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Sample records for encased stone columns

  1. Modeling Stone Columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jorge

    2017-07-11

    This paper reviews the main modeling techniques for stone columns, both ordinary stone columns and geosynthetic-encased stone columns. The paper tries to encompass the more recent advances and recommendations in the topic. Regarding the geometrical model, the main options are the "unit cell", longitudinal gravel trenches in plane strain conditions, cylindrical rings of gravel in axial symmetry conditions, equivalent homogeneous soil with improved properties and three-dimensional models, either a full three-dimensional model or just a three-dimensional row or slice of columns. Some guidelines for obtaining these simplified geometrical models are provided and the particular case of groups of columns under footings is also analyzed. For the latter case, there is a column critical length that is around twice the footing width for non-encased columns in a homogeneous soft soil. In the literature, the column critical length is sometimes given as a function of the column length, which leads to some disparities in its value. Here it is shown that the column critical length mainly depends on the footing dimensions. Some other features related with column modeling are also briefly presented, such as the influence of column installation. Finally, some guidance and recommendations are provided on parameter selection for the study of stone columns.

  2. Review of design codes of concrete encased steel short columns under axial compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Z. Soliman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of encased steel concrete columns has been increased significantly in medium-rise or high-rise buildings. The aim of the present investigation is to assess experimentally the current methods and codes for evaluating the ultimate load behavior of concrete encased steel short columns. The current state of design provisions for composite columns from the Egyptian codes ECP203-2007 and ECP-SC-LRFD-2012, as well as, American Institute of Steel Construction, AISC-LRFD-2010, American Concrete Institute, ACI-318-2008, and British Standard BS-5400-5 was reviewed. The axial capacity portion of both the encased steel section and the concrete section was also studied according to the previously mentioned codes. Ten encased steel concrete columns have been investigated experimentally to study the effect of concrete confinement and different types of encased steel sections. The measured axial capacity of the tested ten composite columns was compared with the values calculated by the above mentioned codes. It is concluded that non-negligible discrepancies exist between codes and the experimental results as the confinement effect was not considered in predicting both the strength and ductility of concrete. The confining effect was obviously influenced by the shape of the encased steel section. The tube-shaped steel section leads to better confinement than the SIB section. Among the used codes, the ECP-SC-LRFD-2012 led to the most conservative results.

  3. Experimental and Numerical Study of FRP Encased Composite Concrete Columns

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    Mohsen Ishaghian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A new type of composite column is presented and assessed through experimental testing and numerical modeling. The objective of this research is to investigate design options for a composite column without the use of ferrous materials. This is to avoid the current problem of deterioration of concrete due to expansion of rusting reinforcement members. Such a target can be achieved by replacing the steel reinforcement of concrete columns with pultruded I-shape glass FRP structural sections. The composite column utilizes a glass FRP tube that surrounds a pultruded I-section glass FRP, which is subsequently filled with concrete. The GFRP tube acts as a stay-in-place form in addition to providing confinement to the concrete. A total of four composite columns were tested under monotonic axial loading. The experimental ultimate capacity of each of the tested composite column was compared to the predicted numerical capacity using ANSYS program. The comparison showed that the predicted numerical values were in good agreement with the experimental ones.

  4. Estimation of bearing capacity of floating group of stone columns

    OpenAIRE

    Fattah, Mohammed Y.; Al-Neami, Mohammed A.; Shamel Al-Suhaily, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Stone column is one of the ground improvement techniques. This technique has a proven performance, short time schedule, durability, constructability and low costs. The stone column technique has been used as a method of reinforcement of soft ground over the past 30 years. The bearing capacity of the stone column still has high level of uncertainties because the existing formulas for the estimation of the bearing capacity are general and do not take into consideration the type of the stone col...

  5. Circular Raft Footings Strengthened by Stone Columns under Static Loads

    OpenAIRE

    R. Ziaie Moayed; B. Mohammadi-Haji

    2016-01-01

    Stone columns have been widely employed to improve the load-settlement characteristics of soft soils. The results of two small scale displacement control loading tests on stone columns were used in order to validate numerical finite element simulations. Additionally, a series of numerical calculations of static loading have been performed on strengthened raft footing to investigate the effects of using stone columns on bearing capacity of footings. The bearing capacity of single and group of ...

  6. Sustainable materials used as stone column filler: A short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukri, Azhani; Nazir, Ramli

    2018-04-01

    Stone columns (also known as granular piles) are one of the methods for soft soil stabilization and typically used to increase bearing capacity and stability of slope.; Apart from decreasing the compressibility of loose and fine graded soils, it also accelerates the consolidation effect by improving the drainage path for pore water pressure dissipation and reduces the liquefaction potential of soils during earthquake event. Stone columns are probably the most “natural” ground treatment method or foundation system in existence to date. The benefit of stone columns is owing to the partial replacement of compressible soil by more competent materials such as stone aggregate, sand and other granular materials. These substitutes also act as reinforcement material, hence increasing overall strength and stiffness of the soft soil. Nowadays, a number of research has been conducted on the behaviour and performance of stone columns with various materials utilized as column filler replacing the normal aggregate. This paper will review extensively on previously conducted research on some of the materials used as stone column backfill materials, its suitability and the effectiveness as a substitute for regular aggregates in soft soil improvement works.

  7. Practical fire design of partially encased composite steel-concrete columns according to Eurocode 4

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    Sadaoui Arezki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A practical method based on Campus-Massonet criteria which is developed initially to steel structures with combined compression and bending is adapted for the calculation of the buckling resistance of eccentrically loaded columns. The latter at room temperature or in fire situation is expressed by a simple formula as a function of an equivalent buckling coefficient taking into account the amount the eccentricity of the compressive applied load. The method proposed combines accuracy, efficiency and convenience obviating the need of M-N interaction diagrams and long iteration process. Otherwise, the estimation of the fire resistance for a given loading is made on the assumption based on the linearity with the level applied compressive load. It was found that the fire resistance of a column subjected to an eccentric load decreases gradually with the increase in the load level (ƞ , the slenderness ratio (λ or the amount of the eccentricity. For a fire resistance of one hour, time enough to evacuate the building of all its occupants, it recommended to use η≤ 0.5 and λ ≤45. The range of values of reinforcement cover (u suggested by Eurocode 4 leads to a better fire resistance except for u = 60 mm where there is a decline of the about 10%.

  8. Prediction of axial limit capacity of stone columns using dimensional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazaruddin A., T.; Mohamed, Zainab; Mohd Azizul, L.; Hafez M., A.

    2017-08-01

    Stone column is the most favorable method used by engineers in designing work for stabilization of soft ground for road embankment, and foundation for liquid structure. Easy installation and cheaper cost are among the factors that make stone column more preferable than other method. Furthermore, stone column also can acts as vertical drain to increase the rate of consolidation during preloading stage before construction work started. According to previous studied there are several parameters that influence the capacity of stone column. Among of them are angle friction of among the stones, arrangement of column (two pattern arrangement most applied triangular and square), spacing center to center between columns, shear strength of soil, and physical size of column (diameter and length). Dimensional analysis method (Buckingham-Pi Theorem) has used to carry out the new formula for prediction of load capacity stone columns. Experimental data from two previous studies was used for analysis of study.

  9. Numerical analysis of stone columns in mitigating liquefaction effects in embankment fills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghei, Z.; Soroush, A. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Noorzad, A. [Power and Water University of Technology, Tehran, (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    The traditional approach to liquefaction in embankment fills is to use in-situ densification. The use of stone columns offers the possibility of preventing liquefaction and associated settlements while reducing the cost and time required for treatment. This paper investigated the behaviour of stone columns using a numerical method. The study focused on a case study, a sand layer beneath two wall tanks, butane and propane NGL, located on Siri Island, Persian Gulf, Iran. Numerical analyses were carried out to evaluate the rate of excess pore pressure build-up in the improved ground. The numerical model results were compared to the simulation results from a centrifuge test for a uniform 19m-thick liquefiable sand layer. The numerical methodology was verified. The results showed that the stone columns can significantly increase the rate of pore pressure dissipation and reduce the settlement. It was found that the installation process densifies the surrounding soil, decreasing the liquefaction potential.

  10. Consolidation Theory for a Stone Column Composite Foundation under Multistage Loading

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    Shenggen Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The consolidation theories considering instant load cannot fully reveal the consolidation mechanism of a stone column composite foundation used in the expressway embankments due to the time effect of loading; that is, the expressway embankments are often constructed in several stages for a long time. Meanwhile, owing to the special property that the pile-soil stress ratio is larger than 1, the consolidation theory for sand drain well foundation cannot be used directly in the consolidation analysis of stone column composite foundation. Based on the principle that the vertical load applied on the composite foundation is shared by the stone column and the surrounding soil, the governing solutions for the stone column composite foundation under a multistage load are established. By virtue of the separation of variables, the corresponding solutions of degree of consolidation for loading stage and maintaining load stage are derived separately. According to the Carrillo theorem, the solution for the average total degree of consolidation of entire composite foundation is also obtained. Finally, the reasonableness of the present solution has been verified by comparing the consolidation curve calculated by the present solution with that measured by site test.

  11. Mathematical solution of the stone column effect on the load bearing capacity and settlement using numerical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madun, A.; Meghzili, S. A.; Tajudin, SAA; Yusof, M. F.; Zainalabidin, M. H.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Dan, M. F. Md; Ismail, M. A. M.

    2018-04-01

    The most important application of various geotechnical construction techniques is for ground improvement. Many soil improvement project had been developed due to the ongoing increase in urban and industrial growth and the need for greater access to lands. Stone columns are one of the best effective and feasible techniques for soft clay soil improvement. Stone columns increase the bearing capacity and reduce the settlement of soil. Finite element analyses were performed using the program PLAXIS 2D. An elastic-perfectly plastic constitutive relation, based on the Mohr–Coulomb criterion, governs the soft clay and stone column behaviour. This paper presents on how the response surface methodology (RSM) software is used to optimize the effect of the diameters and lengths of column on the load bearing capacity and settlement of soft clay. Load tests through the numerical modelling using Plaxis 2D were carried out on the loading plate at 66 mm. Stone column load bearing capacity increases with the increasing diameter of the column and settlement decreases with the increasing length of the column. Results revealed that the bigger column diameter, the higher load bearing capacity of soil while the longer column length, the lower settlement of soil. However, the optimum design of stone column was varied with each factor (diameter and length) separately for improvement.

  12. Consolidation Theory for a Stone Column Composite Foundation under Multistage Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Shenggen; Feng, Yingtao; Liu, Hao; Wu, Wenbing; Mei, Guoxiong

    2016-01-01

    The consolidation theories considering instant load cannot fully reveal the consolidation mechanism of a stone column composite foundation used in the expressway embankments due to the time effect of loading; that is, the expressway embankments are often constructed in several stages for a long time. Meanwhile, owing to the special property that the pile-soil stress ratio is larger than 1, the consolidation theory for sand drain well foundation cannot be used directly in the consolidation ana...

  13. Shear wave velocity-based evaluation and design of stone column improved ground for liquefaction mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanguo; Sun, Zhengbo; Chen, Jie; Chen, Yunmin; Chen, Renpeng

    2017-04-01

    The evaluation and design of stone column improvement ground for liquefaction mitigation is a challenging issue for the state of practice. In this paper, a shear wave velocity-based approach is proposed based on the well-defined correlations of liquefaction resistance (CRR)-shear wave velocity ( V s)-void ratio ( e) of sandy soils, and the values of parameters in this approach are recommended for preliminary design purpose when site specific values are not available. The detailed procedures of pre- and post-improvement liquefaction evaluations and stone column design are given. According to this approach, the required level of ground improvement will be met once the target V s of soil is raised high enough (i.e., no less than the critical velocity) to resist the given earthquake loading according to the CRR- V s relationship, and then this requirement is transferred to the control of target void ratio (i.e., the critical e) according to the V s- e relationship. As this approach relies on the densification of the surrounding soil instead of the whole improved ground and is conservative by nature, specific considerations of the densification mechanism and effect are given, and the effects of drainage and reinforcement of stone columns are also discussed. A case study of a thermal power plant in Indonesia is introduced, where the effectiveness of stone column improved ground was evaluated by the proposed V s-based method and compared with the SPT-based evaluation. This improved ground performed well and experienced no liquefaction during subsequent strong earthquakes.

  14. Numerical modelling techniques of soft soil improvement via stone columns: A brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukri, Azhani; Nazir, Ramli

    2018-04-01

    There are a number of numerical studies on stone column systems in the literature. Most of the studies found were involved with two-dimensional analysis of the stone column behaviour, while only a few studies used three-dimensional analysis. The most popular software utilised in those studies was Plaxis 2D and 3D. Other types of software that used for numerical analysis are DIANA, EXAMINE, ZSoil, ABAQUS, ANSYS, NISA, GEOSTUDIO, CRISP, TOCHNOG, CESAR, GEOFEM (2D & 3D), FLAC, and FLAC 3. This paper will review the methodological approaches to model stone column numerically, both in two-dimensional and three-dimensional analyses. The numerical techniques and suitable constitutive model used in the studies will also be discussed. In addition, the validation methods conducted were to verify the numerical analysis conducted will be presented. This review paper also serves as a guide for junior engineers through the applicable procedures and considerations when constructing and running a two or three-dimensional numerical analysis while also citing numerous relevant references.

  15. Column treatment of brewery wastewater using clay fortified with stone-pebbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oladoja, N.A.; Ademoroti, C.M.A.; Idiaghe, J.A.; Oketola, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    The study aimed at providing a low-cost treatment for brewery wastewater, which was achieved by mixing clay with stone-pebbles to improve the low permeability of water through clay beds. The combination (clay/stone-pebbles) was used in columns for the treatment of brewery wastewater. The crystal chemistry of the clay samples was studied using X-ray diffractometer. Three principal clay minerals (kaolin, illite and smectite) were detected in the samples. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to study the geochemistry of the clay samples. The results of the geochemical studies showed that all the samples were hydrated aluminosilicates. Performance efficiency studies were conducted to determine the best combination ratio of clay to stone-pebbles, which showed that combination ratio 3:1 (clay/stone pebbles, w/w) performed better. The flow-rate studies showed that brewery wastewater had longer residence time in non fortified clay than in fortified clay. The flow-rate of the wastewater in the percolating media varied from one medium to another. Two modes of treatment (batch and continuous) were used. The effluent passed through the continuous treatment mode had better quality characteristics as compared with the effluent passed through the batch treatment mode. The effect of repeated use of the fortified column on the performance efficiency was also studied. The pH, total solids, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the effluent was monitored over time. The results of the COD monitored over time were analysed using breakthrough curves. The different columns were found to have different bed volumes at both the break through and exhaustion points. (author)

  16. Prediction of the Effect of Using Stone Column in Clayey Soil on the Behavior of Circular Footing by ANN Model

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    Omar Khaleel Ismael Al-Kubaisi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Shallow foundations are usually used for structures with light to moderate loads where the soil underneath can carry them. In some cases, soil strength and/or other properties are not adequate and require improvement using one of the ground improvement techniques. Stone column is one of the common improvement techniques in which a column of stone is installed vertically in clayey soils. Stone columns are usually used to increase soil strength and to accelerate soil consolidation by acting as vertical drains. Many researches have been done to estimate the behavior of the improved soil. However, none of them considered the effect of stone column geometry on the behavior of the circular footing. In this research, finite element models have been conducted to evaluate the behavior of a circular footing with different stone column configurations. Moreover, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN model has been generated for predicting these effects. The results showed a reduction in the bending moment, the settlement, and the vertical stresses with the increment of the stone column length, while both the horizontal stress and the shear force were increased. ANN model showed a good relationship between the predicted and the calculated results.

  17. Nondestructive evaluation of the preservation state of stone columns in the Hospital Real of Granada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno de Jong van Coevorden, C.; Cobos Sánchez, C.; Rubio Bretones, A.; Fernández Pantoja, M.; García, Salvador G.; Gómez Martín, R.

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes the results of the employment of two nondestructive evaluation methods for the diagnostic of the preservation state of stone elements. The first method is based on ultrasonic (US) pulses while the second method uses short electromagnetic pulses. Specifically, these methods were applied to some columns, some of them previously restored. These columns are part of the architectonic heritage of the University of Granada, in particular they are located at the patio de la capilla del Hospital Real of Granada. The objective of this work was the application of systems based on US pulses (in transmission mode) and the ground-penetrating radar systems (electromagnetic tomography) in the diagnosis and detection of possible faults in the interior of columns.

  18. A simulation-optimization model for Stone column-supported embankment stability considering rainfall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, Kousik; Dhar, Anirban; Purohit, Sandip

    2016-01-01

    Landslide due to rainfall has been and continues to be one of the most important concerns of geotechnical engineering. The paper presents the variation of factor of safety of stone column-supported embankment constructed over soft soil due to change in water level for an incessant period of rainfall. A combined simulation-optimization based methodology has been proposed to predict the critical surface of failure of the embankment and to optimize the corresponding factor of safety under rainfall conditions using an evolutionary genetic algorithm NSGA-II (Non-Dominated Sorted Genetic Algorithm-II). It has been observed that the position of water table can be reliably estimated with varying periods of infiltration using developed numerical method. The parametric study is presented to study the optimum factor of safety of the embankment and its corresponding critical failure surface under the steady-state infiltration condition. Results show that in case of floating stone columns, period of infiltration has no effect on factor of safety. Even critical failure surfaces for a particular floating column length remain same irrespective of rainfall duration

  19. A simulation-optimization model for Stone column-supported embankment stability considering rainfall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deb, Kousik, E-mail: kousik@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in [Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721302 (India); Dhar, Anirban, E-mail: anirban@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in [Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721302 (India); Purohit, Sandip, E-mail: sandip.purohit91@gmail.com [Former B.Tech Student, Department of Civil Engineering, NIT Rourkela, Rourkela (India)

    2016-02-01

    Landslide due to rainfall has been and continues to be one of the most important concerns of geotechnical engineering. The paper presents the variation of factor of safety of stone column-supported embankment constructed over soft soil due to change in water level for an incessant period of rainfall. A combined simulation-optimization based methodology has been proposed to predict the critical surface of failure of the embankment and to optimize the corresponding factor of safety under rainfall conditions using an evolutionary genetic algorithm NSGA-II (Non-Dominated Sorted Genetic Algorithm-II). It has been observed that the position of water table can be reliably estimated with varying periods of infiltration using developed numerical method. The parametric study is presented to study the optimum factor of safety of the embankment and its corresponding critical failure surface under the steady-state infiltration condition. Results show that in case of floating stone columns, period of infiltration has no effect on factor of safety. Even critical failure surfaces for a particular floating column length remain same irrespective of rainfall duration.

  20. Dynamic Characteristics of Saturated Silty Soil Ground Treated by Stone Column Composite Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Zhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A shaking table model test was carried out to develop an understanding of the performance improvement of saturated silty soil ground using stone column composite foundation as reinforcement. It is found that at less than 0.161 g loading acceleration, soil between piles has not yet been liquefied, the response acceleration scarcely enlarges, and the shear displacement almost does not appear in silty soil. At 0.252 g loading acceleration, as a result of liquefaction of soil between piles, the response acceleration increases rapidly and reaches its peak, and the shear displacement of silty soil increases significantly. At 0.325 g loading acceleration, the integral rigidity of foundation decreases greatly, which reduces its capability of vibration transmission and result in the response acceleration amplification coefficient is less than that at the former loading acceleration, but the shear displacement of silty soil further increases. The stone column composite foundation can greatly reduce both the shear displacement and the settlement of ground compared with untreated foundation. Under the condition of 7-degree seismic fortification, the design meets seismic resistance requirements.

  1. Strengthening and Stabilization of the Weak Water Saturated Soils Using Stone Columns

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    Sinyakov Leonid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers innovative modern materials and structures for strengthening of weak soils. In this paper describes a method of strengthening of weak saturated soils using stone columns. The method of calculating the physical-mechanical characteristics of reinforced soil mass is presented. Two approaches to determining the stress-strain state and timeframe of consolidation of strengthened soil foundation using the finite element technique in two-dimensional formulation are proposed. The first one approach it is a modeling of reinforced soil mass, where each pile is represented as a separate 2D stripe. The second approach is to the simulation of the strengthened mass the equivalent composite block with improved physical-mechanical characteristics. The use of the equivalent composite block can significantly reduce the time spent on the preparation of a design scheme. The results of calculations were compared. They show the allowable divergence of results of calculation by two methods were presented, and the efficiency of the strengthening of weak water saturated soils by stone column is proved.

  2. Influence of granular material characteristics in the behaviour of “Bouregreg Valley” soft ground improved with stone columns

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    Nehab Noura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of finite element analysis has become widespread in geotechnical practice as means of optimizing engineering tasks; it can be easily applied to the treated areas by stone columns, which are a method of improving the soil having low geotechnical properties and likely to deform significantly under load action, by incorporating granular material (commonly called ballast compacted by remounting passes, so they act mainly as inclusions with a higher stiffness, shear strength than the natural soil. Moreover the stone columns are highly permeable and act as vertical drains facilitating consolidation of the soft soil improving the performance of the foundation. However the characteristics of this granular material influence the behavior of soft soils treated by the stone columns technique, especially: the friction angle, the cohesion, the modular ratio and the constitutive model. The choice of the constitutive model depends on many factors but, in general, it is related to the type of analysis that we intend to perform. Numerical modeling must consider the diversity of the materials nature, the complex geometry of structures-land and the behavior of materials generally nonlinear (permanent deformation. It is a simple and effective alternative to approach the real behavior of soils reinforced by stone columns and the influence of materials characteristics, it allows settlement analysis, lateral deformation, vertical and horizontal stresses in order to understand the behavior of columns and soil. It also has the advantage of integrating the settlements of the underlying layers. This paper aims to study the mechanisms of functioning and interactions of stone columns with the surrounding ground, and vis-à-vis the various parameters characterizing the granular material "ballast" and the surrounding soil, which influence the behavior of the improved soil, The paper presents, in the first part, soil conditions and the parameters associated with

  3. A small stone column of the altar screen from the treasures of St Archangel Michael's monastery in Prevlaka

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    Crnčević Dejan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amongst exhibited fragments of carved stone decorations in the monastery of St Archangel Michael in Prevlaka, Boka Kotorska, situated on the ground floor of the monastery's accommodation quarters, there is a segment of stone liturgical furnishings which is, among other things, distinguished by its monumental dimensions, the high level of its craftsmanship, and the important artistic value of its carved decorations. This small stone column was found by chance as a surface-level find on the neighbouring island of St Gavrilo. This stone column is made from a monolithic piece of high- quality, light-grey marble. It is 96 cm in height, 20 cm wide at the front, 18.5 cm wide at the side, and 13cm wide at the rear. These dimensions indicate that the fragment has the form of an elongated hexahedron, with sides of unequal width. Only the front of this stone fragment is marked with relief decorations, comprising a regularly shaped two-part curled sprouting vine. Moving with its undulating rhythm, its arc defines a space in which is located the central motif of the decoration. This comprises the motif of a bud in the form of stylised crinoline flower, composed of two lateral leaves with a pronounced bulge in the middle. These tightly bent lateral leaves with sharp ends, together with the root of the formed shoot, leave an empty space filled with an offshoot in the form of a regularly formed volute. The left lateral side of the stone column is marked by a long but relatively shallow channel, created around its axis, with a width of 7.5 cm. Its rear side is divided by its own height into two vertical fields, of almost the same width - 6 and 7 cm respectively - one slightly elevated compared to the other. The right lateral side of the column is slanted and only lightly sculptured. On the upper surface of the pillar, a relatively shallow circular hole with a small span is visible, intended as a connection point for other segments that would have been placed on

  4. Feedback of the behaviour of a silo founded on a compressible soil improved by floating stone columns

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    Bahar Ramdane

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The coastal city of Bejaia, located 250 kilometers east of the capital Algiers, Algeria, is characterized by soft soils. The residual grounds encountered on the first 40 meters usually have a low bearing capacity, high compressibility, insufficient strength, and subject to the risk of liquefaction. These unfavorable soil conditions require deep foundations or soil improvement. Since late 1990s, stone columns technique is used to improve the weak soils of the harbor area of the city. A shallow raft foundation on soft soil improved by stone columns was designed for a heavy storage steel silo and two towers. The improvement of 18m depth have not reached the substratum located at 39m depth. The stresses transmitted to the service limit state are variable 73 to 376 kPa. A rigorous and ongoing monitoring of the evolution of loads in the silo and settlements of the soil was carried out during 1400 days that is from the construction of foundations in 2008 to 2012. After the loading of the silo in 2010, settlement occurred affecting the stability of the towers due to excessive differential settlements. Consequently, the towers were inclined and damaged the transporter. This paper presents and discusses the experience feedback of the behavior of these structures. Numerical calculations by finite elements have been carried and the results are compared with the measurements.

  5. Design of buried concrete encasements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    The operation of many Department of Energy (DOE) sites requires the transfer of radioactive liquid products from one location to another. DOE Order 6430.1A requires that the transfer pipelines be designed and constructed so that any leakage can be detected and contained before it reaches the environment. One design option often considered to meet this requirement is to place the pipeline in a stainless steel-lined, buried concrete encasement. This provides the engineer with the design challenge to integrate standard structural design principles with unique DOE requirements. The complete design of a buried concrete encasement must consider seismic effects, leak detection, leak confinement, radiation shielding, thermal effects, pipe supports, and constructability. This paper contains a brief discussion of each of these design considerations, based on experience gained during the design of concrete encasements for the Process Facilities Modifications (PFM) project at Hanford

  6. Stone column settlement performance in structured anisotropic clays: the influence of creep

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    Brian G. Sexton

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recently developed elasto-viscoplastic Creep-SCLAY1S model has been used in conjunction with PLAXIS 2D to investigate the effectiveness of vibro-replacement in a creep-prone clay. The Creep-SCLAY1S model accounts for anisotropy, bonding, and destructuration, and uses the concept of a constant rate of viscoplastic multiplier to calculate creep strain rate. A comparison of settlement improvement factors with and without creep indicates that ‘total’ settlement improvement factors (primary plus creep are lower than their ‘primary’ counterparts (primary settlement only. The lowest settlement improvement factors arise for analyses incorporating the effect of bonding and destructuration. Examination of the variations of vertical stress with time and depth has indicated that vertical stress is transferred from the soil to the column as the soil creeps. This results in additional column yielding. In addition, the radial and hoop stresses in the soil are lower for the ‘creep’ case. The reduced radial stresses lead to additional column bulging and hence more settlement, whereas the hoop stress reductions appear to be a secondary effect, caused by additional plastic deformation for the ‘creep’ case.

  7. Stability analysis of roadway embankments supported by stone columns with the presence of water table under short-term and long-term conditions

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    Kadhim Shaymaa Tareq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of stone column technique to improve soft foundation soils under roadway embankments has proven to increase the bearing capacity and reduce the potential settlement. The potential contribution of stone columns to the stability of roadway embankments against general (i.e. deep-seated failure needs to be thoroughly investigated. Therefore, a two-dimensional finite difference model implemented by FLAC/SLOPE 7.0 software, was employed in this study to assess the stability of a roadway embankment fill built on a soft soil deposit improved by stone column technique. The stability factor of safety was obtained numerically under both short-term and long-term conditions with the presence of water table. Two methods were adopted to convert the three-dimensional model into plane strain condition: column wall and equivalent improved ground methods. The effect of various parameters was studied to evaluate their influence on the factor of safety against embankment instability. For instance, the column diameter, columns’ spacing, soft soil properties for short-term and long-term conditions, and the height and friction angle of the embankment fill. The results of this study are developed in several design charts.

  8. 27 CFR 20.177 - Encased containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Encased containers. 20.177... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Dealers § 20.177 Encased containers. (a) A dealer may package specially denatured spirits in unlabeled containers which are completely encased in wood...

  9. 27 CFR 20.145 - Encased containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Encased containers. 20.145... Denatured Alcohol § 20.145 Encased containers. Completely denatured alcohol may be packaged by distributors in unlabeled containers which are completely encased in wood, fiberboard, or similar material so that...

  10. Soft soil strengthening by stone columns: case of the embankment under the bridge “Moulay Youssef” (Rabat/Salé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehab Noura

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The soil is generally a heterogeneous material presenting very variable characteristics. In a general way, the main problems related to soils are: low bearing capacity, deformations under static or dynamic loads, large displacements and large settlements of soft soil where the soil moves according to a fixed ground water table. The development of soil mechanics and geotechnical engineering has led to the amelioration of a wide range of soil improvement techniques. These techniques consist in modifying the characteristics of the ground by physical action or by incorporating columnar inclusions made of highly compacted gravel or granular material into the original soil. Stone column is one of the soft ground improvement methods, applicable to a wide range of soil strata and an economical method of support in compressible and cohesive soils. However, there are many difficulties in quantitative analysis of soil column interaction due to the fact that bearing capacity and consolidation behavior of stone column-mat foundation system is affected by various parameters. In the present study, mechanism and various parameters of stone column behavior are investigated by loading tests. Also, tests results are compared to the finite element numerical modeling “Plaxis 2D” (case study: the embankment under the bridge “Moulay Youssef, Rabat/Salé”.

  11. Assessment of stone columns as a mitigation technique of liquefaction-induced effects during Italian earthquakes (May 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcellini, Davide; Tarantino, Angelo Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Soil liquefaction has been observed worldwide during recent major earthquakes with induced effects responsible for much of the damage, disruption of function, and considerable replacement expenses for structures. The phenomenon has not been documented in recent time with such damage in Italian context before the recent Emilia-Romagna Earthquake (May 2012). The main lateral spreading and vertical deformations affected the stability of many buildings and impacted social life inducing valuable lessons on liquefaction risk assessment and remediation. This paper aims first of all to reproduce soil response to liquefaction-induced lateral effects and thus to evaluate stone column mitigation technique effectiveness by gradually increasing the extension of remediation, in order to achieve a satisfactory lower level of permanent deformations. The study is based on the use of a FE computational interface able to analyse the earthquake-induced three-dimensional pore pressure generation adopting one of the most credited nonlinear theories in order to assess realistically the displacements connected to lateral spreading.

  12. Determination of Secondary Encasement Pipe Design Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI, A.R.

    2000-10-26

    This document published results of iterative calculations for maximum tank farm transfer secondary pipe (encasement) pressure upon failure of the primary pipe. The maximum pressure was calculated from a primary pipe guillotine break. Results show encasement pipeline design or testing pressures can be significantly lower than primary pipe pressure criteria.

  13. Natural gas encasement for highway crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The University Transportation Center for Alabama researchers examined the Alabama Department of : Transportations current policy regarding the encasement of natural gas and hazardous liquid pipelines at roadway : crossings. The group collected inf...

  14. 振冲碎石桩加固高层建筑粉砂土地基实例分析%Case Study on Improving Silty Sand Foundation of Tall Building by Vibro-replacement Stone Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢新宇; 应宏伟; 夏建中

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the case studies of two tall buildings built on silty sand improved by vibro-replacement stone column in Hangzhou are reported. The design and computation method for vibro-replacement stone column composite foundation are introduced. Based on field testing results,the construction techniques of vibro-replacement stone column and the appraisement of improvement effect are discussed. It is the first time that the vibro-replacement stone column method has been successfully applied to improve silty sand foundation of tall building in Hangzhou.%本文介绍杭州两座高层建筑物采用振冲碎石桩加固粉砂土地基的工程实例。结合有关现场测试成果,探讨了高层建筑振冲碎石桩地基设计计算、振冲碎石桩施工控制和加固效果评价等有关问题。为振冲碎石桩在同类地基中的推广应用提供一些成功经验。

  15. Neural fuzzy modelization of copper removal from water by biosorption in fixed-bed columns using olive stone and pinion shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, M; Iáñez-Rodríguez, I; Pérez, A; Martín-Lara, M A; Blázquez, G

    2018-03-01

    Continuous copper biosorption in fixed-bed column by olive stone and pinion shell was studied. The effect of three operational parameters was analyzed: feed flow rate (2-6 ml/min), inlet copper concentration (40-100 mg/L) and bed-height (4.4-13.4 cm). Artificial Neural-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) was used in order to optimize the percentage of copper removal and the retention capacity in the column. The highest percentage of copper retained was achieved at 2 ml/min, 40 mg/L and 4.4 cm. However, the optimum biosorption capacity was obtained at 6 ml/min, 100 mg/L and 13.4 cm. Finally, breakthrough curves were simulated with mathematical traditional models and ANFIS model. The calculated results obtained with each model were compared with experimental data. The best results were given by ANFIS modelling that predicted copper biosorption with high accuracy. Breakthrough curves surfaces, which enable the visualization of the behavior of the system in different process conditions, were represented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 33 CFR 183.552 - Plastic encased fuel tanks: Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plastic encased fuel tanks... § 183.552 Plastic encased fuel tanks: Installation. (a) Each fuel tank encased in cellular plastic foam or in fiber reinforced plastic must have the connections, fittings, and labels accessible for...

  17. Organic monolith frits encased in polyether ether ketone tubing with improved durability for liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin Young; Cheong, Won Jo

    2015-09-01

    This study introduces a preparation method for polymer-encased monolith frits with improved durability for liquid chromatography columns. The inner surface of the polyether ether ketone tubing is pretreated with sulfuric acid in the presence of catalysts (vanadium oxide and sodium sulfate). The tubing was rinsed with water and acetone, flushed with nitrogen, and treated with glycidyl methacrylate. After washing, the monolith reaction mixture composed of lauryl methacrylate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, initiator, and porogenic solvent was filled in the tubing and subjected to in situ polymerization. The tubing was cut into thin slices and used as frits for microcolumns. To check their durability, the frit slices were placed in a vial and a heavy impact was applied on the vial by a vortex mixer for various periods. The frits made in the presence of catalysts were found to be more durable than those made without catalysts. Furthermore, when the monolith-incorporated tubing was used as a chromatography column, the column prepared in the presence of catalysts resulted in a better separation efficiency. The separation performance of the columns installed with the polyether ether ketone encased monolith frits was comparable to that of the columns installed with the commercial stainless-steel screen frits. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Lifting and transport by sea of great stone columns: evidence of traditional methods used in 18th and 19th century building programs as a clue to reconstructing Roman marble transport processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Barresi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper is to investigate the traditional technologies of lifting and sea transport of large stone blocks (time spent for sea transport, ways of charging and stewing large stone pieces, number of people engaged with evidence from 18th and 19th century Italy, as a key to understand ancient Roman practices. I shall use data from reconstruction of the 5th century Christian basilica of St. Paul at Rome, burnt in 1823, where new granite shafts, mainly from Italian quarries, replaced the Roman ones. Other documentary sources help to understand some details related to heavy transport, otherwise unknown for Roman period. It should be obviously dangerous to induce directly that the same technologies used for lifting and transport of columns in 18th or 19th century were in use also in Roman Imperial age, but the study of such processes can help us to put in the right view our reconstruction of ancient reality.

  19. 33 CFR 183.516 - Cellular plastic used to encase fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cellular plastic used to encase....516 Cellular plastic used to encase fuel tanks. (a) Cellular plastic used to encase metallic fuel...-polyurethane cellular plastic used to encase metallic fuel tanks must have a compressive strength of at least...

  20. EnCE EnCase computer forensics : the official EnCase certified examiner : study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Bunting, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The official, Guidance Software-approved book on the newest EnCE exam! The EnCE exam tests that computer forensic analysts and examiners have thoroughly mastered computer investigation methodologies, as well as the use of Guidance Software's EnCase Forensic 7. The only official Guidance-endorsed study guide on the topic, this book prepares you for the exam with extensive coverage of all exam topics, real-world scenarios, hands-on exercises, up-to-date legal information, and sample evidence files, flashcards, and more. Guides readers through preparation for the newest EnCase Certified Examiner

  1. DOUBLE-SHELL TANK WASTE TRANSFER LINE ENCASEMENT INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGY STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOWER, R.R.

    2006-01-01

    The report provides various alternative methods of performing integrity assessment inspections of buried Hanford Double Shell Tank waste transfer line encasements, and provides method recommendations as an alternative to costly encasement pneumatic leak testing. A schedule for future encasement integrity assessments is also included

  2. Use-Wear Patterns on Wild Macaque Stone Tools Reveal Their Behavioural History

    OpenAIRE

    Haslam, Michael; Gumert, Michael D.; Biro, Dora; Carvalho, Susana; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2013-01-01

    Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) are one of a limited number of wild animal species to use stone tools, with their tool use focused on pounding shelled marine invertebrates foraged from intertidal habitats. These monkeys exhibit two main styles of tool use: axe hammering of oysters, and pound hammering of unattached encased foods. In this study, we examined macroscopic use-wear patterns on a sample of 60 wild macaque stone tools from Piak Nam Yai Island, Thailand, that...

  3. Closure report for Building 875 sump encased in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montemayor, W.

    1991-08-01

    This report will document the post-closure activities for the 875-R1U1 Waste-Solvent Underground Storage Tank located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Site 300. The aforementioned tank waspreviously identified and registered with the California Water Resources Control Board as 875-31R. The underground tank system consists of a 55-gallon steel drum encased in concrete. The underground tank was used to collect dripping and spillage from the above-concrete drum rack storage area. The closure of this underground tank was permitted as Tank Identification No. 39-1945-21 by W.R. Snavely of SJCPHS-EHS. The last tank test, performed on February 1988, showed that the underground tank was leak tight. On May 1988, the sludge at the bottom of the tank was removed and disposed of as hazardous waste. The residual 1.5 inches of oily water in the tank was removed and the tank was washed with soap and water on December 11, 1989. The rinsate and residual sludge was disposed of as hazardous waste. The empty tank and the encasing concrete were extracted from the ground on November 5, 1990. No underground piping was associated with the removal of this underground tank since the tank was used to collect the dripping and spillage from the above-concrete drum rack. Three soil samples were collected in split tubes from approximately 1 foot below the bottom of the tank. The soil samples were collected and analyzed for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH)-Gasoline, TPH-Diesel, Total Extractable Petroleum, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethyl Benzene, Tetraethyl Lead, Metals, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB), and Ethylene Dibromide. Results indicated that the underground tank was leak tight. The concrete encasing was removed from the 55-gallon tank and disposed of as a municipal waste. The 55-gallon tank is currently stored at the Hazardous Waste Storage Area located in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California and is waiting as a hazardous waste

  4. Cervical chordoma with vertebral artery encasement mimicking neurofibroma: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortele, B.; Lemmerling, M.; Mortele, K.; Verstraete, K.; Defreyne, L.; Kunnen, M. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Gent (Belgium); Vandekerckhove, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Gent (Belgium)

    2000-06-01

    A case of cervical chordoma in a 36-year-old white man with hypoesthesia in the neck and right shoulder, neck pain, and restricted neck mobility is presented. Plain radiographs of the cervical spine showed radiolucency of the body of C2 on the right side and enlargement of the right intervertebral foramen at C2-C3 level. Tumor encasement of the vertebral artery was demonstrated by MR imaging and confirmed by conventional arteriography. This proved to be particularly important for preoperative assessment. (orig.)

  5. Cervical chordoma with vertebral artery encasement mimicking neurofibroma: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortele, B.; Lemmerling, M.; Mortele, K.; Verstraete, K.; Defreyne, L.; Kunnen, M.; Vandekerckhove, T.

    2000-01-01

    A case of cervical chordoma in a 36-year-old white man with hypoesthesia in the neck and right shoulder, neck pain, and restricted neck mobility is presented. Plain radiographs of the cervical spine showed radiolucency of the body of C2 on the right side and enlargement of the right intervertebral foramen at C2-C3 level. Tumor encasement of the vertebral artery was demonstrated by MR imaging and confirmed by conventional arteriography. This proved to be particularly important for preoperative assessment. (orig.)

  6. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidney Stones KidsHealth / For Parents / Kidney Stones What's in ... other treatments to help remove the stones. How Kidney Stones Form It's the kidneys' job to remove ...

  7. Stone coalgebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Kupke (Clemens); A. Kurz (Alexander); Y. Venema

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we argue that the category of Stone spaces forms an interesting base category for coalgebras, in particular, if one considers the Vietoris functor as an analogue to the power set functor on the category of sets. We prove that the so-called descriptive general frames, which

  8. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Responses of Open Channels to Exposed Pipe Encasements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Q Mao

    Full Text Available The effects of exposed pipe encasements on the local variation of hydrodynamic and sediment conditions in a river channel are examined. Laboratory experiments are performed to assess the response of water level, flow regime and bed deformation to several representative types of concrete encasements. The experimental conditions considered are: three types of exposed pipe encasements exposed on the bed, including trapezoidal shape, circular-arc shape and polygonal shape, and three sets of discharges, including annual discharge, once-in-3-year flood, and once-in-50-year flood. Our experiments show that: (1 the amount of backwater definitely depends on the encasement geometric shape and the background discharge; (2 smaller discharges generally tend to induce local scour of river bed downstream of the encasement, and the order of sensitivity of bed deformation to the encasement geometric shape is trapezoidal > circular-arc > polygonal; (3 comparatively speaking, the polygonal encasement may be considered as a suitable protective structure for pipelines across alluvial rivers, with relatively modest effects on the local hydrodynamic conditions and bed stabilization.

  9. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Responses of Open Channels to Exposed Pipe Encasements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J Q; Zhang, H Q; Dai, H C; Yuan, B H; Hu, T F

    2015-01-01

    The effects of exposed pipe encasements on the local variation of hydrodynamic and sediment conditions in a river channel are examined. Laboratory experiments are performed to assess the response of water level, flow regime and bed deformation to several representative types of concrete encasements. The experimental conditions considered are: three types of exposed pipe encasements exposed on the bed, including trapezoidal shape, circular-arc shape and polygonal shape, and three sets of discharges, including annual discharge, once-in-3-year flood, and once-in-50-year flood. Our experiments show that: (1) the amount of backwater definitely depends on the encasement geometric shape and the background discharge; (2) smaller discharges generally tend to induce local scour of river bed downstream of the encasement, and the order of sensitivity of bed deformation to the encasement geometric shape is trapezoidal > circular-arc > polygonal; (3) comparatively speaking, the polygonal encasement may be considered as a suitable protective structure for pipelines across alluvial rivers, with relatively modest effects on the local hydrodynamic conditions and bed stabilization.

  10. The Tubular Sheaths Encasing Methanosaeta thermophila Filaments Are Functional Amyloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueholm, Morten S; Larsen, Poul; Finster, Kai; Stenvang, Marcel R; Christiansen, Gunna; Vad, Brian S; Bøggild, Andreas; Otzen, Daniel E; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-08-14

    Archaea are renowned for their ability to thrive in extreme environments, although they can be found in virtually all habitats. Their adaptive success is linked to their unique cell envelopes that are extremely resistant to chemical and thermal denaturation and that resist proteolysis by common proteases. Here we employ amyloid-specific conformation antibodies and biophysical techniques to show that the extracellular cell wall sheaths encasing the methanogenic archaea Methanosaeta thermophila PT are functional amyloids. Depolymerization of sheaths and subsequent MS/MS analyses revealed that the sheaths are composed of a single major sheath protein (MspA). The amyloidogenic nature of MspA was confirmed by in vitro amyloid formation of recombinant MspA under a wide range of environmental conditions. This is the first report of a functional amyloid from the archaeal domain of life. The amyloid nature explains the extreme resistance of the sheath, the elastic properties that allow diffusible substrates to penetrate through expandable hoop boundaries, and how the sheaths are able to split and elongate outside the cell. The archaeal sheath amyloids do not share homology with any of the currently known functional amyloids and clearly represent a new function of the amyloid protein fold. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Purbeck Stone - A possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    By definition, a Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) should have international significance. The Purbeck Group of uppermost Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous age (Tithonian- Berriasian) outcrops mainly in the Purbeck area of Dorset, England. It was deposited in shallow freshwater to brackish lagoons with occasional marine incursions. Limestones, mainly biosparites, occur at 6 main levels. Differences in bed thickness, jointing and hardness make it suitable for a variety of purposes including dimension stone, monumental and ornamental stone, roofing tiles, paving, flooring and rockery stone. Near the top of the sequence is a dark gastropod biosparite, traditionally called Purbeck Marble, easily carved, which has been extensively used for decorative interior work in churches and cathedrals particularly for fonts, tombs, flooring and facings on columns for example in the medieval cathedrals of Salisbury, Exeter, Durham, York and Wells and Worcester and Westminster Abbey. The stone was extracted at least from Roman times (1st century AD) through the medieval period. Quarrying expanded from about 1700 reaching a peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Stone was transported first by sea but later by rail for wider use. Used in many local buildings, it gives an important element of local character. Many of the villages are designated conservation areas with a requirement for repair, maintenance and new building using local stone. Initially the stone was taken from quarries but was later mined. The number of operating companies declined from 15 to 5 over the past 40 years, with 10 active small quarries. Outputs are from few hundred tonnes to a few thousand tonnes per annum or about 9 to 12 years of permitted reserves but the Planning Authority intends to make sufficient provision for production at recent levels for their development plan period. The extraction sites are in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and close to Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. This might

  12. Polyether ether ketone encased monolith frits made of polyether ether ketone tubing with a 0.25 mm opening resulting in an improved separation performance in liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin Young; Cheong, Won Jo

    2016-05-01

    Tiny polyether ether ketone encased monolith frits have been prepared by modified catalytic sulfonation of the inner surface of polyether ether tubing (1.6 mm od, 0.25 mm id) followed by modified formation of organic monolith and cutting of the tubing into slices. The frit was placed below the central hole of the column outlet union and supported by a combination of a silica capillary (0.365 mm od, 0.05 mm id) and a polyether ether ketone sleeve (1.6 mm od, 0.38 mm id) tightened with a nut and a ferrule when the column was packed to prevent sinking of the frit element into the union hole (0.25 mm opening) otherwise. The column packed this way with the frits investigated in this study has shown better separation performance owing to the reduced frit volume in comparison to the column packed with a commercial stainless-steel screen frit. This study establishes the strategy of disposable microcolumns in which cheap disposable frits are used whenever the column is re-packed to yield columns of even better chromatographic performance than the columns with commercial frits. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Value of MR and CT Imaging for Assessment of Internal Carotid Artery Encasement in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. Lodder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was conducted to assess the value of CT and MR imaging in the preoperative evaluation of ICA encasement. Methods. Based upon three patient groups this study was performed. Retrospective analysis of 260 neck dissection reports from 2001 to 2010 was performed to determine unexpected peroperative-diagnosed encasement. Two experienced head and neck radiologists reviewed 12 scans for encasement. Results. In four out of 260 (1.5% patients undergoing neck dissection, preoperative imaging was false negative as there was peroperative encasement of the ICA. Of 380 patients undergoing preoperative imaging, the radiologist reported encasement of the ICA in 25 cases. In 342 cases no encasement was described, 125 of these underwent neck dissection, and 2 had encasement peroperatively. The interobserver variation kappa varied from 0.273 to 1 for the different characteristics studied. Conclusion. These retrospectively studied cohorts demonstrate that preoperative assessment of encasement of the ICA using MRI and/or CT was of value in evaluation of ICA encasement and therefore contributively in selecting operable patients (without ICA encasement, since in only 1.5% encasement was missed. However, observer variation affects the reliability of this feature.

  14. Acute management of stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Osther, Palle J S

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stone management is often conservative due to a high spontaneous stone passage rate or non-symptomatic calyceal stones that do not necessarily require active treatment. However, stone disease may cause symptoms and complications requiring urgent intervention. MATERIAL AND METHODS: I...... with careful consideration of stone size and location, symptoms, patient comorbidity and radiation dose. CONCLUSION: In case of infective hydronephrosis, compromised renal function or persistent pain despite adequate analgesic treatment acute intervention is indicated....

  15. Infection (urease) stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, D P; Osborne, C A

    1987-01-01

    Infection-induced stones in man probably form solely as a consequence of urealysis which is catalyzed by the bacterial protein urease. Urease stones composed of struvite and carbonate-apatite may form primarily, or as secondary stones or pre-existent metabolic stones. Struvite stones form and grow rapidly owing to (a) supersaturation of urine with stone forming salts, (b) 'salting out' of poorly soluble organic substances normally dissolved in urine and (c) ammonia-induced destruction of the normally protective urothelial glycosaminoglycan layer. Immature (predominantly organic) matrix stones mature into densely mineralized stones. Curative treatment is possible only by eliminating all of the stone and by eradicating all urinary and parenchymal infection. A variety of operative and pharmaceutical approaches are available. Patient treatment must be individualized inasmuch as some patients are better candidates for one type of treatment than another.

  16. Stones used in Milan architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folli, Luisa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of Milan lies in a plain with clayey soil well suited to brick-making, but no stone deposits. An ample supply of stone is available, however, in the surrounding hills and mountains, which are connected to the city via both natural and artificial waterways. The types of stone used since Roman times include: granite, marble and gneiss from Ossola Valley; dolomite from Lake Maggiore; detrital limestone from Ceresio Valley; sandstone from the Brianza Hills; black limestone and marble from Lake Como; and conglomerate and sandstone from the Adda River basin. Traditionally, the chief uses have been dimension stone (all stones, column shafts (granite, slabs (marble, moulding (dolomite, limestone and ornamental (marble, dolomite, limestone.La ciudad de Milán se encuentra en una llanura de suelo arcilloso adecuado para la fabricación de ladrillos pero en la cual no hay yacimientos de rocas. No obstante, en las colinas y montañas circundantes, que están comunicadas con la ciudad mediante vías navegables naturales y artificiales, sí existe una abundante cantidad de piedra. Entre los tipos de piedra utilizados desde la época de los romanos se encuentran granitos, mármoles y gneises del valle de Ossola, dolomías del lago Mayor, calizas detríticas del valle de Ceresio (Lugano, areniscas de las colinas de la Brianza, calizas negras y mármoles del lago Como y conglomerados y areniscas de la cuenca del río Adda. Tradicionalmente, los principales usos han sido la piedra de fábrica (todas ellas, fustes de columnas (granito, losas (mármol, molduras (dolomía, caliza y ornamental (mármol, dolomía, caliza.

  17. Assessment of stone composition in the management of urinary stones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijvikai, Kittinut; de la Rosette, J. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Several explanations have been suggested to account for the failure of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatment in patients with urinary stones, including large stone volume, unfavorable stone location or composition and the type of lithotriptor used. Unfavorable stone composition is

  18. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate whether mattress and pillow encasings resulted in an effective long-term control of H...

  19. Pumice stones as potential in-situ burning enhancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Alva, U.; Andersen, Bjørn Skjønning; Jomaas, Grunde

    2018-01-01

    Small-scale and mid-scale experiments were conducted in order to evaluate pumice stones as a potential enhancement for in-situ burning (ISB). Four oil types, several emulsification degrees of one crude oil were studied. In general, it was observed that the pumice stones did not improve the burning...... and after the burn, thus bringing the oil into the water column. Finally, the species production of CO and CO2 was not reduced. Based on the presented results, pumice stones have a negative impact on the efficiency of ISB, and they are ruled out as an ISB enhancer and should not be used in relation to ISB....

  20. Ultimate strength and ductility of steel reinforced concrete beam-columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohara, Ryoichi

    1991-01-01

    The ultimate strength and ductility of SRC beam-columns are investigated using the data gathered in Architectural Institute of Japan. Though the simple superposed strength formula in AIJ standard underestimates the strength of SRC beam-column failed in flexure, the generalized superposed strength formula estimates it satisfactory. The strength formula in AIJ standard does not good agreement with test data. The SRC beam-column failed in shear has almost equalductility with that failed in flexure owing to the encased steel. Author presents the formulas which estimate the ultimate deformation angle for SRC beam-columns. (author)

  1. PULSE COLUMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmett, E.S.

    1964-01-01

    This patent covers a continuous countercurrent liquidsolids contactor column having a number of contactor states each comprising a perforated plate, a layer of balls, and a downcomer tube; a liquid-pulsing piston; and a solids discharger formed of a conical section at the bottom of the column, and a tubular extension on the lowest downcomer terminating in the conical section. Between the conical section and the downcomer extension is formed a small annular opening, through which solids fall coming through the perforated plate of the lowest contactor stage. This annular opening is small enough that the pressure drop thereacross is greater than the pressure drop upward through the lowest contactor stage. (AEC)

  2. Kidney stones - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... self-care; Nephrolithiasis and self-care; Stones and kidney - self-care; Calcium stones and self-care; Oxalate ... provider or the hospital because you have a kidney stone. You will need to take self-care ...

  3. The twelve colourful stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    A dynamics with twelve colourful stones is created based on the concepts of gauge and colour. It is associated different gauge fields to the same group. A group of gauge invariant Lagrangians is established. A gauge invariant mass term is introduced. The colourful stones physical insight is to be building blocks for quarks and leptons. (Author) [pt

  4. Everybody Must Get Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Darvill

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely recognised that monument building in the fourth and third millennia cal BC often involved transporting selected blocks of preferred stone many kilometres over difficult terrain. Some structures incorporated blocks from several different sources, brought together as an ensemble in much the same way perhaps that assemblages of flint and stone axes reflect both local and distant sources. This article explores alternative models accounting for the selection of stones, contrasting those that foreground symbolic attachments and imposed meanings with those that focus on the intrinsic qualities of particular types of stone and their source. The assemblage of different stone types that accumulated at Stonehenge, Wiltshire, over a period of more than a thousand years is used as a case study.

  5. Fire response of composite columns subject to sway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virdi, Kuldeep

    Composite columns, using profiled steel sections encased in concrete or steel tubes filled with concrete, are increasingly used in practice taking advantage of speed of erection as well as offering cost-effective solutions. While the design of braced and unbraced composite columns under ambient...... conditions is adequately covered in the relevant standard, Eurocode 4, simplified design of unbraced composite columns for the fire limit state has not been included. Recognising this, a collaborative research project was undertaken with funding from the Research Fund for Coal and Steel. The paper describes...... the scope of the project which covered control tests under ambient conditions, carried out by the author while at City University London. Other aspects covered in the project included fire tests carried out by CTICM in France, on isolated columns and on two frames designed by Leibniz Universität Hannover...

  6. Measuring Humidity in the Charters of Freedom Encasements Using a Moisture Condensation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Cecil G.; West, James W.; Levine, Joel S.

    2004-01-01

    The relative humidity of the atmosphere in the encasements containing the U.S. Constitution Pages 1 and 4, the Declaration of Independence, and the Bill of Rights was measured to be in the range of 55% to 61%. This value is significantly higher than the presumed relative humidity between 25 to 35 %, but is consistent with the measured samples extracted from Pages 2 and 3 of the U.S. Constitution. The cooling/condensation measurement technique used at NARA on July 23, 2001, and described in this paper to measure the water vapor content of the atmosphere in the hermetically sealed encasements containing the U. S. Constitution, the Declaration of Independence, and the Bill of Rights, proved to be a powerful new measurement technique. The cooling/condensation technique developed at NASA LaRC and utilized at NARA has important applications in the non-invasive measurement of relative humidity in the atmospheres of sealed encasements and could become a standard measurement technique in this type of analysis.

  7. Calcium oxalate stone and gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marickar, Y M Fazil

    2009-12-01

    Gout is well known to be produced by increased uric acid level in blood. The objective of this paper is to assess the relationship between gout and calcium oxalate stone formation in the humans. 48 patients with combination of gout and calcium oxalate stone problem were included. The biochemical values of this group were compared with 38 randomly selected uric acid stone patients with gout, 43 stone patients with gout alone, 100 calcium oxalate stone patients without gout and 30 controls, making a total of 259 patients. Various biochemical parameters, namely serum calcium, phosphorus and uric acid and 24-h urine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, oxalate, citrate and magnesium were analysed. ANOVA and Duncan's multiple-range tests were performed to assess statistical significance of the variations. The promoters of stone formation, namely serum calcium (P stone patients and gouty calcium oxalate stone patients compared to the non-gouty patients and controls. Urine oxalate (P stones patients. The inhibitor urine citrate (P stone gouty patients, followed by the gouty uric acid stone formers and gouty calcium oxalate stone patients. The high values of promoters, namely uric acid and calcium in the gouty stone patients indicate the tendency for urinary stone formation in the gouty stone patients. There is probably a correlation between gout and calcium oxalate urinary stone. We presume this mechanism is achieved through the uric acid metabolism. The findings point to the summation effect of metabolic changes in development of stone disease.

