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Sample records for enantioselective odorant receptor

  1. Characterization of an enantioselective odorant receptor in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

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    Jonathan D Bohbot

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Enantiomers differ only in the left or right handedness (chirality of their orientations and exhibit identical chemical and physical properties. In chemical communication systems, enantiomers can be differentially active at the physiological and behavioral levels. Only recently were enantioselective odorant receptors demonstrated in mammals while their existence in insects has remained hypothetical. Using the two-microelectrode voltage clamp of Xenopus oocytes, we show that the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, odorant receptor 8 (AaOR8 acts as a chiral selective receptor for the (R-(--enantiomer of 1-octen-3-ol, which in the presence of other kairomones is an attractant used by blood-sucking insects to locate their hosts. In addition to steric constraints, chain length and degree of unsaturation play important roles in this recognition process. This is the first characterization of an enantioselective odorant receptor in insects and the results demonstrate that an OR alone, without helper proteins, can account for chiral specificity exhibited by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs.

  2. The Enantioselectivity of Odor Sensation: Some Examples for Undergraduate Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Philip; Mannschreck, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses seven chiral odorants that demonstrate the enantioselectivity of odor sensation: carvone, Celery Ketone, camphor, Florhydral, 3-methyl-3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol, muscone, and methyl jasmonate. After a general introduction of the odorant-receptor interaction and the combinatorial code of olfaction, the olfactory properties of the…

  3. Mammalian odorant receptor tuning breadth persists across distinct odorant panels.

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    Devin Kepchia

    Full Text Available The molecular receptive range (MRR of a mammalian odorant receptor (OR is the set of odorant structures that activate the OR, while the distribution of these odorant structures across odor space is the tuning breadth of the OR. Variation in tuning breadth is thought to be an important property of ORs, with the MRRs of these receptors varying from narrowly to broadly tuned. However, defining the tuning breadth of an OR is a technical challenge. For practical reasons, a screening panel that broadly covers odor space must be limited to sparse coverage of the many potential structures in that space. When screened with such a panel, ORs with different odorant specificities, but equal tuning breadths, might appear to have different tuning breadths due to chance. We hypothesized that ORs would maintain their tuning breadths across distinct odorant panels. We constructed a new screening panel that was broadly distributed across an estimated odor space and contained compounds distinct from previous panels. We used this new screening panel to test several murine ORs that were previously characterized as having different tuning breadths. ORs were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and assayed by two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology. MOR256-17, an OR previously characterized as broadly tuned, responded to nine novel compounds from our new screening panel that were structurally diverse and broadly dispersed across an estimated odor space. MOR256-22, an OR previously characterized as narrowly tuned, responded to a single novel compound that was structurally similar to a previously known ligand for this receptor. MOR174-9, a well-characterized receptor with a narrowly tuned MRR, did not respond to any novel compounds in our new panel. These results support the idea that variation in tuning breadth among these three ORs is not an artifact of the screening protocol, but is an intrinsic property of the receptors.

  4. Selectivity of Odorant Receptors in Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    Luetje, C. W., and Robertson, H. M. (2007). A honey bee odorant receptor for the queen substance 9-oxo-2-decenoic acid. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A...since they might be exposed to a greater number of pharmacolog- ically active compounds than other conventional ligand-gated ion channels and G- protein ...2008). Drosophila odorant receptors are novel seven transmembrane domain proteins that can signal independently of heterotrimeric G proteins

  5. Structural determinants of a conserved enantiomer-selective carvone binding pocket in the human odorant receptor OR1A1.

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    Geithe, Christiane; Protze, Jonas; Kreuchwig, Franziska; Krause, Gerd; Krautwurst, Dietmar

    2017-11-01

    Chirality is a common phenomenon within odorants. Most pairs of enantiomers show only moderate differences in odor quality. One example for enantiomers that are easily discriminated by their odor quality is the carvones: humans significantly distinguish between the spearmint-like (R)-(-)-carvone and caraway-like (S)-(+)-carvone enantiomers. Moreover, for the (R)-(-)-carvone, an anosmia is observed in about 8% of the population, suggesting enantioselective odorant receptors (ORs). With only about 15% de-orphaned human ORs, the lack of OR crystal structures, and few comprehensive studies combining in silico and experimental approaches to elucidate structure-function relations of ORs, knowledge on cognate odorant/OR interactions is still sparse. An adjusted homology modeling approach considering OR-specific proline-caused conformations, odorant docking studies, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, site-directed mutagenesis, and subsequent functional studies with recombinant ORs in a cell-based, real-time luminescence assay revealed 11 amino acid positions to constitute an enantioselective binding pocket necessary for a carvone function in human OR1A1 and murine Olfr43, respectively. Here, we identified enantioselective molecular determinants in both ORs that discriminate between minty and caraway odor. Comparison with orthologs from 36 mammalian species demonstrated a hominid-specific carvone binding pocket with about 100% conservation. Moreover, we identified loss-of-function SNPs associated with the carvone binding pocket of OR1A1. Given carvone enantiomer-specific receptor activation patterns including OR1A1, our data suggest OR1A1 as a candidate receptor for constituting a carvone enantioselective phenotype, which may help to explain mechanisms underlying a (R)-(-)-carvone-specific anosmia in humans.

  6. Molecular determinants of odorant receptor function in insects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-20

    Jul 20, 2014 ... other host-odor responsive receptors from vector insect spe- cies would .... those that mediate host-seeking behaviour in insect disease vectors and ... receptors are transmitted and processed via olfactory circuits. (Vosshall ...

  7. Expressing exogenous functional odorant receptors in cultured olfactory sensory neurons

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    Fomina Alla F

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olfactory discrimination depends on the large numbers of odorant receptor genes and differential ligand-receptor signaling among neurons expressing different receptors. In this study, we describe an in vitro system that enables the expression of exogenous odorant receptors in cultured olfactory sensory neurons. Olfactory sensory neurons in the culture express characteristic signaling molecules and, therefore, provide a system to study receptor function within its intrinsic cellular environment. Results We demonstrate that cultured olfactory sensory neurons express endogenous odorant receptors. Lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer enables successful ectopic expression of odorant receptors. We show that the ectopically expressed mouse I7 is functional in the cultured olfactory sensory neurons. When two different odorant receptors are ectopically expressed simultaneously, both receptor proteins co-localized in the same olfactory sensory neurons up to 10 days in vitro. Conclusion This culture technique provided an efficient method to culture olfactory sensory neurons whose morphology, molecular characteristics and maturation progression resembled those observed in vivo. Using this system, regulation of odorant receptor expression and its ligand specificity can be studied in its intrinsic cellular environment.

  8. Odor memories regulate olfactory receptor expression in the sensory periphery.

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    Claudianos, Charles; Lim, Julianne; Young, Melanie; Yan, Shanzhi; Cristino, Alexandre S; Newcomb, Richard D; Gunasekaran, Nivetha; Reinhard, Judith

    2014-05-01

    Odor learning induces structural and functional modifications throughout the olfactory system, but it is currently unknown whether this plasticity extends to the olfactory receptors (Or) in the sensory periphery. Here, we demonstrate that odor learning induces plasticity in olfactory receptor expression in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Using quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we show that six putative floral scent receptors were differentially expressed in the bee antennae depending on the scent environment that the bees experienced. Or151, which we characterized using an in vitro cell expression system as a broadly tuned receptor binding floral odorants such as linalool, and Or11, the specific receptor for the queen pheromone 9-oxo-decenoic acid, were significantly down-regulated after honeybees were conditioned with the respective odorants in an olfactory learning paradigm. Electroantennogram recordings showed that the neural response of the antenna was similarly reduced after odor learning. Long-term odor memory was essential for inducing these changes, suggesting that the molecular mechanisms involved in olfactory memory also regulate olfactory receptor expression. Our study demonstrates for the first time that olfactory receptor expression is experience-dependent and modulated by scent conditioning, providing novel insight into how molecular regulation at the periphery contributes to plasticity in the olfactory system. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Identification of agonists for a group of human odorant receptors

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    Daniela eGonzalez-Kristeller

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Olfaction plays a critical role in several aspects of the human life. Odorants are detected by hundreds of odorant receptors (ORs which belong to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors. These receptors are expressed in the olfactory sensory neurons of the nose. The information provided by the activation of different combinations of ORs in the nose is transmitted to the brain, leading to odorant perception and emotional and behavioral responses. There are ~400 intact human ORs, and to date only a small percentage of these receptors (~10% have known agonists. The determination of the specificity of the human ORs will contribute to a better understanding of how odorants are discriminated by the olfactory system. In this work, we aimed to identify human specific ORs, that is, ORs that are present in humans but absent from other species, and their corresponding agonists. To do this, we first selected 22 OR gene sequences from the human genome with no counterparts in the mouse, rat or dog genomes. Then we used a heterologous expression system to screen a subset of these human ORs against a panel of odorants of biological relevance, including foodborne aroma volatiles. We found that different types of odorants are able to activate some of these previously uncharacterized human ORs.

  10. Nested Expression Domains for Odorant Receptors in Zebrafish Olfactory Epithelium

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    Weth, Franco; Nadler, Walter; Korsching, Sigrun

    1996-11-01

    The mapping of high-dimensional olfactory stimuli onto the two-dimensional surface of the nasal sensory epithelium constitutes the first step in the neuronal encoding of olfactory input. We have used zebrafish as a model system to analyze the spatial distribution of odorant receptor molecules in the olfactory epithelium by quantitative in situ hybridization. To this end, we have cloned 10 very divergent zebrafish odorant receptor molecules by PCR. Individual genes are expressed in sparse olfactory receptor neurons. Analysis of the position of labeled cells in a simplified coordinate system revealed three concentric, albeit overlapping, expression domains for the four odorant receptors analyzed in detail. Such regionalized expression should result in a corresponding segregation of functional response properties. This might represent the first step of spatial encoding of olfactory input or be essential for the development of the olfactory system.

  11. The Mouse Solitary Odorant Receptor Gene Promoters as Models for the Study of Odorant Receptor Gene Choice.

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    Andrea Degl'Innocenti

    Full Text Available In vertebrates, several anatomical regions located within the nasal cavity mediate olfaction. Among these, the main olfactory epithelium detects most conventional odorants. Olfactory sensory neurons, provided with cilia exposed to the air, detect volatile chemicals via an extremely large family of seven-transmembrane chemoreceptors named odorant receptors. Their genes are expressed in a monogenic and monoallelic fashion: a single allele of a single odorant receptor gene is transcribed in a given mature neuron, through a still uncharacterized molecular mechanism known as odorant receptor gene choice.Odorant receptor genes are typically arranged in genomic clusters, but a few are isolated (we call them solitary from the others within a region broader than 1 Mb upstream and downstream with respect to their transcript's coordinates. The study of clustered genes is problematic, because of redundancy and ambiguities in their regulatory elements: we propose to use the solitary genes as simplified models to understand odorant receptor gene choice.Here we define number and identity of the solitary genes in the mouse genome (C57BL/6J, and assess the conservation of the solitary status in some mammalian orthologs. Furthermore, we locate their putative promoters, predict their homeodomain binding sites (commonly present in the promoters of odorant receptor genes and compare candidate promoter sequences with those of wild-caught mice. We also provide expression data from histological sections.In the mouse genome there are eight intact solitary genes: Olfr19 (M12, Olfr49, Olfr266, Olfr267, Olfr370, Olfr371, Olfr466, Olfr1402; five are conserved as solitary in rat. These genes are all expressed in the main olfactory epithelium of three-day-old mice. The C57BL/6J candidate promoter of Olfr370 has considerably varied compared to its wild-type counterpart. Within the putative promoter for Olfr266 a homeodomain binding site is predicted. As a whole, our findings

  12. A regulatory code for neuron-specific odor receptor expression.

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    Anandasankar Ray

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs must select-from a large repertoire-which odor receptors to express. In Drosophila, most ORNs express one of 60 Or genes, and most Or genes are expressed in a single ORN class in a process that produces a stereotyped receptor-to-neuron map. The construction of this map poses a problem of receptor gene regulation that is remarkable in its dimension and about which little is known. By using a phylogenetic approach and the genome sequences of 12 Drosophila species, we systematically identified regulatory elements that are evolutionarily conserved and specific for individual Or genes of the maxillary palp. Genetic analysis of these elements supports a model in which each receptor gene contains a zip code, consisting of elements that act positively to promote expression in a subset of ORN classes, and elements that restrict expression to a single ORN class. We identified a transcription factor, Scalloped, that mediates repression. Some elements are used in other chemosensory organs, and some are conserved upstream of axon-guidance genes. Surprisingly, the odor response spectra and organization of maxillary palp ORNs have been extremely well-conserved for tens of millions of years, even though the amino acid sequences of the receptors are not highly conserved. These results, taken together, define the logic by which individual ORNs in the maxillary palp select which odor receptors to express.

  13. Analysis of odorant receptor protein function in the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti

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    Odorant receptors (ORs) in insects are ligand-gated ion channels comprised of two subunits: a variable receptor and an obligatory co-receptor (Orco). This protein receptor complex of unknown stoichiometry interacts with an odor molecule leading to changes in permeability of the sensory dendrite, th...

  14. Calmodulin affects sensitization of Drosophila melanogaster odorant receptors

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    Latha eMukunda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Flying insects have developed a remarkably sensitive olfactory system to detect faint and turbulent odor traces. This ability is linked to the olfactory receptors class of odorant receptors (ORs, occurring exclusively in winged insects. ORs form heteromeric complexes of an odorant specific receptor protein (OrX and a highly conserved co-receptor protein (Orco. The ORs form ligand gated ion channels that are tuned by intracellular signaling systems. Repetitive subthreshold odor stimulation of olfactory sensory neurons sensitizes insect ORs. This OR sensitization process requires Orco activity. In the present study we first asked whether OR sensitization can be monitored with heterologously expressed OR proteins. Using electrophysiological and calcium imaging methods we demonstrate that D. melanogaster OR proteins expressed in CHO cells show sensitization upon repeated weak stimulation. This was found for OR channels formed by Orco as well as by Or22a or Or56a and Orco. Moreover, we show that inhibition of calmodulin (CaM action on OR proteins, expressed in CHO cells, abolishes any sensitization. Finally, we investigated the sensitization phenomenon using an ex vivo preparation of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs expressing Or22a inside the fly’s antenna. Using calcium imaging, we observed sensitization in the dendrites as well as in the soma. Inhibition of calmodulin with W7 disrupted the sensitization within the outer dendritic shaft, whereas the sensitization remained in the other OSN compartments. Taken together, our results suggest that CaM action is involved in sensitizing the OR complex and that this mechanisms accounts for the sensitization in the outer dendrites, whereas further mechanisms contribute to the sensitization observed in the other OSN compartments. The use of heterologously expressed OR proteins appears to be suitable for further investigations on the mechanistic basis of OR sensitization, while investigations on native

  15. α7-Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: role in early odor learning preference in mice.

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    Jennifer L Hellier

    Full Text Available Recently, we have shown that mice with decreased expression of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 in the olfactory bulb were associated with a deficit in odor discrimination compared to wild-type mice. However, it is unknown if mice with decreased α7-receptor expression also show a deficit in early odor learning preference (ELP, an enhanced behavioral response to odors with attractive value observed in rats. In this study, we modified ELP methods performed in rats and implemented similar conditions in mice. From post-natal days 5-18, wild-type mice were stroked simultaneously with an odor presentation (conditioned odor for 90 s daily. Control mice were only stroked, exposed to odor, or neither. On the day of testing (P21, mice that were stroked in concert with a conditioned odor significantly investigated the conditioned odor compared to a novel odor, as observed similarly in rats. However, mice with a decrease in α7-receptor expression that were stroked during a conditioned odor did not show a behavioral response to that odorant. These results suggest that decreased α7-receptor expression has a role in associative learning, olfactory preference, and/or sensory processing deficits.

  16. How Far Does a Receptor Influence Vibrational Properties of an Odorant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reese, Anna; List, Nanna Holmgaard; Kongsted, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    -assisted electron transfer. Through molecular dynamics simulations we elucidate the binding specificity of a receptor towards acetophenone odorant. The vibrational properties of acetophenone inside the receptor are then studied by the polarizable embedding density functional theory approach, allowing to quantify...... protein-odorant interactions. Finally, we judge whether the effects of the protein provide any indications towards the existing theories of olfaction....

  17. How Far Does a Receptor Influence Vibrational Properties of an Odorant?

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    Reese, Anna; List, Nanna Holmgaard; Kongsted, Jacob; Solov'yov, Ilia A

    2016-01-01

    The biophysical mechanism of the sense of smell, or olfaction, is still highly debated. The mainstream explanation argues for a shape-based recognition of odorant molecules by olfactory receptors, while recent investigations suggest the primary olfactory event to be triggered by a vibrationally-assisted electron transfer reaction. We consider this controversy by studying the influence of a receptor on the vibrational properties of an odorant in atomistic details as the coupling between electronic degrees of freedom of the receptor and the vibrations of the odorant is the key parameter of the vibrationally-assisted electron transfer. Through molecular dynamics simulations we elucidate the binding specificity of a receptor towards acetophenone odorant. The vibrational properties of acetophenone inside the receptor are then studied by the polarizable embedding density functional theory approach, allowing to quantify protein-odorant interactions. Finally, we judge whether the effects of the protein provide any indications towards the existing theories of olfaction.

  18. A conserved aspartic acid is important for agonist (VUAA1 and odorant/tuning receptor-dependent activation of the insect odorant co-receptor (Orco.

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    Brijesh N Kumar

    Full Text Available Insect odorant receptors function as heteromeric odorant-gated cation channels comprising a conventional odorant-sensitive tuning receptor, and a conserved co-receptor (Orco. An Orco agonist, VUAA1, is able to activate both heteromeric and homomeric Orco-containing channels. Very little is known about specific residues in Orco that contribute to cation permeability and gating. We investigated the importance of two conserved Asp residues, one in each of transmembrane domains 5 and 7, for channel function by mutagenesis. Drosophila melanogaster Orco and its substitution mutants were expressed in HEK cells and VUAA1-stimulated channel activity was determined by Ca(2+ influx and whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology. Substitution of D466 in transmembrane 7 with amino acids other than glutamic acid resulted in a substantial reduction in channel activity. The D466E Orco substitution mutant was ~2 times more sensitive to VUAA1. The permeability of the D466E Orco mutant to cations was unchanged relative to wild-type Orco. When D466E Orco is co-expressed with a conventional tuning odorant receptor, the heteromeric complex also shows increased sensitivity to an odorant. Thus, the effect of the D466E mutation is not specific to VUAA1 agonism or dependent on homomeric Orco assembly. We suggest the gain-of-activation characteristic of the D466E mutant identifies an amino acid that is likely to be important for activation of both heteromeric and homomeric insect odorant receptor channels.

  19. The odorant receptor co-receptor from the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.

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    Immo A Hansen

    Full Text Available Recently, the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. has re-emerged as a serious and growing problem in many parts of the world. Presence of resistant bed bugs and the difficulty to eliminate them has renewed interest in alternative control tactics. Similar to other haematophagous arthropods, bed bugs rely on their olfactory system to detect semiochemicals in the environment. Previous studies have morphologically characterized olfactory organs of bed bugs' antenna and have physiologically evaluated the responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs to host-derived chemicals. To date, odorant binding proteins (OBPs and odorant receptors (ORs associated with these olfaction processes have not been studied in bed bugs. Chemoreception in insects requires formation of heteromeric complexes of ORs and a universal OR coreceptor (Orco. Orco is the constant chain of every odorant receptor in insects and is critical for insect olfaction but does not directly bind to odorants. Orco agonists and antagonists have been suggested as high-value targets for the development of novel insect repellents. In this study, we have performed RNAseq of bed bug sensory organs and identified several odorant receptors as well as Orco. We characterized Orco expression and investigated the effect of chemicals targeting Orco on bed bug behavior and reproduction. We have identified partial cDNAs of six C. lectularius OBPs and 16 ORs. Full length bed bug Orco was cloned and sequenced. Orco is widely expressed in different parts of the bed bug including OR neurons and spermatozoa. Treatment of bed bugs with the agonist VUAA1 changed bed bug pheromone-induced aggregation behavior and inactivated spermatozoa. We have described and characterized for the first time OBPs, ORs and Orco in bed bugs. Given the importance of these molecules in chemoreception of this insect they are interesting targets for the development of novel insect behavior modifiers.

  20. Identification of Odorant-Receptor Interactions by Global Mapping of the Human Odorome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audouze, Karine Marie Laure; Tromelin, Anne; Le Bon, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    The human olfactory system recognizes a broad spectrum of odorants using approximately 400 different olfactory receptors ( hORs). Although significant improvements of heterologous expression systems used to study interactions between ORs and odorant molecules have been made, screening the olfacto...

  1. Odorant responsiveness of embryonic mouse olfactory sensory neurons expressing the odorant receptors S1 or MOR23.

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    Lam, Rebecca S; Mombaerts, Peter

    2013-07-01

    The mammalian olfactory system has developed some functionality by the time of birth. There is behavioral and limited electrophysiological evidence for prenatal olfaction in various mammalian species. However, there have been no reports, in any mammalian species, of recordings from prenatal olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that express a given odorant receptor (OR) gene. Here we have performed patch-clamp recordings from mouse OSNs that express the OR gene S1 or MOR23, using the odorous ligands 2-phenylethyl alcohol or lyral, respectively. We found that, out of a combined total of 20 OSNs from embryos of these two strains at embryonic day (E)16.5 or later, all responded to a cognate odorous ligand. By contrast, none of six OSNs responded to the ligand at E14.5 or E15.5. The kinetics of the odorant-evoked electrophysiological responses of prenatal OSNs are similar to those of postnatal OSNs. The S1 and MOR23 glomeruli in the olfactory bulb are formed postnatally, but the axon terminals of OSNs expressing these OR genes may be synaptically active in the olfactory bulb at embryonic stages. The upper limit of the acquisition of odorant responsiveness for S1 and MOR23 OSNs at E16.5 is consistent with the developmental expression patterns of components of the olfactory signaling pathway. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Activity of L-alpha-amino acids at the promiscuous goldfish odorant receptor 5.24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Bolette; Wellendorph, Petrine; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The goldfish odorant receptor 5.24 is a member of family C of G protein-coupled receptors and is closely related to the human receptor GPRC6A. Receptor 5.24 has previously been shown to have binding affinity for L-alpha-amino acids, especially the basic amino acids arginine and lysine. Here we...

