalves e Silva

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome da epilepsia parcial com paroxismos occipitais no eletrencefalograma (EEG mostra características clínicas heterogêneas. Visando descrever esta rara forma de epilepsia, investigamos a significância dos achados eletrofisiológicos e clínicos em oito pacientes com paroxismos occipitais bloqueados pela abertura dos olhos. Os pacientes foram submetidos a exames radiológicos de RNM do encéfalo e/ou TC de crânio. Houve concordância entre as alterações do EEG e do tipo de crise em 5 pacientes, e entre as anormalidades anatômicas na TC ou RNM com anormalidades focais no EEG em 7 casos. Nossos resultados confirmam que este padrão inusitado origina-se de uma expressão eletrográfica multifatorial.The syndrome of idiophatic partial epilepsy with occipital paroxysms in the EEG shows a considerable clinical heterogeneity. The present paper investigated the signficance of electrophysiologic and clinical characteristics in eigth patients with occipital paroxysms blocked by the eye opening. All patients were submitted to radiological exams including brain MRI and/or CT. There was agreement between EEG findings and type of seizures in 5 patients and between anatomical abnormalities in the MRI or CT and EEG focal abnormalities in 7 patients. Our results confirm that the unusual pattern comes from eletrographic multifactors origins.

  2. Preliminary Report on Neuroanatomical Differences Among Reading Disabled, Nonverbally Gifted, and Gifted-Reading Disabled College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilger, Jeffrey W; Bayda, Mollie; Olulade, Olumide A; Altman, Meaghan N; O'Boyle, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Regional comparisons (cortical surface area and thickness) were performed on a well described sample of adults with reading disability alone (RD), nonverbal giftedness alone (G), and reading disability and nonverbal giftedness combined (GRD). These anatomical results are considered in relation to behavioral and functional work previously reported on this sample. GRD-RD regional differences were found in both hemispheres and were more common than GRD-G differences. Regional differences were found in the temporal, parietal, occipital and frontal lobes. While these data are preliminary given the small sample sizes, they suggest future avenues of research on the neurodevelopment of atypical samples.

  3. Central Variant of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome - A Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, K G; Balasubramanian, Padhmini; Mayilvaganan, K R; Kannan, Usha Nandhini; Bilal, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) is a clinicoradiological condition associated with headache, altered mental status, dizziness and white matter vasogenic oedema in parieto-occipital region. It is often associated with hypertension but can also occur in diverse clinical settings like immunosuppression, eclampsia, etc. It is due to failure of autoregulatory mechanism of posterior circulation in response to change in blood pressure. We hereby report a rare case of central variant of PRES secondary to severe hypertension diagnosed with 3T MRI. Objective of reporting this case was to describe the imaging findings of typical and rare atypical patterns of PRES. A 71-year-old male hypertensive patient was referred for brain imaging with history of short period of loss of consciousness, headache and dizziness. MRI brain showed central variant pattern of PRES with preferential involvement of brainstem, thalami and periventricular white matter with sparing of frontal, parietal and occipital lobes. The patient was treated with anti-hypertensive after which patient's symptoms subsided. The patient was followed up conservatively. Atypical variants of PRES should be borne in mind when pontine hyperintensity is encountered in hypertensive patient.

  4. [Joubert syndrome: a report of 5 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja-Pérez, B; Fernández-Jaén, A; Martínez-Bermejo, A; Pascual-Castroviejo, I

    1998-04-01

    To review clinical features, radiological findings and prognosis in Joubert syndrome. We report 5 children (3 male and 2 female) with the diagnosis of Joubert syndrome by clinical and radiological findings. They were diagnosed in the first year of life, in the Hospital Infantil La Paz (Madrid, Spain), from 1971 to 1996. Three patients have already been published, and here, we report two new cases. Partial absence of the cerebellar vermis, hypotonia and developmental delay were seen in all patients. Other cardinal findings were episodic hyperpnoea (5/5) with periods of apnoea (2/5), abnormal eye movements (2/5) and strabismus (3/5), tongue protrusion (2/5), seizures (1/5), hemifacial spasms (1/5) and occipital meningocele (2/5). Clinical manifestations were first noticed soon after birth. Two patients died in the first 5 years of life, and the rest of the cases actually show severe mental retardation. Joubert syndrome is a rare and probably underdiagnosed syndrome with bad prognosis. This inherited condition is characterized by agenesis of the cerebellar vermis, mental retardation, hypotonia, episodic hyperpnoea and abnormal eye movements. Additional manifestations have been reported since the original cases were described.

  5. Terson syndrome with no cerebral hemorrhage: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xiao-Bin; Sun, Li-Qian

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the case of a 33-year-old male who presented with Terson syndrome with no cerebral hemorrhage secondary to traumatic brain injury (TBI). A computed tomography scan of the patient, who had sustained an impact injury to the right occipital region, showed no cerebral lesion. Ophthalmoscopy clearly demonstrated vitreous hemorrhage in both eye globes. Vitreous hemorrhage, which results from an abrupt increase in intracranial pressure (ICP), is associated with TBI. In this case, the visual disturbance was attributed to Terson syndrome secondary to TBI. Therefore, close ophthalmological and radiological evaluation is required in patients with TBI, in order to enable the diagnosis of Terson syndrome and an early vitrectomy.

  6. Anton-Babinski syndrome in an old patient: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiann-Jy; Chang, Hsin-Feng; Hsu, Yung-Chu; Chen, Dem-Lion

    2015-03-01

    Anton-Babinski syndrome is a rare disease featuring bilateral cortical blindness and anosognosia with visual confabulation, but without dementia or any memory impairment. It has a unique neuropsychiatric presentation and should be highly suspected in those with odd visual loss and imaging evidence of occipital lobe injury. In the case discussed herein, a 90-year-old man presented with bilateral blindness, obvious anosognosia, and vivid visual confabulation, which he had had for 3 days. Brain computed tomography demonstrated recent hypodense infarctions at the bilateral occipital lobes. Thus, the patient was diagnosed with Anton-Babinski syndrome. Because of his age and the thrombolytic therapy during the golden 3 hours after ischemic stroke, the patient received aspirin therapy rather than tissue plasminogen activator or warfarin. He gradually realized he was blind during the following week, but died of pneumonia 1 month later. In the literature, it is difficult to establish awareness of blindness in patients with Anton-Babinski syndrome, but optimistically, in one report, a patient was aware of blindness within 2 weeks, without vision improvement. Our case illustrates that elderly patients with Anton-Babinski syndrome can partially recover and that 1 week is the shortest time for the establishment of awareness of blindness for sufferers without vision improvement. © 2014 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2014 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  7. Intraoperative Tumoral Bleeding of Hypervascular Medulloblastoma after Ventricular Drainage: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Han-Seung; Jung, Tae-Young; Han, Moon-Soo; Kim, Seul-Ki; Lee, Kyung-Hwa

    2017-01-01

    We report a rare case of intraoperative tumoral bleeding of a hypervascular medulloblastoma. A 12-year-old girl presented with dizziness and nausea. Brain magnetic resonance (MR) images revealed an approximately 4.2-cm enhanced mass on the cerebellar vermis associated with mild perilesional edema and increased cerebral blood volume. Angiography showed tumoral staining and developed occipital and circular dural sinuses in the venous phase. A suboccipital craniotomy was performed. To relieve the intracranial pressure, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was drained via a lateral ventricular catheter in the occipital horn. During the opening of the dura, the brain swelling had progressed, and brain computed tomography revealed an intratumoral hemorrhage with brainstem compression. The patient was in a stuporous mental state. A reoperation was performed, and the mass was totally removed. The pathologic findings revealed a medulloblastoma with abnormal enlarged arterial vascular structures. Postoperatively, the patient recovered to an alert mental state. She underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. There was no recurrence after 1 year. Pre-resectional CSF drainage should not be routinely performed in posterior fossa tumors, especially with increased cerebral blood volume on MR perfusion images. Complete removal should be performed quickly while CSF drainage should be performed slowly. An intratumoral hemorrhage should be considered in posterior fossa tumors when severe brain swelling suddenly develops after CSF drainage. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Acute Interhemispheric Subdural Hematomas: A Report of 3 Cases and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of acute supratentorial interhemispheric subdural hematomas is an uncommon yet a highly distinct event because of their unusual location, unknown natural history, and debated management. The majority develop in patients with head trauma, generalized bleeding tendency, or coagulopathy. We report on 3 patients who developed spontaneous acute inter-hemispheric subdural hematomas. They were 72, 66, and 65 years old, respectively. Two were males and the 3rd was a female. There was no head trauma, bleeding tendency, or coagulopathy. Two of them were hypertensive but none of them was diabetic, epileptic, or alcoholic. Two patients died, on day 1 and 2 respectively, and the 3rd patient was discharged by his next of kin after 3 hours of admission to our Acute and Emergency department. No neurosurgical intervention was carries out and all patients were treated conservatively. The hematoma was fronto-occipital and was located on the left side in 2 patients while in the 3rd patient it was a right-sided parieto-occipital one. Although the initial investigations had pointed out to the spontaneous development of those hematomas in our patients, a further search for an underlying etiology was supposed to be done, but the early death of 2 patients and the premature discharge of the 3rd patient had intersected with this work-up. The rapid deterioration and death of 2 patients might have been prevented if an early evacuation was done.