  8. Thermoluminescence of pyramid stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.; Eid, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    It is the aim of the present study to investigate some thermoluminescence properties of pyramid stones. Using a few grammes of pyramid stones from Pyramids I and II, the TL glow peaks were observed at 250 and 310 0 C, respectively. The TL glow peaks of samples annealed at 600 0 C, then exposed to 60 Co γ-rays were observed at 120, 190 and 310 0 C, respectively. The accumulated dose of natural samples is estimated to be around 310 Gray (31 krad). By assuming an annual dose is 1 mGy, the estimated age of pyramid stones is 0.31 M year. (author)

  9. Thermoluminescence of pyramid stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomaa, M A; Eid, A M [Atomic Energy Establishment, Cairo (Egypt)

    1982-01-01

    It is the aim of the present study to investigate some thermoluminescence properties of pyramid stones. Using a few grammes of pyramid stones from Pyramids I and II, the TL glow peaks were observed at 250 and 310/sup 0/C, respectively. The TL glow peaks of samples annealed at 600/sup 0/C, then exposed to /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays were observed at 120, 190 and 310/sup 0/C, respectively. The accumulated dose of natural samples is estimated to be around 310 Gray (31 krad). By assuming an annual dose is 1 mGy, the estimated age of pyramid stones is 0.31 M year.

  10. Stone fragmentation by ultrasound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In the present work, enhancement of the kidney stone fragmentation by using ultrasound is studied. The cavi- ... ment system like radiation pressure balance, the power is given by ... Thus the bubble size has direct relationship with its life and.

  11. Crushed Stone Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes crushed stone operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  12. Fire effects on flaked stone, ground stone, and other stone artifacts [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krista Deal

    2012-01-01

    Lithic artifacts can be divided into two broad classes, flaked stone and ground stone, that overlap depending on the defining criteria. For this discussion, flaked stone is used to describe objects that cut, scrape, pierce, saw, hack, etch, drill, or perforate, and the debris (debitage) created when these items are manufactured. Objects made of flaked stone include...

  13. Encasement and subsidence of salt minibasins: observations from the SE Precaspian Basin and numerical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Naiara; Duffy, Oliver B.; Hudec, Michael R.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Dooley, Tim P.; Jackson, Martin P. A.; Burg, George

    2017-04-01

    The SE Precaspian Basin is characterized by an assemblage of Upper Permian to Triassic minibasins. A recently acquired borehole-constrained 3D reflection dataset reveals the existence of abundant intrasalt reflection packages lying in between the Permo-Triassic minibasins. We propose that most of the mapped intrasalt reflection packages in the study area are minibasins originally deposited on top of salt that were later incorporated into salt by encasement processes. This makes the SE Precaspian Basin a new example of a salt province populated by encased minibasins, which until now had been mainly described from the Gulf of Mexico. Identifying salt-encased sediment packages in the study area has been crucial, not only because they provide a new exploration target, but also because they can play a key role on improving seismic imaging of adjacent or deeper stratigraphic sections. Another remarkable feature observed in the seismic dataset is the widespread occurrence of distinct seismic sequences in the Permo-Triassic minibasins. Bowl- and wedge-shaped seismic sequences define discrete periods of vertical and asymmetric minibasin subsidence. In the absence of shortening, the bowl-to-wedge transition is typically associated with the timing of basal welding and subsequent rotation of the minibasins. Timing of minibasin welding has important implications when addressing the likelihood of suprasalt reservoir charging. We performed a set of 2D numerical simulations aimed at investigating what drives the tilting of minibasins and how it relates to welding. A key observation from the numerical models is that the bowl-to-wedge transition can predate the time of basal welding.

  14. Surgical management of giant sphenoid wing meningiomas encasing major cerebral arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Pierre-Olivier; Lemoine, Emile; Bojanowski, Michel W

    2018-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Sphenoid wing meningiomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors with variable surgical risks and prognosis. Those that have grown to a very large size, encasing the major cerebral arteries, are associated with a high risk of stroke. In reviewing the authors' series of giant sphenoid wing meningiomas, the goal was to evaluate how the extent of the tumor's invasion of surrounding structures affected the ability to safely remove the tumor and restore function. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective study of a series of giant sphenoid wing meningiomas operated on between 1996 and 2016. Inclusion criteria were meningiomas with a globoid component ≥ 6 cm, encasing at least 1 major intradural cerebral artery. Extent of resection was measured according to Simpson grade. RESULTS This series included 12 patients, with a mean age of 59 years. Visual symptoms were the most common clinical presentation. There was complete or partial encasement of all 3 major cerebral arteries except for 3 cases in which only the anterior cerebral artery was not involved. The lateral wall of the cavernous sinus was invaded in 8 cases (67%) and the optic canal in 6 (50%). Complete resection was achieved in 2 cases (Simpson grades 2 and 3). In the remaining 10 cases of partial resection (Simpson grade 4), radical removal (> 90%) was achieved in 7 cases (70%). In the immediate postoperative period, there were no deaths. Four of 9 patients with visual deficits improved, while the 5 others remained unchanged. Two patients experienced transient neurological deficits. Other than an asymptomatic lacuna of the internal capsule, there were no ischemic lesions following surgery. Tumor recurrence occurred in 5 patients, between 24 and 168 months (mean 61 months) following surgery. CONCLUSIONS Although these giant lesions encasing major cerebral arteries are particularly treacherous for surgery, this series demonstrates that it is possible to safely achieve radical removal and at times even

  15. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  16. Anholt Rosetta Stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trempe Jr., Robert B.; Buthke, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This book records and celebrates the research finding of Anholt Island by students from Studio 2B, Arkitektskolen Aarhus, These mahogany constructions are our architectural versions of a Rosetta Stone. These are constructs that record layers of information about Anholt island through virtual...... and physical techniques, where each step and mechanic imparts and inscribes knowledge beyond the 1:1. These constructs are visual keys, used to inspire and influence all decision-making processes in a design project. These architectural Rosetta Stones document and amplify quantitative information about a site...

  17. Healing stone ... by infection

    OpenAIRE

    Micallef, Roderick

    2014-01-01

    Roderick Micallef has a long family history within the construction industry. He coupled this passion with a fascination with science when reading for an undergraduate degree in Biology and Chemistry (University of Malta). http://www.um.edu.mt/think/healing-stone-by-infection/

  18. Stone composition and metabolic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibilash, B S; Vijay, Adarsh; Fazil Marickar, Y M

    2010-06-01

    This paper aims to study the correlation between biochemical risk factors of the stone former and the type of oxalate stone formed, namely calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dehydrate (COD). A retrospective study of 487 patients who had been attending the urinary stone clinic, Trivandrum during 1998-2007 was conducted. The stones retrieved from them were subjected to chemical analysis and FTIR spectrographic analysis. They were categorized into COM, COD, mixed COM+COD and others. Of 142 pure calcium oxalate stone patients, 87 were predominantly COM stone formers and 55 COD stone formers. Their metabolic status of 24 h urine and serum was assessed. The values of urine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, magnesium, creatinine, oxalate, citric acid, sodium and potassium, serum values of calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, magnesium and creatinine and calculated values of creatinine clearance, tubular reabsorption of phosphate, calcium magnesium ratio and calcium oxalate ratio were recorded. Comparison was made between the COM stone group and the COD stone group. Patients forming COM stones had significantly higher mean values for urine calcium (P stone forming patients. All other values failed to show significant difference. Patients, with higher urine oxalate, formed COM stones. Those with low magnesium (which is an inhibitor) formed more of COD stones. Urine calcium was high in both groups without showing significant variation from the mean. In patients with high calcium-oxalate and calcium-magnesium ratios, there is higher chance of forming a COD stone than COM. Identification of the crystallization pattern of the calcium stone will help in selecting treatment modalities.

  19. The FUSE satellite is encased in a canister before being moved to the Launch Pad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    At Hangar AE, Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), the last segment is lifted over the top of NASA's Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite already encased in a protective canister. The satellite will next be moved to Launch Pad 17A, CCAS, for its scheduled launch June 23 aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket. FUSE was developed by The Johns Hopkins University under contract to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., to investigate the origin and evolution of the lightest elements in the universe - hydrogen and deuterium. In addition, the FUSE satellite will examine the forces and process involved in the evolution of the galaxies, stars and planetary systems by investigating light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  20. Locally advanced pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma: pancreatectomy with planned arterial resection based on axial arterial encasement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinel, J; Nappo, G; El Bechwaty, M; Walter, T; Hervieu, V; Valette, P J; Feugier, P; Adham, M

    2016-12-01

    Pancreatectomy with arterial resection for locally advanced pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma (PDA) is associated with high morbidity and is thus considered as a contraindication. The aim of our study was to report our experience of pancreatectomy with planned arterial resection for locally advanced PDA based on specific selection criteria. All patients receiving pancreatectomy for PDA between October 2008 and July 2014 were reviewed. The patients were classified into group 1, pancreatectomy without vascular resection (66 patients); group 2, pancreatectomy with isolated venous resection (31 patients), and group 3, pancreatectomy with arterial resection for locally advanced PDA (14 patients). The primary selection criteria for arterial resection was the possibility of achieving a complete resection based on the extent of axial encasement, the absence of tumor invasion at the origin of celiac trunk (CT) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA), and a free distal arterial segment allowing reconstruction. Patient outcomes and survival were analyzed. Six SMA, two CT, four common hepatic artery, and two replaced right hepatic artery resections were undertaken. The preferred arterial reconstruction was splenic artery transposition. Group 3 had a higher preoperative weight loss, a longer operative time, and a higher incidence of intraoperative blood transfusion. Ninety-day mortality occurred in three patients in groups 1 and 2. There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence, grade, and type of complications in the three groups. Postoperative pancreatic fistula and postpancreatectomy hemorrhage were also comparable. In group 3, none had arterial wall invasion and nine patients had recurrence (seven metastatic and two loco-regional). Survival and disease-free survival were comparable between groups. Planned arterial resection for PDA can be performed safely with a good outcome in highly selected patients. Key elements for defining the resectability is based on

  1. Effect of encasings on allergen load, clinical variables and quality of life variables within an atopic population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, Albert Jan

    2002-01-01

    This thesis shows the results and patient characteristics of three studies. One study was part of the Dutch Mite Avoidance Study (DUMAS): Effectiveness and effect modification of encasings in house dust mite allergy. The two other studies were two different studies with asthmatic patients recruited

  2. The twelve colourful stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The gauge symmetry is extended. It is associated differents matter and gauge fields to the same group. A group of gauge invariant Lagrangians is established. A gauge invariant mass term is introduced. A massive Yang Mills is obtained. A dynamics with twelve colourful stones is created based on the concepts of gauge and colour. Structures identified as quarks and leptons are generated. A discussion about colour meaning is presented. (Author) [pt

  3. Anholt Rosetta Stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trempe Jr., Robert B.; Buthke, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This book records and celebrates the research finding of Anholt Island by students from Studio 2B, Arkitektskolen Aarhus, These mahogany constructions are our architectural versions of a Rosetta Stone. These are constructs that record layers of information about Anholt island through virtual and ...... on Anholt Island through qualitative means. They are tools for uncovering realities previously unseen or unimagined through the manipulation of data via personal experience....

  4. Lessons from a Stone Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, John P.; Rao, P. Nagaraj

    2007-04-01

    The stone farm is a system for measuring macroscopic stone growth of 12 calcium stones simultaneously. It is based on mixed suspension, mixed product removal continuous crystallization principles and the stones are grown continuously for about 500 hours or more. The growth of the stones follows a surface area dependent pattern and the growth rate constants are very similar irrespective of whether the stating materials are fragments of human stone or pieces of marble chip. Increasing citrate from 2mM to 6mM caused a significant growth inhibition which persisted in the presence of urinary macromolecules. Phytate was a very effective inhibitor (about 50% at sub-μM concentrations) but the effective concentration was increased by an order of magnitude in the presence of urinary macromolecules. The effective concentration for inhibition in a crystallization assay was a further two orders of magnitude higher. Urinary macromolecules or almost whole urine were also strongly inhibitory although neither human serum albumin nor bovine mucin had any great effect. The relationship between the size distribution of crystals in suspension and the stone enlargement rate suggests that the primary enlargement mechanism for these in vitro stones is through aggregation. The stone farm is a powerful tool with which to study crystallization inhibitors in a new light. Some differences between inhibition of crystallization and inhibition of stone growth have emerged and we have obtained quantitative evidence on the mechanism of stone enlargement in vitro. Our findings suggest that the interface between crystals in suspension and the stone surface is the key to controlling stone enlargement.

  5. Scale-up of high specific activity {sup 186g}Re production using graphite-encased thick {sup 186}W targets and demonstration of an efficient target recycling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balkin, Ethan R.; Gagnon, Katherine; Dorman, Eric [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; and others

    2017-07-01

    Production of high specific activity {sup 186g}Re is of interest for development of theranostic radiopharmaceuticals. Previous studies have shown that high specific activity {sup 186g}Re can be obtained by cyclotron irradiation of enriched {sup 186}W via the {sup 186}W(d,2n){sup 186g}Re reaction, but most irradiations were conducted at low beam currents and for short durations. In this investigation, enriched {sup 186}W metal targets were irradiated at high incident deuteron beam currents to demonstrate production rates and contaminants produced when using thick targets. Full-stopping thick targets, as determined using SRIM, were prepared by uniaxial pressing of powdered natural abundance W metal or 96.86% enriched {sup 186}W metal encased between two layers of graphite flakes for target material stabilization. An assessment of structural integrity was made on each target preparation. To assess the performance of graphite-encased thick {sup 186}W metal targets, along with the impact of encasing on the separation chemistry, targets were first irradiated using a 22 MeV deuteron beam for 10 min at 10, 20, and 27 μA, with an estimated nominal deuteron energy of 18.7 MeV on the {sup 186}W target material (after energy degradation correction from top graphite layer). Gamma-ray spectrometry was performed post EOB on all targets to assess production yields and radionuclidic byproducts. The investigation also evaluated a method to recover and recycle enriched target material from a column isolation procedure. Material composition analyses of target materials, pass-through/wash solutions and recycling process isolates were conducted with SEM, FTIR, XRD, EDS and ICP-MS spectrometry. To demonstrate scaled-up production, a graphite-encased {sup 186}W target made from recycled {sup 186}W was irradiated for ∝2 h with 18.7 MeV deuterons at a beam current of 27 μA to provide 0.90 GBq (24.3 mCi) of {sup 186g}Re, decay-corrected to the end of bombardment. ICP-MS analysis of the

  6. Advances in percutaneous stone surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, Christopher; Gupta, Nikhil; Leavitt, David; Hoenig, David; Okeke, Zeph; Smith, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of large renal stones has changed considerably in recent years. The increasing prevalence of nephrolithiasis has mandated that urologists perform more surgeries for large renal calculi than before, and this has been met with improvements in percutaneous stone surgery. In this review paper, we examine recent developments in percutaneous stone surgery, including advances in diagnosis and preoperative planning, renal access, patient position, tract dilation, nephroscopes, lithotripsy, ...

  7. Advances in percutaneous stone surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christopher; Gupta, Nikhil; Leavitt, David; Hoenig, David; Okeke, Zeph; Smith, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of large renal stones has changed considerably in recent years. The increasing prevalence of nephrolithiasis has mandated that urologists perform more surgeries for large renal calculi than before, and this has been met with improvements in percutaneous stone surgery. In this review paper, we examine recent developments in percutaneous stone surgery, including advances in diagnosis and preoperative planning, renal access, patient position, tract dilation, nephroscopes, lithotripsy, exit strategies, and post-operative antibiotic prophylaxis.

  8. Portugues Marbles as Stone Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present and justify the reasons for the worldwide recognition of Portuguese Marbles as Stone Heritage. These marbles are also known as "Estremoz Marble" since was the first county were exploited. In the Estremoz Anticline marbles occupy an intermediate stratigraphic position being part of a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Cambrian age. The anticlinal structure has a Precambrian core and the younger rocks aged Devonian Period. This sequence has deformed by the Variscan Orogeny, which performed twice with different intensities both in ductile and brittle tension fields. The early Alpine Cycle also acts in the region and cause more fracturing of the marble. Practically in all the quarries is possible to perceive the spatial-temporal continuity of the deformation where one can describe a complete Wilson Cycle. Together all these geological features imprint the marbles beautiful aesthetic patterns that can be highlighted when used as dimension stone. Nowadays most of the quarries are placed in the counties of Borba and mainly in Vila Viçosa. This last city claims for itself the "Capital of the Marble" title and named the marble as "White Gold". In fact, according to the historical record, the marbles were quarried in Portuguese Alentejo's Province since the fourth century BC. Locally these geological materials are available easily accessible. Exhibit physical properties that allow the fabrication of structural and decorative elements and so were used since humans settled in the region and developed a structured Society. In the Roman period, the pieces of art made with Estremoz Marbles were exported abroad and today are represented in Museums and Archaeological Sites throughout Europe and North Africa countries. The Portuguese Marbles and Limestones, transformed into altars, stairways, columns, statues and pieces of wall cladding, were carried as ballast in the holds of ships. At the destination the Portuguese People had built

  9. The economics of stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canvasser, Noah E; Alken, Peter; Lipkin, Michael; Nakada, Stephen Y; Sodha, Hiren S; Tepeler, Abdulkadir; Lotan, Yair

    2017-09-01

    The rising prevalence of kidney stone disease is associated with significant costs to healthcare systems worldwide. This is in part due to direct procedural and medical management costs, as well as indirect costs to health systems, patients, and families. A number of manuscripts evaulating the economics of stone disease have been published since the 2008s International Consultation on Stone Disease. These highlight costs associated with stone disease, including acute management, surgical management, and medical management. This work hopes to highlight optimization in care by reducing inefficient treatments and maximizing cost-efficient preventative strategies.

  10. Ultrasonic propulsion of kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip C; Bailey, Michael R; Harper, Jonathan D

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasonic propulsion is a novel technique that uses short bursts of focused ultrasonic pulses to reposition stones transcutaneously within the renal collecting system and ureter. The purpose of this review is to discuss the initial testing of effectiveness and safety, directions for refinement of technique and technology, and opinions on clinical application. Preclinical studies with a range of probes, interfaces, and outputs have demonstrated feasibility and consistent safety of ultrasonic propulsion with room for increased outputs and refinement toward specific applications. Ultrasonic propulsion was used painlessly and without adverse events to reposition stones in 14 of 15 human study participants without restrictions on patient size, stone size, or stone location. The initial feasibility study showed applicability in a range of clinically relevant situations, including facilitating passage of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, moving a large stone at the ureteropelvic junction with relief of pain, and differentiating large stones from a collection of small fragments. Ultrasonic propulsion shows promise as an office-based system for transcutaneously repositioning kidney stones. Potential applications include facilitating expulsion of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, repositioning stones prior to treatment, and repositioning obstructing ureteropelvic junction stones into the kidney to alleviate acute renal colic.

  11. Villamayor stone (Golden Stone) as a Global Heritage Stone Resource from Salamanca (NW of Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armuña village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the façades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted façade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the façades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone

  12. A study on the industrialization of building stones and industrial stone crafts - Study on the causes of stone contaminations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Jeon Ki; Lee, Han Yeang [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    Causes of building stone contamination are acid rains in polluted areas, iron bearing minerals in stone itself, salts, sealants, cutting and grinding processes in stone factory and steel compounds structures such as stone anchors, bolts, rain culvert and guide frames. Contaminations on the building stone surface of Sejong culture center can be found around floor stones, stair stones, parterre stones, pillar stones and other outdoor stone panels. The parterre stones are contaminated by white tarnishes and rust flows are occurred on the surface of pillar stones and outdoor stone panels around entrance. Black tarnishes are cumulated on the pillar stones and other outdoor decorated stone panels and change the original granite color. Causes of building stone contaminations from Sejong culture center are wet method to attach stone panels, rust from steel compounds structures and air pollutants. Cement and mortar used from wet method react with sulfur dioxides in polluted air and from fine calcite crystals (white tarnish). Rusts from steel compounds structures such as rainwater culvert and steel guide frames can move to the stone surface by rain and leave rust flows on it. Pollutants (tar compounds, carbons, dusts, etc.) in air are cumulated with humidity on the stone surface and change color from white granite color to dusty dark color. Historical stone sculptures such as man and animal shaped stone crafts, tombstones, square stone tables in front of a tomb and guide and circumference stones around tomb in Royal Tombs (Donggu rung, Yung rung, Seoou rung and Hunin rung) distributed in Kyunggi province are contaminated by various moss and air pollutants and its original colors are deeply changed. (author). 21 refs., 11 tabs., 22 figs.

  13. Recumbent Stone Circles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    During the 1970s and early 1980s, British archaeoastronomers were striving to bridge the interpretative gulf between the "megalithic observatories" of Alexander Thom and an archaeological mainstream that, generally speaking, was hostile to any mention of astronomy in relation to the megalithic monuments of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Britain. The Scottish recumbent stone circles (RSCs) came to represent an example where sounder methodology could overcome many of the data selection issues that had beset earlier studies and, with due restraint, produce credible interpretations. Systematic studies of their orientations consistently concluded that the RSCs had a strong lunar connection, and it was widely envisaged that they were the setting for ceremonies associated with the appearance of the moon over the recumbent stone. Other evidence such as the presence of white quartz and the spatial distribution of cupmarks appeared to back up this conclusion. New archaeological investigations since 1999 have challenged and modified these conclusions, confirming in particular that the circles were built to enclose cairns rather than to demarcate open spaces. Yet the restricted pattern of orientations of these structures could only have been achieved by reference to the basic diurnal motions of the skies, and orientation in relation to simple observations of the midsummer moon remains the most likely reading of the alignment evidence taken as a whole. On the other hand, a consideration of the broader context, which includes the nearby Clava cairns, highlights instead the symbolic importance of the sun.

  14. Hyaluronan and Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselman, Marino

    2008-09-01

    Kidney stones cannot be formed as long as crystals are passed in the urine. However, when crystals are retained it becomes possible for them to aggregate and form a stone. Crystals are expected to be formed not earlier than the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Studies both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals do not adhere to intact distal epithelium, but only when the epithelium is proliferating or regenerating, so that it possesses dedifferentiated cells expressing hyaluronan, osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual receptor CD44 at the apical cell membrane. The polysaccharide hyaluronan is an excellent crystal binding molecule because of its negative ionic charge. We hypothesized that the risk for crystal retention in the human kidney would be increased when tubular cells express hyaluronan at their apical cell membrane. Two different patient categories in which nephrocalcinosis frequently occurs were studied to test this hypothesis (preterm neonates and kidney transplant patients). Hyaluronan (and OPN) expression at the luminal membrane of tubular cells indeed was observed, which preceded subsequent retention of crystals in the distal tubules. Tubular nephrocalcinosis has been reported to be associated with decline of renal function and thus further studies to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of retention and accumulation of crystals in the kidney are warranted. Ultimately, this may allow the design of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of both nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in patients.

  15. Endoscopic Stone Measurement During Ureteroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Wesley W; Lim, Sunghwan; Stoianovici, Dan; Matlaga, Brian R

    2018-01-01

    Currently, stone size cannot be accurately measured while performing flexible ureteroscopy (URS). We developed novel software for ureteroscopic, stone size measurement, and then evaluated its performance. A novel application capable of measuring stone fragment size, based on the known distance of the basket tip in the ureteroscope's visual field, was designed and calibrated in a laboratory setting. Complete URS procedures were recorded and 30 stone fragments were extracted and measured using digital calipers. The novel software program was applied to the recorded URS footage to obtain ureteroscope-derived stone size measurements. These ureteroscope-derived measurements were then compared with the actual-measured fragment size. The median longitudinal and transversal errors were 0.14 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1, 0.18) and 0.09 mm (95% CI 0.02, 0.15), respectively. The overall software accuracy and precision were 0.17 and 0.15 mm, respectively. The longitudinal and transversal measurements obtained by the software and digital calipers were highly correlated (r = 0.97 and 0.93). Neither stone size nor stone type was correlated with error measurements. This novel method and software reliably measured stone fragment size during URS. The software ultimately has the potential to make URS safer and more efficient.

  16. Grasping the Formless in Stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    and the repertoire of used forms. The chapter demonstrates that neither anthropomorphic perceptions nor the agency of the stone material alone make up the ritual aesthetics in which the stones are involved. Rather, applying concepts from landscape phenomenology and cognitive theories including the role of material...

  17. ( Anogeissus leiocarpus ) timber columns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A procedure for designing axially loaded Ayin (Anogeissus leiocarpus) wood column or strut has been investigated. Instead of the usual categorization of columns into short, intermediate and slender according to the value of slenderness ratio, a continuous column formula representing the three categories was derived.

  18. Column Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majors, Ronald E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature covering developments of column liquid chromatography during 1982-83. Areas considered include: books and reviews; general theory; columns; instrumentation; detectors; automation and data handling; multidimensional chromatographic and column switching techniques; liquid-solid chromatography; normal bonded-phase, reversed-phase,…

  19. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in

  20. Stone cladding engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa Camposinhos, Rui de

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents new methodologies for the design of dimension stone based on the concepts of structural design while preserving the excellence of stonemasonry practice in façade engineering. Straightforward formulae are provided for computing action on cladding, with special emphasis on the effect of seismic forces, including an extensive general methodology applied to non-structural elements. Based on the Load and Resistance Factor Design Format (LRDF), minimum slab thickness formulae are presented that take into consideration stress concentrations analysis based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) for the most commonly used modern anchorage systems. Calculation examples allow designers to solve several anchorage engineering problems in a detailed and objective manner, underlining the key parameters. The design of the anchorage metal parts, either in stainless steel or aluminum, is also presented.

  1. Numerical Evaluation on the Different Shapes of Gravelly Sand Columns to Increase the Loading Capacity of Soft Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghzili Sif Allah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement on soft clay by the installation of stone column is one of the most popular methods followed worldwide. Different analytical and numerical solutions have already been developed for understanding the load transfer mechanism of soft soil reinforced with stone column. This study investigated a bearing capacity of the gravelly sand column, installed in soft clay bed at 15kpa of undrained shear strength. The column variable of length and diameter ratio at 7, 8 and 9 were evaluated. On top of that, the combination of two diameters in single column was tested and the uniform diameter was used as a control. In the numerical analysis, Mohrcoulomb model was adopted in the idealization of the behaviour of the gravelly sand column and soft clay materials. The results revealed that the optimum design that gave the highest loading capacity of the combination 11=12 of column diameter was the length and diameter ratio of 8.

  2. The bioreceptivity of building stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauko Pranjić, Alenka; Mulec, Janez; Muck, Tadeja; Hladnik, Aleš; Mladenovič, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Bioreceptivity is an intrinsic property of stone, and is defined as the ability of a material to be colonized by living organisms. The fouling and staining of building stone material due to the activity of microorganisms presents a serious problem in modern as well as historical buildings, not only due to the aesthetic impact but also due to the deterioration of the material. Biological colonisation on stone materials is influenced by a number of factors, e.g. the intrinsic properties of the stone (porosity, roughness, permeability, mineral composition), environmental parameters (e.g. solar radiation, temperature, water regime, climate, etc.), and specific microclimatic parameters (e.g. orientation, exposure to shadow, permanent capillary humidity, etc.). In order to assess the bioreceptivity of building stones, use is often made of artificial colonisation experiments compromising the inoculation of stones with a single species or a few isolated strains under laboratory conditions. In the present work the authors present the development of a method for the determination of bioreceptivity, as well as a study of the bioreceptivity of selected natural stone versus the latter's intrinsic properties. Field examples of biodeterioration are also presented. The study was supported by the Slovenian Research Agency (L1-5453).

  3. Trends in urological stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Benjamin W; Reynard, John M; Noble, Jeremy G; Keoghane, Stephen R

    2012-04-01

    To summarize the changes in prevalence and treatment of upper urinary tract stone disease in the UK over the last 10 years. Data from the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) website (http://www.hesonline.nhs.uk) were extracted, summarized and presented. The number of upper urinary tract stone hospital episodes increased by 63% to 83,050 in the 10-year period. The use of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) for treating all upper tract stones increased from 14,491 cases in 2000-2001 to 22,402 cases in 2010 (a 55% increase) with a 69% increase in lithotripsy for renal stones. There was a 127% increase in the number of ureteroscopic stone treatments from 6,283 to 14,242 cases over the 10-year period with a 49% increase from 2007/2008 to 2009/2010. There was a decline in open surgery for upper tract stones from 278 cases in 2000/2001 to 47 cases in 2009/2010 (an 83% reduction). Treatment for stone disease has increased substantially in comparison with other urological activity. In 2009/2010, SWL was performed almost as frequently as transurethral resection of the prostate or transurethral resection of bladder tumour, ureteroscopy for stones was performed more frequently than nephrectomy, radical prostatectomy and cystectomy combined, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy was performed more frequently than cystectomy. The present study highlights the increase in prevalence and treatment of stone disease in the UK over the last 10 years. If this trend continues it has important implications for workforce planning, training, service delivery and research in the field of urolithiasis. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  4. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  5. ORIGINAL PAPER ORIG ORIG Percutaneous stone removal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is an effective procedure to treat patients with complex renal stones,. e.g. staghorn calculi and stones greater than 20 mm in diameter. The treatment of choice for small, less com- plex renal stones is extracorporeal shock-wave litho- tripsy (ESWL).1 We have treated renal stones mainly.

  6. Quality Assessment of Urinary Stone Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siener, Roswitha; Buchholz, Noor; Daudon, Michel

    2016-01-01

    After stone removal, accurate analysis of urinary stone composition is the most crucial laboratory diagnostic procedure for the treatment and recurrence prevention in the stone-forming patient. The most common techniques for routine analysis of stones are infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction......, fulfilled the quality requirements. According to the current standard, chemical analysis is considered to be insufficient for stone analysis, whereas infrared spectroscopy or X-ray diffraction is mandatory. However, the poor results of infrared spectroscopy highlight the importance of equipment, reference...... spectra and qualification of the staff for an accurate analysis of stone composition. Regular quality control is essential in carrying out routine stone analysis....

  7. Diffusion and Leaching Behavior of Radionuclides in Category 3 Waste Encasement Concrete and Soil Fill Material – Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Powers, Laura; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-08-31

    One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. The current plan for waste isolation consists of stacking low-level waste packages on a trench floor, surrounding the stacks with reinforced steel, and encasing these packages in concrete. These concrete-encased waste stacks are expected to vary in size with maximum dimensions of 6.4 m long, 2.7 m wide, and 4 m high. The waste stacks are expected to have a surrounding minimum thickness of 15 cm of concrete encasement. These concrete-encased waste packages are expected to withstand environmental exposure (solar radiation, temperature variations, and precipitation) until an interim soil cover or permanent closure cover is installed, and to remain largely intact thereafter. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The retardation factors for radionuclides contained in the waste packages can be determined from measurements of diffusion coefficients for these contaminants through concrete and fill material. Some of the mobilization scenarios include (1) potential leaching of waste form before permanent closure cover is installed; (2) after the cover installation, long-term diffusion of radionuclides from concrete waste form into surrounding fill material; (3) diffusion of radionuclides from contaminated soils into adjoining concrete encasement and clean fill material. Additionally, the rate of

  8. Histopathology Predicts the Mechanism of Stone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, Andrew P.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life and these numbers appear to be on the rise. Despite years of scientific research into the mechanisms of stone formation and growth, limited advances have been made until recently. Randall's original observations and thoughts on the mechanisms for kidney stone formation have been validated for idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) but not for most other stone forming groups. Our current studies on selected groups of human stone formers using intraoperative papillary biopsies has shown overwhelming evidence for the presence of Randall's plaque in ICSF and that stone formation and growth are exclusively linked to its availability to urinary ions and proteins. Intense investigation of the plaque-stone junction is needed if we are to understand the factors leading to the overgrowth process on exposed regions of plaque. Such information should allow the development of treatment strategies to block stone formation in ICSF patients. Patients who form brushite stones, or who form apatite stones because of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), or patients with calcium oxalate stones due to obesity bypass procedures, or patients with cystinuria, get plugged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) which leads to total destruction of the lining cells and focal sites of interstitial fibrosis. These stone formers have plaque but at levels equal to or below non-stone formers, which would suggest that they form stones by a different mechanism than do ICSF patients.

  9. Shielding features of quarry stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez V, C.; Contreras S, H.; Hernandez A, L.; Baltazar R, A.; Escareno J, E.; Mares E, C. A.; Vega C, H. R.

    2010-10-01

    Quarry stone lineal attenuation coefficient for gamma-rays has been obtained. In Zacatecas, quarry stone is widely utilized as a decorative item in buildings, however its shielding features against gamma-rays unknown. The aim of this work is to determine the shielding properties of quarry stone against γ-rays using Monte Carlo calculations where a detailed model of a good geometry experimental setup was carried out. In the calculations 10 pieces 10 X 10 cm 2 of different thickness were utilized to evaluate the photons transmission as the quarry stone thickness is increased. It was noticed that transmitted photons decay away as the shield thickness is increased, these results were fitted to an exponential function were the linear attenuation coefficient was estimated. Also, using XCOM code the linear attenuation coefficient from several keV up to 100 MeV was estimated. From the comparison between Monte Carlo results and XCOM calculations a good agreement was found. For 0.662 MeV γ-rays the attenuation coefficient of quarry stone, whose density is 2.413 g-cm -3 , is 0.1798 cm -1 , this mean a X 1/2 = 3.9 cm, X 1/4 = 7.7 cm, X 1/10 = 12.8 cm, and X 1/100 = 25.6 cm. Having the information of quarry stone performance as shielding give the chance to use this material to shield X and γ-ray facilities. (Author)

  10. Kidney Stones and Ceftriaxone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Dursun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic causes such as hypercalciuria, urinary tract infection, and obstruction are the most common aetiologies of urolithiasis, and drugs, although important in this regard, are rarely the cause of urolithiasis. Administration of one of these drugs, ceftriaxone (CTX, has been associated with biliary pseudolithiasis in adult and paediatric patients, and rarely may cause urolithiasis. Several factors, including drug concentration and incubation time, are very important for determining the degree of CTX/calcium (Ca crystallisation in the urine. According to this data, CTX crystallisation was a dose and time-dependent reaction. It is particularly important to monitor patients on high-dose long-term CTX treatment with the urinary Ca to creatinine ratios, ultrasound sonography, and renal function testing, as these individuals may be at greater risk of large stones and renal damage. This type of screening may help prevent permanent complications in the future. This underlying review will help to educate readers on the pathophysiology and interaction between CTX and urolithiasis.

  11. Small Column Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) leverages a suite of technologies developed by DOE across the complex to achieve lifecycle savings. Technologies are applicable to multiple sites. Early testing supported multiple sites. Balance of SRS SCIX testing supports SRS deployment. A forma Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) was performed and selected Small Column Ion Exchange columns containing Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) in a 2-column lead/lag configuration. SEE considered use of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF). Advantages of approach at SRS include: (1) no new buildings, (2) low volume of Cs waste in solid form compared to aqueous strip effluent; and availability of downstream processing facilities for immediate processing of spent resin.

  12. Regional differences in constituents of gall stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, M; Nageshwar Reddy, D; Jayanthi, V; Kalkura, S N; Vijayan, V; Gokulakrishnan, S; Nair, K G M

    2005-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pigment and mixed gall stone formation remains elusive. The elemental constituents of gall stones from southern states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka have been characterized. Our aim was to determine the elemental concentration of representative samples of pigment, mixed and cholesterol gall stones from Andhra Pradesh using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a 3 MV horizontal pelletron accelerator. Pigment gall stones had significantly high concentrations of copper, iron and lead; chromium was absent. Except for iron all these elements were significantly low in cholesterol gall stones and intermediate levels were seen in mixed gall stones. Highest concentrations of chromium was seen in cholesterol and titanium in mixed gall stones respectively; latter similar to other southern states. Arsenic was distinctly absent in cholesterol and mixed gall stones. The study has identified differences in elemental components of the gall stones from Andhra Pradesh.

  13. Renal stone in crossed fused renal ectopia and its laparoscopic management: Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Agrawal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of renal stone in crossed fused renal ectopia (CFRE is difficult because of abnormal location, malrotation, and its relations with vertebral column and small bowel. Management is not standardized because of the paucity of literature and variable anatomy. We managed an 8-year-old boy with multiple renal stones in right side crossed kidney by laparoscopic pyelolithotomy and nephro pyeloscopy with the help of ureteroscope. Until now, there is only one prior report of laparoscopic pyelolithotomy in CFRE. We share our experience in this case and review the literature regarding the management of kidney stones in this rare anomaly.

  14. JCE Feature Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    1999-05-01

    The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using these links you can easily find abstracts of additional articles that are related by topic. Of course, JCE Online+ subscribers are then just one click away from the entire article. Finding related articles is easy because each feature column "site" contains links to the online abstracts of all the articles that have appeared in the column. In addition, you can find the mission statement for the column and the email link to the column editor that I mentioned above. At the discretion of its editor, a feature column site may contain additional resources. As an example, the Chemical Information Instructor column edited by Arleen Somerville will have a periodically updated bibliography of resources for teaching and using chemical information. Due to the increase in the number of these resources available on the WWW, it only makes sense to publish this information online so that you can get to these resources with a simple click of the mouse. We expect that there will soon be additional information and resources at several other feature column sites. Following in the footsteps of the Chemical Information Instructor, up-to-date bibliographies and links to related online resources can be made available. We hope to extend the online component of our feature columns with moderated online discussion forums. If you have a suggestion for an online resource you would like to see included, let the feature editor or JCE Online (jceonline@chem.wisc.edu) know about it. JCE Internet Features JCE Internet also has several feature columns: Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Equipment Buyers Guide, Hal's Picks, Mathcad

  15. Canada's National Building Stone: Tyndall Stone from Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Brian R.; Young, Graham A.; Dobrzanski, Edward P.

    2016-04-01

    Tyndall Stone is a distinctively mottled and highly fossiliferous dolomitic limestone that belongs to the Selkirk Member of the Red River Formation, of Late Ordovician (Katian) age. It has been quarried at Garson, Manitoba, 37 km northeast of Winnipeg, since 1895, although other quarries in the area go back to 1832. Tyndall Stone, so named because it was shipped by rail from nearby Tyndall, is currently produced by Gillis Quarries Limited. It has various uses as a dimension stone. Large slabs, most often cut parallel to bedding, face the exterior or interior of many important buildings such as the Parliament Buildings and the Canadian Museum of Civilization in the Ottawa area, the Empress Hotel in Victoria, and the provincial legislatures in Winnipeg and Regina, as well as many commercial buildings especially in the Canadian prairies. At the quarries, the stone is cut vertically, using eight foot (2.44 m) diameter saws mounted on one hundred foot (30.5 m) tracks, then split into 6-8 tonne blocks that are moved using front-end loaders. Gillis Quarries operates a large finishing plant with an area of about 4000 m2. Stone is processed along advanced cutting lines that feature eight primary saws and six gantry saw stations, allowing it to be made into a variety of sizes, shapes, and finishes. The Selkirk Member is 43 m thick and the stone is extracted from a 6-8 m thick interval within the lower part. The upper beds tend to be more buff-coloured than the grey lower beds due to weathering by groundwater. The stone is massive, but extracted blocks are less than ~1m thick due to splitting along stylolites. Consisting of bioturbated wackestone to packstone, the Tyndall Stone was deposited in a shallow-marine environment within the photic zone, in the central part of the vast equatorial epicontinental sea that covered much of Laurentia. Scattered thin, bioclastic grainstone lenses record brief, low-energy storm events. The distinctive mottles are formed by dolomitized

  16. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals and radionuclides from seawater by encased embryos of the spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffree, Ross A. . E-mail R.Jeffree@iaea.org; Warnau, Michel; Oberhansli, Francois; Teyssie, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    Encased embryos of spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula absorbed six radio-isotopes ( 241 Am, 109 Cd, 57 Co, 134 Cs, 54 Mn and 65 Zn) directly from seawater during short-term experimental exposure, demonstrating the permeability of the egg-case to these contaminants. Embryo to water concentration factors (CFs) ranged from 0.14 for 134 Cs to 7.4 for 65 Zn. The 65 Zn and 57 Co CFs increased exponentially with embryo length, whereas the CF for 109 Cd declined with length. Among different components of the encased embryo the egg case was the major repository (69-99%) of all six radio-isotopes that were distributed throughout its wall. Egg-case CFs were as high as 10 3 for 57 Co and 65 Zn, making it the major source of gamma radiation exposure to the embryo and potentially of radio-isotopes for continued absorption by the embryo, following the uptake phase of the experiment. The patterns of uptake by the egg-case approximated linearity for most isotopes and loss rates were isotope-specific; egg-case biokinetics were not greatly affected by the viability of the contained embryo. Within the embryo initial data on radio isotopic distribution show that the skin is their major site of uptake, as previously demonstrated for juveniles

  17. Tri-functional Fe2O3-encased Ag-doped ZnO nanoframework: magnetically retrievable antimicrobial photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Chockalingam; Vinayagamoorthy, Pazhamalai

    2016-11-01

    Fe2O3-encased ZnO nanoframework was obtained by hydrothermal method and was doped with Ag through photoreduction process. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM, selected area electron diffractometry, x-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy were employed for the structural characterization of the synthesized material. While the charge transfer resistance of the prepared nanomaterial is larger than those of Fe2O3 and ZnO the coercivity of the nanocomposite is less than that of hydrothermally obtained Fe2O3 nanostructures. Although Fe2O3/Ag-ZnO exhibits weak visible light absorption its band gap energy does not differ from that of ZnO. The photoluminescence of the fabricated nanoframework is similar to that of ZnO. The radiative recombination of charge carriers is slightly slower in Fe2O3/Ag-ZnO than in ZnO. The synthesized Fe2O3-encased Ag-doped ZnO, under UV A light, exhibits sustainable photocatalytic activity to degrade dye and is magnetically recoverable. Also, the Fe2O3/Ag-ZnO nanocomposite disinfects bacteria effectively in absence of direct illumination.

  18. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  19. Nuclear reactor control column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachovchin, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear reactor control column comprises a column disposed within the nuclear reactor core having a variable cross-section hollow channel and containing balls whose vertical location is determined by the flow of the reactor coolant through the column. The control column is divided into three basic sections wherein each of the sections has a different cross-sectional area. The uppermost section of the control column has the greatest crosssectional area, the intermediate section of the control column has the smallest cross-sectional area, and the lowermost section of the control column has the intermediate cross-sectional area. In this manner, the area of the uppermost section can be established such that when the reactor coolant is flowing under normal conditions therethrough, the absorber balls will be lifted and suspended in a fluidized bed manner in the upper section. However, when the reactor coolant flow falls below a predetermined value, the absorber balls will fall through the intermediate section and into the lowermost section, thereby reducing the reactivity of the reactor core and shutting down the reactor

  20. Improvements in solvent extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aughwane, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    Solvent extraction columns are used in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel. For an effective reprocessing operation a solvent extraction column is required which is capable of distributing the feed over most of the column. The patent describes improvements in solvent extractions columns which allows the feed to be distributed over an increased length of column than was previously possible. (U.K.)

  1. Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy for large ureteric stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Sayyad

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy is a safe and effective approach for selected patients with large proximal ureteric stones with reduced postoperative pain and short hospital stay, and should be considered as a treatment option for such stones.

  2. Kidney Stones in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Kidney Stones in Children and Teens Page Content Article ... teen girls having the highest incidence. Types of Kidney Stones There are many different types of kidney ...

  3. Buckling of liquid columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibi, M.; Rahmani, Y.; Bonn, D.; Ribe, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Under appropriate conditions, a column of viscous liquid falling onto a rigid surface undergoes a buckling instability. Here we show experimentally and theoretically that liquid buckling exhibits a hitherto unsuspected complexity involving three different modes—viscous, gravitational, and

  4. Solvent extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, P.; Smith, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    In pulsed columns for use in solvent extraction processes, e.g. the reprocessing of nuclear fuel, the horizontal perforated plates inside the column are separated by interplate spacers manufactured from metallic neutron absorbing material. The spacer may be in the form of a spiral or concentric circles separated by radial limbs, or may be of egg-box construction. Suitable neutron absorbing materials include stainless steel containing boron or gadolinium, hafnium metal or alloys of hafnium. (UK)

  5. Intraperitoneal stone migration during percutaneos nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akif Diri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneos nephrolithotomy (PNL is the standard care for renal stones larger than 2 cm. The procedure has some major and minor complications. Renal pelvis laceration and stone migration to the retroperitoneum is one of the rare condition. We report the first case of intraperitoneal stone migration during PNL.

  6. Stone stability under non-uniform flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoan, N.T.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the fact that many studies on the stability of stones in bed protections under flowing water have been conducted, our knowledge is still far from advanced and reliable. Issues like how to quantify the hydraulic loads exerted on the stones on a bed and the associated stability of the stones

  7. Search for fullerenes in stone meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oester, M. Y.; Kuechl, D.; Sipiera, P. P.; Welch, C. J.

    1994-07-01

    The possibility of identifying fullerenes in stony meteorites became apparent from a paper given by Radicati de Brozolo. In this paper it was reported that fullerenes were present in the debris resulting from a collision between a micrometeoroid and an orbiting satellite. This fact generated sufficient curiosity to initiate a search for the presence of fullerenes in various stone meteorites. In the present study seven ordinary chondrites (al-Ghanim L6 (find), Dimmitt H4 (find), Lazbuddie LL5 (find), New Concord H5 (fall), Silverton H4 (find), Springlake L6 (find), and Umbarger L3/6 (find)). Four carbonaceous chondrites (ALH 83100 C2 (find), ALH 83108 C30 (find), Allende CV3 (fall), and Murchison CM2 (fall), and one achondrite (Monticello How (find)) were analyzed for the presence of fullerenes. The analytical procedure employed was as follows: 100 mg of meteorite was ground up with a mortar and pestle; 10 mL of toluene was then added and the mixture was refluxed for 90 min; this mixture was then filtered through a short column of silica; a 50 microliter sample was then analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a Buckyclutcher I column with a mobile phase consisting of equal volumes of toluene and hexane at a flow rate of 1.00 mg per minute, with detection at 330 and 600 nm. Three of the meteorites, Allende, Murchison, and al-Ghanim, gave HPLC traces containing peaks with similar retention times to the HPLC trace of an authentic fullerene C60. However, further analysis using an HPLC instrument equipped with a diode-array detector failed to confirm any of the substances detected in the three meteorites as C60. Additional analyses will be conducted to identify what the HPLC traces actually represent.

  8. Project W-314 acceptance test report HNF-4651 for HNF-4650 SN-268 encasement leak detection ANA-WT-LDSTA-335 for project W-314

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAMMERS, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the test was to verify that the AN Tank Farm Encasement Leak Detector components are functionally integrated and operate in accordance with engineering design specifications The Acceptance Test Procedure HNF-4650, SN-268 Encasement Leak Detection ANA-W-LDSTA-335, was conducted between 22 June and 01 July 1999 at the 200E AN Tank Farm. The test has been completed with no open test exceptions The test was conducted prior to final engineering ''as built'' activities being completed this had no impact on the procedure or test results. All components, identified in the procedure, were found to be labeled and identified as written in the procedure

  9. Treatment of gallbladder stone with common bile duct stones in the laparoscopic era

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei-jie; Xu, Gui-fang; Huang, Qin; Luo, Kun-lun; Dong, Zhi-tao; Li, Jie-ming; Wu, Guo-zhong; Guan, Wen-xian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) for stone can be carried out by either laparoscopic transcystic stone extraction (LTSE) or laparoscopic choledochotomy (LC). It remains unknown as to which approach is optimal for management of gallbladder stone with common bile duct stones (CBDS) in Chinese patients. Methods: From May 2000 to February 2009, we prospective treated 346 consecutive patients with gallbladder stones and CBDS with laparoscopic cholecystectomy and LCBDE....

  10. The ground stones from Sphinx

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řídký, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 21 (2017), s. 39-42 ISSN 1369-5770 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA17-03207S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Sudan * Mesolithic * ground stones Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  11. Pancreatic Stones: Treat or Ignore?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Howell

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Painful, chronic pancreatitis is of complex etiology, but increasing clinical experience suggests that removal of pancreatic duct stones in many cases significantly improves patients’ symptoms. The development and refinement of therapeutic endoscopic retrograde choledochopancreatography have permitted improved access to the pancreatic duct, which makes the development of new techniques of stone fragmentation and fragment removal a much more successful nonsurgical intervention. A major step forward has been the understanding of the safety and efficacy of pancreatic sphincterotomy, which is necessary for the removal of these difficult stones. The recognition that extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy can be delivered safely with good efficacy has revolutionized the nonsurgical management of pancreatic duct stones. Nevertheless, advanced and sophisticated therapeutic endoscopy is necessary to achieve clearance of the duct, which can generally be accomplished in the majority of selected patients. State-of-the-art treatments are described, and some new approaches using pancreatoscopy and electrohydrolic lithotripsy are discussed. Newly recognized long term complications are reviewed. Finally, it must be recognized that chronic pancreatitis is an ongoing disease that does not have a simple treatment or cure, and frequently represents a process of remissions and relapses requiring interventions and problem solving.

  12. Do stone size and impaction influence therapeutic approach to proximal ureteral stones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Slobodan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Primary therapeutic approach to lumbar ureteral stones is still contraversial. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of stone impaction and size on the effectiveness of proximal ureteral stone lithotripsy. Methods. A total of 123 patients with proximal ureteral stones were investigated in this prospective study performed in a 10- month period. The patients were divided into the group I - 86 patients treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL and the group II - 37 patients treated with 'Swiss' Lithoclast. In the group I, 49 stones (57% were classified as impacted, while 20 stones (23.3% were larger than 100 mm2. In the group II, 26 stones (70.3% were impacted, and 11 stones (29.7% were larger than 100 mm2. Stones were defined as impacted by the radiographic, echosonographic as well as endoscopic findings in the group II of patients. Stone size was presented in mm2. Chemical composition of stones were almost the same in both groups of the patients. Results. Generally, there was no statistically significant difference in the treatment success between the groups. However, stones larger than 100 mm2 were statistically more successfully treated endoscopically, while there was no statistical difference in the treatment success of impacted stones between these two groups. Conclusion. ESWL can by considered as primary first therapeutic approach in treatment of all proximal ureteral stones except for stones larger than 100 mm2 that should primarily be treated endoscopically.

  13. Management of ureteric stone in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Minevich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of ureteral stones in children is becoming more similar to that in adults. A number of factors must be taken into account when selecting one′s choice of therapy for ureteral stone in children such as the size of the stone, its location, its composition, and urinary tract anatomy. Endoscopic lithotripsy in children has gradually become a major technique for the treatment of ureteral stones. The stone-free rate following urteroscopic lithotripsy for ureteral stones has been reported in as high as 98.5-100%. The safety and efficacy of Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy make it the intracorporeal lithotriptor of choice. Given its minimally invasive features, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL has become a primary mode of treatment for the pediatric patients with reno-ureteral stones. Stone-free rates have been reported from 59% to 91% although some patients will require more than one treatment session for stone clearance. It appears that the first-line of therapy in the child with distal and mid-ureteral stones should be ureteroscopic lithotripsy. While ESWL is still widely considered the first-line therapy for proximal ureteral calculi, there is an increasing body of evidence that shows that endoscopic or ESWL are equally safe and efficacious in those clinical scenarios. Familiarity with the full spectrum of endourological techniques facilitates a minimally invasive approach to pediatric ureteral stones.

  14. Assembly for connecting the column ends of two capillary columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, B.; Auer, M.; Pospisil, P.

    1984-01-01

    In gas chromatography, the column ends of two capillary columns are inserted into a straight capillary from both sides forming annular gaps. The capillary is located in a tee out of which the capillary columns are sealingly guided, and to which carrier gas is supplied by means of a flushing flow conduit. A ''straight-forward operation'' having capillary columns connected in series and a ''flush-back operation'' are possible. The dead volume between the capillary columns can be kept small

  15. Open stone surgery: a still-in-use approach for complex stone burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakici, Özer Ural; Ener, Kemal; Keske, Murat; Altinova, Serkan; Canda, Abdullah Erdem; Aldemir, Mustafa; Ardicoglu, Arslan

    2017-06-30

    Urinary stone disease is a major urological condition. Endourologic techniques have influenced the clinical approach and outcomes. Open surgery holds a historic importance in the management of most conditions. However, complex kidney stone burden may be amenable to successful results with open stone surgery. In this article, we report our eighteen cases of complex urinary stone disease who underwent open stone removal. A total of 1701 patients have undergone surgical treatment for urinary stone disease in our clinic between July 2012 and July 2016, comprising eighteen patients who underwent open stone surgery. Patients' demographic data, stone analysis results, postoperative clinical data, and stone status were evaluated retrospectively. The choice of surgical approach is mostly dependent on the surgeon's preference. In two patients, open surgery was undertaken because of perioperative complications. We did not observe any Clavien-Dindo grade 4 or 5 complications. Three patients were managed with a course of antibiotics due to postoperative fever. One patient had postoperative pleurisy, one patient had urinoma, and two patients had postoperative ileus. Mean operation time was 84 (57-124) minutes and mean hospitalization time was 5.5 (3-8) days. Stone-free status was achieved in 15 patients (83.3%). Endourologic approaches are the first options for treatment of urinary stone disease. However, open stone surgery holds its indispensable position in complicated cases and in complex stone burden. Open stone surgery is also a valid alternative to endourologic techniques in all situations.

  16. The effect of encasings on quality of life in adult house dust mite allergic patients with rhinitis, asthma and/or atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terreehorst, I; Duivenvoorden, H J; Tempels-Pavlica, Z; Oosting, A J; de Monchy, J G R; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A F M; van Wijk, R Gerth

    2005-07-01

    Environmental control has been put forward as an integral part of the management of house dust mite (HDM) allergy in sensitized patients. To validate this statement allergic disorders involved in HDM allergy--allergic asthma, rhinitis and atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (AEDS)--should be taken together and studied in terms of the efficacy of environmental control. Because a generic quality of life questionnaire exceeds the border of disease, this may be used as major outcome parameter. To study the effects of bedding encasings in HDM allergic patients with asthma, rhinitis and AEDS. A total of 224 adult HDM allergic patients with rhinitis and/or asthma and/or dermatitis were randomly allocated impermeable or nonimpermeable encasings for mattress, pillow and duvet. Short form 36 (SF-36) was filled in at baseline and after 12 months. Lower physical (P = 0.01) and emotional (P effect was seen of encasings on either sumscore. Bedding encasings do not improve quality of life in a mixed population of subjects with combinations with rhinitis, asthma and atopic dermatitis and sensitized to HDMs.

  17. Bariatric Surgery and Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2008-09-01

    Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment strategy for patients with morbid obesity that can result in effective weight loss, resolution of diabetes mellitus and other weight related complications, and even improved mortality. However, it also appears that hyperoxaluria is common after modern bariatric surgery, perhaps occurring in up to 50% of patients after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass. Although increasing numbers of patients are being seen with calcium oxalate kidney stones after bariatric surgery, and even a few with oxalosis and renal failure, the true risk of these outcomes remains unknown. The mechanisms that contribute to this enteric hyperoxaluria are also incompletely defined, although fat malabsorption may be an important component. Since increasing numbers of these procedures are likely to be performed in the coming years, further study regarding the prevalence and mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and kidney stones after bariatric surgery is needed to devise effective methods of treatment in order to prevent such complications.

  18. Greco-Roman Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine

    2008-09-01

    Greek and Roman thought had a profound influence upon Western medical practice. From the fall of the Greek civilization to the fall of the Roman, remarkable progress of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology occurred. Here we review the attempts of Greek and Roman thinkers to develop the first understanding of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, its epidemiology, differential diagnosis of renal versus bladder stones, medications for both colic and prevention, the role of familial syndromes, and dietary management.

  19. Columns in Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenhouts, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a clay project for students studying Greece and Rome. It provides a wonderful way to learn slab construction techniques by making small clay column capitols. With this lesson, students learn architectural vocabulary and history, understand the importance of classical architectural forms and their influence on today's…

  20. Slender CRC Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarup, Bendt; Jensen, Lars Rom; Ellegaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    CRC is a high-performance steel fibre reinforced concrete with a typical compressive strength of 150 MPa. Design methods for a number of structural elements have been developed since CRC was invented in 1986, but the current project set out to further investigate the range of columns for which...