  3. Co-regulation of a large and rapidly evolving repertoire of odorant receptor genes

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    Lane Robert P

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The olfactory system meets niche- and species-specific demands by an accelerated evolution of its odorant receptor repertoires. In this review, we describe evolutionary processes that have shaped olfactory and vomeronasal receptor gene families in vertebrate genomes. We emphasize three important periods in the evolution of the olfactory system evident by comparative genomics: the adaptation to land in amphibian ancestors, the decline of olfaction in primates, and the delineation of putative pheromone receptors concurrent with rodent speciation. The rapid evolution of odorant receptor genes, the sheer size of the repertoire, as well as their wide distribution in the genome, presents a developmental challenge: how are these ever-changing odorant receptor repertoires coordinated within the olfactory system? A central organizing principle in olfaction is the specialization of sensory neurons resulting from each sensory neuron expressing only ~one odorant receptor allele. In this review, we also discuss this mutually exclusive expression of odorant receptor genes. We have considered several models to account for co-regulation of odorant receptor repertoires, as well as discussed a new hypothesis that invokes important epigenetic properties of the system.

  4. Advantage of the Highly Restricted Odorant Receptor Expression Pattern in Chemosensory Neurons of Drosophila.

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    Tharadra, Sana Khalid; Medina, Adriana; Ray, Anandasankar

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental molecular feature of olfactory systems is that individual neurons express only one receptor from a large odorant receptor gene family. While numerous theories have been proposed, the functional significance and evolutionary advantage of generating a sophisticated one-receptor-per neuron expression pattern is not well understood. Using the genetically tractable Drosophila melanogaster as a model, we demonstrate that the breakdown of this highly restricted expression pattern of an odorant receptor in neurons leads to a deficit in the ability to exploit new food sources. We show that animals with ectopic co-expression of odorant receptors also have a competitive disadvantage in a complex environment with limiting food sources. At the level of the olfactory system, we find changes in both the behavioral and electrophysiological responses to odorants that are detected by endogenous receptors when an olfactory receptor is broadly misexpressed in chemosensory neurons. Taken together these results indicate that restrictive expression patterns and segregation of odorant receptors to individual neuron classes are important for sensitive odor-detection and appropriate olfactory behaviors.

  5. Post-eclosion odor experience modifies olfactory receptor neuron coding in Drosophila.

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    Iyengar, Atulya; Chakraborty, Tuhin Subhra; Goswami, Sarit Pati; Wu, Chun-Fang; Siddiqi, Obaid

    2010-05-25

    Olfactory responses of Drosophila undergo pronounced changes after eclosion. The flies develop attraction to odors to which they are exposed and aversion to other odors. Behavioral adaptation is correlated with changes in the firing pattern of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). In this article, we present an information-theoretic analysis of the firing pattern of ORNs. Flies reared in a synthetic odorless medium were transferred after eclosion to three different media: (i) a synthetic medium relatively devoid of odor cues, (ii) synthetic medium infused with a single odorant, and (iii) complex cornmeal medium rich in odors. Recordings were made from an identified sensillum (type II), and the Jensen-Shannon divergence (D(JS)) was used to assess quantitatively the differences between ensemble spike responses to different odors. Analysis shows that prolonged exposure to ethyl acetate and several related esters increases sensitivity to these esters but does not improve the ability of the fly to distinguish between them. Flies exposed to cornmeal display varied sensitivity to these odorants and at the same time develop greater capacity to distinguish between odors. Deprivation of odor experience on an odorless synthetic medium leads to a loss of both sensitivity and acuity. Rich olfactory experience thus helps to shape the ORNs response and enhances its discriminative power. The experiments presented here demonstrate an experience-dependent adaptation at the level of the receptor neuron.

  6. Odorant Receptor Modulation: Ternary Paradigm for Mode of Action of Insect Repellents

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    2012-01-01

    Ostrinia nubilalis. PLoS ONE 5, e8685. Wanner, K.W., Nichols, A.S.,Walden, K.K., Brockmann, A., Luetje, C.W., Robertson, H.M., 2007. A honey bee odorant...allosteric”. Protein Sci. 20, 1119e1124. Christopoulos, A., Kenakin, T., 2002. G protein -coupled receptor allosterism and complexing. Pharmacol. Rev. 54...Newcomb, R.D., Warr, C.G., 2008. Drosophila odorant receptors are novel seven transmembrane domain proteins that can signal independently of

  7. Expression Patterns of Odorant Receptors and Response Properties of Olfactory Sensory Neurons in Aged Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Anderson C.; Tian, Huikai; Grosmaitre, Xavier; Ma, Minghong

    2009-01-01

    The sense of smell deteriorates in normal aging, but the underling mechanisms are still elusive. Here we investigated age-related alterations in expression patterns of odorant receptor (OR) genes and functional properties of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs)—2 critical factors that define the odor detection threshold in the olfactory epithelium. Using in situ hybridization for 9 representative OR genes, we compared the cell densities of each OR in coronal nose sections at different ages (3–27 ...

  8. A candidate pheromone receptor and two odorant receptors of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

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    Patch, Harland M; Velarde, Rodrigo A; Walden, Kimberly K O; Robertson, Hugh M

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we cloned and characterized three Manduca sexta odorant receptors (ORs). One receptor is a putative pheromone receptor expressed exclusively in a cell associated with male-specific type-I trichoid sensilla. We describe the results of real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments that show MsextaOR1 is expressed only in male antennae. In situ hybridization labels a single cell associated with type-1 trichoid sensilla, which houses two neurons that have been previously determined to respond to the major components of the pheromone blend. The second receptor, MsextaOR2, was discovered using degenerate primers designed to conserved motifs of a unique group ORs that share as much as 88% identity. Comparison of RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, and in situ hybridization results with those of ORs in the Drosophila melanogaster Or83b subfamily shows a strong sequence and expression pattern similarity. The third receptor, MsextaOR3, was found by 5'-end sequencing of a normalized and subtracted cDNA library from male M. sexta antennae. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR show that this receptor is expressed only in male and female antennae. These are the first ORs, including a putative pheromone receptor, to be described from M. sexta.

  9. Testing odorant-receptor interaction theories in humans through discrimination of isotopomers

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    Mara Andrione

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Odour reception takes place on the olfactory receptor neuron membrane, where molecular receptors interact with volatile odorant molecules. This interaction is classically thought to rely on chemical and structural features of the odorant, e.g. size, shape, functional groups. However, this model does not allow formulating a correct prediction for the smell of an odorant, suggesting that other molecular properties may play a role in the odour transduction process. An alternative model of olfaction maintains that odorant receptors can probe not only the structural and chemical features, but also the molecular vibration spectrum of the odorants. This constitutes the so-called vibration model of olfaction. According to this model, two isotopomers of the same molecule, i.e. two forms of the same molecule, one unaltered and one in which one or more hydrogen atoms are substituted with deuterium – which are therefore structurally and chemically identical, but with different molecular vibration spectra – would interact differently with an olfactory receptor, producing different olfactory perceptions in the brain. Here, we report on a duo-trio discrimination experiment conducted on human subjects, testing isotopomer pairs that have recently been shown to be differentially encoded in the honeybee brain.

  10. Bidirectional enantioselective effects of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen in two mouse models of excessive ethanol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasten, Chelsea R; Blasingame, Shelby N; Boehm, Stephen L

    2015-02-01

    The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen has been studied extensively in preclinical models of alcohol-use disorders, yet results on its efficacy have been uncertain. Racemic baclofen, which is used clinically, can be broken down into separate enantiomers of the drug. Baclofen has been shown to produce enantioselective effects in behavioral assays, including those modeling reflexive and sexual behavior. The current studies sought to characterize the enantioselective effects of baclofen in two separate models of ethanol consumption. The first was a Drinking-in-the-Dark procedure that provides "binge-like" ethanol access to mice by restricting access to a 2-h period, 3 h into the dark cycle. The second was a two-bottle choice procedure that utilized selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring 1 (HAP1) mice to model chronic ethanol access. HAP1 mice are selectively bred to consume pharmacologically relevant amounts of ethanol in a 24-h two-bottle choice paradigm. The results showed that baclofen yields enantioselective effects on ethanol intake in both models, and that these effects are bidirectional. Total ethanol intake was decreased by R(+)-baclofen, while total intake was increased by S(-)-baclofen in the binge-like and chronic drinking models. Whereas overall binge-like saccharin intake was significantly reduced by R(+)-baclofen, chronic intake was not significantly altered. S(-)-baclofen did not significantly alter saccharin intake. Neither enantiomer significantly affected locomotion during binge-like reinforcer consumption. Collectively, these results demonstrate that baclofen produces enantioselective effects on ethanol consumption. More importantly, the modulation of consumption is bidirectional. The opposing enantioselective effects may explain some of the variance seen in published baclofen literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Blocking oxytocin receptors inhibits vaginal marking to male odors in female Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Luis A; Albers, H Elliott; Petrulis, Aras

    2010-12-02

    In Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), precopulatory behaviors such as vaginal scent marking are essential for attracting a suitable mate. Vaginal marking is dependent on forebrain areas implicated in the neural regulation of reproductive behaviors in rodents, including the medial preoptic/anterior hypothalamus (MPOA-AH). Within MPOA-AH, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) acts to facilitate copulation (lordosis), as well as ultrasonic vocalizations towards males. It is not known, however, if OT in this area also facilitates vaginal marking. In the present study, a specific oxytocin receptor antagonist (OTA) was injected into MPOA-AH of intact female Syrian hamsters to determine if oxytocin receptor-dependent signaling is critical for the normal expression of vaginal marking elicited by male, female, and clean odors. OTA injections significantly inhibited vaginal marking in response to male odors compared with vehicle injections. There was no effect of OTA on marking in response to either female or clean odors. When injected into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a nearby region to MPOA-AH, OTA was equally effective in decreasing marking. Finally, the effects of OTA appear to be specific to vaginal marking, as OTA injections in MPOA-AH or BNST did not alter general locomotor activity, flank marking, or social odor investigation. Considered together, these results suggest that OT in MPOA-AH and/or BNST normally facilitates male odor-induced vaginal marking, providing further evidence that OT generally supports prosocial interactions among conspecifics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of an enantioselective odorant receptor in the yellow fever mosquito aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    In chemical communication systems, optical isomers have been shown to be differentially active at the physiological and behavioral levels. One enantiomer may serve as an attractant for one species while its antipode may function as a disruptant or repellent in another species or even within the sam...

  13. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibit odorant-mediated CREB phosphorylation in sustentacular cells of mouse olfactory epithelium.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, Ruth

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Extracellular nucleotides have long been known to play neuromodulatory roles and to be involved in intercellular signalling. In the olfactory system, ATP is released by olfactory neurons, and exogenous ATP can evoke an increase in intracellular calcium concentration in sustentacular cells, the nonneuronal supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium. Here we investigate the hypothesis that olfactory neurons communicate with sustentacular cells via extracellular ATP and purinergic receptor activation. RESULTS: Here we show that exposure of mice to a mixture of odorants induced a significant increase in the levels of the transcription factor CREB phosphorylated at Ser-133 in the nuclei of both olfactory sensory neurons and sustentacular cells. This activation was dependent on adenylyl cyclase III-mediated olfactory signaling and on activation of P2Y purinergic receptors on sustentacular cells. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibited odorant-dependent CREB phosphorylation specifically in the nuclei of the sustentacular cells. CONCLUSION: Our results point to a possible role for extracellular nucleotides in mediating intercellular communication between the neurons and sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium in response to odorant exposure. Maintenance of extracellular ionic gradients and metabolism of noxious chemicals by sustentacular cells may therefore be regulated in an odorant-dependent manner by olfactory sensory neurons.

  14. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibit odorant-mediated CREB phosphorylation in sustentacular cells of mouse olfactory epithelium

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, Ruth

    2011-08-22

    Abstract Background Extracellular nucleotides have long been known to play neuromodulatory roles and to be involved in intercellular signalling. In the olfactory system, ATP is released by olfactory neurons, and exogenous ATP can evoke an increase in intracellular calcium concentration in sustentacular cells, the nonneuronal supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium. Here we investigate the hypothesis that olfactory neurons communicate with sustentacular cells via extracellular ATP and purinergic receptor activation. Results Here we show that exposure of mice to a mixture of odorants induced a significant increase in the levels of the transcription factor CREB phosphorylated at Ser-133 in the nuclei of both olfactory sensory neurons and sustentacular cells. This activation was dependent on adenylyl cyclase III-mediated olfactory signaling and on activation of P2Y purinergic receptors on sustentacular cells. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibited odorant-dependent CREB phosphorylation specifically in the nuclei of the sustentacular cells. Conclusion Our results point to a possible role for extracellular nucleotides in mediating intercellular communication between the neurons and sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium in response to odorant exposure. Maintenance of extracellular ionic gradients and metabolism of noxious chemicals by sustentacular cells may therefore be regulated in an odorant-dependent manner by olfactory sensory neurons.

  15. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibit odorant-mediated CREB phosphorylation in sustentacular cells of mouse olfactory epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatt Hanns

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extracellular nucleotides have long been known to play neuromodulatory roles and to be involved in intercellular signalling. In the olfactory system, ATP is released by olfactory neurons, and exogenous ATP can evoke an increase in intracellular calcium concentration in sustentacular cells, the nonneuronal supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium. Here we investigate the hypothesis that olfactory neurons communicate with sustentacular cells via extracellular ATP and purinergic receptor activation. Results Here we show that exposure of mice to a mixture of odorants induced a significant increase in the levels of the transcription factor CREB phosphorylated at Ser-133 in the nuclei of both olfactory sensory neurons and sustentacular cells. This activation was dependent on adenylyl cyclase III-mediated olfactory signaling and on activation of P2Y purinergic receptors on sustentacular cells. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibited odorant-dependent CREB phosphorylation specifically in the nuclei of the sustentacular cells. Conclusion Our results point to a possible role for extracellular nucleotides in mediating intercellular communication between the neurons and sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium in response to odorant exposure. Maintenance of extracellular ionic gradients and metabolism of noxious chemicals by sustentacular cells may therefore be regulated in an odorant-dependent manner by olfactory sensory neurons.

  16. Canine olfactory receptor gene polymorphism and its relation to odor detection performance by sniffer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesniak, Anna; Walczak, Marta; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Sacharczuk, Mariusz; Gawkowski, Maciej; Jaszczak, Kazimierz

    2008-01-01

    The outstanding sensitivity of the canine olfactory system has been acknowledged by using sniffer dogs in military and civilian service for detection of a variety of odors. It is hypothesized that the canine olfactory ability is determined by polymorphisms in olfactory receptor (OR) genes. We investigated 5 OR genes for polymorphic sites which might affect the olfactory ability of service dogs in different fields of specific substance detection. All investigated OR DNA sequences proved to have allelic variants, the majority of which lead to protein sequence alteration. Homozygous individuals at 2 gene loci significantly differed in their detection skills from other genotypes. This suggests a role of specific alleles in odor detection and a linkage between single-nucleotide polymorphism and odor recognition efficiency.

  17. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Induces Odor Preference Memory Extension and Maintains Enhanced AMPA Receptor Expression in the Rat Pup Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sriya; Mukherjee, Bandhan; Doré, Jules J. E.; Yuan, Qi; Harley, Carolyn W.; McLean, John H.

    2017-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) plays a role in synaptic plasticity and long-term memory formation. We hypothesized that trichostatin-A (TSA), an HDAC inhibitor, would promote long-term odor preference memory and maintain enhanced GluA1 receptor levels that have been hypothesized to support memory. We used an early odor preference learning model in…

  18. Odorant responses of olfactory sensory neurons expressing the odorant receptor MOR23: A patch clamp analysis in gene-targeted mice

    OpenAIRE

    Grosmaitre, Xavier; Vassalli, Anne; Mombaerts, Peter; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Ma, Minghong

    2006-01-01

    A glomerulus in the mammalian olfactory bulb receives axonal inputs from olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that express the same odorant receptor (OR). Glomeruli are generally thought to represent functional units of olfactory coding, but there are no data on the electrophysiological properties of OSNs that express the same endogenous OR. Here, using patch clamp recordings in an intact epithelial preparation, we directly measured the transduction currents and receptor potentials from the dendr...

  19. Mechanisms underlying odorant-induced and spontaneous calcium signals in olfactory receptor neurons of spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Tizeta; Derby, Charles D; Schmidt, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    We determined if a newly developed antennule slice preparation allows studying chemosensory properties of spiny lobster olfactory receptor neurons under in situ conditions with Ca(2+) imaging. We show that chemical stimuli reach the dendrites of olfactory receptor neurons but not their somata, and that odorant-induced Ca(2+) signals in the somata are sufficiently stable over time to allow stimulation with a substantial number of odorants. Pharmacological manipulations served to elucidate the source of odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients and spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations in the somata of olfactory receptor neurons. Both Ca(2+) signals are primarily mediated by an influx of extracellular Ca(2+) through voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels that can be blocked by CoCl2 and the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil. Intracellular Ca(2+) stores contribute little to odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients and spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations. The odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients as well as the spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations depend on action potentials mediated by Na(+) channels that are largely TTX-insensitive but blocked by the local anesthetics tetracaine and lidocaine. Collectively, these results corroborate the conclusion that odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients and spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations in the somata of olfactory receptor neurons closely reflect action potential activity associated with odorant-induced phasic-tonic responses and spontaneous bursting, respectively. Therefore, both types of Ca(2+) signals represent experimentally accessible proxies of spiking.

  20. Expression patterns of odorant receptors and response properties of olfactory sensory neurons in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anderson C; Tian, Huikai; Grosmaitre, Xavier; Ma, Minghong

    2009-10-01

    The sense of smell deteriorates in normal aging, but the underling mechanisms are still elusive. Here we investigated age-related alterations in expression patterns of odorant receptor (OR) genes and functional properties of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs)-2 critical factors that define the odor detection threshold in the olfactory epithelium. Using in situ hybridization for 9 representative OR genes, we compared the cell densities of each OR in coronal nose sections at different ages (3-27 months). The cell density for different ORs peaked at different time points and a decline was observed for 6 of 9 ORs at advanced ages. Using patch clamp recordings, we then examined the odorant responses of individual OSNs coexpressing a defined OR (MOR23) and green fluorescent protein. The MOR23 neurons recorded from aged animals maintained a similar sensitivity and dynamic range in response to the cognate odorant (lyral) as those from younger mice. The results indicate that although the cell densities of OSNs expressing certain types of ORs decline at advanced ages, individual OSNs can retain their sensitivity. The implications of these findings in age-related olfactory deterioration are discussed.

  1. Male risk taking, female odors, and the role of estrogen receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaliers, Martin; Clipperton-Allen, Amy; Cragg, Cheryl L; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Korach, Kenneth S; Muglia, Louis; Choleris, Elena

    2012-12-05

    Male risk-taking and decision making are affected by sex-related cues, with men making riskier choices and decisions after exposure to either women or stimuli associated with women. In non-human species females and, or their cues can also increase male risk taking. Under the ecologically relevant condition of predation threat, brief exposure of male mice to the odors of a sexually receptive novel female reduces the avoidance of, and aversive responses to, a predator. We briefly review evidence showing that estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα and ERβ, are associated with the mediation of these risk taking responses. We show that ERs influence the production of the female odors that affect male risk taking, with the odors of wild type (ERαWT, ERβWT), oxytocin (OT) wildtype (OTWT), gene-deleted 'knock-out' ERβ (ERβKO), but not ERαKO or oxytocin (OT) OTKO or ovariectomized (OVX) female mice reducing the avoidance responses of male mice to cat odor. We further show that administration of specific ERα and ERβ agonists to OVX females results in their odors increasing male risk taking and boldness towards a predator. We also review evidence that ERs are involved in the mediation of the responses of males to female cues, with ERα being associated with the sexual and both ERβ and ERα with the sexual and social mechanisms underlying the effects of female cues on male risk taking. The implications and relations of these findings with rodents to ERs and the regulation of human risk taking are briefly considered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Specialized odorant receptors in social insects that detect cuticular hydrocarbon cues and candidate pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pask, Gregory M; Slone, Jesse D; Millar, Jocelyn G; Das, Prithwiraj; Moreira, Jardel A; Zhou, Xiaofan; Bello, Jan; Berger, Shelley L; Bonasio, Roberto; Desplan, Claude; Reinberg, Danny; Liebig, Jürgen; Zwiebel, Laurence J; Ray, Anandasankar

    2017-08-17

    Eusocial insects use cuticular hydrocarbons as components of pheromones that mediate social behaviours, such as caste and nestmate recognition, and regulation of reproduction. In ants such as Harpegnathos saltator, the queen produces a pheromone which suppresses the development of workers' ovaries and if she is removed, workers can transition to a reproductive state known as gamergate. Here we functionally characterize a subfamily of odorant receptors (Ors) with a nine-exon gene structure that have undergone a massive expansion in ants and other eusocial insects. We deorphanize 22 representative members and find they can detect cuticular hydrocarbons from different ant castes, with one (HsOr263) that responds strongly to gamergate extract and a candidate queen pheromone component. After systematic testing with a diverse panel of hydrocarbons, we find that most Harpegnathos saltator Ors are narrowly tuned, suggesting that several receptors must contribute to detection and discrimination of different cuticular hydrocarbons important in mediating eusocial behaviour.Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) mediate the interactions between individuals in eusocial insects, but the sensory receptors for CHCs are unclear. Here the authors show that in ants such as H. saltator, the 9-exon subfamily of odorant receptors (HsOrs) responds to CHCs, and ectopic expression of HsOrs in Drosophila neurons imparts responsiveness to CHCs.