  9. Glioblastoma Presenting with Pure Alexia and Palinopsia Involving the Left Inferior Occipital Gyrus and Visual Word Form Area Evaluated with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng; Baskin, David S; Fung, Steve

    2016-05-01

    Rapid word recognition and reading fluency is a specialized cortical process governed by the visual word form area (VWFA), which is localized to the dominant posterior lateral occipitotemporal sulcus/fusiform gyrus. A lesion of the VWFA results in pure alexia without agraphia characterized by letter-by-letter reading. Palinopsia is a visual processing distortion characterized by persistent afterimages and has been reported in lesions involving the nondominant occipitotemporal cortex. A 67-year-old right-handed woman with no neurologic history presented to our emergency department with acute cortical ischemic symptoms that began with a transient episode of receptive aphasia. She also reported inability to read, albeit with retained writing ability. She also saw afterimages of objects. During her stroke workup, an intra-axial circumscribed enhancing mass lesion was discovered involving her dominant posterolateral occipitotemporal lobe. Given the eloquent brain involvement, she underwent preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion tensor imaging tractography and awake craniotomy to maximize resection and preserve function. Many organic lesions involving these regions have been reported in the literature, but to the best of our knowledge, glioblastoma involving the VWFA resulting in both clinical syndromes of pure alexia and palinopsia with superimposed functional magnetic resonance imaging and fiber tract mapping has never been reported before. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tufted Hair Folliculitis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alev Eken

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tufted hair folliculitis (THF is a recurrent and progressive folliculitis of the scalp that resolves with irregular areas of scarring alopecia within which numerous hair tufts emerge from dilated follicular openings. A 14-year-old female presented with pruritic, inflammatory and exudating wounds on the scalp which appeared ten years ago. Dermatological examination revealed tufts of 10 to 15 apparently normal hair shafts in a sclerotic plaque measuring 15x25 cm on the parieto-occipital region of the scalp that emerge through dilated follicular openings. The patient was diagnosed by histopathological examination as having THF. Oral rifampicin 600 mg/day, cephalexin 1500 mg/day and vitamin C 1000 mg/day for 3 weeks were not effective, then, he was treated with isotretinoin 0.6 mg/kg/day for six months. The inflammation and exudation decreased by this treatment while hair tufting was persisting. We report this case since THF is rarely encountered disease and is difficult to be treated.

  11. Epilepsy and ring chromosome 20: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Marleide da Mota

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the clinical, electroencephalographic, neuroimaging (brain magnetic resonance image - MRI and spectroscopy by MRI and cytogenetic findings of a young male patient with a rare cytogenetic anomaly characterised by a de novo 46,XY,r(20(p13q13.3 karyotype. He presents with mental retardation, emotional liability, and strabismus, without any other significant dysmorphies. There are brain anomalies characterised by corpus callosum, uvula, nodule and cerebellum pyramid hypoplasias, besides arachnoid cysts in the occipital region. He had seizures refractory to pharmacotherapy and long period of confusional status with or without a motor component. The authors recognised that the EEG pattern was not fixed but changed over time, specially for bursts of slow waves with great amplitude accompanied or not by sharp components, and bursts of theta waves sharply contoured. Previously, epilepsy solely has been assigned to region 20q13. However, the important structural cerebral alterations present in our case has not been reported associated to such chromosomal abnormality and may indicate possible new chromosomal sites where such atypical neurological characteristics could be mapped.

  12. Case Report Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-03-26

    Mar 26, 2013 ... was found that though there was no significant change no evidence of ascites or lymphadenopathy. Liver, ga kidneys and adrenal appeared normal. ... inoperable cancer. CASE REPORT. A 61 years old male, chronic alcoholic chronic smoker presented with 2 years histo abdominal fullness and dyspeptic ...

  13. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES, an acute neurological syndrome due to reversible multifactorial brain edema: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Cicognani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The essential features of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES are headache, mental changes, seizures, visual symptoms and often arterial hypertension. Brain RMN typically shows cortico-sottocortical parieto-occipital edema, with a bilateral and symmetric distribution. PRES develops in clinical conditions as hypertensive encephalopathy, preeclampsia/ eclampsia, autoimmune diseases, after transplantation, infections and as an adverse effect of immunosuppressive drugs or chemotherapy. It usually completely reverses with treatment, although permanent sequelae are possible in case of delayed or missed diagnosis. Case report: We describe the case of a transsexual (M!F and tetraplegic patient, admitted for neck and low back pain. She suddenly developed headache, confusion, seizures and severe hypertension with normal blood tests. RMN showed multiple cortico-sottocortical areas of vasogenic and citotoxic edema in temporo-occipital, parietal, frontal, and cerebellar regions. Soon after the beginning of the antihypertensive therapy, clinical recovery was observed, as well as the disappearance of edema at RMN. Discussion and conclusions: Although PRES is usually associated with definite pathological conditions, it is not always the case, as was for the patient here described, who had no predisposing factors in her past clinical history, and presented hypertension only in the acute phase of the syndrome. Since, moreover, PRES usually presents with acute non specific features and it can be misdiagnosed with other serious diseases, the clinician will be helped by the knowledge of this syndrome to promptly start diagnostic workup and treatments, and avoid permanent neurological deficits.

  14. Brain Abscess after Transanal Hemorrhoidal Dearterialization: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E.M. Berkel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A relatively new therapy in the treatment of hemorrhoids is transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization (THD. We report a case of brain abscess caused by Streptococcus milleri following THD. Although a brain abscess after drainage of a perianal abscess has been described in the literature, no report exists of a brain abscess following treatment of hemorrhoids. A healthy 51-year-old man with hemorrhoids underwent THD. Two weeks later he presented with a headache, bradyphrenia, flattened behavior and a left hemiplegia. No perianal complaint and/or perianal abscess was present. A contrast CT scan of the cerebrum showed a right temporoparieto-occipital abscess, with edema and compression of the surrounding tissue and lateral ventricles. MRI showed an abscess with leakage in the right lateral ventricle. Treatment with dexamethasone and intravenous antibiotics was started. Because of progression of symptoms, 3 weeks later ventriculoscopy was performed and the abscess was drained. Culture of the punctuate showed S. milleri. Because of developing hydrocephalus 3 days after ventriculoscopy, first an external ventricle drain and later a ventriculoperitoneal drain was placed. Hereafter the hemiplegia and cognitive disorders improved. This case report describes a severe complication following treatment of hemorrhoids with THD which until now, to our knowledge, has never been described in the literature.

  15. Iniencefalia y anomalias asociadas: analisis embriopatologico. Reporte de caso

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romero de Fasolino, Milagros; Hernandez Rodriguez, Maria Luisa; Fasolino, Carmine; Morales de Machin, Alisandra; Faria, Clarisa

    2010-01-01

    La iniencefalia es una anomalia poco frecuente del tubo neural que se presenta con la triada caracterizada por defecto del hueso occipital en la region del agujero magno, espina bifida e hiperlordosis cervical fija...

  16. Virtual autopsy and forensic anthropology of a mummified fetus: a report of one case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedouit, Fabrice; Guilbeau-Frugier, Céline; Telmon, Norbert; Gainza, David; Otal, Philippe; Joffre, Francis; Rougé, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A jar containing the mummified body of a fetus was found in a bush near a building. Full-body multislice computed tomography (MSCT) was performed prior to autopsy to study the bones and internal organs. Age was estimated by measuring femoral and tibial lengths and examining the temporal and occipital bones. The results were then compared with the autopsy and histopathological findings. MSCT was superior to autopsy for examination of the bones and internal organs. Autopsy was difficult because of the fragility of the dried corpse. MSCT determined the gestational age of the fetus and excluded skeletal abnormalities. Estimated age was similar with the two methods used. However, the major advantage of MSCT was rapid measurement of bones or anatomical regions which are difficult to examine during autopsy and which required specific preparation for further anthropological study. This case report illustrates the possibilities offered by MSCT for studying mummified bodies, even fetuses.

  17. Contribution of fetal MRI to the diagnosis of inner ear abnormalities: report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilea, Bogdana; Garel, Catherine; Elmaleh-Berges, Monique; Sebag, Guy [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Paediatric Imaging, Paris (France); Menez, Francoise; Delezoide, Anne-Lise [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Developmental Biology, Paris (France); Vuillard, Edith [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Paris (France)

    2006-02-01

    We report two cases of fetal inner ear abnormalities diagnosed by MRI. Cerebral MRI was performed on two fetuses, at 32 and 30 weeks gestation, following US that demonstrated multiple malformations suggestive of CHARGE syndrome in one fetus and ventriculomegaly and poor visibility of the posterior fossa in the other. MRI revealed vestibular hypoplasia and agenesis of the semicircular canals in one fetus and cystic cochleas, partial vermian agenesis and an occipital meningocele in the second fetus. Both pregnancies were terminated and there was good correlation between fetal MRI, ex utero CT and fetopathological findings. The inner ears should be carefully examined when performing fetal cerebral MRI because abnormalities of the inner ear may be associated with cerebral anomalies. (orig.)

  18. [A case report of mixed transcortical aphasia due to three attacks of cerebral infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibayashi, K; Soma, Y

    1997-04-01

    This is a case report of a 69-year-old right handed male patient with mixed transcortical aphasia caused by the three consecutive strokes in the left hemisphere. The initial attack affected the left occipital region and the second one influenced the angular region of the left parietal lobe. After the second attack the patient showed a symptom similar to transcortical sensory aphasia, although the prognosis was good. The third stroke attacked the subcortical region of the left middle frontal gyrus, consequently the patient became severe mixed transcortical aphasic who could only repeat. Even two years after the last stroke the aphasia was hardly improved. These symptoms are considered to be caused by "functional isolation" of the affected anterior-posterior language areas and the fasciculus arcuatus.

  19. Low level termination of external carotid artery and its clinical significance: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Devadasa Shetty

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The external carotid arterial system is a complex vascular system providing nourishment to the territorial areas of the head and neck. The branches of the external carotid artery are the key landmarks for adequate exposure and appropriate placement of cross-clamps on the carotid arteries during carotid endarterectomy. Knowledge of anatomical variation of the external carotid artery is important in head and neck surgeries. Variations in the branching pattern of the external carotid artery are well known and documented. We report a rare case of low-level termination of the external carotid artery. It terminated by dividing into maxillary and superficial temporal arteries deep into the posterior belly of the digastric muscle, one inch below the angle of the mandible. The occipital and posterior auricular arteries arose from a common trunk given off by the external carotid artery. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2015; 4(3.000: 160-163

  20. A case of bilateral lower cranial nerve palsies after base of skull trauma with complex management issues: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Alexander Christoph; Lettieri, Jennie; Grimley, Rohan

    2012-05-01

    Fractures of the skull base can cause lower cranial nerve palsies because of involvement of the nerves as they traverse the skull. A variety of syndromes have been described, often involving multiple nerves. These are most commonly unilateral, and only a handful of cases of bilateral cranial nerve involvement have been reported. We describe a 64-year-old man with occipital condylar fracture complicated by bilateral palsies of IX and X nerves associated with dramatic physiological derangement causing severe management challenges. Apart from debilitating postural hypotension, he developed dysphagia, severe gastrointestinal dysmotility, issues with airway protection as well as airway obstruction, increased oropharyngeal secretions and variable respiratory control. This is the first report of a patient with traumatic bilateral cranial nerve IX and X nerve palsies. This detailed report and the summary of all 6 previous case reports of traumatic bilateral lower cranial nerve palsies illustrate clinical features, treatment strategies, and outcomes of these rare events.