  1. Practical column design guide

    CERN Document Server

    Nitsche, M

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the aspects that need to be considered when designing distillation columns in practice. It discusses the influencing parameters as well as the equations governing them, and presents several numerical examples. The book is intended both for experienced designers and for those who are new to the subject.

  2. Analysis and seismic tests of composite shear walls with CFST columns and steel plate deep beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongying; Cao, Wanlin; Wu, Haipeng; Zhang, Jianwei; Xu, Fangfang

    2013-12-01

    A composite shear wall concept based on concrete filled steel tube (CFST) columns and steel plate (SP) deep beams is proposed and examined in this study. The new wall is composed of three different energy dissipation elements: CFST columns; SP deep beams; and reinforced concrete (RC) strips. The RC strips are intended to allow the core structural elements — the CFST columns and SP deep beams — to work as a single structure to consume energy. Six specimens of different configurations were tested under cyclic loading. The resulting data are analyzed herein. In addition, numerical simulations of the stress and damage processes for each specimen were carried out, and simulations were completed for a range of location and span-height ratio variations for the SP beams. The simulations show good agreement with the test results. The core structure exhibits a ductile yielding mechanism characteristic of strong column-weak beam structures, hysteretic curves are plump and the composite shear wall exhibits several seismic defense lines. The deformation of the shear wall specimens with encased CFST column and SP deep beam design appears to be closer to that of entire shear walls. Establishing optimal design parameters for the configuration of SP deep beams is pivotal to the best seismic behavior of the wall. The new composite shear wall is therefore suitable for use in the seismic design of building structures.

  3. Mechanical Assessment of Fire Damage of the Ancient Greek Temple of Marble Stone

    OpenAIRE

    山田, 眞生

    2016-01-01

    Historical masonry heritages buildings existing in earthquake-prone countries have been affected many times by earthquakes in their long histories. The Parthenon, Athens in Greece is one of the most famous buildings, and it well known that the Parthenon was damaged seriously by earthquakes and especially human disasters. Therefore, restoration works have been performed carefully since 1975. In addition, marble stone constructions, for example marble column, also suffered serious damage by two...

  4. Emergency management of ureteral stones: Recent advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Osorio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Most ureteral stones can be observed with reasonable expectation of uneventful stone passage. When an active ureteral stone treatment is warranted, the best procedure to choose is dependent on several factors, besides stone size and location, including operators′ experience, patients′ preference, available equipment and related costs. Placement of double-J stent or nephrostomy tube represents the classical procedures performed in a renal colic due to acute ureteral obstruction when the conservative drug therapy does not resolve the symptoms. These maneuvers are usually followed by ureteroscopy or extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, which currently represent the mainstay of treatment for ureteral stones. In this review paper a literature search was performed to identify reports dealing with emergency management of renal colic due to ureteral stones. The main aspects related to this debated issue are analyzed and the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment option are carefully discussed.

  5. Emergency management of ureteral stones: Recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Luis; Lima, Estêvão; Autorino, Riccardo; Marcelo, Filinto

    2008-10-01

    Most ureteral stones can be observed with reasonable expectation of uneventful stone passage. When an active ureteral stone treatment is warranted, the best procedure to choose is dependent on several factors, besides stone size and location, including operators' experience, patients' preference, available equipment and related costs. Placement of double-J stent or nephrostomy tube represents the classical procedures performed in a renal colic due to acute ureteral obstruction when the conservative drug therapy does not resolve the symptoms. These maneuvers are usually followed by ureteroscopy or extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, which currently represent the mainstay of treatment for ureteral stones. In this review paper a literature search was performed to identify reports dealing with emergency management of renal colic due to ureteral stones. The main aspects related to this debated issue are analyzed and the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment option are carefully discussed.

  6. Papillary Ductal Plugging is a Mechanism for Early Stone Retention in Brushite Stone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, James C; Borofsky, Michael S; Bledsoe, Sharon B

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Mechanisms of early stone retention in the kidney are under studied and poorly understood. To date attachment via Randall's plaque is the only widely accepted theory in this regard, which is best described in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. Brushite stone formers are known...... to have distinct papillary morphology relative to calcium oxalate stone formers. As such we sought to determine whether stone attachment mechanisms in such patients may be similarly unique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients undergoing percutaneous and or ureteroscopic procedures for stone removal consented...... to endoscopic renal papillary examination and individual stone collection. Each removed stone was processed using micro computerized tomography to assess the 3-dimensional microstructure and the minerals contained, and search for common structural features indicative of novel mechanisms of early growth...

  7. COMORBIDITY OF KIDNEY STONES AND PYCHIATRIC DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Bilić, Vedran; Marčinko, Darko

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a patient who is suffering from PTSD with elements of hypochondria, panic attacks and episodes of 0depression in comorbidity with kidney stones. Kidney stones provoked egzacerbation of psychiatric symptoms. Kidney stones and frustration about them have taken part of provoking factor, the last drop, which led to regression of otherwise precarious, but compensated patient’s mental functioning which resulted in development of psychiatric symptoms.

  8. Building stones can be of geoheritage significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocx, Margaret; Semeniuk, Vic

    2017-04-01

    Building stones have generally been assigned values according to their cultural, aesthetic, and rarity significance, amongst other criteria, but they also may have geoheritage significance. This is akin to the geoheritage significance ascribed to minerals and fossils housed as ex situ specimens in museums. We proffer the notion that building stones can be of geoheritage value particularly where they comprise permanent buildings, they illustrate significant windows into the history of the Earth, and they can be visited as an ex situ museum locality (e.g., the "Blue Granite" of Iceland) for education as part of building-stone tours. For some rocks the quarries that supplied the building stone are no longer in existence and hence the building stones provide the only record of that type of material; for other rocks, the building stone may illustrate features in the lithology no longer present in the quarry itself (e.g., rare and large xenoliths). Building stones are particularly significant as they are often polished and manifest structures, fabrics, and textures not evident in outcrop. We illustrate here examples of building stone of geoheritage significance using Australian and International examples. Australian designated stones could include the "Sydney Sandstone" or "Victorian Bluestone". For international examples, there is the famous "Carrara Marble" in Italy and the widely known "Portland Limestone" from southern England, the latter having been utilized for St Pauls Cathedral in London and the UN building in New York City.

  9. 77 FR 27245 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R3-R-2012-N069; FXRS1265030000S3-123-FF03R06000] Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN AGENCY: Fish and... plan (CCP) and environmental assessment (EA) for Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge, NWR) for...

  10. Nine Words - Nine Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trempe Jr., Robert B.; Buthke, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This book records the efforts of a one-week joint workshop between Master students from Studio 2B of Arkitektskolen Aarhus and Master students from the Harbin Institute of Technology in Harbin, China. The workshop employed nine action words to instigate team-based investigation into the effects o...... as formwork for the shaping of wood veneer. The resulting columns ‘wear’ every aspect of this design pipeline process and display the power of process towards an architectural resolution....

  11. A Lion of a Stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image of the rock called 'Lion Stone' was acquired by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sol 104 (May 9, 2004). The rock stands about 10 centimeters tall (about 4 inches) and is about 30 centimeters long (12 inches). Plans for the coming sols include investigating the rock with the spectrometers on the rover's instrument arm. This image was generated using the camera's L2 (750-nanometer), L5 (530-nanometer) and L6 (480-nanometer) filters.

  12. Do You Have Symptoms of a Kidney Stone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Or, the stone will be removed with treatment. Dogs, Cats, and Kidney Stones Humans aren't the only ones affected by kidney and bladder stones. Dogs, cats, and other animals can also have kidney ...

  13. NMFS Water Column Sonar Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water column sonar data are an important component of fishery independent surveys, habitat studies and other research. NMFS water column sonar data are archived here.

  14. Microbiological influences on fracture surfaces of intact mud-stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.M.; Harrison, H.; Wragg, J.; Wagner, D.; Milodowski, A.E.; Turner, G.; Lacinska, A.; Holyoake, S.; Harrington, J.; Coombs, P.; Bateman, K.; Yoshikawa, H.; Sasaki, Y.; Aoki, K.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. It is well recognised that microbes live in a wide range of subsurface environments including potential geological repository host rocks; and their presence can have an impact on transport processes. Microbial activity in any environment is located on chemical or physical interfaces, usually within bio-films. Their impact on transport can be physical (e.g. altering porosity) and/or chemical (e.g. changing redox conditions or altering pH) often resulting in intracellular or extracellular mineral formation or degradation. Consequently, the significance of microbial activity on the transport properties of potential host rocks for geological repositories is now being investigated. This pilot study investigates changes in transport properties that are because of microbial activity in sedimentary mud-stone rock environments at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) Horonobe underground research laboratory (URL) in northern Japan. The geological setting of the URL is summarised elsewhere. Geo-microbiological assessments of ground waters, from boreholes, previously drilled at Horonobe, have revealed the presence of a diverse indigenous microbiological ecosystem. The impacts of the presence of these microbes on the performance of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository, using geo-microbiological data from Horonobe, has shown that denitrifying bacteria is likely to be the group of organisms with the greatest activity. Consequently, the impact of this group of organisms, specifically Pseudomonas denitrificans, on Horonobe rock transport properties, is the focus of this study. In brief, two experiments, one biotic and a 'control', were carried out using a flow-through column operated at a constant rate of fluid flow and under pressurised conditions. Changes in biological and chemical parameters were monitored throughout the experiment together with changes in confining pressure and temperature. The experiments were

  15. Contribution of stone size to chronic kidney disease in kidney stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Farrokhlagha; Etemadi, Samira Motedayen; Lessan-Pezeshki, Mahbob; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Ayati, Mohsen; Mir, Alireza; Yazdi, Hadi Rokni

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether stone burden correlates with the degree of chronic kidney disease in kidney stone formers. A total of 97 extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy candidates aged 18 years and older were included. Size, number and location of the kidney stones, along with cumulative stone size, defined as the sum of diameters of all stones) were determined. Estimated glomerular filtration rate was determined using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration cystatin C/creatinine equation, and chronic kidney disease was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate chronic kidney disease. The relationship persisted even after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, C-reactive protein, fasting plasma glucose, thyroid stimulating hormone, presence of microalbuminuria, history of renal calculi, history of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, number and location of the stones (odds ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.52). The same was not observed for individuals with a cumulative stone size ≥ 20 mm. In kidney stone formers with a cumulative stone size up to 20 mm, estimated glomerular filtration rate linearly declines with increasing cumulative stone size. Additionally, cumulative stone size is an independent predictor of chronic kidney disease in this group of patients. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  16. Percutaneous suprapubic stone extraction for posterior urethral stones in children: efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safwat, Ahmed S; Hameed, Diaa A; Elgammal, Mohamed A; Abdelsalam, Yasser M; Abolyosr, Ahmad

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous suprapubic stone extraction (PSPSE) for pediatric posterior urethral stones. Between July 2007 and June 2010, 54 boys presenting with acute urinary retention due to posterior urethral stones underwent PSPSE. Patients were a mean age of 66.4 months (range, 8-180 months). The stone size was 0.7-1.9 cm. Patients were placed under general anesthesia, and a 7F urethroscope was used to pushback the stone to the bladder. A 3-mm suprapubic puncture with a scalpel was performed, followed by insertion of a straight narrow hemostat through the puncture aided with cystoscopic guidance. The stone was grasped with the hemostat in its narrowest diameter and was extracted percutaneously or crushed if friable. The suprapubic puncture was closed with a single 4-0 Vicryl (Ethicon) suture. Intact stone retrieval was achieved in 45 patients, and the stone was crushed into minute fragments in 9 patients. Intraperitoneal extravasation developed in 1 patient that required open surgical intervention. Mean operative time was 22 minutes. Patients were monitored for up to 17 months, with complete resolution of symptoms and stone clearance. PSPSE provides a minimally invasive approach for the extraction of urethral and bladder stones in the pediatric population. The use of a straight hemostat for suprapubic stone extraction or crushing is a good alternative to suprapubic tract dilation, with minimal morbidity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Metabolic Characteristics and Risks Associated with Stone Recurrence in Korean Young Adult Stone Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ho Won; Seo, Sung Pil; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Yong-June; Yun, Seok-Joong; Kim, Wun-Jae; Lee, Sang-Cheol

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the metabolic characteristics and risks of stone recurrence in young adult stone patients in Korea. The medical records of 1532 patients presenting with renal or ureteric stones at our stone clinic between 1994 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were grouped according to age (young adult, 18-29 years; intermediate onset, 30-59 years; old age, ≥60 years) at first presentation, and measurements of clinicometabolic characteristics and risks of stone recurrence were compared. Overall, excretion of urinary stone-forming substances was highest in the intermediate onset group, followed by the young adult and old age groups. Importantly, excretion of urinary citrate was lowest in the young adult group. Kaplan-Meier analyses identified a significant difference between the three age groups in terms of stone recurrence (log rank test, p adult stone patients. Younger age (18-29 years) at first stone presentation was a significant risk factor for stone recurrence, and urinary citrate excretion was an independent risk factor affecting recurrence in this group. Metabolic evaluation and potassium citrate therapy should be considered for young adult stone patients to prevent recurrence.

  18. A Boy with a Large Bladder Stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Shen Chow

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the frequent association of urinary tract infection with vesicoureteral reflux and urinary calculi, since vesicouretal reflux is induced by bladder stones, the coexistence of vesicoureteral reflux and bladder stones is rare. Because of its occurrence in children belonging to poor socioeconomic groups, it is believed to be a deficiency disorder. Most cases of bladder stones occur between the ages of 2 and 5 years. Common clinical presentations of bladder stones include urinary dribbling and enuresis, frequency of micturition, pain during micturition, pelvic pain and hematuria. We report the occurrence of a large bladder stone in a boy, who experienced intermittent lower abdominal pain and urinary incontinence, both during the day and at night. He had been diagnosed with enuresis and treated in pediatric clinics for 1 year. Delayed diagnosis resulted in bladder stone formation. The stone was larger than 2.5 cm and open vesicolithotomy was therefore selected as the best and safest treatment choice. His symptoms disappeared after surgery. Thorough metabolic and environmental evaluations of such cases are required on an individual basis. Bladder stones should be considered as a possible diagnosis in children presenting with urinary incontinence.

  19. Sculpture: Stone Shapes, Art: 6683.08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubocq, Edward R.

    This elective course for grades 7-12 was created with a three fold purpose: 1) to create in the student an awareness of the effect of sculptural forms on his environment; 2) to introduce the student to an appreciation of stone sculpture; and 3) to further enhance the artistic abilities of the student through sculpting in stone. Course content…

  20. Evolution of stone management in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Chak; Bariol, Simon Virgil

    2011-11-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? There is very little contemporary data regarding stone management in Australia. This study assesses the impact of technological advances on stone management practises, and raises questions as to why there is an increasing rate of intervention for stone disease in Australia. Knowledge of management trends as demonstrated in this paper give individual surgeons a guideline for contemporary practise in this country. • To examine trends in the operative management of upper urinary tract stone disease in Australia over the past 15 years. • The Medicare Australia and Australian Institute of Health and Welfare databases were used to determine the annual number of renal colic presentations and procedural interventions undertaken for stone disease. • In Australia over the past 15 years, the annual number of procedural interventions for upper urinary tract stones has increased, primarily due to the rising number of endoscopic procedures performed. • During this period, shock wave lithotripsy numbers have remained steady whilst open and percutaneous procedures have been in decline. • The introduction of and subsequent preference for less invasive techniques has changed the management pathway of patients presenting with stone disease in Australia. • Further studies are necessary to determine whether this escalation in endoscopic procedures is due to an increase in the incidence of stone disease, earlier detection, a lower intervention threshold or a higher retreatment rate. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  1. Frequency of stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the rate of stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for renal stones in adult patients with renal insufficiency. Subjects and methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of 117 adult patients who underwent ESWL. The indications for ESWL were determined by the ...

  2. Stone Formation in the Infected Pediatric Enterocystoplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B. Mathoera (Rejiv)

    2003-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Proteus mirabilis is one of the most frequent bacterial agents that can induce infection stone formation by urease production. In recent years the influence of Proteus mirabilis on stone formation in enterocystoplasties has been primarily related to the presence of

  3. Effect of stone coverage on soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, S.; Barry, D. A.; Heng, B. P.; Brovelli, A.; Sander, G. C.; Parlange, J.

    2010-12-01

    Soil surface coverage has a significant impact on water infiltration, runoff and soil erosion yields. In particular, surface stones protect the soils from raindrop detachment, they retard the overland flow therefore decreasing its sediment transport capacity, and they prevent surface sealing. Several physical and environmental factors control to what extent stones on the soil surface modify the erosion rates and the related hydrological response. Among the most important factors are the moisture content of the topsoil, stone size, emplacement, coverage density and soil texture. Owing to the different inter-related processes, there is ambiguity concerning the quantitative effect of stones, and process-based understanding is limited. Experiments were performed (i) to quantify how stone features affect sediment yields, (ii) to understand the local effect of isolated surface stones, that is, the changes of the soil particle size distribution in the vicinity of a stone and (iii) to determine how stones attenuate the development of surface sealing and in turn how this affects the local infiltration rate. A series of experiments using the EPFL 6-m × 2-m erosion flume were conducted at different rainfall intensities (28 and 74 mm h-1) and stone coverage (20 and 40%). The total sediment concentration, the concentration of the individual size classes and the flow discharge were measured. In order to analyze the measurements, the Hairsine and Rose (HR) erosion model was adapted to account for the shielding effect of the stone cover. This was done by suitably adjusting the parameters based on the area not covered by stones. It was found that the modified HR model predictions agreed well with the measured sediment concentrations especially for the long time behavior. Changes in the bulk density of the topsoil due to raindrop-induced compaction with and without stone protection revealed that the stones protect the upper soil surface against the structural seals resulting in

  4. Method for producing superconductive wires of multifilaments which are encased in copper or a copper alloy and contain niobium and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flukiger, R.

    1983-01-01

    A method is disclosed for producing a superconductive wire of multifilaments having components comprising niobium and aluminum encased in copper or a copper alloy, wherein the multifilament configuration and the formation of a superconductive A15 phase are positively developed from the components disposed in a copper or copper alloy tube having an interior metallic coating serving as a diffusion barrier, by cold forming and subsequent heat treatment

  5. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of kidney stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmani, S.; Kuan, L.L.; Bakar, M.A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Kidney stone samples of the types calcium oxalate, uric acid, and xanthine were analyzed for their elemental contents by neutron activation analysis to study both the elemental correlation and influence of element on stone precipitation processes. Elements, such as Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe,H, I, K, Mg, Na, Sb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were determined quantitatively. Calcium oxalate stones contained higher concentration of all the elements analyzed compared to uric acid or xanthine stones. The concentrations of Cl, Fe, K, Na, Sr, and Zn were relatively higher than Au, Co, Cr, and Sb. A positive correlation exists between Ca and Zn, whereas a negative correlation exists between Sr and Ca. Zinc may play an important role in the formation of calcium oxalate stone

  6. Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy of Primary Intrahepatic Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Hwan; Lee, Sung Koo; Min, Young Il; Lee, Mun Gyu; Sung, Kyu Bo; Cho, Kyung Sik; Lee, Sung Gyu; Min, Pyung Chul

    1992-01-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithothripsy (ESWL) was performed in intrahepatic stone patients (n = 18) by Dornier MPL 9,000 with ultrasound guidance. The patients had T-tube (n = 9) or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainge tube (n = 9). Average treatment session was four and shock-wave numbers were in the range of 3,064 to 12,000 (average 6,288 shocks). Intrahepatic stones were removed completely in 16 patients over a 3 month period by ESWL and combined stone extraction maneuver such as cholangioscopic or interventional radiologic method. Extracorporeal shockwave lithothripsy was very helpful in facilitating extraction of stones in unfavorable locations or located above the severe stricture. In summary, extracorporeal Shockwave lithotripsy, followed by percutaneous stone extraction, will provide an improvement in the success rate and duration of treatment required for complete removal of primary hepatolithiasis. PMID:1477027

  7. Elevator frames two columns

    OpenAIRE

    Marín Jiménez, Juan Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This project aims to solve the problem of vertical transport of charges raised by a company with the standard UNE 58-132-91/6. The purpose of this project is the industrial design of a system of load handling by a bi-columned lifting device, tractioned by flat belts and steel cables from a transport level to a different level in order to connect two different assembly lines situated at different heights. The goal of this project is lifting a 780 Kg load at a 2.400 mm height....

  8. Column: Every Last Byte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Garfinkel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Inheritance powder is the name that was given to poisons, especially arsenic, that were commonly used in the 17th and early 18th centuries to hasten the death of the elderly. For most of the 17th century, arsenic was deadly but undetectable, making it nearly impossible to prove that someone had been poisoned. The first arsenic test produced a gas—hardly something that a scientist could show to a judge. Faced with a growing epidemic of poisonings, doctors and chemists spent decades searching for something better.(see PDF for full column

  9. Factors affecting stone-free rate and complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy for treatment of staghorn stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Nahas, Ahmed R; Eraky, Ibrahim; Shokeir, Ahmed A; Shoma, Ahmed M; el-Assmy, Ahmed M; el-Tabey, Nasr A; Soliman, Shady; Elshal, Ahmed M; el-Kappany, Hamdy A; el-Kenawy, Mahmoud R

    2012-06-01

    To determine factors affecting the stone-free rate and complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) for treatment of staghorn stones. The computerized database of patients who underwent PNL for treatment of staghorn stones between January 2003 and January 2011 was reviewed. All perioperative complications were recorded and classified according to modified Clavien classification system. The stone-free rate was evaluated with low-dose noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to determine factors affecting stone-free and complication rates. The study included 241 patients (125 male and 116 female) with a mean age of 48.7 ±14.3 years. All patients underwent 251 PNL (10 patients had bilateral stones). The stone-free rate of PNL monotherapy was 56% (142 procedures). At 3 months, the stone-free rate increased to 73% (183 kidneys) after shock wave lithotripsy. Independent risk factors for residual stones were complete staghorn stone and presence of secondary calyceal stones (relative risks were 2.2 and 3.1, respectively). The complication rate was 27% (68 PNL). Independent risk factors for development of complications were performance of the procedure by urologists other than experienced endourologist and positive preoperative urine culture (relative risks were 2.2 and 2.1, respectively). Factors affecting the incidence of residual stones after PNL are complete staghorn stones and the presence of secondary calyceal stones. Complications are significantly high if PNL is not performed by an experienced endourologist or if preoperative urine culture is positive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Angiographic Assessment of the Right Hepatic Artery for Encasement by Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma: Comparison Between Antero-Posterior and Right Anterior Oblique Projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Hiroyoshi; Iwata, Ryoko; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of right anterior oblique (RAO) arteriography for evaluating encasement of the right hepatic artery (RHA) by hilar cholangiocarcinoma.Methods: Celiac arteriography was performed in both the antero-posterior (AP) and RAO projection in ten patients with cholangiocarcinoma. The lengths of the arteries between the bifurcation of the anterior and posterior branch of the liver and the following points were measured: (a) the bifurcation of the left and right hepatic artery (AP-LR), (b) the bifurcation of the proper hepatic artery and the gastroduodenal artery (AP-PG). Additionally, image quality in investigating the invasion of the RHA was evaluated.Results: On the AP images, the average lengths of AP-LR and AP-PG were 24.5 ± 5.1 mm and 30.0 ± 4.9 mm, respectively. On RAO images, the lengths were 28.2 ± 4.6 mm and 32.7 ± 4.8 mm, respectively. Every length was different between the two projections (p < 0.01). In 6 of 10 patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma, images in RAO projections were superior to AP images for evaluation of encasement.Conclusion: We conclude that angiography obtained in the RAO projection yields images that are superior to those obtained in the conventional AP projection for assessment of RHA encasement

  11. Optimum nutrition for kidney stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilberg, Ita P; Goldfarb, David S

    2013-03-01

    We summarize the data regarding the associations of individual dietary components with kidney stones and the effects on 24-hour urinary profiles. The therapeutic recommendations for stone prevention that result from these studies are applied where possible to stones of specific composition. Idiopathic calcium oxalate stone-formers are advised to reduce ingestion of animal protein, oxalate, and sodium while maintaining intake of 800 to 1200 mg of calcium and increasing consumption of citrate and potassium. There are few data regarding dietary therapy of calcium phosphate stones. Whether the inhibitory effect of citrate sufficiently counteracts increasing urine pH to justify more intake of potassium and citrate is not clear. Reduction of sodium intake to decrease urinary calcium excretion would also be expected to decrease calcium phosphate stone recurrence. Conversely, the most important urine variable in the causation of uric acid stones is low urine pH, linked to insulin resistance as a component of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. The mainstay of therapy is weight loss and urinary alkalinization provided by a more vegetarian diet. Reduction in animal protein intake will reduce purine ingestion and uric acid excretion. For cystine stones, restriction of animal protein is associated with reduction in intake of the cystine precursor methionine as well as cystine. Reduction of urine sodium results in less urine cystine. Ingestion of vegetables high in organic anion content, such as citrate and malate, should be associated with higher urine pH and fewer stones because the amino acid cystine is soluble in more alkaline urine. Because of their infectious origin, diet has no definitive role for struvite stones except for avoiding urinary alkalinization, which may worsen their development. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Annular pulse column development studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    The capacity of critically safe cylindrical pulse columns limits the size of nuclear fuel solvent extraction plants because of the limited cross-sectional area of plutonium, U-235, or U-233 processing columns. Thus, there is a need to increase the cross-sectional area of these columns. This can be accomplished through the use of a column having an annular cross section. The preliminary testing of a pilot-plant-scale annular column has been completed and is reported herein. The column is made from 152.4-mm (6-in.) glass pipe sections with an 89-mm (3.5-in.) o.d. internal tube, giving an annular width of 32-mm (1.25-in.). Louver plates are used to swirl the column contents to prevent channeling of the phases. The data from this testing indicate that this approach can successfully provide larger-cross-section critically safe pulse columns. While the capacity is only 70% of that of a cylindrical column of similar cross section, the efficiency is almost identical to that of a cylindrical column. No evidence was seen of any non-uniform pulsing action from one side of the column to the other

  13. Correct diagnosis of vascular encasement and longitudinal extension of hilar cholangiocarcinoma by four-channel multidetector-row computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumoto, Tadayuki; Yamada, Takayuki; Sato, Akihiro

    2009-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of local invasion of hilar cholangiocarcinomas is challenging due to their small size and the anatomic complexity of the hepatic hilar region. On the other hand, the correct diagnosis of local invasion is essential for assuring the possibility of curative surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of four-channel multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) in the assessment of vascular and bile duct involvement, by which we could obtain useful information for the surgical management of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The subjects were 18 patients for whom the extent of tumor invasion was surgically and pathologically confirmed. All patients underwent preoperative multiphasic CT scanning by MDCT. Arterial and portal dominant phases were acquired using a detector configuration of 1.25 mm x 4 mm, and both axial and multiplanar reconstructed images were interpreted. Longitudinal extension was evaluated up to second-order branches. Vascular invasion is considered to be the degree of tumor contiguity to the hepatic arteries and portal vein and was graded by CT. The longitudinal extension was correctly diagnosed in 14 patients (77.8%). Hepatic artery invasion was correctly diagnosed in 17 patients with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 90%, respectively. Portal vein invasion was correctly diagnosed in 47 of 51 branches with sensitivity and specificity of 92.3% and 90.2%, respectively. Multiplanar reconstructed images contributed to the correct diagnosis for both vascular encasement and longitudinal tumor extension. In conclusion, MDCT is useful in preoperative evaluation of hilar cholangiocarcinoma, especially when combined with multiplanar reconstructed images. (author)

  14. Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Ureteral Stones: Evaluation of Patient and Stone Related Predictive Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Yazici

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate the patient and stone related factors which may influence the final outcome of SWL in the management of ureteral stones.Materials and Methods:Between October 2011 and October 2013, a total of 204 adult patients undergoing SWL for single ureteral stone sizing 5 to 15 mm were included into the study program. The impact of both patient (age, sex, BMI, and stone related factors (laterality, location, longest diameter and density as CT HU along with BUN and lastly SSD (skin to stone distance on fragmentation were analysed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Stone free rates for proximal and distal ureteral stones were 68.8% and 72.7%, respectively with no statistically significant difference between two groups (p=0.7. According to univariate and multivariate analyses, while higher BMI (mean: 26.8 and 28.1, p=0.048 and stone density values (mean: 702 HU and 930 HU, p<0.0001 were detected as statistically significant independent predictors of treatment failure for proximal ureteral stones, the only statistically significant predicting parameter for the success rates of SWL in distal ureteral stones was the higher SSD value (median: 114 and 90, p=0.012.Conclusions:Our findings have clearly shown that while higher BMI and increased stone attenuation values detected by NCCT were significant factors influencing the final outcome of SWL treatment in proximal ureteral stones; opposite to the literature, high SSD was the only independent predictor of success for the SWL treatment of distal ureteral stones.

  15. Mourning in Bits and Stone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    We mourn our dead, publicly and privately, online and offline. Cemeteries, web memorials and social network sites make up parts of todays intricately weaved and interrelated network of death, grief and memorialization practices [1]–[5]. Whether cut in stone or made of bits, graves, cemeteries......, memorials, monuments, websites and social networking services (SNS) all are alterable, controllable and adaptive. They represent a certain rationale contrary to the emotive state of mourning (e.g. gravesites function as both spaces of internment and places of spiritual and emotional recollection). Following...... and memorialization by discussing the publicly and privately digital and social death from a spatial, temporal, physical and digital angle. Further the paper will reflect on how to encompass shifting trends and technologies in ‘traditional’ spaces of mourning and remembrance....

  16. In bits, bytes and stone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    The digital spheres of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Social Network Services (SNS) are influencing 21st. century death. Today the dying and the bereaved attend mourning and remembrance both online and offline. Combined, the cemeteries, web memorials and social network sites...... designs'. Urns, coffins, graves, cemeteries, memorials, monuments, websites, applications and software services, whether cut in stone or made of bits, are all influenced by discourses of publics, economics, power, technology and culture. Designers, programmers, stakeholders and potential end-users often...... the respondents and interviewees are engaged with a prototype design that encompasses digitally enhanced experiences and interactions regarding mourning, memory and remembrance. The design is situated in a traditional public place of death, the Almen Cemetery of Aalborg in Denmark....

  17. Column-to-column packing variation of disposable pre-packed columns for protein chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Susanne; Hinterberger, Stephan; Jungbauer, Alois

    2017-12-08

    In the biopharmaceutical industry, pre-packed columns are the standard for process development, but they must be qualified before use in experimental studies to confirm the required performance of the packed bed. Column qualification is commonly done by pulse response experiments and depends highly on the experimental testing conditions. Additionally, the peak analysis method, the variation in the 3D packing structure of the bed, and the measurement precision of the workstation influence the outcome of qualification runs. While a full body of literature on these factors is available for HPLC columns, no comparable studies exist for preparative columns for protein chromatography. We quantified the influence of these parameters for commercially available pre-packed and self-packed columns of disposable and non-disposable design. Pulse response experiments were performed on 105 preparative chromatography columns with volumes of 0.2-20ml. The analyte acetone was studied at six different superficial velocities (30, 60, 100, 150, 250 and 500cm/h). The column-to-column packing variation between disposable pre-packed columns of different diameter-length combinations varied by 10-15%, which was acceptable for the intended use. The column-to-column variation cannot be explained by the packing density, but is interpreted as a difference in particle arrangement in the column. Since it was possible to determine differences in the column-to-column performance, we concluded that the columns were well-packed. The measurement precision of the chromatography workstation was independent of the column volume and was in a range of±0.01ml for the first peak moment and±0.007 ml 2 for the second moment. The measurement precision must be considered for small columns in the range of 2ml or less. The efficiency of disposable pre-packed columns was equal or better than that of self-packed columns. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Encasing the Absolutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš Martinčič

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the issue of structure and case in English absolute constructions, whose subjects are deduced by several descriptive grammars as being in the nominative case due to its supposed neutrality in terms of register. This deduction is countered by systematic accounts presented within the framework of the Minimalist Program which relate the case of absolute constructions to specific grammatical factors. Each proposal is shown as an attempt of analysing absolute constructions as basic predication structures, either full clauses or small clauses. I argue in favour of the small clause approach due to its minimal reliance on transformations and unique stipulations. Furthermore, I propose that small clauses project a singular category, and show that the use of two cases in English absolute constructions can be accounted for if they are analysed as depictive phrases, possibly selected by prepositions. The case of the subject in absolutes is shown to be a result of syntactic and non-syntactic factors. I thus argue in accordance with Minimalist goals that syntactic case does not exist, attributing its role in absolutes to other mechanisms.

  19. Column: File Cabinet Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Garfinkel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers can spend their time reverse engineering, performing reverse analysis, or making substantive contributions to digital forensics science. Although work in all of these areas is important, it is the scientific breakthroughs that are the most critical for addressing the challenges that we face.Reverse Engineering is the traditional bread-and-butter of digital forensics research. Companies like Microsoft and Apple deliver computational artifacts (operating systems, applications and phones to the commercial market. These artifacts are bought and used by billions. Some have evil intent, and (if society is lucky, the computers end up in the hands of law enforcement. Unfortunately the original vendors rarely provide digital forensics tools that make their systems amenable to analysis by law enforcement. Hence the need for reverse engineering.(see PDF for full column

  20. Pattern of family history in stone patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marickar, Y M Fazil; Salim, Abiya; Vijay, Adarsh

    2009-12-01

    Genetic predisposition to urolithiasis is a much discussed topic. The objective of this paper is to identify the types of family members of proved urinary stone patients, who have a history of urinary stone formation. The study population consisted of 2,157 urinary stone patients interviewed in 2003-2007 in the urinary stone clinic. Family members with stone history were classified as group 1--first order single (one person in the immediate family-father, mother, siblings, or children), group 2--first order multiple (more than one member in the above group), group 3--second order single (one person in the blood relatives in family--grandparents, grandchildren, uncles, aunts, cousins, etc.) and group 4--second order multiple (more than one member in the above group). Of the 2,157 patients studied, 349 patients gave positive history of stone disease constituting 16.18%. Of these, 321 were males and 28 were females. Subdivision of the family members showed that 282 patients (80.80%) had single family member with stones and the rest 67 (19.20%) had multiple family members with history of stone disease. Group 1 which constituted one family member in the immediate family had 255 involvements (father: 88, mother: 16, brother: 135, sister: 2, son: 10, and daughter: 4); Group 2 with multiple members in the immediate family constituted 51 relatives; of these, father and brother combination was the most common with 35 occurrences. Group 3 with one person in the distant relatives in family namely grandparents, grand children, uncles, aunts, cousins, etc. constituted 27 occurrences and Group 4 with more than one member in the distant family constituted 16 occurrences. It is concluded that single family member involvement was more than multiple involvements. Males predominated. Stone occurrence was more in the immediate family members than distant relatives. Brothers formed the most common group to be involved with stone disease. Study of stone risk in the family members should

  1. Stability of Reshaping Breakwaters with Special Reference to Stone Durability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Hald, Tue; Burcharth, H. F.

    1996-01-01

    inherently cause some breakage and abrasion of the individual stones and thereby also reduced stability. In order to avoid excessive abrasion a high stone quality is demanded or larger stones must be applied when constructed. To allow the designer to account for abrasion and armour stone breakage due...

  2. Factors affecting lower calyceal stone clearance after Extracorporeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shanker

    have been identified [1,3]. These include stone characteristics, the type of lithotripter used, LPC anatomy and body habitus. For iso- lated LPC stones, the pelvicalyceal angle, infundibulum length and width are considered important determinants for stone clearance. The impact of body habitus on stone clearance has so far ...

  3. Retrograde intrarenal stone surgery for extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy-resistant kidney stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Nørby, Bettina; Osther, Palle Jörn

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The newer flexible ureteroscopes, 150-200-microm holmium YAG laser fibres and superflexible Dormia baskets have made it possible to reach and treat stones in all parts of the kidney. The object of this evaluation was to study the outcome of retrograde intrarenal stone surgery (RIRS......) for extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL)-resistant kidney stones. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 38 consecutive patients (18 males, 20 females) participated in the study. All patients had undergone ESWL prior to RIRS without success. In all cases the stones could be reached with the endoscope. Calculi...... ranged in size from 3 to 20 mm (mean 9 mm). In 32 cases the stones were fragmented using a holmium YAG laser and in six the stones could be extracted using zero-tip Dormia baskets without fragmentation. Sixteen patients had lower calyceal calculi and eight had an abnormal anatomy of the upper urinary...

  4. Introduction. Leave no stone unturned: Perspectives on ground stone artefact research

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Rosenberg; Yorke Rowan; Tatjana Gluhak

    2016-01-01

    Ground stone tools served in many physical and social contexts through millennia, reflecting a wide variety of functions. Although ground stone tool studies were neglected for much of early archaeology, the last few decades witnessed a notable international uptick in the way archaeologists confront this multifaceted topic. Today, with the advance of archaeology as a discipline, research into ground stone artefacts is moving into a new phase that integrates high resolution documentation with n...

  5. Compact electron beam focusing column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2001-12-01

    A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

  6. Compositions of stone and stone surface materials of historical monuments from Vidzeme and Zemgale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actins, A.; Spricis, A.; Zekunde, A.; Nemerova, A.

    2004-01-01

    By means of x-ray analysis composition of stone and stone surface materials of historical monuments from Vidzeme and Zemgale was investigated. Corrosion products of tuffa materials were identified on surfaces of some investigated monuments. Similarity of composition of products of stone corrosion for monuments from Latvia and Poland was recognised. Content of heavy metals at stone materials of historical monuments and at the surface layers of these monuments was investigated by means of atomic absorption and potentiometric stripping methods. Reasons of formation of compounds and pollution of investigated samples were discussed. (full text)

  7. IGCP 637 Heritage Stone Designation: A UNESCO and IUGS project on natural stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Dolores; Cooper, Barry; Schouenborg, Björn; Marker, Brian; Kramar, Sabina

    2017-04-01

    IGCP 637 was approved in 2015 to facilitate establishment of a new international geological standard for building and ornamental stones. Formal international recognition of those natural stone types that have achieved widespread utilization in human culture is now underway and the term "Global Heritage Stone Resource" (GHSR) has been proposed for this designation. Stones that have been used in heritage construction, sculptural masterpieces, as well as in utilitarian (yet culturally important) applications are obvious GHSR candidates. In co-ordination with these aims the project has an associated role to promote the adoption and use of the GHSR designation. Consequently an interim list of potential GHSRs is maintained and a register of GHSR approved stones is being created. IGCP 637 also enhances the capacity of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) in the realm of dimension stone and geological standards as it is the first IUGS involvement in this subject. As a consequence, the largest known international grouping of dimension stone professionals has been established. Within IGCP 637 a web page has been created at www.globalheritagestone.com, including information on the Working Group and also specific information on the evolution of the project. Several researchers were funded to attend the Heritage Stone working group activities, including researchers from Algeria, Malawi, India, Italy and Russia. We also have produced many publications, both as individual papers and special issues in journals included in the Journal Citation Reports. Monographs are being prepared at present. Hopefully, IGCP 637 will help to widen the circle of researchers interested in natural stones as part of our geoheritage. Heritage Stone references: articles and special issues - Pereira, D. and Marker, B. (2016) The value of original natural stone in the context of architectural heritage. Geosciences, 6, 13. - Heritage Stone 1. Ed. Pereira and Pratt. (2016). Geoscience

  8. Effect of Tamsulosin on Stone Passage for Ureteral Stones: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ralph C; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca; Whitaker, Evans; Neilson, Jersey; Allen, Isabel Elaine; Stoller, Marshall L; Fahimi, Jahan

    2017-03-01

    Tamsulosin is recommended for patients receiving a diagnosis of a ureteral stone less than 10 mm who do not require immediate urologic intervention. Because of conflicting results from recent meta-analyses and large randomized controlled trials, the efficacy of tamsulosin is unclear. We perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect of tamsulosin on stone passage in patients receiving a diagnosis of ureteral stone. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases were searched without language restriction through November 2015 for studies assessing the efficacy of tamsulosin and using a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial design. Meta-analysis was conducted with a random-effects model and subgroup analyses were conducted to determine sources of heterogeneity. Eight randomized controlled trials (N=1,384) contained sufficient information for inclusion. The pooled risk of stone passage in the tamsulosin arm was 85% versus 66% in the placebo arm, but substantial heterogeneity existed across trials (I 2 =80.2%; Ptamsulosin (risk difference=22%; 95% confidence interval 12% to 33%; number needed to treat=5). The meta-analysis of the small stone subgroup (Tamsulosin significantly improves stone passage in patients with larger stones, whereas the effect of tamsulosin is diminished in those with smaller stones, who are likely to pass their stone regardless of treatment. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sierra Elvira limestone: petrophysical characteristics of an Andalusian heritage stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valverde, I.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available “Sierra Elvira stone” is one of the ornamental building stones most widely used in the historical monuments of eastern Andalusia. A Liassic age limestone, it appears in the central section of the Baetic Mountains and more specifically in the Middle Subbaetic domain. While the most common variety is a crinoid limestone, a micritic limestone of the same age has also been quarried, albeit in much smaller quantities. These stones form very thick beds, up to nearly 5 m deep, that run in consistently parallel lines and have a dip angle that facilitates quarrying.With petrographic, physical and mechanical properties that ensure stone strength and durability, it is a high quality building material suitable for both structural and ornamental purposes. These properties can be attributed to the minimal open porosity and concomitant excellent water resistance that characterize the stone, as well as to its high mechanical strength and low textural anisotropy, both elastic and mechanical. With such attributes, the stone can be successfully used for any number of purposes, including decorative stonework (portals, fountains, plinths, structural members (column shafts and bases or urban curbing and paving. Intervention on Sierra de Elvira limestone structures should be limited to cleaning or repair, for consolidating or protective materials are scantly effective.La “Piedra de Sierra Elvira” constituye una de las piedras ornamentales más significativas del Patrimonio Arquitectónico de Andalucía Oriental. Es una roca caliza del Lias que aflora en el Subbético Medio del sector central de las Cordilleras Béticas. El litotipo más explotado es una caliza con crinoides, en bastante menor importancia se ha extraído también otra caliza micrítica de la misma edad. Los bancos son muy potentes, en algunos casos de más de 5 m, con un paralelismo constante y un buzamiento que favorece su explotación en los frentes de cantera.Sus caracter

  10. Production and characterization of composite stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leirose, G.D.; Lameiras, F.S.

    2012-01-01

    Composite stone is a product similar to natural granite or marble, produced with particles of these materials. This material is used like natural stone as lining. The fabrication of artificial stones using residues of banded iron formations is a promising alternative to its actual destination (storage in dam). This research aims the characterization of composite stone to prove the efficacy of this kind of processing. It was used first, natural quartz as a raw material. The patterns of the samples were confirmed by IR spectra and XRD patterns, ensuring the reproducibility of processing applied. Moreover, this material is homogeneous, with low porosity and high flexural strength, confirmed by its structural characterization. Thus, it can be affirmed that the process chosen is suitable, enabling the application of this methodology to the use of waste. (author)

  11. Robust Detection of Stepping-Stone Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    He, Ting; Tong, Lang

    2006-01-01

    The detection of encrypted stepping-stone attack is considered. Besides encryption and padding, the attacker is capable of inserting chaff packets and perturbing packet timing and transmission order...

  12. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for urinary stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Hyun; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Myung Hee; Bahk, Yong Whee; Park, Yong Hyun

    1988-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a new noninvasive treatment modality for urinary stones, and it sometimes is to necessitate endourologic techniques. ESWL with an Edap lithotripter which uses piezo-electric elements, was performed in 142 cases (130 patients) with urinary stones including 68 in calices, 30 in pelves, and 44 in ureters. Technical factors were 100 storages at 5 to 10 pulse rates/sec and 70-100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes (15-90) for renal stones, and 200 storages at 20 pulse rates/sec and 100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes for ureteral stones in a single treatment under stone localization by 5 MHz ultrasonic sector scanner. All patients were treated at Kangnam St.Mary's Hospital of Catholic University Medical College during the 5 months period from May 1, 1987. Every patient had pre-treatment chest, plain abdomen, intravenous urogram and ultrasonogram studies and post-treatment follow-up abdominal radiograms in 1 to 3 months after ESWL.The overall success rate of ESWL in 142 cases was 94.4%. Eight out of 142 cases were successful. Thus, 134 cases were analysed. Of these, 58 cases (43.3%) received one treatment, 33 cases (24.6%) two treatments, 16 cases (11.9%) three treatments and 27 cases (20.2%) more than four treatments. Renal stones were more successfully treated (98.0%) than ureteral stones (88.1%), and calyceal stones presented the highest success rate (98.5%). The stones as small as 5 to 10 mm in size were easily fragmented and the stones of round of oval shape were more easily pulverized than those of staghorn or amorphous shape. The adjunctive endourlogic techniques such as percutaneous nephrostomy, ureteral catheterization or internal ureteral stenting with a double pigtail catheter were required in 17 cases (11.9%). Complications of ESWL for urolithiasis included hematuria (84.5%), flank pain (8.5%) and fever (5.6%), which were controlled without specific treatment. ESWL using ultrasonic localization was

  13. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for urinary stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Hyun; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Myung Hee; Bahk, Yong Whee; Park, Yong Hyun [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-06-15

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a new noninvasive treatment modality for urinary stones, and it sometimes is to necessitate endourologic techniques. ESWL with an Edap lithotripter which uses piezo-electric elements, was performed in 142 cases (130 patients) with urinary stones including 68 in calices, 30 in pelves, and 44 in ureters. Technical factors were 100 storages at 5 to 10 pulse rates/sec and 70-100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes (15-90) for renal stones, and 200 storages at 20 pulse rates/sec and 100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes for ureteral stones in a single treatment under stone localization by 5 MHz ultrasonic sector scanner. All patients were treated at Kangnam St.Mary's Hospital of Catholic University Medical College during the 5 months period from May 1, 1987. Every patient had pre-treatment chest, plain abdomen, intravenous urogram and ultrasonogram studies and post-treatment follow-up abdominal radiograms in 1 to 3 months after ESWL.The overall success rate of ESWL in 142 cases was 94.4%. Eight out of 142 cases were successful. Thus, 134 cases were analysed. Of these, 58 cases (43.3%) received one treatment, 33 cases (24.6%) two treatments, 16 cases (11.9%) three treatments and 27 cases (20.2%) more than four treatments. Renal stones were more successfully treated (98.0%) than ureteral stones (88.1%), and calyceal stones presented the highest success rate (98.5%). The stones as small as 5 to 10 mm in size were easily fragmented and the stones of round of oval shape were more easily pulverized than those of staghorn or amorphous shape. The adjunctive endourlogic techniques such as percutaneous nephrostomy, ureteral catheterization or internal ureteral stenting with a double pigtail catheter were required in 17 cases (11.9%). Complications of ESWL for urolithiasis included hematuria (84.5%), flank pain (8.5%) and fever (5.6%), which were controlled without specific treatment. ESWL using ultrasonic localization

  14. Evidence Report: Risk of Renal Stone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.; Pietrzyk, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The formation of renal stones poses an in-flight health risk of high severity, not only because of the impact of renal colic on human performance but also because of complications that could potentially lead to crew evacuation, such as hematuria, infection, hydronephrosis, and sepsis. Evidence for risk factors comes from urine analyses of crewmembers, documenting changes to the urinary environment that are conducive to increased saturation of stone-forming salts, which are the driving force for nucleation and growth of a stone nidus. Further, renal stones have been documented in astronauts after return to Earth and in one cosmonaut during flight. Biochemical analysis of urine specimens has provided indication of hypercalciuria and hyperuricemia, reduced urine volumes, and increased urine saturation of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. A major contributor to the risk for renal stone formation is bone atrophy with increased turnover of the bone minerals. Dietary and fluid intakes also play major roles in the risk because of the influence on urine pH (more acidic) and on volume (decreased). Historically, specific assessments on urine samples from some Skylab crewmembers indicated that calcium excretion increased early in flight, notable by day 10 of flight, and almost exceeded the upper threshold for normal excretion (300mg/day in males). Other crewmember data documented reduced intake of fluid and reduced intake of potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, and citrate (an inhibitor of calcium stone formation) in the diet. Hence, data from both short-duration and long-duration missions indicate that space travel induces risk factors for renal stone formation that continue to persist after flight; this risk has been documented by reported kidney stones in crewmembers.

  15. Bariatric Surgery and Urinary Stone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevahir Ozer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health problem and has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of urinary tract stone disease. Furthermore, the increasingly widespread use of surgery in the treatment of obesity also is related with urinary stone disease. In daily practice, patients to whom obesity surgery has been planned or who have undergone obesity surgery are seen more frequently. This review aims to highlight the urological evaluation and management of this patient group.

  16. [Pharmacotherapy for preventing calcium containing stone formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Masao; Takayama, Tatsuya; Mugiya, Souichi; Ohzono, Seiichiro

    2011-10-01

    Many urinary tract stones consist of calcium, and has high relapse rate. Accordingly, it is very important to prevent calcium-containing stone formation. This paper describes about effects and mechanisms for Xanthine oxidase inhibitor, citrate formulation, magnesium formulation, thiazides, vitamin B(6), extract of Quercus salicina Blume and chorei-to (medical herb) . Recent new drugs and the elucidation of new metabolic pathways may lead to the development of prevention of urolithiasis.

  17. Famous Stone Patients and Their Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E.

    2007-04-01

    The fact that stone patients have endured much throughout the ages and that prior to our current era, when the ultimate horror, "being cut for the stone" was the only alternative to the repeated episodes of colic, should be recalled from time to time. Urolithiasis has affected humanity throughout the ages and has been indiscriminate to those lives it touched. A full accounting of those who have suffered and recorded their agonies is beyond the scope of this investigation; however, even a partial accounting is valuable for present day physicians who care for those with stone disease. For the present work, the historical accounts of stone disease literature were scrutinized for individual sufferers who could be cross-referenced from other sources as legitimately afflicted by stones. Only those patients that could be documented and were (or are) well known were included, because the internet is now a verdant repository of thousands of "not so well knowns." Reliable historical data was found for a variety of persons from the pre-Christian era to the present, including those remembered as philosophers and scientists, physicians, clergy, leaders and rulers, entertainers, athletes and fictitious/Hollywood-type individuals. Verified accounts of famous stone formers were chosen for this paper, and are presented in chronological order. The list of urolithiasis sufferers presented here is undoubtedly incomplete, but it is not through lack of trying that they are missing. Most often, the suffering do so silently, and that is always allowed.

  18. Female stone disease: the changing trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marickar, Y M Fazil; Vijay, Adarsh

    2009-12-01

    This paper has attempted to assess the changes noted in the trends in the incidence and biochemical pattern of female urolithiasis patients during the period 1971-2008. A prospective descriptive clinical study was done on 8,590 stone patients belonging to both sexes treated at the urinary stone clinic. The incidence of stone disease among the two sexes was plotted. The various metabolic parameters including 24-h urine volume, urine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, oxalate, magnesium, creatinine and citrate, serum creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid and magnesium and calculated parameter calcium:magnesium ratio were studied. The possible causes for the change in incidence of stone disease in the female sex were elucidated. Of the patients studied, 12.7% (1,091) were females. There was a definite increase in the incidence of female urolithiasis over the past 37 years (P stone genesis, together with the increased excretion of calcium and oxalate may have contributed to the increasing incidence of stone disease in females. This might be due to changes in living standards and dietary habits.

  19. Co-combustion of peach and apricot stone with coal in a bubbling fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atimtay, Aysel T.; Kaynak, Burcak [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey)

    2008-02-15

    In this study a bubbling fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) having an inside diameter of 102 mm and a height of 900 mm was used to investigate the co-combustion characteristics of peach and apricot stones produced as a waste from the fruit juice industry with coal. A lignite coal was used for co-combustion. On-line concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X} and total hydrocarbons (C{sub m}H{sub n}) were measured in the flue gas during combustion experiments. Variations of emissions of various pollutants were studied by changing the operating parameters (excess air ratio, fluidization velocity, and fuel feed rate). Temperature distribution along the bed was measured with thermocouples. For co-combustion of apricot and peach fruit stones with a lignite coal, various ratios of biomass to coal ranging from 0 to 100 wt.% were tested. For the peach stone co-combustion tests, efficiencies are about 98% and for the apricot stone co-combustion tests, efficiencies ranged between 94.7% and 96.9% for 25%, 50% and 75% of apricot stone in the fuel mixture. The results of this study have shown that as the biomass ratio in the fuel mixture increases, the combustion takes place at the upper regions of the main column. This causes higher temperatures in the freeboard than the bed. Also the CO and hydrocarbon (C{sub m}H{sub n}) emissions increase as the biomass percentage increases in the fuel mixture. This causes decrease in the combustion efficiency. These results suggest that peach and apricot stones are potential fuels that can be utilized for clean energy production in small-scale fruit juice industries by using BFBC. The percentage of peach stones or apricot stones in the fuel mixture is suggested to be below 50 wt.% in order to obtain the emission limits of EU. During the design of the BFBC, one has to be careful about the volatile matter (VM) content of the biomass. For the complete combustion of the VM, longer freeboard or secondary air addition should be

  20. Safety barriers and lighting columns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1972-01-01

    Problems arising from the sitting of lighting columns on the central reserve are reviewed, and remedial measures such as break-away lighting supports and installation of safety fences on the central reserve on both sides of the lighting columns are examined.

  1. Can stone density on plain radiography predict the outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for ureteral stones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ki Hong; Jung, Jin-Hee; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Lee, Yong Seok; Bae, Jungbum; Cho, Min Chul; Lee, Kwang Soo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The objective was to determine whether stone density on plain radiography (kidney-ureter-bladder, KUB) could predict the outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for ureteral stones. Materials and Methods A total of 223 patients treated by ESWL for radio-opaque ureteral stones of 5 to 20 mm were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent routine blood and urine analyses, plain radiography (KUB), and noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) before ESWL. Demographic, stone, and radiological characteristics on KUB and NCCT were analyzed. The patients were categorized into two groups: lower-density (LD) group (radiodensity less than or equal to that of the 12th rib, n=163) and higher-density (HD) group (radiodensity greater than that of the 12th rib, n=60). Stone-free status was assessed by KUB every week after ESWL. A successful outcome was defined as stone free within 1 month after ESWL. Results Mean stone size in the LD group was significantly smaller than that in the HD group (7.5±1.4 mm compared with 9.9±2.9 mm, p=0.002). The overall success rates in the LD and HD groups were 82.1% and 60.0%, respectively (p=0.007). The mean duration of stone-free status and average number of SWL sessions required for success in the two groups were 21.7 compared with 39.2 days and 1.8 compared with 2.3, respectively (pESWL since colic and radiodensity of the stone on KUB were independent predictors of successful ESWL. Conclusions Our data suggest that larger stone size, longer time to ESWL, and ureteral stones with a radiodensity greater than that of the 12th rib may be at a relatively higher risk of ESWL failure 1 month after the procedure. PMID:25598937

  2. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite

  3. Mush Column Magma Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2002-12-01

    Magma chambers are a necessary concept in understanding the chemical and physical evolution of magma. The concept may well be similar to a transfer function in circuit or time series analysis. It does what needs to be done to transform source magma into eruptible magma. In gravity and geodetic interpretations the causative body is (usually of necessity) geometrically simple and of limited vertical extent; it is clearly difficult to `see' through the uppermost manifestation of the concentrated magma. The presence of plutons in the upper crust has reinforced the view that magma chambers are large pots of magma, but as in the physical representation of a transfer function, actual magma chambers are clearly distinct from virtual magma chambers. Two key features to understanding magmatic systems are that they are vertically integrated over large distances (e.g., 30-100 km), and that all local magmatic processes are controlled by solidification fronts. Heat transfer considerations show that any viable volcanic system must be supported by a vertically extensive plumbing system. Field and geophysical studies point to a common theme of an interconnected stack of sill-like structures extending to great depth. This is a magmatic Mush Column. The large-scale (10s of km) structure resembles the vertical structure inferred at large volcanic centers like Hawaii (e.g., Ryan et al.), and the fine scale (10s to 100s of m) structure is exemplified by ophiolites and deeply eroded sill complexes like the Ferrar dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The local length scales of the sill reservoirs and interconnecting conduits produce a rich spectrum of crystallization environments with distinct solidification time scales. Extensive horizontal and vertical mushy walls provide conditions conducive to specific processes of differentiation from solidification front instability to sidewall porous flow and wall rock slumping. The size, strength, and time series of eruptive behavior

  4. Use of the probability of stone formation (PSF) score to assess stone forming risk and treatment response in a cohort of Brazilian stone formers

    OpenAIRE

    Turney, Benjamin; Robertson, William; Wiseman, Oliver; Amaro, Carmen Regina P. R.; Leitão, Victor A.; Silva, Isabela Leme da; Amaro, João Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim was to confirm that PSF (probability of stone formation) changed appropriately following medical therapy on recurrent stone formers.Materials and Methods: Data were collected on 26 Brazilian stone-formers. A baseline 24-hour urine collection was performed prior to treatment. Details of the medical treatment initiated for stone-disease were recorded. A PSF calculation was performed on the 24 hour urine sample using the 7 urinary parameters required: voided volume, oxalate...