  3. Odorant receptors directly activate phospholipase C/inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate coupled to calcium influx in Odora cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang; Badeau, Robert M; Tanimura, Akihiko; Talamo, Barbara R

    2006-03-01

    Mechanisms by which odorants activate signaling pathways in addition to cAMP are hard to evaluate in heterogeneous mixtures of primary olfactory neurons. We used single cell calcium imaging to analyze the response to odorant through odorant receptor (OR) U131 in the olfactory epithelial cell line Odora (Murrell and Hunter 1999), a model system with endogenous olfactory signaling pathways. Because adenylyl cyclase levels are low, agents activating cAMP formation do not elevate calcium, thus unmasking independent signaling mediated by OR via phospholipase C (PLC), inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)), and its receptor. Unexpectedly, we found that extracellular calcium is required for odor-induced calcium elevation without the release of intracellular calcium, even though the latter pathway is intact and can be stimulated by ATP. Relevant signaling components of the PLC pathway and G protein isoforms are identified by western blot in Odora cells as well as in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), where they are localized to the ciliary zone or cell bodies and axons of OSNs by immunohistochemistry. Biotinylation studies establish that IP(3) receptors type 2 and 3 are at the cell surface in Odora cells. Thus, individual ORs are capable of elevating calcium through pathways not directly mediated by cAMP and this may provide another avenue for odorant signaling in the olfactory system.

  4. Odorant responses of olfactory sensory neurons expressing the odorant receptor MOR23: a patch clamp analysis in gene-targeted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosmaitre, Xavier; Vassalli, Anne; Mombaerts, Peter; Shepherd, Gordon M; Ma, Minghong

    2006-02-07

    A glomerulus in the mammalian olfactory bulb receives axonal inputs from olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that express the same odorant receptor (OR). Glomeruli are generally thought to represent functional units of olfactory coding, but there are no data on the electrophysiological properties of OSNs that express the same endogenous OR. Here, using patch clamp recordings in an intact epithelial preparation, we directly measured the transduction currents and receptor potentials from the dendritic knobs of mouse OSNs that express the odorant receptor MOR23 along with the green fluorescent protein. All of the 53 cells examined responded to lyral, a known ligand for MOR23. There were profound differences in response kinetics, particularly in the deactivation phase. The cells were very sensitive to lyral, with some cells responding to as little as 10 nM. The dynamic range was unexpectedly broad, with threshold and saturation in individual cells often covering three log units of lyral concentration. The potential causes and biological significance of this cellular heterogeneity are discussed. Patch clamp recording from OSNs that express a defined OR provides a powerful approach to investigate the sensory inputs to individual glomeruli.

  5. Sequence comparisons of odorant receptors among tortricid moths reveal different rates of molecular evolution among family members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colm Carraher

    Full Text Available In insects, odorant receptors detect volatile cues involved in behaviours such as mate recognition, food location and oviposition. We have investigated the evolution of three odorant receptors from five species within the moth genera Ctenopseustis and Planotrotrix, family Tortricidae, which fall into distinct clades within the odorant receptor multigene family. One receptor is the orthologue of the co-receptor Or83b, now known as Orco (OR2, and encodes the obligate ion channel subunit of the receptor complex. In comparison, the other two receptors, OR1 and OR3, are ligand-binding receptor subunits, activated by volatile compounds produced by plants--methyl salicylate and citral, respectively. Rates of sequence evolution at non-synonymous sites were significantly higher in OR1 compared with OR2 and OR3. Within the dataset OR1 contains 109 variable amino acid positions that are distributed evenly across the entire protein including transmembrane helices, loop regions and termini, while OR2 and OR3 contain 18 and 16 variable sites, respectively. OR2 shows a high level of amino acid conservation as expected due to its essential role in odour detection; however we found unexpected differences in the rate of evolution between two ligand-binding odorant receptors, OR1 and OR3. OR3 shows high sequence conservation suggestive of a conserved role in odour reception, whereas the higher rate of evolution observed in OR1, particularly at non-synonymous sites, may be suggestive of relaxed constraint, perhaps associated with the loss of an ancestral role in sex pheromone reception.

  6. Olfactory bulb glomerular NMDA receptors mediate olfactory nerve potentiation and odor preference learning in the neonate rat.

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    Rebecca Lethbridge

    Full Text Available Rat pup odor preference learning follows pairing of bulbar beta-adrenoceptor activation with olfactory input. We hypothesize that NMDA receptor (NMDAR-mediated olfactory input to mitral cells is enhanced during training, such that increased calcium facilitates and shapes the critical cAMP pattern. Here, we demonstrate, in vitro, that olfactory nerve stimulation, at sniffing frequencies, paired with beta-adrenoceptor activation, potentiates olfactory nerve-evoked mitral cell firing. This potentiation is blocked by a NMDAR antagonist and by increased inhibition. Glomerular disinhibition also induces NMDAR-sensitive potentiation. In vivo, in parallel, behavioral learning is prevented by glomerular infusion of an NMDAR antagonist or a GABA(A receptor agonist. A glomerular GABA(A receptor antagonist paired with odor can induce NMDAR-dependent learning. The NMDA GluN1 subunit is phosphorylated in odor-specific glomeruli within 5 min of training suggesting early activation, and enhanced calcium entry, during acquisition. The GluN1 subunit is down-regulated 3 h after learning; and at 24 h post-training the GluN2B subunit is down-regulated. These events may assist memory stability. Ex vivo experiments using bulbs from trained rat pups reveal an increase in the AMPA/NMDA EPSC ratio post-training, consistent with an increase in AMPA receptor insertion and/or the decrease in NMDAR subunits. These results support a model of a cAMP/NMDA interaction in generating rat pup odor preference learning.

  7. Anatomical and molecular consequences of Unilateral Naris Closure on two populations of olfactory sensory neurons expressing defined odorant receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinas, Adrien; Aoudé, Imad; Soubeyre, Vanessa; Tazir, Bassim; Cadiou, Hervé; Grosmaitre, Xavier

    2016-07-28

    Mammalian olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), the primary elements of the olfactory system, are located in the olfactory epithelium lining the nasal cavity. Exposed to the environment, their lifespan is short. Consequently, OSNs are regularly regenerated and several reports show that activity strongly modulates their development and regeneration: the peripheral olfactory system can adjust to the amount of stimulus through compensatory mechanisms. Unilateral naris occlusion (UNO) was frequently used to investigate this mechanism at the entire epithelium level. However, there is little data regarding the effects of UNO at the cellular level, especially on individual neuronal populations expressing a defined odorant receptor. Here, using UNO during the first three postnatal weeks, we analyzed the anatomical and molecular consequences of sensory deprivation in OSNs populations expressing the MOR23 and M71 receptors. The density of MOR23-expressing neurons is decreased in the closed side while UNO does not affect the density of M71-expressing neurons. Using Real Time qPCR on isolated neurons, we observed that UNO modulates the transcript levels for transduction pathway proteins (odorant receptors, CNGA2, PDE1c). The transcripts modulated by UNO will differ between populations depending on the receptor expressed. These results suggest that sensory deprivation will have different effects on different OSNs' populations. As a consequence, early experience will shape the functional properties of OSNs differently depending on the type of odorant receptor they express. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A conserved odorant receptor detects the same 1-indanone analogs in a tortricid and a noctuid moth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco eGonzalez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Odorant receptors (ORs interface animals with airborne chemical signals. They are under strong selection pressure and are therefore highly divergent in different taxa. Yet, some OR orthologs are highly conserved. These ORs may be tuned to odorants of broad importance, across species boundaries. Two widely distributed lepidopteran herbivores, codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae feeding in apples and pears, and the African cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Noctuidae, a moth feeding on foliage of a wide range of herbaceous plants, both express a receptor ortholog, OR19, which shares 58% amino acid identity and 69% amino acid similarity. Following heterologous expression in the empty neuron system of Drosophila melanogaster, we show by single sensillum recordings that CpomOR19 and SlitOR19 show similar affinity to several substituted indanes. Tests with a series of compounds structurally related to 1-indanone show that 2-methyl-1-indanone, 2-ethyl-1-indanone, 3-methyl-1-indanone and 1-indanone elicit a strong response from both ORs. A keto group in position 1 is essential for biological activity and so are both rings of the indane skeleton. However, there is an important difference in steric complementary of the indane rings and the receptor. Methyl substituents on the benzene ring largely suppressed the response. On the other hand, alkyl substituents at position 2 and 3 of the five-membered ring increased the response indicating a higher complementarity with the receptor cavity, in both CpomOR19 and SlitOR19. Our results demonstrate a conserved function of an odorant receptor in two moths that are phylogenetically and ecologically distant. It is conceivable that a conserved OR is tuned to signals that are relevant for both species, although their ecological roles are yet unknown. Our finding demonstrates that functional characterization of ORs leads to the discovery of novel semiochemicals that have not yet been found through chemical

  9. Mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons express a repertoire of olfactory receptors and respond to odorant-like molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, Alice; Zucchelli, Silvia; Urzì, Alice; Zamparo, Ilaria; Lazarevic, Dejan; Pascarella, Giovanni; Roncaglia, Paola; Giorgetti, Alejandro; Garcia-Esparcia, Paula; Vlachouli, Christina; Simone, Roberto; Persichetti, Francesca; Forrest, Alistair R R; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Carloni, Paolo; Ferrer, Isidro; Lodovichi, Claudia; Plessy, Charles; Carninci, Piero; Gustincich, Stefano

    2014-08-27

    The mesencephalic dopaminergic (mDA) cell system is composed of two major groups of projecting cells in the Substantia Nigra (SN) (A9 neurons) and the Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) (A10 cells). Selective degeneration of A9 neurons occurs in Parkinson's disease (PD) while abnormal function of A10 cells has been linked to schizophrenia, attention deficit and addiction. The molecular basis that underlies selective vulnerability of A9 and A10 neurons is presently unknown. By taking advantage of transgenic labeling, laser capture microdissection coupled to nano Cap-Analysis of Gene Expression (nanoCAGE) technology on isolated A9 and A10 cells, we found that a subset of Olfactory Receptors (OR)s is expressed in mDA neurons. Gene expression analysis was integrated with the FANTOM5 Helicos CAGE sequencing datasets, showing the presence of these ORs in selected tissues and brain areas outside of the olfactory epithelium. OR expression in the mesencephalon was validated by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. By screening 16 potential ligands on 5 mDA ORs recombinantly expressed in an heterologous in vitro system, we identified carvone enantiomers as agonists at Olfr287 and able to evoke an intracellular Ca2+ increase in solitary mDA neurons. ORs were found expressed in human SN and down-regulated in PD post mortem brains. Our study indicates that mDA neurons express ORs and respond to odor-like molecules providing new opportunities for pharmacological intervention in disease.

  10. Odorant Receptor 51E2 Agonist β-ionone Regulates RPE Cell Migration and Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolina Jovancevic

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The odorant receptor 51E2 (OR51E2, which is well-characterized in prostate cancer cells and epidermal pigment cells, was identified for the first time as the most highly expressed OR in human fetal and adult retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis revealed OR51E2 localization throughout the cytosol and in the plasma membrane. Additionally, immunohistochemical staining of diverse layers of the eye showed that the expression of OR51E2 is restricted to the pigment cells of the RPE and choroid. The results of Ca2+-imaging experiments demonstrate that activation of OR51E2 triggers a Ca2+ dependent signal pathway in RPE cells. Downstream signaling of OR51E2 involves the activation of adenylyl cyclase, ERK1/2 and AKT. The activity of these protein kinases likely accounts for the demonstrated increase in the migration and proliferation of RPE cells upon stimulation with the OR51E2 ligand β-ionone. These findings suggest that OR51E2 is involved in the regulation of RPE cell growth. Thus, OR51E2 represents a potential target for the treatment of proliferative disorders.

  11. Enhanced odor discrimination and impaired olfactory memory by spatially controlled switch of AMPA receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya R Shimshek

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Genetic perturbations of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptors (AMPARs are widely used to dissect molecular mechanisms of sensory coding, learning, and memory. In this study, we investigated the role of Ca2+-permeable AMPARs in olfactory behavior. AMPAR modification was obtained by depletion of the GluR-B subunit or expression of unedited GluR-B(Q, both leading to increased Ca2+ permeability of AMPARs. Mice with this functional AMPAR switch, specifically in forebrain, showed enhanced olfactory discrimination and more rapid learning in a go/no-go operant conditioning task. Olfactory memory, however, was dramatically impaired. GluR-B depletion in forebrain was ectopically variable ("mosaic" among individuals and strongly correlated with decreased olfactory memory in hippocampus and cortex. Accordingly, memory was rescued by transgenic GluR-B expression restricted to piriform cortex and hippocampus, while enhanced odor discrimination was independent of both GluR-B variability and transgenic GluR-B expression. Thus, correlated differences in behavior and levels of GluR-B expression allowed a mechanistic and spatial dissection of olfactory learning, discrimination, and memory capabilities.

  12. Enhanced odor discrimination and impaired olfactory memory by spatially controlled switch of AMPA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimshek, Derya R; Bus, Thorsten; Kim, Jinhyun; Mihaljevic, Andre; Mack, Volker; Seeburg, Peter H; Sprengel, Rolf; Schaefer, Andreas T

    2005-11-01

    Genetic perturbations of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptors (AMPARs) are widely used to dissect molecular mechanisms of sensory coding, learning, and memory. In this study, we investigated the role of Ca2+-permeable AMPARs in olfactory behavior. AMPAR modification was obtained by depletion of the GluR-B subunit or expression of unedited GluR-B(Q), both leading to increased Ca2+ permeability of AMPARs. Mice with this functional AMPAR switch, specifically in forebrain, showed enhanced olfactory discrimination and more rapid learning in a go/no-go operant conditioning task. Olfactory memory, however, was dramatically impaired. GluR-B depletion in forebrain was ectopically variable ("mosaic") among individuals and strongly correlated with decreased olfactory memory in hippocampus and cortex. Accordingly, memory was rescued by transgenic GluR-B expression restricted to piriform cortex and hippocampus, while enhanced odor discrimination was independent of both GluR-B variability and transgenic GluR-B expression. Thus, correlated differences in behavior and levels of GluR-B expression allowed a mechanistic and spatial dissection of olfactory learning, discrimination, and memory capabilities.

  13. Combinatorial effects of odorants on mouse behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Luis R.; Kondoh, Kunio; Ye, Xiaolan; Yoon, Kyoung-hye; Hernandez, Marcus; Buck, Linda B.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which odors induce instinctive behaviors are largely unknown. Odor detection in the mouse nose is mediated by >1, 000 different odorant receptors (ORs) and trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs). Odor perceptions are encoded combinatorially by ORs and can be altered by slight changes in the combination of activated receptors. However, the stereotyped nature of instinctive odor responses suggests the involvement of specific receptors and genetically programmed neural circuits relatively immune to extraneous odor stimuli and receptor inputs. Here, we report that, contrary to expectation, innate odor-induced behaviors can be context-dependent. First, different ligands for a given TAAR can vary in behavioral effect. Second, when combined, some attractive and aversive odorants neutralize one another’s behavioral effects. Both a TAAR ligand and a common odorant block aversion to a predator odor, indicating that this ability is not unique to TAARs and can extend to an aversive response of potential importance to survival. In vitro testing of single receptors with binary odorant mixtures indicates that behavioral blocking can occur without receptor antagonism in the nose. Moreover, genetic ablation of a single receptor prevents its cognate ligand from blocking predator odor aversion, indicating that the blocking requires sensory input from the receptor. Together, these findings indicate that innate odor-induced behaviors can depend on context, that signals from a single receptor can block innate odor aversion, and that instinctive behavioral responses to odors can be modulated by interactions in the brain among signals derived from different receptors. PMID:27208093

  14. Odorant and gustatory receptors in the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George F O Obiero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies use olfactory and gustatory responses, through odorant and gustatory receptors (ORs and GRs, to interact with their environment. Glossina morsitans morsitans genome ORs and GRs were annotated using homologs of these genes in Drosophila melanogaster and an ab initio approach based on OR and GR specific motifs in G. m. morsitans gene models coupled to gene ontology (GO. Phylogenetic relationships among the ORs or GRs and the homologs were determined using Maximum Likelihood estimates. Relative expression levels among the G. m. morsitans ORs or GRs were established using RNA-seq data derived from adult female fly. Overall, 46 and 14 putative G. m. morsitans ORs and GRs respectively were recovered. These were reduced by 12 and 59 ORs and GRs respectively compared to D. melanogaster. Six of the ORs were homologous to a single D. melanogaster OR (DmOr67d associated with mating deterrence in females. Sweet taste GRs, present in all the other Diptera, were not recovered in G. m. morsitans. The GRs associated with detection of CO2 were conserved in G. m. morsitans relative to D. melanogaster. RNA-sequence data analysis revealed expression of GmmOR15 locus represented over 90% of expression profiles for the ORs. The G. m. morsitans ORs or GRs were phylogenetically closer to those in D. melanogaster than to other insects assessed. We found the chemoreceptor repertoire in G. m. morsitans smaller than other Diptera, and we postulate that this may be related to the restricted diet of blood-meal for both sexes of tsetse flies. However, the clade of some specific receptors has been expanded, indicative of their potential importance in chemoreception in the tsetse.

  15. GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors and AMPA receptors in medial prefrontal cortex are necessary for odor span in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don A Davies

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is a type of short-term memory involved in the maintenance and manipulation of information essential for complex cognition. While memory span capacity has been extensively studied in humans as a measure of working memory, it has received considerably less attention in rodents. Our aim was to examine the role of the NMDA and AMPA glutamate receptors in odor span capacity using systemic injections or infusions of receptor antagonists into the medial prefrontal cortex. Long Evans rats were trained on a well-characterized odor span task. Initially, rats were trained to dig for a food reward in sand followed by training on a non-match to sample discrimination using sand scented with household spices. The rats were then required to perform a serial delayed non-match to sample procedure which was their odor span. Systemic injection of the broad spectrum NMDA receptor antagonist CPP (10 mg/kg or the GluN2B-selective antagonist Ro25-6981 (10 mg/kg but not 6 mg/kg significantly reduced odor span capacity. Infusions of the GluN2B- selective antagonist Ro25-6981 (2.5 µg/hemisphere into medial prefrontal cortex reduced span capacity, an effect that was nearly significant (p = 0.069. Infusions of the AMPA receptor antagonist CNQX (1.25 µg/hemisphere into medial prefrontal cortex reduced span capacity and latency for the rats to make a choice in the task. These results demonstrate span capacity in rats depends on ionotropic glutamate receptor activation in the medial prefrontal cortex. Further understanding of the circuitry underlying span capacity may aid in the novel therapeutic drug development for persons with working memory impairments as a result of disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease.