  1. Fixação occípito-cervical "inside-outside": relato técnico Inside-outside occipito-cervical fixation: technical report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor de Castro

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O entendimento sobre a biomecânica do complexo occípito-atlanto-axial explica a instabilidade progressiva após a descompressão anterior da junção craniocervical.O propósito do presente relato é descrever a técnica de fixação occípito-cervical tipo "inside-outside" proposta por Pait et al., e os resultados em dois pacientes operados pela via transoral para remoção da apófise odontóide. A técnica utiliza uma haste de titânio moldada para adaptar-se à curvatura occipital e colocada lateralmente até a coluna cervical; a haste é fixada no osso occipital por meio de parafuso cuja parte achatada é colocada no espaço epidural. Na coluna cervical, a haste é fixada por parafusos que são introduzidos no quadrante súpero-lateral das massas articulares. No axis, o parafuso é introduzido na "pars interarticulares" podendo terminar no próprio corpo desta vértebra ou na massa articular do atlas. Esta técnica revelou-se segura e de fácil aplicabilidade.The clinical knowledgement of biomechanics of atlantoaxial complex have been proved that progressive instability has a mandatory occurrence after anterior decompression of the craniocervical junction. We report the occípitocervical fixation so called inside-outside technique, originally described by Pait et al. appliedin in two patients whom underwent odontoidectomy. The occipitalcervical fixation technique consist in the use of a titanium rod bended according with occipital cervical angle placed and fixed laterally over the cervical spine. The rod is fixed to the occipital bone by mean of placement a screw which flat portion is positioned onto the epidural space. In the cervical spine the rod is attached to transarticular screws placed at the superolateral quadrant of the articular mass. In the axis the screw is introduced through the pars interarticularis finishing at the axis body or the lateral mass of the atlas. This technique proved to be safe and easily applied in the

  2. Adrenoleukodystrophy: case report and aspects relevant to the otorhinolaryngologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapoport, Priscila B

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adrenoleukodystrophy is a genetic disease with heritage standard bound to X, which consists of an alteration of the metabolism and causes an accumulation of fatty acids of a very large chain (AGCML associated to demyelinization of axons and adrenal insufficiency. It may initially manifest with alterations of behavior, hearing, vision, speech, writing, gait, and in the more advanced cases, it results in generalized hypertension, loss of cognitive and motor functions and dysphagia. The diagnosis is confirmed by dosing the AGCML's plasmatic levels, findings of the Magnetic Resonance and karyotype. Case Report: We report the case of A.V.F., 5 years old, sent to the otorhinolaryngology service for school and communication difficulties of auditory evaluation. The audiometry confirmed a bilateral moderate hearing loss. Some months after he evolved with progressive loss of vision, worsening of writing and aggressiveness, and was then forwarded to the neuropediatrician with the hypothesis of neurodegenerative disease. Magnetic Resonance was carried out and showed extensive parieto-occipital lesions. His diagnosis was confirmed through karyotype performed by a geneticist with an immediate beginning of the treatment. Approximately 1 year after the beginning of the symptoms, he presented with severe oropharyngeal dysphagia and silent bronchoaspiration diagnosed by the video-deglutogram exam. Final Comments: Today with gastrotomy. So far, there is no therapy defined for adrenoleukodystrophy. The otorhinolaryngologist must know this disease because, as well as in the case described above, he/she is one of the first professionals.

  3. Report and review of the fetal brain disruption sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Rivera, J R; Corona-Rivera, E; Romero-Velarde, E; Hernández-Rocha, J; Bobadilla-Morales, L; Corona-Rivera, A

    2001-11-01

    The fetal brain disruption sequence (FBDS), a rare cause of extreme microcephaly, is described in a patient and compared with 19 previously reported cases. Clinical findings present in almost all patients included: severe microcephaly (average occipitofrontal circumference -5.8 SD), overlapping sutures, prominent occipital bone, scalp rugae with normal hair patterning and marked neurological impairment. Early death occurred in 7/20 cases. The FBDS was sporadic in 17 out of 19 reported cases supporting a low recurrence risk for genetic counselling purposes. A group of related observations in cases were thromboembolic phenomenon following death of the co-twin, vascular and/or haematological involvement by prenatal cytomegalovirus infection, prenatal cocaine exposure, direct vascular fetal trauma (cordocentesis) and fetal vascular changes after a maternal car accident causing intracranial bleeding and brain damage. Normal scalp hair pattern in all cases and the second or third trimester location of the disruptive event in two cases suggest that in the FBDS, brain growth is normal throughout the first 18 weeks of gestation at least. Pathogenic factors suggest that different forms of vascular injury to the fetal brain (emboli, haemorrhage, vasoconstriction, disseminated intravascular coagulation) can produce partial brain destruction, diminished intracranial pression and skull collapse in the fetal brain disruption sequence.

  4. Estudo da reabsorção radicular apical após o uso de aparelho extrabucal no tratamento da má oclusão do tipo Classe II, 1ª divisão dentária Study of apical root resorption after occipital headgear wear on the treatment of dental Class II, division 1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Célia Vieira de Siqueira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o presente estudo verificou o efeito do uso do aparelho extrabucal (AEB sobre a intensidade da reabsorção radicular apical nos primeiros molares permanentes superiores submetidos à ação do aparelho. MÉTODOS: foram avaliadas as radiografias periapicais da região dos primeiros molares permanentes superiores, bilateralmente, de 19 jovens leucodermas, do gênero feminino, com idades entre 8 e 10 anos, com má oclusão do tipo Classe II, 1ª divisão dentária, pré e pós-tratamento com AEB de tração alta. As 76 radiografias foram divididas em dois grupos, de acordo com o grau de formação radicular. O grupo A consistiu de 18 radiografias com formação radicular incompleta, com exceção da raiz palatina, ao início do tratamento e 18 ao final. O grupo B consistiu de 20 radiografias com formação radicular completa ao início do tratamento e 20 ao final. Mensurou-se os comprimentos radiculares utilizando um paquímetro digital e submeteu-se as medidas obtidas ao teste de erro do método e à análise estatística (teste t de Student para verificar as diferenças no comprimento radicular antes e após o tratamento com o AEB. RESULTADOS: no grupo A ocorreu um aumento significativo dos comprimentos radiculares, enquanto no grupo B as diferenças dos comprimentos radiculares não foram significativas. As medidas pós-tratamento no grupo A não diferiram das medidas pré-tratamento no grupo B, ou seja, os dentes com formação radicular incompleta ao início do tratamento apresentaram crescimento radicular normal durante o tratamento ativo. CONCLUSÃO: concluiu-se que o uso do AEB não influenciou negativamente na formação radicular e não provocou reabsorção apical nos molares submetidos à ação do aparelho, sugerindo que o AEB não apresentou riscos à estrutura e formação radicular quando corretamente indicado e aplicado.AIM: The aim of this study was to verify the effect of occipital headgear wear on the intensity of

  5. Report Template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis; Owsianiak, Mikołaj

    2017-01-01

    To ensure consistent reporting of life cycle assessment (LCA), we provide a report template. The report includes elements of an LCA study as recommended but the ILCD Handbook. Illustrative case study reported according to this template is presented in Chap. 39 ....

  6. Recurrent Alternate-Sided Homonymous Hemianopia Due to Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy with Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-Like Episodes (MELAS): A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysko, Kristen M.; Sundaram, Arun N. E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) can rarely cause alternate-sided homonymous hemianopia due to stroke-like episodes involving the occipital lobes, as reported in three previously published cases. The authors report an interesting case of a 16-year-old presenting with myoclonic epilepsy due to MELAS with the rare ND3 mitochondrial mutation T10191C, with recurrent alternate-sided homonymous hemianopia. Visual field and corresponding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are presented. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of recurrent alternate-sided homonymous hemianopia in MELAS with documented visual field and MRI findings with resolution between each episode. PMID:28228835

  7. Morphometric Investigation of the Occipital Area of the Adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The foramen magnum is of great clinical importance especially in neurologic investigations. This study was carried out to investigate the morphometrics of the foramen magnum of the Nigerian local dog using 13 adults (7 males, 6 females). The shape of the foramen magnum in all specimens examined presented an almost ...

  8. Language processing in the occipital cortex of congenitally blind adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedny, Marina; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Dodell-Feder, David; Fedorenko, Evelina; Saxe, Rebecca

    2011-03-15

    Humans are thought to have evolved brain regions in the left frontal and temporal cortex that are uniquely capable of language processing. However, congenitally blind individuals also activate the visual cortex in some verbal tasks. We provide evidence that this visual cortex activity in fact reflects language processing. We find that in congenitally blind individuals, the left visual cortex behaves similarly to classic language regions: (i) BOLD signal is higher during sentence comprehension than during linguistically degraded control conditions that are more difficult; (ii) BOLD signal is modulated by phonological information, lexical semantic information, and sentence-level combinatorial structure; and (iii) functional connectivity with language regions in the left prefrontal cortex and thalamus are increased relative to sighted individuals. We conclude that brain regions that are thought to have evolved for vision can take on language processing as a result of early experience. Innate microcircuit properties are not necessary for a brain region to become involved in language processing.

  9. Occipital condylar dysplasia in a Jacob lamb ( Ovis aries ) | Lee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    multihorned) phenotype. We describe a four-horned Jacob lamb that exhibited progressive congenital hindlimb ataxia and paresis, and was euthanased four weeks post-partum. Necropsy and CT-scan revealed deformity and asymmetry of the ...