  5. Kidney stone erosion by micro scale hydrodynamic cavitation and consequent kidney stone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perk, Osman Yavuz; Şeşen, Muhsincan; Gozuacik, Devrim; Koşar, Ali

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study is to reveal the potential of micro scale hydrodynamic bubbly cavitation for the use of kidney stone treatment. Hydrodynamically generated cavitating bubbles were targeted to the surfaces of 18 kidney stone samples made of calcium oxalate, and their destructive effects were exploited in order to remove kidney stones in in vitro experiments. Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution was used as the working fluid under bubbly cavitating conditions in a 0.75 cm long micro probe of 147 μm inner diameter at 9790 kPa pressure. The surface of calcium oxalate type kidney stones were exposed to bubbly cavitation at room temperature for 5 to 30 min. The eroded kidney stones were visually analyzed with a high speed CCD camera and using SEM (scanning electron microscopy) techniques. The experiments showed that at a cavitation number of 0.017, hydrodynamic bubbly cavitation device could successfully erode stones with an erosion rate of 0.31 mg/min. It was also observed that the targeted application of the erosion with micro scale hydrodynamic cavitation may even cause the fracture of the kidney stones within a short time of 30 min. The proposed treatment method has proven to be an efficient instrument for destroying kidney stones.

  6. Treatment of gallbladder stone with common bile duct stones in the laparoscopic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-jie; Xu, Gui-fang; Huang, Qin; Luo, Kun-lun; Dong, Zhi-tao; Li, Jie-ming; Wu, Guo-zhong; Guan, Wen-xian

    2015-01-26

    Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) for stone can be carried out by either laparoscopic transcystic stone extraction (LTSE) or laparoscopic choledochotomy (LC). It remains unknown as to which approach is optimal for management of gallbladder stone with common bile duct stones (CBDS) in Chinese patients. From May 2000 to February 2009, we prospective treated 346 consecutive patients with gallbladder stones and CBDS with laparoscopic cholecystectomy and LCBDE. Intraoperative findings, postoperative complications, postoperative hospital stay and costs were analyzed. Because of LCBDE failure,16 cases (4.6%) required open surgery. Of 330 successful LCBDE-treated patients, 237 underwent LTSE and 93 required LC. No mortality occurred in either group. The bile duct stone clearance rate was similar in both groups. Patients in the LTSE group were significantly younger and had fewer complications with smaller, fewer stones, shorter operative time and postoperative hospital stays, and lower costs, compared to those in the LC group. Compared with patients with T-tube insertion, patients in the LC group with primary closure had shorter operative time, shorter postoperative hospital stay, and lower costs. In cases requiring LCBDE, LTSE should be the first choice, whereas LC may be restricted to large, multiple stones. LC with primary closure without external drainage of the CBDS is as effective and safe as the T-tube insertion approach.

  7. Urinary stone composition in Oman: with high incidence of cystinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S; Bayoumi, Riad; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Hinai, Abdullhakeem; Al-Maskary, Sultan; Venkiteswaran, Krishna; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Rhman, Khalid; Sharif, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar

    2015-06-01

    Urinary stones are a common problem in Oman and their composition is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the components of urinary stones of Omani patients and use the obtained data for future studies of etiology, treatment, and prevention. Urinary stones of 255 consecutive patients were collected at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Stones were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. The biochemical, metabolic, and radiological data relating to the patients and stones were collected. The mean age was 41 years, with M:F ratio of 3.7:1. The common comorbidities associated with stone formation were hypertension; diabetes, benign prostate hyperplasia; urinary tract infection; obesity; and atrophic kidney. The common presentation was renal colic and flank pain (96%). Stones were surgically retrieved in 70% of patients. Mean stone size was 9 ± 0.5 mm (range 1.3-80). Stone formers had a BMI ≥ 25 in 56% (P = 0.006) and positive family history of stones in 3.8%. The most common stones in Oman were as follows: Calcium Oxalates 45% (114/255); Mixed calcium phosphates & calcium oxalates 22% (55/255); Uric Acid 16% (40/255); and Cystine 4% (10/255). The most common urinary stones in Oman are Calcium Oxalates. Overweight is an important risk factor associated with stone formation. The hereditary Cystine stones are three times more common in Oman than what is reported in the literature that needs further genetic studies.

  8. A stone mould from Klinovac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Aleksandar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-piece stone mould that reached the National Museum at Vranje in 1966 had been recovered from a depth of about one meter at the site known as Tri Kruške (Three Pear-trees, the village of Klinovac. The site is situated on a river terrace on the right bank of the Krševica River some 15 kilometers south of Vranje. The mould was carved out of metamorphic rock from the class of schist, more exactly, of greenschist (with chlorite and mica as its constituent minerals that is widespread in the area, which geologically belongs to the upper (Vlasina complex of the Serbian-Macedonian mass. The mould was intended for casting four kinds of bronze weapons: three chisels and a winged axe. More sensitive as dating evidence, the winged axe (Ärmchenbeil may be broadly dated to the last three centuries of the second millennium BC. The type is geographically related with the Aegean, while its northernmost findspot so far is Pobit Kamak in northern Bulgaria. The chisels cast in this mould do not have direct analogies, although many hoards of similar tools have been registered in Croatia, Romania and Central Europe. Apparently the mould was made by a local workshop and from the locally available raw material. The possible activity of local workshops in the above mentioned period has already been presumed by scholars, and the Klinovac mould constitutes yet another corroboration of the hypothesis. Nevertheless its Aegean origin should not be ruled out completely, because cultural contacts between the Late Bronze Age population inhabiting the region and their southern neighbours seem quite certain, as evidenced by Mycenaean pottery discovered on the site of Resulja at Lučani near Bujanovac.

  9. Column-Oriented Database Systems (Tutorial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Abadi; P.A. Boncz (Peter); S. Harizopoulos

    2009-01-01

    textabstractColumn-oriented database systems (column-stores) have attracted a lot of attention in the past few years. Column-stores, in a nutshell, store each database table column separately, with attribute values belonging to the same column stored contiguously, compressed, and densely packed, as

  10. Cover stones on liquefiable soil bed under waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Hatipoglu, Figen; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the results of an experimental study on the behavior of cover stones on a liquefiable soil bed exposed to a progressive wave. The soil was silt with d50=0.098mm. Stones, the size of 4cm, were used as cover material. The effect of packing density of stones, and that of number...... of stone layers (including the effect of an intermediate filter layer) were investigated. Pore pressure was measured across the soil depth. The experiments show that the soil liquefaction depended mainly on two parameters: the packing density of stones, and the number of stone layers. When the liquefaction...

  11. Can sonography define the chemical composition of gall stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frentzel-Beyme, B.; Faehndrich, R.; Arnan-Thiele, B.

    1983-01-01

    Eight sonographic patterns caused by gall stones are described. In an attempt to explain these different appearances, 62 stones were analysed chemically and physically. The chemical composition of the stones did not correlate with their sonographic pattern. Cholesterol stones cannot be recognised as such by sonography. The formation of an acoustic shadow depends largely on the position of the stone within the acoustic beam. It therefore follows that the examination must be done by keeping the focal plane of the transducer in proper relationship to the stone. (orig.) [de

  12. Impact of stone density on outcomes in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Onal, Bulent; Modi, Pranjal

    2013-01-01

    were assigned to a low stone density [LSD, ≤ 1000 Hounsfield units (HU)] or high stone density (HSD, > 1000 HU) group based on the radiological density of the primary renal stone. Preoperative characteristics and outcomes were compared in the two groups. Results. Retreatment for residual stones...... was more frequent in the LSD group. The overall stone-free rate achieved was higher in the HSD group (79.3% vs 74.8%, p = 0.113). By univariate regression analysis, the probability of achieving a stone-free outcome peaked at approximately 1250 HU. Below or above this density resulted in lower treatment...

  13. Significance of lower-pole pelvicaliceal anatomy on stone clearance after shockwave lithotripsy in nonobstructive isolated renal pelvic stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozen, Sinan; Kupeli, Bora; Acar, Cenk; Gurocak, Serhat; Karaoglan, Ustunol; Bozkirli, Ibrahim

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the probable effect of lower-pole pelvicaliceal anatomy on stone clearance after shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) in patients with nonobstructive renal pelvic stones. The clinical records of patients with isolated renal pelvic stones who underwent SWL between 1996 and 2005 were reviewed. After excluding patients with obstruction leading to dilatation, major anatomic abnormalities, noncalcium stones, metabolic abnormalities, history of recurrent stone disease, multiple stones, and previous renal surgery, 153 patients were enrolled in the study. Lower pole infundibulopelvic angle (IPA) and infundibular length and width were measured from intravenous urography. Patients were classified into three groups according to stone burden (group 1, renal pelvis, and both in 50 (32.6%), 29 (18.9%), and 8 (5.2%) patients, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in pelvicaliceal anatomic features except narrower IPA (P=0.02) in group 1 patients with residual stones. The falling of stone fragments to the lower calix in spite of the ureter whether clinically significant or not after SWL of pelvic stones initially seems to be related to stone burden rather than lower caliceal anatomy. However, existence of a more narrow IPA in group 1 patients with residual fragments led us to believe that lower-pole IPA can play a role in stone clearance, especially for smaller stones, probably because of smaller residual fragment size or the more mobile nature of the primary stone.

  14. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products

  15. Water Column Sonar Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The collection and analysis of water column sonar data is a relatively new avenue of research into the marine environment. Primary uses include assessing biological...

  16. Do Urinary Cystine Parameters Predict Clinical Stone Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Justin I; Antonelli, Jodi A; Canvasser, Noah E; Morgan, Monica S C; Mollengarden, Daniel; Best, Sara; Pearle, Margaret S

    2018-02-01

    An accurate urinary predictor of stone recurrence would be clinically advantageous for patients with cystinuria. A proprietary assay (Litholink, Chicago, Illinois) measures cystine capacity as a potentially more reliable estimate of stone forming propensity. The recommended capacity level to prevent stone formation, which is greater than 150 mg/l, has not been directly correlated with clinical stone activity. We investigated the relationship between urinary cystine parameters and clinical stone activity. We prospectively followed 48 patients with cystinuria using 24-hour urine collections and serial imaging, and recorded stone activity. We compared cystine urinary parameters at times of stone activity with those obtained during periods of stone quiescence. We then performed correlation and ROC analysis to evaluate the performance of cystine parameters to predict stone activity. During a median followup of 70.6 months (range 2.2 to 274.6) 85 stone events occurred which could be linked to a recent urine collection. Cystine capacity was significantly greater for quiescent urine than for stone event urine (mean ± SD 48 ± 107 vs -38 ± 163 mg/l, p stone activity (r = -0.29, p r = -0.88, p r = -0.87, p stone quiescence. Decreasing the cutoff to 90 mg/l or greater improved sensitivity to 25.2% while maintaining specificity at 90.9%. Our results suggest that the target for capacity should be lower than previously advised. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Interpreting Stone's model of Berry phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carra, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    We show that a simple quantum-mechanical model, put forward by Stone some time ago, affords a description of site magnetoelectricity, a phenomenon which takes place in crystals (and molecular systems) when space inversion is locally broken and coexistence of electric and magnetic moments is permitted by the site point group. We demonstrate this by identifying a local order parameter, which is odd under both space inversion and time reversal. This order parameter (a magnetic quadrupole) characterizes Stone's ground state. Our results indicate that the model, extended to a lattice of sites, could be relevant to the study of electronic properties of transition-metal oxides. A generalization of Stone's Hamiltonian to cover cases of different symmetry is also discussed. (letter to the editor)

  18. Crushed stone production plant for NPP building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obolenskij, V.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    The project of the granite-crushed stone quarry - the large modern plant producing building materials, is presented. The quarry is designated for providing NPP and other power objects building with high-strength crushed stone. The plant consists of: quarry; crushing-sorting plant with maintenance objects arranged on its ground; basis and service stores of explosive materials; tail facility and purifying systems; water supply purifying stations; water storage basin. The plant is reserved for 2335 thousand m 3 yearly utoput of crushed stone; the staff consists of 535 persons, the budgeted cost of building is 26.6 million rubles. Physicochemical characteristics of granosyenites of the ''Granitnoye'' deposit - the raw material resource base of the plant and technological scheme of the crushing-sorting plant are given. Planned measures on building organization and recultivation of disturbed grounds are presented

  19. EPR of some irradiated renal stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeseoglu, R.; Koeseoglu, E.; Koeksal, F.; Basaran, E.; Demirci, D.

    2005-01-01

    Some renal stones were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance of their untreated, UV-photolyzed and gamma-irradiated states. Powder X-ray diffraction technique indicated that the renal stones were made mainly from CaC 2 O 4 , MgC 2 O 4 , MgCO 3 and NH 4 MgPO 4 .6H 2 O. Before radiation treatment, the renal stones yielded a signal that could be attributed to a C 2 O 4 - radical. UV-photolysis seems to slightly increase the intensity of this signal, but does not produce any new centres. Gamma-irradiation initially gives -CH 2 C (CH 3 )-R and CO 2 - radicals, and while the intensity of the -CH 2 C (CH 3 )-R signal decreases, the intensity of the CO 2 - signal increases as time elapses

  20. Terahertz lens made out of natural stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Daehoon; Lee, Kanghee; Lim, Jongseok; Hong, Sei Sun; Kim, Young Kie; Ahn, Jaewook

    2013-12-20

    Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy probes the optical properties of naturally occurring solid aggregates of minerals, or stones, in the THz frequency range. Refractive index and extinction coefficient measurement reveals that most natural stones, including mudstone, sandstone, granite, tuff, gneiss, diorite, slate, marble, and dolomite, are fairly transparent for THz frequency waves. Dolomite in particular exhibits a nearly uniform refractive index of 2.7 over the broad frequency range from 0.1 to 1 THz. The high index of refraction allows flexibility in lens designing with a shorter accessible focal length or a thinner lens with a given focal length. Good agreement between the experiment and calculation for the THz beam profile confirms that dolomite has high homogeneity as a lens material, suggesting the possibility of using natural stones for THz optical elements.

  1. Natural Stone in Spain: trends and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchán Sanz, C.; Regueiro y González-Barros, M.; Delgado Arenas, P.

    2017-01-01

    The natural stone sector was severely affected by the national construction sector crisis. Production, both exworks and processed, has been also harshly affected dropping from 8Mt/y in 2007 to 3,49Mt/y in 2015, particularly in the marble and granite sectors, since slate has always been a mainly exporting sub-sector. In the latest times, thanks mainly to exports, production apparently has slowly started to recover. In this paper, we review the typology of the Spanish natural stone products and the production data of the main stone subsectors (marble, granite and slate) in the last 10 years and we review possible future trends in the framework of the first steps of the economic recovery. [es

  2. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  3. Column-Oriented Database Systems (Tutorial)

    OpenAIRE

    Abadi, D.; Boncz, Peter; Harizopoulos, S.

    2009-01-01

    textabstractColumn-oriented database systems (column-stores) have attracted a lot of attention in the past few years. Column-stores, in a nutshell, store each database table column separately, with attribute values belonging to the same column stored contiguously, compressed, and densely packed, as opposed to traditional database systems that store entire records (rows) one after the other. Reading a subset of a table’s columns becomes faster, at the potential expense of excessive disk-head s...

  4. [Ultraminipercutaneous nephrolithotripsy in treating kidney stones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martov, A G; Dutov, S V; Andronov, A S

    2016-04-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL) is the recommended method of surgical treatment of kidney stones of size greater than 2 cm. Trends in the development of modern urology have been steadily toward less traumatic method to treat nephrolithiasis - minimally invasive PNL. The present work aimed to explore of the possibilities of one of the modern variants of minimally invasive PNL - ultra-mini-PNL in treating nephrolithiasis. The study included 60 patients (mean age 45.6+/-7.2 years) with isolated kidney calculus, up to 2.0 cm or several stones with a total size of up to 2.5 cm. All patients were found to have 77 kidney stones, six of which had a size of 10 mm, 51 had a size of 11-15 mm and 20 had a size of 16-20 mm. 45% of patients had isolated renal pelvic stones and 28.3% had stones in the renal pelvis and lower calyx. All patients underwent ultra-mini-PNL using nephroscope size 7.5 Ch and tube size 12 Fr. The average duration of surgery from the moment of the puncture of the pyelocaliceal system to installing the nephrostomy tube was 65.4 minutes. Complete clearance of stones after single-stage ultra-mini-PNL was observed in 80% of cases. Nephrostomy tube was removed on days 2-3. The average postoperative hospital stay was 5.1 days. The most common complication was postoperative exacerbation of pyelonephritis (13.3% of patients), successfully treated with conservative measures. There were no cases of postoperative bleeding, accompanied by anemia and needed a blood transfusion. Considering high effectiveness and low rate of complications of ultra-mini-PNL, it can be successfully used in treating nephrolithiasis among a wide group of patients.

  5. A case report of ureteral cast stone and giant urethral stone, respectively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Yung; Rhee, Song Joo; Choi, Ki Chul [School of Medicine, Jeongbug National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    Urinary lithiasis is one of the most common disease of the urinary tract. It occurs more frequently in men than in women but rare in children and in blacks; a familial predisposition is often encountered. Ureteral stones originate in the kidney. Gravity and peristalis contribute to spontaneous passage into and down the ureter. Ureterovesical junction is the most frequent lodging site of stone. In our hospital one case of ureteral cast stone and giant urethral stone were found respectively and they were confirmed by radiological examination and surgery on Aug. 1978 and Jan. 1979. Ureteral cast stone which had been introduced and named first by Kiyonobu Tari and Kikjiro So in 1972 was very giant unusually. It may be the only one till now. Our patient was 36 years old female who has been suffered from intermittent right flank pain for 10 years. On KUB giant cylindrical radiopaque shadow was shown on RLQ extended to right minor pelvis and this was confirmed as a stone by retrograde ureteral catheterization. A stone measured 13cm x 1.5cm was found above the ureterovesical junction during operation. Follow up excretory urogram one year after operation showed no functional improvement of right kidney. Urethral stone is also unusual urinary lithiasis. This 60 years old male patient was been suffered from non-tender palpable hard mass on scrotal area and intermittent urinary retention. When urinary retention was occurred it was relieved by manipulation of the mass by himself. On plain film oval shaped giant radiopaque shadow was shown on cavernous urethral region. On urethrocystogram anterior urethra was opacified, but posterior urethra and bladder were not opacified and multiple fistulous leakage was identified. A stone measured 6.5cm x 3.5cm was found in cavernous urethra during operation.

  6. A case report of ureteral cast stone and giant urethral stone, respectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ho Yung; Rhee, Song Joo; Choi, Ki Chul

    1980-01-01

    Urinary lithiasis is one of the most common disease of the urinary tract. It occurs more frequently in men than in women but rare in children and in blacks; a familial predisposition is often encountered. Ureteral stones originate in the kidney. Gravity and peristalis contribute to spontaneous passage into and down the ureter. Ureterovesical junction is the most frequent lodging site of stone. In our hospital one case of ureteral cast stone and giant urethral stone were found respectively and they were confirmed by radiological examination and surgery on Aug. 1978 and Jan. 1979. Ureteral cast stone which had been introduced and named first by Kiyonobu Tari and Kikjiro So in 1972 was very giant unusually. It may be the only one till now. Our patient was 36 years old female who has been suffered from intermittent right flank pain for 10 years. On KUB giant cylindrical radiopaque shadow was shown on RLQ extended to right minor pelvis and this was confirmed as a stone by retrograde ureteral catheterization. A stone measured 13cm x 1.5cm was found above the ureterovesical junction during operation. Follow up excretory urogram one year after operation showed no functional improvement of right kidney. Urethral stone is also unusual urinary lithiasis. This 60 years old male patient was been suffered from non-tender palpable hard mass on scrotal area and intermittent urinary retention. When urinary retention was occurred it was relieved by manipulation of the mass by himself. On plain film oval shaped giant radiopaque shadow was shown on cavernous urethral region. On urethrocystogram anterior urethra was opacified, but posterior urethra and bladder were not opacified and multiple fistulous leakage was identified. A stone measured 6.5cm x 3.5cm was found in cavernous urethra during operation

  7. Strides in Preservation of Malawi's Natural Stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanga, Tamara; Chisenga, Chikondi; Katonda, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    The geology of Malawi is broadly grouped into four main lithological units that is the Basement Complex, the Karoo Super group, Tertiary to Quaternary sedimentary deposits and the Chilwa Alkaline province. The basement complex rocks cover much of the country and range in age from late Precambrian to early Paleozoic. They have been affected by three major phases of deformation and metamorphism that is the Irumide, Ubendian and The Pan-African. These rocks comprise gneisses, granulites and schists with associated mafic, ultramafic, syenites and granite rocks. The Karoo System sedimentary rocks range in age from Permian to lower Jurassic and are mainly restricted to two areas in the extreme North and extreme Alkaline Province - late Jurassic to Cretaceous in age, preceded by upper Karoo Dolerite dyke swarms and basaltic lavas, have been intruded into the Basement Complex gneisses of southern Malawi. Malawi is endowed with different types of natural stone deposits most of which remain unexploited and explored. Over twenty quarry operators supply quarry stone for road and building construction in Malawi. Hundreds of artisanal workers continue to supply aggregate stones within and on the outskirts of urban areas. Ornamental stones and granitic dimension stones are also quarried, but in insignificant volumes. In Northern Malawi, there are several granite deposits including the Nyika, which is the largest single outcrop occupying approximately 260.5 km2 , Mtwalo Amazonite an opaque to translucent bluish -green variety of microcline feldspar that occurs in alkali granites and pegmatite, the Ilomba granite (sodalite) occurring in small areas within biotite; apatite, plagioclase and calcite. In the Center, there are the Dzalanyama granites, and the Sani granites. In the South, there are the Mangochi granites. Dolerite and gabbroic rocks spread across the country, treading as black granites. Malawi is also endowed with many deposits of marble. A variety of other igneous

  8. Management of Asymptomatic Renal Stones in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The risks for renal stone formation in astronauts due to bone loss and hypercalcuria are unknown. Astronauts have a stone risk which is about the same as commercial aviation pilots, which is about half that of the general population. However, proper management of this condition is still crucial to mitigate health and mission risks in the spaceflight environment. Methods: An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. Using this work, a screening and management algorithm was created that takes into consideration the unique operational environment of spaceflight. Results: Renal stone screening and management guidelines for astronauts were created based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In the proposed algorithm, all astronauts will receive a yearly screening ultrasound for renal calcifications, or mineralized renal material (MRM). Any areas of MRM, 3 millimeters or larger, are considered a positive finding. Three millimeters approaches the detection limit of standard ultrasound, and several studies have shown that any stone that is 3 millimeters or less has an approximately 95 percent chance of spontaneous passage. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by low-dose renal computed tomography (CT) scan, and flexible ureteroscopy if CT is positive. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion: The term "MRM" is used to account for small areas of calcification that may be outside the renal collecting system, and allows objectivity without otherwise constraining the diagnostic and treatment process for potentially very small calcifications of uncertain

  9. Stability of Reshaping Breakwaters with Special Reference to Stone Durability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Hald, Tue; Burcharth, H. F.

    1998-01-01

    Traditionally, conventional rubble mound breakwaters are designed with stable armour units, and consequently, very large stones or even artificial armour units are required. reshaping breakwater designs allow reshaping of the seaward slope thus involving stone movements. Ultimately, dependent on ...

  10. Dental pulp stone formation during orthodontic treatment: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-21

    Jun 21, 2015 ... the presence of dental pulp stone, gender, age, tooth type and arches. Results: Dental pulp ... primary and permanent dentition.[1] Dental pulp stones .... interpretation provided training to familiarize the other observer with the ...

  11. Efficacy of the lithotripsy in treating lower pole renal stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Helen; Thomee, Eeke; Noble, Jeremy G; Reynard, John M; Turney, Benjamin W

    2013-06-01

    Use of extracorporeal lithotripsy is declining in North America and many European countries despite international guidelines advocating it as a first-line therapy. Traditionally, lithotripsy is thought to have poor efficacy at treating lower pole renal stones. We evaluated the success rates of lithotripsy for lower pole renal stones in our unit. 50 patients with lower pole kidney stones ≤15 mm treated between 3/5/11 and 19/4/12 were included in the study. Patients received lithotripsy on a fixed-site Storz Modulith SLX F2 lithotripter according to a standard protocol. Clinical success was defined as stone-free status or asymptomatic clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs) ≤3 mm at radiological follow-up. The mean stone size was 7.8 mm. The majority of stones (66 %) were between 5 and 10 mm. 28 % of stones were between 10 and 15 mm. For solitary lower pole stones complete stone clearance was achieved in 63 %. Total stone clearance including those with CIRFs was achieved in 81 % of patients. As expected, for those with multiple lower pole stones the success rates were lower: complete clearance was observed in 39 % and combined clearance including those with CIRFs was 56 %. Overall, complete stone clearance was observed in 54 % of patients and clearance with CIRFs was achieved in 72 % of patients. Success rate could not be attributed to age, stone size or gender. Our outcome data for the treatment of lower pole renal stones (≤15 mm) compare favourably with the literature. With this level of stone clearance, a non-invasive, outpatient-based treatment like lithotripsy should remain the first-line treatment option for lower pole stones. Ureteroscopy must prove that it is significantly better either in terms of clinical outcome or patient satisfaction to justify replacing lithotripsy.

  12. Surgical versus endoscopic treatment of bile duct stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, D J; Vernon, D R; Toouli, J

    2006-01-01

    10% to 18% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy for gallstones have common bile duct (CBD) stones. Treatment options for these stones include pre- or post-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or open or laparoscopic surgery.......10% to 18% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy for gallstones have common bile duct (CBD) stones. Treatment options for these stones include pre- or post-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or open or laparoscopic surgery....

  13. Abdominal colic due to ureteric diverticulum with stone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roodhooft, A.M.; Boven, K.; Acker, K.J. van; Gentens, P.

    1987-01-01

    In a 15-year-old boy right lower abdominal colicky pain was caused by intermittent obstruction of the ureter by stones which had accumulated in a ureteric diverticulum. As was shown by repeated X-rays, each of these stones had moved to the ureter and back to the diverticulum. Ureteric diverticulum mostly remains asymptomatic in children: stone formation and obstruction of the ureter by the stones is one of the instances which may cause symptoms. (orig.)

  14. Radiotracer Imaging of Sediment Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, W. W.; O'Neil, J. P.; Boutchko, R.; Nico, P. S.; Druhan, J. L.; Vandehey, N. T.

    2010-12-01

    Nuclear medical PET and SPECT cameras routinely image radioactivity concentration of gamma ray emitting isotopes (PET - 511 keV; SPECT - 75-300 keV). We have used nuclear medical imaging technology to study contaminant transport in sediment columns. Specifically, we use Tc-99m (T1/2 = 6 h, Eγ = 140 keV) and a SPECT camera to image the bacteria mediated reduction of pertechnetate, [Tc(VII)O4]- + Fe(II) → Tc(IV)O2 + Fe(III). A 45 mL bolus of Tc-99m (32 mCi) labeled sodium pertechnetate was infused into a column (35cm x 10cm Ø) containing uranium-contaminated subsurface sediment from the Rifle, CO site. A flow rate of 1.25 ml/min of artificial groundwater was maintained in the column. Using a GE Millennium VG camera, we imaged the column for 12 hours, acquiring 44 frames. As the microbes in the sediment were inactive, we expected most of the iron to be Fe(III). The images were consistent with this hypothesis, and the Tc-99m pertechnetate acted like a conservative tracer. Virtually no binding of the Tc-99m was observed, and while the bolus of activity propagated fairly uniformly through the column, some inhomogeneity attributed to sediment packing was observed. We expect that after augmentation by acetate, the bacteria will metabolically reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), leading to significant Tc-99m binding. Imaging sediment columns using nuclear medicine techniques has many attractive features. Trace quantities of the radiolabeled compounds are used (micro- to nano- molar) and the half-lives of many of these tracers are short (Image of Tc-99m distribution in a column containing Rifle sediment at four times.

  15. Performance evaluation of a rectifier column using gamma column scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquino Denis D.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rectifier columns are considered to be a critical component in petroleum refineries and petrochemical processing installations as they are able to affect the overall performance of these facilities. It is deemed necessary to monitor the operational conditions of such vessels to optimize processes and prevent anomalies which could pose undesired consequences on product quality that might lead to huge financial losses. A rectifier column was subjected to gamma scanning using a 10-mCi Co-60 source and a 2-inch-long detector in tandem. Several scans were performed to gather information on the operating conditions of the column under different sets of operating parameters. The scan profiles revealed unexpected decreases in the radiation intensity at vapour levels between trays 2 and 3, and between trays 4 and 5. Flooding also occurred during several scans which could be attributed to parametric settings.

  16. Stone Soup: The Teacher Leader's Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambrick-Santoyo, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In the tale of "Stone Soup," a stranger vows to make soup for everyone in a village using only a stone--and convinces everyone in town to throw an ingredient into the stewpot. Schools that need to improve teacher practice quickly can also make stone soup, the author says, by harnessing the power of well-prepared teacher leaders to…

  17. Post column derivatisation analyses review. Is post-column derivatisation incompatible with modern HPLC columns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew; Pravadali-Cekic, Sercan; Dennis, Gary R; Shalliker, R Andrew

    2015-08-19

    Post Column derivatisation (PCD) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography or ultra-high performance liquid chromatography is a powerful tool in the modern analytical laboratory, or at least it should be. One drawback with PCD techniques is the extra post-column dead volume due to reaction coils used to enable adequate reaction time and the mixing of reagents which causes peak broadening, hence a loss of separation power. This loss of efficiency is counter-productive to modern HPLC technologies, -such as UHPLC. We reviewed 87 PCD methods published from 2009 to 2014. We restricted our review to methods published between 2009 and 2014, because we were interested in the uptake of PCD methods in UHPLC environments. Our review focused on a range of system parameters including: column dimensions, stationary phase and particle size, as well as the geometry of the reaction loop. The most commonly used column in the methods investigated was not in fact a modern UHPLC version with sub-2-micron, (or even sub-3-micron) particles, but rather, work-house columns, such as, 250 × 4.6 mm i.d. columns packed with 5 μm C18 particles. Reaction loops were varied, even within the same type of analysis, but the majority of methods employed loop systems with volumes greater than 500 μL. A second part of this review illustrated briefly the effect of dead volume on column performance. The experiment evaluated the change in resolution and separation efficiency of some weak to moderately retained solutes on a 250 × 4.6 mm i.d. column packed with 5 μm particles. The data showed that reaction loops beyond 100 μL resulted in a very serious loss of performance. Our study concluded that practitioners of PCD methods largely avoid the use of UHPLC-type column formats, so yes, very much, PCD is incompatible with the modern HPLC column. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. 'Saurashtra stone anchors' (Ring-stones) from Dwarka and Somnath, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    Last two decades of marine archaeological research along the Indian coast has brought to light a large number of stone anchors of different types and sizes, indicating that the Indian coast has witnessed brisk maritime activities in the past...

  19. Bladder stones after bladder augmentation are not what they seem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Konrad M; Misseri, Rosalia; Whittam, Benjamin; Lingeman, James E; Amstutz, Sable; Ring, Joshua D; Kaefer, Martin; Rink, Richard C; Cain, Mark P

    2016-04-01

    Bladder and renal calculi after bladder augmentation are thought to be primarily infectious, yet few studies have reported stone composition. The primary aim was to assess bladder stone composition after augmentation, and renal stone composition in those with subsequent nephrolithiasis. The exploratory secondary aim was to screen for possible risk factors for developing infectious stones. Patients treated for bladder stones after bladder augmentation at the present institution between 1981 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected on demographics, surgeries and stone composition. Patients without stone analysis were excluded. Stones containing struvite, carbonate apatite or ammonium acid ureate were classified as infectious. The following variables were analyzed for a possible association with infectious bladder stone composition: gender, history of cloacal exstrophy, ambulatory status, nephrolithiasis, recurrent urea-splitting urinary tract infections, first vs recurrent stones, timing of presentation with a calculus, history of bladder neck procedures, catheterizable channel and vesicoureteral reflux. Fisher's exact test was used for analysis. Of the 107 patients with bladder stones after bladder augmentation, 85 met inclusion criteria. Median age at augmentation was 8.0 years (follow-up 10.8 years). Forty-four patients (51.8%) recurred (14 multiple recurrences, 143 bladder stones). Renal calculi developed in 19 (22.4%) patients with a bladder stone, and 10 (52.6%) recurred (30 renal stones). Overall, 30.8% of bladder stones were non-infectious (Table). Among patients recurring after an infectious bladder stone, 30.4% recurred with a non-infectious one. Among patients recurring after a non-infectious stone, 84.6% recurred with a non-infectious one (P = 0.005). Compared with bladder stones, renal stones were more likely to be non-infectious (60.0%, P = 0.003). Of patients with recurrent renal calculi after an infectious stone, 40.0% recurred with

  20. Systemic sclerosis in a stone cutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna N

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Several occupational hazards especially exposure to silica have been implicated as eliciting factors for the development of scleroderma-like disorders. We here report a case of manual stone-cutter who developed progressive scleroderma, interstitial lung disease and decreased oesophageal motility after several years of exposure to silica dust.

  1. Automated visual inspection for polished stone manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melvyn L.; Smith, Lyndon N.

    2003-05-01

    Increased globalisation of the ornamental stone market has lead to increased competition and more rigorous product quality requirements. As such, there are strong motivators to introduce new, more effective, inspection technologies that will help enable stone processors to reduce costs, improve quality and improve productivity. Natural stone surfaces may contain a mixture of complex two-dimensional (2D) patterns and three-dimensional (3D) features. The challenge in terms of automated inspection is to develop systems able to reliably identify 3D topographic defects, either naturally occurring or resulting from polishing, in the presence of concomitant complex 2D stochastic colour patterns. The resulting real-time analysis of the defects may be used in adaptive process control, in order to avoid the wasteful production of defective product. An innovative approach, using structured light and based upon an adaptation of the photometric stereo method, has been pioneered and developed at UWE to isolate and characterize mixed 2D and 3D surface features. The method is able to undertake tasks considered beyond the capabilities of existing surface inspection techniques. The approach has been successfully applied to real stone samples, and a selection of experimental results is presented.

  2. Frequency of stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Khalique

    2017-02-24

    Feb 24, 2017 ... (SIUT-ERC-B4-2013). All clinical and radiological data were collected and analyzed using. Statistical Package for Social Sciences Program (SPSS) version. 18.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA). Descriptive statistics were used. Continuous variables such as age, size of stones, serum cre- atinine were ...

  3. Microstructural characterization of stone wool fibre network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapelle, Lucie; Brøndsted, Povl; Kusano, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanical properties of fibrous network as complex as stone wool materials requires a relevant description of their microstructure and architecture. In this study, different methods have been proposed to characterize the fibre orientation, diameter and length of fibres as well...

  4. Stone Stability in Non-uniform Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoan, N.T.; Stive, M.J.F.; Booij, R.; Hofland, B.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study on stone stability under nonuniform turbulent flow, in particular expanding flow. Detailed measurements of both flow and turbulence and the bed stability are described. Than various manners of quantifying the hydraulic loads exerted on the

  5. Male Urethral Diverticulum Having Multiple Stones

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    muscle fibers in their wall, commonly encountered in adults, and involve the posterior urethra. Differential diagnosis for UD includes syringoceles (cystic dilatation of the Cowper's gland), sequestration cysts, epidermoid and epithelial inclusion cysts. Male Urethral Diverticulum Having Multiple Stones. Mohanty D, Garg PK, ...

  6. Effect of moisture on tuff stone degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.A.; Nijland, T.G.

    2016-01-01

    Tuff stone elements with a large length/width ratio often suffer damage in the form of cracks parallel to the surface and spalling of the outer layer. The response of tuff to moisture might be a reason for this behaviour. This research aimed at verifying if differential dilation between parts with

  7. Endolithic phototrophs in built and natural stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylarde, Christine C; Gaylarde, Peter M; Neilan, Brett A

    2012-08-01

    Lichens, algae and cyanobacteria have been detected growing endolithically in natural rock and in stone buildings in various countries of Australasia, Europe and Latin America. Previously these organisms had mainly been described in natural carbonaceous rocks in aquatic environments, with some reports in siliceous rocks, principally from extremophilic regions. Using various culture and microscopy methods, we have detected endoliths in siliceous stone, both natural and cut, in humid temperate and subtropical climates. Such endolithic growth leads to degradation of the stone structure, not only by mechanical means, but also by metabolites liberated by the cells. Using in vitro culture, transmission, optical and fluorescence microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, both coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria and algae, including Cyanidiales, have been identified growing endolithically in the facades of historic buildings built from limestone, sandstone, granite, basalt and soapstone, as well as in some natural rocks. Numerically, the most abundant are small, single-celled, colonial cyanobacteria. These small phototrophs are difficult to detect by standard microscope techniques and some of these species have not been previously reported within stone.

  8. Obesometric factors associated with increased skin-to-stone distances in renal stone patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Christopher B; Shuster, Anatoly; Pinthus, Jehonathan H; Farrokhyar, Forough; Raees, A; Patlas, Michael; Matsumoto, Edward D; Whelan, J Paul

    2012-12-01

    Obese patients are at increased risk for renal stones as well as treatment failures due to increased skin-to-stone distances (SSD) and harder stone compositions. We investigated the relationships between obesometric parameters (body mass index [BMI], body fat distribution and obesity-related hormone levels) with SSD and stone hardness. We prospectively enrolled patients undergoing stone interventions at our institution. Computed tomography (CT) scans were analyzed; adipose tissue was identified according to Hounsfield units (HU) and separated into subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) components. The pixels were averaged at three levels to calculate fat distribution: %VAT = (VAT)/(VAT + SAT). SSD was measured and HU were used as a surrogate for stone hardness. Obesity-related hormones leptin and adiponectin were measured by ELISA. Seventy-nine patients were prospectively enrolled. Mean BMI and %VAT were 30.02 kg/m2 and 40.13 kg/m2. Mean leptin and adiponectin levels were 17.5 ng/mL and 7.67 mcg/mL indicating high risk for metabolic consequences of obesity. Females had greater proportions of subcutaneous fat than males (%VAT 28.4 versus 46.94, p r = 0.454, p = 0.008). Obese patients with %VAT > 40 versus stone compositions as measured by HU than non-diabetics (982.86 versus 648.86, p = 0.001). Obesometric parameters such as BMI, body fat distribution, and the presence of diabetes mellitus are important considerations in the management of renal stone disease. A large proportion of subcutaneous fat, which can be estimated by physical examination, predicts SSD among obese patients and may aid treatment decisions in patients, particularly those without pre-treatment CT scans. Further studies are needed to refine the role of obesometrics in personalizing treatment decisions.

  9. Effect of blind treatment on stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazil Marickar, Y M; Salim, Abiya; Vijay, Adarsh

    2010-06-01

    Most of the drugs administered to stone patients appear to be inappropriate and doing more harm than good to the patients. The objective of this paper is to identify the prevalence of blind chemotherapy among the stone patients and find out the real indication for the drugs administered. Patients who attended the stone clinic for the first time were interviewed to find out what drugs they had been taking before the attendance at the stone clinic. 350 patients consuming specific drugs relevant to stone formation at least for a period of 15 days were selected for a detailed assessment. The type of drug consumed, the dose, the duration, the side effects, compliance rate and effect on stone disease were assessed. The biochemical profile of the patients was assessed to identify the role of the therapeutic modalities utilised. Conclusions regarding the utility of drugs in the process of stone formation were made. The values were compared with those of patients not on medication and considering laboratory standards. Of the 350 patients studied, 96 patients were consuming potassium citrate in different doses, 50 were consuming allopurinol, 44 cystone, 27 potassium citrate + magnesium, 25 calcury, 24 rowatinex, 21 ayurvedic drugs, 17 dystone, 17 homeopathic medicines and 17 other drugs. The longest duration of compliance was for cystone-2.5 years. All other drugs were stopped by the patients themselves due to recurrence of symptoms. As much as 93% of the patients did not feel that there was any significant relief of symptoms. The side effects which prompted the patients to stop medicine were gastro intestinal upset, particularly with potassium citrate, rowatinex and potassium citrate + magnesium combination. The relevant biochemical changes noted were increased urinary citrate levels in patients consuming potassium citrate alone or in combination with magnesium. Serum uric acid was within normal limits in patients consuming allopurinol. Urine uric acid levels were also

  10. 78 FR 3911 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN; Final Comprehensive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R3-R-2012-N259; FXRS1265030000-134-FF03R06000] Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN; Final Comprehensive... significant impact (FONSI) for the environmental assessment (EA) for Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge...

  11. Sarsen Stones of Stonehenge: How and by what route were the stones transported? What is the significance of their markings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, P A

    1961-04-21

    A route via Lockeridge and the Avon Valley, involving a slide down the chalk escarpment, is postulated for the sarsen stones of Stonehenge. The transportation problem would have been greatly simplified if the stones had been relayed from point to point over snow or slush during successive winters. Markings on the stones hitherto undescribed are interpreted.

  12. Using a three-dimensional computer assisted stone volume estimates to evaluate extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy treatment of kidney stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Lene Hyldgaard; Ulriksen, Peter Sommer; Omar, Omar Salah

    2016-01-01

    Hospital between April 2013 and January 2014 and follow-up was possible in 77 (95 %) patients. NCCT was used before and after treatment. Treatment response was expressed as a reduction of the stone volume. Stone characteristics as the stone volumes, HU, SSD and localization were measured by radiologist...

  13. NOx retention in scrubbing column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazone, A.K.; Costa, R.E.; Lobao, A.S.T.; Matsuda, H.T.; Araujo, B.F.

    1988-07-01

    During the UO 2 dissolution in nitric acid, some different species of NO x are released. The off gas can either be refluxed to the dissolver or be released and retained on special columns. The final composition of the solution is the main parameter to take in account. A process for nitrous gases retention using scubber columns containing H 2 O or diluted HNO 3 is presented. Chemiluminescence measurement was employed to NO x evalution before and after scrubbing. Gas flow, temperature, residence time are the main parameters considered in this paper. For the dissolution of 100g UO 2 in 8M nitric acid, a 6NL/h O 2 flow was the best condition for the NO/NO 2 oxidation with maximum adsorption in the scrubber columns. (author) [pt

  14. Stone comminution correlates with the average peak pressure incident on a stone during shock wave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, N; Zhong, P

    2012-10-11

    To investigate the roles of lithotripter shock wave (LSW) parameters and cavitation in stone comminution, a series of in vitro fragmentation experiments have been conducted in water and 1,3-butanediol (a cavitation-suppressive fluid) at a variety of acoustic field positions of an electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter. Using field mapping data and integrated parameters averaged over a circular stone holder area (R(h)=7 mm), close logarithmic correlations between the average peak pressure (P(+(avg))) incident on the stone (D=10 mm BegoStone) and comminution efficiency after 500 and 1000 shocks have been identified. Moreover, the correlations have demonstrated distinctive thresholds in P(+(avg)) (5.3 MPa and 7.6 MPa for soft and hard stones, respectively), that are required to initiate stone fragmentation independent of surrounding fluid medium and LSW dose. These observations, should they be confirmed using other shock wave lithotripters, may provide an important field parameter (i.e., P(+(avg))) to guide appropriate application of SWL in clinics, and facilitate device comparison and design improvements in future lithotripters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A radiologic study of salivary stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyo Suck; Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1986-01-01

    The author examined fifty cases of sialolithiasis diagnosed in the Dept. of Oral Radiology in SNUH by conventional radiography and sialography, and patient's age, sex, location, radiodensity, numbers, shapes, and relation with ducts a nd parenchymas. The results of this study were as follows: 1. The average age of patients was 38.6 years in submandibular sialolithiasis, and 39.2 years in parotid sialolithiasis. 2. There was slightly higher incidence in males (58.0%) than in females (42.0%). 3. Salivary stones were found to be much more in the submandibular gland and duct (82.0%) than in the parotid gland and duct (18.0%). 4. Of 62 submandibular salivary stones, 33 (53.2%) occurred in the main duct, 25 (40.3%) occurred in the hilum, and 4 (6.5%) occurred in the parenchyma. Of 18 parotid salivary stones, 9(50.0%) occurred in the main duct, 5(27.8%) occurred in the parenchyma, and 4 (22 .2%) occurred in the hilum. 5. Of the submandibular salivary stones, the number of radiopaque type was 45 (75.8%), and the number of radiolucent type was 17 (24.2%). Of the parotid salivary stones, the number of radiopaque type was 12 (66.7%), and the number of radiolucent type was 6 (33.3%). 6. The single type was 30 cases (73.2%) in submandibular gland, 6 cases (66.7%) in parotid gland, and the multiple type was 11 cases (26.8%) in submandibular grand, and 3 cases (33. 3%) in parotid gland. 7. Round shape was 35 cases (43.8%), ovoid shape was 22 cases (27.5%), irregular shape was 17 cases (21.3%), and cylindrical shape was 6 cases (7.5%).

  16. Exophytic pilocytic astrocytoma of the brain stem in an adult with encasement of the caudal cranial nerve complex (IX-XII): presurgical anatomical neuroimaging using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousry, Indra; Yousry, Tarek A. [Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich (Germany); Muacevic, Alexander; Olteanu-Nerbe, Vlad [Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Naidich, Thomas P. [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York (United States)

    2004-07-01

    We describe a rare case of adult pilocytic astrocytoma in which exophytic growth from the brain stem presented as a right cerebellopontine angle mass. An initial MRI examination using T2- and T1-weighted images without and with contrast suggested the diagnosis of schwannoma. Subsequent use of 3D CISS (three-dimensional constructive interference in steady state) and T1-weighted contrast-enhanced 3D MP-RAGE (three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo) sequences led to the diagnosis of an exophytic brain stem tumor, documented the precise relationships of the tumor to cranial nerve VIII, revealed encasement of cranial nerves IX-XII (later confirmed intraoperatively), and provided the proper basis for planning surgical management. (orig.)

  17. Behavior of a PCM at Varying Heating Rates: Experimental and Theoretical Study with an Aim at Temperature Moderation in Radionuclide Concrete Encasements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medved', Igor; Trník, Anton

    2018-07-01

    Phase-change materials (PCMs) can store/release thermal energy within a small temperature range. This is of interest in various industrial applications, for example, in civil engineering (heating/cooling of buildings) or cold storage applications. Another application may be the moderation of temperature increases in concrete encasements of radionuclides during their decay. The phase-change behavior of a material is determined by its heat capacity and the peak it exhibits near a phase change. We analyze the behavior of such peaks for a selected PCM at heating rates varying between 0.1°C\\cdot min^{-1} and 1°C\\cdot min^{-1}, corresponding in real situations to different decay rates of radionuclides. We show that experimentally measured peaks can be plausibly described by an equilibrium theory that enables us to calculate the latent heat and phase-change temperature from experimental data.

  18. Exophytic pilocytic astrocytoma of the brain stem in an adult with encasement of the caudal cranial nerve complex (IX-XII): presurgical anatomical neuroimaging using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousry, Indra; Yousry, Tarek A.; Muacevic, Alexander; Olteanu-Nerbe, Vlad; Naidich, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a rare case of adult pilocytic astrocytoma in which exophytic growth from the brain stem presented as a right cerebellopontine angle mass. An initial MRI examination using T2- and T1-weighted images without and with contrast suggested the diagnosis of schwannoma. Subsequent use of 3D CISS (three-dimensional constructive interference in steady state) and T1-weighted contrast-enhanced 3D MP-RAGE (three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo) sequences led to the diagnosis of an exophytic brain stem tumor, documented the precise relationships of the tumor to cranial nerve VIII, revealed encasement of cranial nerves IX-XII (later confirmed intraoperatively), and provided the proper basis for planning surgical management. (orig.)

  19. Conservation of stone built cultural heritage and preservation of memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Antônio

    2016-04-01

    the production of structural elements, such as pillars and columns, or for the coating of floors and walls, as well as in the production of various elements such as the doorposts and lintels of doors and windows, cornices and steps. In the case of floors and walls usually have some sort of processing (polishing). With some frequency were also used for the production of ornamental pieces or embellishment, such as statues and finishes that adorn both façades of churches, as civilian buildings. Finally and considering that historical contents usually are already referenced in these buildings, it is concluded that other registers, such as those related to the geological history of the stone material used should be collected and reported by those who care conservation of this heritage. In this way, if these geo-memories are raised, it will be important for the conservation of monuments, but also for the diffusion of knowledge in the field of Earth Sciences.

  20. INCREASING DEMANDS FOR NATURAL STONES USAGE AROUND THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASAN ÜÇPIRTI

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to great demands in construction business, the stone industry has been growing very fast around the world. In fact, the technological iınproveınents on the ınachinery of marble and granite processing plant and quarry in recent years gives impulse to the stone business. According to studies reported� there are recognizable increments on both productions and constructions. Natural stones become driving forces in tl1e countries economy. In this study� so ın e statistical nuınbers for productions and consumption of natural stones will be presented in a base of countries that strongly involve in stone business. The importance of the econoınical impacts of natural stone on countries econoıny wiJI be emphasized. Then, the future of natural stones and its business will be discussed

  1. PIXE analysis of chinese chicken-blood stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, E.K.; Wang, C.W.; Yu, Y.C.; Liu, T.Y.; Cheng, H.S.; Zhu, H.X.; Yang, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the chemical compositions of chicken-blood stone Ji Xue Shi measured by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). The experimental result show that for the red portion of chicken-blood stone, the concentration of Hg is as high as 20 wt%, and the concentration of S can be above 10 wt%. For the non-red portion the main chemical compositions are Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 . The obtained chemical compositions are close to those of kaolinite for Balin chicken-blood stone, and of pyrophyllite for Changhua chicken-blood stone, respectively. So far many Changhua chicken-blood stones and Balin chicken-blood stones were found in China, the PIXE method can be used to explore the provenance of available chicken-blood stones. (author)

  2. Occasional, obligatory, and habitual stone tool use in hominin evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, John J

    2017-09-01

    Archeologists have long assumed that earlier hominins were obligatory stone tool users. This assumption is deeply embedded in traditional ways of describing the lithic record. This paper argues that lithic evidence dating before 1.7 Ma reflects occasional stone tool use, much like that practiced by nonhuman primates except that it involved flaked-stone cutting tools. Evidence younger than 0.3 Ma is more congruent with obligatory stone tool use, like that among recent humans. The onset of habitual stone tool use at about 1.7 Ma appears correlated with increased hominin logistical mobility (carrying things). The onset of obligatory stone tool use after 0.3 Ma may be linked to the evolution of spoken language. Viewing the lithic evidence dating between 0.3-1.7 Ma as habitual stone tool use explains previously inexplicable aspects of the Early-Middle Pleistocene lithic record. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Approach to Residual Kidney Stone Fragments After Shock Wave Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumay Ižpekci

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For kidney stones up to 2 cm in diameter shock wave therapy (SDT is safely applied and kidney stones smaller than 5mm remaining in the kidney after treatment are regarded as clinically insignificant. Management of this condition is still controversial among clinicians. These stones in the kidney may continue to persist without any clinical symptoms or begin to cause clinical signs. In the event that the clinical symptoms are present, it requires detailed urological examination and treatment. The aim in the surgical treatment of urinary tract stones is completely stone clearance but in stones that are not infected, not causing urinary tract obstruction and without clinical symptoms medical treatment is also beneficial fort he prevention of growth and recurrence. In addition, surgical intervention is also possible for the residual stone fragments which become symptomatic during follow-up.