  16. Molecular evolution of the odorant and gustatory receptor genes in lepidopteran insects: implications for their adaptation and speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engsontia, Patamarerk; Sangket, Unitsa; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan; Satasook, Chutamas

    2014-08-01

    Lepidoptera (comprised of butterflies and moths) is one of the largest groups of insects, including more than 160,000 described species. Chemoreception plays important roles in the adaptation of these species to a wide range of niches, e.g., plant hosts, egg-laying sites, and mates. This study investigated the molecular evolution of the lepidopteran odorant (Or) and gustatory receptor (Gr) genes using recently identified genes from Bombyx mori, Danaus plexippus, Heliconius melpomene, Plutella xylostella, Heliothis virescens, Manduca sexta, Cydia pomonella, and Spodoptera littoralis. A limited number of cases of large lineage-specific gene expansion are observed (except in the P. xylostella lineage), possibly due to selection against tandem gene duplication. There has been strong purifying selection during the evolution of both lepidopteran odorant and gustatory genes, as shown by the low ω values estimated through CodeML analysis, ranging from 0.0093 to 0.3926. However, purifying selection has been relaxed on some amino acid sites in these receptors, leading to sequence divergence, which is a precursor of positive selection on these sequences. Signatures of positive selection were detected only in a few loci from the lineage-specific analysis. Estimation of gene gains and losses suggests that the common ancestor of the Lepidoptera had fewer Or genes compared to extant species and an even more reduced number of Gr genes, particularly within the bitter receptor clade. Multiple gene gains and a few gene losses occurred during the evolution of Lepidoptera. Gene family expansion may be associated with the adaptation of lepidopteran species to plant hosts, especially after angiosperm radiation. Phylogenetic analysis of the moth sex pheromone receptor genes suggested that chromosomal translocations have occurred several times. New sex pheromone receptors have arisen through tandem gene duplication. Positive selection was detected at some amino acid sites predicted to be

  17. Dopamine D2 receptors mediate two-odor discrimination and reversal learning in C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandy David K

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dopamine modulation of neuronal signaling in the frontal cortex, midbrain, and striatum is essential for processing and integrating diverse external sensory stimuli and attaching salience to environmental cues that signal causal relationships, thereby guiding goal-directed, adaptable behaviors. At the cellular level, dopamine signaling is mediated through D1-like or D2-like receptors. Although a role for D1-like receptors in a variety of goal-directed behaviors has been identified, an explicit involvement of D2 receptors has not been clearly established. To determine whether dopamine D2 receptor-mediated signaling contributes to associative and reversal learning, we compared C57Bl/6J mice that completely lack functional dopamine D2 receptors to wild-type mice with respect to their ability to attach appropriate salience to external stimuli (stimulus discrimination and disengage from inappropriate behavioral strategies when reinforcement contingencies change (e.g. reversal learning. Results Mildly food-deprived female wild-type and dopamine D2 receptor deficient mice rapidly learned to retrieve and consume visible food reinforcers from a small plastic dish. Furthermore, both genotypes readily learned to dig through the same dish filled with sterile sand in order to locate a buried food pellet. However, the dopamine D2 receptor deficient mice required significantly more trials than wild-type mice to discriminate between two dishes, each filled with a different scented sand, and to associate one of the two odors with the presence of a reinforcer (food. In addition, the dopamine D2 receptor deficient mice repeatedly fail to alter their response patterns during reversal trials where the reinforcement rules were inverted. Conclusions Inbred C57Bl/6J mice that develop in the complete absence of functional dopamine D2 receptors are capable of olfaction but display an impaired ability to acquire odor-driven reinforcement contingencies

  18. The orexin-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 decreases anxiety-like behavior and c-Fos expression in the hypothalamus of rats exposed to cat odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhaven, M W; Cornish, J L; Staples, L G

    2015-02-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the orexin system is involved in modulating anxiety, and we have recently shown that cat odor-induced anxiety in rats is attenuated by the orexin receptor antagonist SB-334867. In the current experiment, c-Fos expression was used to map changes in neuronal activation following SB-334867 administration in the cat odor anxiety model. Male Wistar rats were exposed to cat odor with or without SB-334867 pre-treatment (10 mg/kg, i.p.). A naïve control group not exposed to cat odor was also used. Following cat odor exposure, brains were processed for c-Fos expression. Vehicle-treated rats showed an increase in anxiety-like behaviors (increased hiding and decreased approach toward the cat odor), and increased c-Fos expression in the posteroventral medial amygdala (MePV), paraventricular hypothalamus (PVN) and dorsal premammillary nucleus (PMd). In rats pretreated with SB-334867, approach scores increased and c-Fos expression decreased in the PVN and PMd. These results provide both behavioral and neuroanatomical evidence for the attenuation of cat odor-induced anxiety in rats via the orexin system. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of the α2 -receptor agonists medetomidine, detomidine, xylazine, and romifidine on the ketamine metabolism in equines assessed with enantioselective capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbaumhüter, Friederike A; Theurillat, Regula; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula; Thormann, Wolfgang

    2017-08-01

    The combination of ketamine and an α 2 -receptor agonist is often used in veterinary medicine. Four different α 2 -receptor agonists, medetomidine, detomidine, xylazine, and romifidine, which differ in their chemical structure and thus in selectivity for the α 2 -receptor and in the sedative and analgesic potency, are typically employed during surgery of equines. Recovery following anesthesia with ketamine and an α 2 -receptor agonist is dependent on the α 2 -receptor agonist. This prompted us to investigate (i) the inhibition characteristics for the N-demethylation of ketamine to norketamine and (ii) the formation of the ketamine metabolites norketamine, 6-hydroxynorketamine (6HNK), and 5,6-dehydronorketamine (DHNK) in presence of the four α 2 -receptor agonists and equine liver microsomes. Samples were analyzed with enantioselective capillary electrophoresis using highly sulfated γ-cyclodextrin as chiral selector. All four α 2 -receptor agonists have an impact on the ketamine metabolism. Medetomidine was found to be the strongest inhibitor, followed by detomidine, whereas xylazine and romifidine showed almost no effect on the ketamine N-demethylation in the inhibition studies with a short-incubation period of the reaction mixture. After prolonged incubation, inhibition with xylazine and romifidine was also observed. The formation of 6HNK and DHNK is affected by all selected α 2 -receptor agonists. With medetomidine, levels of these metabolites are reduced compared to the case without an α 2 -receptor agonist. For detomidine, xylazine, and romifidine, the opposite was found. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. NMDA receptors in mouse anterior piriform cortex initialize early odor preference learning and L-type calcium channels engage for long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Bandhan; Yuan, Qi

    2016-10-14

    The interactions of L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) and NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in memories are poorly understood. Here we investigated the specific roles of anterior piriform cortex (aPC) LTCCs and NMDARs in early odor preference memory in mice. Using calcium imaging in aPC slices, LTCC activation was shown to be dependent on NMDAR activation. Either D-APV (NMDAR antagonist) or nifedipine (LTCC antagonist) reduced somatic calcium transients in pyramidal cells evoked by lateral olfactory tract stimulation. However, nifedipine did not further reduce calcium in the presence of D-APV. In mice that underwent early odor preference training, blocking NMDARs in the aPC prevented short-term (3 hr) and long-term (24 hr) odor preference memory, and both memories were rescued when BayK-8644 (LTCC agonist) was co-infused. However, activating LTCCs in the absence of NMDARs resulted in loss of discrimination between the conditioned odor and a similar odor mixture at 3 hr. Elevated synaptic AMPAR expression at 3 hr was prevented by D-APV infusion but restored when LTCCs were directly activated, mirroring the behavioral outcomes. Blocking LTCCs prevented 24 hr memory and spared 3 hr memory. These results suggest that NMDARs mediate stimulus-specific encoding of odor memory while LTCCs mediate intracellular signaling leading to long-term memory.

  1. Existence of multiple receptors in single neurons: responses of single bullfrog olfactory neurons to many cAMP-dependent and independent odorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwayanagi, M; Shimano, K; Kurihara, K

    1996-11-04

    The responses of single bullfrog olfactory neurons to various odorants were measured with the whole-cell patch clamp which offers direct information on cellular events and with the ciliary recording technique to obtain stable quantitative data from many neurons. A large portion of single olfactory neurons (about 64% and 79% in the whole-cell recording and in the ciliary recording, respectively) responded to many odorants with quite diverse molecular structures, including both odorants previously indicated to be cAMP-dependent (increasing) and independent odorants. One odorant elicited a response in many cells; e.g. hedione and citralva elicited the response in 100% and 92% of total neurons examined with the ciliary recording technique. To confirm that a single neuron carries different receptors or transduction pathways, the cross-adaptation technique was applied to single neurons. Application of hedione to a single neuron after desensitization of the current in response to lyral or citralva induced an inward current with a similar magnitude to that applied alone. It was suggested that most single olfactory neurons carry multiple receptors and at least dual transduction pathways.

  2. Influence of Pharmacological Manipulations of NMDA and Cholinergic Receptors on Working versus Reference Memory in a Dual Component Odor Span Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, David A.; Dalrymple, Savannah R.; Drobes, David J.; Diamond, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Developed as a tool to assess working memory capacity in rodents, the odor span task (OST) has significant potential to advance drug discovery in animal models of psychiatric disorders. Prior investigations indicate OST performance is impaired by systemic administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-r) antagonists and is sensitive to…

  3. Characterization of Odorant Receptors from a Non-ditrysian Moth, Eriocrania semipurpurella Sheds Light on the Origin of Sex Pheromone Receptors in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvaraj, Jothi Kumar; Corcoran, Jacob A; Andersson, Martin N; Newcomb, Richard D; Anderbrant, Olle; Löfstedt, Christer

    2017-11-01

    Pheromone receptors (PRs) are essential in moths to detect sex pheromones for mate finding. However, it remains unknown from which ancestral proteins these specialized receptors arose. The oldest lineages of moths, so-called non-ditrysian moths, use short-chain pheromone components, secondary alcohols, or ketones, so called Type 0 pheromones that are similar to many common plant volatiles. It is, therefore, possible that receptors for these ancestral pheromones evolved from receptors detecting plant volatiles. Hence, we identified the odorant receptors (ORs) from a non-ditrysian moth, Eriocrania semipurpurella (Eriocraniidae, Lepidoptera), and performed functional characterization of ORs using HEK293 cells. We report the first receptors that respond to Type 0 pheromone compounds; EsemOR3 displayed highest sensitivity toward (2S, 6Z)-6-nonen-2-ol, whereas EsemOR5 was most sensitive to the behavioral antagonist (Z)-6-nonen-2-one. These receptors also respond to plant volatiles of similar chemical structures, but with lower sensitivity. Phylogenetically, EsemOR3 and EsemOR5 group with a plant volatile-responding receptor from the tortricid moth Epiphyas postvittana (EposOR3), which together reside outside the previously defined lepidopteran PR clade that contains the PRs from more derived lepidopteran families. In addition, one receptor (EsemOR1) that falls at the base of the lepidopteran PR clade, responded specifically to β-caryophyllene and not to any other additional plant or pheromone compounds. Our results suggest that PRs for Type 0 pheromones have evolved from ORs that detect structurally-related plant volatiles. They are unrelated to PRs detecting pheromones in more derived Lepidoptera, which, in turn, also independently may have evolved a novel function from ORs detecting plant volatiles. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. Vaginal Odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normally occurring vaginal bacteria — is the most common vaginal infection that causes a vaginal odor. Trichomoniasis — a sexually transmitted infection — also can lead to vaginal odor. Chlamydia and gonorrhea infections usually don't cause vaginal odors. Neither do ...

  5. Aversive odorant causing appetite decrease downregulates tyrosine decarboxylase gene expression in the olfactory receptor neuron of the blowfly, Phormia regina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yuko; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2012-01-01

    In the blowfly Phormia regina, exposure to d-limonene for 5 days during feeding inhibits proboscis extension reflex behavior due to decreasing tyramine (TA) titer in the brain. TA is synthesized by tyrosine decarboxylase (Tdc) and catalyzed into octopamine (OA) by TA ß-hydroxylase (Tbh). To address the mechanisms of TA titer regulation in the blowfly, we cloned Tdc and Tbh cDNAs from P. regina (PregTdc and PregTbh). The deduced amino acid sequences of both proteins showed high identity to those of the corresponding proteins from Drosophila melanogaster at the amino acid level. PregTdc was expressed in the antenna, labellum, and tarsus whereas PregTbh was expressed in the head, indicating that TA is mainly synthesized in the sensory organs whereas OA is primarily synthesized in the brain. d-Limonene exposure significantly decreased PregTdc expression in the antenna but not in the labellum and the tarsus, indicating that PregTdc expressed in the antenna is responsible for decreasing TA titer. PregTdc-like immunoreactive material was localized in the thin-walled sensillum. In contrast, the OA/TA receptor (PregOAR/TAR) was localized to the thick-walled sensillum. The results indicated that d-limonene inhibits PregTdc expression in the olfactory receptor neurons in the thin-walled sensilla, likely resulting in reduced TA levels in the receptor neurons in the antenna. TA may be transferred from the receptor neuron to the specific synaptic junction in the antennal lobe of the brain through the projection neurons and play a role in conveying the aversive odorant information to the projection and local neurons.

  6. Predicting the response of olfactory sensory neurons to odor mixtures from single odor response

    OpenAIRE

    Marasco, Addolorata; De Paris, Alessandro; Migliore, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The response of olfactory receptor neurons to odor mixtures is not well understood. Here, using experimental constraints, we investigate the mathematical structure of the odor response space and its consequences. The analysis suggests that the odor response space is 3-dimensional, and predicts that the dose-response curve of an odor receptor can be obtained, in most cases, from three primary components with specific properties. This opens the way to an objective procedure to obtain specific o...

  7. Odor Preference Learning and Memory Modify GluA1 Phosphorylation and GluA1 Distribution in the Neonate Rat Olfactory Bulb: Testing the AMPA Receptor Hypothesis in an Appetitive Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wen; Darby-King, Andrea; Grimes, Matthew T.; Howland, John G.; Wang, Yu Tian; McLean, John H.; Harley, Carolyn W.

    2011-01-01

    An increase in synaptic AMPA receptors is hypothesized to mediate learning and memory. AMPA receptor increases have been reported in aversive learning models, although it is not clear if they are seen with memory maintenance. Here we examine AMPA receptor changes in a cAMP/PKA/CREB-dependent appetitive learning model: odor preference learning in…

  8. Differential Involvement of Amygdala and Cortical NMDA Receptors Activation upon Encoding in Odor Fear Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegoburu, Chloé; Parrot, Sandrine; Ferreira, Guilaume; Mouly, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Although the basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a crucial role for the acquisition of fear memories, sensory cortices are involved in their long-term storage in rats. However, the time course of their respective involvement has received little investigation. Here we assessed the role of the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the…

  9. Identification of Complete Repertoire of Apis florea Odorant Receptors Reveals Complex Orthologous Relationships with Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpe, Snehal D.; Jain, Rikesh; Brockmann, Axel; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We developed a computational pipeline for homology based identification of the complete repertoire of olfactory receptor (OR) genes in the Asian honey bee species, Apis florea. Apis florea is phylogenetically the most basal honey bee species and also the most distant sister species to the Western honey bee Apis mellifera, for which all OR genes had been identified before. Using our pipeline, we identified 180 OR genes in A. florea, which is very similar to the number of ORs identified in A. mellifera (177 ORs). Many characteristics of the ORs including gene structure, synteny of tandemly repeated ORs and basic phylogenetic clustering are highly conserved. The composite phylogenetic tree of A. florea and A. mellifera ORs could be divided into 21 clades which are in harmony with the existing Hymenopteran tree. However, we found a few nonorthologous OR relationships between both species as well as independent pseudogenization of ORs suggesting separate evolutionary changes. Particularly, a subgroup of the OR gene clade XI, which had been hypothesized to code cuticular hydrocarbon receptors showed a high number of species-specific ORs. RNAseq analysis detected a total number of 145 OR transcripts in male and 162 in female antennae. Most of the OR genes were highly expressed on the female antennae. However, we detected five distinct male-biased OR genes, out of which three genes (AfOr11, AfOr18, AfOr170P) were shown to be male-biased in A. mellifera, too, thus corroborating a behavioral function in sex-pheromone communication. PMID:27540087

  10. Gene structure and expression characteristic of a novel odorant receptor gene cluster in the parasitoid wasp Microplitis mediator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S-N; Shan, S; Zheng, Y; Peng, Y; Lu, Z-Y; Yang, Y-Q; Li, R-J; Zhang, Y-J; Guo, Y-Y

    2017-08-01

    Odorant receptors (ORs) expressed in the antennae of parasitoid wasps are responsible for detection of various lipophilic airborne molecules. In the present study, 107 novel OR genes were identified from Microplitis mediator antennal transcriptome data. Phylogenetic analysis of the set of OR genes from M. mediator and Microplitis demolitor revealed that M. mediator OR (MmedOR) genes can be classified into different subfamilies, and the majority of MmedORs in each subfamily shared high sequence identities and clear orthologous relationships to M. demolitor ORs. Within a subfamily, six MmedOR genes, MmedOR98, 124, 125, 126, 131 and 155, shared a similar gene structure and were tightly linked in the genome. To evaluate whether the clustered MmedOR genes share common regulatory features, the transcription profile and expression characteristics of the six closely related OR genes were investigated in M. mediator. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR experiments revealed that the OR genes within the cluster were transcribed as single mRNAs, and a bicistronic mRNA for two adjacent genes (MmedOR124 and MmedOR98) was also detected in female antennae by reverse transcription PCR. In situ hybridization experiments indicated that each OR gene within the cluster was expressed in a different number of cells. Moreover, there was no co-expression of the two highly related OR genes, MmedOR124 and MmedOR98, which appeared to be individually expressed in a distinct population of neurons. Overall, there were distinct expression profiles of closely related MmedOR genes from the same cluster in M. mediator. These data provide a basic understanding of the olfactory coding in parasitoid wasps. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  11. The Odorant ( R)-Citronellal Attenuates Caffeine Bitterness by Inhibiting the Bitter Receptors TAS2R43 and TAS2R46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Barbara; Brockhoff, Anne; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Hofmann, Thomas

    2018-03-14

    Sensory studies showed the volatile fraction of lemon grass and its main constituent, the odor-active citronellal, to significantly decrease the perceived bitterness of a black tea infusion as well as caffeine solutions. Seven citronellal-related derivatives were synthesized and shown to inhibit the perceived bitterness of caffeine in a structure-dependent manner. The aldehyde function at carbon 1, the ( R)-configuration of the methyl-branched carbon 3, and a hydrophobic carbon chain were found to favor the bitter inhibitory activity of citronellal; for example, even low concentrations of 25 ppm were observed to reduce bitterness perception of caffeine solution (6 mmol/L) by 32%, whereas ( R)-citronellic acid (100 pm) showed a reduction of only 21% and ( R)-citronellol (100 pm) was completely inactive. Cell-based functional experiments, conducted with the human bitter taste receptors TAS2R7, TAS2R10, TAS2R14, TAS2R43, and TAS2R46 reported to be sensitive to caffeine, revealed ( R)-citronellal to completely block caffeine-induced calcium signals in TAS2R43-expressing cells, and, to a lesser extent, in TAS2R46-expressing cells. Stimulation of TAS2R43-expressing cells with structurally different bitter agonists identified ( R)-citronellal as a general allosteric inhibitor of TAS2R43. Further structure/activity studies indicated 3-methyl-branched aliphatic aldehydes with a carbon chain of ≥4 C atoms as best TAS2R43 antagonists. Whereas odor-taste interactions have been mainly interpreted in the literature to be caused by a central neuronal integration of odors and tastes, rather than by peripheral events at the level of reception, the findings of this study open up a new dimension regarding the interaction of the two chemical senses.

  12. Predicting the response of olfactory sensory neurons to odor mixtures from single odor response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Addolorata; de Paris, Alessandro; Migliore, Michele

    2016-04-01

    The response of olfactory receptor neurons to odor mixtures is not well understood. Here, using experimental constraints, we investigate the mathematical structure of the odor response space and its consequences. The analysis suggests that the odor response space is 3-dimensional, and predicts that the dose-response curve of an odor receptor can be obtained, in most cases, from three primary components with specific properties. This opens the way to an objective procedure to obtain specific olfactory receptor responses by manipulating mixtures in a mathematically predictable manner. This result is general and applies, independently of the number of odor components, to any olfactory sensory neuron type with a response curve that can be represented as a sigmoidal function of the odor concentration.

  13. Enantioselective synthesis of almorexant via iridium-catalysed intramolecular allylic amidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fananas Mastral, Martin; Teichert, Johannes F.; Fernandez-Salas, Jose Antonio; Heijnen, Dorus; Feringa, Ben L.

    2013-01-01

    An enantioselective synthesis of almorexant, a potent antagonist of human orexin receptors, is presented. The chiral tetrahydroisoquinoline core structure was prepared via iridium-catalysed asymmetric intramolecular allylic amidation. Further key catalytic steps of the synthesis include an oxidative

  14. Influence of pharmacological manipulations of NMDA and cholinergic receptors on working versus reference memory in a dual component odor span task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, David A; Dalrymple, Savannah R; Drobes, David J; Diamond, David M

    2016-06-01

    Developed as a tool to assess working memory capacity in rodents, the odor span task (OST) has significant potential to advance drug discovery in animal models of psychiatric disorders. Prior investigations indicate OST performance is impaired by systemic administration of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-r) antagonists and is sensitive to cholinergic manipulations. The present study sought to determine whether an impairment in OST performance can be produced by systemic administration of the competitive NMDA-r antagonist 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP; 3, 10, 17 mg/kg i.p.) in a unique dual-component variant of the OST, and whether this impairment is ameliorated by nicotine (0.75 mg/kg i.p.). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to asymptotic level of performance on a 24-trial two-comparison incrementing nonmatching to sample OST. In addition, rats were administered a two-comparison olfactory reference memory (RM) task, which was integrated into the OST. The RM task provided an assessment of the effects of drug administration on global behavioral measures, long-term memory and motivation. Several measures of working memory (span, longest run, and accuracy) were dose dependently impaired by CPP without adversely affecting RM. Analysis of drug effects across trial blocks demonstrated a significant impairment of performance even at low memory loads, suggesting a CPP-induced deficit of olfactory short-term memory that is not load-dependent. Although nicotine did not ameliorate CPP-induced impairments in span or accuracy, it did block the impairment in longest run produced by the 10 mg/kg dose of CPP. Overall, our results indicate that performance in our 24 odor two-comparison OST is capacity dependent and that CPP impaired OST working, but not reference, memory. © 2016 MacQueen et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. Analysis and control of odors from petroleum refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, M.A.; Duffee, R.A.; Ostojic, N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a proven approach used to effectively solve odor problems associated with atmospheric emissions from petroleum refineries. A systematic evaluation is first conducted to identify all emissions with the potential for off-site odor impacts. Sampling is then conducted and dynamic dilution olfactometry is used to quantify the odor emission rates of each source. Community odor surveys are performed simultaneously with the source sampling to quantitatively document the downwind odor impacts. Atmospheric dispersion modeling specifically designed for odor is then used to predict instantaneous odor occurrences at various receptor sites under meteorological conditions not actually encountered during the field study. The findings make it possible to rank sources by their odor emission rates and potential for odor impacts in the community. It is then possible to determine how much odor reduction is required to bring the present odor impacts of the individual sources to an acceptable level under worst-case meteorological conditions. Once the degree of control required is determined, control alternatives are selected and evaluated. Case histories have been selected to illustrate the application of this approach at petroleum refineries. They provide descriptions of odor assessment and abatement studies conducted specifically for refinery effluent treatment plant sources as well as process unit emission sources. The sources identified as needing control and the odor abatement measures taken are discussed

  16. Odor preference learning and memory modify GluA1 phosphorylation and GluA1 distribution in the neonate rat olfactory bulb: testing the AMPA receptor hypothesis in an appetitive learning model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wen; Darby-King, Andrea; Grimes, Matthew T; Howland, John G; Wang, Yu Tian; McLean, John H; Harley, Carolyn W

    2011-01-01

    An increase in synaptic AMPA receptors is hypothesized to mediate learning and memory. AMPA receptor increases have been reported in aversive learning models, although it is not clear if they are seen with memory maintenance. Here we examine AMPA receptor changes in a cAMP/PKA/CREB-dependent appetitive learning model: odor preference learning in the neonate rat. Rat pups were given a single pairing of peppermint and 2 mg/kg isoproterenol, which produces a 24-h, but not a 48-h, peppermint preference in the 7-d-old rat pup. GluA1 PKA-dependent phosphorylation peaked 10 min after the 10-min training trial and returned to baseline within 90 min. At 24 h, GluA1 subunits did not change overall but were significantly increased in synaptoneurosomes, consistent with increased membrane insertion. Immunohistochemistry revealed a significant increase in GluA1 subunits in olfactory bulb glomeruli, the targets of olfactory nerve axons. Glomerular increases were seen at 3 and 24 h after odor exposure in trained pups, but not in control pups. GluA1 increases were not seen as early as 10 min after training and were no longer observed 48 h after training when odor preference is no longer expressed behaviorally. Thus, the pattern of increased GluA1 membrane expression closely follows the memory timeline. Further, blocking GluA1 insertion using an interference peptide derived from the carboxyl tail of the GluA1 subunit inhibited 24 h odor preference memory providing causative support for our hypothesis. PKA-mediated GluA1 phosphorylation and later GluA1 insertion could, conjointly, provide increased AMPA function to support both short-term and long-term appetitive memory.