  10. Final report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Monaco, Lucio; Fransson, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    This report represents the deliverable D1.2 of project Virtual Campus Hub. The project runs from October 2011 to September 2013. The report is the core of the project’s 2nd periodic report, which was submitted to the European Commission on November 4th, 2013.......This report represents the deliverable D1.2 of project Virtual Campus Hub. The project runs from October 2011 to September 2013. The report is the core of the project’s 2nd periodic report, which was submitted to the European Commission on November 4th, 2013....

  11. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  12. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This final report for the Hybrid Ventilation Centre at Aalborg University describes the activities and research achievement in the project period from August 2001 to August 2006. The report summarises the work performed and the results achieved with reference to articles and reports published...

  13. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Aronson, 2003, Wykes and Olson, 2003). The prevalence of a n o- rectal abnormalities in animals has not been conclusively determined, Aronson (2003), reported a higher prevalence in dogs and cats, Remi-Adewunmi (2007), reported a high prevalence in calves while Roberts. (1986) reported a higher prevalence in.

  14. Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    usually occurs with high intravenous steroid doses. More significant arrhythmias and cardiac arrest were also described. In this report we describe a case of bradycardia that developed after the use of oral corticosteroids. Case report: We report a case of bradycardia that developed in a 14 year-old male after receiving oral.

  15. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    We report a case of mucoid degeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Mucoid degeneration of the ACL is a very rare cause of knee pain. There have been only some reported cases of mucoid degeneration of the ACL in the English literature. We reviewed previous reports and summarized clinical features and ...

  16. Cefaléia epiléptica: estudo de um caso com registro eletrencefalográfico durante a crise Epileptic headache: report of a case with electroencephalogram recorded during the crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosi Mary Grossmann

    1971-06-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de uma paciente com 9 anos de idade, na qual foi feito o EEG durante 3 crises de cefaléia sem caráter de enxaqueca. Simultaneamente com as crises foram observadas, no EEG, anormalidades caracterizadas por ondas agudas ritmadas de projeção difusa no hemisfério cerebral direito, predominando na região occipital. São feitos comentários sobre a raridade do relato de anormalidades do tipo irritativo durante crises de cefaléia, sendo ressaltado o valor de tais achados para a classificação dessas cefaléias dentro do conceito de epilepsia.The case of a 9-year-old patient, in which the EEG was made during three crises of headache without the character of migraine is reported. Simultaneously with the crises the EEG showed rhythmic sharp waves in the right cerebral hemisphere prevailing in the occipital region. Comments are made on the rarity of reports showing irritative abnormalities in the EEG during headache crises. The value of these findings for the classification of some cases of headache within the concept of epilepsy is emphasized.

  17. Recurrent non-aneurysmal, metastatic intraparenchymal haemorrhages following resection of atrial myxoma – case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Emmon; Kamal, Ayeesha Kamran

    2012-01-01

    Atrial myxomas are the commonest cardiac neoplasms. The most common extra-cardiac manifestations are embolic infarcts from tumour embolisation. Infrequently, aneurysm formation and intracranial haemorrhages also occur. Incredibly rare are space-occupying lesions and malignant transformation. The authors report a case of a previously healthy middle-aged lady who developed recurrent and expanding intraparenchymal haemorrhages following resection of a left atrial myxoma without any primary disease recurrence. The case described is completely different from the described literature in that her intracranial vasculature was free of aneurysms on angiography despite central nervous system haemorrhage and no myxomatous or malignant features were seen on histology of the resected symptomatic occipital lesion. The authors compare this case to the available literature and also provide a literature review. PMID:23104629

  18. Follicular thyroid carcinoma mimicking meningioma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnalatha Buandasan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC is a well-differentiated tumor which resembles the normal microscopic pattern of the thyroid. Although intracranial metastasis to the brain is frequent in adults, metastasis from FTC is very rare. Dural metastases mimicking meningioma have been documented in the literature now and then. However, cases arising from a FTC are again very rare. We report the case of a middle-aged lady who presented with progressive, painless left eye proptosis. She was noted to have a non-axial proptosis with dystopia, compressive optic neuropathy and exposure keratitis. She also had a painless swelling over the occipital region. She was initially misdiagnosed to have multiple foci of meningioma based on magnetic resonance imaging findings. Subsequent histopathological examination revealed presence of FTC. She was euthyroid but was found to have multiple small thyroid nodules by ultrasonography. Hence, the definite diagnosis of all dural masses must be histological wherever possible and thyroid carcinoma should be considered as a potential primary tumour in such presentations.

  19. Vertebral Artery Dissection Leading to Fornix Infarction: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Takashi; Baba, Yasuhisa; Fujino, Kimihiro; Kuroiwa, Yoshiyuki; Tomita, Yusuke; Nakane, Makoto; Yamada, Shoko Merrit; Tanaka, Fumiaki

    2015-07-01

    The subcallosal artery is a proximal branch of the anterior communicating artery and has been recognized as the vessel responsible for fornix infarction. Fornix infarction caused by vascular damage to the posterior circulation has not been reported previously. A 26-year-old woman suffered from fornix infarction due to artery-to-artery embolism after vertebral artery dissection. Cerebral infarctions were also found in the left thalamus, body of the left caudate nucleus, and the left occipital lobe other than the fornix. Occlusion of the subcallosal artery results in cerebral infarction of fornix, anterior cingulate cortex, and genu of the corpus callosum. However, in our case, lesions were restricted to the territory of posterior circulation. In addition to subcallosal artery, lateral posterior choroidal artery, a perforating branch of the posterior cerebral artery, has been described to send branches to the fornix, so we speculated that the left lateral posterior choroidal artery was actually responsible for fornix infarction. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [A dissecting aneurysm of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery was reduced spontaneously during conservative therapy: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamoto, Hirooki; Orii, Maaya; Miyazaki, Hiromichi; Ishiyama, Naomi

    2002-04-01

    We report here a case of a patient with a dissecting aneurysm of the anterior medullary segment of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) which presented with Wallenberg's syndrome. A 32-year-male presented with an unusual case of Wallenberg's syndrome due to a dissecting aneurysm of the PICA manifesting as a sensation of heaviness in the occipital region and vertigo. The occipital symptoms persisted and vertigo and vomiting developed after 6 days. Numbness developed on the left side of the patient's face, and hyperalgesia on the right side of the body. The diagnosis of Wallenberg's syndrome was based on the above findings. MRI revealed infarction of the lateral aspect of the medulla oblongata and MR angiography revealed dilatation in the proximal portion of the left PICA. Digital subtraction angiography revealed that the left vertebral artery was essentially normal, but there was a spindle-shaped dilatation in the proximal portion of the left PICA. We carried out conservative therapy at the patient's request and 3D-CTA revealed that the dissecting aneurysm was markedly reduced in size seven months after the onset. Dissecting aneurysms of the intracranial posterior circulation have been shown to be less uncommon than previously thought. However, those involving the PICA without involvement of the vertebral artery at all are extremely rare. The natural history of the dissecting PICA aneurysm was unknown, and the indication for surgical treatment of such aneurysms remains controversial. Management options are conservative treatment, open surgical treatment including wrapping, trapping, and resection with reconstruction, but almost all of the patients underwent radical treatment to prevent rupture of the aneurysm. However we had no knowledge of the risk of rupture of a PICA dissecting aneurysm presenting with ischemic symptoms. We have reviewed the well-documented 15 cases of dissecting aneurysms of the PICA reported in the literature and we discuss the

  1. Cerebral ischemia caused by Streptococcus bovis aortic endocarditis: case report Isquemia cerebral causada por endocardite aórtica pelo Streptococcus bovis: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Santos-Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral ischemic processes associated with infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis are rare; only 2 cases having been reported. Here we report a case of a 50-year-old man with S. bovis endocarditis who presented signs of frontal, parietal and occipital lobe cerebral ischemia. This is the first case reported in which the presence of hemianopsia preceded the endocarditis diagnosis. Initially, the clinical manifestations suggested a systemic vasculitis. Later, vegetating lesions were identified in the aortic valve and S. bovis grew in blood cultures. Antibiotic use and aortic valve replacement eliminated the infection and ceased thromboembolic events. A videocolonoscopy examination revealed no mucosal lesions as a portal of entry in this case, although such lesions have been encountered in up to 70% of reported cases of S. bovis endocarditis.A associação de isquemia cerebral e endocardite por Streptococcus bovis é um evento raro, tendo sido publicados apenas 2 casos anteriormente. Nós relatamos o caso de um homem de 50 anos com endocardite por S. bovis que apresentou sinais isquêmicos nos lobos frontal, parietal e occipital. Este é o primeiro caso em que a hemianopsia precedeu o diagnóstico de endocardite. Inicialmente, o quadro foi confundido com vasculite. Posteriormente, foi confirmada a presença de vegetações na válvula aórtica e a hemocultura identificou S. bovis. Os eventos tromboembólicos foram controlados com o uso de antibióticos e a troca da válvula aórtica. Estudo videocolonoscópico não identificou nenhuma lesão, apesar de lesões colônicas serem descritas em até 70% dos casos de indivíduos com endocardite por S. bovis.