  4. Kiljan 'Stone stuck into the ground': A dalmato-romance relic in Montenegro?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loma Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The word kiljan / kiljan, -a (Variants: kiljen, kiljaš is found in the most parts of Montenegro; its area ranges over the border between Zeta - and East-Herzegovina dialects of Serbian. Of its five meanings, three are to be considered peripheral (building block (of limestone in SW, target in a game in NW, or occasional (hill. The core meaning of the word seem to be 'a stone stuck into the ground', to mark something, either a boundary between the fields or a place of somebody's violent death (shifting to 'gravestone'. Of these two usages, the former may claim the priority, ancient boundary stones being often reinterpreted, in local legends, as memorial ones. Indeed marking the land parcels with stones was unfamiliar to the ancient Slavs (Common Slavic *medja land boundary is usually a hedge, a grove, a path or a furrow, but characteristic of Mediterranean countries with their scarcity of arable land; for the ancient Greeks, it is attested since the Homeric epoch, and was practiced by the Romans too, which suggests a possible Romance source of the word in question. Significantly enough, this practice is attested by the Old Serbian charters only for Zeta, a SW Montenegrian region where kiljan is the proper term for this kind of landmarks (in a charter from 1316, it is not explicitly mentioned, but described by kamy ukopan stone dug into the ground. The word kiljan has no convincing etymology so far Illyrian one proposed by Petar Skok in his etymological dictionary is made up out of thin air, and a possible interpretation based on (BaltoSlavic facts (Lith. kuũlis 'stone', Common Slavic **kyl- as a variant of *kъl- eyetooth tusk; crag' highly improbable as well. However, the Old Dalmatian, a Romance language extinct since the end of 19th century, provides a plausible source with its continuation of the Latin word columna 'column, pillar', which is kilauna; and the SCr forms kelomna / kelovna in Ragusa (Dubrovnik, kilovna in the Bay of Cattaro

  5. Chromatographic properties PLOT multicapillary columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, O A; Patrushev, Y V; Sidelnikov, V N

    2017-03-10

    Multicapillary columns (MCCs) for gas chromatography make it possible to perform high-speed analysis of the mixtures of gaseous and volatile substances at a relatively large amount of the loaded sample. The study was performed using PLOT MCCs for gas-solid chromatography (GSC) with different stationary phases (SP) based on alumina, silica and poly-(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) (PTMSP) polymer as well as porous polymers divinylbenzene-styrene (DVB-St), divinylbenzene-vinylimidazole (DVB-VIm) and divinylbenzene-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (DVB-EGD). These MCCs have the efficiency of 4000-10000 theoretical plates per meter (TP/m) and at a column length of 25-30cm can separate within 10-20s multicomponent mixtures of substances belonging to different classes of chemical compounds. The sample amount not overloading the column is 0.03-1μg and depends on the features of a porous layer. Examples of separations on some of the studied columns are considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The "Global Heritage Stone Resource": Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Barry

    2013-04-01

    The "Global Heritage Stone Resource" designation arose in 2007 as a suggested mechanism to enhance international recognition of famous dimension stones. There were also many aspects of dimension stone study that had no formal recognition in mainstream geology and which could be recognised in a formal geological sense via an internationally acceptable geological standard. Such a standard could also receive recognition by other professionals and the wider community. From the start, it was appreciated that active quarrying would an important aspect of the designation so a designation different to any other standard was needed. Also the project was linked to the long-established Commission C-10 Building Stone and Ornamental Rocks of the International Association of Engineering Geology and the Environment (IAEG C-10). Since 2007, the "Global Heritage Stone Resource" (GHSR) proposal has evolved in both in stature and purpose due to an increasing number of interested international correspondents that were actively sought via conference participation. The "English Stone Forum" in particular was pursuing similar aims and was quick to advise that English dimension stone types were being recognised as having international, national or regional importance. Furthermore the proposed designation was suggested as to having significant value in safeguarding designated stone types whilst also providing a potential mechanism in preventing heritage stone replacement by cheap substitutes. During development it also became apparent that stone types having practical applications such as roofing slates and millstones or even stone types utilised by prehistoric man can also be recognised by the new designation. The heritage importance of architects was also recognised. Most importantly an international network evolved, primarily including geologists, that now seems to be the largest international grouping of dimension stone professionals. This has assisted the project to affiliate with the

  7. A study on the utilization of stone powder sludge (III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chi Kwon; Sohn, Jeong Soo; Kim, Byung Gyu [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    This study was performed to activate the building stone industry by increasing the recycling amounts of waste resources and minimizing the generation of the environmental pollution materials. In order to utilize the waste stone and stone powder sludge generated from the domestic quarry and cutting process of stone plates, the manufacturing technology of the artificial stone plate as a building material was developed. Based on the first and second year results, this third-year study was performed for manufacturing the large-scale artificial stone plate of 500 x 500 x 20 mm. Also for applying these artificial stone plates to the flooring and interior materials in the building industry, the manufacture of the large-scale artificial stone plates with various patterns and colors was carried out by changing the species and the ratio of raw materials, amounts of binder and molding pressure. Artificial stone plate was composed of waste crushed stone, stone powder sludge and binder which was used for binding waste stone and rock powder each other. In order to investigate the physical properties of large-scale artificial stone, the measure of specific gravity, absorption ratio, P-wave velocity, compressive strength, tensile strength, Young`s modulus, and Poisson`s ratio were carried out. As a result of testing physical properties, there was no difference between small-scale artificial stone and large-scale one. At the optimum conditions it was shown that the properties of artificial stones were as follows, 2.32 of specific gravity, 0.33 of water-absorption ratio, 780 kg/cm{sup 2} of compressive strength and 98 kg/cm{sup 2} of tensile strength. Based on the above results, the preliminary economic estimation on the manufacture of the artificial stone plate was carried out. It was shown that the manufacturing cost of the artificial stone plate was 18,000 won/m{sup 2}, which was merely half that of natural stone plate, and the application of these on the building stone industry

  8. Correlation between Copper, Zinc and some lipids in serum, bile and stones of patients with gall stone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Farsakh, F.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of Cu, Zn and some lipid concentrations were carried out in serum, bile and gall stone samples collected from 76 patients undergoing surgery for removal of gall stones. The results showed that Cu and Zn were present in micromolar concentration in bile (average Cu concentration = 13.4 ± 0.92, average Zn concentration = 13.4 ± 1.05) and gall stones (average Cu concentration = 2.8 ± 0.16, average Zn concentration = 1.8 ± 0.16 mmol/ g stone). Cross-tabulation of the results showed significant positive linear correlations (p< 0.01) between stone Zn vs. bile cholesterol (r = 0.253), stone Zn vs. bile bilirubin (r = 0.396) (in mixed stones only). This suggested that the more hydrophobic the bile sample, the more Zn co-precipitate with cholesterol or bilirubin. (author). 17 refs., 3 tabs

  9. The relevance of "Santa Pudia" calcarenite: a natural stone to preserve heritage buildings in Andalusia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Rafael; Molina, Eduardo; Baltuille, José Manuel

    2013-04-01

    "Santa Pudia" calcarenite, extracted in quarries from Granada (Andalusia, Spain), is a very important ornamental stone used in some of the main historical buildings in Andalusia, and particularly in the city of Granada. It has been used mainly outdoors with structural purposes (ashlars, columns), but is also used as decorative element in façades, pinnacles, etc. There are two main quarries, one historical ("Las Parideras") and another one currently under exploitation ("La Escribana"). Both were the source for all the material to make the different cited elements. Some of the main historical buildings using this stone in their construction, in one way or other, are the cathedral, The Royal Chapel, the Royal Hospital, San Juan de Dios monastery, the Royal Chancery or Carlos V Palace in the Alhambra, all of them in the city of Granada. In recent days, this natural stone has been used in the restoration of the Mosque of Córdoba and the Cinco Llagas Hospital in Seville. Although the main reference in industry for this natural stone is "Calcarenita de Santa Pudia", it can be found as well cited in the old literature under the denomination of "Piedra Franca". From a geological point of view is a white to yellow calcarenite, part of the Tortonian deposits of the Guadalquivir Basin (Post-Orogenic Neogene Basins of the Betic Chains). It's made up mainly by micritic matrix of calcite, with fragments of bioclasts (about 90%) including molluscs, echinoderms, briozoan, red algae and foraminifera. Other components, like metamorphic quartz, moscovite and/or schist or gneiss (rock fragments from the nearby metamorphic basement), can be found as well. The rock is poorly cemented with sparitic calcite. Regarding the main physical and mechanical properties, this rock has an open porosity between 25-36%, bulk density of 1,74 g/cm3, water absorption values at atmospheric pressure of 16%, compressive strength (dry) of 11 MPa, flexural strength (dry) of 2,3 MPa and salt crystallization

  10. Piezoelectric extracorporeal lithotripsy of gallbladder stones: New inclusion criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn; Shin, Yong Moon; Yoon, Yong Kyu; Yoon, Yong Bum; Park, Yong Hyun; Kim, Chu Wan; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-15

    To establish the optimal inclusion criteria for the patients with gallbladder stones to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy(ESWL) by retrospectively analyzed our current results. Data obtained from 201 patients with gallbladder stones treated with ESWL and oral chemolytic agent from November 1988 to July 1992 were retrospectively analyzed. Ninety-six had radiolucent stones and 105 had radiopaque stones. We used piezoelectric lithotriptor(EDAP LT. 01) and there were no limitation in number of sessions or total number of shock waves. ESWL was repeated until the size of the largest fragment is smaller than 4 mm. Follow up ultrasound was done in every three months after the successful fragmentation. Average length of the follow up was 205 days. We analyzed the rate of successful fragmentation, number of shock waves needed to achieve successful fragmentation according to the size, number of stones as well as the presence of the calcification. Stone-free rate after 6 months was also calculated from all subgroups and compared to each other. The rate of successful fragmentation was 76.2% for radiolucent stones and 65.6% for radiopaque stones(p> 0.05) after 46,731 and 56,111 shock wave respectively(p > 0.05) The rate of successful fragmentation was highest in patients with single, radiolucent stone smaller than 2 cm(91.7%) followed by single radiolucent stone larger than 2 cm(83.3%), multiple calcified stones smaller than 2 cm (77.4%) and single calcified stone smaller than 2 cm(72.1%). The rate of complete stone clearance after 6 month follow-up was highest in patients with single radiolucent stone smaller than 2 cm (63.3%) and followed by multiple calcified stones smaller than 2 cm(37.3%), single calcified stone smaller than 2 cm(33.9%)(p < 0.05). To obtain better results with ESWL in patients with gallbladder stone, the authors propose a more strict inclusion criteria, which is the patient with a single, radiolucent stone smaller than 2 cm.

  11. Piezoelectric extracorporeal lithotripsy of gallbladder stones: New inclusion criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn; Shin, Yong Moon; Yoon, Yong Kyu; Yoon, Yong Bum; Park, Yong Hyun; Kim, Chu Wan; Han, Man Chung

    1994-01-01

    To establish the optimal inclusion criteria for the patients with gallbladder stones to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy(ESWL) by retrospectively analyzed our current results. Data obtained from 201 patients with gallbladder stones treated with ESWL and oral chemolytic agent from November 1988 to July 1992 were retrospectively analyzed. Ninety-six had radiolucent stones and 105 had radiopaque stones. We used piezoelectric lithotriptor(EDAP LT. 01) and there were no limitation in number of sessions or total number of shock waves. ESWL was repeated until the size of the largest fragment is smaller than 4 mm. Follow up ultrasound was done in every three months after the successful fragmentation. Average length of the follow up was 205 days. We analyzed the rate of successful fragmentation, number of shock waves needed to achieve successful fragmentation according to the size, number of stones as well as the presence of the calcification. Stone-free rate after 6 months was also calculated from all subgroups and compared to each other. The rate of successful fragmentation was 76.2% for radiolucent stones and 65.6% for radiopaque stones(p> 0.05) after 46,731 and 56,111 shock wave respectively(p > 0.05) The rate of successful fragmentation was highest in patients with single, radiolucent stone smaller than 2 cm(91.7%) followed by single radiolucent stone larger than 2 cm(83.3%), multiple calcified stones smaller than 2 cm (77.4%) and single calcified stone smaller than 2 cm(72.1%). The rate of complete stone clearance after 6 month follow-up was highest in patients with single radiolucent stone smaller than 2 cm (63.3%) and followed by multiple calcified stones smaller than 2 cm(37.3%), single calcified stone smaller than 2 cm(33.9%)(p < 0.05). To obtain better results with ESWL in patients with gallbladder stone, the authors propose a more strict inclusion criteria, which is the patient with a single, radiolucent stone smaller than 2 cm

  12. Stone tools from locality Crkvine in Stubline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonović Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stone artifacts from excavations in Crkvine in 2008. originate from two stratigraphic units, both chronologically defined as the final stage of the Vinča culture: 1. distruction layer above and 2. from the floor of House 1/2008. None of the stone artifact types showed any specific regularity in vertical distribution. However, in the southern part of the Structure/House 1 there is higher abundance in horizontal distribution of both types of tools. Abundance of cores, blades for rejuvenation of the cores and unretouched blades among the chipped artifacts suggest that, most probably, this object was a working place where the artifacts were made (Fig. 9/1. Ground stone artifacts - all rought-out and final products, whole and fragmented pieces, ground-edge and abrasive tools, are equally distributed in the House 1/2008 as well as in the distruction layer above it. Only non-determined fragments and pieces of raw material, both defined as products of making stone tools, are far more numerous in the distruction layer above the House 1/2008. Higher concentrations of finds are situated in the House 1/2008, especially in its southern part, on the floor and above it, while the number of finds out of the House significantly decreases (Fig. 9/2. Such distribution of ground stone artifacts indicates that the production of stone artifacts was done within the household (large number of flakes of „light white stone“, presence of grindstone and whetstone, as well as that there occurred active preparation of food within the Vinča’s objects (querns and pounders within the houses. Findings of numerous quartzite, chert and jasper pebbles out of the House 1/2008, 2 metres away from the northeastern angle of the House (pottery group 1, could not be connected with production of chipped and ground stone artifacts. There are no any traces of treatment and utilization on the pebbles, and the pebbles themselves do not belong to raw material of good quality due to

  13. Various Stone-Wales defects in phagraphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openov, L. A.; Podlivaev, A. I.

    2016-08-01

    Various Stone-Wales defects in phagraphene, which is a graphene allotrope, predicted recently are studied in terms of the nonorthogonal tight-binding model. The energies of the defect formation and the heights of energy barriers preventing the formation and annealing of the defects are found. Corresponding frequency factors in the Arrhenius formula are calculated. The evolution of the defect structure is studied in the real-time mode using the molecular dynamics method.

  14. Operational properties of nanomodified stone mastic asphalt

    OpenAIRE

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich; Korolev Evgeniy Valer’evich

    2015-01-01

    In order to prolong the lifetime and to improve the quality of pavements made of asphalt concrete it is necessary to apply innovative solutions in the process of design of such building materials. In order to solve the problem of low durability of asphalt concrete a modifier was proposed, which consists of diatomite, iron hydroxide sol (III) and silica sol. Application of the diatomite with nanoscale layer of nanomodifier allows getting a stone mastic asphalt, which has high values of physica...

  15. Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy of bile duct stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Myung Joon; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Suh, Jung Ho; Lee, Moo Sang; Jo, Jang Hwan; Kim, Byung Ro

    1989-01-01

    During the past one and half year, we performed ESWL therapy in 13 patients with common bile duct and intrahepatic duct stones, applying Lithostar-R (Siemens co. West Germany) and analyzed their results. In 13 patients, 9 residual common bile duct stones and 7 intrahepatic duct stones were selected postoperatively. The size of stones were ranged from 0.7 cm to 3.5 cm in diameter. 2 stones were multiple and the remained 14 were single in number. The visualization of stones were done with fluoroscopy after the injection of contrast media via cholangiographic T-tube or ERCP. ESWL were applied continuously until stone disintegration was visible, or upto maximum number of 3500 discharge of shock wave. If not disintegrated upto 3500, patients were underwent second or third lithotripsy session with interval of one week. Our results showed that among 9 common bile duct stones, 4 were completely disintegrated and passed out spontaneously, but 3 partially fragmented and removed by the additional procedure. 2 were failed. Among 7 intrahepatic stones, 3 completely and 2 partially were succeeded. One stone partially fragmented were retained without removal and other one were failed. Skin petechia in all patients were revealed on the entry port of shock wave, but no serous complication was not occurred

  16. Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy of bile duct stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Myung Joon; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Suh, Jung Ho; Lee, Moo Sang; Jo, Jang Hwan; Kim, Byung Ro [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    During the past one and half year, we performed ESWL therapy in 13 patients with common bile duct and intrahepatic duct stones, applying Lithostar-R (Siemens co. West Germany) and analyzed their results. In 13 patients, 9 residual common bile duct stones and 7 intrahepatic duct stones were selected postoperatively. The size of stones were ranged from 0.7 cm to 3.5 cm in diameter. 2 stones were multiple and the remained 14 were single in number. The visualization of stones were done with fluoroscopy after the injection of contrast media via cholangiographic T-tube or ERCP. ESWL were applied continuously until stone disintegration was visible, or upto maximum number of 3500 discharge of shock wave. If not disintegrated upto 3500, patients were underwent second or third lithotripsy session with interval of one week. Our results showed that among 9 common bile duct stones, 4 were completely disintegrated and passed out spontaneously, but 3 partially fragmented and removed by the additional procedure. 2 were failed. Among 7 intrahepatic stones, 3 completely and 2 partially were succeeded. One stone partially fragmented were retained without removal and other one were failed. Skin petechia in all patients were revealed on the entry port of shock wave, but no serous complication was not occurred.

  17. Pattern of urinary tract stone diseases in Mekelle, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Mekonnen Hagos

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate and analyze the pattern of patients with urinary stone diseases admitted to Mekelle Hospital. Between Sept 2003 to Sept 2006, 102 patients with urinary stone disease were admitted to Mekelle Hospital. In this descriptive retrospective audit, case notes were obtained from medical record office and were analyzed for age, sex, localization of the stone disease and the geographic back grounds. Seventy six (74.5%) of the patients were males and 26 (25.5%) were females. There were 102 (13.6%) cases of urinary stone disease admitted to Mekelle Hospital out of 750 total admissions for urological disease for intervention in the surgical ward during the study period. There were 76 (74.5%) males and 26 (25.5%) females and the sex ratio was (M: F: 2.9:1). Most (46.0%) of the urinary stone diseases were between 0-19 year age group both in males and females. The median age was 20 years (range from 2-74 years) and the mean was 25.4 years. Urinary bladder stones were the most common urinary tract stone diseases accounting for 47 (46.0%) followed by renal stones 29 (28.4%), ureteric 16 (15.6%) and urethral 10 (9.8%) stone disease; in that order of frequency. The geographical back ground of the patients with urinary tract stone disease in this report has shown that majorities (53.7%) were from urban and the remaining (44.2%) were from the rural areas. This study has depicted that urinary bladder stone diseases are the most common stone diseases affecting the younger age group. Since this is an institutional based study, it underestimates the magnitude and the pattern of urinary stone diseases at all level. Nevertheless, the audit provides useful information on the socio demographic variables, localization and the geographic back ground of the patients.

  18. Weathering and weathering rates of natural stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Erhard M.

    1987-06-01

    Physical and chemical weathering were studied as separate processes in the past. Recent research, however, shows that most processes are physicochemical in nature. The rates at which calcite and silica weather by dissolution are dependent on the regional and local climatic environment. The weathering of silicate rocks leaves discolored margins and rinds, a function of the rocks' permeability and of the climatic parameters. Salt action, the greatest disruptive factor, is complex and not yet fully understood in all its phases, but some of the causes of disruption are crystallization pressure, hydration pressure, and hygroscopic attraction of excess moisture. The decay of marble is complex, an interaction between disolution, crack-corrosion, and expansion-contraction cycies triggered by the release of residual stresses. Thin spalls of granites commonly found near the street level of buildings are generally caused by a combination of stress relief and salt action. To study and determine weathering rates of a variety of commercial stones, the National Bureau of Standards erected a Stone Exposure Test Wall in 1948. Of the many types of stone represented, only a few fossiliferous limestones permit a valid measurement of surface reduction in a polluted urban environment.

  19. Developing a stone database for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Benjamin W; Noble, Jeremy G; Reynard, John M

    2011-09-01

    Our objective was to design an intranet-based database to streamline stone patient management and data collection. The system developers used a rapid development approach that removed the need for laborious and unnecessary documentation, instead focusing on producing a rapid prototype that could then be altered iteratively. By using open source development software and website best practice, the development cost was kept very low in comparison with traditional clinical applications. Information about each patient episode can be entered via a user-friendly interface. The bespoke electronic stone database removes the need for handwritten notes, dictation, and typing. From the database, files may be automatically generated for clinic letters, operation notes. and letters to family doctors. These may be printed or e-mailed from the database. Data may be easily exported for audits, coding, and research. Data collection remains central to medical practice, to improve patient safety, to analyze medical and surgical outcomes, and to evaluate emerging treatments. Establishing prospective data collection is crucial to this process. In the current era, we have the opportunity to embrace available technology to facilitate this process. The database template could be modified for use in other clinics. The database that we have designed helps to provide a modern and efficient clinical stone service.

  20. Recent advances in the preparation and application of monolithic capillary columns in separation science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Tingting; Yang, Xi; Xu, Yujing; Ji, Yibing

    2016-01-01

    Novel column technologies involving various materials and efficient reactions have been investigated for the fabrication of monolithic capillary columns in the field of analytical chemistry. In addition to the development of these miniaturized systems, a variety of microscale separation applications have achieved noteworthy results, providing a stepping stone for new types of chromatographic columns with improved efficiency and selectivity. Three novel strategies for the preparation of capillary monoliths, including ionic liquid-based approaches, nanoparticle-based approaches and “click chemistry”, are highlighted in this review. Furthermore, we present the employment of state-of-the-art capillary monolithic stationary phases for enantioseparation, solid-phase microextraction, mixed-mode separation and immobilized enzyme reactors. The review concludes with recommendations for future studies and improvements in this field of research. - Highlights: • Preparation of novel monolithic capillary columns have shown powerful potential in analytical chemistry field. • Various materials including ionic liquids and nanoparticles involved into capillary monolithic micro-devices are concluded. • Click chemistry strategy applied for preparing monolithic capillary columns is reviewed. • Recent strategies utilized in constructing different capillary monoliths for enantiomeric separation are summarized. • Advancement of capillary monoliths for complex samples analysis is comprehensively described.

  1. Recent advances in the preparation and application of monolithic capillary columns in separation science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tingting; Yang, Xi; Xu, Yujing [Department of Analytical Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009 (China); Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, 210009 (China); Ji, Yibing, E-mail: jiyibing@msn.com [Department of Analytical Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009 (China); Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, 210009 (China)

    2016-08-10

    Novel column technologies involving various materials and efficient reactions have been investigated for the fabrication of monolithic capillary columns in the field of analytical chemistry. In addition to the development of these miniaturized systems, a variety of microscale separation applications have achieved noteworthy results, providing a stepping stone for new types of chromatographic columns with improved efficiency and selectivity. Three novel strategies for the preparation of capillary monoliths, including ionic liquid-based approaches, nanoparticle-based approaches and “click chemistry”, are highlighted in this review. Furthermore, we present the employment of state-of-the-art capillary monolithic stationary phases for enantioseparation, solid-phase microextraction, mixed-mode separation and immobilized enzyme reactors. The review concludes with recommendations for future studies and improvements in this field of research. - Highlights: • Preparation of novel monolithic capillary columns have shown powerful potential in analytical chemistry field. • Various materials including ionic liquids and nanoparticles involved into capillary monolithic micro-devices are concluded. • Click chemistry strategy applied for preparing monolithic capillary columns is reviewed. • Recent strategies utilized in constructing different capillary monoliths for enantiomeric separation are summarized. • Advancement of capillary monoliths for complex samples analysis is comprehensively described.

  2. Modeling of column apparatus processes

    CERN Document Server

    Boyadjiev, Christo; Boyadjiev, Boyan; Popova-Krumova, Petya

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new approach for the modeling of chemical and interphase mass transfer processes in industrial column apparatuses, using convection-diffusion and average-concentration models. The convection-diffusion type models are used for a qualitative analysis of the processes and to assess the main, small and slight physical effects, and then reject the slight effects. As a result, the process mechanism can be identified. It also introduces average concentration models for quantitative analysis, which use the average values of the velocity and concentration over the cross-sectional area of the column. The new models are used to analyze different processes (simple and complex chemical reactions, absorption, adsorption and catalytic reactions), and make it possible to model the processes of gas purification with sulfur dioxide, which form the basis of several patents.

  3. Studies of column supported towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvel, D.; Costaz, J.-L.

    1991-01-01

    As a result of a research and development programme into the civil engineering of cooling towers launched in 1978 by Electricite de France, very high cooling towers were built at Golfech and Chooz, in France, using column supports. This paper discusses the evolution of this new type of support from classical diagonal supports, presents some of the results of design calculations and survey measurements taken during construction of the shell and analyses the behaviour of the structure. (author)

  4. SPEEDUPtrademark ion exchange column model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, T.

    2000-01-01

    A transient model to describe the process of loading a solute onto the granular fixed bed in an ion exchange (IX) column has been developed using the SpeedUptrademark software package. SpeedUp offers the advantage of smooth integration into other existing SpeedUp flowsheet models. The mathematical algorithm of a porous particle diffusion model was adopted to account for convection, axial dispersion, film mass transfer, and pore diffusion. The method of orthogonal collocation on finite elements was employed to solve the governing transport equations. The model allows the use of a non-linear Langmuir isotherm based on an effective binary ionic exchange process. The SpeedUp column model was tested by comparing to the analytical solutions of three transport problems from the ion exchange literature. In addition, a sample calculation of a train of three crystalline silicotitanate (CST) IX columns in series was made using both the SpeedUp model and Purdue University's VERSE-LC code. All test cases showed excellent agreement between the SpeedUp model results and the test data. The model can be readily used for SuperLigtrademark ion exchange resins, once the experimental data are complete

  5. Efficacy of surgical techniques and factors affecting residual stone rate in the treatment of kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Hüseyin; Budak, Salih; Kumsar, Şükrü; Köse, Osman; Sağlam, Hasan Salih; Adsan, Öztuğ

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate, the efficacy of surgical methods and the factors affecting the residual stone rate by scrutinizing retrospectively the patients who had undergone renal stone surgery. Records of 109 cases of kidney stones who had been surgically treated between January 2010, and July 2013 were reviewed. Patients were divided into three groups in terms of surgical treatment; open stone surgery, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). Patients' history, physical examination, biochemical and radiological images and operative and postoperative data were recorded. The patients had undergone PNL (n=74; 67.9%), RIRS (n=22;20.2%), and open renal surgery (n=13; 11.9%). The mean and median ages of the patients were 46±9, 41 (21-75) and, 42 (23-67) years, respectively. The mean stone burden was 2.6±0.7 cm(2) in the PNL, 1.4±0.1 cm(2) in the RIRS, and 3.1±0.9 cm(2) in the open surgery groups. The mean operative times were 126±24 min in the PNL group, 72±12 min in the RIRS group and 82±22 min in the open surgery group. The duration of hospitalisation was 3.1±0.2 days, 1.2±0.3 days and 3.4±1.1 days respectively. While the RIRS group did not need blood transfusion, in the PNL group blood transfusions were given in the PNL (n=18), and open surgery (n=2) groups. Residual stones were detected in the PNL (n=22), open surgery (n=2), and RIRS (n=5) groups. PNL and RIRS have been seen as safe and effective methods in our self application too. However, it should not be forgotten that as a basical method, open surgery may be needed in cases of necessity.

  6. Melting behaviour of raw materials and recycled stone wool waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Falk, Vickie; Agersted, Karsten; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2018-01-01

    Stone wool is a widely used material for building insulation, to provide thermal comfort along with fire stability and acoustic comfort for all types of buildings. Stone wool waste generated either during production or during renovation or demolition of buildings can be recycled back into the sto...... wool melt production. This study investigates and compares the thermal response and melting behaviour of a conventional stone wool charge and stone wool waste. The study combines differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hot stage microscopy (HSM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). DSC reveals...... that the conventional charge and stone wool waste have fundamentally different thermal responses, where the charge experiences gas release, phase transition and melting of the individual raw materials. The stone wool waste experiences glass transition, crystallization and finally melting. Both DSC and HSM measurements...

  7. [Usefullness of the StoneBreaker lithotripter for percutaneous nephrolithotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Peso, Almudena Coloma; González, Inmaculada Fernández; Gálvez, Milagros Jiménez; Abad, Pablo Garrido; Fajardo, Gloria Bocardo; Fernández, Luis Miguel Herranz; Arjona, Manuel Fernández; Torres, Lorenzo Herrero; Sanz, Ignacio Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Throughout the history, many devices have been used for breaking urinary tract stones. StoneBreaker (LMA Urology, Gland, Switzerland) is a second generation of intracorporeal lithotripter, pneumatic and portable, which adds several new advantages, like effectiveness in stone fragmentation and easy handling, very useful during percutaneous lithotripsy. We report the case of a 40 year-old male patient, with a left kidney pyelic lithiasis, who was treated by percutaneous lithotripsy, under general anaesthesia, with StoneBreaker (LMA Urology, Gland, Switzerland) as lithotripter. StoneBreaker (LMA Urology, Gland, Switzerland) is a lithotripter usable with rigid and semirigid ureteroscopes, much more powerful than its predecessors. It is able to decrease the number of shocks necessary for stone fragmentation, without bigger tissue reaction. It also has a more comfortable design due to the absence of connections, and its power by replaceable carbon dioxide cartridges.

  8. Factors affecting lower calyceal stone clearance after Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Azab

    2013-03-01

    Conclusions: There is no statistically significant effect of stone size, anatomy of the lower calyx and BMI on stone clearance after ESWL of lower calyceal stones. However, small stone size (≤2 cm, a shorter and wider infundibulum and a larger lower-pole infundibulopelvic angle seem to promote a more rapid and more complete stone clearance.

  9. Peculiarities of the High-Level Concrete-Encased Radwaste Repository Disposition at the Radwaste Disposal Site of the Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.G.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Gorodetsky, G.G.; Zverkov, Yu.A.; Ivanov, O.P.; Lemus, A.V.; Semenov, S.G.; Stepanov, V.E.; Chesnokov, A.V.; Shisha, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents peculiarities of organization and performance of activities on disposition of the old repository that contained high-level waste and located at the radwaste disposal site of the Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute' in Moscow. The repository was constructed in the late 1950's. A large number of cases with high-level waste were placed in the repository along with low- and intermediate-level waste. When the repository was filled in 1973, the entire radwaste mass was encased in concrete matrix which caused difficulties with the radwaste extraction and made the work on the repository disposition highly hazardous in terms of radiation conditions. Based on results of the preliminary radiation survey of the repository, technologies and equipment to be used in disposition works were selected, and a decision on construction of external radiation shielding around the repository to maintain normal radiation conditions during these works was made. Specific features of the selected radiation shielding design constructed around the repository and of a technology used for the radwaste extraction from the repository are provided. According to the technology, conventional construction machines equipped with a hydraulic hammer or a clamshell were used for destruction of the concrete-encased radwaste mass and extraction of low-level waste. Intermediate- and high-level waste was extracted by remotely controlled robots operating inside the radiation shielding structure. Video cameras and a gamma imager were used for detection of high-level waste or fragments of such radwaste in the mass concrete being destroyed and for guiding remotely controlled robots. Peculiarities of rapid control of changes in radiation conditions in the working areas are presented. This control was performed using a gamma locator with on-line transmission of its data to a PC for their processing. With disposition of this not easily accessible repository, the stage of remediation of old

  10. Quantifying the Use of stones in the stone age Fireplaces of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Sikk, Kaarel

    2017-01-01

    Fireplaces and burnt stones related to them are common features found at Stone Age settlement sites. Although information about them is present in archaeological reports and also available in publications, there has been no general research done regarding combustion features specifically. The purpose of this study was to fill the gap of relevant research and to test the hypothesis that the structural features of fireplaces reveal information on the subsistence model of settlements.The study is b...

  11. Two generalizations of column-convex polygons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, Svjetlan; Guttmann, Anthony J

    2009-01-01

    Column-convex polygons were first counted by area several decades ago, and the result was found to be a simple, rational, generating function. In this work we generalize that result. Let a p-column polyomino be a polyomino whose columns can have 1, 2, ..., p connected components. Then column-convex polygons are equivalent to 1-convex polyominoes. The area generating function of even the simplest generalization, namely 2-column polyominoes, is unlikely to be solvable. We therefore define two classes of polyominoes which interpolate between column-convex polygons and 2-column polyominoes. We derive the area generating functions of those two classes, using extensions of existing algorithms. The growth constants of both classes are greater than the growth constant of column-convex polyominoes. Rather tight lower bounds on the growth constants complement a comprehensive asymptotic analysis.

  12. Analysis of kidney stones by PIXE and RBS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkofai, M.M.; Hallak, A.B.

    1995-01-01

    Human kidney stones were analyzed by PIXE and RBS techniques using 2 MeV He ++ beam. The stones were found to contain the elements: C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe and Br. Results obtained by PIXE agree with the results obtained by RBS within experimental errors. A Mechanism for the formation of the kidney stones is suggested. 3 figs., 1 tab

  13. Strength Improvement of Clay Soil by Using Stone Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Sameer Abdulrasool

    2015-01-01

    Soil stabilization with stone powder is a good solution for the construction of subgrade for road way and railway lines, especially under the platforms and mostly in transition zones between embankments and rigid structures, where the mechanical properties of supporting soils are very influential. Stone powder often has a unique composition which justifies the need for research to study the feasibility of using this stone powder type for ground improvement applications. This paper presents re...

  14. Accuracy of endoscopic intraoperative assessment of urologic stone size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nishant; Chew, Ben; Knudsen, Bodo; Lipkin, Michael; Wenzler, David; Sur, Roger L

    2014-05-01

    Endoscopic treatment of renal calculi relies on surgeon assessment of residual stone fragment size for either basket removal or for the passage of fragments postoperatively. We therefore sought to determine the accuracy of endoscopic assessment of renal calculi size. Between January and May 2013, five board-certified endourologists participated in an ex vivo artificial endoscopic simulation. A total of 10 stones (pebbles) were measured (mm) by nonparticipating urologist (N.D.P.) with electronic calibers and placed into separate labeled opaque test tubes to prevent visualization of the stones through the side of the tube. Endourologists were blinded to the actual size of the stones. A flexible digital ureteroscope with a 200-μm core sized laser fiber in the working channel as a size reference was placed through the ureteroscope into the test tube to estimate the stone size (mm). Accuracy was determined by obtaining the correlation coefficient (r) and constructing an Altman-Bland plot. Endourologists tended to overestimate actual stone size by a margin of 0.05 mm. The Pearson correlation coefficient was r=0.924, with a p-valuestones (stones (≥4 mm), r=0.911 vs r=0.666. Altman-bland plot analysis suggests that surgeons are able to accurately estimate stone size within a range of -1.8 to +1.9 mm. This ex vivo simulation study demonstrates that endoscopic assessment is reliable when assessing stone size. On average, there was a slight tendency to overestimate stone size by 0.05 mm. Most endourologists could visually estimate stone size within 2 mm of the actual size. These findings could be generalized to state that endourologists are accurately able to intraoperatively assess residual stone fragment size to guide decision making.

  15. Analysis of kidney stones by PIXE and RBS techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkofai, M M [Physics Dept., Yarmouk University, Irbid, (Jordan); Hallak, A B [Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, (Saudi Arabia)

    1995-10-01

    Human kidney stones were analyzed by PIXE and RBS techniques using 2 MeV He{sup ++} beam. The stones were found to contain the elements: C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe and Br. Results obtained by PIXE agree with the results obtained by RBS within experimental errors. A Mechanism for the formation of the kidney stones is suggested. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Can ureteral stones cause pain without causing hydronephrosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; Hernandez, Natalia; Gee, Michael S; Noble, Vicki E; Eisner, Brian H

    2016-09-01

    While computerized tomography (CT) is the gold standard for diagnosis of ureterolithiasis, ultrasound is a less costly and radiation-free alternative which is commonly used to evaluate patients with ureteral colic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency with which patients with ureteral stones and renal colic demonstrate hydronephrosis in order to better understand the evaluation of these patients. Two hundred and forty-eight consecutive patients presenting with ureteral colic and diagnosed with a single unilateral ureteral stone on CT scan in an urban tertiary care emergency department were retrospectively reviewed. Radiology reports were reviewed for stone size, diagnosis, and degree of hydronephrosis. Of the 248 patients evaluated for suspected ureteral stone, 221 (89.1 %) demonstrated any hydronephrosis, while 27 (10.9 %) did not. Hydronephrosis grade, available in 194 patients, was as follows: mild-70.6 %, moderate-27.8 %, and severe-1.5 %. Mean patient age was 47.0 years (SD 15.5), gender distribution was 35.9 % female and 64.1 % male, and mean stone axial diameter was 4.1 mm (SD 2.4). Stone location was as follows: ureteropelvic junction-4.1 %, proximal ureter-21 %, distal ureter-24.9 %, and ureterovesical junction-47.1 %. Axial stone diameter and coronal length (craniocaudal) were both significant predictors of degree of hydronephrosis (ANOVA, p hydronephrosis. In patients with ureteral stones and colic, nearly 11 % do not demonstrate any hydronephrosis and a majority (nearly 71 %) will demonstrate only mild hydronephrosis. Stone diameter appears to be related to degree of hydronephrosis, whereas age, gender, and stone location are not. The lower incidence of hydronephrosis for small stones causing renal colic may explain the lower diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound when compared to CT for detecting ureteral stones.

  17. Stability of Reshaping Breakwaters with Special Reference to Stone Durability

    OpenAIRE

    Frigaard, Peter; Hald, Tue; Burcharth, H. F.; Sigurdarson, S.

    1998-01-01

    Traditionally, conventional rubble mound breakwaters are designed with stable armour units, and consequently, very large stones or even artificial armour units are required. Reshaping breakwater designs allow reshaping of the seward slope thus involving stone movements. Ultimately, dependent on the degree of safety in the design, this reshaping process might end up in a stable profile where no changes in the cross sections occur even though stone movements are allowed.Unfortunately, large mov...

  18. EVALUATION OF CONSISTENCY AND SETTING TIME OF IRANIAN DENTAL STONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F GOL BIDI

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dental stones are widely used in dentistry and the success or failure of many dental treatments depend on the accuracy of these gypsums. The purpose of this study was the evaluation of Iranian dental stones and comparison between Iranian and foreign ones. In this investigation, consistency and setting time were compared between Pars Dendn, Almas and Hinrizit stones. The latter is accepted by ADA (American Dental Association. Consistency and setting time are 2 of 5 properties that are necessitated by both ADA specification No. 25 and Iranian Standard Organization specification No. 2569 for evaluation of dental stones. Methods. In this study, the number and preparation of specimens and test conditions were done according to the ADA specification No. 25 and all the measurements were done with vicat apparatus. Results. The results of this study showed that the standard consistency of Almas stone was obtained by 42ml water and 100gr powder and the setting time of this stone was 11±0.03 min. Which was with in the limits of ADA specification (12±4 min. The standard consistency of Pars Dandan stone was obrianed by 31ml water and 100 gr powder, but the setting time of this stone was 5± 0.16 min which was nt within the limits of ADA specification. Discussion: Comparison of Iranian and Hinrizit stones properties showed that two probable problems of Iranian stones are:1- Unhemogrnousity of Iranian stoned powder was caused by uncontrolled temperature, pressure and humidity in the production process of stone. 2- Impurities such as sodium chloride was responsible fo shortening of Pars Dendens setting time.

  19. Can Hounsfield Unit Value Predict Type of Urinary Stones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Gok

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Aim of this study is to determine the role of Hounsfield unit (HU in predicting results of stone analysis. Material and Method: This study included 199 patients to whom percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL procedures were applied between January 2008 and May 2011 in our clinic. Before the procedure HU values of kidney stones were measured using non-contrast computed tomography. After the operation, obtained stone samples were analysed using X-ray diffraction technique. HU values were compared with stone analysis results. Results: Stone analysis revealed eight different stone types. Distribution of stone types and HU value ranges were as follows: 85% calcium oxalate monohydrate, 730-1130 HU; 38% calcium oxalate dihydrate, 510-810 HU; 21% uric acid, 320-550 HU; 23% struvite, 614-870 HU; 7% calcium hydrogene phosphate, 1100-1365 HU; 3% cystine, 630-674 HU; 15% mixed uric acid plus calcium oxalate, 499-840 HU; and 7% mixed cystine plus calcium phosphate, 430-520 HU. HU values of all stone types ranged between 320 and 1365. There was a statistically significant relation between HU values of uric acid and non uric acid stones (p

  20. Uric acid stones increase the risk of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ching-Chia; Chien, Tsu-Ming; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Huang, Chun-Nung; Chou, Yii-Her

    2018-02-28

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics of uric acid stones and their potential risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD). A total of 401 patients (196 with uric acid stone and 205 without) were enrolled from our database of patients with urolithiasis. We analyzed the clinical demographic features, stone location, urine chemistries, and renal function. There was a significant difference (p uric acid group. Patients with uric acid stones had much lower pH of urine (p uric acid level (p = 0.002). Notably, those with uric acid stones had worse eGFR than those with non-uric acid stones. Multivariate analysis confirmed that age over 60 years (ORs = 9.19; 95% CI 3.5-24.3), female sex (ORs = 4.01; 95% CI 1.8-9.0), hyperuricemia (ORs = 8.47; 95% CI 1.6-43.5), and uric acid stone (OR = 2.86; 95% CI 1.2-6.7) were the independent predictors of poor prognoses in CKD. Therefore, an association exists between uric acid stones and higher prevalence of CKD. Patients with uric acid stones may need close monitoring of renal function during follow-up.

  1. Regional and detailed research studies for stone resources in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report consists of 6 subjects. 1) A study on the potentiality of building stone development from granite mass within Pocheon area, Kyeonggi Province. 2) The research on the variance of color and glossiness by means of Weather-Ometer. 3) Regional research studies on granites in Gimje-Yeonggwang area. 4) A study on the industrialization of building stones and industrial stone crafts - Study on the causes of stone weathering. 5) Borehole radar survey at the granite quarry mine, Pocheon, Kyounggi province. 6) Borehole radar diffraction tomography. (author). refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Mold attack on frescoes and stone walls of Gradac monastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupar Miloš Č.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microfungi can colonize stone surfaces and form sub-aerial biofilms which can lead to biodeterioration of historic monuments. In this investigation samples for mycological analyses were collected from stone material with visible alteration on stone walls of Gradac monastery exterior. The prevailing fungi found on stone walls were dematiaceous hyphomycetes with melanized hyphae and reproductive structures (Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium and Epicoccum species. The frescoes inside the monastery building were also analyzed for the presence of mycobiota. The predominant fungi found on frescoes were osmophilic species from genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. The significant result is identification of human pathogen species Aspergillus fumigatus on frescoes.

  3. Novelda Stone: widely used within the Spanish architectural heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Fort, R.; Bernabeu, A.; García del Cura, M. A.; López de Azcona, M. C.; Ordóñez, S.; Mingarro, F.

    2002-01-01

    Novelda Stone is a calcareous rock, of the biocalcarenite type. It is extracted from the «Vinalopó Medio» area (Alicante, eastern Spain). Novelda stone is known as construction material from the 13th century. From final of the 19th century until the present time, it has been used in Madrid, Valencia and Alicante. In the past, the main quarries from which this type of rock was extracted were located in the municipal districts of Monóvar (Almorquí Stone), Sax (Portazgo Stone) and Elda (Bateig S...

  4. Strength Improvement of Clay Soil by Using Stone Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Sameer Abdulrasool

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil stabilization with stone powder is a good solution for the construction of subgrade for road way and railway lines, especially under the platforms and mostly in transition zones between embankments and rigid structures, where the mechanical properties of supporting soils are very influential. Stone powder often has a unique composition which justifies the need for research to study the feasibility of using this stone powder type for ground improvement applications. This paper presents results from a comprehensive laboratory study carried out to investigate the feasibility of using stone powder for improvement of engineering properties of clays. The stone powder contains bassanite (CaSO4. ½ H2O, and Calcite (CaCO3. Three percentages are used for stone powder (1%, 3% and 5% by dry weight of clay. Several tests are made to investigate the soil behavior after adding the stone powder (Atterberg limits, Standard Proctor density, Grain size distribution, Specific gravity, Unconfined Compressive test, and California bearing ratio test. Unconfined Compressive tests conducted at different curing. The samples are tested under both soaked and unsoaked condition. Chemical tests and X-ray diffraction analyses are also carried out. Stone powder reacts with clay producing decreasing in plasticity and The curves of grain size distribution are shifted to the coarse side as the stone powder percentage increase; the soil becomes more granular, and also with higher strength.

  5. Effectiveness of Treatment Modalities on Kidney Stone Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisman, Anna L

    2017-10-06

    Nephrolithiasis is highly prevalent across all demographic groups in the Western world and beyond, and its incidence rates are rising. In addition to the morbidity of the acute event, stone disease often becomes a lifelong problem that requires preventative therapy to diminish ongoing morbidity. Across the majority of stone types, increased fluid intake and targeted dietary modifications are mainstays of therapy. Specific dietary interventions associated with reduced calcium stone risk include adequate dietary calcium intake and restriction of sodium, protein, and oxalate intake, among others. Pharmaceutical therapy may be required if lifestyle changes are insufficient to minimize risk of stone recurrence, and must be targeted to the specific metabolic abnormalities portending risk for a given patient. Therapeutic options for idiopathic calcium stone disease include thiazides, citrate salts, and uric acid-lowering agents. Alkali salts are also the treatment of choice for uric acid stone disease. Management of struvite stone disease is largely surgical, but acetohydroxamic acid is a proven second line therapy. Cystinuria requires lifestyle modifications and may call for thiol-binding agents. Significant heterogeneity of the clinical population with stone disease has previously limited opportunities for large randomized controlled trials. However, as clinical phenotypes and genotypes are increasingly clarified, there are mounting opportunities for targeted randomized controlled trials in stone prevention. In the meantime, the currently available evidence for both lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions is reviewed herein. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  6. Dietary supplementation with olive stone meal in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive stone meal is a low-digested fibre source potentially useful in the prevention of digestive troubles in growing rabbit permitting a better balance of dietary fibre fractions. To evaluate its efficacy, three experimental diets containing 0, 3 or 6% olive stone meal were fed to 222 rabbits from weaning (28 d to slaughter (73 d. Olive stone inclusion increased the proportion of large dietary particles while did not affect growth performance, digestive physiology and carcass and meat quality. Due to optimum health status observed in all experimental groups, the preventive action of olive stone meal against the occurrence of digestive troubles was not proven.

  7. Screening renal stone formers for distal renal tubular acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    A group of 110 consecutive renal stone formers were screened for distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) using morning fasting urinary pH (mfUpH) levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in patients with levels above 6.0. In 14 patients (12.7%) a renal acidification defect was noted...... RTA in renal stone formers. Regardless of whether the acidification defect is primary or secondary to stone formation, however, all renal stone formers with distal RTA can expect to benefit from prophylactic alkaline therapy and it is recommended that the screening procedure, which is easy to use...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.755 - Column anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Column anchorage. 1926.755 Section 1926.755 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.755 Column anchorage. (a) General requirements for erection stability. (1) All columns shall be anchored by a minimum of 4 anchor...

  9. Adsorption columns for use in radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Adsorption columns are provided which can be utilized in radioimmunoassay systems such as those involving the separation of antibody-antigen complexes from free antigens. The preparation of the columns includes the treatment of retaining substrate material to render it hydrophilic, preparation and degassing of the separation material and loading the column

  10. Thermal process of an air column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, F.T.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal process of a hot air column is discussed based on laws of thermodynamics. The kinetic motion of the air mass in the column can be used as a power generator. Alternatively, the column can also function as a exhaust/cooler

  11. Unravelling ground stone life histories: the spatial organization of stone tools and human activities at LN Makriyalos, Greece:

    OpenAIRE

    Tsoraki, Christina

    2007-01-01

    Unlike previous studies of ground stone technology in the Greek Neolithic, this paper follows a more contextualised approach by looking at contexts of deposition of ground stone from Late Neolithic Makriyalos, Northern Greece. The patterns attested in the distribution of ground stone objects between domestic and communal areas will be discussed in terms of the spatial and social contexts of tool use, curation and deposition, contributing to wider discussions about the way acts of production, ...

  12. N/S/B-doped graphitized carbon encased Fe species as a highly active and durable catalyst towards oxygen reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-Lan; Cheng, Guang-Chun; Chen, Wen-Wen; Liu, Cai-Di; Yuan, Li-Fang; Yang, Bei-Bei; Hao, Ce

    2018-03-15

    Exploring cost-effective, high-performance and durable non-precious metal catalysts is of great significance for the acceleration of sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Here, we report an intriguing heteroatom-doped graphitized carbon encased Fe species composite by introducing N, S and B sequentially. The experimental approach was designed ingeniously for that the FeCl 3 ·6H 2 O could catalyze thiourea to synthesize N, S co-doped carbon materials which would further react with H 3 BO 3 and NH 3 (emerged at the heat-treatment process) to prepare N, S and B co-doped carbon materials (Fe-N/S/B-C). The Fe-N/S/B-C exhibits an impressive ORR activity for its half-wave potential of -0.1 V, which is 36 mV or 19 mV higher than that of the corresponding single or dual doped counterparts (Fe-N-C or Fe-N/S-C) and 31 mV positive than that of Pt/C catalyst, respectively. Further chronoamperometric measurement and accelerated aging test confirm the excellent electrochemical durability of Fe-N/S/B-C with the stable core-shell structure. The remarkable ORR performance and facile preparation method enable Fe-N/S/B-C as a potential candidate in electrochemical energy devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Humidity sorption on natural building stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, C.; Mirwald, P.

    2003-04-01

    processes, physical, chemical or biological, depend on the presence of water. Like most porous materials building stone respond on humidity by water uptake. The sorption isotherm represents the equilibrium moisture, specific for each material. The determination of the isotherm for stone of low and small porosity like marble is difficult. With the help of a newly developed water sorption analysis chamber [2], which allows the simultaneous measurement of 11 samples, good results on stone/rock samples have been obtained. Even at marble species with pore volumes lower than 0.4 % isotherms are measured. This analytical method offers new insights in the pore behaviour of low porosity materials. The advantages of this technique which supplements other techniques (e.g. BET, Hg-porosimetry) are: i) the testing agent is identical to the weathering agent, water; ii) the atmospheric parameters at the measurement reflect the natural conditions - thus no changes to the material properties have to be considered; iii) due to the small diameter of the water molecule (~0.28 nm), smaller pores are reached than e.g. with N2 (~0.31 nm). Sorption isotherms of sandstone (Baumberg, Obernkirchen, Groeden), granite (Brixen), and marble (Sterzing, Laas) are presented. Particular as to marbles the resolution is considerably higher. A previously observed negative hysteresis [3] seems an effect due to limited data resolution. [1] Snethlage, R. (1984) Steinkonservierung, Bayer. LA Denkmalpflege, Ah. 22, 203 S. [2] Griesser, U.J., Dillenz, J. (2002) Neuartiges, vollautomatisches Feuchtesorptionsprüfgerät mit hohem Probendurchsatz, Feuchtetag 2002, Weimar, 85-93. [3] Fimmel, R. (1996) Verwitterungsverhalten der alpinen Marmore von Laas und Sterzing, Diss. Univ. Ibk, 116 S.

  14. Comparison of Different Methods of Denim Stone Washing by Pumice Stone, Acid Cellulases and Neutral Cellulases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Montazer

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Denim is a casual garment normally used by young people and extremely influential in shaping the fashion industry. Among various garments, these garments are subjected to innovations. This work is an attempt to compare the different methods of stone washing using pumice stones, acid cellulases and neutral cellulases or in combination of these methods. The effects of different processing conditions on the garment are compared and reported. Color differences of samples are probed by reflective colorimeter on the front side as well as the backside and also the white pocket of the garment.The abrasion resistance, tensile strength and crease recovery angle of samples are also reported. The XRD spectra are used to calculate the crystalline degrees of the selected samples. Moreover, fiber surfaces of some treated samples have been observed by SEM. The results indicate that treatment of denim with pumice stone with equal weight of garment causes a small color differences. The addition of cellulases to the washing, however, accelerates the color fading. Also, lower staining observed on the white pocket when the garment was treated with cellulases. However, the neutralcellulases increase the garment fading and decrease the staining on the white pocket. It is also observed that pumice stone with cellulases damages the fabric surface, although it is of a minimal damage.

  15. Building stones from a muddy delta: Native natural stone from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Dubelaar, C.W.; Tolboom, H.J.; Hees, R.P.J. van

    2006-01-01

    Most of the Netherlands a Quaternary delta, local supplies of natural stone suitable for building are rare. These include: Quaternary bog iron ores used in early medieval times (until c. 1200); erratics, deposited in boulder clay during the Saalian ice age in the northern Netherlands and gravel from

  16. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy for the treatment of radiolucent renal stones in children: is it different opaque stone treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adanur, Şenol; Ziypak, Tevfik; Sancaktutar, Ahmet Ali; Tepeler, Abdülkadir; Reşorlu, Berkan; Söylemez, Haluk; Dağgülli, Mansur; Özbey, İsa; Unsal, Ali

    2014-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), stone-free rates, and related complications in children with radiolucent renal stones. A total of 56 patients aged auxillary treatment method was detected as 94.6%. The total complication rate was 19.6% (11 patients). No adjacent organ injury was observed. All of the complications that occurred were minor according to the Clavien classification (Clavien Grades I-II). PNL can be applied to radiolucent pediatric renal stones in children with similar success, and complication rates as noted for radiopaque stones.

  17. George Chester Stone (1924-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    George Chester Stone was born February 21, 1924, and died on July 13, 2013. A quiet revolutionary, George was a founder of the field of health psychology. George played critical roles conceptualizing the field of health psychology, charting its bounds and potential, promulgating guidelines for training, founding the first doctoral program in health psychology, editing influential volumes defining the new field, launching the flagship journal for the field, and establishing a home for the field within APA. He was able to accomplish all this through his talent for working collaboratively. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Mineral resource of the month: dimension stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolley, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on dimension stone (DS) that are quarried as natural rock for a specific size and dimension chosen for its color, strength, durability. Varieties of metamorphic, igneous or sedimentary rocks are used but DS rocks are mainly marble, granite and slate that can be found from Maine to Alabama in the U.S., in the Carrara District of Italy as well as in Greece, China and Brazil. It also notes the advent of steel and concrete in construction that ceased the use of DS.

  19. Stone's representation theorem in fuzzy topology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘应明; 张德学

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a complete solution to the problem of Stone's repesentation theorem in fuzzy topology is given for a class of completely distributive lattices. Precisely, it is proved that if L is a frame such that 0 ∈ L is a prime or 1 ∈ L is a coprime, then the category of distributive lattices is dually equivalent to the category of coherent L-locales and that if L is moreover completely distributive, then the category of distributive lattices is dually equivalent to the category of coherent stratified L-topological spaces.

  20. Stone anchors from Minicoy Island, Lakshadweep, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    and Ali Rajas of Kerala. It appears that the mainland had contact with these islands during the early centuries of the Christian era, if not earlier (Sila Tripati, 1999). Though Islam came to Lakshadweep after the 11th and 12th centuries AD..., stitches, ropes and even sails (Hourani, 1995). With the passage of time the maritime contacts between the people of Lakshadweep and Arabs became closer, as demonstrated by the discovery of an Indo- 3 Arabian stone anchor in the Jama Mosque on Minicoy...

  1. Towards the Rosetta Stone of planet formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt T.O.B.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transiting exoplanets (TEPs observed just ~10 Myrs after formation of their host systems may serve as the Rosetta Stone for planet formation theories. They would give strong constraints on several aspects of planet formation, e.g. time-scales (planet formation would then be possible within 10 Myrs, the radius of the planet could indicate whether planets form by gravitational collapse (being larger when young or accretion growth (being smaller when young. We present a survey, the main goal of which is to find and then characterise TEPs in very young open clusters.

  2. Anatomical factors predicting lower calyceal stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khan

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: This study shows that lower infundibular length and width are significant anatomical factors in determining stone clearance following ESWL treatment of lower calyceal stones and these should be assessed before planning the treatment for lower calyceal stones.

  3. The composition of urinary stones in central sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, J.M.; Naqvi, S.Q.H.

    2014-01-01

    To determine chemical analysis of urinary stones of central sindh. Study design: Prospective and randomized study. Setting: Department of Surgery and Pathology of Peoples University of Medical and Health Sciences Nawabshah. Duration of study: Three years from May 2008 to May 2011. Material and Methods: Total 106 urolith patients who underwent open stone surgery were included in the study. EDTA Titration used for determination of calcium ions and determination of oxalate, phosphate, magnesium, ammonia, uric acid and cystine stones was carried out using spectrophotometer. These patients were asked to fill out a proforma with parameters of age, sex, radiological location of stone and chemical composition of surgically recovered stones. The stone analysis findings were reviewed and compared with other reported series Results: In this study 75(70.75%) patients were male and 31 (29.25%) female. Male to female ratio was of 2.41:1. The age ranged from 1 to 70 years with the mean of 22.69 years. The peak incidence of upper urinary tract stone in 20-30 years and lower urinary tract stones in both sexes was under 10 years. Anatomical location of stone showed 48(45.29%) renal, 13(12.26%) ureteric and 45(42.45%) bladder calculi. Chemical analysis revealed 56(52.8%) calcium oxalate, 7(6.6%) calcium phosphate, 11(10.3%) ammonium urate, 18(16.9%) uric acid, 13(12.2%) Sturvite and 1(0.9%) cystine calculi. Conclusion: It was concluded that urolithiasis is predominantly male disease. No age group was spared to stone disease. Calcium oxalate, uric acid, ammonium urate and mixed calculi are the main types in our study due to poor nutritional status, poverty and inadequate health facilities. Considering that knowledge of stone composition is of utmost importance to modify the incidence of urolithiasis. (author)

  4. Prevalence of renal uric acid stones in the adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto; Montanari, Emanuele

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate uric acid renal stone prevalence rates of adults in different countries of the world. PubMed was searched for papers dealing with "urinary calculi and prevalence or composition" for the period from January 1996 to June 2016. Alternative searches were made to collect further information on specific topics. The prevalence rate of uric acid stones was computed by the general renal stone prevalence rate and the frequency of uric acid stones in each country. After the initial search, 2180 papers were extracted. Out of them, 79 papers were selected after the reading of the titles and of the abstracts. For ten countries, papers relating to both the renal stone prevalence in the general population and the frequency of uric stones were available. Additional search produced 13 papers that completed information on 11 more countries in 5 continents. Estimated prevalence rate of uric acid stones was >0.75% in Thailand, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Iran, South Africa (white population), United States and Australia; ranged 0.50-0.75% in Turkey, Israel, Italy, India (Southern), Spain, Taiwan, Germany, Brazil; and uric acid stone formation. A hot and dry climate increases fluid losses reducing urinary volume and urinary pH. A diet rich in meat protein causes low urinary pH and increased uric acid excretion. On the other hand, uric acid stone formation is frequently associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes type 2 that are linked to dietary energy excess mainly from carbohydrate and saturated fat and also present with low urine pH values. An epidemic of uric acid stone formation could be if current nutritional trends will be maintained both in developed countries and in developing countries and the areas of greater climatic risk for the formation of uric acid stones will enlarge as result of the "global warming".

  5. The Civil Palaces in Gravina street, Alicante: building stones and salt weathering

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, M.; García del Cura, M. A.; Spairani, Y.; de Blas, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a study into the architecture and construction of the 18th Century Civil Palaces located in Gravina street (Provincial Museum of Fine Arts of Alicante), the building stones used and the mineral related decay processes that these materials have suffered. The original building stones and other stones used in subsequent restorations in these Civil Palaces are bioclastic limestones and/or calcarenites (San Julian Stone and Bateig Stone). Campello stone and other limestones ...