  17. Identification of Glossina morsitans morsitans odorant binding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsetse flies are vectors of trypanosome parasites, causative agents of Trypanosomiasis in humans and animals. Odorant Binding Proteins (OBPs) are critical in insect olfaction as they bind volatile odours from the environment and transport them to receptors within olfactory receptor neurons for processing providing critical ...

  18. Odor-evoked inhibition of olfactory sensory neurons drives olfactory perception in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li-Hui; Yang, Dong; Wu, Wei; Zeng, Xiankun; Jing, Bi-Yang; Li, Meng-Tong; Qin, Shanshan; Tang, Chao; Tu, Yuhai; Luo, Dong-Gen

    2017-11-07

    Inhibitory response occurs throughout the nervous system, including the peripheral olfactory system. While odor-evoked excitation in peripheral olfactory cells is known to encode odor information, the molecular mechanism and functional roles of odor-evoked inhibition remain largely unknown. Here, we examined Drosophila olfactory sensory neurons and found that inhibitory odors triggered outward receptor currents by reducing the constitutive activities of odorant receptors, inhibiting the basal spike firing in olfactory sensory neurons. Remarkably, this odor-evoked inhibition of olfactory sensory neurons elicited by itself a full range of olfactory behaviors from attraction to avoidance, as did odor-evoked olfactory sensory neuron excitation. These results indicated that peripheral inhibition is comparable to excitation in encoding sensory signals rather than merely regulating excitation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that a bidirectional code with both odor-evoked inhibition and excitation in single olfactory sensory neurons increases the odor-coding capacity, providing a means of efficient sensory encoding.

  19. Rapid encoding and perception of novel odors in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W Wesson

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available To gain insight into which parameters of neural activity are important in shaping the perception of odors, we combined a behavioral measure of odor perception with optical imaging of odor representations at the level of receptor neuron input to the rat olfactory bulb. Instead of the typical test of an animal's ability to discriminate two familiar odorants by exhibiting an operant response, we used a spontaneously expressed response to a novel odorant-exploratory sniffing-as a measure of odor perception. This assay allowed us to measure the speed with which rats perform spontaneous odor discriminations. With this paradigm, rats discriminated and began responding to a novel odorant in as little as 140 ms. This time is comparable to that measured in earlier studies using operant behavioral readouts after extensive training. In a subset of these trials, we simultaneously imaged receptor neuron input to the dorsal olfactory bulb with near-millisecond temporal resolution as the animal sampled and then responded to the novel odorant. The imaging data revealed that the bulk of the discrimination time can be attributed to the peripheral events underlying odorant detection: receptor input arrives at the olfactory bulb 100-150 ms after inhalation begins, leaving only 50-100 ms for central processing and response initiation. In most trials, odor discrimination had occurred even before the initial barrage of receptor neuron firing had ceased and before spatial maps of activity across glomeruli had fully developed. These results suggest a coding strategy in which the earliest-activated glomeruli play a major role in the initial perception of odor quality, and place constraints on coding and processing schemes based on simple changes in spike rate.

  20. Effects of Odor on Emotion, with Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikiko eKadohisa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The sense of smell is found widely in the animal kingdom. Human and animal studies show that odor perception is modulated by experience and/or physiological state (such as hunger, and that some odors can arouse emotion, and can lead to the recall of emotional memories. Further, odors can influence psychological and physiological states. Individual odorants are mapped via gene-specified receptors to corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, which directly projects to the piriform cortex and the amygdala without a thalamic relay. The odors to which a glomerulus responds reflect the chemical structure of the odorant. The piriform cortex and the amygdala both project to the orbitofrontal cortex which with the amygdala is involved in emotion and associative learning, and to the entorhinal/hippocampal system which is involved in long-term memory including episodic memory. Evidence that some odors can modulate emotion and cognition is described, and the possible implications for the treatment of psychological problems, for example in reducing the effects of stress, are considered.

  1. Identification and gene-silencing of a putative odorant receptor transcription factor in Varroa destructor: possible role in olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N K; Eliash, N; Stein, I; Kamer, Y; Ilia, Z; Rafaeli, A; Soroker, V

    2016-04-01

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is one of the major threats to apiculture. Using a behavioural choice bioassay, we determined that phoretic mites were more successful in reaching a bee than reproductive mites, suggesting an energy trade-off between reproduction and host selection. We used both chemo-ecological and molecular strategies to identify the regulation of the olfactory machinery of Varroa and its association with reproduction. We focused on transcription regulation. Using primers designed to the conserved DNA binding region of transcription factors, we identified a gene transcript in V. destructor homologous to the pheromone receptor transcription factor (PRTF) gene of Pediculus humanus corporis. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) revealed that this PRTF-like gene transcript is expressed in the forelegs at higher levels than in the body devoid of forelegs. Subsequent comparative qPCR analysis showed that transcript expression was significantly higher in the phoretic as compared to the reproductive stage. Electrophysiological and behavioural studies revealed a reduction in the sensitivity of PRTF RNA interference-silenced mites to bee headspace, consistent with a reduction in the mites' ability to reach a host. In addition, vitellogenin expression was stimulated in PRTF-silenced mites to similar levels as found in reproductive mites. These data shed light upon the regulatory mechanism of host chemosensing in V. destructor. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  2. Odor Emotional Quality Predicts Odor Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestgen, Anne-Kathrin; Schulze, Patrick; Kuchinke, Lars

    2015-09-01

    It is commonly agreed upon a strong link between emotion and olfaction. Odor-evoked memories are experienced as more emotional compared with verbal, visual, and tactile stimuli. Moreover, the emotional quality of odor cues increases memory performance, but contrary to this, odors are poor retrieval cues for verbal labels. To examine the relation between the emotional quality of an odor and its likelihood of identification, this study evaluates how normative emotion ratings based on the 3-dimensional affective space model (that includes valence, arousal, and dominance), using the Self-Assessment Manikin by Bradley and Lang (Bradley MM, Lang PJ. 1994. Measuring emotion: the Self-Assessment Manikin and the Semantic Differential. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 25(1):49-59.) and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson D, Clark LA, Tellegen A. 1988. Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. J Pers Soc Psychol. 54(6):1063-1070.) predict the identification of odors in a multiple choice condition. The best fitting logistic regression model includes squared valence and dominance and thus, points to a significant role of specific emotional features of odors as a main clue for odor identification. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Odors pulsed at wing beat frequencies are tracked by primary olfactory networks and enhance odor detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreejoy Tripathy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Each down stroke of an insect’s wings accelerates axial airflow over the antennae. Modeling studies suggest that this can greatly enhance penetration of air and air-born odorants through the antennal sensilla thereby periodically increasing odorant-receptor interactions. Do these periodic changes result in entrainment of neural responses in the antenna and antennal lobe (AL? Does this entrainment affect olfactory acuity? To address these questions, we monitored antennal and AL responses in the moth Manduca sexta while odorants were pulsed at frequencies from 10-72 Hz, encompassing the natural wingbeat frequency. Power spectral density (PSD analysis was used to identify entrainment of neural activity. Statistical analysis of PSDs indicates that the antennal nerve tracked pulsed odor up to 30 Hz. Furthermore, at least 50% of AL local field potentials (LFPs and between 7-25% of unitary spiking responses also tracked pulsed odor up to 30 Hz in a frequency-locked manner. Application of bicuculline (200µM abolished pulse tracking in both LFP and unitary responses suggesting that GABAA receptor activation is necessary for pulse tracking within the AL. Finally, psychophysical measures of odor detection establish that detection thresholds are lowered when odor is pulsed at 20 Hz. These results suggest that AL networks can respond to the oscillatory dynamics of stimuli such as those imposed by the wing beat in a manner analogous to mammalian sniffing.

  4. Integrative assessment of enantioselectivity in endocrine disruption and immunotoxicity of synthetic pyrethroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Meirong [Research Center of Environmental Science, College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Chen Fang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wang Cui; Zhang Quan [Research Center of Environmental Science, College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Gan Jianying [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Liu Weiping, E-mail: wliu@zjut.edu.c [Research Center of Environmental Science, College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)

    2010-05-15

    The increasing release of chiral chemicals into the environment dictates attention to a better understanding of enantioselectivity in their human and ecotoxicological effects. Although enantioselectivity has been considered in many recent studies, there is little effort for discerning the connection between different processes, and as such, our current knowledge about chiral contaminants is rather scattered and incoherent. In this study, we simultaneously evaluated enantioselectivity of two chiral pesticides, lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) and (Z)-cis-bifenthrin (cis-BF), in immunotoxicity to macrophage cells (RAW264.7), and endocrine disruption activity in human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7. Analysis of cell proliferation, cell viability, apoptosis, and receptor gene expression showed significant differences between the enantiomers of LCT or cis-BF in estrogenic potential and immunocytotoxicity. The selectivity in these effects consistently followed the same direction, with (-)-LCT or 1S-cis-BF displaying a greater activity than its counterpart. The consistency was attributed to interplaying mechanisms in the closely interacting immune and endocrine systems. The underlying interplays suggest that other chiral xenobiotics may also show a directional enantioselectivity in immunotoxicity and endocrine toxicity. Given that many biological processes are inter-related, enantioselectivity may follow specific patterns that can be revealed via integrative assessments as demonstrated in this study. - Chiral contaminants should consider multiple effects and relate directions of enantioselectivity to their interplaying processes.

  5. Integrative assessment of enantioselectivity in endocrine disruption and immunotoxicity of synthetic pyrethroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Meirong; Chen Fang; Wang Cui; Zhang Quan; Gan Jianying; Liu Weiping

    2010-01-01

    The increasing release of chiral chemicals into the environment dictates attention to a better understanding of enantioselectivity in their human and ecotoxicological effects. Although enantioselectivity has been considered in many recent studies, there is little effort for discerning the connection between different processes, and as such, our current knowledge about chiral contaminants is rather scattered and incoherent. In this study, we simultaneously evaluated enantioselectivity of two chiral pesticides, lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) and (Z)-cis-bifenthrin (cis-BF), in immunotoxicity to macrophage cells (RAW264.7), and endocrine disruption activity in human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7. Analysis of cell proliferation, cell viability, apoptosis, and receptor gene expression showed significant differences between the enantiomers of LCT or cis-BF in estrogenic potential and immunocytotoxicity. The selectivity in these effects consistently followed the same direction, with (-)-LCT or 1S-cis-BF displaying a greater activity than its counterpart. The consistency was attributed to interplaying mechanisms in the closely interacting immune and endocrine systems. The underlying interplays suggest that other chiral xenobiotics may also show a directional enantioselectivity in immunotoxicity and endocrine toxicity. Given that many biological processes are inter-related, enantioselectivity may follow specific patterns that can be revealed via integrative assessments as demonstrated in this study. - Chiral contaminants should consider multiple effects and relate directions of enantioselectivity to their interplaying processes.

  6. Part I. Naltrexone-derived conjugate addition ligands for opioid receptors. Part II. Chemical and enantioselective aspects of the metabolism of verapamil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Selective chemoaffinity ligands to aid in identification and purification of opioid receptor subtypes were prepared from 6α- and 6β-naltrexol, obtained stereoselectively from the μ-receptor antagonist naltrexone. The targets were the 6α- and 6β-methacrylate ethers and 6α- and 6β-methacrylate esters prepared from reaction of 6α- and 6β-naltrexol with methyl α-(bromomethyl)acrylate or methacryloyl chloride. Of three methacrylate derivatives, the 6α-ether was the most potent in an opioid receptor binding assay with [ 3 H]-naltrexone. In the presence of sodium ion, preincubation of the 6α-ether resulted in recovery of about 60% of original [ 3 H]-naltrexone binding suggesting some irreversible effects. The methacrylate esters precipitated withdrawal in morphine dependent monkeys. The enantiomers of verapamil, a calcium channel antagonist, have different pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties. The oxidative metabolism of verapamil was studied in rat and human liver microsomes and in man after a single oral dose

  7. Part I. Naltrexone-derived conjugate addition ligands for opioid receptors. Part II. Chemical and enantioselective aspects of the metabolism of verapamil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Selective chemoaffinity ligands to aid in identification and purification of opioid receptor subtypes were prepared from 6..cap alpha..- and 6..beta..-naltrexol, obtained stereoselectively from the ..mu..-receptor antagonist naltrexone. The targets were the 6..cap alpha..- and 6..beta..-methacrylate ethers and 6..cap alpha..- and 6..beta..-methacrylate esters prepared from reaction of 6..cap alpha..- and 6..beta..-naltrexol with methyl ..cap alpha..-(bromomethyl)acrylate or methacryloyl chloride. Of three methacrylate derivatives, the 6..cap alpha..-ether was the most potent in an opioid receptor binding assay with (/sup 3/H)-naltrexone. In the presence of sodium ion, preincubation of the 6..cap alpha..-ether resulted in recovery of about 60% of original (/sup 3/H)-naltrexone binding suggesting some irreversible effects. The methacrylate esters precipitated withdrawal in morphine dependent monkeys. The enantiomers of verapamil, a calcium channel antagonist, have different pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties. The oxidative metabolism of verapamil was studied in rat and human liver microsomes and in man after a single oral dose.

  8. Exo selective enantioselective nitrone cycloadditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Ma, Zhihua; Jasperse, Craig P

    2004-01-28

    We have developed a novel method for accessing exo adducts with high enantioselectivity in nitrone cycloadditions to enoates. Pyrazolidinones proved to be effective achiral templates in the cycloadditions, providing exo adducts typically in >15:1 selectivity and 90-98% ee. The use of Lewis acids that form square planar complexes, such as copper triflate, was important for obtaining high exo selectivity.

  9. Cyclopalladated complexes in enantioselective catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunina, Valeria V; Gorunova, Olga N; Zykov, P A; Kochetkov, Konstantin A

    2011-01-31

    The results of the use of optically active palladacycles in enantioselective catalysis of [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangements, aldol condensation, the Michael reaction and cross-coupling are analyzed. Reactions with allylic substrates or reagents and some other transformations are considered.

  10. Immunization alters body odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Bruce A; Opiekun, Maryanne; Yamazaki, Kunio; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2014-04-10

    Infections have been shown to alter body odor. Because immune activation accompanies both infection and immunization, we tested the hypothesis that classical immunization might similarly result in the alteration of body odors detectable by trained biosensor mice. Using a Y-maze, we trained biosensor mice to distinguish between urine odors from rabies-vaccinated (RV) and unvaccinated control mice. RV-trained mice generalized this training to mice immunized with the equine West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine compared with urine of corresponding controls. These results suggest that there are similarities between body odors of mice immunized with these two vaccines. This conclusion was reinforced when mice could not be trained to directly discriminate between urine odors of RV- versus WNV-treated mice. Next, we trained biosensor mice to discriminate the urine odors of mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; a general elicitor of innate immunological responses) from the urine of control mice. These LPS-trained biosensors could distinguish between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and RV-treated mouse urine. Finally, biosensor mice trained to distinguish between the odors of RV-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine did not generalize this training to discriminate between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine. From these experiments, we conclude that: (1) immunization alters urine odor in similar ways for RV and WNV immunizations; and (2) immune activation with LPS also alters urine odor but in ways different from those of RV and WNV. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Catalytic enantioselective Reformatsky reaction with ketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Ibanez, M. Angeles; Macia, Beatriz; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2008-01-01

    Chiral tertiary alcohols were obtained with good yields and enantioselectivities via a catalytic Reformatsky reaction with ketones, including the challenging diaryl ketones, using chiral BINOL derivatives.

  12. Olfactory systems and neural circuits that modulate predator odor fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorey K. Takahashi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available When prey animals detect the odor of a predator a constellation of fear-related autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral responses rapidly occur to facilitate survival. How olfactory sensory systems process predator odor and channel that information to specific brain circuits is a fundamental issue that is not clearly understood. However, research in the last 15 years has begun to identify some of the essential features of the sensory detection systems and brain structures that underlie predator odor fear. For instance, the main (MOS and accessory olfactory systems (AOS detect predator odors and different types of predator odors are sensed by specific receptors located in either the MOS or AOS. However, complex predator chemosignals may be processed by both the MOS and AOS, which complicate our understanding of the specific neural circuits connected directly and indirectly from the MOS and AOS to activate the physiological and behavioral components of unconditioned and conditioned fear. Studies indicate that brain structures including the dorsal periaqueductal gray, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and the medial amygdala appear to be broadly involved in predator odor induced autonomic activity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress hormone secretion. The medial amygdala also plays a key role in predator odor unconditioned fear behavior and retrieval of contextual fear memory associated with prior predator odor experiences. Other neural structures including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the ventral hippocampus appear prominently involve in predator odor fear behavior. The basolateral amygdala, medial hypothalamic nuclei, and medial prefrontal cortex are also activated by some but not all predator odors. Future research that characterizes how distinct predator odors are uniquely processed in olfactory systems and neural circuits will provide significant insights into the differences of how diverse predator odors activate

  13. Olfactory systems and neural circuits that modulate predator odor fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Lorey K.

    2014-01-01

    When prey animals detect the odor of a predator a constellation of fear-related autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral responses rapidly occur to facilitate survival. How olfactory sensory systems process predator odor and channel that information to specific brain circuits is a fundamental issue that is not clearly understood. However, research in the last 15 years has begun to identify some of the essential features of the sensory detection systems and brain structures that underlie predator odor fear. For instance, the main (MOS) and accessory olfactory systems (AOS) detect predator odors and different types of predator odors are sensed by specific receptors located in either the MOS or AOS. However, complex predator chemosignals may be processed by both the MOS and AOS, which complicate our understanding of the specific neural circuits connected directly and indirectly from the MOS and AOS to activate the physiological and behavioral components of unconditioned and conditioned fear. Studies indicate that brain structures including the dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, and the medial amygdala (MeA) appear to be broadly involved in predator odor induced autonomic activity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress hormone secretion. The MeA also plays a key role in predator odor unconditioned fear behavior and retrieval of contextual fear memory associated with prior predator odor experiences. Other neural structures including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the ventral hippocampus (VHC) appear prominently involved in predator odor fear behavior. The basolateral amygdala (BLA), medial hypothalamic nuclei, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are also activated by some but not all predator odors. Future research that characterizes how distinct predator odors are uniquely processed in olfactory systems and neural circuits will provide significant insights into the differences of how diverse predator

  14. Friends and foes from an ant brain's point of view--neuronal correlates of colony odors in a social insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstaetter, Andreas Simon; Rössler, Wolfgang; Kleineidam, Christoph Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Successful cooperation depends on reliable identification of friends and foes. Social insects discriminate colony members (nestmates/friends) from foreign workers (non-nestmates/foes) by colony-specific, multi-component colony odors. Traditionally, complex processing in the brain has been regarded as crucial for colony recognition. Odor information is represented as spatial patterns of activity and processed in the primary olfactory neuropile, the antennal lobe (AL) of insects, which is analogous to the vertebrate olfactory bulb. Correlative evidence indicates that the spatial activity patterns reflect odor-quality, i.e., how an odor is perceived. For colony odors, alternatively, a sensory filter in the peripheral nervous system was suggested, causing specific anosmia to nestmate colony odors. Here, we investigate neuronal correlates of colony odors in the brain of a social insect to directly test whether they are anosmic to nestmate colony odors and whether spatial activity patterns in the AL can predict how odor qualities like "friend" and "foe" are attributed to colony odors. Using ant dummies that mimic natural conditions, we presented colony odors and investigated their neuronal representation in the ant Camponotus floridanus. Nestmate and non-nestmate colony odors elicited neuronal activity: In the periphery, we recorded sensory responses of olfactory receptor neurons (electroantennography), and in the brain, we measured colony odor specific spatial activity patterns in the AL (calcium imaging). Surprisingly, upon repeated stimulation with the same colony odor, spatial activity patterns were variable, and as variable as activity patterns elicited by different colony odors. Ants are not anosmic to nestmate colony odors. However, spatial activity patterns in the AL alone do not provide sufficient information for colony odor discrimination and this finding challenges the current notion of how odor quality is coded. Our result illustrates the enormous challenge

  15. An olfactory cocktail party: figure-ground segregation of odorants in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokni, Dan; Hemmelder, Vivian; Kapoor, Vikrant; Murthy, Venkatesh N

    2014-09-01

    In odorant-rich environments, animals must be able to detect specific odorants of interest against variable backgrounds. However, studies have found that both humans and rodents are poor at analyzing the components of odorant mixtures, suggesting that olfaction is a synthetic sense in which mixtures are perceived holistically. We found that mice could be easily trained to detect target odorants embedded in unpredictable and variable mixtures. To relate the behavioral performance to neural representation, we imaged the responses of olfactory bulb glomeruli to individual odors in mice expressing the Ca(2+) indicator GCaMP3 in olfactory receptor neurons. The difficulty of segregating the target from the background depended strongly on the extent of overlap between the glomerular responses to target and background odors. Our study indicates that the olfactory system has powerful analytic abilities that are constrained by the limits of combinatorial neural representation of odorants at the level of the olfactory receptors.