  2. Rigid Occipitocervical Instrumented Fusion for Atlantoaxial Instability in an 18-month-old Toddler with Brachytelephalangic Chondrodysplasia Punctata: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Hiroki; Takahashi, Jun; Takano, Kyoko; Inaba, Yuji; Motobayashi, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Gen; Kuraishi, Shugo; Shimizu, Masayuki; Ikegami, Shota; Futatsugi, Toshimasa; Uehara, Masashi; Kosho, Tomoki; Kato, Hiroyuki; Uno, Koki

    2017-03-23

    Case report OBJECTIVE.: We report here on an 18-month-old boy with brachytelephalangic chondrodysplasia punctata (BCDP), whose atlantoaxial instability was successfully managed with occipitocervical instrumented fusion (OCF) using screw and rod instrumentations. Recently, there have been a number of reports on BCDP with early onset of cervical myelopathy. Surgical OCF is a vital intervention to salvage affected individuals from the life-threatening morbidity. Despite recent advancement of instrumentation techniques, however, rigid OCF is technically demanding in very young children with small and fragile osseous elements. To our best knowledge, this is the first report on application of the instrumentation technique to a toddler patient with BCDP. A 16-month-old boy with BCDP presented with tetraplegia and swallow obstacle. Hypoplasia of the odontoid process and atlantoaxial instability were present in lateral radiographs. T2 weighted MR images revealed a high signal region in the spinal cord at the C1-2 and C7-T1 levels. Cervical CT showed the pedicles and lateral masses in the cervical spine were small and immature but the laminae were comparatively thick. One week prior to surgery, the patient was fitted with a Halo-body jacket. We performed plate-rod placement with occipital cortical screws and C2/C3 interlaminar screws, and added an autogenous bone graft using the right 8 and 9 ribs. Rigid fixation of the occipito-cervical spine was completed successfully without major complications. Postoperative halo-body jacket immobilization was continued for 3 months, after which Aspen collar was fitted. CT confirmed occipitocervical bone fusion at 6 months after surgery. Mild clinical improvements in motor power of the affected muscles and swallowing were witnessed at one year postoperatively. Rigid fixation using screw, rod, and occipital plate instrumentation was successful in a 18-month-old toddler with BCDP and atlantoaxial instability. Bone fusion was achieved at

  3. Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Adaji

    Vol 7 No 1-2,2005: 220 - 221. Case Report. A huge polypoid uterine myoma causing severe primary postpartum haemorrhage. A report of one case. S E Adaji , S O Shittu, and B R Ageda. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, PMB 1026 Zaria,. Nigeria. Requests for reprints ...

  4. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sdsuser42

    2012-06-10

    Jun 10, 2012 ... She was referred to chemotherapy protocol. Association between carcinoma and acromegaly has previously been reported. Most common tumors are colorectal and thyroid neoplasia. As we see in this case report, we need to consider other carcinomas in acromegalic patients like pulmonary carcinoma ...

  5. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-01-21

    Jan 21, 2014 ... Abstract. Inflammation of the bicipitoradial bursa is a rare condition and only few reports can be found in literature. Several causes for a cubital bursitis have been suggested in the past. The need to include a malignant lesion in the differential diagnosis has only been mentioned in one of these reports.

  6. . Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Report. PYOMETRA IN A GREAT DANE: A CASE REPORT. EZE, C.A. and NNAJI*, T.O.. Department of Veterinary Surgery, University ofNigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. *Correspondence: E-mail: Tel: +2348056224988. INTRODUCTION. Pyometra is a condition mainly of middle-aged female dogs that have not been spayed.

  7. Progress Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999.......Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999....

  8. CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ABDUL

    CASE REPORT. Intussusception in pregnancy: report of a case. M. A. Abdul, * L. M. D. Yusufu and D. Haggai. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Surgery, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria. Reprint requests to: Dr. M.A. Abdul, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ahmadu Bello ...

  9. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case report. Malaria: A cerebral approach. An increasing number of patients with severe complicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria are presenting to South African hospitals, having travelled through malaria- endemic countries from Central and East. Africa. This report concerns an immigrant from Pakistan who developed ...

  10. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-07-26

    Jul 26, 2012 ... effects including sleep disorders, hallucinations and nightmares. These have been widely reported as side effects of EFV affecting between 15 and. 54% of patients [1,2,9]. Other reported psychiatric events include abnormal dreams, affective disorder, aggression, agitation, anxiety, confusion states, ...

  11. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-02-29

    Feb 29, 2016 ... Abstract. Isolated peritoneal metastases of lung adenocarcinoma are very rare, even exceptional, occurring most often in the context of a multi-metastatic disease. This report presents a rare clinical case of isolated peritoneal metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma. We report a 56-year-old male who.

  12. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-01-29

    Jan 29, 2015 ... Adenoid cystic carcinoma of cervix: two cases report and review of the literature ... ACC of the cervix. Billroth in 1859 originally defined this lesion as. ''tumor composed of small basal cells with slight eosinophilic cytoplasm, hyperchromatic nuclei in ..... case report with implication for chemotherapy treatment.

  13. Sustainability reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. It The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published.

  14. Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) is a rare clinico-radiological entity that has been infrequently reported in patients with connective tissue diseases, particularly in those with established renal involvement. Case report: A 51 year old female presented with headache, confusion ...

  15. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-01-27

    Jan 27, 2015 ... any risk factors other than previous ocular surgery. Ocular complications after dental procedures are quite rarely reported in the literature. One of them is recurrent septic retinal embolism reported after infected tooth extraction [4]. Another case that was represented was endogenous endophthalmitis with ...

  16. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-08-18

    Aug 18, 2015 ... materials including wood trashes, polystyrene, plastic have been reported as the rare causes of bezoar formation. In this report, we describe a 14-year-old girl who developed obstructing Plastic bezoars of both the stomach and small intestine and literature review. Patient and observation. A 14-year-old girl ...

  17. Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hamid

    www.ljm.org.ly. Case Report. Fiber-reinforced Composite for Chairside Replacement of Anterior. Teeth: A Case Report. Garoushi S1,2, Vallittu PK1, Lassila LVJ1. 1Department of Prosthetic Dentistry & Biomaterials Science, Institute of Dentistry,. University of Turku, Turku, Finland. 2Benghazi Dental Centre, Benghazi, Libya.

  18. CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the selective non-operative management (SNOM) of penetrating abdominal trauma (PAT) is widely accepted as a management strategy, it is usually reserved for stab wounds. (SWs).1 Muckart was the first to report on the application of. SNOM to abdominal gunshot wounds (GSWs).2 This report describes the ...

  19. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-01-17

    Jan 17, 2014 ... Abstract. Ocular bee sting injury has caused several reactions in the eye but has rarely been reported among local African farmers, and Nigerians in particular. This case seeks to report the first ocular and external eye reactions following a honey bee sting of the eye through the sclera, highlighting the ...

  20. Avoiding pitfalls in diagnosing basilar artery occlusive disease: clinical and imaging clues - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bastos Conforto

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The aim of this paper was to report on the characteristics that aid in establishing the diagnosis of basilar artery occlusive disease (BAOD among patients with hemiparesis and few or minor symptoms of vertebrobasilar disease. CASE REPORT: This report describes two cases in a public university hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. We present clinical and imaging findings from two patients with hemiparesis and severe BAOD, but without clinically relevant carotid artery disease (CAD. One patient presented transient ischemic attacks consisting of spells of right hemiparesis that became progressively more frequent, up to twice a week. The neurological examination revealed slight right hemiparesis and right homonymous hemianopsia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed pontine and occipital infarcts. Magnetic resonance angiography and digital subtraction angiography revealed severe basilar artery stenosis. The other patient presented sudden left-side hemiparesis and hypoesthesia. One year earlier, she had reported sudden onset of vertigo that, at that time, was attributed to peripheral vestibulopathy and was not further investigated. MRI showed a right-side pontine infarct and an old infarct in the right cerebellar hemisphere. Basilar artery occlusion was diagnosed. Both patients presented their symptoms while receiving aspirin, and became asymptomatic after treatment with warfarin. CONCLUSIONS: Misdiagnosing asymptomatic CAD as the cause of symptoms in BAOD can have disastrous consequences, such as unnecessary carotid endarterectomy and exposure to this surgical risk while failing to offer the best available treatment for BAOD. Clinical and imaging features provided important clues for diagnosis in the cases presented.

  1. Final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-14

    This project report provides a descriptive overview of the architecture and design of wireless underground radio frequency smart sensors, data collection and Internet of Things (IOT) [8] transmission system and an SLR decision support system. The roa...

  2. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-03-11

    Mar 11, 2016 ... Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET). (www.afenet.net) ... reported no previous medical or surgical history and screening test showed she ... hospital taking referrals from a wide area.

  3. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sdsuser42

    2012-06-10

    .com/content/article/12/27/full/ ... patients. Pulmonary carcinomas are much rare than other carcinoma in non-smoking acromegalic patients. We report a case of epidermoid carcinoma in ... surgery and radiotherapy. She was ...

  4. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeTar, Carleton [P.I.

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  5. CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICROBXOLSQ): 39-43. ENDOMETRIAL TUBERCULOSIS IN INFERTILITY : REPORT OF 2 CASES AND A ... sterility. Despite the decline infroqnenq/ofgenital tuberenlesisin7mdIstrialiluhvotld ooipledvrillvnllespread' aseofantlbiotacs' ' ' worldwide,' itstillremam' apofiblecanseof ... primary infertility secondary to tuberculous.

  6. Citizen's Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The fiscal year (FY) 2008 Citizen's Report is a summary of performance and financial results for the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM). OPM chose to produce...

  7. Enforcement Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Whereas not all recalls are announced in the media or on our Recalls press release page, all recalls montiored by FDA are included in FDA's weekly Enforcement Report...

  8. Pathology Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Flow cytometry can be used in the diagnosis, classification, and management of cancers such as acute leukemia, chronic lymphoproliferative disorders, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma ( 2 ). Finally, the pathology report may include ...

  9. Cranial Pilocytic Astrocytoma With Spinal Drop Metastasis in an Adult: Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshey, Aasheen; Moore, Justin; Maclean, Catriona; Longano, Anthony; Goldschlager, Tony

    2017-02-01

    Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is a benign neoplasm that typically occurs in the brain within the pediatric and adolescent age groups and is uncommon in adults. It rarely occurs within the ventricles, and the overall prognosis is favorable. A PA of the brain with spinal metastasis at presentation has never been reported in an adult. We report a case of a 47-year-old man presenting with sudden-onset frontal headache associated with nausea and lethargy in addition to a background of a longer history of back pain and headache. Radiologic imaging revealed an acute intraparenchymal hemorrhage in the right parieto-occipital lobes with intraventricular extension within a peripherally enhancing heterogeneous lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed a sacral intradural tumor. The patient underwent surgical resection of the intracranial mass followed by debulking of the spinal lesion. Histopathologic study revealed that both the cranial and spinal tumors were PA. This case illustrates a unique instance of hemorrhage into a cerebral PA with a spinal metastasis. To our knowledge, this is the first such case reported in an adult. We review the literature on the subject. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Report Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behnke, Eric

    In a short and precise way this compendium guides how to write an Engineering Report. The compendium is primarily targeting Engineering Students in thier first and second semester but it might as well be used by students at other technical bachelor educations......In a short and precise way this compendium guides how to write an Engineering Report. The compendium is primarily targeting Engineering Students in thier first and second semester but it might as well be used by students at other technical bachelor educations...