  6. Smartphone Sensors for Stone Lithography Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Schirripa Spagnolo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays mobile phones include quality photo and video cameras, access to wireless networks and the internet, GPS assistance and other innovative systems. These facilities open them to innovative uses, other than the classical telephonic communication one. Smartphones are a more sophisticated version of classic mobile phones, which have advanced computing power, memory and connectivity. Because fake lithographs are flooding the art market, in this work, we propose a smartphone as simple, robust and efficient sensor for lithograph authentication. When we buy an artwork object, the seller issues a certificate of authenticity, which contains specific details about the artwork itself. Unscrupulous sellers can duplicate the classic certificates of authenticity, and then use them to “authenticate” non-genuine works of art. In this way, the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the “not original artwork” is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and the related specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this article we propose an innovative method for the authentication of stone lithographs. We use the color spots distribution captured by means of a smartphone camera as a non-cloneable texture of the specific artworks and an information management system for verifying it in mobility stone lithography.

  7. Operational properties of nanomodified stone mastic asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to prolong the lifetime and to improve the quality of pavements made of asphalt concrete it is necessary to apply innovative solutions in the process of design of such building materials. In order to solve the problem of low durability of asphalt concrete a modifier was proposed, which consists of diatomite, iron hydroxide sol (III and silica sol. Application of the diatomite with nanoscale layer of nanomodifier allows getting a stone mastic asphalt, which has high values of physical and mechanical properties and allows refusing from expensive stabilizing additive. Mineral filler was replaced by diatomite, which has been modified by iron hydroxide sol (III and silica sol. Modified diatomite allows sorption of bitumen and increase the cohesive strength and resistance to shear at positive temperatures. The modified asphalt has higher resistance to rutting at high temperature, abrasion resistance at low temperature and impact of climatic factors: alternate freezing and thawing, wetting-drying, UV and IR radiations. It is achieved by formation of solid and dense bitumen film at the phase interface and controlling the content of light fractions of the bitumen. The modifier consists of sol of iron hydroxide, which blocks the oxidation and polymerization of bitumen during operation. The proposed material allows controlling the initial structure formation of stone mastic asphalt. It was shown that modern test methods allow assessing the durability of asphalt in the design phase compositions.

  8. Stone retropulsion during holmium:YAG lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho; Ryan, R Tres; Teichman, Joel M H; Kim, Jeehyun; Choi, Bernard; Arakeri, Navanit V; Welch, A J

    2003-03-01

    We modeled retropulsion during holmium:YAG lithotripsy on the conservation of momentum, whereby the force of ejected fragment debris off of the calculous surface should equal the force of retropulsion displacing the stone. We tested the hypothesis that retropulsion occurs as a result of ejected stone debris. Uniform calculous phantoms were irradiated with holmium:YAG energy in air and in water. Optical fiber diameter and pulse energy were varied. Motion of the phantom was monitored with high speed video imaging. Laser induced crater volume and geometry were characterized by optical coherence tomography. To determine the direction of plume laser burn paper was irradiated at various incident angles. Retropulsion was greater for phantoms irradiated in air versus water. Retropulsion increased as fiber diameter increased and as pulse energy increased (p <0.001). Crater volumes increased as pulse energy increased (p <0.05) and generally increased as fiber diameter increased. Crater geometry was wide and shallow for larger fibers, and narrow and deeper for smaller fibers. The ejected plume propagated in the direction normal to the burn paper surface regardless of the laser incident angle. Retropulsion increases as pulse energy and optical fiber diameter increase. Vector analysis of the ejected plume and crater geometry explains increased retropulsion using larger optical fibers. Holmium:YAG lithotripsy should be performed with small optical fibers to limit retropulsion.

  9. River pollution caused by natural stone industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktriani, Ani; Darmajanti, Linda; Soesilo, Tri Edhi Budhi

    2017-03-01

    The natural stone industry is classified as small industry. Current wastewater treatment still causes pollution in the river. This thesis aims to analyze the performance of wastewater treatment in natural stones industry. The data was collected from water quality test (parameters: temperature, pH, DO, and TSS). The wastewater treatment performance was in a slightly higher position compared to the 2nd class quality standards of Government Regulation No. 82/2001. The parameter that exceeded quality standards was the concentration of TSS, which was up to 240.8 mg/l. The high concentration of TSS was affected by the absence of sludge management schedule, which resulted in non-optimal precipitation. Besides that, the design of sedimentation basin was still not adapted with wastewater debit. Referring to the results, this study suggests the government of Cirebon District to provide wastewater treatment development through the village staff. Furthermore, the government also needs to give strict punishment to business owner who does not treat waste correctly and does not have a business license. Moreover, the sale value of sludge as byproduct of wastewater treatment needs to be increased.

  10. Process of preparing artificial stone from oil-shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-02-10

    A process for the preparation of artificial stone from oil-shale slag is characterized by the fact that the coarse part of the ground slag before working into artificial stone is saturated with water and serves as filler, while the fine part is milled to dust and forms the binding material.

  11. Urinary Exertion Of Calcium By Urinary Stone Disease Patients And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To compare the urinary excretion of calcium by subjects in a known area of high incidence of urinary stone disease, and a known area of low incidence, 12 adult male patients with idiopathic calcigerous urinary stone disease in south-East Nigeria and 55 similar patients from Scotland, United Kingdom were analyzed ...

  12. Effect of Ferrous Additives on Magnesia Stone Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimich, V.

    2017-11-01

    The article deals with the modification of the magnesia binder with additives containing two- and three-valent iron cations which could be embedded in the chloromagnesium stone structure and also increase the strength from 60 MPa in a non-additive stone to 80MPa, water resistance from 0.58 for clear stone to 0.8 and reduce the hygroscopicity from 8% in the non-additive stone to 2% in the modified chloromagnesium stone. It is proposed to use the iron hydroxide sol as an additive in the quantities of up to 1% of the weight of the binder. The studies were carried out using the modern analysis methods: the differentialthermal and X-ray phase analysis. The structure was studied with an electron microscope with an X-ray microanalyzer. A two-factor plan-experiment was designed which allowed constructing mathematical models characterizing the influence of variable factors, such as the density of the zatcher and the amount of sol in the binder, on the basic properties of the magnesian stone. The result of the research was the magnesia stone with the claimed properties and formed from minerals characteristic for magnesian materials as well as additionally formed from amachenite and goethite. It has been established that a highly active iron hydroxide sol the ion sizes of which are commensurate with magnesium ions is actively incorporated into the structure of pentahydroxychloride and magnesium hydroxide changing the habit of crystals compacting the structure of the stone and changing its hygroscopicity.

  13. Stone anchors of India: Findings, classification and significance.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    Various types of stone anchors have been observed during inshore and offshore explorations along the east and west coasts of India. The earliest stone anchors of India have been recorded from the Harappan sites (3rd millennium BC), but their shape...

  14. Durability and Testing of Stone for use in Rubblemound structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magoon, O.T.; Baird, W.F.; Ahrends, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Rubblemound structures protected from wave action by a layer of quarried rock (stones) are the most common form of breakwaters. While extensive guidelines and procedures exist to select the size of stone there is very little information available on procedures to be followed to assure the quality...

  15. Book Review: Stones of Contention: A History of Africa's Diamonds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Book Review: Stones of Contention: A History of Africa's Diamonds. H Smith. Abstract. Stones of Contention: A History of Africa's Diamonds. Author: Todd Cleveland. Ohio University Press: Athens OH, 2014. 225pp ...

  16. Stepping Stones to Evaluating Your Own School Literacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Jeri; Carnahan, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    Stepping Stones to Literacy is a tool for elementary school improvement teams to evaluate and strengthen their reading programs. Each Stepping Stone is a guided activity to stimulate reflection and guide systematic inquiry. It is a collaborative, active research approach to evaluation (Levesque & Hinton 2001). The goal is to eliminate the gap…

  17. Imaging-based logics for ornamental stone quality chart definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Gargiulo, Aldo; Serranti, Silvia; Raspi, Costantino

    2007-02-01

    Ornamental stone products are commercially classified on the market according to several factors related both to intrinsic lythologic characteristics and to their visible pictorial attributes. Sometimes these latter aspects prevail in quality criteria definition and assessment. Pictorial attributes are in any case also influenced by the performed working actions and the utilized tools selected to realize the final stone manufactured product. Stone surface finishing is a critical task because it can contribute to enhance certain aesthetic features of the stone itself. The study was addressed to develop an innovative set of methodologies and techniques able to quantify the aesthetic quality level of stone products taking into account both the physical and the aesthetical characteristics of the stones. In particular, the degree of polishing of the stone surfaces and the presence of defects have been evaluated, applying digital image processing strategies. Morphological and color parameters have been extracted developing specific software architectures. Results showed as the proposed approaches allow to quantify the degree of polishing and to identify surface defects related to the intrinsic characteristics of the stone and/or the performed working actions.

  18. Wave boundary layer over a stone-covered bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixen, Martin; Hatipoglu, Figen; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental investigation on wave boundary layers over a bed with large roughness, simulating stone/rock/armour block cover on the sea bottom. The roughness elements used in the experiments were stones the size of 1.4cm and 3.85cm in one group of experiments...

  19. Transcystic duct treatment of common bile duct stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amberg, J.R.; Chun, G.

    1981-01-01

    Successful removal of 2 retained common bile duct stones following cholecystostomy is described. With the use of the steerable catheter and the wire basket, one stone was crushed and the second was extracted in retrograde fashion through the cystic duct and gallbladder. (orig.)

  20. CASE REPORT: A GIANT URINARY BLADDER STONE IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A vesical calculus weighing more than 100g is categorized as a giant urinary bladder stone. Male preponderance for urinary bladder calculi is well known. A rare case of a giant urinary bladder calculus weighing 1200g and occurring in a female patient is reported. The stone was removed by open vesicolithotomy.

  1. Percutaneous transhepatic cholelithotripsy for difficult common bile duct stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, J G; Moesgaard, F; Grønvall, S

    1998-01-01

    or ureteroscope in ten patients and by stone removal by basket in the remaining four patients. The procedure was carried out using local anesthesia in the last 11 patients. Except for two patients with transient cholangitis, no complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Difficult bile duct and intrahepatic stones can...

  2. Sonographic and radiologic diagnosis of a pancreatic duct stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habscheid, W.; Kulke, H.; Heidbreder, E.

    1986-01-01

    A case is reported in which asymptomatic chronic pancreatitis of initially unknown etiology was detected as result of a routine follow-up examination of a patient with membraneproliferative glomerulonephritis. Ultrasound and endoscopic cholangio-pancreatography detected a stone in the major pancreatic duct. The stone was of such size and irregular form that endoscopic extraction was impossible. (orig.) [de

  3. Sonographic and radiologic diagnosis of a pancreatic duct stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habscheid, W.; Kulke, H.; Heidbreder, E.

    1986-09-01

    A case is reported in which asymptomatic chronic pancreatitis of initially unknown etiology was detected as result of a routine follow-up examination of a patient with membraneproliferative glomerulonephritis. Ultrasound and endoscopic cholangio-pancreatography detected a stone in the major pancreatic duct. The stone was of such size and irregular form that endoscopic extraction was impossible.

  4. Emergency extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for obstructing ureteral stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tligui, M; El Khadime, M R; Tchala, K; Haab, F; Traxer, O; Gattegno, B; Thibault, P

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate emergency treatment of obstructing ureteral stones by in situ extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) during acute renal colic. From January 1994 to February 2000, 200 patients (mean age: 42 years) were treated by ESWL (EDAP LT-02) for obstructing ureteral stones causing acute renal colic refractory to medical treatment or recurring within 24hours of such treatment. Stones were visualised by fluoroscopic imaging and/or ultrasound. Follow-up included radiological and/or ultrasound examinations and lasted three months. Mean stone size was 7mm (3-20mm). At three months, 164/200 (82%) patients were stone-free. This rate ranged from 79% to 83% according to the location of the stone, and from 75% to 86% according to the size of the stone. These differences in rate were not significant. Two or three ESWL sessions were required in 79 patients. ESWL was well tolerated in 90% of patients. The only complication was a case of pyelonephritis requiring the placement of a JJ stent, administration of antibiotics, and distant ureteroscopy. The 36 patients, in whom ESWL failed, underwent ureteroscopy (n=23) or lithotripsy with a Dornier machine (n=13). Non-deferred ESWL for acute renal colic secondary to obstructing ureteral stones has a satisfactory success rate and very low morbidity.

  5. In vitro study of transmission of bacteria from contaminated metal models to stone models via impressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofou, A.; Larsen, T.; Öwall, B.

    2002-01-01

    Dental impression, stone model, bacterial contamination, cross-infection, dental clinic, dental laboratory......Dental impression, stone model, bacterial contamination, cross-infection, dental clinic, dental laboratory...

  6. Use of Local Stone: Successes, Failures and Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerns, Edward; Will, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    Stone has been used in construction for thousands of years. Until relatively recently, local stone was used almost exclusively due to limited transportation options and to reduce costs. . Historically, the stone was often taken from nearby fields, known as fieldstone, without any specific quarrying operations and used to create unique assemblages of vernacular buildings. Stone, perhaps more than any other natural building material, has numerous varieties and characteristics within the broader classifications of stone: sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic. In exterior applications, stone historically has been used for foundations, localized cladding elements and in some instances entire building facades. Many of these local stones are appropriate for foundations, but not necessarily for cladding systems, particularly once the stone was quarried and modified rather than used in its natural form. These issues tended to be less significant in historic buildings when wall systems were much thicker and had more redundancies in the cladding systems Since around 1880, the use of these thinner applications of quarried stones as more traditional cladding systems (rather than cladding and structure) has resulted in challenges including unanticipated weathering characteristics, residual stresses and detrimental inclusions. These conditions can result in expensive and extensive repairs and maintenance. Often the options to address these characteristics are limited or potentially drastic depending on the scale of installation. It is important to understand the cause of the issues, understand if these issues are significant and finally how to address them appropriately. Where and how these unique local stones are installed as well as climate and weathering patterns certainly contribute to the potential unanticipated conditions. This presentation will be divided into two general parts. The first will address various stones used historically throughout regions within the United

  7. Lioz: The Stone that made Lisbon reborn - A Global Heritage Stone Resource Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luis

    2017-04-01

    Lioz: The Stone that made Lisbon reborn - A Global Heritage Stone Resource Proposal Explored since the Roman Period, the Lioz (Cenomanian age microcrystalline fossiliferous limestone) is the main stone used in the buildings and monuments of Lisbon. After the great cataclysm of 1755 (earthquake, tsunami and fire) of 1755, the already known great quality and the near occurrence of these limestones were wisely used in the great reconstruction of the "Capital do Império" (Capital of the Empire). At the time, Lisbon was one of the largest European cities and great business center of the World, so the necessary and urgent reconstruction was not so difficult to start. Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, better known as "Marquês de Pombal", Secretary of King José I, successfully took up the challenge of rebuilding Lisbon. Inside the actual Portuguese capital geographical limits, several quarries of the Cretaceous limestone were explored; some still exist and are classified as geomonuments (i.e., Rio Seco Geomonument, 38 ° 42'21 .67''N; 9 ° 11 '30.37''W). As the City boundaries expanded, the quarries stopped and now there is no one asset in Lisbon. The most important exploitation and processing Lioz stone center was situated in Pêro Pinheiro, 20 km NW of Lisbon. Most of the stones used in the National Palace-Convent of Mafra (1717) belongs to the four main types of Lioz (the cream/white "Abancado", the pink/dark pink "Encarnadão", the yellow "Amarelo de Negrais" and the blueish grey "Azulino"), either cut "against" (perpendicular to the bedding plane) or "along" (parallel to the bedding plane). The orientation stone cut deeply controls texture and mechanical properties of the rocks that behaves as different ones were considered. In the last two decades, the Lioz extraction was almost extinguished. However, some of the old quarries was reactivated and produces first quality blocks needed both for new works and restoration of historic buildings and monuments. The

  8. Temporally variable macroinvertebrate-stone relationships in streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, D.

    2005-01-01

    of fauna parameter and stone variable from different sampling dates (n=9-11) were rarely correlated to any of the measures of stream stability, this study has demonstrated high temporal variability in fauna-stone relationships (CV's of regression slopes). Consequently, temporally un-replicated studies......Stones were used to sample macroinvertebrates and characterise microhabitats at monthly or bimonthly intervals in six Ecuadorian streams covering a gradient in four different stability measures and other stream characteristics. The physical variables current velocity, water depth, horizontal...... of families vs. individuals) were related to the physical characteristics of individual stone habitats. My second objective was to quantify temporal variability in fauna-stone relationships and to analyse if such variability was related to overall stability of stream reaches. Partial Least Squares (PLS...

  9. A Stone Resource Assignment Model under the Fuzzy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Yao

    2012-01-01

    to tackle a stone resource assignment problem with the aim of decreasing dust and waste water emissions. On the upper level, the local government wants to assign a reasonable exploitation amount to each stone plant so as to minimize total emissions and maximize employment and economic profit. On the lower level, stone plants must reasonably assign stone resources to produce different stone products under the exploitation constraint. To deal with inherent uncertainties, the object functions and constraints are defuzzified using a possibility measure. A fuzzy simulation-based improved simulated annealing algorithm (FS-ISA is designed to search for the Pareto optimal solutions. Finally, a case study is presented to demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the model. Results and a comparison analysis are presented to highlight the performance of the optimization method, which proves to be very efficient compared with other algorithms.

  10. Radon in houses utilizing stone magazines for heat accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of 222 Rn and its daughters in three solar energy houses utilizing stone magazines for heat accumulation are reported. Theoretical calculations of the radon contribution from the stone magazines seem to be in good agreement with the measured values. The survey indicated that this method for heat accumulation could give a significant increase in the indoor radon concentration if the radium concentration of the stone material is high. The theoretical considerations suggest that a radium concentration of 1 pCi/g of the stone material could give an increment of the radon concentration in the indoor air of about 1 pCi/l. during the heating season in a house with air volume of 250 m 3 and a 10 5 -kg stone magazine. (author)

  11. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal stone with infundibular stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Hong; Son, Soon Yong; Kang, Seong Ho; Lee, Yong Moon; Yoon, Seok Hwan

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed retrospectively our experience to evaluate an effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for renal stone with infundibular stenosis. From January 2002 to August 2005, 35 patients with renal stone with infundibular stenosis were treated with ESWL. The diagnosis of infundibular stenosis was made by intravenous pyelography or retrograde pyelography. The final follow-up check was performed by simple abdominal film or computed tomography and interview after 6 months to 24 months (mean 10 months). 7 (20.0%) of 35 patients was freed completely, but Stone free rate including less than 2 mm size was 80% (28/35). 30 (85.7%) patients became asymptomatic, 4 (11.4%) patients were continued, and 1 (2.9%) patient was required the percutaneous nephrostolithotomy. Although ESWL has a low complete stone free rate, We suggest that renal stone with infundibular stenosis should be treated with ESWL, because that is likely to produce a high symptom free and low complications

  12. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal stone with infundibular stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hong; Son, Soon Yong; Kang, Seong Ho; Lee, Yong Moon [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seok Hwan [Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    We analyzed retrospectively our experience to evaluate an effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for renal stone with infundibular stenosis. From January 2002 to August 2005, 35 patients with renal stone with infundibular stenosis were treated with ESWL. The diagnosis of infundibular stenosis was made by intravenous pyelography or retrograde pyelography. The final follow-up check was performed by simple abdominal film or computed tomography and interview after 6 months to 24 months (mean 10 months). 7 (20.0%) of 35 patients was freed completely, but Stone free rate including less than 2 mm size was 80% (28/35). 30 (85.7%) patients became asymptomatic, 4 (11.4%) patients were continued, and 1 (2.9%) patient was required the percutaneous nephrostolithotomy. Although ESWL has a low complete stone free rate, We suggest that renal stone with infundibular stenosis should be treated with ESWL, because that is likely to produce a high symptom free and low complications.

  13. The role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of renal stone disease in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masselli, G.; Weston, M.; Spencer, J.

    2015-01-01

    The distinction of pain in pregnancy due to urolithiasis from that related to physiological dilation of the renal tract is a common conundrum as renal colic is one of the commonest causes for non-obstetric pain in pregnancy. Ultrasound is the first-line imaging test but although it may demonstrate renal dilation, it may not show the cause. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is able to make the distinction. Physiological dilation will show smooth tapering of the ureter in the middle third as it is compressed between the gravid uterus and the retroperitoneum. Obstruction due to calculi causes renal enlargement and perinephric oedema. When a stone is lodged in the lower ureter, a standing column of dilated ureter will be seen below the physiological constriction. The stone itself may be shown. Computed tomography (CT) is an acceptable alternative if there is a contraindication to MRI, but even low-dose regimes involve some ionising radiation. This paper serves to highlight the role of MRI compared to US and CT in the imaging of renal colic in pregnancy. Multidisciplinary collaboration between obstetricians, urologists, and radiologists is required for effective management. - Highlights: • Ultrasound and MR imaging are the preferred investigations for renal colic during pregnancy. • MR imaging helps differentiate physiologic from obstructive hydronephrosis when ultrasound is inconclusive. • If MR imaging cannot be performed, low-dose CT may be necessary.

  14. Evaluation of Packed Distillation Columns I - Atmospheric Pressure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynolds, Thaine

    1951-01-01

    .... Four column-packing combinations of the glass columns and four column-packing combinations of the steel columns were investigated at atmospheric pressure using a test mixture of methylcyclohexane...

  15. Nanobacteria: An Infectious Cause for Salivary Stone Formation and Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr A El Badry

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanobacteria (NB contribute to pathological calcification in the human and animal body. It has been isolated from salivary stones and suggested that it may act as a nucleus for the initiation of these stones. In the present study, we examined its role in the recurrent salivary gland stones using immunodetection with NB-specific monoclonal antibodies and scanning electron microscopy (SEM hoping to provide a method for preventing the recurrence of these stones in the patient that has suffered from salivary stones. Our study comprised 30 patients with recurrent salivary gland stones (group I and 30 patients with salivary gland stones for the first time (group II, in addition to 30 normal controls (group III. We could detect 100–500 nm nanoparticles in 24/30 (80% cases in group I with significant difference <0.05 and <0.01 when compared with group II and group III in which they were detected in 19/30 (63.3% and 6/30 (20% respectively. Also there was a significant difference <0.05 between group II and group III. We proposed that salivary stone formation is a nanobacterial disease initiated by bacterial infection. This bacteria may play an important role in the recurrence of salivary stone. So the use of calcium chelator, ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA, before or in combination with the suitable antibiotic that is given in an amount effective to inhibit or prevent the growth and development of nanobacteria may eradicate these stones and prevent their recurrence.

  16. Retroperitoneoscopy for treatment of renal and ureteral stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo S. Soares

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of retroperitoneoscopy for treating stones in the renal pelvis and proximal ureter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from August 2003 to August 2004, 35 retroperitoneoscopies for treatment of urinary stones were performed on 34 patients. Fifteen patients (42% had stones in the renal pelvis, and in 2 cases, there were associated stones in the upper caliceal group. Twenty patients (58% had ureteral stones, all of them located above the iliac vessel. Twenty-five patients (71% had previously undergone at least one session of extracorporeal lithotripsy and 8 patients (26% also underwent ureteroscopy to attempt to remove the stone. Eight patients underwent retroperitoneoscopy as a primary procedure. Stone size ranged from 0.5 to 6 cm with a mean of 2.1 cm. RESULTS: Retroperitoneoscopy was performed by lumbar approach with initial access conducted by open technique and creation of space by digital dissection. We used a 10-mm Hasson trocar for the optics, and 2 or 3 additional working ports placed under visualization. Following identification, the urinary tract was opened with a laparoscopic scalpel and the stone was removed intact. The urinary tract was closed with absorbable 4-0 suture and a Penrose drain was left in the retroperitoneum. In 17 patients (49%, a double-J stent was maintained postoperatively. Surgical time ranged from 60 to 260 minutes with a mean of 140 minutes. The mean hospital stay was 3 days (1-10 days. The mean length of retroperitoneal urinary drainage was 3 days (1-10 days. There were minor complications in 6 (17.6% patients and 1 case of conversion due to technical difficulty. Thirty-three patients (94% became stone free. CONCLUSION: Retroperitoneoscopy is an effective, low-morbidity alternative for treatment of urinary stones.

  17. Retroperitoneoscopy for treatment of renal and ureteral stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Rodrigo S; Romanelli, Pedro; Sandoval, Marcos A; Salim, Marcelo M; Tavora, Jose E; Abelha, David L

    2005-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of retroperitoneoscopy for treating stones in the renal pelvis and proximal ureter. In the period from August 2003 to August 2004, 35 retroperitoneoscopies for treatment of urinary stones were performed on 34 patients. Fifteen patients (42%) had stones in the renal pelvis, and in 2 cases, there were associated stones in the upper caliceal group. Twenty patients (58%) had ureteral stones, all of them located above the iliac vessel. Twenty-five patients (71%) had previously undergone at least one session of extracorporeal lithotripsy and 8 patients (26%) also underwent ureteroscopy to attempt to remove the stone. Eight patients underwent retroperitoneoscopy as a primary procedure. Stone size ranged from 0.5 to 6 cm with a mean of 2.1 cm. Retroperitoneoscopy was performed by lumbar approach with initial access conducted by open technique and creation of space by digital dissection. We used a 10-mm Hasson trocar for the optics, and 2 or 3 additional working ports placed under visualization. Following identification, the urinary tract was opened with a laparoscopic scalpel and the stone was removed intact. The urinary tract was closed with absorbable 4-0 suture and a Penrose drain was left in the retroperitoneum. In 17 patients (49%), a double-J stent was maintained postoperatively. Surgical time ranged from 60 to 260 minutes with a mean of 140 minutes. The mean hospital stay was 3 days (1-10 days). The mean length of retroperitoneal urinary drainage was 3 days (1-10 days). There were minor complications in 6 (17.6%) patients and 1 case of conversion due to technical difficulty. Thirty-three patients (94%) became stone free. Retroperitoneoscopy is an effective, low-morbidity alternative for treatment of urinary stones.

  18. The effect of inclined position on stone free rates in patients with lower caliceal stones during SWL session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Cakiroglu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the outcomes of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL combined with inclined position and SWL alone in patients with lower pole calyx stones. Methods: Seven hundred forty patients who underwent SWL treatment for lower pole renal stones with a total diameter of 2 cm or less were prospectively randomized into two groups. They were comparable in terms of age, sex, and stone diameters. Patients with lower calyceal stones (4-20 mm were randomized to SWL (368 patients or SWL with simultaneous inclination (372 patients with 30o head down Trendelenburg position. Shock wave and session numbers were standardized according to stone size. Additional standardized shock waves were given to patients with stone fragments determined by kidney urinary bladder film and ultrasound at weeks 1, 4, 10. Results: The overall stone free rate (SFR was 73% (268/368 in patients with SWL alone and 81% (300/372 in SWL with inclination at the end of 12th week (p = 0.015. No significant adverse events were noted in both treatment groups. Conclusion: Simultaneous inclination of patients during SWL session increase SFR in lower caliceal stones significantly compared to SWL treatment alone.

  19. Oscillating water column structural model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Guild [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jepsen, Richard Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gordon, Margaret Ellen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    An oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converter is a structure with an opening to the ocean below the free surface, i.e. a structure with a moonpool. Two structural models for a non-axisymmetric terminator design OWC, the Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB) are discussed in this report. The results of this structural model design study are intended to inform experiments and modeling underway in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated Reference Model Project (RMP). A detailed design developed by Re Vision Consulting used stiffeners and girders to stabilize the structure against the hydrostatic loads experienced by a BBDB device. Additional support plates were added to this structure to account for loads arising from the mooring line attachment points. A simplified structure was designed in a modular fashion. This simplified design allows easy alterations to the buoyancy chambers and uncomplicated analysis of resulting changes in buoyancy.

  20. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-01-01

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  1. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-01-01

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  2. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Roberts, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-02-28

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  3. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  4. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  5. The Snow Must Go On: Ground Ice Encasement, Snow Compaction and Absence of Snow Differently Cause Soil Hypoxia, CO2 Accumulation and Tree Seedling Damage in Boreal Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Françoise; Vuosku, Jaana; Ovaskainen, Anu; Stark, Sari; Rautio, Pasi

    2016-01-01

    At high latitudes, the climate has warmed at twice the rate of the global average with most changes observed in autumn, winter and spring. Increasing winter temperatures and wide temperature fluctuations are leading to more frequent rain-on-snow events and freeze-thaw cycles causing snow compaction and formation of ice layers in the snowpack, thus creating ice encasement (IE). By decreasing the snowpack insulation capacity and restricting soil-atmosphere gas exchange, modification of the snow properties may lead to colder soil but also to hypoxia and accumulation of trace gases in the subnivean environment. To test the effects of these overwintering conditions changes on plant winter survival and growth, we established a snow manipulation experiment in a coniferous forest in Northern Finland with Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings. In addition to ambient conditions and prevention of IE, we applied three snow manipulation levels: IE created by artificial rain-on-snow events, snow compaction and complete snow removal. Snow removal led to deeper soil frost during winter, but no clear effect of IE or snow compaction done in early winter was observed on soil temperature. Hypoxia and accumulation of CO2 were highest in the IE plots but, more importantly, the duration of CO2 concentration above 5% was 17 days in IE plots compared to 0 days in ambient plots. IE was the most damaging winter condition for both species, decreasing the proportion of healthy seedlings by 47% for spruce and 76% for pine compared to ambient conditions. Seedlings in all three treatments tended to grow less than seedlings in ambient conditions but only IE had a significant effect on spruce growth. Our results demonstrate a negative impact of winter climate change on boreal forest regeneration and productivity. Changing snow conditions may thus partially mitigate the positive effect of increasing growing season temperatures on boreal forest productivity.

  6. Effect of iron and carbonation on the diffusion of iodine and rhenium in waste encasement concrete and soil fill material under hydraulically unsaturated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Parker, Kent E.; Powers, Laura; Whyatt, Greg A.; Clayton, Libby N.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2008-01-01

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 cement wasteforms and accurate prediction for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e. sorption or precipitation). A set of sediment-concrete half-cell diffusion experiments was conducted under unsaturated conditions (4% and 7% by weight moisture content) using carbonated and non-carbonated concrete-soil half cells. Results indicate the behavior of Re and I release was comparable within a given half-cell test. Diffusivity in soil is a function of moisture content; a 3% increase in moisture content affords a one to two order of magnitude increase in diffusivity. Release of I and Re was 1-3 orders of magnitude less from non-carbonated, relative to carbonated, concrete monoliths. Inclusion of Fe in non-carbonate monoliths resulted in the lowest concrete diffusivity values for both I and Re. This suggests that in the presence of Fe, I and Re are converted to reduced species, which are less soluble and better retained within the concrete monolith. The release of I and Re was greatest from Fe-bearing, carbonated concrete monoliths, suggesting carbonation negates the effect of Fe on the retention of I and Re within concrete monoliths. This is likely due to enhanced formation of microcracks in the presence of Fe, which provide preferential paths for contaminant migration. Although the release of I and Re were greatest from carbonated concrete monoliths containing Fe, the migration of I and Re within a given half cell is dependent on the moisture content, soil diffusivity, and diffusing species

  7. Algorithm for definition of stones components at kidney-stones illness using two-energetic digital roentgen-graphic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedavnij, O.I.; Osipov, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    Paper presents the algorithm for definition of stone composition in case of kidney-stones using two-energy digital X-ray photography. One calculated the values of p information parameter for the main types of stones within 40-150 keV energy range. It was shown that p parameter dependence on energy was not essential one (maximum 3.5% deviation), p value for various chemical compositions of kidney stones ranged from 15% (calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate) up to 70% (calcium lactate and calcium oxalate). The conducted studies enable to make a conclusion about the possibility to define material representing the heart of kidney stones using two-energy digital X-ray photography. Paper includes recommendations on selection of the optimal energy values [ru

  8. Analysis of archaeological precious stones from Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šmit, Ž. [Facully of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Fajfar, H. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jeršsek, M. [Slovenian Museum of Natural History, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Knific, T. [National Museum of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kržic, A. [Higher Vocational Centre, Sezana (Slovenia); Lux, J. [Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Precious stones have been attractive pieces of jewelry since ancient times. However, due to the limited sources of origin, the quality of applied items mainly depended on long-range commercial relations, but also on fashion. In Antiquity and Late Antiquity, stones much used and sought for were emeralds and garnets. In Slovenia, emeralds are typically related to the early Roman period and are incorporated in the finds of gold jewelry from the graves. Emerald is generally beryl colored by admixture of chromium, though green colors can also be due to admixtures of iron or vanadium. Garnets were increasingly used by various nations of the People Migration period, and mounted in gilded silver or gold objects by 'cloisonne' or 'en cabochon' techniques. In Slovenia, numerous jewelry items containing garnets were found in the graves and in post-Roman fortified settlements. Geologically, according to the admixtures of metal ions, the garnets are divided into several species, while the most common among archaeological finds are almandines and pyropes and their intermediate types. It is also common to divide garnets into five groups, the first two originating from India, the third from Ceylon and the fifth from Czech Republic. The measurements involved presumed emeralds from Roman jewelry finds in Slovenia and comparative samples of beryl from Siberia and Habachtal in Austria. The analysis determined the coloring ions and showed relations between particular stones. For garnets, ten samples from brooches, earrings and rings were selected for the analysis on the basis of previous micro Raman examination. The analysis was performed by a combined PIXE-PIGE technique using proton beam in air. The light elements of Na, Mg, AI were determined according to the emitted gamma rays, while X-rays were used for the elements heavier than silicon. Two X-ray spectra were measured in each measuring point, soft and hard X-ray; the latter was obtained using an

  9. Analysis of archaeological precious stones from Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šmit, Ž.; Fajfar, H.; Jeršsek, M.; Knific, T.; Kržic, A.; Lux, J.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Precious stones have been attractive pieces of jewelry since ancient times. However, due to the limited sources of origin, the quality of applied items mainly depended on long-range commercial relations, but also on fashion. In Antiquity and Late Antiquity, stones much used and sought for were emeralds and garnets. In Slovenia, emeralds are typically related to the early Roman period and are incorporated in the finds of gold jewelry from the graves. Emerald is generally beryl colored by admixture of chromium, though green colors can also be due to admixtures of iron or vanadium. Garnets were increasingly used by various nations of the People Migration period, and mounted in gilded silver or gold objects by 'cloisonne' or 'en cabochon' techniques. In Slovenia, numerous jewelry items containing garnets were found in the graves and in post-Roman fortified settlements. Geologically, according to the admixtures of metal ions, the garnets are divided into several species, while the most common among archaeological finds are almandines and pyropes and their intermediate types. It is also common to divide garnets into five groups, the first two originating from India, the third from Ceylon and the fifth from Czech Republic. The measurements involved presumed emeralds from Roman jewelry finds in Slovenia and comparative samples of beryl from Siberia and Habachtal in Austria. The analysis determined the coloring ions and showed relations between particular stones. For garnets, ten samples from brooches, earrings and rings were selected for the analysis on the basis of previous micro Raman examination. The analysis was performed by a combined PIXE-PIGE technique using proton beam in air. The light elements of Na, Mg, AI were determined according to the emitted gamma rays, while X-rays were used for the elements heavier than silicon. Two X-ray spectra were measured in each measuring point, soft and hard X-ray; the latter was obtained using an

  10. A comparative study of mud-like and coralliform calcium carbonate gallbladder stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Qiao, Tie; Huang, Hai-Yi; Zhong, Hai-Qiang

    2017-07-01

    To gain insight to underlying mechanism of the formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) gallbladder stones, we did comparative study of stones with mud appearance and those with coralliform appearance. A total of 93 gallbladder stones with mud appearance and 50 stones with coralliform appearance were analyzed. The appearance, color, texture, and the detection of Clonorchis sinensis eggs by microscopic examination were compared between the two groups. Then, the material compositions of stones were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and the spectrogram characteristics were compared. Moreover, microstructure characteristics of the two kinds of stones were observed and compared with Scanning Electron Microscopy. Mud-like gallbladder stones were mainly earthy yellow or brown with brittle or soft texture, while coralliform stones were mainly black with extremely hard texture, the differences between the two groups was significant (p mud-like gallbladder stones were CaCO 3 stones, and mainly aragonite; while all of the coralliform stones were CaCO 3 stones, and mainly calcite (p mud-like CaCO 3 stones was lower than that in coralliform CaCO 3 stones (p Mud-like CaCO 3 stones mainly happened to patients with cystic duct obstruction. Clonorchis sinensis infection was mainly associated with coralliform (calcite) CaCO 3 stones. Cystic duct obstruction was mainly associated with mud-like (aragonite) CaCO 3 stones. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Upper urinary tract stone disease in patients with poor performance status: active stone removal or conservative management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shimpei; Kohjimoto, Yasuo; Hirabayashi, Yasuo; Iguchi, Takashi; Iba, Akinori; Higuchi, Masatoshi; Koike, Hiroyuki; Wakamiya, Takahito; Nishizawa, Satoshi; Hara, Isao

    2017-11-16

    It remains controversial as to whether active stone removal should be performed in patients with poor performance status because of their short life expectancy and perioperative risks. Our objectives were to evaluate treatment outcomes of active stone removal in patients with poor performance status and to compare life prognosis with those managed conservatively. We retrospectively reviewed 74 patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 3 or 4 treated for upper urinary tract calculi at our four hospitals between January 2009 and March 2016. Patients were classified into either surgical treatment group or conservative management group based on the presence of active stone removal. Stone-free rate and perioperative complications in surgical treatment group were reviewed. In addition, we compared overall survival and stone-specific survival between the two groups. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to investigate predictors of overall survival and stone-specific survival. Fifty-two patients (70.3%) underwent active stone removal (surgical treatment group) by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (n = 6), ureteroscopy (n = 39), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (n = 6) or nephrectomy (n = 1). The overall stone-free rate was 78.8% and perioperative complication was observed in nine patients (17.3%). Conservative treatment was undergone by 22 patients (29.7%) (conservative management group). Two-year overall survival rates in surgical treatment and conservative management groups were 88.0% and 38.4%, respectively (p performance status could be performed safely and effectively. Compared to conservative management, surgical stone treatment achieved longer overall survival and stone-specific survival.

  12. The Dora-Maira Unit (Italian Cottian Alps): a reservoir of ornamental stones locally and worldwide employed since Roman age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Alessandro; Cadoppi, Paola; Antonella Dino, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    The Dora-Maira is a geological unit belonging to the Penninic Domain of the Western Alps (NW Italy), which covers over 1000 km2 from the Susa to the Maira valleys, in the inner part of the Cottian Alps. It consists of different superposed complexes made of micaschists, fine-grained gneisses, quartzites, impure and dolomitic marbles, metabasites and various types of orthogneisses deriving from metamorphic transformation, during alpine orogeny, of a Palaeozoic upper continental crust and its Mesozoic carbonate cover. Thanks to the presence of different varieties of rocks, the Dora-Maira Unit can be considered as a reservoir of ornamental stones, locally employed, since Roman age, for military and religious buildings. Furthermore, these materials were used in Piedmont region for the construction of important historical palaces (17th and 18th centuries). Several varieties of gneisses, quartzites and marbles, exploited in the past and up to now, come from the Paleozoic basement. The most famous variety of gneiss is the so called "Luserna stone", a leucocratic gneiss characterized by a mylonitic fabric deriving from highly differentiated granitoids of Permian age. The first traces of Luserna Stone exploitation arise to the medieval age in the Pellice Valley). This material was widely employed in Turin, from Savoia kingdom period up to know. The very peculiar and precious application of Luserna stone were: Royal Palace and Venaria Reale Palace, Mole Antonelliana. Recently, it has been employed for the construction of Turin Metro stations (launched in 2006). Other varieties of orthogneisses, not yet exploited, are: Borgone and Vaie Stones, Villarfocchiardo and Cumiana Stones. They were used for the realization of the columns characterising the façade of several churches in Turin and in the piers of different bridges over the Po River. Another gneiss variety, with dioritic composition, is the Malanaggio Stone employed in the Fenestrelle Fortress. As for the palaeozoic

  13. Measuring stone volume - three-dimensional software reconstruction or an ellipsoid algebra formula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, William; Johnston, Richard; Shaida, Nadeem; Winterbottom, Andrew; Wiseman, Oliver

    2014-04-01

    To determine the optimal method for assessing stone volume, and thus stone burden, by comparing the accuracy of scalene, oblate, and prolate ellipsoid volume equations with three-dimensional (3D)-reconstructed stone volume. Kidney stone volume may be helpful in predicting treatment outcome for renal stones. While the precise measurement of stone volume by 3D reconstruction can be accomplished using modern computer tomography (CT) scanning software, this technique is not available in all hospitals or with routine acute colic scanning protocols. Therefore, maximum diameters as measured by either X-ray or CT are used in the calculation of stone volume based on a scalene ellipsoid formula, as recommended by the European Association of Urology. In all, 100 stones with both X-ray and CT (1-2-mm slices) were reviewed. Complete and partial staghorn stones were excluded. Stone volume was calculated using software designed to measure tissue density of a certain range within a specified region of interest. Correlation coefficients among all measured outcomes were compared. Stone volumes were analysed to determine the average 'shape' of the stones. The maximum stone diameter on X-ray was 3-25 mm and on CT was 3-36 mm, with a reasonable correlation (r = 0.77). Smaller stones (15 mm towards scalene ellipsoids. There was no difference in stone shape by location within the kidney. As the average shape of renal stones changes with diameter, no single equation for estimating stone volume can be recommended. As the maximum diameter increases, calculated stone volume becomes less accurate, suggesting that larger stones have more asymmetric shapes. We recommend that research looking at stone clearance rates should use 3D-reconstructed stone volumes when available, followed by prolate, oblate, or scalene ellipsoid formulas depending on the maximum stone diameter. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  14. Contemporary Management of Struvite Stones Using Combined Endourologic and Medical Treatment: Predictors of Unfavorable Clinical Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Youssef, Ramy F; Neisius, Andreas; Kuntz, Nicholas; Hanna, Jonathan; Ferrandino, Michael N; Preminger, Glenn M; Lipkin, Michael E

    2016-07-01

    Struvite stones have been associated with significant morbidity and mortality, yet there has not been a report on the medical management of struvite stones in almost 20 years. We report on the contemporary outcomes of the surgical and medical management of struvite stones in a contemporary series. A retrospective review of patients who were treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for struvite stones at Duke University Medical Center between January 2005 and September 2012 identified a total of 75 patients. Of these, 43 patients had adequate follow-up and were included in this analysis. Stone activity, defined as either stone recurrence or stone-related events, and predictors of activity were evaluated after combined surgical and medical treatment. The study included 43 patients with either pure (35%) or mixed (65%) struvite stones with a median age of 55±15 years (range 21-89 years). The stone-free rate after PCNL was 42%. Stone recurrence occurred in 23% of patients. Postoperatively, 30% of patients had a stone-related event, while 60% of residual stones remained stable with no growth after a median follow-up of 22 months (range 6-67 mos). Kidney function remained stable during follow-up. Independent predictors of stone activity included the presence of residual stones >0.4 cm(2), preoperative large stone burden (>10 cm(2)), and the presence of medical comorbidities (P<0.05). Struvite stones can be managed safely with PCNL followed by medical therapy. The majority of patients with residual fragments demonstrated no evidence of stone growth on medical therapy. With careful follow-up and medical management, kidney function can be maintained and stone morbidity can be minimized. Initial large stone burden, residual stones after surgery, and associated medical comorbidities may have deleterious effect on stone recurrence or residual stone-related events.

  15. Picobubble enhanced column flotation of fine coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, D.; Yu, S.; Parekh, B.K. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Mining Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The purpose is to study the effectiveness of picobubbles in the column flotation of -28 mesh fine coal particles. A flotation column with a picobubble generator was developed and tested for enhancing the recovery of ultrafine coal particles. The picobubble generator was designed using the hydrodynamic cavitation principle. A metallurgical and a steam coal were tested in the apparatus. The results show that the use of picobubbles in a 2in. flotation column increased the recovery of fine coal by 10 to 30%. The recovery rate varied with feed rate, collector dosage, and other column conditions. 40 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Thermally stable dexsil-400 glass capillary columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Olerich, G.

    1980-01-01

    The factors affecting efficiency, thermal stability, and reproducibility of Dexsil-400 glass capillary columns for gas chromatography in general, and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particular were investigated. Columns were drawn from Kimble KG-6 (soda-lime) glass or Kimox (borosilicate) glass. All silylation was carried out at 200 0 C. Columns were coated according to the static method. Freshly prepared, degassed solutions of Dexsil-400 in pentane or methylene chloride were used. Thermal stability of the Dexsil 400 columns with respect to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were tested. Column-to-column variability is a function of each step in the fabrication of the columns. The degree of etching, extent of silylation, and stationary phase film thickness must be carefully controlled. The variability in two Dexsil-400 capillary column prepared by etching, silylation with solution of hexa methyl disilazone (HMDS), and static coating is shown and also indicates the excellent selectivity of Dexsil-400 for the separation of alkylated aromatic compounds. The wide temperature range of Dexsil-400 and the high efficiency of the capillary columns also allow the analysis of complex mixtures with minimal prefractionation. Direct injection of a coal liquefaction product is given. Analysis by GC/MS indicated the presence of parent PAHs, alkylated PAHs, nitrogen and sulfur heterocycles, and their alkylated derivatives. 4 figures

  17. Laser surface wakefield in a plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunov, L.M.; Mora, P.; Ramazashvili, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    The structure of the wakefield in a plasma column, produced by a short intense laser pulse, propagating through a gas affected by tunneling ionization is investigated. It is shown that besides the usual plasma waves in the bulk part of the plasma column [see Andreev et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 3999 (2002)], the laser pulse also generates electromagnetic surface waves propagating along the column boundary. The length of the surface wake wave substantially exceeds the length of the plasma wake wave and its electromagnetic field extends far outside the plasma column

  18. Injury experience in stone mining, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  19. Stone mortars in Roman Cisalpine: new specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caffini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The mortar, made of stone or marble, represents artifact in Cisalpine widespread elsewhere in the Roman world. the morphologies are substantially grouped into two basic shapes: type 1 presents a hemispherical bowl more or less flattened, Type 2 is characterized by a conical reverse body, more or less flared. In the mortars were subjected to pounding and grinding, using a pestle driven by hand, raw materials of various origin. The fields of application were mainly three: alimentary, officinal and cosmetic. In some cases the generic definition of mortar is applied improperly to marble containers probably only be used for ornamental. It 'also demonstrated the use of artifacts attributable to type 2 as a function of urns. Therefore, in reference to decontextualized pieces, you should use a definition not unique, reflecting the different possible meanings of the artifact.

  20. Microstructural characterization samples of Cariri stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, D.L.; Fernandes, I.M.M.; Farias, R.M.C.; Braga, A.N.S.; Menezes, R.R.; Neves, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Ornamental rocks are among the most promising areas of business in the mining sector, thus resulting in the need for addition of aesthetic beauty, there were investments in quality, safety and characterization in its various fields of application. Based on this, this paper aims to microstructural characterization of a class of these rocks: the Stones Cariri, also known as limestone, calcareous rocks that are composed primarily of calcium and magnesium carbonate, but may vary due its origin. For this, four samples were studied with two of the Apodi Plateau and two of the Araripe, which were characterized physically and structurally through micro testing, chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, optical micrograph and porosimetry. The results show that calcitic and dolomitic lime is present porosity ranging from 5 to 15% of pores with a concentration between 100nm and 10mm and many microstructural heterogeneity. (author)

  1. Bullying: a stepping stone to dating aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Wendy L; Pepler, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is the use of power and aggression to control and distress another. In this paper, we review research to explore whether the lessons learned in bullying provide a stepping stone to aggressive behavior in dating relationships. We start by considering definitions and a relationship framework with which to understand both bullying and dating aggression. We consider bullying from a developmental-contextual perspective and consider risk factors associated with the typical developmental patterns for bullying and dating aggression, including developmental and sociodemographic, individual attributes, and family, peer group, community, and societal relationship contexts that might lead some children and youths to follow developmental pathways that lead to bullying and dating aggression. We conclude by discussing implications for intervention with a review of evidence-based interventions.

  2. Laparoendoscopic management of concomitant gallbladder stones and common bile duct stones: what is the best technique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Geidie, Ahmed Abdel-Raouf

    2011-08-01

    The intraoperative use of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is a safe, single-stage option for the management of concomitant gallstones (GS) and common bile duct stones (CBDS). This study aims to compare between 2 techniques of combined laparoendoscopic management, which are laparoendoscopic Rendez-vous (LC/LERV) technique and standard ERCP after the completion of LC intraoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy (IOES). Patients with GS and suspected CBDS were included. They were divided into 2 groups; LC/LERV and LC/IOES. Both groups were compared for failure of endoscopic sphincterotomy/stone extraction, operative time, conversion rate, mortality/morbidity, and length of hospital stay. Between October 2007 and February 2010, 98 patients with GS and CBDS were eligible for inclusion in the study. They were prospectively randomized into 2 groups; LC/LERV (N=45) and LC/IOES (N=53). There were no differences in preoperative parameters between both groups. There was a significant difference in operative time (shorter for LC/IOES). No difference was noted in success/failure rate, post-ERCP pancreatitis. Both Standard ERCP after the completion of LC and LC/LERV are valid single-session management for CBD stones, but LC-ERCP may be preferred.

  3. Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi

    2011-01-07

    The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a different patient, were analyzed. Thirteen of the pulp stones were examined for the existence of CNPs in situ by immunohistochemical staining (IHS), indirect immunofluorescence staining (IIFS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The remaining 52 pulp stones were used for isolation and cultivation of CNPs; the cultured CNPs were identified and confirmed via their shape and growth characteristics. Among the dental pulp stones examined in situ, 84.6% of the tissue samples staines positive for CNPs antigen by IHS; the corresponding rate by IIFS was 92.3 %. In 88.2% of the cultured samples, CNPs were isolated and cultivated successfully. The CNPs were visible under TEM as 200-400 nm diameter spherical particles surrounded by a compact crust. CNPs could be detected and isolated from a high percentage of dental pulp stones, suggesting that CNPs might play an important role in the calcification of dental pulp.

  4. Clinical experience for radiolucent stones; A report of 27 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Jee; Lee, Gil Ho [Dankook University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    The cause of radiolucent filling defects in the upper urinary tract are malignant tumor, radiolucent stones, blood clots, air bubbles, congenital deformities of renal parenchyme, and various specific and non-specific infection and their sequence. So the differential diagnosis between malignancy and radiolucent stones is very important, and the exact and fast diagnosis of radiolucent stones is useful in excluding the possibility of malignancy. 27 cases with radiolucent stones were evaluated retrospectively for exact diagnosis and appropriate treatment method. Intravenous urography was done in all cases, and retrograde pyelography, ultrasonography, computed tomography and/or ureterorenoscopy were performed for diagnosis, if needed. Size of stones were measured below 10mm by transverse length in 19 cases (70.4%) with a range of 3 to 30mm. The locations of stones were pelvicalyceal system in 8 cases (29.6%) and ureter in 19 cases (70.4%). Among the diagnostic methods, computed tomography was used most frequency. ESWL with retrograde pyelography was most frequent used method of treatment, also simple hydration to small stone was effective. (author).

  5. Clinical experience for radiolucent stones; A report of 27 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Jee; Lee, Gil Ho

    1997-01-01

    The cause of radiolucent filling defects in the upper urinary tract are malignant tumor, radiolucent stones, blood clots, air bubbles, congenital deformities of renal parenchyme, and various specific and non-specific infection and their sequence. So the differential diagnosis between malignancy and radiolucent stones is very important, and the exact and fast diagnosis of radiolucent stones is useful in excluding the possibility of malignancy. 27 cases with radiolucent stones were evaluated retrospectively for exact diagnosis and appropriate treatment method. Intravenous urography was done in all cases, and retrograde pyelography, ultrasonography, computed tomography and/or ureterorenoscopy were performed for diagnosis, if needed. Size of stones were measured below 10mm by transverse length in 19 cases (70.4%) with a range of 3 to 30mm. The locations of stones were pelvicalyceal system in 8 cases (29.6%) and ureter in 19 cases (70.4%). Among the diagnostic methods, computed tomography was used most frequency. ESWL with retrograde pyelography was most frequent used method of treatment, also simple hydration to small stone was effective. (author)

  6. The earliest long-distance obsidian transport: Evidence from the ∼200 ka Middle Stone Age Sibilo School Road Site, Baringo, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blegen, Nick

    2017-02-01

    This study presents the earliest evidence of long-distance obsidian transport at the ∼200 ka Sibilo School Road Site (SSRS), an early Middle Stone Age site in the Kapthurin Formation, Kenya. The later Middle Pleistocene of East Africa (130-400 ka) spans significant and interrelated behavioral and biological changes in human evolution including the first appearance of Homo sapiens. Despite the importance of the later Middle Pleistocene, there are relatively few archaeological sites in well-dated contexts (n obsidian transport, important for investigating expansion of intergroup interactions in hominin evolution, is rare from the Middle Pleistocene record of Africa. The SSRS offers a unique contribution to this small but growing dataset. Tephrostratigraphic analysis of tuffs encasing the SSRS provides a minimum age of ∼200 ka for the site. Levallois points and methods of core preparation demonstrate characteristic Middle Stone Age lithic technologies present at the SSRS. A significant portion (43%) of the lithic assemblage is obsidian. The SSRS obsidian comes from three different sources located at distances of 25 km, 140 km and 166 km from the site. The majority of obsidian derives from the farthest source, 166 km to the south of the site. The SSRS thus provides important new evidence that long-distance raw material transport, and the expansion of hominin intergroup interactions that this entails, was a significant feature of hominin behavior ∼200 ka, the time of the first appearance of H. sapiens, and ∼150,000 years before similar behaviors were previously documented in the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The early days of surgery for stones in the bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Harold

    2011-05-01

    Man has suffered from bladder stones since the earliest times. The oldest specimen of a bladder stone so far discovered was obtained at the excavation of a grave of a boy of about 16 in an ancient Egyptian burial ground and was dated at around 4800 BC. Of the triad of 'elective" operations first performed by our surgical forefathers--circumcision, trephination of the skull and cutting for the stone--only the last was for a purely surgical indication and not for religious or ritual reasons; it may safely be pronounced as the most ancient operation performed for a specific surgical pathology.

  8. [A case of ammonium urate urinary stones with anorexia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, K; Arai, H; Gotoh, T; Imazu, T; Honda, M; Fujioka, H

    2000-09-01

    A 27-year-old woman had been suffering from bulimia and habitual vomiting for about 7 years and was incidentally found to have right renal stones by computed tomography. She was referred to our hospital for the treatment of these caluculi. On admission, she presented with hypokalemia, hypochloremia and metabolic alkalosis and was diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. Following successful removal by percutaneous nephrolithotripsy and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy the stones were found to consist of pure ammonium urate. Since the urine of an anorexia nervosa patient tends to be rich in uric acid and ammonium, anorexia nervosa seems to be associated with ammonium urate urinary stones.