  16. Role of a Ubiquitously Expressed Receptor in the Vertebrate Olfactory System

    OpenAIRE

    DeMaria, Shannon; Berke, Allison P.; Van Name, Eric; Heravian, Anisa; Ferreira, Todd; Ngai, John

    2013-01-01

    Odorant cues are recognized by receptors expressed on olfactory sensory neurons, the primary sensory neurons of the olfactory epithelium. Odorant receptors typically obey the “one receptor, one neuron” rule, in which the receptive field of the olfactory neuron is determined by the singular odorant receptor that it expresses. Odor-evoked receptor activity across the population of olfactory neurons is then interpreted by the brain to identify the molecular nature of the odorant stimulus. In the...

  17. The enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-clusianone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horeischi, Fiene; Guttroff, Claudia; Plietker, Bernd

    2015-02-11

    (+)-Clusianone, an exo-type B PPAP with reported anti-HIV and chemoprotective activities, was synthesized in eleven steps with 97% ee starting from acetylacetone. An enantioselective decarboxylative Tsuji-Trost-allylation and a Ru-catalyzed ring-closing metathesis-decarboxylative allylation were used to control both diastereo- and enantioselectivity.

  18. Excretion and Perception of a Characteristic Odor in Urine after Asparagus Ingestion: a Psychophysical and Genetic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykowski, Cathy; Duke, Fujiko F.; Reed, Danielle R.

    2011-01-01

    The urine of people who have recently eaten asparagus has a sulfurous odor, which is distinct and similar to cooked cabbage. Using a 2-alternative forced-choice procedure, we examined individual differences in both the production of the odorants and the perception of this asparagus odor in urine. We conclude that individual differences exist in both odorant production and odor perception. The biological basis for the inability to produce the metabolite in detectable quantities is unknown, but the inability to smell the odor is associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs4481887) within a 50-gene cluster of olfactory receptors. PMID:20876394

  19. Odors cue memory for odor-associated words

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, Lorenzo; Salehi, S.; Waller, Bridget

    2009-01-01

    The ability of odors to cue vivid and emotionally intense memories is well-known. However, the majority of research has focused on the extent to which odors can act as environmental cues to memory, where odors are presented alongside the stimuli to be remembered, rather than the extent to which pre-existing associations between odor and odor-related stimuli might influence memory. In this study, participants (n = 45 females in each experiment) were presented with words (two groups of odor-ass...

  20. Body Odor (For Young Men)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual Health Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Body Odor Posted under Health Guides . Updated 23 March 2017. + ... every guy has to deal with. What causes body odor? During puberty, your sweat glands become much more ...

  1. Enantioselective synthesis of tetrafluorinated ribose and fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linclau, Bruno; Boydell, A James; Timofte, Roxana S; Brown, Kylie J; Vinader, Victoria; Weymouth-Wilson, Alexander C

    2009-02-21

    A perfluoroalkylidene lithium mediated cyclisation approach for the enantioselective synthesis of a tetrafluorinated aldose (ribose) and of a tetrafluorinated ketose (fructose), both in the furanose and in the pyranose form, is described.

  2. Kinetic investigation on enantioselective hydrolytic resolution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kinetic investigation on enantioselective hydrolytic resolution of epichlorohydrin by crude epoxide hydrolase from domestic duck liver. X Ling, D Lu, J Wang, J Chen, L Ding, J Chen, H Chai, P Ouyang ...

  3. Enantioselective addition of nitrones to activated cyclopropanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Ma, Zhihua; Jasperse, Craig P

    2005-04-27

    In this paper, we demonstrate the first examples of chiral Lewis acid catalysis in the formation of tetrahydro-1,2-oxazines with very high enantioselectivity starting with diactivated cyclopropanes and nitrones (>90% yields and ee). Reactions with racemic substituted cyclopropanes provide approximately 1:1 diastereomeric tetrahydro-1,2-oxazine products with high enantioselectivity. Mechanistic information for the formation of the tetrahydro-1,2-oxazines is also detailed.

  4. Odor Discrimination in Drosophila: From Neural Population Codes to Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnas, Moshe; Lin, Andrew C.; Huetteroth, Wolf; Miesenböck, Gero

    2013-01-01

    Summary Taking advantage of the well-characterized olfactory system of Drosophila, we derive a simple quantitative relationship between patterns of odorant receptor activation, the resulting internal representations of odors, and odor discrimination. Second-order excitatory and inhibitory projection neurons (ePNs and iPNs) convey olfactory information to the lateral horn, a brain region implicated in innate odor-driven behaviors. We show that the distance between ePN activity patterns is the main determinant of a fly’s spontaneous discrimination behavior. Manipulations that silence subsets of ePNs have graded behavioral consequences, and effect sizes are predicted by changes in ePN distances. ePN distances predict only innate, not learned, behavior because the latter engages the mushroom body, which enables differentiated responses to even very similar odors. Inhibition from iPNs, which scales with olfactory stimulus strength, enhances innate discrimination of closely related odors, by imposing a high-pass filter on transmitter release from ePN terminals that increases the distance between odor representations. PMID:24012006

  5. The Catalytic Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)‐Liphagal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Joshua J.; McFadden, Ryan M.; Virgil, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Ring a ding: The first catalytic enantioselective total synthesis of the meroterpenoid natural product (+)-liphagal is disclosed. The approach showcases a variety of technology including enantioselective enolate alkylation, a photochemical alkyne-alkene [2+2] reaction, microwaveassisted metal...

  6. Odor concentration invariance by chemical ratio coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoshige Uchida

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Many animal species rely on chemical signals to extract ecologically important information from the environment. Yet in natural conditions chemical signals will frequently undergo concentration changes that produce differences in both level and pattern of activation of olfactory receptor neurons. Thus, a central problem in olfactory processing is how the system is able to recognize the same stimulus across different concentrations. To signal species identity for mate recognition, some insects use the ratio of two components in a binary chemical mixture to produce a code that is invariant to dilution. Here, using psychophysical methods, we show that rats also classify binary odor mixtures according to the molar ratios of their components, spontaneously generalizing over at least a tenfold concentration range. These results indicate that extracting chemical ratio information is not restricted to pheromone signaling and suggest a general solution for concentration-invariant odor recognition by the mammalian olfactory system.

  7. Health effects of indoor odorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, J E; Shusterman, D

    1991-11-01

    People assess the quality of the air indoors primarily on the basis of its odors and on their perception of associated health risk. The major current contributors to indoor odorants are human occupant odors (body odor), environmental tobacco smoke, volatile building materials, bio-odorants (particularly mold and animal-derived materials), air fresheners, deodorants, and perfumes. These are most often present as complex mixtures, making measurement of the total odorant problem difficult. There is no current method of measuring human body odor, other than by human panel studies of expert judges of air quality. Human body odors have been quantitated in terms of the "olf" which is the amount of air pollution produced by the average person. Another quantitative unit of odorants is the "decipol," which is the perceived level of pollution produced by the average human ventilated by 10 L/sec of unpolluted air or its equivalent level of dissatisfaction from nonhuman air pollutants. The standard regulatory approach, focusing on individual constituents or chemicals, is not likely to be successful in adequately controlling odorants in indoor air. Besides the current approach of setting minimum ventilation standards to prevent health effects due to indoor air pollution, a standard based on the olf or decipol unit might be more efficacious as well as simpler to measure.

  8. Differential specificity in the glomerular response profiles for alicyclic, bicyclic and heterocyclic odorants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brett A.; Xu, Zhe; Pancoast, Paige; Kwok, Jennifer; Ong, Joan; Leon, Michael

    2008-01-01

    As part of our ongoing effort to relate stimulus to response in the olfactory system, we tested the hypothesis that the unique chemical structures and odors of various cyclic odorants would be associated with unique spatial response patterns in the glomerular layer of the rat olfactory bulb. To this end, rats were exposed to sets of odorants including monocyclic hydrocarbons, bicyclic compounds, and various heterocyclic structures containing oxygen or nitrogen in the ring. Relative activity across the entire layer was assessed by mapping uptake of 2-deoxyglucose into anatomically standardized data matrices. Whereas monocyclic hydrocarbons evoked patterns similar to those evoked by open-chained hydrocarbon odorants, a set of bicyclic compounds with structures and odors similar to camphor evoked uptake in paired ventral domains not previously associated with any other odorant chemical structures. Despite their unique odors as judged by humans, heterocyclic odorants either evoked uptake in previously characterized areas corresponding to their functional groups or stimulated weak or patchy patterns involving isolated glomeruli. While the patchiness of the patterns may be partly related to the rigidity of the compounds, which would be expected to restrict their interactions to only a few receptors, the weakness of the patterns suggests the possibility of species-specific odorant representations. We conclude that whereas some of the novel cyclic structures indeed were represented by unique patterns in the rat bulb, other unique structures were poorly represented, even when they evoked intense and unique odors in humans. PMID:16958095

  9. Odorants for surveillance and control of the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliano V Coutinho-Abreu

    Full Text Available The Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri, can transmit the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter while feeding on citrus flush shoots. This bacterium causes Huanglongbing (HLB, a major disease of citrus cultivation worldwide necessitating the development of new tools for ACP surveillance and control. The olfactory system of ACP is sensitive to variety of odorants released by citrus plants and offers an opportunity to develop new attractants and repellents.In this study, we performed single-unit electrophysiology to identify odorants that are strong activators, inhibitors, and prolonged activators of ACP odorant receptor neurons (ORNs. We identified a suite of odorants that activated the ORNs with high specificity and sensitivity, which may be useful in eliciting behavior such as attraction. In separate experiments, we also identified odorants that evoked prolonged ORN responses and antagonistic odorants able to suppress neuronal responses to activators, both of which can be useful in lowering attraction to hosts. In field trials, we tested the electrophysiologically identified activating odorants and identified a 3-odor blend that enhances trap catches by ∼230%.These findings provide a set of odorants that can be used to develop affordable and safe odor-based surveillance and masking strategies for this dangerous pest insect.

  10. Flavor, fragrance, and odor analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marsili, Ray

    2012-01-01

    ...)-olfactometry, and electronic-nose technology, this new edition discusses the significant advantage of these methods for flavor and odor studies in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries...

  11. Enantioselective Biotransformation of Chiral Persistent Organic Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Ye, Jing; Liu, Min

    2017-01-01

    Enantiomers of chiral compounds commonly undergo enantioselective transformation in most biologically mediated processes. As chiral persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are extensively distributed in the environment, differences between enantiomers in biotransformation should be carefully considered to obtain exact enrichment and specific health risks. This review provides an overview of in vivo biotransformation of chiral POPs currently indicated in the Stockholm Convention and their chiral metabolites. Peer-reviewed journal articles focused on the research question were thoroughly searched. A set of inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed to identify relevant studies. We mainly compared the results from different animal models under controlled laboratory conditions to show the difference between enantiomers in terms of distinct transformation potential. Interactions with enzymes involved in enantioselective biotransformation, especially cytochrome P450 (CYP), were discussed. Further research areas regarding this issue were proposed. Limited evidence for a few POPs has been found in 30 studies. Enantioselective biotransformation of α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), chlordane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), heptachlor, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and toxaphene, has been investigated using laboratory mammal, fish, bird, and worm models. Tissue and excreta distributions, as well as bioaccumulation and elimination kinetics after administration of racemate and pure enantiomers, have been analyzed in these studies. Changes in enantiomeric fractions have been considered as an indicator of enantioselective biotransformation of chiral POPs in most studies. Results of different laboratory animal models revealed that chiral POP biotransformation is seriously affected by chirality. Pronounced results of species-, tissue-, gender-, and individual-dependent differences are observed in in vivo biotransformation of chiral POPs

  12. Preservation of Essential Odor-Guided Behaviors and Odor-Based Reversal Learning after Targeting Adult Brain Serotonin Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kaitlin S; Whitney, Meredith S; Gadziola, Marie A; Deneris, Evan S; Wesson, Daniel W

    2016-01-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) is considered a powerful modulator of sensory system organization and function in a wide range of animals. The olfactory system is innervated by midbrain 5-HT neurons into both its primary and secondary odor-processing stages. Facilitated by this circuitry, 5-HT and its receptors modulate olfactory system function, including odor information input to the olfactory bulb. It is unknown, however, whether the olfactory system requires 5-HT for even its most basic behavioral functions. To address this question, we established a conditional genetic approach to specifically target adult brain tryptophan hydroxylase 2 ( Tph2 ), encoding the rate-limiting enzyme in brain 5-HT synthesis, and nearly eliminate 5-HT from the mouse forebrain. Using this novel model, we investigated the behavior of 5-HT-depleted mice during performance in an olfactory go/no-go task. Surprisingly, the near elimination of 5-HT from the forebrain, including the olfactory bulbs, had no detectable effect on the ability of mice to perform the odor-based task. Tph2 -targeted mice not only were able to learn the task, but also had levels of odor acuity similar to those of control mice when performing coarse odor discrimination. Both groups of mice spent similar amounts of time sampling odors during decision-making. Furthermore, odor reversal learning was identical between 5-HT-depleted and control mice. These results suggest that 5-HT neurotransmission is not necessary for the most essential aspects of olfaction, including odor learning, discrimination, and certain forms of cognitive flexibility.

  13. Optimization of the Odor Microclimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Jokl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The odor microclimate is formed by gaseous airborne components perceived either as an unpleasant smell or as a pleasant smell. Smells enter the building interior partly from outdoors (exhaust fumes - flower fragrance and partly from indoors (building materials, smoking cigarettes - cosmetics, dishes. They affect the human organism through the olfactory center which is connected to the part of brain that is responsible for controlling people's emotions and sexual feelings: smells therefore participate to a high level in mood formation. Sweet smells have a positive impact on human feelings and on human performance. Criteria for odor microclimate appraisal are presented together with ways of improving the odor microclimate (by stopping odors from spreading within a building, ventilation, air filtration, odor removal by plants, deodorization, etc., including so-called AIR DESIGN.

  14. The Catalytic Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Liphagal

    KAUST Repository

    Day, Joshua J.

    2011-06-10

    Ring a ding: The meroterpenoid natural product (+)-liphagal has been synthesized enantioselectively in 19 steps from commercially available materials. The trans-homodecalin system was achieved by ring expansion followed by stereoselective hydrogenation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The Catalytic Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Liphagal

    KAUST Repository

    Day, Joshua J.; McFadden, Ryan M.; Virgil, Scott C.; Kolding, Helene; Alleva, Jennifer L.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2011-01-01

    Ring a ding: The meroterpenoid natural product (+)-liphagal has been synthesized enantioselectively in 19 steps from commercially available materials. The trans-homodecalin system was achieved by ring expansion followed by stereoselective hydrogenation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Enantioselective properties of induced lipases from Geotrichum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zarevúcka, Marie; Kejík, Z.; Šaman, David; Wimmer, Zdeněk; Demnerová, K.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 37, - (2005), s. 481-486 ISSN 0141-0229 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC D30.001; GA MŠk(CZ) OC D13.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Geotrichum * lipase * enantioselectivity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.705, year: 2005

  17. Enantioselective pharmacokinetics of sibutramine in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Keumhan; Bae, Kyoungjin; Min, Bokyoung; Kim, Eunyoung; Kwon, Kwang-il; Jeong, Taecheon; Kang, Wonku

    2010-02-01

    Racemic sibutramine is widely used to treat obesity owing to its inhibition of serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake in synapses. Although the enantioselective effects of sibutramine and its two active desmethyl-metabolites, monodesmethylsibutramine (MDS) and didesmethylsibutramine (DDS), on anorexia and energy expenditure have been elucidated, the enantioselective pharmacokinetics of sibutramine are still unclear. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the enantioselective pharmacokinetics of sibutramine and its metabolites in plasma and urine following an intravenous and a single oral administration of sibutramine in rats. The absolute bioavailability of sibutramine was only about 7%. The pharmacologically less effective S-isomer of DDS was predominant in the plasma: the C ( max ) and the AUC ( inf ) were 28 and 30 times higher than those of the R-isomer, respectively (psibutramine metabolites MDS and DDS were present at lower concentrations, owing to their rapid biotransformation to hydroxylated and/or carbamoylglucuronized forms and their faster excretion in the urine. The present study is the first to elucidate the enantioselective pharmacokinetics of sibutramine in rats.

  18. Olfactory aversive conditioning alters olfactory bulb mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max L Fletcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical organization of receptor neuron input into the olfactory bulb (OB allows odor information to be transformed into an odorant-specific spatial map of mitral/tufted cell glomerular activity at the upper level of the olfactory bulb. In other sensory systems, neuronal representations of stimuli can be reorganized or enhanced following learning. While the mammalian OB has been shown to undergo experience-dependent plasticity at the glomerular level, it is still unclear if similar representational change occurs within mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor representations following learning. To address this, odorant-evoked glomerular activity patterns were imaged in mice expressing a GFP-based calcium indicator (GCaMP2 in OB mitral/tufted cells. Glomerular odor responses were imaged before and after olfactory associative conditioning to aversive foot shock. Following conditioning, we found no overall reorganization of the glomerular representation. Training, however, did significantly alter the amplitudes of individual glomeruli within the representation in mice in which the odor was presented together with foot shock. Further, the specific pairing of foot shock with odor presentations lead to increased responses primarily in initially weakly activated glomeruli. Overall, these results suggest that associative conditioning can enhance the initial representation of odors within the olfactory bulb by enhancing responses to the learned odor in some glomeruli.

  19. Friends and Foes from an Ant Brain's Point of View – Neuronal Correlates of Colony Odors in a Social Insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstaetter, Andreas Simon; Rössler, Wolfgang; Kleineidam, Christoph Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Background Successful cooperation depends on reliable identification of friends and foes. Social insects discriminate colony members (nestmates/friends) from foreign workers (non-nestmates/foes) by colony-specific, multi-component colony odors. Traditionally, complex processing in the brain has been regarded as crucial for colony recognition. Odor information is represented as spatial patterns of activity and processed in the primary olfactory neuropile, the antennal lobe (AL) of insects, which is analogous to the vertebrate olfactory bulb. Correlative evidence indicates that the spatial activity patterns reflect odor-quality, i.e., how an odor is perceived. For colony odors, alternatively, a sensory filter in the peripheral nervous system was suggested, causing specific anosmia to nestmate colony odors. Here, we investigate neuronal correlates of colony odors in the brain of a social insect to directly test whether they are anosmic to nestmate colony odors and whether spatial activity patterns in the AL can predict how odor qualities like “friend” and “foe” are attributed to colony odors. Methodology/Principal Findings Using ant dummies that mimic natural conditions, we presented colony odors and investigated their neuronal representation in the ant Camponotus floridanus. Nestmate and non-nestmate colony odors elicited neuronal activity: In the periphery, we recorded sensory responses of olfactory receptor neurons (electroantennography), and in the brain, we measured colony odor specific spatial activity patterns in the AL (calcium imaging). Surprisingly, upon repeated stimulation with the same colony odor, spatial activity patterns were variable, and as variable as activity patterns elicited by different colony odors. Conclusions Ants are not anosmic to nestmate colony odors. However, spatial activity patterns in the AL alone do not provide sufficient information for colony odor discrimination and this finding challenges the current notion of how odor

  20. Regulation of cutaneous allergic reaction by odorant inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, J; Tsuchiya, T

    2000-03-01

    Olfactory stimuli modulate emotional conditions and the whole body immune system. Effects of odorant inhalation on cutaneous immune reaction were examined. Contact hypersensitivity to 2,4, 6-trinitrochlorobenzene was elicited in C57BL/6 mice. The reaction was suppressed at both the induction and elicitation phases by exposure to an odorant, citralva. Topical application of citralva or lyral/lilial did not affect the reaction. The suppressive effect of citralva was more potent than that of another odorant, lyral/lilial. Citralva decreased the number of epidermal Langerhans cells, whereas lyral/lilial had a weak effect. Citralva but not lyral/lilial induced plasma corticosterone. Glucocorticoid receptor antagonist abrogated the suppressive effect of citralva on contact hypersensitivity. Serum interleukin-12 was downregulated by exposure to citralva or lyral/lilial. These data demonstrate that olfactory stimuli regulate the cutaneous immune system.

  1. Enantioselectivity in environmental risk assessment of modern chiral pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Jing; Zhao Meirong; Liu Jing; Liu Weiping

    2010-01-01

    Chiral pesticides comprise a new and important class of environmental pollutants nowadays. With the development of industry, more and more chiral pesticides will be introduced into the market. But their enantioselective ecotoxicology is not clear. Currently used synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, acylanilides, phenoxypropanoic acids and imidazolinones often behave enantioselectively in agriculture use and they always pose unpredictable enantioselective ecological risks on non-target organisms or human. It is necessary to explore the enantioselective toxicology and ecological fate of these chiral pesticides in environmental risk assessment. The enantioselective toxicology and the fate of these currently widely used pesticides have been discussed in this review article. - Chiral pesticides could pose unpredictable enantioselective toxicity on non-target organisms.

  2. An artificial odor recognition system is developed for discriminating odors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisnu Jatmiko

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This artificial system consisted of 16 quartz resonator crystals as the sensor array, a frequency modulator and a frequency counter for each sensor that are connected directly to a microcomputer. We have already shown that the artificial odor recognition system with 4 sensors is high enough to discriminate simple odor correctly, however, when it was used to discriminate compound odors, the recognition capability of this system is dropped significantly to be about 40%. Results of experiments show that the developed artificial system with 16 sensors could discriminate compound aroma based on 6 gradient of alcohol concentrations with high recognition rate of 89.9% for non batch processing system, and 82.4% for batch processing of the classes of odors.