  11. Case Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgin-Freiert, Arzu; Fugleholm, Kåre; Poulsgaard, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of an intraneural ganglion cyst of the hypoglossal canal. The patient presented with unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a small lesion in the hypoglossal canal with no contrast enhancement and high signal on T2-weighted imaging. The lesion...... irradiation as an option. This case illustrates a very rare location of an intraneural ganglion cyst in the hypoglossal nerve. To our knowledge there are no previous reports of an intraneural ganglion cyst confined to the hypoglossal canal....

  12. Progress Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    In this report I will give an overview of the work I have done in my Ph.D. that revolves around workflow systems. Firstly, how requirements for them are found, how these requirements can be turned into specifications of workflow systems, and then realized in an implementation. Requirements describe...... of this section is outlined as follows: Section 1.1 introduce the research questions that I have worked on. Section 1.2 presents the papers that I have produced. Finally, Section 1.3 give an overview of the report....

  13. Unusual Case of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome in a Patient with Anti-glomerular Basement Membrane Antibody Glomerulonephritis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Boram; Kim, Dae Young; Jang, Hyunil; Hwang, Seun Deuk; Choi, Huck Jei; Kim, Moon-Jae

    2017-09-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is characterized by a clinical and radiological entity with the sudden onset of seizures, headache, altered consciousness, and visual disturbances in patients with the findings of reversible vasogenic subcortical edema without infarction. Hypertension, renal disease, and autoimmune disease are co-morbid conditions of PRES. Nevertheless, there have only been a few case reports of PRES in a patient with anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM GN). This paper presents the possible first Korean case of a 36-year-old woman with the striking features of PRES. She presented with a sudden onset of visual blindness, headache, and seizure. The brain MRI images revealed hyperintense lesions in both the occipital and parietal lobes, which suggested vasogenic edema. Three months before this presentation, she was diagnosed with anti-GBM GN. Since then, she underwent immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide and steroid, and hemodialysis for renal failure with a treatment of anti-GBM GN.

  14. Quantitative Electroencephalogram and psychopathy. A case study report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ortega-Noriega

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study shows the case of a psychopath prisoner who has been in jail for three years accused of rape. The subject was evaluated through the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R and Quantitative Electroencephalogram (QEEG. QEEG measures used in this study were absolute power and occipital Alpha medium frequency. Values were transformed into Z score and compared with the QEEG normative database. Results showed a Theta excess and Alpha decrease; moreover occipital Alpha medium frequency was below the norm for the subject's age. Findings suggest a cortical hypoactivation; some theories suggest that some psychopath's features can be explained by this low activation.

  15. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-06-14

    Jun 14, 2016 ... Cerebral embolism complicating left atrial myxoma: a case report. Zairi Ihsen1,&, Mssaad Hela2, Mzoughi ... Key words: Cardiac tumor, surgery, pediatric, atrium. Received: 03/05/2016 - Accepted: ... large tumor occupying the left atrium, very mobile, measuring 5cm long strongly mimicking a myxoma ...

  16. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-06-10

    Jun 10, 2011 ... Abstract. Metastatic renal cell cancer is not exceptional in kidney cancer (30% of patients with kidneyl cancer). Its prognosis is particularly severe. However, sciatic neuralgia (sciatica) remains an exceptional revealing clinical sign of this disease. The authors report the case of a patient admitted with right.

  17. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-04-10

    Apr 10, 2011 ... Patient and case report. A 70 years old woman was admitted for paraplegia. Past medical history of the patient revealed bilateral sciatica evolving since July 2009, not alleviated by symptomatic treatment. A month prior admission, the sciatica symptoms worsened towards a gradual onset of paraplegia, ...

  18. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raoul

    2009-10-15

    Oct 15, 2009 ... Abstract. To the best of our knowledge there is no reported case of Meckel's diverticulum (MD) in Cameroon. The prevalence of MD in the general population is 2-3 %. The aim of this paper is to recapitulate the role of this pathology in acute abdomens and abdominal pain of uncertain aetiology in young ...

  19. Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital bladder diverticula causing bladder outlet obstruction: Case report and review of literature. Pediatr.Surg.Int. 1994;91141-3. 3. Taylor WN,Alton D, Toguri A, Churchill BM, Schillinger. JF. Bladder diverticula causing posterior urethral obstruction in children. J.Urol. 1979; Sep;122(3):4l$. 4. Verghese M, Belman AB.

  20. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    21 juin 2012 ... Orbital nonchromaffin paraganglioma A case report and review of the literature. Ophthalmology. 1989;96(11):1659-66. This article on PubMed. 8. Gonias Sara, Goldsby Robert, Matthay Katherine K, Hawkins Randall, Price David, Huberty John, Damon Lloyd, Linker Charles, Sznewajs. Aimee, Shiboski ...

  1. Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    102640

    2008-08-27

    Aug 27, 2008 ... Furthermore, decreased awareness of what constitutes appropriate behaviour and preoccupation with their individual sexual needs above their partners' are believed to be due to frontal, right hemispheric and temporal lobe injury. All the patients described in this report exhibited disinhibition of behaviour at ...

  2. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-06-05

    Jun 5, 2015 ... the right atrium and attached to the interatrial septum. Figure 4: explanted tumor, a lobulated mass. References. 1. Azevedo O et al. Massive right atrial myxoma presenting as syncope and exertional dyspnea: case report. Cardiovascular. Ultrasound. 2010; 8(1): 23. PubMed | Google Scholar ...

  3. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-11-20

    Nov 20, 2015 ... wound: a case report with literature review. Badr Ennaciri1,&, Mustapha Mahfoud1, Ahmed El Bardouni1, Mohamed Saleh Berrada1. 1Department of Orthopedics, Avicenna University Hospital, Rabat, Morocco. &Corresponding author: Badr Ennaciri, Department of Orthopedics, Avicenna University Hospital ...

  4. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    Morocco. Key words: Primary lung tumor, malignant melanoma, metastasis. Received: 20/07/2011 - Accepted: 12/03/2012 - Published: 14/04/2012. Abstract. Primary melanoma of the lung is an extremely rare pathological entity and sparsely reported in the literature. A 68-year-old man was admitted with. 3 months history of ...

  5. CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BERECZKY. Department of Urology, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, Durban, South Africa. KEY WORDS: diphallia, penile duplication. ABSTRACT. We report on a case of penile duplication in a. thirteen-year-old African boy. The diphallia was incomplete. There was a common root of the penis with accessory glans.

  6. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    19 févr. 2016 ... Enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) is a rare complication of celiac disease (CD). We report a case of EATL associated with CD revealed by acute intestinal obstruction. A North African woman of 38 years old with a history of infertility and chronic abdominal pain was admitted in emergency with ...

  7. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raoul

    2012-03-27

    Mar 27, 2012 ... Abstract. Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic digestive disease that results in hypersensitivity to the gliadin fraction of Gluten. Malabsorption syndrome may be responsible for weight loss, diarrhea, osteomalacia, and vitamins deficiency. Herein we report a patient with coeliac disease (CD) who presented.

  8. LHC report

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    This week's Report, by Gianluigi Arduini,  will be included in the LHC Physics Day, dedicated to the reviews of the LHC physics results presented at ICHEP 2010. Seehttp://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=102669 

  9. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    Chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery are the different therapeutic options used either alone or in combination. We report a 57 years old patient treated with chemotherapy (6 cycles of R-CHOP) for primary NHL of the bladder with a complete ... There was no cervical, thoracic, abdominal or pelvic lesion in the CT scan.

  10. Short Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioline

    Short Report. Waiting time among acute abdominal emergencies in a Nigerian teaching hospital: causes of delay and consequences. N .Mbah, W. Ek. Opara and N. P. Agwu ... admitted with acute surgical abdomen are most commonly due to financial difficulties. ... private, general and primary health institutions within.

  11. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-09-03

    Sep 3, 2015 ... Abstract. Synovial chondromatosis is a rare benign condition arising from the synovial membrane of the joints, synovial sheaths or bursae around the joints. Primary synovial chondromatosis typically affects the large joints in the third to fifth decade of life. The purpose of this case report is to document.

  12. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-05-13

    May 13, 2012 ... She also reported occasional fevers, loss of appetite, weight loss, and general body weakness for about one month. She had no history of any other chronic diseases ... The woman also had regular contact with about 100 students in her class at the university. During the three months she experienced TB ...

  13. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-05-06

    May 6, 2016 ... Abstract. The occurrence of renal and multiple organ Amyloïdosis is currently considered exceptional in the course of systemic lupus erythematosus. We report a case of a concomitant SLE and Amyloïdosis in a 57 year old female patient with hypothyroidism history, who presented with erythema nodosum ...

  14. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-02-08

    Feb 8, 2016 ... Appropriate therapy was initiated urgently. ... This article is available online at: http://www.panafrican-med-journal.com/content/article/23/34/full/ ... We report herein a case of an acute adrenal insufficiency revealing pituitary metastases of lung cancer. Patient and observation. A 69-year-old patient active ...

  15. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2010-07-28

    Jul 28, 2010 ... Key words: Cervical cancer, cervix, chromogranine A, small cell carcinoma ... Neuroendocrine neoplasms may occur in the uterine cervix, although rarely; it accounts for 0.5-1% of all malignant tumors of the uterine cervix. A ... Clinically, abnormal vaginal bleeding is the most commonly reported symptoms.

  16. Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan c. Khartoum Teaching Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan d. Institute of endemic diseases, Khartoum, Sudan. Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation. Case Report. Abstract. Introduction: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common cause of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide.

  17. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Abstract. Laparoscopic management of acute adhesive small bowel obstruction has been shown to be feasible and advantageous. However, widespread acceptance and application is still not observed. We describe the case report of a 58-year-old male who presented with signs and symptoms of.