  9. [Solitary stones of the lower renal calyx: how to treat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martov, A G; Ergakov, D V; Andronov, A S; Dutov, S V; Takhaev, R A; Kil'chukov, Z I; Moskalenko, S A

    2017-06-01

    The choice of treatment for the stones of the lower renal calyx is one of the challenging issues of modern urology. The aim of this retrospective and prospective study was to investigate the clinical effectiveness and safety of 3 modern minimally invasive techniques for treating renal stones: percutaneous (PNL) and transurethral (TNL) nephrolithotripsy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in patients with solitary lower calyx stones sized from 10 to 15 mm. The study included 136 patients with symptomatic stones of the lower calyces, who underwent ESWL, PNL and TNL from November 2010 to the present day. The criteria for inclusion in the study were: the presence of a solitary stone of the lower calyx, the stone size of 10 mm to 15 mm, the performance of the classical (standard) PNL in the prone position (puncture access 28-30 Fr) and the follow-up examination at 3 months after the operation. Forty-six patients underwent ESWL, 49 - PNL, and 41 - TNL. Postoperative follow-up was done at 3 months and included a plain radiography, ultrasound and non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography. The stone free rate (SFR) was used as a criterion for the effectiveness of the intervention, where the stone size of 3 mm was taken as the upper limit for the possible presence of fragments. Besides, the rate of repeat interventions, complications and subjective assessment of patients treatment satisfaction (0 to 10) by using visual analogue scale (VAS) were investigated. The effectiveness analysis of the three methods for treating the lower calyx stones sized 10-15 mm showed that PNL was no more effective than TNL (SFR 95.9% and 85.4%, respectively), but both methods were significantly more effective than ESWL (SFR 69.5%). 29.3% of patients who underwent TNL required repeat interventions (TNL or ESWL), while among those treated with ESWL, 45.6% required repeat ESWL sessions. PNL resulted in stone clearance in one stage. Postoperative inflammatory complications were most

  10. The demonstration of gall stones by sonography and radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladisch, R.; Deininger, H.K.; Staedtische Kliniken Darmstadt

    1983-01-01

    Eighty-seven unselected gall stones were examined radiologically and by ultrasound in vitro. No relationship of diagnostic value could be established between the amount of calcification and stone demonstration, the sonogram being influenced by the size of the stone, its surface contour and its position in the ultrasound beam. Sonography is therefore not suitable for selecting those patients on whom litholysis could be carried out. Sonography appears to be useful only in a negative way by establishing the exact size of the concretion. (orig.) [de

  11. Process for altering the colour of hard stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samoilovich, M.I.; Shaposhniko, A.A.; Turinge, A.P.; Vakhidov, S.A.; Nurullaev, Ergash.

    1981-01-01

    Process for altering the colour of hard stones and articles made with such stones, used in the jewellery trade, consisting in treating the hard stones in a neutron reactor and gamma particles accompanying them, whereby the treatment is performed with fast neutrons of at least 0.5 MeV, at integral doses of 5x10 15 to 1x10 18 neutrons/cm 2 , and gamma radiations, at integral doses of 5x10 6 to 1x10 9 R, at temperatures under 300 0 C [fr

  12. "Piedra Franca": the same name for many different natural stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Dolores; Navarro, Rafael; Baltuille, Jose Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The Spanish name "Piedra Franca" refers to all the stones of sedimentary origin that have uniform coloration and easeof cutting/carving in order to obtain dimensional blocks for construction. The first references to this denomination occurred during medieval times, when builders had to choose the best materials to construct magnificent cathedrals. The largest volume of such natural stones were extracted from Caen, northern France, and historic records use the English term, "freestone", ie stone easy to cut, and to work by the masons dedicated to build cathedrals ("freemasons") in contrast to the "roughstone", hard stones worked by the hard hewers or "rough masons". The original French name referred to the limestones extracted at Caen, but over time, the original meaning expanded to include other natural stones with similar coloration and ease to carve. Notably this included many sandstones that were used in adjacent countries such as Spain. In the latter, although the most popular for its importance in architectural heritage is the Villamayor sandstone from Salamanca, other historically important natural stones are also known as "Piedra Franca" including the calcarenite from Santa Pudia (Granada), the limestone from Alava, the sandstone from Jaen and the sandstone from Cádiz. All of them were used in the construction of Spanish architectonic heritage and share similar exterior characteristics. In fact, several are known as golden stones. However when conservation and restoration of architectonic heritage is involved, the correct and original material should be used. The existence of national networks (e.g. CONSTRUROCK) and international task groups (e.g. IUGS Heritage Stone Task Group) can help to properly characterize, document, and differentiate between the varieties of "Piedra Franca" and they should be consulted by builders, architects and any other stone professsionals involved in such activities. An error in choosing the natural stone can result in

  13. Simplified methods for the evaluation of the risk of forming renal stones and the follow-up of stone-forming propensity during the preventive treatment of stone-formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Fèlix; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia

    2016-02-01

    Renal lithiasis is a complex multifactorial disease in which recurrence is common. Thus, simple and reliable procedures are needed to evaluate patients with previous kidney stones to determine the risk of recurrence. In this paper we review simple biochemical procedures that can be used to determine the risk for renal stone formation when the stone is available or unavailable for analysis. Our present knowledge of renal lithiasis indicates that renal stones form due to several well-defined factors. Analysis of the renal stone itself can provide important information about clinical factors that require further investigation. When the stone is unavailable, it is necessary to perform a general evaluation of main urinary risk factors associated to renal stone formation, but this study should be complemented considering information related to direct familial antecedents, recidivant degree, radiological images, medical history, and life style habits. Finally, tools for patient follow-up of stone-forming propensity during the preventive treatment are discussed .

  14. Column: Factors Affecting Data Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fairbanks

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear physics, the phrase decay rate is used to denote the rate that atoms and other particles spontaneously decompose. Uranium-235 famously decays into a variety of daughter isotopes including Thorium and Neptunium, which themselves decay to others. Decay rates are widely observed and wildly different depending on many factors, both internal and external. U-235 has a half-life of 703,800,000 years, for example, while free neutrons have a half-life of 611 seconds and neutrons in an atomic nucleus are stable.We posit that data in computer systems also experiences some kind of statistical decay process and thus also has a discernible decay rate. Like atomic decay, data decay fluctuates wildly. But unlike atomic decay, data decay rates are the result of so many different interplaying processes that we currently do not understand them well enough to come up with quantifiable numbers. Nevertheless, we believe that it is useful to discuss some of the factors that impact the data decay rate, for these factors frequently determine whether useful data about a subject can be recovered by forensic investigation.(see PDF for full column

  15. Gaseous carbon dioxide absorbing column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harashina, Heihachi.

    1994-01-01

    The absorbing column of the present invention comprises a cyclone to which CO 2 gas and Ca(OH) 2 are blown to form CaCO 3 , a water supply means connected to an upper portion of the cyclone for forming a thin water membrane on the inner wall thereof, and a water processing means connected to a lower portion of the cyclone for draining water incorporating CaCO 3 . If a mixed fluid of CO 2 gas and Ca(OH) 2 is blown in a state where a flowing water membrane is formed on the inner wall of the cyclone, formation of CaCO 3 is promoted also in the inside of the cyclone in addition to the formation of CaCO 3 in the course of blowing. Then, formed CaCO 3 is discharged from the lower portion of the cyclone together with downwardly flowing water. With such procedures, solid contents such as CaCO 3 separated at the inner circumferential wall are sent into the thin water membrane, adsorbed and captured, and the solid contents are successively washed out, so that a phenomenon that the solid contents deposit and grow on the inner wall of the cyclone can be prevented effectively. (T.M.)

  16. Differences in Ureteroscopic Stone Treatment and Outcomes for Distal, Mid-, Proximal, or Multiple Ureteral Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez Castro, Enrique; Osther, Palle J S; Jinga, Viorel

    2014-01-01

    Ureteroscopy has traditionally been the preferred approach for treatment of distal and midureteral stones, with shock wave lithotripsy used for proximal ureteral stones.......Ureteroscopy has traditionally been the preferred approach for treatment of distal and midureteral stones, with shock wave lithotripsy used for proximal ureteral stones....

  17. Analysis of urinary stone constituents using powder X-ray diffraction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    drug and bacteria induced factors are all external factors causing urinary stones. ... gion of hot climate, low rain fall, and increased salin- ity of ground water, is a ... Gender the patient stones the stones habit and age. Stone removal procedure. KSHP. 1. KSHP1 Vegetarian. Male, 50. Natural excretion in the urine. KSHIM. 1.

  18. Pyramidal anchor stone from Baga waters of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    . Pyramidal anchor stones have an apex hole which goes up to the round hole, however Goa anchor stone has no such perforation, but, instead has a rectangular cutting on the apex. The anchor stone is compared with Greek pyramidal anchor stones, and probably...

  19. Influence of Pelvicaliceal Anatomy on Stone Clearance After Flexible Ureteroscopy and Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for Large Renal Stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takaaki; Murota, Takashi; Okada, Shinsuke; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Muguruma, Kouei; Kinoshita, Hidefumi; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2015-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the impact of pelvicaliceal anatomy on stone clearance in patients with remnant fragments in the lower pole after flexible ureteroscopy and holmium laser lithotripsy (fURSL) for renal stones >15 mm. This retrospective study included 67 patients with radiopaque residual fragments (>2 mm) in the lower pole after fURSL for large renal stones (>15 mm). The preoperative infundibular length (IL), infundibular width (IW), infundibulopelvic angle (IPA), and caliceal pelvic height (CPH) were measured using intravenous urography. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine whether any of these measurements affected stone clearance. Of the 67 patients, 55 (82.1%) were stone free (SF) 3 months after fURSL. The anatomic factors significantly favorable for an SF status were a short IL, broad IW, wide IPA, and low CPH. On multivariate analysis, the IPA had a significant influence on an SF status after fURSL (p=0.010). An IPA renal stones according to our multivariate analysis. Additional studies are required to further evaluate the characteristics of the pelvicaliceal anatomy influencing stone clearance.

  20. Rasch models with exchangeable rows and columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt

    The article studies distributions of doubly infinite binary matrices with exchangeable rows and columns which satify the further property that the probability of any $m \\times n$ submatrix is a function of the row- and column sums of that matrix. We show that any such distribution is a (unique...

  1. The general packed column : an analytical solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, J.L.W.

    2000-01-01

    The transient behaviour of a packed column is considered. The column, uniformly packed on a macroscopic scale, is multi-structured on the microscopic level: the solid phase consists of particles, which may differ in incidence, shape or size, and other relevant physical properties. Transport in the

  2. Fringing-field effects in acceleration columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavor, M.I.; Weick, H.; Wollnik, H.

    1999-01-01

    Fringing-field effects in acceleration columns are investigated, based on the fringing-field integral method. Transfer matrices at the effective boundaries of the acceleration column are obtained, as well as the general transfer matrix of the region separating two homogeneous electrostatic fields with different field strengths. The accuracy of the fringing-field integral method is investigated

  3. Center column design of the PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrolo, J.; Frankenberg, J.

    1975-01-01

    The center column of the PLT machine is a secondary support member for the toroidal field coils. Its purpose is to decrease the bending moment at the nose of the coils. The center column design was to have been a stainless steel casting with the toroidal field coils grouped around the casting at installation, trapping it in place. However, the castings developed cracks during fabrication and were unsuitable for use. Installation of the coils proceeded without the center column. It then became necessary to redesign a center column which would be capable of installation with the toroidal field coils in place. The final design consists of three A-286 forgings. This paper discusses the final center column design and the influence that new knowledge, obtained during the power tests, had on the new design

  4. Admittance Scanning for Whole Column Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamos, Brian N; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Ohira, Shin-Ichi

    2017-07-05

    Whole column detection (WCD) is as old as chromatography itself. WCD requires an ability to interrogate column contents from the outside. Other than the obvious case of optical detection through a transparent column, admittance (often termed contactless conductance) measurements can also sense changes in the column contents (especially ionic content) from the outside without galvanic contact with the solution. We propose here electromechanically scanned admittance imaging and apply this to open tubular (OT) chromatography. The detector scans across the column; the length resolution depends on the scanning velocity and the data acquisition frequency, ultimately limited by the physical step resolution (40 μm in the present setup). Precision equal to this step resolution was observed for locating an interface between two immiscible liquids inside a 21 μm capillary. Mechanically, the maximum scanning speed was 100 mm/s, but at 1 kHz sampling rate and a time constant of 25 ms, the highest practical scan speed (no peak distortion) was 28 mm/s. At scanning speeds of 0, 4, and 28 mm/s, the S/N for 180 pL (zone length of 1.9 mm in a 11 μm i.d. column) of 500 μM KCl injected into water was 6450, 3850, and 1500, respectively. To facilitate constant and reproducible contact with the column regardless of minor variations in outer diameter, a double quadrupole electrode system was developed. Columns of significant length (>1 m) can be readily scanned. We demonstrate its applicability with both OT and commercial packed columns and explore uniformity of retention along a column, increasing S/N by stopped-flow repeat scans, etc. as unique applications.

  5. Effects of microgravity on renal stone risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y. C.; Cintron, N. M.; Whitson, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    Physiologic changes induced during human exposure to the microgravity environment of space may contribute to an increased potential for renal stone formation. Renal stone risk factors obtained 10 days before flight and immediately after return to earth indicated that calcium oxalate and uric acid stone-forming potential was increased after space flights of 4-10 days. These data describe the need for examining renal stone risk during in-flight phases of space missions. Because of limited availability of space and refrigerated storage on spacecraft, effective methods must be developed for collecting urine samples in-flight and for preserving (or storing) them at temperatures and under conditions commensurate with mission constraints.

  6. Percutaneous transhepatic fragmentation of gall stones and extraction of fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, R.; Klose, K.; Schmidt, H.D.; Staritz, M.; Mainz Univ.; Mainz Univ.

    1983-01-01

    Attempts at percutaneous removal have been made in 13 patients with solitary and multiple intra- and extra-hepatic biliary duct stones measuring 5 to 30 mm. The stones were fragmented with a Dormia basket and the fragments removed transhepatically. In ten patients the procedure was successful, including one patient with multiple intra-hepatic stones. The procedure can be recommended for cases of calculous obstruction of biliary anastomoses or of stones which could not be removed by endoscopy, or where there is already biliary drainage being carried out, or in patients with a high opertive risk. In two patients, dilatation of the papilla was also carried out, in four patients a stenosis was dilated and in a further two patients, electro-incision of a stenosis was performed. (orig.) [de

  7. Calcium Oxalate Stones Are Frequently Found Attached to Randall's Plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matlaga, Brian R.; Williams, James C. Jr.; Evan, Andrew P.; Lingeman, James E.

    2007-01-01

    The exact mechanisms of the crystallization processes that occur during the formation of calcium oxalate calculi are controversial. Over six decades ago, Alexander Randall reported on a series of cadaveric renal units in which he observed calcium salt deposits on the tips of the renal papilla. Randall hypothesized that these deposits, eponymously termed Randall's plaque, would be the ideal site for stone formation, and indeed in a number of specimens he noted small stones attached to the papillae. With the recent advent of digital endoscopic imaging and micro computerized tomography (CT) technology, it is now possible to inspect the renal papilla of living, human stone formers and to study the attached stone with greater scrutiny

  8. A biological stone from a medieval cemetery in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gładykowska-Rzeczycka, Judyta J; Nowakowski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature shows that origination of biological stones as well as their pathogenesis mostly depend on the environmental factors. As a result, the structural spectrum of such calculi and their chemical composition are highly diversified. It is well known that biological stones are formed mostly in the digestive and urinary tracts. However, it has been demonstrated that this kind of stony structure can be also, though rarely, found in circulatory and reproductive systems, skin, mucosa, and tear ducts. Although in palaeopathology, the list of biological stones is enriched by stony tumours and/or discharges, it is very difficult to uncover the small size deposits in excavation material. In the literature such findings, originating from different countries and centuries, are few. The described stone was found among the bones of an adult individual in the medieval cemetery of Gdańsk (Poland). The SEM, X-ray spectrometer and chemical evaluation revealed that it was a bladder calculus.

  9. Renal and prostate stones composition in alkaptonuria: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Fleur; Biaou, Ibrahim; Koopmansch, Caroline; Vanden Bossche, Marc; Pozdzik, Agnieszka; Roumeguère, Thierry; Cotton, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Alkaptonuria is a genetic disorder characterized by an accumulation of homogentisic acid due to an enzymatic defect of homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase. The homogentisic acid is excreted exclusively by both glomerular filtration and tubular secretion leading to the renal parenchyma being exposed to high concentrations of homogentisic acid. The alkaptonuric patients are at higher risk of renal stones (and of prostate stones for males), usually in the later stages of the disease. We describe the case of a 51-year-old man whose renal and prostate stones were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy, respectively. We review the cases of alkaptonuria (AKU) patients reported in the literature for whom the composition of kidney or prostate stones was assessed with physical or chemical techniques. In this paper, we also discuss the advantages and drawbacks of the different methodologies.

  10. Topological anisotropy of stone-wales waves in graphenic fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ori, Ottorino; Cataldo, Franco; Putz, Mihai V

    2011-01-01

    Stone-Wales operators interchange four adjacent hexagons with two pentagon-heptagon 5|7 pairs that, graphically, may be iteratively propagated in the graphene layer, originating a new interesting structural defect called here Stone-Wales wave. By minimization, the Wiener index topological invariant evidences a marked anisotropy of the Stone-Wales defects that, topologically, are in fact preferably generated and propagated along the diagonal of the graphenic fragments, including carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons. This peculiar edge-effect is shown in this paper having a predominant topological origin, leaving to future experimental investigations the task of verifying the occurrence in nature of wave-like defects similar to the ones proposed here. Graph-theoretical tools used in this paper for the generation and the propagation of the Stone-Wales defects waves are applicable to investigate isomeric modifications of chemical structures with various dimensionality like fullerenes, nanotubes, graphenic layers, schwarzites, zeolites.

  11. Edge scour in current adjacent to stone covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thor Ugelvig; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Meyer, Knud Erik

    The present paper reports some early results of an experimental investigation of edge scour in currents. Two kinds of measurements are made (1) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of secondary currents that take place near a junction between the stone cover and the sand bed in a clear......-water experiment; and (2) scour measurements in actual scour experiment in the live-bed regime. The early results indicate that edge scour in a steady current propagating in-line with a stone layer is caused by the combined action of two effects; (1) Primary flow and (2) Secondary flow. The primary flow stirs up...... the sediment and puts into suspension, and the secondary flow carries it away from the junction between the stone layer and the sand bed, resulting in a scour hole forming adjacent to the toe of the stone layer....

  12. Stone anchors from the Okhamandal region, Gujarat Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Gudigar, P.; Tripati, S.; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    During marine archaeological explorations since 1983, off Dwarka, a large number of stone anchors were discovered and dated to 1400 BC, comparing with anchors found in Mediterranean waters. In recent archaeological explorations off Dwarka, Bet...

  13. The Civil Palaces in Gravina street, Alicante: building stones and salt weathering

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, M.; García del Cura, M. A.; Spairani, Y.; de Blas, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a study into the architecture and construction of the 18th Century Civil Palaces located in Gravina street (Provincial Museum of Fine Arts of Alicante), the building stones used and the mineral related decay processes that these materials have suffered. The original building stones and other stones used in subsequent restorations in these Civil Palaces are bioclastic limestones and/or calcarenites (San Julian Stone and Bateig Stone). Campello st...

  14. Getter Incorporation into Cast Stone and Solid State Characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmussen, Robert M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lawter, Amanda R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephenson, John R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bowden, Mark E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Washton, Nancy M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Neeway, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Du, Yingge [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pearce, Carolyn I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Saslow, Sarah A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buck, Edgar C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cordova, Elsa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-28

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is collecting relevant available data on waste forms for use as a supplemental immobilization technology, to provide the additional capacity needed to treat low-activity waste (LAW) in Hanford Site tanks and complete the tank waste cleanup mission in a timely and cost-effective manner. One candidate supplemental waste form, fabricated using a low-temperature process, is a cementitious grout called Cast Stone. Cast Stone has been under investigation for this application at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) since initial screening tests in FY13. This report is the culmination of work to lower the diffusivities of Tc and I from Cast Stone using getters. Getters are compounds added to a system designed to selectively sequester a species of interest to provide increased stability to the species. The work contained within this report is related to waste form development and testing, and does not directly support the 2017 integrated disposal facility (IDF) performance assessment. However, this work contains valuable information which may be used in performance assessment maintenance past FY17, and in future waste form development. This report on performance characterization of Tc and I getters in Cast Stone fabricated with simulated LAW covers several areas of interest and major findings to WRPS: investigating performance of potassium metal sulfide (KMS-2-SS) and tin (II) apatite (Sn-A) as Tc getters when incorporated into Cast Stone; investigating performance of silver exchanged zeolite (Ag-Z) and argentite (Arg) as I getters when incorporated into Cast Stone; utilizing sequential addition of Tc and I getters to overcome any deleterious interactions between the getters in solution; determining, for the first time, Tc distribution within the cured Cast Stone and its evolution during leaching; and performing solid state characterization of getters and Cast Stone samples to support leach test findings and develop a

  15. Noble gases in ten stone meteorites from Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, H.W.; Schultz, L.

    1980-01-01

    The concentrations and isotopic composition of noble gases have been determined in all ten stone meteorites recovered in Antarctica during 1976-1977 by a U.S.-Japanese expedition. From a comparison of spallogenic and radiogenic gas components it is concluded that the chondrites Mt. Baldr (a) and Mt. Baldr (b) belong to the same fall but that all other stone meteorites are individual finds. (orig.)

  16. The Cost-Effectiveness of Treatment Modalities for Ureteral Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Ji-Yuen Siu MD

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Additional intervention and medical treatment of complications may follow the primary treatment of a ureteral stone. We investigated the cost of the treatment of ureteral stone(s within 45 days after initial intervention by means of retrospective analysis of the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. All patients of ages ≥20 years diagnosed with ureteral stone(s( International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification/ICD-9-CM: 592.1 from January 2001 to December 2011 were enrolled. We included a comorbidity code only if the diagnosis appeared in at least 2 separate claims in a patient’s record. Treatment modalities (code included extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL; 98.51, ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URSL; 56.31, percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL; 55.04, (open ureterolithotomy (56.20, and laparoscopy (ie, laparoscopic ureterolithotomy; 54.21. There were 28 513 patients with ureteral stones (13 848 men and 14 665 women in the randomized sample of 1 million patients. The mean cost was 526.4 ± 724.1 United States Dollar (USD. The costs of treatment were significantly increased in patients with comorbidities. The costs of treatment among each primary treatment modalities were 1212.2 ± 627.3, 1146.7 ± 816.8, 2507.4 ± 1333.5, 1533.3 ± 1137.1, 2566.4 ± 2594.3, and 209.8 ± 473.2 USD in the SWL, URSL, PNL, (open ureterolithotomy, laparoscopy (laparoscopic ureterolithotomy, and conservative treatment group, respectively. In conclusion, URSL was more cost-effective than SWL and PNL as a primary treatment modality for ureteral stone(s when the possible additional costs within 45 days after the initial operation were included in the calculation.

  17. New data on painted stone slabs from Southern Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Faron-Bartels, Renata

    2011-01-01

    After analysing museum collections, studying bibliographical sources and undertaking two surface prospections at Pampacolca the author carried out the archaeological project “Lajas Pintadas de Pampacolca” (painted stone slabs from Pampacolca) in August and September 2001 with the objective of investigating these stones or rather the painted ceramic boards in more detail. The essential task set for this project consisted in obtaining artefacts from preferably undisturbed contexts at various ar...

  18. Medical expulsive treatment of distal ureteral stone using tamsulosin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, H.; Azim, W.; Akmal, M.; Murtaza, B.

    2015-01-01

    Many minimally invasive interventional techniques as well as expectant treatments exist for the management of lower ureteric calculi. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of tamsulosin as an expulsive pharmacologic therapy for the treatment of distal ureteral stone. Methods: This randomized control trial included 100 patients over 18 years of age with stone Size = 8mm in distal 1/3 of ureter. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups (A and B). Group A Patients were given Capsule Tamsulosin 0.4 mg, 1 daily up to 4 weeks while group B patients were given placebo, 1 Capsule daily up to 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was expulsion rate. A written informed consent was taken from all the patients. Expulsion time, need for analgesics, need for hospitalization and drug side effects were secondary endpoints. Results: A total of 49 patients in group A and 48 patients in group B reported back, therefore 97 out of 100 patients were evaluated. Mean age of the patients was 36.34 years (range 18-57 years). Mean stone size was 5.78 mm (range 4-8 mm) in greatest dimension. A stone expulsion rate of 85.71% (42 patients) was noted in group A and 54.20% (26 patients) in group B. Group A revealed a statistically significant advantage in term of stone expulsion rate (p=0.032). Considering expulsion time in days group A showed statistically significant advantage (p=0.015). Regarding age, sex, stone size and stone lateralization (right/left), there was no significant difference between the group A and B. No drug side effects were noted in both the groups. Conclusion: By using tamsulosin a higher stone expulsion rates can be achieved in a shorter time. More randomized control trials are required to establish tamsulosin as a standard medical expulsive treatment for small distal ureteric calculus. (author)

  19. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    Renal acidification ability was examined in 90 recurrent renal stone formers, using fasting morning urinary pH levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in subjects with pH levels above 6.0. Fifteen patients (16.6%) revealed a distal renal tubular acidification defect: one patient......, this has important therapeutic implications. The pathological sequence in renal stone formers with dRTA is discussed....

  20. Extended Leach Testing of Simulated LAW Cast Stone Monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Benjamin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jung, H. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-09

    This report describes the results from long-term laboratory leach tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the release of key constituents from monoliths of Cast Stone prepared with four simulated low-activity waste (LAW) liquid waste streams. Specific objectives of the Cast Stone long-term leach tests described in this report focused on four activities: 1. Extending the leaching times for selected ongoing EPA-1315 tests on monoliths made with LAW simulants beyond the conventional 63-day time period up to 609 days reported herein (with some tests continuing that will be documented later) in an effort to evaluate long-term leaching properties of Cast Stone to support future performance assessment activities. 2. Starting new EPA-1315 leach tests on archived Cast Stone monoliths made with four LAW simulants using two leachants (deionized water [DIW] and simulated Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Site vadose zone pore water [VZP]). 3. Evaluating the impacts of varying the iodide loading (starting iodide concentrations) in one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) Average) by manufacturing new Cast Stone monoliths and repeating the EPA-1315 leach tests using DIW and the VZP leachants. 4. Evaluating the impacts of using a non-pertechnetate form of Tc that is present in some Hanford tanks. In this activity one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na HTWOS Average) was spiked with a Tc(I)-tricarbonyl gluconate species and then solidified into Cast Stone monoliths. Cured monoliths were leached using the EPA-1315 leach protocol with DIW and VZP. The leach results for the Tc-Gluconate Cast Stone monoliths were compared to Cast Stone monoliths pertechnetate.

  1. A novel stone retrieval basket for more efficient lithotripsy procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, N; Mahajan, A; Don, J; Schwartz, B

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an improved stone retrieval device that uses a newly designed cage of Nitinol wires encompassing a mesh basket made of a material that is laser resistant. Current methods to extract large stones involve imaging, using a laser to fragment the stones and then using existing cage-like baskets to trap the fragments individually and extracting them one at a time. These procedures are tedious, and may result in leaving some fragments behind that can reform causing the need for another procedure. The device presented in this paper will have a mesh-like sack which will consist of a laser resistant material of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) enclosed within a newly designed Nitinol cage. Two alternate designs are provided for the cage in this paper. The handle of the device is revised to allow for a 3 Fr (1 mm) opening such that a laser's fiber optic cable can enter the device. Using this device a laser can be used to fragment the stone, and all the fragments are retained in the basket in both the design options. The basket can then be retracted allowing for the retrieval of all the fragments in one shot. The stone retrieval basket presented in this paper will significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of lithotripsy procedures for removal of large kidney and biliary tract stones.

  2. The History of Urinary Stones: In Parallel with Civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tefekli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The roots of modern science and history of urinary stone disease go back to the Ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamia. Hippocrates defined the symptoms of bladder stones. The first recorded details of “perineal lithotomy” were those of Cornelius Celsus. Ancient Arabic medicine was based mainly on classical Greco-Roman works. Interestingly, the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 forbade physicians from performing surgical procedures, as contact with blood or body fluids was viewed as contaminating to men. With Renaissance new procedures could be tried on criminals. The first recorded suprapubic lithotomy was carried out by Pierre Franco in 1561. In 1874, Bigelow developed a lithotrite, which was introduced into the bladder under anaesthesia (called as “litholopaxy”. Young was the first to report ureteroscopy (1929. With advances in intracorporeal lithotripsy techniques, ureteroscopy became the treatment of choice for ureteric stones. In 1976, Fernstrom and Johannson established percutaneous access to remove a renal stone. However, with the introduction of the first extracorporeal shock wave machine in 1980, a dramatic change in stone management was observed. Civilization in parallel with scientific developments has brought us to a point where we try not to “cut” our patients for stone disease, as Hippocrates admonishes, but rather manage them with minimal invasive alternatives.

  3. The Stones and the Stars Building Scotland's Newest Megalith

    CERN Document Server

    Lunan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    There are at least 48 identified prehistoric stone circles in Scotland.  In truth, very little is known about the people who erected them, and ultimately about what the stone circles were for.  Most stone circles are astronomically aligned, which has led to the modern debate over the significance of the alignments.  The megaliths certainly represented an enormous cooperative effort, would at the very least have demonstrated power and wealth, and being set away from any dwellings probably served a ceremonial, or perhaps religious, purpose. Observations at the site of the stone circles, of solar, lunar, and stellar events, have already cast light on some of the questions about the construction and use of ancient megalithic observatories. In his capacity as manager of the Glasgow Parks Department Astronomy Project, author Duncan Lunan designed and built in the late 1970s Sighthill, the first astronomically aligned stone circle in Britain in over 3,000 years.  The Stones and the Stars examines the case for as...

  4. Urethral obstruction from dislodged bladder Diverticulum stones: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeke Linus I

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary urethral stone although rare, commonly arises from the kidneys, bladder or are seen in patients with urethral stricture. These stones are either found in the posterior or anterior urethra and do result in acute urinary retention. We report urethral obstruction from dislodged bladder diverticulum stones. This to our knowledge is the first report from Nigeria and in English literature. Case presentation A 69 year old, male, Nigerian with clinical and radiological features of acute urinary retention, benign prostate enlargement and bladder diverticulum. He had a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP and was lost to follow up. He re-presented with retained urethral catheter of 4months duration. The catheter was removed but attempt at re-passing the catheter failed and a suprapubic cystostomy was performed. Clinical examination and plain radiograph of the penis confirmed anterior and posterior urethral stones. He had meatotomy and antegrade manual stone extraction with no urethra injury. Conclusions Urethral obstruction can result from inadequate treatment of patient with benign prostate enlargement and bladder diverticulum stones. Surgeons in resource limited environment should be conversant with transurethral resection of the prostate and cystolithotripsy or open prostatectomy and diverticulectomy.

  5. Collapse of tall granular columns in fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Krishna; Soga, Kenichi; Delenne, Jean-Yves

    2017-06-01

    Avalanches, landslides, and debris flows are geophysical hazards, which involve rapid mass movement of granular solids, water, and air as a multi-phase system. In order to describe the mechanism of immersed granular flows, it is important to consider both the dynamics of the solid phase and the role of the ambient fluid. In the present study, the collapse of a granular column in fluid is studied using 2D LBM - DEM. The flow kinematics are compared with the dry and buoyant granular collapse to understand the influence of hydrodynamic forces and lubrication on the run-out. In the case of tall columns, the amount of material destabilised above the failure plane is larger than that of short columns. Therefore, the surface area of the mobilised mass that interacts with the surrounding fluid in tall columns is significantly higher than the short columns. This increase in the area of soil - fluid interaction results in an increase in the formation of turbulent vortices thereby altering the deposit morphology. It is observed that the vortices result in the formation of heaps that significantly affects the distribution of mass in the flow. In order to understand the behaviour of tall columns, the run-out behaviour of a dense granular column with an initial aspect ratio of 6 is studied. The collapse behaviour is analysed for different slope angles: 0°, 2.5°, 5° and 7.5°.

  6. Field Applications of Gamma Column Scanning Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Denis D.; Mallilin, Janice P.; Nuñez, Ivy Angelica A.; Bulos, Adelina DM.

    2015-01-01

    The Isotope Techniques Section (ITS) under the Nuclear Service Division (NSD) of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) conducts services, research and development on radioisotope and sealed source application in the industry. This aims to benefit the manufacturing industries such as petroleum, petrochemical, chemical, energy, waste, column treatment plant, etc. through on line inspection and troubleshooting of a process vessel, column or pipe that could optimize the process operation and increase production efficiency. One of the most common sealed source techniques for industrial applications is the gamma column scanning technology. Gamma column scanning technology is an established technique for inspection, analysis and diagnosis of industrial columns for process optimization, solving operational malfunctions and management of resources. It is a convenient non-intrusive, cost effective and cost-efficient technique to examine inner details of an industrial process vessel such as a distillation column while it is in operation. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) recognize the importance and benefits of this technology and has implemented activities to make gamma column scanning locally available to benefit the Philippine industries. Continuous effort for capacity building is being pursued thru the implementation of in-house and on-the-job training abroad and upgrading of equipment. (author)

  7. Long-distance stone transport and pigment use in the earliest Middle Stone Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Alison S.; Yellen, John E.; Potts, Richard; Behrensmeyer, Anna K.; Deino, Alan L.; Leslie, David E.; Ambrose, Stanley H.; Ferguson, Jeffrey R.; d’Errico, Francesco; Zipkin, Andrew M.; Whittaker, Scott; Post, Jeffrey; Veatch, Elizabeth G.; Foecke, Kimberly; Clark, Jennifer B.

    2018-04-01

    Previous research suggests that the complex symbolic, technological, and socioeconomic behaviors that typify Homo sapiens had roots in the middle Pleistocene methods. Hominins at these sites made prepared cores and points, exploited iron-rich rocks to obtain red pigment, and procured stone tool materials from ≥25- to 50-kilometer distances. Associated fauna suggests a broad resource strategy that included large and small prey. These practices imply notable changes in how individuals and groups related to the landscape and to one another and provide documentation relevant to human social and cognitive evolution.

  8. Soap-stone in architecture of North European cities. A nomination as a candidate for a Global Heritage Stones Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Soap stone represents soft Proterozoic rock type from the deposit Nunnalahti situated on the western shore of the big Lake Pielinen in Eastern Finland. It consists of talc (40 - 50 %), magnesite MgCO3 (40 - 50 %), chlorite (5 - 8 %), dolomite, calcite, etc. The colour of the stone is very spectacular and varies from yellow and brownish-yellow to grey, greenish grey. The soft stone is a highly workable material for a sculptor's chisel. It was one of the most popular ornamental rocks used architecture of the Modern style in St Petersburg, Helsinki, Turku, Tampere and other North European cities lately in the XIX-th centuries. Examples are given and discussed. References: Bulakh, A.G., Abakumova, N.B., and Romanovsky, J.V. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p. (In English).

  9. Behind the scenes of GS: precious stones

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    Since the laying of the foundation stone for the Synchrocyclotron in June 1954, CERN has been expanding constantly to reach a current constructed surface area of 580,000 m2 covered by some 650 buildings (just 125 of which account for 70% of this area).   This year, while CERN’s 60th anniversary is an important milestone in the Laboratory’s history, it also highlights another reality: CERN is a collection of ageing buildings, no less than 60% of which are more than 40 years old. “Of the 580,000 m2 of buildings, around 52,000 m2 are nearing the end of their useful life and 140,000 m2 are in need of extensive renovations,” says Natacha Lopez, GS-SE-PO Section Leader. “Of course, we’ve already started several renovation projects, but it's a huge challenge as we have to renovate buildings constructed in the 1960s and 70s while complying with modern standards, which are very different from those that were in force when they were bu...

  10. A comparative study of pulmonary Koch's among marble stone worker community of Bhedaghat and nonmarble stone worker community of Garha

    OpenAIRE

    Shashi Prabha Tomar; Avadhesh PS Kushwah; Sonjjoay Pande; Pushpraj S Baghel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Occupational stone dust exposure may result in several health risks tuberculosis (TB) silicosis, obstructive as well as restrictive lung diseases, among which TB is more prevalent in developing countries like India. Most people residing in Bhedaghat engaged in carving statues from variable stones and marble rocks belongs to poor socioeconomic conditions and unaware of the preventive measures. Ultimately they end up in chronic respiratory problems and various complications. Objec...

  11. The relationship between serum and urinary Fetuin-A levels and kidney stone formation among kidney stone patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrsai, Abdolrasoul; Guitynavard, Fateme; Nikoobakht, Mohammad Reza; Gooran, Shahram; Ahmadi, Ayat

    2017-01-01

    Mineralization inhibitors are required to prevent the precipitation of minerals and inhibit the formation of kidney stones and other ectopic calcifications. In laboratory studies, Fetuin-A as a glycoprotein has inhibited hydroxyapatite precipitation in calcium and phosphate supersaturated solutions; however, information about patients with kidney stones is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of serum and urinary Fetuin-A levels with calcium oxalate kidney stones. In this case-control study, 30 patients with kidney stones and 30 healthy individuals without any history of urolithiasis who were referred to the urology ward of Sina Hospital of Tehran, Iran, in 2015 were entered into the study. All patients underwent computerized tomography scans. After collecting demographic information, serum and urine levels of Fetuin-A and some other calcification inhibitors and promoters, were measured and compared using T-test, Mann-Whitney and logistic regression between the two study groups. Patients with kidney stones, on average, had lower levels of Serum Fetuin-A (1522.27 ±755.39 vs. 1914.64 ±733.76 μg/ml; P = 0.046) as well as lower levels of Urine Fetuin-A (944.62 ±188.5 vs. 1409.68 ±295.26 μg/ml; P <0.001). Multivariate logistic analysis showed that urinary calcium and serum creatinine are the risk factors and Fetuin-A is a urinary protective factor for kidney stones. PFC Our study showed that patients with kidney stones had lower serum and urinary levels of Fetuin-A. In the logistic regression model, urinary Fetuin-A was reported as a protective factor for kidney stones.

  12. Dynamic effects of diabatization in distillation columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic effects of diabatization in distillation columns are investigated in simulation emphasizing the heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A generic, dynamic, first-principle model has been formulated, which is flexible enough to describe various diabatic distillation configurations....... Dynamic Relative Gain Array and Singular Value Analysis have been applied in a comparative study of a conventional distillation column and a HIDiC. The study showed increased input-output coupling due to diabatization. Feasible SISO control structures for the HIDiC were also found and control...

  13. Dynamic Effects of Diabatization in Distillation Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic eects of diabatization in distillation columns are investigated in simulation with primary focus on the heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A generic, dynamic, rst-principle model has been formulated, which is exible to describe various diabatic distillation congurations....... Dynamic Relative Gain Array and Singular Value Analysis have been applied in a comparative study of a conventional distillation column and a HIDiC. The study showed increased input-output coupling due to diabatization. Feasible SISO control structures for the HIDiC were also found. Control...

  14. Column-oriented database management systems

    OpenAIRE

    Možina, David

    2013-01-01

    In the following thesis I will present column-oriented database. Among other things, I will answer on a question why there is a need for a column-oriented database. In recent years there have been a lot of attention regarding a column-oriented database, even if the existence of a columnar database management systems dates back in the early seventies of the last century. I will compare both systems for a database management – a colum-oriented database system and a row-oriented database system ...

  15. Evaluation of stone volume distribution in renal collecting system as a predictor of stone-free rate after percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a retrospective single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Hasan Anıl; Canat, Lutfi; Bayraktarlı, Recep; Alkan, Ilter; Can, Osman; Altunrende, Fatih

    2017-06-23

    We analyzed our stone-free rates of PNL with regard to stone burden and its ratio to the renal collecting system volume. Data of 164 patients who underwent PNL were analyzed retrospectively. Volume segmentation of renal collecting system and stones were done using 3D segmentation software with the images obtained from CT data. Analyzed stone volume (ASV) and renal collecting system volume (RCSV) were measured and the ASV-to-RCSV ratio was calculated after the creation of a 3D surface volume rendering of renal stones and the collecting system. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to determine factors affecting stone-free rates; also we assessed the predictive accuracy of the ASV-to-RCSV ratio using the receiving operating curve (ROC) and AUC. The stone-free rate of PNL monotherapy was 53% (164 procedures).The ASV-to-RCSV ratio and calyx number with stones were the most influential predictors of stone-free status (OR 4.15, 95% CI 2.24-7.24, renal collecting system, which is calculated using the 3D volume segmentation method, is a significant determinant of the stone-free rate before PCNL surgery. It could be used as a single guide variable by the clinician before renal stone surgery to predict extra requirements for stone clearance.

  16. [Components of urinary crystallites in urine of uric acid stone formers and its relationship with formation of stones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-jie; Tan, Jin; Ouyang, Jian-ming

    2010-09-01

    The components, zeta potential, morphology of nanocrystallites in urines of 10 uric acid stone formers as well as their relationship with the formation of uric acid stones were comparatively studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, nanoparticle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The urine pH of uric acid stone formers was relatively low within the range of 4.8 to 5.7. The main constituent of urinary crystallites was uric acid. Their particle size distribution was highly uneven, ranging from several nanometers to several tens of micrometers, and obvious aggregation was observed. The zeta potential of urinary crystallites in ten lithogenic patients was -6.02 mV, which was higher than that in ten normal subjects (-10.1 mV). After drug therapies (potassium citrate was taken), the urine pH value of the uric acid stone formers increased to 6.5 or so, and at this pH value most of the uric acid had changed to urate. Since the solubility of urate increased greatly than uric acid, the risk of the formation of uric acid stone reduced. The results in this paper showed that there was a close relationship among stone components, urinary crystallites composition and urine pH.

  17. Novelda Stone: widely used within the Spanish architectural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fort, R.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Novelda Stone is a calcareous rock, of the biocalcarenite type. It is extracted from the «Vinalopó Medio» area (Alicante, eastern Spain. Novelda stone is known as construction material from the 13th century. From final of the 19th century until the present time, it has been used in Madrid, Valencia and Alicante. In the past, the main quarries from which this type of rock was extracted were located in the municipal districts of Monóvar (Almorquí Stone, Sax (Portazgo Stone and Elda (Bateig Stone. Nowadays, the main active extraction site is situated in the Bateig Hill quarries. The rock extracted is known commercially as Bateig Stone. The main varieties of this Bateig Stone are: White, Blue, Layer and Fantasy. Each variety of Novelda stone has different durability rate and different pathology depending on their characteristics, particularly on their hydric behaviour patterns. Layer Bateig and Portazgo stone undergo granular disintegration and alveolization and are less durable than the rest. White and Blue Bateig, as well as Almorquí stone, only develop fissures or scaling under extreme conditions.

    La Piedra de Novelda es una roca carbonática del tipo biocalcarenita. Se extrae del área de Vinalopó Medio (Alicante, España oriental. La piedra de Novelda es conocida como material de construcción desde el siglo XIII. Desde finales del siglo XIX hasta la actualidad, se ha utilizado en edificios y monumentos de Madrid y Valencia, así como Alicante. En el pasado, las canteras principales donde se extrajo este tipo de piedra se localizaban en los distritos municipales de Monóvar (Piedra Almorquí, Sax (Piedra Portazgo y El da (Piedra Bateig. Hoy en día, la actividad principal se sitúa en las canteras de Bateig. La piedra extraída es conocida comercialmente como Piedra Bateig. Las variedades principales de esta Piedra Bateig son: Blanco, Azul, Llano y Fantasía. Consecuencia de las diferentes propiedades y en especial de los

  18. CONSTRUCTION OF A NEW HIGHWAY EMBANKMENT ON THE SOFT CLAY SOIL TREATMENT BY STONE COLUMNS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QASIM A. ALJANABI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To continue of the second phase of the East Coast Expressway between Kuantan and Kula Terengganu in Malaysia system innovative solution are required. In this new phase there are embankment region has been subjected to extensive soft clay soil. These comprise typically of clayey silts of very high water content and undrained shear strengths in the range of 8 to 11 kPa to depths of up to 8m. To support an embankment height of up to 12 m, were filled and thereafter Vibro Replacement treatment was carried out to treat the very soft soil. Extensive instrumentation using rod settlement gauges, inclinometers and piezometers were installed to monitor the performance of the Vibro Replacement treatment. This paper reports on aspects of design, installation and the measured results from the instrumentation scheme.

  19. Family of columns isospectral to gravity-loaded columns with tip force: A discrete approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Nirmal; Ganguli, Ranjan

    2018-06-01

    A discrete model is introduced to analyze transverse vibration of straight, clamped-free (CF) columns of variable cross-sectional geometry under the influence of gravity and a constant axial force at the tip. The discrete model is used to determine critical combinations of loading parameters - a gravity parameter and a tip force parameter - that cause onset of dynamic instability in the CF column. A methodology, based on matrix-factorization, is described to transform the discrete model into a family of models corresponding to weightless and unloaded clamped-free (WUCF) columns, each with a transverse vibration spectrum isospectral to the original model. Characteristics of models in this isospectral family are dependent on three transformation parameters. A procedure is discussed to convert the isospectral discrete model description into geometric description of realistic columns i.e. from the discrete model, we construct isospectral WUCF columns with rectangular cross-sections varying in width and depth. As part of numerical studies to demonstrate efficacy of techniques presented, frequency parameters of a uniform column and three types of tapered CF columns under different combinations of loading parameters are obtained from the discrete model. Critical combinations of these parameters for a typical tapered column are derived. These results match with published results. Example CF columns, under arbitrarily-chosen combinations of loading parameters are considered and for each combination, isospectral WUCF columns are constructed. Role of transformation parameters in determining characteristics of isospectral columns is discussed and optimum values are deduced. Natural frequencies of these WUCF columns computed using Finite Element Method (FEM) match well with those of the given gravity-loaded CF column with tip force, hence confirming isospectrality.

  20. Unbonded Prestressed Columns for Earthquake Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Modern structures are able to survive significant shaking caused by earthquakes. By implementing unbonded post-tensioned tendons in bridge columns, the damage caused by an earthquake can be significantly lower than that of a standard reinforced concr...

  1. PRTR ion exchange vault column sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornwell, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents ion exchange column sampling and Non Destructive Assay (NDA) results from activities in 1994, for the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange vault. The objective was to obtain sufficient information to prepare disposal documentation for the ion exchange columns found in the PRTR Ion exchange vault. This activity also allowed for the monitoring of the liquid level in the lower vault. The sampling activity contained five separate activities: (1) Sampling an ion exchange column and analyzing the ion exchange media for purpose of waste disposal; (2) Gamma and neutron NDA testing on ion exchange columns located in the upper vault; (3) Lower vault liquid level measurement; (4) Radiological survey of the upper vault; and (5) Secure the vault pending waste disposal

  2. Renal geology (quantitative renal stone analysis) by 'Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Iqbal

    2008-01-01

    To prospectively determine the precise stone composition (quantitative analysis) by using infrared spectroscopy in patients with urinary stone disease presenting to our clinic. To determine an ideal method for stone analysis suitable for use in a clinical setting. After routine and a detailed metabolic workup of all patients of urolithiasis, stone samples of 50 patients of urolithiasis satisfying the entry criteria were subjected to the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis after adequate sample homogenization at a single testing center. Calcium oxalate monohydrate and dihydrate stone mixture was most commonly encountered in 35 (71%) followed by calcium phosphate, carbonate apatite, magnesium ammonium hexahydrate and xanthine stones. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy allows an accurate, reliable quantitative method of stone analysis. It also helps in maintaining a computerized large reference library. Knowledge of precise stone composition may allow the institution of appropriate prophylactic therapy despite the absence of any detectable metabolic abnormalities. This may prevent and or delay stone recurrence.

  3. Patients' selection for treatment of caliceal diverticular stones with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hong; Lee, Hee Jeong; Son, Soon Yong; Kang, Seong Ho; Cho, Cheong Chan; Ryu, Meung Sun [AMC, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Kook [Kwang-Ju Health College, Kwang-Ju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    Symptoms of caliceal diverticular stones are commonly associated with pain, recurrent urinary tract infection and hematuria. The aim of this study is to select the proper patient for the application of more successful extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy(ESWL) as a treatment of caliceal diverticular stone. 16 patients with caliceal diverticular stones were treated with ESWL, and all patients had single caliceal diverticulum. The diagnosis of caliceal diverticulum with stones was made by intraveneous pyelography to all patients. On these intravenous pyelogram, we also classified diverticular type, whether the diverticular neck is connected with urinary tract patently, diverticular site and stone number and size. All patients were followed after ESWL by plain film of the kidneys, ureters and bladder and interviewed. Of all patients 44% was shown stone-free completely, also 83% was rendered symptom-free. All patients whose diverticular neck connected with urinary tract patently on the intraveneous pyelogram became stone-free. Of solitary stone 60% and multiple stones (more than 2) 17% became symptom-free. The patients with infection before ESWL 75% had residual stones, of these patients 33% had slightly flank pain, and 25% of patients with stones recurred become stone-free. We propose that more successful ESWL for patients with caliceal diverticular stones select satisfactory patients including that the diverticular neck is connected with urinary tract patently, solitary stone and no infection simultaneously.

  4. Patients' selection for treatment of caliceal diverticular stones with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Hong; Lee, Hee Jeong; Son, Soon Yong; Kang, Seong Ho; Cho, Cheong Chan; Ryu, Meung Sun; Kim, Seung Kook

    2001-01-01

    Symptoms of caliceal diverticular stones are commonly associated with pain, recurrent urinary tract infection and hematuria. The aim of this study is to select the proper patient for the application of more successful extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy(ESWL) as a treatment of caliceal diverticular stone. 16 patients with caliceal diverticular stones were treated with ESWL, and all patients had single caliceal diverticulum. The diagnosis of caliceal diverticulum with stones was made by intraveneous pyelography to all patients. On these intravenous pyelogram, we also classified diverticular type, whether the diverticular neck is connected with urinary tract patently, diverticular site and stone number and size. All patients were followed after ESWL by plain film of the kidneys, ureters and bladder and interviewed. Of all patients 44% was shown stone-free completely, also 83% was rendered symptom-free. All patients whose diverticular neck connected with urinary tract patently on the intraveneous pyelogram became stone-free. Of solitary stone 60% and multiple stones (more than 2) 17% became symptom-free. The patients with infection before ESWL 75% had residual stones, of these patients 33% had slightly flank pain, and 25% of patients with stones recurred become stone-free. We propose that more successful ESWL for patients with caliceal diverticular stones select satisfactory patients including that the diverticular neck is connected with urinary tract patently, solitary stone and no infection simultaneously

  5. Capacity of columns with splice imperfections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, E.P.; Stephen, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    To study the behavior of spliced columns subjected to tensile forces simulating situations which may develop in an earthquake, all of the spliced specimens were tested to failure in tension after first having been subjected to large compressive loads. The results of these tests indicate that the lack of perfect contact at compression splices of columns may not be important, provided that the gaps are shimmed and welding is used to maintain the sections in alignment

  6. Medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteric stones: tamsulosin versus silodosin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Imperatore

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of tamsulosin and silodosin in the context of medical expulsive therapy (MET of distal ureteric stones. Patients and methods: Observational data were collected retrospectively from patients who received silodosin (N = 50 or tamsulosin (N = 50 as MET from January 2012 to January 2013. Inclusion criteria were: patients aged ≥ 18 years with a single, unilateral, symptomatic, radiopaque ureteric stone of 10 mm or smaller in the largest dimension located between the lower border of the sacroiliac joint and the vesico-ureteric junction. Stone expulsion rate, stone expulsion time, number of pain episodes, need for analgesics use, incidence of side effects were compared. Results: Stone-expulsion rate in the silodosin and in the tamsulosin groups were 88% and 82%, respectively (p not significant. Mean expulsion times were 6.7 and 6.5 days in the silodosin and tamsulosin group, respectively (p not significant. Mean number of pain episodes were 1.6 and 1.7 in the silodosin and tamsulosin group, respectively (p not significant. The mean number of analgesic requirement was 0.84 and 0.9 for the silodosin and tamsulosin group, respectively (p not significant. Overall, incidence of side effects was similar in both groups. Patients taking silodosin experienced an higher incidence of retrograde ejaculation but a lower incidence of side effects related to peripheral vasodilation when compared to patients taking tamsulosin. Subgroup analysis demonstrated significantly lower mean expulsion times and pain episodes in patients with stones ≤ 5 mm in both groups. Conclusions: Tamsulosin and silodosin are equally effective as MET for distal ureteric stones sized 10 mm or smaller. MET with silodosin is associatd with a lower incidence of side effects related to peripheral vasodilation but an higher incidence of retrograde ejaculation when compared to tamsulosin.

  7. Medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteric stones: tamsulosin versus silodosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatore, Vittorio; Fusco, Ferdinando; Creta, Massimiliano; Di Meo, Sergio; Buonopane, Roberto; Longo, Nicola; Imbimbo, Ciro; Mirone, Vincenzo

    2014-06-30

    To compare the efficacy and safety of tamsulosin and silodosin in the context of medical expulsive therapy (MET) of distal ureteric stones. Observational data were collected retrospectively from patients who received silodosin (N = 50) or tamsulosin (N = 50) as MET from January 2012 to January 2013. Inclusion criteria were: patients aged ≥ 18 years with a single, unilateral, symptomatic, radiopaque ureteric stone of 10 mm or smaller in the largest dimension located between the lower border of the sacroiliac joint and the vesico-ureteric junction. Stone expulsion rate, stone expulsion time, number of pain episodes, need for analgesics use, incidence of side effects were compared. Stone-expulsion rate in the silodosin and in the tamsulosin groups were 88% and 82%, respectively (p not significant). Mean expulsion times were 6.7 and 6.5 days in the silodosin and tamsulosin group, respectively (p not significant). Mean number of pain episodes were 1.6 and 1.7 in the silodosin and tamsulosin group, respectively (p not significant). The mean number of analgesic requirement was 0.84 and 0.9 for the silodosin and tamsulosin group, respectively (p not significant). Overall, incidence of side effects was similar in both groups. Patients taking silodosin experienced an higher incidence of retrograde ejaculation but a lower incidence of side effects related to peripheral vasodilation when compared to patients taking tamsulosin. Subgroup analysis demonstrated significantly lower mean expulsion times and pain episodes in patients with stones ≤ 5 mm in both groups. Tamsulosin and silodosin are equally effective as MET for distal ureteric stones sized 10 mm or smaller. MET with silodosin is associatd with a lower incidence of side effects related to peripheral vasodilation but an higher incidence of retrograde ejaculation when compared to tamsulosin.

  8. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  9. The fragmented character of Middle Palaeolithic stone tool technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turq, Alain; Roebroeks, Wil; Bourguignon, Laurence; Faivre, Jean-Philippe

    2013-11-01

    The importance of the transport of stone artefacts in structuring Neandertal lithic assemblages has often been addressed, but the degree to which this led to fragmentation of lithic reduction over Middle Palaeolithic landscapes has not been explicitly studied thus far. Large-scale excavations of Middle Palaeolithic open-air sites and refitting studies of the retrieved assemblages have yielded new, high-resolution data on the mobile aspects of Neandertal stone tool technology. In this paper, we integrate lithic technology and raw material data from recent studies of Middle Palaeolithic open-air and rock shelter sites in Western Europe. We demonstrate that the results of a variety of typological, technological (especially refitting), and lithological studies have important consequences for our knowledge of the acquisition of raw materials and subsequent production, usage and discard of stone artefacts in the Middle Palaeolithic. Neandertal production and use of stone tools was fragmented in three domains: the spatial, the temporal and the social domain. We show that this versatile segmentation of stone artefact handling strategies is a main determinant of the character of the Neandertal archaeological record. Our data testify to ubiquitous and continuous transport of stone artefacts of a wide variety of forms, picked by Neandertals using selection criteria that were sometimes far removed from what archaeologists have traditionally considered, and to some degree still consider, to be desired end products of knapping activities. The data presented here testify to the variability and versatility of Middle Palaeolithic stone tool technology, whose fragmented character created very heterogeneous archaeological assemblages, usually the product of a wide variety of independent import, use, discard and/or subsequent transport events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Salt-Induced Physical Weathering of Stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiro, M.; Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Rodriguez-Navarro, C.