  3. Unexpected plant odor responses in a moth pheromone system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angéla eRouyar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Male moths rely on olfactory cues to find females for reproduction. Males also use volatile plant compounds (VPCs to find food sources and might use host-plant odor cues to identify the habitat of calling females. Both the sex pheromone released by conspecific females and VPCs trigger well-described oriented flight behavior towards the odor source. Whereas detection and central processing of pheromones and VPCs have been thought for a long time to be highly separated from each other, recent studies have shown that interactions of both types of odors occur already early at the periphery of the olfactory pathway. Here we show that detection and early processing of VPCs and pheromone can overlap between the two sub-systems. Using complementary approaches, i.e. single-sensillum recording of olfactory receptor neurons, in vivo calcium imaging in the antennal lobe, intracellular recordings of neurons in the macroglomerular complex (MGC and flight tracking in a wind tunnel, we show that some plant odorants alone, such as heptanal, activate the pheromone-specific pathway in male Agrotis ipsilon at peripheral and central levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plant odorant with no chemical similarity to the molecular structure of the pheromone, acting as a partial agonist of a moth sex pheromone.

  4. A general enantioselective route to the chamigrene natural product family

    KAUST Repository

    White, David E.

    2010-06-01

    Described in this report is an enantioselective route toward the chamigrene natural product family. The key disconnections in our synthetic approach include sequential enantioselective decarboxylative allylation and ring-closing olefin metathesis to form the all-carbon quaternary stereocenter and spirocyclic core present in all members of this class of compounds. The generality of this strategy is demonstrated by the first total syntheses of elatol and the proposed structure of laurencenone B, as well as the first enantioselective total syntheses of laurencenone C and α-chamigrene. A brief exploration of the substrate scope of the enantioselective decarboxylative allylation/ring-closing metathesis sequence with fully substituted vinyl chlorides is also presented.

  5. A general enantioselective route to the chamigrene natural product family

    KAUST Repository

    White, David E.; Stewart, Ian C.; Seashore-Ludlow, Brinton A.; Grubbs, Robert H.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Described in this report is an enantioselective route toward the chamigrene natural product family. The key disconnections in our synthetic approach include sequential enantioselective decarboxylative allylation and ring-closing olefin metathesis to form the all-carbon quaternary stereocenter and spirocyclic core present in all members of this class of compounds. The generality of this strategy is demonstrated by the first total syntheses of elatol and the proposed structure of laurencenone B, as well as the first enantioselective total syntheses of laurencenone C and α-chamigrene. A brief exploration of the substrate scope of the enantioselective decarboxylative allylation/ring-closing metathesis sequence with fully substituted vinyl chlorides is also presented.

  6. Flavor, fragrance, and odor analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marsili, Ray

    2012-01-01

    ... solid-phase micro extraction procedures. It also presents important updates on GC-olfactometry as a tool for studying flavor synergy effects"-- "Sample preparation techniques for isolating and concentrating flavor and odor-active chemicals...

  7. Central insulin administration improves odor-cued reactivation of spatial memory in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brünner, Yvonne F; Kofoet, Anja; Benedict, Christian; Freiherr, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Insulin receptors are ubiquitously found in the human brain, comprising the olfactory bulb, essential for odor processing, and the hippocampus, important for spatial memory processing. The present study aimed at examining if intranasal insulin, which is known to transiently increase brain insulin levels in humans, would improve odor-cued reactivation of spatial memory in young men. We applied a double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced within-subject design. The study was conducted at the research unit of a university hospital. Interventions/Participants/Main Outcome Measures: Following intranasal administration of either insulin (40 I.U.) or placebo, male subjects (n = 18) were exposed to eight odors. During each odor exposure, a green-colored field was presented on a 17-in. computer screen. During immediate recall (comprising 3 runs), the participants were re-exposed to each odor cue, and were asked to select the corresponding field (with visual feedback after each response). The delayed recall was scheduled ∼10 min later (without feedback). To test if insulin's putative effect on odor-place memory would be domain-specific, participants also performed a separate place and odor recognition task. Intranasal insulin improved the delayed but not immediate odor-cued recall of spatial memory. This effect was independent of odor type and in the absence of systemic side effects (eg, fasting plasma glucose levels remained unaltered). Place and odor recognition were unaffected by the insulin treatment. These findings suggest that acute intranasal insulin improves odor-cued reactivation of spatial memory in young men.

  8. Vancomycin Molecular Interactions: Antibiotic and Enantioselective Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Timothy J.; Gilmore, Aprile; Ward, Karen; Vowell, Courtney

    Medical studies established that vancomycin and other related macrocyclic antibiotics have an enhanced antimicrobial activity when they are associated as dimers. The carbohydrate units attached to the vancomycin basket have an essential role in the dimerization reaction. Covalently synthesized dimers were found active against vancomycin-resistant bacterial strains. A great similarity between antibiotic potential and enantioselectivity was established. A covalent vancomycin dimer was studied in capillary electrophoresis producing excellent chiral separation of dansyl amino acids. Balhimycin is a macrocyclic glycopeptide structurally similar to vancomycin. The small differences are, however, responsible for drastic differences in enantioselectivity in the same experimental conditions. Contributions from studies examining vancomycin's mechanism for antimicrobial activity have substantially aided our understanding of its mechanism in chiral recognition.

  9. Modelling substrate specificity and enantioselectivity for lipases and esterases by substrate-imprinted docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi Sadhna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, ways to adapt docking programs that were developed for modelling inhibitor-receptor interaction have been explored. Two main issues were discussed. First, when trying to model catalysis a reaction intermediate of the substrate is expected to provide more valid information than the ground state of the substrate. Second, the incorporation of protein flexibility is essential for reliable predictions. Results Here we present a predictive and robust method to model substrate specificity and enantioselectivity of lipases and esterases that uses reaction intermediates and incorporates protein flexibility. Substrate-imprinted docking starts with covalent docking of reaction intermediates, followed by geometry optimisation of the resulting enzyme-substrate complex. After a second round of docking the same substrate into the geometry-optimised structures, productive poses are identified by geometric filter criteria and ranked by their docking scores. Substrate-imprinted docking was applied in order to model (i enantioselectivity of Candida antarctica lipase B and a W104A mutant, (ii enantioselectivity and substrate specificity of Candida rugosa lipase and Burkholderia cepacia lipase, and (iii substrate specificity of an acetyl- and a butyrylcholine esterase toward the substrates acetyl- and butyrylcholine. Conclusion The experimentally observed differences in selectivity and specificity of the enzymes were reproduced with an accuracy of 81%. The method was robust toward small differences in initial structures (different crystallisation conditions or a co-crystallised ligand, although large displacements of catalytic residues often resulted in substrate poses that did not pass the geometric filter criteria.

  10. A machine learning approach for the identification of odorant binding proteins from sequence-derived properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganthan PN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Odorant binding proteins (OBPs are believed to shuttle odorants from the environment to the underlying odorant receptors, for which they could potentially serve as odorant presenters. Although several sequence based search methods have been exploited for protein family prediction, less effort has been devoted to the prediction of OBPs from sequence data and this area is more challenging due to poor sequence identity between these proteins. Results In this paper, we propose a new algorithm that uses Regularized Least Squares Classifier (RLSC in conjunction with multiple physicochemical properties of amino acids to predict odorant-binding proteins. The algorithm was applied to the dataset derived from Pfam and GenDiS database and we obtained overall prediction accuracy of 97.7% (94.5% and 98.4% for positive and negative classes respectively. Conclusion Our study suggests that RLSC is potentially useful for predicting the odorant binding proteins from sequence-derived properties irrespective of sequence similarity. Our method predicts 92.8% of 56 odorant binding proteins non-homologous to any protein in the swissprot database and 97.1% of the 414 independent dataset proteins, suggesting the usefulness of RLSC method for facilitating the prediction of odorant binding proteins from sequence information.

  11. Kinase activity in the olfactory bulb is required for odor memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Michelle T; Kim, Tae-Young P; Cleland, Thomas A

    2018-05-01

    Long-term fear memory formation in the hippocampus and neocortex depends upon brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling after acquisition. Incremental, appetitive odor discrimination learning is thought to depend substantially on the differentiation of adult-born neurons within the olfactory bulb (OB)-a process that is closely associated with BDNF signaling. We sought to elucidate the role of neurotrophin signaling within the OB on odor memory consolidation. Male mice were trained on odor-reward associative discriminations after bilateral infusion of the kinase inhibitor K252a, or vehicle control, into the OB. K252a is a partially selective inhibitor of tyrosine kinase (Trk) receptors, including the TrkB receptor for BDNF, though it also inhibits other plasticity-related kinases such as PKC and CaMKII/IV. K252a infusion into the OB did not impair odor acquisition or short-term (2 h) memory for the learned discriminations, but significantly impaired long-term (48 h) odor memory (LTM). This LTM deficit also was associated with reduced selectivity for the conditioned odorant in a reward-seeking digging task. Infusions of K252a immediately prior to testing did not impair LTM recall. These results indicate that kinase activation in the OB is required for the consolidation of odor memory of incrementally acquired information. © 2018 Tong et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. DoOR 2.0 - Comprehensive Mapping of Drosophila melanogaster Odorant Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, Daniel; Galizia, C. Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Odors elicit complex patterns of activated olfactory sensory neurons. Knowing the complete olfactome, i.e. the responses in all sensory neurons for all relevant odorants, is desirable to understand olfactory coding. The DoOR project combines all available Drosophila odorant response data into a single consensus response matrix. Since its first release many studies were published: receptors were deorphanized and several response profiles were expanded. In this study, we add unpublished data to the odor-response profiles for four odorant receptors (Or10a, Or42b, Or47b, Or56a). We deorphanize Or69a, showing a broad response spectrum with the best ligands including 3-hydroxyhexanoate, alpha-terpineol, 3-octanol and linalool. We include all of these datasets into DoOR, provide a comprehensive update of both code and data, and new tools for data analyses and visualizations. The DoOR project has a web interface for quick queries (http://neuro.uni.kn/DoOR), and a downloadable, open source toolbox written in R, including all processed and original datasets. DoOR now gives reliable odorant-responses for nearly all Drosophila olfactory responding units, listing 693 odorants, for a total of 7381 data points.

  13. Enantioselective Effects of o,p'-DDT on Cell Invasion and Adhesion of Breast Cancer Cells: Chirality in Cancer Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiangming; Dong, Xiaowu; Zou, Dehong; Yu, Yang; Fang, Qunying; Zhang, Quan; Zhao, Meirong

    2015-08-18

    The o,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) with a chiral center possesses enantioselective estrogenic activity, in which R-(-)-o,p'-DDT exerts a more potent estrogenic effect than S-(+)-o,p'-DDT. Although concern regarding DDT exposure and breast cancer has increased in recent decades, the mode of enantioselective action of o,p'-DDT in breast cancer development is still unknown. Herein, we conducted a systematic study of the effect of o,p'-DDT on stereoselective breast tumor cell progression in a widely used in vitro breast tumor cell model, MCF-7 cells. We demonstrated that R-(-)-o,p'-DDT promoted more cancer cell invasion mediated by the human estrogen receptor (ER) by inducing invasion-promoted genes (matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and human telomerase reverse transcriptase) and inhibiting invasion-inhibited genes (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and -4). Molecular docking verified that the binding affinity between R-(-)-o,p'-DDT and human ER was stronger than that of S-(+)-o,p'-DDT. The enantioselective-induced decrease in cell-to-cell adhesion may involve the downregulation of adhesion-promoted genes (E-cadherin and β-catenin). For the first time, these results reveal that estrogenic-like chiral compounds are of significant concern in the progression of human cancers and that human health risk assessment of chiral chemicals should consider enantioselectivity.

  14. Fluxional additives: a second generation control in enantioselective catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Manyem, Shankar; Palencia, Hector

    2006-10-25

    The concept of "fluxional additives", additives that can adopt enantiomeric conformations depending on the chiral information in the ligand, is demonstrated in enantioselective Diels-Alder and nitrone cycloaddition reactions. The additive design is modular, and diverse structures are accessible in three steps. Chiral Lewis acids from main group and transition metals show enhancements in enantioselectivity in the presence of these additives.

  15. Tin-free enantioselective radical reactions using silanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Yang, Yong-Hua; Lee, Sunggi

    2008-12-04

    Readily available hexyl silane is an excellent choice as a H-atom donor and a chain carrier in Lewis acid mediated enantioselective radical reactions. Conjugate radical additions to alpha,beta-unsaturated imides at room temperature proceed in good yields and excellent enantioselectivities.

  16. Chiral amides via copper-catalysed enantioselective conjugate addition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, Anne K.; Fernández-Ibáñez, M. Ángeles; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Teichert, Johannes F.; Feringa, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    A highly enantioselective one pot procedure for the synthesis of beta-substituted amides was developed starting from the corresponding alpha,beta-unsaturated esters. This new methodology is based on the copper-catalysed enantioselective conjugate addition of Grignard reagents to

  17. Calix[4]arene-Based Enantioselective Fluorescent Sensors for the Recognition of N-Acetyl-aspartate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING Guang-Yan; CHEN Zhi-Hong; WANG Feng; YANG Xi; MENG Ling-Zhi; HE Yong-Bing

    2008-01-01

    Two-armed chiral anion receptors (1 and 2), calix[4]arenes bearing dansyl fluorophore and (1R,2R)- or(1S,2S)-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine binding sites, were prepared and examined for their chiral amino acid anion binding abilities by the fluorescence spectra in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The results of non-linear curve fitting indicate that 1 or 2 forms a 1 : 1 stoichiometry complex with N-acetyl-L-or D-aspartate by multiple hydrogen bonding interactions, exhibiting good enantioselective fluorescent recognition for the enantiomers of N-acetyl-as-partate, [receptor 1: Kass(D)/Kass(L)=6.74; receptor 2: Kass(L)/Kass(D)=6.48]. The clear fluorescent response difference indicates that receptors 1 and 2 could be used as a fluorescent chemosensor for N-Acetyl-aspartate.

  18. Odor Classification using Agent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigeru OMATU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure and classify odors, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM can be used. In the present study, seven QCM sensors and three different odors are used. The system has been developed as a virtual organization of agents using an agent platform called PANGEA (Platform for Automatic coNstruction of orGanizations of intElligent Agents. This is a platform for developing open multi-agent systems, specifically those including organizational aspects. The main reason for the use of agents is the scalability of the platform, i.e. the way in which it models the services. The system models functionalities as services inside the agents, or as Service Oriented Approach (SOA architecture compliant services using Web Services. This way the adaptation of the odor classification systems with new algorithms, tools and classification techniques is allowed.

  19. Efficacy of Odor Scavengers in Reducing Odor Compounds in Water, Milk, and Soymilk

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, Jenny Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Odor detection thresholds of hexanal, 2-heptenal, 2-pentanone, and 2,4-nonadienal were determined in spring water, high temperature short time (HTST) 2% fat milk, and extended shelf life soymilk. The efficacy of odor scavenger's beta-cyclodextrin, D-sorbitol, and nylon 6 in removing these odors was also determined. The odor thresholds of the different odor and media combinations were as follows: hexanal in spring water, milk, and soymilk were 585, 339, and 536 ppb respectively; 2-heptenal ...

  20. Odors: appetizing or satiating? Development of appetite during odor exposure over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaekers, M G; Boesveldt, S; Lakemond, C M M; van Boekel, M A J S; Luning, P A

    2014-05-01

    Exposure to palatable food odors influences appetite responses, either promoting or inhibiting food intake. Possibly, food odors are appetizing after a short exposure (of circa 1-3 min), but become satiating over time (circa 10-20 min). To investigate the effect of odor exposure on general appetite and sensory-specific appetite (SSA) over time. In a cross-over study, 21 unrestrained women (age: 18-45 years; BMI: 18.5-25 kg m(-2)) were exposed for 20 min to eight different odor types: five food odors, two nonfood odors and no-odor. All odors were distributed in a test room at suprathreshold levels. General appetite, SSA and salivation were measured over time. All food odors significantly increased general appetite and SSA, compared with the no-odor condition. The nonfood odors decreased general appetite. All effects did not change over time during odor exposure. Savory odors increased the appetite for savory foods, but decreased appetite for sweet foods, and vice versa after exposure to sweet odors. Neither food odors nor nonfood odors affected salivation. Palatable food odors were appetizing during and after odor exposure and did not become satiating over a 20-min period. Food odors had a large impact on SSA and a small impact on general appetite. Moreover, exposure to food odors increased the appetite for congruent foods, but decreased the appetite for incongruent foods. It may be hypothesized that, once the body is prepared for intake of a certain food with a particular macronutrient composition, it is unfavorable to consume foods that are very different from the cued food.

  1. Problems in instrumentation for S-odorant emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    Instrumentation to measure sulfur-containing odorants in stack emissions is much more difficult than in the ambient atmosphere, and must be matched to the specific source: key components aside from H 2 S are methyl mercaptan in paper mills, COS/CS 2 in a refinery Claus plant, and SO 2 /SO 3 in a combustion stack. Satisfactory operation for a period of six months was not achieved by any instrument in this service, in a lab and field evaluation of eight instruments of three types commercially available as of 1971. The effects of interferent gases H 2 O, SO 2 , CO 2 /CO and particulates which are diluted in ambient samples are greatly aggravated in stack gases, where the ratio of odorant to interferent may be 1:1000 or less, due to the very great sensitivity of human receptors to S-odorants. The most serious problem proved to be the analysis for odorless carbonyl sulfide, which is commonly formed where S compounds are oxidized in a reducing atmosphere. This COS has been undetected or mistaken for odorous H 2 S in most analyses. A field instrument for the general case would provide exactly simultaneous readings at five minute intervals or less for the five components H 2 S, SO 2 , COS, CSH, and total S, or their equivalent. This may be simplified to four components or less only when the composition of the sample gas is positively known

  2. Programming of stress-related behavior and epigenetic neural gene regulation in mice offspring through maternal exposure to predator odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Cyr, Sophie; McGowan, Patrick O.

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal stress mediated through the mother can lead to long-term alterations in stress-related phenotypes in offspring. The capacity for adaptation to adversity in early life depends in part on the life history of the animal. This study was designed to examine the behavioral and neural response in adult offspring to prenatal exposure to predator odor: an ethologically-relevant psychological stressor. Pregnant mice were exposed daily to predator odors or distilled water control over the second half of the pregnancy. Predator odor exposure lead to a transient decrease in maternal care in the mothers. As adults, the offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers showed increased anti-predator behavior, a predator-odor induced decrease in activity and, in female offspring, an increased corticosterone (CORT) response to predator odor exposure. We found a highly specific response among stress-related genes within limbic brain regions. Transcript abundance of Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) was elevated in the amygdala in adult female offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers. In the hippocampus of adult female offspring, decreased Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transcript abundance was correlated with a site-specific decrease in DNA methylation in Bdnf exon IV, indicating the potential contribution of this epigenetic mechanism to maternal programming by maternal predator odor exposure. These data indicate that maternal predator odor exposure alone is sufficient to induce an altered stress-related phenotype in adulthood, with implications for anti-predator behavior in offspring. PMID:26082698

  3. Neuropeptide Y enhances olfactory mucosa responses to odorant in hungry rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, Julia; Meunier, Nicolas; Monnerie, Régine; Salesse, Roland; Baly, Christine; Caillol, Monique; Congar, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays an important role in regulating appetite and hunger in vertebrates. In the hypothalamus, NPY stimulates food intake under the control of the nutritional status. Previous studies have shown the presence of NPY and receptors in rodent olfactory system, and suggested a neuroproliferative role. Interestingly, NPY was also shown to directly modulate olfactory responses evoked by a food-related odorant in hungry axolotls. We have recently demonstrated that another nutritional cue, insulin, modulates the odorant responses of the rat olfactory mucosa (OM). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effect of NPY on rat OM responses to odorants, in relation to the animal's nutritional state. We measured the potential NPY modulation of OM responses to odorant, using electro-olfactogram (EOG) recordings, in fed and fasted adult rats. NPY application significantly and transiently increased EOG amplitudes in fasted but not in fed rats. The effects of specific NPY-receptor agonists were similarly quantified, showing that NPY operated mainly through Y1 receptors. These receptors appeared as heterogeneously expressed by olfactory neurons in the OM, and western blot analysis showed that they were overexpressed in fasted rats. These data provide the first evidence that NPY modulates the initial events of odorant detection in the rat OM. Because this modulation depends on the nutritional status of the animal, and is ascribed to NPY, the most potent orexigenic peptide in the central nervous system, it evidences a strong supplementary physiological link between olfaction and nutritional processes.