  18. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-08-18

    Aug 18, 2015 ... The history of foreign body ingestion, especially in children and mentally impaired patients, is important. Our patient had a unique bezoar due to eating disorder in which he was eating plastic material used for knitting chairs and charpoys. This abnormal eating disorder of plastikophagia has been reported.

  19. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-22

    Apr 22, 2016 ... posterior hypopharyngeal wall. It has been reported as a rare complication of anterior spine surgery [1]. The mortality rate of non-operative treatment of esophagus perforations is 20-38% [2]. This is a conservatively managed case of iatrogenic pharyngoesophageal perforation due to external transcervical.

  20. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-05-08

    May 8, 2014 ... We report through the clinical case of a woman aged 33 years admitted to the ICU for acute pulmonary edema of sudden onset of ... and fetal. patient was placed under furosemide 1 mg / kg in 200 ml of saline serum to ... tocolytic treatment, which were suffering from preeclampsia or who gave birth to twins.

  1. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    Abstract. Primary omental torsion is a rare cause of acute abdominal pain, we report a case of 10-year-old boy admitted with crampy abdominal pain, routine laboratory tests and plain abdominal radiography was normal, the patient underwent surgical exploration with the initial diagnosis of appendicitis, primary omental ...

  2. Case Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, K P; Bruunsgaard, H; Marquart, H V

    2017-01-01

    Hypogammaglobulinemia (HGG) is well-characterized as a common phenomenon after kidney transplantation. However, no reports of pre-existing HGG from kidney transplantation seem to be available. We have reviewed three patients who developed HGG prior to kidney transplantation, and all three were...

  3. Faculty report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellini, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this internal report, written for the ESTIANet project, is to present the ratio of female and male students/staff/professors at the Technical University of Denmark. For the students the statistics are shown with respect of type of studies (undergraduate, master, PhD), year...

  4. Case Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klubien, Jeanett; Borgersen, Dorte Winther; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Perforation of the gallbladder is a benign and common complication during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, it may result in stone spilling, which potentially can lead to serious postoperative complications.  Case report A 70-year-old male underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy...

  5. CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cyst and gallbladder diverticulum, among other abnormalities. Indeed, the diagnosis of a duplicated gallbladder is invariably made at surgery. In this report, a duplicate gall bladder was diagnosed at laparoscopy, having been erroneously diagnosed on ultrasonography as a dilated common bile duct with choledocholithiasis ...

  6. Case Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Marie-Louise Kulas; Rosenberg, Jacob; Burcharth, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    neuropathy (AMSAN). Reports of AMSAN with onset after epidural anesthesia and spinal surgery are extremely rare, and the linkage between development of GBS and neuroaxial anesthesia remains conclusively unconfirmed. We present a case in which the patient developed subacute motor and predominantly sensory...

  7. PROJECT REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medakubu

    We here present a very preliminary report on a field project entitled 'Vanishing. Voices from Ghana's Middle Belt', an Endangered Languages Documentation Project funded by the Endangered Languages Documentation Program based at the School of. Oriental and African Studies, University of London. It is being carried ...

  8. Preliminary report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kathrine O F; Hansen, Svend H; Goetze, Jens P

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), apixaban and rivaroxaban, are used for anticoagulation treatment. Although biochemical monitoring is not required, severe bleedings caused by DOAC have been reported. We therefore evaluated the chromogenic assay Biophen DiXaI(®) (Biophen) using...

  9. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-11-24

    Nov 24, 2015 ... The authors report an exceptional case of collision tumor comprised of a gastric calcified stromal tumor and a pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The pancreatic tumor was detected fortuitously on the histological exam of resection specimen. Pan African Medical Journal. 2015; 22:289 doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.22.

  10. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-06-23

    Jun 23, 2013 ... 1Department of Paediatric Orthopaedics, Sofia Medical University, Bulgaria ... Abstract. We present a case report demonstrating the experience of the department of pediatric orthopaedics of the University Orthopedic Hospital at Sofia .... started with a stable walker according to a special physiotherapy.

  11. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-11-04

    Nov 4, 2013 ... antiviral drugs and the immunosuppressive therapy have been tried for those patients [1]. We report the ... The treatment of HBV-GN is not well defined, various therapeutic strategies have been tried. HBV-GN is ... Arrayhani mohamed is major contributors to writing the manuscript and to the conception and ...

  12. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-12-18

    Dec 18, 2011 ... The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors' contribution. SS and MB performed the surgical procedure and reported the case. HT and MMM participated in the diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. MFC, FC and SS made major contributions in writing the manuscript. All authors read ...

  13. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    19 janv. 2015 ... Moshe SL, Nordli D, Plouin P, Scheffer IE. Revised terminology and concepts for organization of seizures and epilepsies: report of the ILAE Commission on Classification and Terminology,. 2005–2009. Epilepsia. 2010;. 51(4):676-. 685. PubMed |Google Scholar. 9. Berkovic SF, Howell RA, Hay DA, Hopper ...

  14. CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report is a case of an unusual presentation of prostate cancer ... Keywords: Prostate cancer, neck mass, metastasis, Androgen Deprivation Therapy ... The thyroid and submandibular glands were considered normal. A provisional diagnosis of extra pulmonary tuberculo- sis with a differential of lymphoma was made. An.

  15. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-04-30

    Apr 30, 2011 ... Abstract. Primary bone lymphoma (PBL) is a relatively uncommon entity. However, involvement of the cranial vault is an unusual manifestation of aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We report the case of a 42-year old immunocompetent woman who presented with an enlarging mass involving the.

  16. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    7 août 2015 ... 2. Soufi M, Errougani A, Chekkof RM. Primary gastric leiomyosarcoma in young revealed by a massive hematemesis. J Gastrointest Cancer. 2009;40(1-2):69-72. PubMed | Google · Scholar. 3. Biswas M, Rahi R, Tiwary SK, Khanna AK et al. Leiomyosarcoma of stomach: a case report. Kathmandu Univ.

  17. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-02-13

    Feb 13, 2015 ... Abstract. Trichosporonasahii is a basidiomycete yeast responsible for white piedra and onychomycosis in the immunocompetent host. In the immunocompromised patients, invasive infections are reported; their diagnosis is difficult and they are associated with high mortality rate. Urinary infection due to ...

  18. CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-02

    Sep 2, 2011 ... ART therapy, suggesting that a decrease in OIs was responsible for reduction in morbidity.6 Based on a 15 - 20% central nervous system involvement at presentation, CNS prophylaxis is considered standard practice in AIDS-NHL. Series with chemotherapy reported a 50% complete response and a median ...

  19. Workshop report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-10-10

    Oct 10, 2011 ... A workshop report on promoting HIV/AIDS understanding through a capacity building train-the-trainer educational intervention. Holly J Diesel1,&, Dickson S Nsagha2, Clement M Sab2, Donna Taliaferro3, Neal S Rosenburg4. 1Goldfarb School of Nursing at Barnes Jewish College, 4483 Duncan, St. Louis, ...

  20. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-06-13

    Jun 13, 2017 ... Oxyuriasis's symptoms are extremely diverse in children, ranging from nausea, diarrhea, insomnia, irritability, recurrent cellulitis, loss of appetite, nightmares and endometritis. Here we report a curious case of oxyuriasis in the settings of a refugee camp in Greece. The patient was a. 10-year old Syrian ...

  1. CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nikoy

    Abstract. A 21 day old boy with spontaneous scrotal faecal fistula following a neglected strangulated right inguinal hernia is reported. He had necrotizing fasciitis of the right scrotum with sparing of the testis. He successfully had debridement, herniotomy and bowel resection with end-to-end anastomosis. This is a.

  2. Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    through a small clinically-undetectable inguinal hernia, and may require herniorrhaphy. If imaging studies exclude an associated hernia or patent processus vaginalis, a conservative approach may be adopted. Case report: An 80 year-old bed-ridden male developed gross bilateral scrotal swelling (without cough impulse).

  3. CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy two years prior to this presentation. There was no family history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus. ... work~up for hypertension during pregnancy re- vealed a right suprarenal mass measuring 87 mm by 74 mm with a ... the retroperitoneal space'. The'age at pre- sentation of reported cases of adrenal myelo-.

  4. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... 2014;6(1):1-7. PubMed | Google Scholar. 6. Agwu FE, Nduka EC, Nwachukwu KC. Atypical Eclampsia: Case. Report. Pioneer Medical Journal. 2013; 3:5. PubMed | Google. Scholar. 7. Shirin Niroomanesh a, Fatemeh Mirzaie. Atypical postpartum eclampsia: Status epilepticus without preeclamptic prodromi.

  5. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-09-10

    Sep 10, 2015 ... Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET). (www.afenet.net). Case report .... contact other than pigs on his farm, no travels out of the region. He presented fever of 40°C upon .... and administering systemic antibiotics for treatment of bacterial superinfection. With the.

  6. Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carcinoma (perianal Bowen disease). 5>6. Case Report. A 14 years old boy was admitted for a voluminous ... and treated as hemorrhoids by local application of herbs without success. The tumor increased in size ... transmission is unknown. The beginning of the disease since childhood may be due to sexual abuse without.

  7. Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administratör

    2008-10-10

    Oct 10, 2008 ... of treatment. Materials and methods: A report of a 22-year-old male student who presented with recurrent multiloculated genital, thigh, groin and retroperitneal lymphangioma. He underwent ... The diagnosis and treatment of such lesions have been ... include lymphoedema, lymphorrhea and lymphatic ...

  8. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-08-27

    Aug 27, 2011 ... We describe a giant cystic lymphangioma in a 12-years girl who was treated surgically with very good ... patient reported a history of chronic constipation for which intermittent medical treatment administered for 2 years had failed. ... or abdominal swollenness with lower extremities lymphoedema [4,5].

  9. CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report here three cases of eryptoeoceal meningitis in HIV patients treated at the Port-of Spain General Hospital in one year. The clinical manifestations in these patients included prolonged and seVere headache, neck stiffness and blurring of vision. The patients were treated with amphotericin B. Two patients died a few ...