    2010-12-01

    Salt weathering is recognized as an important mechanism that contributes to the modeling and shaping of the earth’s surface, in a range of environments spanning from the Sahara desert to Antarctica. It also contributes to the degradation and loss of cultural heritage, particularly carved stone and historic buildings. Soluble salts have recently been suggested to contribute to the shaping of rock outcrops on Mars and are being identified in other planetary bodies such as the moons of Jupiter (Europa and IO)1. Soluble salts such as sulfates, nitrates, chlorides and carbonates of alkali and alkali earth metals can crystallize within the porous system of rocks and building stones, exerting sufficient pressure against the pore walls to fracture the substrate. This physical damage results in increased porosity, thus providing a higher surface area for salt-enhanced chemical weathering. To better understand how salt-induced physical weathering occurs, we have studied the crystallization of the particularly damaging salt, sodium sulfate2, in a model system (a sintered porous glass of controlled porosity and pore size). For this elusive task of studying sub-surface crystallization in pores, we combined a variety of instruments to identify which phases crystallized during evaporation and calculated the supersaturation and associated crystallization pressure that caused damage. The heat of crystallization was measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), providing the timing of crystallization events and phase transitions3, while the evaporation rate was recorded using thermal gravimetry (TG). These methods enabled calculation of the sodium sulfate concentration in solution at every point during evaporation. Two-dimensional X-ray diffraction (2D-XRD) performs synchrotron-like experiments in a normal lab by using a Molybdenum X-ray source (more than 5 times more penetrative than conventional Copper source). Using this method, we determined that the first phase to

  11. Gas Chromatograph Method Optimization Trade Study for RESOLVE: 20-meter Column v. 8-meter Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huz, Kateryna

    2014-01-01

    RESOLVE is the payload on a Class D mission, Resource Prospector, which will prospect for water and other volatile resources at a lunar pole. The RESOLVE payload's primary scientific purpose includes determining the presence of water on the moon in the lunar regolith. In order to detect the water, a gas chromatograph (GC) will be used in conjunction with a mass spectrometer (MS). The goal of the experiment was to compare two GC column lengths and recommend which would be best for RESOLVE's purposes. Throughout the experiment, an Inficon Fusion GC and an Inficon Micro GC 3000 were used. The Fusion had a 20m long column with 0.25mm internal diameter (Id). The Micro GC 3000 had an 8m long column with a 0.32mm Id. By varying the column temperature and column pressure while holding all other parameters constant, the ideal conditions for testing with each column length in their individual instrument configurations were determined. The criteria used for determining the optimal method parameters included (in no particular order) (1) quickest run time, (2) peak sharpness, and (3) peak separation. After testing numerous combinations of temperature and pressure, the parameters for each column length that resulted in the most optimal data given my three criteria were selected. The ideal temperature and pressure for the 20m column were 95 C and 50psig. At this temperature and pressure, the peaks were separated and the retention times were shorter compared to other combinations. The Inficon Micro GC 3000 operated better at lower temperature mainly due to the shorter 8m column. The optimal column temperature and pressure were 70 C and 30psig. The Inficon Micro GC 3000 8m column had worse separation than the Inficon Fusion 20m column, but was able to separate water within a shorter run time. Therefore, the most significant tradeoff between the two column lengths was peak separation of the sample versus run time. After performing several tests, it was concluded that better

  12. The handedness of historiated spiral columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzin, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Trajan's Column in Rome (AD 113) was the model for a modest number of other spiral columns decorated with figural, narrative imagery from antiquity to the present day. Most of these wind upwards to the right, often with a congruent spiral staircase within. A brief introductory consideration of antique screw direction in mechanical devices and fluted columns suggests that the former may have been affected by the handedness of designers and the latter by a preference for symmetry. However, for the historiated columns that are the main focus of this article, the determining factor was likely script direction. The manner in which this operated is considered, as well as competing mechanisms that might explain exceptions. A related phenomenon is the reversal of the spiral in a non-trivial number of reproductions of the antique columns, from Roman coinage to Renaissance and baroque drawings and engravings. Finally, the consistent inattention in academic literature to the spiral direction of historiated columns and the repeated publication of erroneous earlier reproductions warrants further consideration.

  13. Interpretation of the lime column penetration test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liyanapathirana, D S; Kelly, R B

    2010-01-01

    Dry soil mix (DSM) columns are used to reduce the settlement and to improve the stability of embankments constructed on soft clays. During construction the shear strength of the columns needs to be confirmed for compliance with technical assumptions. A specialized blade shaped penetrometer known as the lime column probe, has been developed for testing DSM columns. This test can be carried out as a pull out resistance test (PORT) or a push in resistance test (PIRT). The test is considered to be more representative of average column shear strength than methods that test only a limited area of the column. Both PORT and PIRT tests require empirical correlations of measured resistance to an absolute measure of shear strength, in a similar manner to the cone penetration test. In this paper, finite element method is used to assess the probe factor, N, for the PORT test. Due to the large soil deformations around the probe, an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) based finite element formulation has been used. Variation of N with rigidity index and the friction at the probe-soil interface are investigated to establish a range for the probe factor.

  14. The Guy's stone score--grading the complexity of percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kay; Smith, Naomi C; Hegarty, Nicholas; Glass, Jonathan M

    2011-08-01

    To report the development and validation of a scoring system, the Guy's stone score, to grade the complexity of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Currently, no standardized method is available to predict the stone-free rate after PCNL. The Guy's stone score was developed through a combination of expert opinion, published data review, and iterative testing. It comprises 4 grades: grade I, solitary stone in mid/lower pole or solitary stone in the pelvis with simple anatomy; grade II, solitary stone in upper pole or multiple stones in a patient with simple anatomy or a solitary stone in a patient with abnormal anatomy; grade III, multiple stones in a patient with abnormal anatomy or stones in a caliceal diverticulum or partial staghorn calculus; grade IV, staghorn calculus or any stone in a patient with spina bifida or spinal injury. It was assessed for reproducibility using the kappa coefficient and validated on a prospective database of 100 PCNL procedures performed in a tertiary stone center. The complications were graded using the modified Clavien score. The clinical outcomes were recorded prospectively and assessed with multivariate analysis. The Guy's stone score was the only factor that significantly and independently predicted the stone-free rate (P = .01). It was found to be reproducible, with good inter-rater agreement (P = .81). None of the other factors tested, including stone burden, operating surgeon, patient weight, age, and comorbidity, correlated with the stone-free rate. The Guy's stone score accurately predicted the stone-free rate after PCNL. It was easy to use and reproducible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [The effiectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in treating proxima ureteral stones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, M I; Belousov, I I; Yassine, A M

    2017-10-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has proven efficacy in the treatment of proximal ureteral stones. The research to date has not been able to establish real time to spontaneous stone clearance after ESWL and the appropriateness and effectiveness of -blockers in stimulating residual stone clearance after ESWL. To conduct a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of ESWL in treating proximal ureteral stones and determine the appropriateness of using -blockers to stimulate residual stone clearance. ESWL was performed in 40 patients with X-ray positive proximal ureteral stones. Before ESWL and at 3 months after the treatment all patients underwent multispiral computed tomography. ESWL was considered successful if there was a complete clearance of the stones with no residual fragments on the control MSCT. If a residual ureteral stone was found at 3 months after ESWL, a 2-week course of silodosin was administered. Complete stone clearance was achieved in 37.5% of patients. Silodosin therapy for residual stones resulted in stone clearance in 68.4% of cases. Taken together, ESWL monotherapy and additional 3 months of lithokinetic therapy resulted in stone clearance in 70.0% of patients. The remaining patients underwent contact ureteral lithotripsy. Spontaneous stone passage after ESWL for proximal ureteral stones occurs not in all patients. Most commonly it occurred during the first three weeks after ESWL, and thereafter stone passage was not observed. In half of the patients with residual stones they were asymptomatic. The effectiveness of ESWL as a monotherapy for ureteral stones greater than 15 mm is incomplete. Adding silodosin during the long-term post ESWL period improves the passage of asymptomatic residual stones in 2/3 of patients, which makes its use promising.

  16. Context: The strategic management Rosetta Stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Weeks

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse context as a means for interpreting and making sense of evolving strategic management theory and practice. Problem investigated: Traditional strategic management theory based on rational deductive methodologies assumes contextual predictability, yet contemporary conditions tend to contradict this assumption. In response, alternative theories and practices for dealing with complex contexts have emerged (Brews & Purohit, 2006; Grant, 2003; Kurt & Snowden, 2003and Stacey, 1995. Methodology: A literature study was undertaken to determine the nature of emergent strategic management theory and practice, in response to contextual complexity and how it differs from traditional practice (Mintzberg, 1994 and Weeks &Lessing, 1993. Findings: An important conclusion drawn from the study is that context acts as a determinant for making sense of the evolution of strategic management theory and practice. While traditional strategic management practice still assumes relevance in contexts of linear causality, it breaks down in complex contexts. Emergent strategic management theory, based on complex adaptive systems, is increasingly assuming relevance. Notably, many institutions are still attempting to make use of scenario planning in an attempt to deal with contextual complexity, a practice not supported by leading researchers(Stacey, 1995 and Kurt & Snowden, 2003. Value of the research: The insights gained from the study assume relevance, in view of the contextual complexity confronting modern-day institutions. The findings suggest that emergent strategy based on complex adaptive system theory needs to be considered as a means for dealing with increasing environmental turbulence. Conclusion: It is concluded that context serves as the Rosetta stone for making sense of strategic management theory and practice. In view of the research findings, as reflected in the literature, it would seem that the use of complex

  17. Obituary: Ronald Cecil Stone, 1946-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monet, Alice Kay Babcock

    2006-12-01

    Ronald C. Stone, an astronomer at the US Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, passed away on 10 September 2005 in Downer's Grove, IL, following a valiant struggle with cancer. He was fifty-nine years old. Ron was born on 9 June 1946 in Seattle, Washington, to Helen (Vocelka) and Cecil Stone. His father was a World War II veteran who attended college on the GI Bill and became a mechanical engineer. He and his wife raised three sons: Dwight, Ronald, and Gavin. They lived in a number of locations across the U.S. before settling at last in Downer's Grove when Ron was in the fourth grade. Ron's interest in astronomy began when he was given a toy planetarium projector while still in grade school, and later a small telescope. In high school, he also built his own telescope, grinding the 6-inch mirror by hand. He completed grade school and high school in Downer's Grove and did his undergraduate studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, majoring in astronomy and physics and graduating cum laude in 1968. The following year, he was drafted into the U.S. Army and served for two years, including a stint in Vietnam. Although his primary assignment was auditing, he was also involved in the defense of the Long Binh base in Vietnam. He was honorably discharged from the service in 1971 and enrolled that fall at the University of Chicago. While a graduate student working with Bill van Altena, Ron developed his life long interest in the field of astrometry. Van Altena recalls him as "a quiet and cheerful student who wanted to learn, and [who] worked hard to understand the intricacies of astrometry... deriving the most precise proper motions from the 40-inch [Yerkes] refractor plates." Working at Yerkes Observatory in Williams Bay, Wisconsin, he completed a thesis entitled, "Mean Secular Parallax at Low Galactic Latitude." While living in Wisconsin, Ron also became engaged to Ellen Mickel, and the two were married at his parents' home in Downer's Grove. After earning

  18. Mass transfer model liquid phase catalytic exchange column simulation applicable to any column composition profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busigin, A. [NITEK USA Inc., Ocala, FL (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange (LPCE) is a key technology used in water detritiation systems. Rigorous simulation of LPCE is complicated when a column may have both hydrogen and deuterium present in significant concentrations in different sections of the column. This paper presents a general mass transfer model for a homogenous packed bed LPCE column as a set of differential equations describing composition change, and equilibrium equations to define the mass transfer driving force within the column. The model is used to show the effect of deuterium buildup in the bottom of an LPCE column from non-negligible D atom fraction in the bottom feed gas to the column. These types of calculations are important in the design of CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) water detritiation systems.

  19. Development of spent salt treatment technology by zeolite column system. Performance evaluation of zeolite column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Hidenori; Uozumi, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    At electrorefining process, fission products(FPs) accumulate in molten salt. To avoid influence on heating control by decay heat and enlargement of FP amount in the recovered fuel, FP elements must be removed from the spent salt of the electrorefining process. For the removal of the FPs from the spent salt, we are investigating the availability of zeolite column system. For obtaining the basic data of the column system, such as flow property and ion-exchange performance while high temperature molten salt is passing through the column, and experimental apparatus equipped with fraction collector was developed. By using this apparatus, following results were obtained. 1) We cleared up the flow parameter of column system with zeolite powder, such as flow rate control by argon pressure. 2) Zeolite 4A in the column can absorb cesium that is one of the FP elements in molten salt. From these results, we got perspective on availability of the zeolite column system. (author)

  20. Use of the probability of stone formation (PSF) score to assess stone forming risk and treatment response in a cohort of Brazilian stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Benjamin; Robertson, William; Wiseman, Oliver; Amaro, Carmen Regina P R; Leitão, Victor A; Silva, Isabela Leme da; Amaro, João Luiz

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to confirm that PSF (probability of stone formation) changed appropriately following medical therapy on recurrent stone formers. Data were collected on 26 Brazilian stone-formers. A baseline 24-hour urine collection was performed prior to treatment. Details of the medical treatment initiated for stone-disease were recorded. A PSF calculation was performed on the 24 hour urine sample using the 7 urinary parameters required: voided volume, oxalate, calcium, urate, pH, citrate and magnesium. A repeat 24-hour urine sample was performed for PSF calculation after treatment. Comparison was made between the PSF scores before and during treatment. At baseline, 20 of the 26 patients (77%) had a high PSF score (> 0.5). Of the 26 patients, 17 (65%) showed an overall reduction in their PSF profiles with a medical treatment regimen. Eleven patients (42%) changed from a high risk (PSF > 0.5) to a low risk (PSF 0.5) during both assessments. The PSF score reduced following medical treatment in the majority of patients in this cohort.

  1. Use of the probability of stone formation (PSF score to assess stone forming risk and treatment response in a cohort of Brazilian stone formers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Turney

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim was to confirm that PSF (probability of stone formation changed appropriately following medical therapy on recurrent stone formers. Materials and Methods Data were collected on 26 Brazilian stone-formers. A baseline 24-hour urine collection was performed prior to treatment. Details of the medical treatment initiated for stone-disease were recorded. A PSF calculation was performed on the 24 hour urine sample using the 7 urinary parameters required: voided volume, oxalate, calcium, urate, pH, citrate and magnesium. A repeat 24-hour urine sample was performed for PSF calculation after treatment. Comparison was made between the PSF scores before and during treatment. Results At baseline, 20 of the 26 patients (77% had a high PSF score (> 0.5. Of the 26 patients, 17 (65% showed an overall reduction in their PSF profiles with a medical treatment regimen. Eleven patients (42% changed from a high risk (PSF > 0.5 to a low risk (PSF 0.5 during both assessments. Conclusions The PSF score reduced following medical treatment in the majority of patients in this cohort.

  2. Ornamental Stones and Gemstones: The limits of heritage stone designation: The case for and against Australian Precious Opal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Barry

    2015-04-01

    When the international designation of natural stone types was first mooted in 2007, stones that were utilised in building and construction were the primary focus of attention. However following public discussion it soon became apparent that sculptural stones, stone used for utilitarian purposes such as millstones, as well as archaeological materials including stones used by early man could all be positively assessed as a potential Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR). Over the past 2 years it has been realised there is also a range of ornamental and semi-precious stones that may also be considered in the same international context. Examples in this respect include Imperial Porphyry sourced from Egypt that was much prized in the ancient world and "Derbyshire Blue John" a variety of fluorspar from central England that was used for vases, chalices, urns, candle sticks, jars, bowls door, jewellery and fire-place surrounds, especially in the 18th and 19th centuries. It is at this point that rock materials, sometimes used as gemstones, impinge on the domain of typical heritage stones. In Australia, the gemstone most identifiable with the country is precious opal formed by sedimentary processes in the Great Artesian Basin. In this paper the question is asked whether "Australian Precious Opal" could be or should be considered as a heritage stone of international significance. Immediately Australian Precious Opal satisfies several GHSR criteria including historic use for more than 50 years and wide-ranging utilisation for prestige jewellery around the world. It is also recognised as a cultural icon including association with national identity in Australia as it is legally defined as Australia's "National Gemstone" as well as being the "Gemstone Emblem" for the State of South Australia. Opal continues to be mined. Designation of Australian Precious Opal as a Global Heritage Stone Resource would likely involve formal international recognition of Australian opal in the

  3. Morphology of Major Stone Types, As Shown by Micro Computed Tomography (micro CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Molly E.; Beuschel, Christian A.; McAteer, James A.; Williams, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Micro CT offers the possibility of providing a non-destructive method of stone analysis that allows visualization of 100% of the stone's volume. For the present study, micro CT analysis was completed on stones of known composition with isotropic voxel sizes of either 7 or 9.1 μm. Each mineral type was distinctive, either by x-ray attenuation values or by morphology. Minor components, such as the presence of apatite in oxalate stones, were easily seen. The analysis of stones by micro CT opens up the possibility of exploring the stone as an encapsulated history of the patient's disease, showing changes in mineral deposition with time.

  4. Structural Decoupling and Disturbance Rejection in a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahar, Mehrdad; Jantzen, Jan; Commault, C.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references.......Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references....

  5. Childhood bladder stones-an endemic disease of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, B.

    2015-01-01

    Bladder calculi are one of the commonest health problems in young children especially in rural and underprivileged areas. Methods: All children of bladder stones operated at District Headquarter Hospital Mithi from July 2009 to June 2012 were included in this cross-sectional study. Data was collected regarding age, sex, address (rural or urban), body weight, duration of breast feeding, weaning, detailed dietary history regarding milk type, volume, amount of water intake, recurrent diarrhoea, urinary tract infection (UTI), family history, and socioeconomic history. Urine analysis, complete blood count (CBC), renal function, ultra sound abdomen, X-ray kidney, ureter, and bladder (KUB) was done in all patients. All patients had cystolithotomy and were followed up till complete recovery. Results: A total of 113 children (97 males and 16 females) operated at District Headquarter Hospital Mithi Tharparker were included in study. All patients belonged to local desert areas of Tharparker. Age ranged from 18 months to 14 year (mean age 8.6 year). Most frequent symptom was difficulty in micturition in 76 (67.25%) patients, urinary retention in 18 (15.9%) and stone with pyuria and fever in 12 (10.6%) patients. Recurrent episodes of diarrhoea (more than 3 episodes per year) in 73(65%) patients, recurrent UTI in 51 (45.6%), family history of stone disease in 6 (5%) and associated rectal prolapse in 3(2.6%) patients. On x-ray KUB 111 (98%) patients had single stone in bladder, 2 (2%) had multiple stones and an associated renal and ureteric stone in 5 (4.5%). Mild anaemia (Hb 7-10 gm%) was seen in 35 (39.55%) patients, moderate anaemia (Hb 5-7 gm %) was seen in 21(24%) and severe anaemia (Hb less than 5 gm%) was seen in 14 (16%) patients. All patients had open cystolithotomy for removal of stones under general anaesthesia. Conclusion: Bladder stones are public health problem. Majority of affected patients were less than 5 years old. Low protein diet, dehydration, use of goat milk

  6. The Swedish Bohus granite - a stone with a fascinating history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Eliasson, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    One of the most well-known and well spread Swedish stone types used as building stones is the Bonus granite. It outcrops in an area north of Gothenburgh (SW Sweden), along the coastline, approximately 35 km wide and 85 km long. The granite continues into Norway as the Iddefjord granite. The Bohus granite is one of Sweden's youngest granites. Isotopic dating shows that the magma cooled at about 920 M years ago and thus marking the end of the Sveconorwegian orogoney. It is a composite granite massif area with several granitic intrusions but with rather homogeneous mineralogy. However, colour and texture varies quite a lot and the colour ranges from red to reddish grey although some pure grey varieties occur sparsely. The grain size ranges from medium grained to coarse grained and even with some porphyric parts. Quarrying in an industrial scale started 1842. The merchant A C Kullgren opened the first quarry and produced stones for the construction of the 86 km long Trollhättan channel connecting lake Vänern and the Atlantic ocean in the SW Sweden The stone was used for constructing harbors and wharves along the channel. Several quarries opened in the late 1800 around 1870 - 1890 and the export increased steadily with deliveries to Germany, Denmark, Holland, England and even to South America. The stone industries in Bohuslän (Bohus county), at its peak in 1929, engaged around 7 000 employees. During the depression in 1930 almost all of them became unemployed. However, as a curiosity, production and export continued to Germany for construction of Germania, the future World capital city ("Welthauptstadt Germania"), planned by Adolf Hitler and Albert Speer. About 500 stone workers were kept employed for this project during the late thirties. Today several varieties are still produced: Evja/Ävja, Tossene, Brastad, Näsinge, Broberg, Nolby, Allemarken and Skarstad. However, the number of stone workers is far from that of the early 1900. The Swedish production is mainly

  7. Enhanced affordable methods for assessment of material characteristics and consolidation effects on stone and mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drdacky, M.; Slizkova, Z.

    2012-04-01

    by the sealing putty. An innovative method has therefore been developed and tested at ITAM AS CR for measuring water absorption under low pressure. It enables continuous or manually controlled electronic measurements of water infusion into the surface and recording the acquired data. This measurement procedure reduces the number of operators, and it is more precise, more effective and faster. Two prototypes will be presented: one for continuous laboratory measurements and a portable device for in situ applications. The portable device has been tested in laboratory conditions and also in situ for its basic performance on various types of stone and plaster surfaces, including treated and untreated historic materials. The acquired data was evaluated using software specially written for this purpose in MatLab, and the results were compared with standard capillary water uptake measurements on prismatic columns. Working with the innovated tubes, measurements can be made on complex stone or plaster surfaces, e.g. sculptures in a dense network. This feature is especially appreciated by restorers making interventions on materials that have been treated previously.

  8. Column Selection for Biomedical Analysis Supported by Column Classification Based on Four Test Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenis, Alina; Rekowska, Natalia; Bączek, Tomasz

    2016-01-21

    This article focuses on correlating the column classification obtained from the method created at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KUL), with the chromatographic resolution attained in biomedical separation. In the KUL system, each column is described with four parameters, which enables estimation of the FKUL value characterising similarity of those parameters to the selected reference stationary phase. Thus, a ranking list based on the FKUL value can be calculated for the chosen reference column, then correlated with the results of the column performance test. In this study, the column performance test was based on analysis of moclobemide and its two metabolites in human plasma by liquid chromatography (LC), using 18 columns. The comparative study was performed using traditional correlation of the FKUL values with the retention parameters of the analytes describing the column performance test. In order to deepen the comparative assessment of both data sets, factor analysis (FA) was also used. The obtained results indicated that the stationary phase classes, closely related according to the KUL method, yielded comparable separation for the target substances. Therefore, the column ranking system based on the FKUL-values could be considered supportive in the choice of the appropriate column for biomedical analysis.

  9. Ureteroscopy and stone lithotripsy with lithoclast: personal experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidi, G L; Berti, G L; Canclini, L; Giola, V; Maccaroni, A; Raimoldi, A; Veneroni, L; Bacchioni, A M

    1997-06-01

    Ureteroscopy has become a common technique in the diagnosis and treatment of ureteral pathologies, but this procedure is quite invasive and some complications have been reported in literature. In our Institute 49 patients underwent ureteroscopy and ballistic lithotripsy with lithoclast for ureteral stones. The stones were localized both in the middle and distal part of the ureter. We used a small caliber 7-8.5 Wolf ureteroscope. The treatments were performed under antibiotic prophylaxis. Direct access to the ureter without dilation of the meatus was obtained in 97.96% of patients. The stones were easily reached in 93.88% of the cases and satisfactory fragmentation was obtained in 90.7%. In 4 patients (9.3%) one or more large stone fragments escaped into the kidney, requiring the patients to be treated with ESWL. No major complications occurred: no ureteral perforations, no important bleeding and no severe or persistent infections. All patients were discharged in one to four days postoperatively. The authors conclude that ureteroscopy using small caliber instruments with Lithoclast is a safe and satisfactory alternative to ESWL in the treatment of ureteral stones.

  10. Successful topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using ethyl propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, A F; Amelsberg, A; Esch, O; Schteingart, C D; Lyche, K; Jinich, H; Vansonnenberg, E; D'Agostino, H B

    1997-06-01

    Topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is useful in symptomatic patients judged too ill for surgery. Previous studies showed that ethyl propionate (EP), a C5 ester, dissolves cholesterol gallstones rapidly in vitro, but differs from MTBE in being eliminated so rapidly by the liver that blood levels remain undetectable. Our aim was to test EP as a topical dissolution agent for cholesterol gallbladder stones. Five high-risk patients underwent topical dissolution of gallbladder stones by EP. In three patients, the solvent was instilled via a cholecystostomy tube placed previously to treat acute cholecystitis; in two patients, a percutaneous transhepatic catheter was placed in the gallbladder electively. Gallstone dissolution was assessed by chromatography, by gravimetry, and by catheter cholecystography. Total dissolution of gallstones was obtained in four patients after 6-10 hr of lavage; in the fifth patient, partial gallstone dissolution facilitated basketing of the stones. In two patients, cholesterol dissolution was measured and averaged 30 mg/min. Side effects were limited to one episode of transient hypotension and pain at the infusion site; no patient developed somnolence or nausea. Gallstone elimination was associated with relief of symptoms. EP is an acceptable alternative to MTBE for topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones in high-risk patients. The lower volatility and rapid hepatic extraction of EP suggest that it may be preferable to MTBE in this investigational procedure.

  11. Hydrodynamic effects of air sparging on hollow fiber membranes in a bubble column reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lijun; Law, Adrian Wing-Keung; Fane, Anthony G

    2013-07-01

    Air sparging is now a standard approach to reduce concentration polarization and fouling of membrane modules in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). The hydrodynamic shear stresses, bubble-induced turbulence and cross flows scour the membrane surfaces and help reduce the deposit of foulants onto the membrane surface. However, the detailed quantitative knowledge on the effect of air sparging remains lacking in the literature due to the complex hydrodynamics generated by the gas-liquid flows. To date, there is no valid model that describes the relationship between the membrane fouling performance and the flow hydrodynamics. The present study aims to examine the impact of hydrodynamics induced by air sparging on the membrane fouling mitigation in a quantitative manner. A modelled hollow fiber module was placed in a cylindrical bubble column reactor at different axial heights with the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) monitored under constant flux conditions. The configuration of bubble column without the membrane module immersed was identical to that studied by Gan et al. (2011) using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA), to ensure a good quantitative understanding of turbulent flow conditions along the column height. The experimental results showed that the meandering flow regime which exhibits high flow instability at the 0.3 m is more beneficial to fouling alleviation compared with the steady flow circulation regime at the 0.6 m. The filtration tests also confirmed the existence of an optimal superficial air velocity beyond which a further increase is of no significant benefit on the membrane fouling reduction. In addition, the alternate aeration provided by two air stones mounted at the opposite end of the diameter of the bubble column was also studied to investigate the associated flow dynamics and its influence on the membrane filtration performance. It was found that with a proper switching interval and membrane module orientation, the membrane fouling can be effectively

  12. Predictions of outcomes of renal stones after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy from stone characteristics determined by unenhanced helical computed tomography: a multivariate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Li-Jen; Wong, Yon-Cheong [Chang Gung University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan); Chuang, Cheng-Keng; Chu, Sheng-Hsien; Chen, Chih-Shou; Chiang, Yang-Jen [Chang Gung University, Department of Urology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan); See, Lai-Chu [Chang Gung University, Department of Biostatistics Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2005-11-01

    The aim of our study is to analyze the relationships between the characteristics of renal stones determined by unenhanced helical computed tomography (UHCT) and their outcomes after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) as well as to predict ESWL outcomes of renal stones by their UHCT characteristics with the use of multivariate analysis. During a 7-month period, 80 adult patients with renal stones underwent ESWL as well as UHCT both before and 3 months after ESWL. Of the 80 patients, 42 patients were classified as ESWL successes and 38 as ESWL failures based on their post-ESWL UHCT findings. For pre-ESWL UHCT, a stone number of more than 2 (P=0.0236), a maximal stone size of greater than 12 mm (P<0.0001), a stone burden of more than 700 mm{sup 3} (P<0.0001), a maximal stone density of more than 900 HU (P=0.0008) and nonround/oval stones (P=0.0007) were associated with ESWL failure outcomes. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that a stone burden of more than 700 mm{sup 3} (P=0.0003), the presence of nonround/oval stones (P=0.0072) and a maximal stone density of more than 900 HU (P=0.0430) were statistically significant predictors of a failure outcome for ESWL. Thus, the analysis of stone characteristics of renal stones by UHCT is helpful in selecting appropriate patients undergoing ESWL for favorable outcomes and reduces the overall costs of the treatment of renal stones. (orig.)

  13. [Factors affecting residual stones after percutaneous nephrolithotomy in patients with renal calculus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Mingzhou; Zhang, Haifang; Zhou, Chenlong

    2015-11-24

    To explore the factors affecting the residual stones after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in patients with renal calculus. A retrospective analysis was performed for 1 200 patients who were affected by renal calculus and treated with PCNL between Jan 2008 and May 2014 in People's Hospital of Anyang City. Among those patients, 16 were diagnosed as bilateral renal stone and had two successive operations. The size, location and number of stones, previous history of surgery, the degree of hydronephrosis, urinary infection were included in the univariate analysis. Significant factors in univariate analysis were included in the multivariate analysis to determine factors affecting stone residual. A total of 385 cases developed stone residual after surgery. The overall residual rate was 31.7%. In univariate analysis, renal pelvis combined with caliceal calculus (P=0.006), stone size larger than 4 cm (P=0.005), stone number more than 4 (P=0.002), the amount of bleeding more than 200 ml (P=0.025), operation time longer than 120 minutes (P=0.028) were associated with an increased rate of stone residual. When subjected to the Cox multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors for residual stones were renal pelvis combined with caliceal calculus (P=0.049), stone size larger than 4 cm (P=0.038) and stone number more than 4 (P=0.018). Factors affecting the incidence of residual stones after PCNL are the size, location and number of stones. Larger size stone and the presence of renal pelvis combined with caliceal calculus are significantly associated with residual stones. Nevertheless, stone number less than 4 indicates an increased stone clearance rate.

  14. Sonography as an initial study in patients with suspected ureteral stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Gue; Lim, Joo Won; Ko, Young Tae; Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Hye Won; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yup; Lee, Sun Ju

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of sonography as an initial study in patients with suspected ureteral stone. We have undertaken a prospective study for 106 patients with suspected ureteral stone during 15 months. All the patients subsequently underwent urography at a mean interval of 1.8 days after the abdominopelvic sonography. We had only a clinical impression at the sonography and didn't refer to the other study such as KUB. We observed the degree of hydronephrosis using a grading system by Ellenbogen et aland location and size of stone. Seventy four patients had ureteral stone disease. The sonographic findings of these 74 patients showed a stone with hydronephrosis in 61 patients, a stone without hydronephrosis in 9, only hydronephrosis without stone in 2, and unremarkable finding in 2. In 3 of the remaining 32 patients, sonography showed hydronephrosis without stone. Locations of stone were 9 patients of ureteropelvic junction(UPJ), 19 of proximal ureter, 30 of distal ureter, and 16 of ureterovesical junction(UVJ). The sensitivity of sonography for stone was 95% and the specificity was 100%. When a ureteral stone was present, ipsilateral hydronephrosis was detected in 85% of cases on sonography. When only hydronephrosis without stone was detected on sonography, a ureteral stone was diagnosed in 2(40%) of 5 patients. Mean discrepancy of stone size between sonography and KUB was 3.1mm and stone size on sonography was larger. Grade of hydronephrosis between sonography and urography was the same in 32(59%) of 54 patients, whose stones were not expelled until urography after sonography. Sonography could be used as an initial study in patients with suspected ureteral stone.

  15. Recent advances in column switching sample preparation in bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Saito, Keita

    2012-04-01

    Column switching techniques, using two or more stationary phase columns, are useful for trace enrichment and online automated sample preparation. Target fractions from the first column are transferred online to a second column with different properties for further separation. Column switching techniques can be used to determine the analytes in a complex matrix by direct sample injection or by simple sample treatment. Online column switching sample preparation is usually performed in combination with HPLC or capillary electrophoresis. SPE or turbulent flow chromatography using a cartridge column and in-tube solid-phase microextraction using a capillary column have been developed for convenient column switching sample preparation. Furthermore, various micro-/nano-sample preparation devices using new polymer-coating materials have been developed to improve extraction efficiency. This review describes current developments and future trends in novel column switching sample preparation in bioanalysis, focusing on innovative column switching techniques using new extraction devices and materials.

  16. Role of alpha-1 blocker in expulsion of stone fragments after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirzada, A.J.; Anwar, A.; Javed, A.; Memon, I.; Mohammad, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Renal stone disease is a significant and worldwide health problem. Recent advances in stone management have allowed kidney stones to be treated using extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), uretero-renoscopy (URS), and percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (PCNL). Recently, medical expulsion therapy (MET) has been investigated as a supplement to observation in an effort to improve spontaneous stone passage rates. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized, controlled, prospective study to determine whether the administration of Alpha-1-adrenergic receptor antagonists as an adjunctive medical therapy, increases the efficacy of ESWL to treat renal stones. Sixty patients with renal stones of 0.5-1.5 Cm in size (average size 1.2 Cm) were included in this study underwent ESWL followed by administration of Alpha-1-adrenergic receptor antagonists at department of Urology Liaquat National Hospital Karachi from Feb 2008 to Sept 2008. This was a comparative study and patients were divided into two groups. In group A patients received conventional treatment Diclofenac sodium, Anti Spasmodic (Drotaverine HCl) as required and Proton Pump inhibitor (Omeprazole 20 mg) once daily after shock wave lithotripsy. In group B patients received alpha-1 blocker, Alfuzosin HCl 5 mg twice daily in addition to conventional treatment. All patients were instructed to drink a minimum of 2 litres water daily. Ultrasound guided Dornier Alpha Impact Lithotripter was utilised for shock wave lithotripsy. Results: Of the 60 patients, 76.7% of those receiving Alfuzosin and 46.7% of controls had achieved clinical success at 1 month (p=0.01). The mean cumulative diclofenac dose was 485 mg per patient in the Alfuzosin group and 768 mg per patient in the control group (p=0.002). This difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: Alfuzosin therapy as an adjunctive medical therapy after ESWL is more effective than lithotripsy alone for the treatment of patients with large renal

  17. Contributions to reversed-phase column selectivity: III. Column hydrogen-bond basicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, P W; Dolan, J W; Dorsey, J G; Snyder, L R; Kirkland, J J

    2015-05-22

    Column selectivity in reversed-phase chromatography (RPC) can be described in terms of the hydrophobic-subtraction model, which recognizes five solute-column interactions that together determine solute retention and column selectivity: hydrophobic, steric, hydrogen bonding of an acceptor solute (i.e., a hydrogen-bond base) by a stationary-phase donor group (i.e., a silanol), hydrogen bonding of a donor solute (e.g., a carboxylic acid) by a stationary-phase acceptor group, and ionic. Of these five interactions, hydrogen bonding between donor solutes (acids) and stationary-phase acceptor groups is the least well understood; the present study aims at resolving this uncertainty, so far as possible. Previous work suggests that there are three distinct stationary-phase sites for hydrogen-bond interaction with carboxylic acids, which we will refer to as column basicity I, II, and III. All RPC columns exhibit a selective retention of carboxylic acids (column basicity I) in varying degree. This now appears to involve an interaction of the solute with a pair of vicinal silanols in the stationary phase. For some type-A columns, an additional basic site (column basicity II) is similar to that for column basicity I in primarily affecting the retention of carboxylic acids. The latter site appears to be associated with metal contamination of the silica. Finally, for embedded-polar-group (EPG) columns, the polar group can serve as a proton acceptor (column basicity III) for acids, phenols, and other donor solutes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE HIGH COLUMN DENSITY TURNOVER IN THE H I COLUMN DENSITY DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkal, Denis; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2012-01-01

    We study the high column density regime of the H I column density distribution function and argue that there are two distinct features: a turnover at N H I ≈ 10 21 cm –2 , which is present at both z = 0 and z ≈ 3, and a lack of systems above N H I ≈ 10 22 cm –2 at z = 0. Using observations of the column density distribution, we argue that the H I-H 2 transition does not cause the turnover at N H I ≈ 10 21 cm –2 but can plausibly explain the turnover at N H I ∼> 10 22 cm –2 . We compute the H I column density distribution of individual galaxies in the THINGS sample and show that the turnover column density depends only weakly on metallicity. Furthermore, we show that the column density distribution of galaxies, corrected for inclination, is insensitive to the resolution of the H I map or to averaging in radial shells. Our results indicate that the similarity of H I column density distributions at z = 3 and 0 is due to the similarity of the maximum H I surface densities of high-z and low-z disks, set presumably by universal processes that shape properties of the gaseous disks of galaxies. Using fully cosmological simulations, we explore other candidate physical mechanisms that could produce a turnover in the column density distribution. We show that while turbulence within giant molecular clouds cannot affect the damped Lyα column density distribution, stellar feedback can affect it significantly if the feedback is sufficiently effective in removing gas from the central 2-3 kpc of high-redshift galaxies. Finally, we argue that it is meaningful to compare column densities averaged over ∼ kpc scales with those estimated from quasar spectra that probe sub-pc scales due to the steep power spectrum of H I column density fluctuations observed in nearby galaxies.

  19. Ultrasonography, CT, and ERCP in the diagnosis of choledochal stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasanen, P.; Partanen, K.; Pikkarainen, P.; Alhava, E.; Pirinen, A.; Janatuinen, E.

    1992-01-01

    A prospective study of jaundiced (n = 187) and nonjaundiced (n = 33) cholestatic patients was carried out to evaluate the sensitivity of ultrasonography (US), CT and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in the detection of choledochal stone disease. Altogether 83 patients had the final diagnosis of choledocholithiasis. In the jaundiced patients, the sensitivity of US, CT, and ERCP was 22,5%, 23,2%, and 80,6%, respectively. In cases of cholestasis without jaundice, the values were 20%, 37,5%, and 66,7%. In patients in whom all 3 imaging studies were done (n = 64), the differences between US and ERCP and between CT and ERCP were statistically significant (p < 0.0001). In most false-negative ERCP studies (10/15), the clinical course of the disease strongly suggested a passed choledochal stone. On the basis of this study, we recommend prompt ERCP to be performed if choledochal stone disease is suspected on clinical grounds. (orig.)

  20. Characterization of kidney stones using NAA and other techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Bhardwaj, S.; Vashisht, B.; Swain, K.K.; Ajith, Nicy; Chavan, T.; Wagh, D.N.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Mete, U.; Acharya, R.

    2014-01-01

    Six kidney stone samples were collected from patients treated in the Advance Urology Centre of PGIMER, Chandigarh. The samples were characterized using neutron activation analysis (NAA), Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. For NAA, samples were irradiated in Tray rod facility of Dhruva reactor, Mumbai. Radioactive assay was carried out using high purity germanium detector coupled to 8k channel analyzer. The elements determined in the samples by NAA are Zn, Sr, Co, Fe, Cr, Sc, Se and Th. ED-XRF was used for quantification of Ca. The concentrations of trace elements like Zn, Sr, Fe and Cr were found to be lower in uric acid composite stones as compared to calcium based stones. (author)

  1. Characterization of marble waste for manufacture of artificial stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, M.C.; Silva, A.G.P.

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to study the characterization of marble waste for the manufacture of artificial stone. The characterization of the waste was performed through X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. The results indicated that the marble waste presents typical composition of a dolomite, calcite marble, and their minerals are: Calcite (CaCO_3) and dolomite (MgCa (CO_3)_2. The waste presented predominance of particles below 200 mesh screen. This may be interesting for the production of artificial stone better visual appearance, such as marmoglass, for example. The results indicate that the use of marble waste for production of artificial stone is feasible and environmentally friendly alternative to give a destination for this waste generated in the order of millions of tons representing serious environmental problem. (author)

  2. Indoor external dose rates due to decorative sheet stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, C.H.; Sheu, R.D.; Jiang, S.H. [Dept. of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan)

    2002-03-01

    The specific activities in decorative sheet stone made of granite or marble were measured, whereby the absolute peak efficiency of the HPGe detectors employed in the measurements for the sheet-stone sample was determined using the semi-empirical method. The spatial distribution for the indoor external dose rates due to the radionuclides present in the decorative sheet stone used to clad the floor and the four walls of a standard room was calculated using a three-dimensional point kernel computer code. It was found that the spatial distribution for the indoor dose rates was complex and non-uniform, which represents a difference in relation to the results of earlier studies. (orig.)

  3. Indoor external dose rates due to decorative sheet stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, C.H.; Sheu, R.D.; Jiang, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    The specific activities in decorative sheet stone made of granite or marble were measured, whereby the absolute peak efficiency of the HPGe detectors employed in the measurements for the sheet-stone sample was determined using the semi-empirical method. The spatial distribution for the indoor external dose rates due to the radionuclides present in the decorative sheet stone used to clad the floor and the four walls of a standard room was calculated using a three-dimensional point kernel computer code. It was found that the spatial distribution for the indoor dose rates was complex and non-uniform, which represents a difference in relation to the results of earlier studies. (orig.)

  4. Stone Formation and Fragmentation in Forgotten Ureteral Double J Stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Bas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Nowadays, ureteral stents play an essential role in various endourological and open surgical procedures and common procedures performed in daily urological practice. However, stents can cause significant complications such as migration, infection, fragmentation, stone formation and encrustation, especially when forgotten for a long period. Objectives: We present our experience in endoscopic management of forgotten ureteral stents with a brief review of current literature. Case presentation: A total of 2 patients with forgotten ureteral stents were treated with endourological approaches in our department. Indwelling durations were 18 months and 36 months. After treatment both patients were stone and stent free. Conclusion: An endourological approach is effective for stent and stone removal after a single anesthesia session with minimal morbidity and short hospital stay. However, therapeutic strategy is also determined by the technology available. The best treatment would be the prevention of this complication by providing detailed patient education.

  5. Renal pelvic stones: choosing shock wave lithotripsy or percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Marcovich

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of minimally invasive techniques has revolutionized the surgical management of renal calculi. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy are now both well-established procedures. Each modality has advantages and disadvantages, and the application of each should be based on well-defined factors. These variables include stone factors such as number, size, and composition; factors related to the stone's environment, including the stone's location, spatial anatomy of the renal collecting system, presence of hydronephrosis, and other anatomic variables, such as the presence of calyceal diverticula and renal anomalies; and clinical or patient factors like morbid obesity, the presence of a solitary kidney, and renal insufficiency. The morbidity of each procedure in relation to its efficacy should be taken in to account. This article will review current knowledge and suggest an algorithm for the rational management of renal calculi with shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

  6. A stochastic view on column efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice

    2018-03-09

    A stochastic model of transcolumn eddy dispersion along packed beds was derived. It was based on the calculation of the mean travel time of a single analyte molecule from one radial position to another. The exchange mechanism between two radial positions was governed by the transverse dispersion of the analyte across the column. The radial velocity distribution was obtained by flow simulations in a focused-ion-beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) based 3D reconstruction from a 2.1 mm × 50 mm column packed with 2 μm BEH-C 18 particles. Accordingly, the packed bed was divided into three coaxial and uniform zones: (1) a 1.4 particle diameter wide, ordered, and loose packing at the column wall (velocity u w ), (2) an intermediate 130 μm wide, random, and dense packing (velocity u i ), and (3) the bulk packing in the center of the column (velocity u c ). First, the validity of this proposed stochastic model was tested by adjusting the predicted to the observed reduced van Deemter plots of a 2.1 mm × 50 mm column packed with 2 μm BEH-C 18 fully porous particles (FPPs). An excellent agreement was found for u i  = 0.93u c , a result fully consistent with the FIB-SEM observation (u i  = 0.95u c ). Next, the model was used to measure u i  = 0.94u c for 2.1 mm × 100 mm column packed with 1.6 μm Cortecs-C 18 superficially porous particles (SPPs). The relative velocity bias across columns packed with SPPs is then barely smaller than that observed in columns packed with FPPs (+6% versus + 7%). u w =1.8u i is measured for a 75 μm × 1 m capillary column packed with 2 μm BEH-C 18 particles. Despite this large wall-to-center velocity bias (+80%), the presence of the thin and ordered wall packing layer has no negative impact on the kinetic performance of capillary columns. Finally, the stochastic model of long-range eddy dispersion explains why analytical (2.1-4.6 mm i.d.) and capillary (columns can all be

  7. Vertebral Column Resection for Rigid Spinal Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifi, Comron; Laratta, Joseph L; Petridis, Petros; Shillingford, Jamal N; Lehman, Ronald A; Lenke, Lawrence G

    2017-05-01

    Broad narrative review. To review the evolution, operative technique, outcomes, and complications associated with posterior vertebral column resection. A literature review of posterior vertebral column resection was performed. The authors' surgical technique is outlined in detail. The authors' experience and the literature regarding vertebral column resection are discussed at length. Treatment of severe, rigid coronal and/or sagittal malalignment with posterior vertebral column resection results in approximately 50-70% correction depending on the type of deformity. Surgical site infection rates range from 2.9% to 9.7%. Transient and permanent neurologic injury rates range from 0% to 13.8% and 0% to 6.3%, respectively. Although there are significant variations in EBL throughout the literature, it can be minimized by utilizing tranexamic acid intraoperatively. The ability to correct a rigid deformity in the spine relies on osteotomies. Each osteotomy is associated with a particular magnitude of correction at a single level. Posterior vertebral column resection is the most powerful posterior osteotomy method providing a successful correction of fixed complex deformities. Despite meticulous surgical technique and precision, this robust osteotomy technique can be associated with significant morbidity even in the most experienced hands.

  8. Effect of backmixing on pulse column performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Y.W.

    1979-05-01

    A critical survey of the published literature concerning dispersed phase holdup and longitudinal mixing in pulsed sieve-plate extraction columns has been made to assess the present state-of-the-art in predicting these two parameters, both of which are of critical importance in the development of an accurate mathematical model of the pulse column. Although there are many conflicting correlations of these variables as a function of column geometry, operating conditions, and physical properties of the liquid systems involved it has been possible to develop new correlations which appear to be useful and which are consistent with much of the available data over the limited range of variables most likely to be encountered in plant sized equipment. The correlations developed were used in a stagewise model of the pulse column to predict product concentrations, solute inventory, and concentration profiles in a column for which limited experimental data were available. Reasonable agreement was obtained between the mathematical model and the experimental data. Complete agreement, however, can only be obtained after a correlation for the extraction efficiency has been developed. The correlation of extraction efficiency was beyond the scope of this work

  9. Screening and Management of Asymptomatic Renal Stones in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James; Sargsyan, Ashot; Garcia, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The true risk for renal stone formation in astronauts due to the space flight environment is unknown. Proper management of this condition is crucial to mitigate health and mission risks. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic electronic medical record and the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health databases were reviewed. An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was also done. This work was used to develop a screening and management protocol for renal stones in astronauts that is relevant to the spaceflight operational environment. In the proposed guidelines all astronauts receive a yearly screening and post-flight renal ultrasound using a novel ultrasound protocol. The ultrasound protocol uses a combination of factors, including: size, position, shadow, twinkle and dispersion properties to confirm the presence of a renal calcification. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by a low-dose renal computed tomography scan and urologic consult. Other specific guidelines were also created. A small asymptomatic renal stone within the renal collecting system may become symptomatic at any time, and therefore affect launch and flight schedules, or cause incapacitation during a mission. Astronauts in need of definitive care can be evacuated from the International Space Station, but for deep space missions evacuation is impossible. The new screening and management algorithm has been implemented and the initial round of screening ultrasounds is under way. Data from these exams will better define the incidence of renal stones in U.S. astronauts, and will be used to inform risk mitigation for both short and long duration spaceflights.

  10. Detection of common bile duct stone by hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hisao; Sakai, Toyohiko; Takahashi, Norio

    1991-01-01

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy and direct X-ray cholangiography were compared in 29 patients with common bile duct (CBD) stones confirmed at surgery. The scintigraphic findings included no visualization of the biliary system (NV), pooling of bile in the biliary system (PB), prolonged transit time over 60 min (PTT), filling defect in the CBD image (FD), and reflux of bile toward the intrahepatic ducts after gallbladder stimulation (RB). The positive rates of NV, PB, PTT, FD, and RB in patients with CBD stones were 7%, 31%, 17%, 48%, and 14%, respectively. One or more of these five findings was found in 83%. Although the NV was a useful finding suggesting complete obstruction of the CBD, it shared little in the diagnosis of CBD stone. The positive rate of the PB was relatively high and it would be a useful finding as an indication of the presence of passage disturbance of the CBD. The PB was usually accompanied by the FD. The PTT had some usefulness in the detection of incomplete obstruction of the CBD in patients with a visualized gallbladder. In patients with no visualization of the gallbladder, however, the transit time tended to be shorter than that of gallbladder visualized patients. Therefore, the judgement of PTT in patients with no visualized gallbladder needed another criteria. The FD was the most frequent among the five findings and the sites of FD correlated well with CBD stones on direct X-ray cholangiography. The FD would be a reliable finding indicating CBD stone or CBD stenosis. Although the RB was a finding limited in patients with a visualized gallbladder, it seemed to be a helpful findings for the detection of CBD stone in patients with a mildly dilated CBD. (author)

  11. Detection of endolithic spatial distribution in marble stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova Municchia, A; Percario, Z; Caneva, G

    2014-10-01

    The penetration of endolithic microorganisms, which develop to depths of several millimetres or even centimetres into the stone, and the diffusion of their extracellular substances speeds up the stone deterioration process. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a confocal laser scanning microscopy with a double-staining, a marble rock sample by observing the endolithic spatial distribution and quantifying the volume they occupied within the stone, in order to understand the real impact of these microorganisms on the conservation of stone monuments. Often the only factors taken into account by biodeterioration studies regarding endolithic microorganisms, are spread and depth of penetration. Despite the knowledge of three-dimensional spatial distribution and quantification of volume, it is indispensable to understand the real damage caused by endolithic microorganisms to stone monuments. In this work, we analyze a marble rock sample using a confocal laser scanning microscopy stained with propidium iodide and Concavalin-A conjugate with the fluorophore Alexa Fluor 488, comparing these results with other techniques (SEM microscope, microphotographs of polished cross-sections and thin-section, PAS staining methods), An image analysis approach has also been applied. The use of confocal laser scanning microscopy with double staining shows clear evidence of the presence of endolithic microorganisms (cyanobacteria and fungi) as well as the extracellular polymeric substance matrix in a three-dimensional architecture as part of the rock sample, this technique, therefore, seems very useful when applied to restoration interventions on stone monuments when endolithic growth is suspected. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  12. SYNTHESIS OF EXPANDER TO PREVENT CONTRACTION OF CEMENT STONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenova Aurika Almazovna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article contains the results of studies of the use of additives containing crystallization components significantly affecting the curing of cement, improving the structure of cement stone and concrete. The crystalline component is obtained using the rotary-pulse unit, which provides not only the grinding of agents, but their interaction with each other as well in order to accelerate the hydration and structure formation in cement stone. The degree, and kinetics of hydration, the composition of hydrated phases, the structure of the additives and cement stone was studied using the following methods: x-ray diffraction (XRD, differential thermal analysis (DTA, scanning electron microscope (SEM. Mechanical properties of cement were determined by standard methods and techniques. The expander produced by means of hydrodynamic activation of the sulfoaluminate clinker (SAC consists of ettringite and hydrated calcium silicates, which are characterized by high dispersion rate (less than 10 µm and reactivity as the seed for the crystallization of hydrated compounds. The introduction of the ultrafine additives of the crystalline SAC (within 1-5% was discovered to cause expansion of the cement stone. Implementation of the additives increases cement hydration and contributes to the formation of active centers of crystallization that lead to the fast formation of ettringite, hydrated calcium aluminates and calcium silicates. The activated crystalline additive provides for significant reduction of porosity, initial curing, and high strength of cement stone. In addition, the additive is an expansive component, forming needle-like crystals of ettringite during hydration. These microcrystals grow in the capillaries of cement stone, filling them, and create conditions for improving the crack resistance of cement concrete.

  13. Peach and apricot stone combustion in a bubbling fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaynak, B.; Atimtay, Aysel T. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey); Topal, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Gazi University, Ankara 06570 (Turkey)

    2005-07-25

    In this study, a bubbling fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) of 102 mm inside diameter and 900 mm height was used to investigate the combustion characteristics of peach and apricot stones produced as a waste from the fruit juice industry. A lignite coal was also burned in the same combustor. The combustion characteristics of the wastes were compared with that of a lignite coal that is most widely used in Turkey. On-line concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X} and total hydrocarbons (C{sub m}H{sub n}) were measured in the flue gas during combustion experiments. By changing the operating parameters (excess air ratio, fluidization velocity, and fuel feed rate), the variation of emissions of various pollutants was studied. Temperature distribution along the bed was measured with thermocouples. During the combustion tests, it was observed that the volatile matter from peach and apricot stones quickly volatilizes and mostly burn in the freeboard. The temperature profiles along the bed and the freeboard also confirmed this phenomenon. It was found that as the volatile matter of fruit stones increases, the combustion takes place more in the freeboard region. The results of this study have shown that the combustion efficiencies ranged between 98.8% and 99.1% for coal, 96.0% and 97.5% for peach stone and 93.4% and 96.3% for apricot stones. The coal has zero CO emission, but biomass fuels have very high CO emission which indicates that a secondary air addition is required for the system. SO{sub 2} emission of the coal is around 2400-2800 mg/Nm{sup 3}, whereas the biomass fuels have zero SO{sub 2} emission. NO{sub x} emissions are all below the limits set by the Turkish Air Quality Control Regulation of 1986 (TAQCR) for all tests. As the results of combustion of two biomass fuels are compared with each other, peach stones gave lower CO and NO{sub x} emissions but the SO{sub 2} emissions are a little higher than for apricot stones. These results suggest that

  14. What should I do about my patient's gall stones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, A R; Azoulay, D; Oakley, N; Baer, H; Paraskevopoulos, J A; Maddern, G J

    1995-12-01

    The problem of benign biliary disease is one that causes significant morbidity and social economic strain in the western world. The classical treatment, cholecystectomy, has been challenged by various medical and surgical techniques in a seemingly random nature. The development of the treatment of gall stone disease is reviewed by analysis of published studies over the last 20 years. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed as an overview and summary of the current management of gall stone disease in the light of our knowledge of its malignant potential.

  15. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orcun Celik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman.

  16. Regional and detailed research studies for stone resources in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This report consists of 7 articles. 1) Detail drilling research works on granodiorite stock of Cheanan area near Onyang city in Chungnam province. 2) Regional research studies on granites distributed in Kimje - Jeongeup. 3) Regional survey and feasibility study on diorite rock mass in Kohyeng, Cheonnam province. 4) Regional research study on the stone resources of Hamyang area. 5) A study on variation trends of physical properties of 5 kinds of building stone by means of Weather-Ometer experiment. 6) Borehole radar survey at the granodiorite quarry mine, Cheonan, Chungnam province. 7) Radar velocity tomography in anisotropic media. (author). refs., tabs., figs.

  17. Broken Stone Marker Construction%碎石桩施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高瑞娥

    2009-01-01

    随着我国高速公路建设的加快,在高速公路的路基设计和施工中引入并使用碎石桩处理软土地基. 文章就结合碎石桩处理软土地基,浅谈碎石桩的施工过程和检测方法.%This paper unifies the broken stone marker processing soft soil ground, discusses the broken stone marker shallowly the construction pro-cess and the examination method.

  18. Treatment Approaches to Urinary Stones Caused by Forgotten DJ Stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergun Alma

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ureteral DJ stents have been used widely for years in urology practice. With increased use, complications have been increased and forgotton stents have started to cause problems. The most common complications are early pain and irritative symptoms. Late complications are bacterial colonization and stone formation because of the biofilm covering the stents. Treatment for a forgotten stent varies on many factors, such as stent localization and stone formation. In this article, we aimed to discuss our clinic approach on two different cases in light to current literature. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 58-63

  19. Prediction of common bile duct stones in the earliest stages of acute biliary pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santvoort, H.C. van; Bakker, O.J.; Besselink, M.G.; Bollen, T.L.; Fischer, K.; Nieuwenhuijs, V.B.; Gooszen, H.G.; Erpecum, K.J. van

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Accurate prediction of common bile duct (CBD) stones in acute biliary pancreatitis is warranted to select patients for early therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). We evaluated commonly used biochemical and radiological predictors of CBD stones

  20. Prediction of common bile duct stones in the earliest stages of acute biliary pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santvoort, H. C.; Bakker, O. J.; Besselink, M. G.; Bollen, T. L.; Fischer, K.; Nieuwenhuijs, V. B.; Gooszen, H. G.; Erpecum, K. J.

    Background and study aims: Accurate prediction of common bile duct (CBD) stones in acute biliary pancreatitis is warranted to select patients for early therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). We evaluated commonly used biochemical and radiological predictors of CBD stones