  10. Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydatid disease may occur in any organ of the human body, but an isolated retrovesical hydatid. (RVH) cyst is rare. We report two cases of isolated RVH cyst - one mimicking an ovarian cyst, the other presenting as acute urinary retention - and a third case of RVH cyst associated with bladder and rectal fistula and a hepatic ...

  11. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... of liver decompensation. The pregnancy outcome was a fresh stillbirth with mother alive. This case report highlights the management dilemma of hepatocellular carcinoma in pregnancy on the background of decompensated liver cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis B infection. Pan African Medical Journal. 2016 ...

  12. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    9 juil. 2015 ... Albert H. Diffuse idiopathic hypertrophy of the mammary glands of the female: a report of a new case and a consideration of the etiology and pathology based on data of recorded cases. JAMA.1910; 55: 1339-43.PubMed | Google · Scholar. 8. Lafrenière R, Temple W, Ketchman A. Gestationnal macromastia.

  13. CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We hereby report two cases of snake-bite in school age who are already conscious of the dangers children in which there is envenomation with severe associated with snakes and snakebite. Snakebite local tissue necrosis and gangrene. This becomes a life-threatening medical emergency only unfortunately led to major ...

  14. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-05-31

    May 31, 2016 ... Abstract. This is a case report of spinal tuberculosis combined with sacroiliac joint tuberculosis, pulmonary tuberculosis, chest wall tuberculosis and tuberculous pleurisy and the image of the patient is rare, special and not typical and it looks like a halo sign. It has an important reference value.

  15. Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    per minute (bpm) and respiratory rate was 19 per minute. Weight was 53kg and his height was 149 cm body surface. Bradycardia Following Oral Corticosteroid Use: Case Report and Literature Review. Amar Al Shibli1*, Ibrahim Al Attrach2, Mohammad A. Hamdan3. Divisions of General Pediatrics1, Nephrology2 and ...

  16. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... amphoterecin B and dapsone (4, 4-diaminodiphenyl sulphone). However, by far there has been no tangible success with medical therapy [2-5,8]. Conclusion. Nasal rhinosporidiosis remains a seldom disease entity in our environment. However, with emanating reports of sporadic cases in our region, it is.

  17. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-05-02

    May 2, 2014 ... hypersensitivity syndrome in the literature by using the Regis CAR scoring system [4], carbamazepine remains the mostly reported. (27% of cases). But a variety of other drugs, such as allopurinol, minocycline, dapsone, sulfasalazine, and mexiletine, antiretrovirals have also been associated with DRESS.

  18. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    &Corresponding author: Fatima Zahra Elfatoiki, CHU Ibn Rochd, Service de Dermatologie, Casablanca, Maroc. Key words: Sarcoidosis, porokeratosis of Mibelli, granuloma. Received: 11/07/2014 - Accepted: 02/03/2015 - Published: 03/03/2015. Abstract. We report a skin localization of systemic sarcoidosis, which presented ...

  19. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-09-03

    Sep 3, 2015 ... 2. Introduction. Primary malignant tumors of the small bowel are rare, representing. 1 to 1.4% of all gastrointestinal tumors [1]. The malignant tumors of the small bowel ... with a maximum difference between the two genders for the age ... onset of a volvulus, with only two other similar cases reported in the.

  20. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-02-22

    Feb 22, 2011 ... The most common features of thrombotic disorders in antiphospholipid syndrome are deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary thromboembolism, and stroke. This syndrome is rarely initiated in the coronary arteries. On the other hand, acute myocardial infarction is unusual in young adults, but it has been reported ...

  1. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-02-18

    Feb 18, 2013 ... 4. Takahashi T, Velasco L, Zarate X, Medina-Franco H, Cortes R, de la Garza L, Gamboa-Dominguez A. Anorectal melanoma: Report of three cases with extended follow-up. South Med J. 2004 Mar; 97(3):311-3. PubMed| Google Scholar. 5. Sucker C, Dolken G, Stockschlader M. Malignant melanoma of.

  2. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-05-05

    May 5, 2017 ... in other bones including mandible, clavicle, cuboid and pelvis [1-5]. Rarely, CO has been reported to involve extra .... Fracture. Likely osteosarcoma. Sugery and chemotherapy. 13.6. 4 years: death. Our case. 14. Male. Painful swelling. Metaphyseal osteolytic lesion. Sugery and chemotherapy. 12. 3 years: ...

  3. Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riggs SA, Wray NP, Waddell CC, Rossen RD,. Gyorkey F. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura complicating Legionnaires' disease. Arch Intern Med. 1982 Dec;142(13):2275-80. 13. Myers KA, Marrie TJ. Thrombotic microangiopathy associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia: case report and review.

  4. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-08-31

    Aug 31, 2015 ... Dual intersection syndrome of the forearm: a case report. Bouchra Zhari1,&, Meryem ... An MRI and an ultrasound were performed, and objectified a dual cross syndrome of the forearm. Pan African Medical Journal ... 8,000 patients who presented with arm or hand pain in Thailand. In the general population ...

  5. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    31 juil. 2013 ... signes cliniques et radiologiques, les métastases mammaires peuvent être confondues avec un cancer primitif et être à l'origine d'un traitement mutilant ..... Metastatic breast cancer from gastric and ovarian cancer, mimicking inflammatory breast cancer: report of two cases. Breast Cancer. 2008;15(4):315–.

  6. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-05-01

    May 1, 2014 ... because antineuronal autoantibodies and T-cell responses against nervous system antigens have been defined ... treated by calcium antagonists, who consulted in our hospital complaining from vertigo, vomiting and ... nuclei and brainstem are also identified in some patients [5]. PCD has been reported in ...

  7. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-12-21

    Dec 21, 2015 ... We report our first experiences of use of the video-laryngoscope through two cases of difficult tracheal intubation which had required the adjournment of the interventions. It results that the video-laryngoscope makes tracheal intubation easier even in it's the first use because of the good glottal display which ...

  8. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    14 mars 2011 ... Ankylosing spondylitis and sarcoidosis´coincidence or association´ Case report and review of the literature. Clin Rheumatol. 1992 Sep;11(3):436-9. This article on PubMed. 6. Vandergheynst F, Tant L. Sarcoidosis masquerading as ankylosing spondylitis. Eur J Intern Med. 2006; 17:74. This article on ...

  9. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-02-02

    Feb 2, 2015 ... 1. Primary hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary: a case report. Aicha Mazouz1,&, Lamiae Amaadour1, Hassania Ameurtesse2, Laila Chban2, Afaf Amarti2, Fouad Kettani3, Omar ... primary HCO was described in 1987 by Ishikura and Scully [1]. To .... Figure 1: histologic sections (HES× 100) of peritoneal biopsy.

  10. CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at this stage was risk of carotid blow out. The patient was therefore taken back to theatre, where no. Address for Correspondence: Dr. U Noma definitive bleeding point was identified, the posterior. Email: maniyakubu@gmail.com. Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report Vol. 1 No. 1 January – June, 2009. 23 ...

  11. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-05-06

    1g / 24h), positive auto antibodies and anti DNA. ... The salivary gland biopsy showed amyloïd deposits. This case report reminds us that lupus and .... There are several types of amyloidosis according to the nature of the ...

  12. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-03-05

    Mar 5, 2013 ... 1. Mohandas MK, Swaroop SV, Krishnamurthy S, Desai CD, Dhir. V, Pradhan AS et al. Unusual bone metastasis as the initial symptom of gastric cancer - a report of four cases. Indian J. Cancer. 1993; 30:146-50. PubMed | Google Scholar. 2. Carstens SA, Resnick D. Diffuse sclerotic skeletal metastasis as.

  13. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-04-24

    Apr 24, 2014 ... caused by rat are relatively scarce or maybe poorly reported. However, when rat eye injury occurred, it is ... No eye witness account of the exact cause of the incident. About 30 minutes prior to the incident, she ... secondary school dropout and she is a sewing mistress by profession. The patient lives with her ...

  14. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    29 janv. 2015 ... Antonijevic Nebojsa, Terzic Tatjana, Jovanovic Vladimir,. Suvajdzic Nada, Milosevic Rajko, Basara Nada, Elezoviv Ivo. Acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia: three case reports and a literature review. Med Pregl. 2004 ; 57(5-6):. 292-297. PubMed | Google Scholar. 9. Cela Iva, Miller Ira, Katz Robert, ...

  15. Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation. 2009 May;2(2):48-50. Case Report. AJNT. Abstract. Introduction: Granulomatous interstitial nephritis. (GIN) is a rare histological diagnosis that can be the first manifestation of systemic disease. It has been associated with medications, infections, sarcoidosis, crystal deposits,.

  16. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... Because of the similarities with other digestive tumors, namely mesenchymatous or benign tumors of the smooth muscle, the diagnosis of a pleomorphic sarcoma remains difficult even at the histological stage. Surgery is the mainstay of the therapy. We report a case of leiomyosarcoma of the mesocolon and ...

  17. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-09-18

    Sep 18, 2013 ... treated with bortezomib: a report from the Korean Multiple. Myeloma Working Party (KMMWP) Retrospective Study. Jpn J. Clin Oncol. 2011 Mar;41(3):353-7. PubMed | Google Scholar. 6. Kyle RA, Gertz MA, Witzig TE. Review of 1027 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Mayo Clin Proc. 2003;.

  18. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-07-20

    Jul 20, 2015 ... complications like cellulitis, arthritis and osteoarthritis [1]. We report in this work an exceptional case of acute carpal tunnel syndrome with compartment syndrome of the right hand following a neglected cat bite, the objective of this work is to analyze the clinical, microbiological and therapeutic aspects of cat ...

  19. RESEARCH REPORTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stagnated or declined over the same period (Botswana National Productivity. Centre, 1997). The performance ... This study is concerned with the productivity of nurses working within the. Primary Health Care System, ..... RESEARCH REPORTS 157 concluded that self—managing teams tend to increase group performance.

  20. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    21 mai 2015 ... Anastasopoulos N, Totlis T. Bilateral rectus femoris intramuscular haematoma following simultaneous quadriceps strain in an athlete: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2010;4:56. PubMed | Google Scholar. 7. Liow RY, Tavares S. Bilateral rupture of the quadriceps tendon associated with anabolic steroids.