  4. Antennal Transcriptome Analysis of Odorant Reception Genes in the Red Turpentine Beetle (RTB, Dendroctonus valens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Cui Gu

    Full Text Available The red turpentine beetle (RTB, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae, is a destructive invasive pest of conifers which has become the second most important forest pest nationwide in China. Dendroctonus valens is known to use host odors and aggregation pheromones, as well as non-host volatiles, in host location and mass-attack modulation, and thus antennal olfaction is of the utmost importance for the beetles' survival and fitness. However, information on the genes underlying olfaction has been lacking in D. valens. Here, we report the antennal transcriptome of D. valens from next-generation sequencing, with the goal of identifying the olfaction gene repertoire that is involved in D. valens odor-processing.We obtained 51 million reads that were assembled into 61,889 genes, including 39,831 contigs and 22,058 unigenes. In total, we identified 68 novel putative odorant reception genes, including 21 transcripts encoding for putative odorant binding proteins (OBP, six chemosensory proteins (CSP, four sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP, 22 odorant receptors (OR, four gustatory receptors (GR, three ionotropic receptors (IR, and eight ionotropic glutamate receptors. We also identified 155 odorant/xenobiotic degradation enzymes from the antennal transcriptome, putatively identified to be involved in olfaction processes including cytochrome P450s, glutathione-S-transferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Predicted protein sequences were compared with counterparts in Tribolium castaneum, Megacyllene caryae, Ips typographus, Dendroctonus ponderosae, and Agrilus planipennis.The antennal transcriptome described here represents the first study of the repertoire of odor processing genes in D. valens. The genes reported here provide a significant addition to the pool of identified olfactory genes in Coleoptera, which might represent novel targets for insect management. The results from our study also will assist with evolutionary

  5. Enterochromaffin cells of the human gut: sensors for spices and odorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Thomas; Voland, Petra; Kunz, Lars; Prinz, Christian; Gratzl, Manfred

    2007-05-01

    Release of serotonin from mucosal enterochromaffin cells triggered by luminal substances is the key event in the regulation of gut motility and secretion. We were interested to know whether nasal olfactory receptors are also expressed in the human gut mucosa by enterochromaffin cells and whether their ligands and odorants present in spices, fragrances, detergents, and cosmetics cause serotonin release. Receptor expression was studied by the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction method in human mucosal enterochromaffin cells isolated by laser microdissection and in a cell line derived from human enterochromaffin cells. Activation of the cells by odorants was investigated by digital fluorescence imaging using the fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator Fluo-4. Serotonin release was measured in culture supernatants by a serotonin enzyme immunoassay and amperometry using carbon fiber microelectrodes placed on single cells. We found expression of 4 olfactory receptors in microdissected human mucosal enterochromaffin cells and in a cell line derived from human enterochromaffin cells. Ca(2+) imaging studies revealed that odorant ligands of the identified olfactory receptors cause Ca(2+) influx, elevation of intracellular free Ca(2+) levels, and, consequently, serotonin release. Our results show that odorants present in the luminal environment of the gut may stimulate serotonin release via olfactory receptors present in human enterochromaffin cells. Serotonin controls both gut motility and secretion and is implicated in pathologic conditions such as vomiting, diarrhea, and irritable bowel syndrome. Thus, olfactory receptors are potential novel targets for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases and motility disorders.

  6. Cross-adaptation between olfactory responses induced by two subgroups of odorant molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hiroko; Imanaka, Yukie; Hirono, Junzo; Kurahashi, Takashi

    2003-09-01

    It has long been believed that vertebrate olfactory signal transduction is mediated by independent multiple pathways (using cAMP and InsP3 as second messengers). However, the dual presence of parallel pathways in the olfactory receptor cell is still controversial, mainly because of the lack of information regarding the single-cell response induced by odorants that have been shown to produce InsP3 exclusively (but not cAMP) in the olfactory cilia. In this study, we recorded activities of transduction channels of single olfactory receptor cells to InsP3-producing odorants. When the membrane potential was held at -54 mV, application of InsP3-producing odorants to the ciliary region caused an inward current. The reversal potential was 0 +/- 7 mV (mean +/- SD, n = 10). Actually, InsP3-producing odorants generated responses in a smaller fraction of cells (lilial, 3.4%; lyral, 1.7%) than the cAMP-producing odorant (cineole, 26%). But, fundamental properties of responses were surprisingly homologous; namely, spatial distribution of the sensitivity, waveforms, I-V relation, and reversal potential, dose dependence, time integration of stimulus period, adaptation, and recovery. By applying both types of odorants alternatively to the same cell, furthermore, we observed cells to exhibit symmetrical cross-adaptation. It seems likely that even with odorants with different modalities adaptation occurs completely depending on the amount of current flow. The data will also provide evidence showing that olfactory response generation and adaptation are regulated by a uniform mechanism for a wide variety of odorants.

  7. Modification of CO2 avoidance behaviour in Drosophila by inhibitory odorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Stephanie Lynn; Ray, Anandasankar

    2009-09-10

    The fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster exhibits a robust and innate olfactory-based avoidance behaviour to CO(2), a component of odour emitted from stressed flies. Specialized neurons in the antenna and a dedicated neuronal circuit in the higher olfactory system mediate CO(2) detection and avoidance. However, fruitflies need to overcome this avoidance response in some environments that contain CO(2) such as ripening fruits and fermenting yeast, which are essential food sources. Very little is known about the molecular and neuronal basis of this unique, context-dependent modification of innate olfactory avoidance behaviour. Here we identify a new class of odorants present in food that directly inhibit CO(2)-sensitive neurons in the antenna. Using an in vivo expression system we establish that the odorants act on the Gr21a/Gr63a CO(2) receptor. The presence of these odorants significantly and specifically reduces CO(2)-mediated avoidance behaviour, as well as avoidance mediated by 'Drosophila stress odour'. We propose a model in which behavioural avoidance to CO(2) is directly influenced by inhibitory interactions of the novel odours with CO(2) receptors. Furthermore, we observe differences in the temporal dynamics of inhibition: the effect of one of these odorants lasts several minutes beyond the initial exposure. Notably, animals that have been briefly pre-exposed to this odorant do not respond to the CO(2) avoidance cue even after the odorant is no longer present. We also show that related odorants are effective inhibitors of the CO(2) response in Culex mosquitoes that transmit West Nile fever and filariasis. Our findings have broader implications in highlighting the important role of inhibitory odorants in olfactory coding, and in their potential to disrupt CO(2)-mediated host-seeking behaviour in disease-carrying insects like mosquitoes.

  8. Kinetic mechanism and enantioselectivity of halohydrin dehalogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Lixia; Lutje Spelberg, Jeffrey H.; Fraaije, Marco W.; Janssen, DB

    2003-01-01

    Halohydrin dehalogenase (HheC) from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 catalyzes the reversible intramolecular nucleophilic displacement of a halogen by a hydroxyl group in vicinal haloalcohols, producing the corresponding epoxides. The enzyme displays high enantioselectivity toward some aromatic

  9. Enantioselective cyclizations and cyclization cascades of samarium ketyl radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Nicolas; Plesniak, Mateusz P.; McDouall, Joseph J. W.; Procter, David J.

    2017-12-01

    The rapid generation of molecular complexity from simple starting materials is a key challenge in synthesis. Enantioselective radical cyclization cascades have the potential to deliver complex, densely packed, polycyclic architectures, with control of three-dimensional shape, in one step. Unfortunately, carrying out reactions with radicals in an enantiocontrolled fashion remains challenging due to their high reactivity. This is particularly the case for reactions of radicals generated using the classical reagent, SmI2. Here, we demonstrate that enantioselective SmI2-mediated radical cyclizations and cascades that exploit a simple, recyclable chiral ligand can convert symmetrical ketoesters to complex carbocyclic products bearing multiple stereocentres with high enantio- and diastereocontrol. A computational study has been used to probe the origin of the enantioselectivity. Our studies suggest that many processes that rely on SmI2 can be rendered enantioselective by the design of suitable ligands.

  10. Calcium(ii)-catalyzed enantioselective conjugate additions of amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Brice E; Dicken, Rachel D; Redfern, Louis R; Stern, Charlotte M; Krzywicki, Greg G; Scheidt, Karl A

    2018-02-14

    The direct enantioselective chiral calcium(ii)·phosphate complex (Ca[CPA] 2 )-catalyzed conjugate addition of unprotected alkyl amines to maleimides was developed. This mild catalytic system represents a significant advance towards the general convergent asymmetric amination of α,β-unsaturated electrophiles, providing medicinally relevant chiral aminosuccinimide products in high yields and enantioselectivities. Furthermore, the catalyst can be reused directly from a previously chromatographed reaction and still maintain both high yield and selectivity.

  11. Rhodium(II)-catalyzed enantioselective synthesis of troponoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murarka, Sandip; Jia, Zhi-Jun; Merten, Christian; Daniliuc, Constantin-G; Antonchick, Andrey P; Waldmann, Herbert

    2015-06-22

    We report a rhodium(II)-catalyzed highly enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between the carbonyl moiety of tropone and carbonyl ylides to afford troponoids in good to high yields with excellent enantioselectivity. We demonstrate that α-diazoketone-derived carbonyl ylides, in contrast to carbonyl ylides derived from diazodiketoesters, undergo [6+3] cycloaddition reactions with tropone to yield the corresponding bridged heterocycles with excellent stereoselectivity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Red junglefowl have individual body odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Anna-Carin; Jensen, Per; Elgland, Mathias; Laur, Katriann; Fyrner, Timmy; Konradsson, Peter; Laska, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Olfaction may play an important role in regulating bird behavior, and has been suggested to be involved in feather-pecking. We investigated possible differences in the body odors of red junglefowl females by using an automated olfactometer which assessed the ability of trained mice to discriminate between the odors of uropygial gland secretions (the main carrier of potential individual odors in chickens) of six feather-pecked and six non-pecked birds. All mice were clearly able to discriminate between all individual red junglefowl odors, showing that each bird has an individual body odor. We analyzed whether it was more difficult to discriminate between the odors of two feather-pecked, or two non-pecked birds, than it was to discriminate between the odors of two randomly selected birds. This was not the case, suggesting that feather-pecked birds did not share a common odor signature. Analyses using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry showed that the composition of aliphatic carboxylic acids in uropygial gland secretions differed consistently between individuals. However, chemical composition did not vary according to feather-pecking status. We conclude that red junglefowl have individual body odors which appear to be largely based on differences in the relative abundance of aliphatic carboxylic acids, but there is no evidence of systematic differences between the body odors of pecked and non-pecked birds.

  13. Do ambient urban odors evoke basic emotions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Theresia Weber-Glass

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fragrances, such as plant odors, have been shown to evoke autonomic response patterns associated with Ekman’s (Ekman et al., 1983 basic emotions happiness, surprise, anger, fear, sadness and disgust. Inducing positive emotions by odors in highly frequented public spaces could serve to improve the quality of life in urban environments. Thus, the present study evaluated the potency of ambient odors connoted with an urban environment to evoke basic emotions on an autonomic and cognitive response level. Synthetic mixtures representing the odors of disinfectant, candles / bees wax, summer air, burnt smell, vomit and musty smell as well as odorless water as a control were presented five times in random order to 30 healthy, non-smoking human subjects with intact sense of smell. Skin temperature, skin conductance, breathing rate, forearm muscle activity, blink rate and heart rate were recorded simultaneously. Subjects rated the odors in terms of pleasantness, intensity and familiarity and gave verbal labels to each odor as well as cognitive associations with the basic emotions. The results showed that the amplitude of the skin conductance response varied as a function of odor presentation. Burnt smell and vomit elicited significantly higher electrodermal responses than summer air. Also, a negative correlation was revealed between the amplitude of the skin conductance response and hedonic odor valence indicating that the magnitude of the electrodermal response increased with odor unpleasantness. The analysis of the cognitive associations between odors and basic emotions showed that candles / bees wax and summer air were specifically associated with happiness whereas burnt smell and vomit were uniquely associated with disgust. Our findings suggest that city odors may evoke specific cognitive associations of basic emotions and that autonomic activity elicited by such odors is related to odor hedonics.

  14. Influence of the chemical structure on odor qualities and odor thresholds of halogenated guaiacol-derived odorants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhlke, Florian; Lorber, Katja; Wagenstaller, Maria; Buettner, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    Chlorinated guaiacol derivatives are found in waste water of pulp mills using chlorine in the bleaching process of wood pulp. They can also be detected in fish tissue, possibly causing off-odors. To date, there is no systematic investigation on the odor properties of halogenated guaiacol derivatives. To close this gap, odor thresholds in air and odor qualities of 14 compounds were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry. Overall, the investigated compounds elicited smells that are characteristic for guaiacol, namely smoky, sweet, vanilla-like, but also medicinal and plaster-like. Their odor thresholds in air were, however, very low, ranging from 0.00072 to 23 ng/Lair. The lowest thresholds were found for 5-chloro- and 5-bromoguaiacol, followed by 4,5-dichloro- and 6-chloroguaiacol. Moreover, some inter-individual differences in odor threshold values could be observed, with the highest variations having been recorded for the individual values of 5-iodo- and 4-bromoguaiacol.

  15. Enantioselective biotransformations of nitriles in organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Xiang

    2015-03-17

    The hydration and hydrolysis of nitriles are valuable synthetic methods used to prepare carboxamides and carboxylic acids. However, chemical hydration and hydrolysis of nitriles involve harsh reaction conditions, have low selectivity, and generate large amounts of waste. Therefore, researchers have confined the scope of these reactions to simple nitrile substrates. However, biological transformations of nitriles are highly efficient, chemoselective, and environmentally benign, which has led synthetic organic chemists and biotechologists to study these reactions in detail over the last two decades. In nature, biological systems degrade nitriles via two distinct pathways: nitrilases catalyze the direct hydrolysis of nitriles to afford carboxylic acids with release of ammonia, and nitrile hydratases catalyze the conversion of nitriles into carboxamides, which then furnish carboxylic acids via hydrolysis in the presence of amidases. Researchers have subsequently developed biocatalytic methods into useful industrial processes for the manufacture of commodity chemicals, including acrylamide. Since the late 1990s, research by my group and others has led to enormous progress in the understanding and application of enantioselective biotransformations of nitriles in organic synthesis. In this Account, I summarize the important advances in enantioselective biotransformations of nitriles and amides, with a primary focus on research from my laboratory. I describe microbial whole-cell-catalyzed kinetic resolution of various functionalized nitriles, amino- and hydroxynitriles, and nitriles that contain small rings and the desymmetrization of prochiral and meso dinitriles and diamides. I also demonstrate how we can apply the biocatalytic protocol to synthesize natural products and bioactive compounds. These nitrile biotransformations offer an attractive and unique protocol for the enantioselective synthesis of polyfunctionalized organic compounds that are not readily obtainable by

  16. Grammatical gender affects odor cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Speed, L.J.; Majid, A.

    2016-01-01

    Language interacts with olfaction in exceptional ways. Olfaction is believed to be weakly linked with language, as demonstrated by our poor odor naming ability, yet olfaction seems to be particularly susceptible to linguistic descriptions. We tested the boundaries of the influence of language on olfaction by focusing on a non-lexical aspect of language (grammatical gender). We manipulated the grammatical gender of fragrance descriptions to test whether the congruence with fragrance gender wou...

  17. An odor flux model for cattle feedlots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormerod, R.J. [Dames & Moore, Brisbane (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Odor nuisance associated with cattle feedlots has been an issue of major interest and concern to regulators, rural communities and the beef industry in Australia over the past decade. Methods of assessing the likely impacts of new feedlots on community odor exposure are still being developed, but in the past few years much has been learnt about the processes of odor generation, flux and dispersion as well as the acceptability of feedlot odor to exposed communities. This paper outlines a model which simulates the complex physical and chemical processes leading to odor emissions in a simple and practical framework. The model, named BULSMEL, has been developed as a response to regulatory requirements for quantitative assessments of odor impact. It will continue to be refined as more data are gathered.

  18. Predicting Odor Pleasantness from Odorant Structure: Pleasantness as a Reflection of the Physical World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    34 ( Engen , 1982). We next reduced the dimensionality of physico-chemical properties, and identified a primary axis of physico-chemical space. This axis...Berglund B, Berglund U, Engen T, Ekman G (1973) Multidimensional Analysis of 21 Odors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 14:131-137. Brennan PA...1984) Hedonics of odors and odor descriptors. J AIR POLLUT CONTROL ASSOC 34:752-776. Engen T (1982) The perception of odors. New York: Academic

  19. Red junglefowl have individual body odors

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Anna-Carin; Jensen, Per; Elgland, Mathias; Laur, Katriann; Fyrner, Timmy; Konradsson, Peter; Laska, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Olfaction may play an important role in regulating bird behavior, and has been suggested to be involved in feather-pecking. We investigated possible differences in the body odors of red junglefowl females by using an automated olfactometer which assessed the ability of trained mice to discriminate between the odors of uropygial gland secretions (the main carrier of potential individual odors in chickens) of six feather-pecked and six non-pecked birds. All mice were clearly able to discriminat...

  20. Functional Neuronal Processing of Human Body Odors

    OpenAIRE

    Lundström, Johan N.; Olsson, Mats J.

    2010-01-01

    Body odors carry informational cues of great importance for individuals across a wide range of species, and signals hidden within the body odor cocktail are known to regulate several key behaviors in animals. For a long time, the notion that humans may be among these species has been dismissed. We now know, however, that each human has a unique odor signature that carries information related to his or her genetic makeup, as well as information about personal environmental variables, such as d...

  1. Biomimetic Sensors for the Senses: Towards Better Understanding of Taste and Odor Sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunsheng; Du, Ya-Wen; Huang, Liquan; Ben-Shoshan Galeczki, Yaron; Dagan-Wiener, Ayana; Naim, Michael; Niv, Masha Y; Wang, Ping

    2017-12-11

    Taste and smell are very important chemical senses that provide indispensable information on food quality, potential mates and potential danger. In recent decades, much progress has been achieved regarding the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of taste and odor senses. Recently, biosensors have been developed for detecting odorants and tastants as well as for studying ligand-receptor interactions. This review summarizes the currently available biosensing approaches, which can be classified into two main categories: in vitro and in vivo approaches. The former is based on utilizing biological components such as taste and olfactory tissues, cells and receptors, as sensitive elements. The latter is dependent on signals recorded from animals' signaling pathways using implanted microelectrodes into living animals. Advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches, as well as differences in terms of sensing principles and applications are highlighted. The main current challenges, future trends and prospects of research in biomimetic taste and odor sensors are discussed.

  2. Biomimetic Sensors for the Senses: Towards Better Understanding of Taste and Odor Sensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunsheng Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Taste and smell are very important chemical senses that provide indispensable information on food quality, potential mates and potential danger. In recent decades, much progress has been achieved regarding the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of taste and odor senses. Recently, biosensors have been developed for detecting odorants and tastants as well as for studying ligand-receptor interactions. This review summarizes the currently available biosensing approaches, which can be classified into two main categories: in vitro and in vivo approaches. The former is based on utilizing biological components such as taste and olfactory tissues, cells and receptors, as sensitive elements. The latter is dependent on signals recorded from animals’ signaling pathways using implanted microelectrodes into living animals. Advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches, as well as differences in terms of sensing principles and applications are highlighted. The main current challenges, future trends and prospects of research in biomimetic taste and odor sensors are discussed.

  3. Cross-Cultural Color-Odor Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Carmel A.; Ren, Jiana; Woods, Andy T.; Boesveldt, Sanne; Chan, Jason S.; McKenzie, Kirsten J.; Dodson, Michael; Levin, Jai A.; Leong, Christine X. R.; van den Bosch, Jasper J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor), statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience), and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language). The present study probed this question by testing color-odor correspondences in 6 different cultural groups (Dutch, Netherlands-residing-Chinese, German, Malay, Malaysian-Chinese, and US residents), using the same set of 14 odors and asking participants to make congruent and incongruent color choices for each odor. We found consistent patterns in color choices for each odor within each culture, showing that participants were making non-random color-odor matches. We used representational dissimilarity analysis to probe for variations in the patterns of color-odor associations across cultures; we found that US and German participants had the most similar patterns of associations, followed by German and Malay participants. The largest group differences were between Malay and Netherlands-resident Chinese participants and between Dutch and Malaysian-Chinese participants. We conclude that culture plays a role in color-odor crossmodal associations, which likely arise, at least in part, through experience. PMID:25007343

  4. Enhancement of retronasal odors by taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Barry G; Nachtigal, Danielle; Hammond, Samuel; Lim, Juyun

    2012-01-01

    Psychophysical studies of interactions between retronasal olfaction and taste have focused most often on the enhancement of tastes by odors, which has been attributed primarily to a response bias (i.e., halo dumping). Based upon preliminary evidence that retronasal odors could also be enhanced by taste, the present study measured both forms of enhancement using appropriate response categories. In the first experiment, subjects rated taste ("sweet," "sour," "salty," and "bitter") and odor ("other") intensity for aqueous samples of 3 tastants (sucrose, NaCl, and citric acid) and 3 odorants (vanillin, citral, and furaneol), both alone and in taste-odor mixtures. The results showed that sucrose, but not the other taste stimuli, significantly increased the perceived intensity of all 3 odors. Enhancement of tastes by odors was inconsistent and generally weaker than enhancement of odors by sucrose. A second experiment used a flavored beverage and a custard dessert to test whether the findings from the first experiment would hold for the perception of actual foods. Adding sucrose significantly enhanced the intensity of "cherry" and "vanilla" flavors, whereas adding vanillin did not significantly enhance the intensity of sweetness. It is proposed that enhancement of retronasal odors by a sweet stimulus results from an adaptive sensory mechanism that serves to increase the salience of the flavor of nutritive foods. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  5. Cross-cultural color-odor associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel A Levitan

    Full Text Available Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor, statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience, and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language. The present study probed this question by testing color-odor correspondences in 6 different cultural groups (Dutch, Netherlands-residing-Chinese, German, Malay, Malaysian-Chinese, and US residents, using the same set of 14 odors and asking participants to make congruent and incongruent color choices for each odor. We found consistent patterns in color choices for each odor within each culture, showing that participants were making non-random color-odor matches. We used representational dissimilarity analysis to probe for variations in the patterns of color-odor associations across cultures; we found that US and German participants had the most similar patterns of associations, followed by German and Malay participants. The largest group differences were between Malay and Netherlands-resident Chinese participants and between Dutch and Malaysian-Chinese participants. We conclude that culture plays a role in color-odor crossmodal associations, which likely arise, at least in part, through experience.

  6. Odors: appetizing or satiating? Development of appetite during odor exposure over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, M.G.; Boesveldt, S.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to palatable food odors influences appetite responses, either promoting or inhibiting food intake. Possibly, food odors are appetizing after a short exposure (of circa 1–3¿min), but become satiating over time (circa 10–20¿min). Objective: To investigate the effect of odor

  7. Locating a compact odor source using a four-channel insect electroantennogram sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrick, A J; Baker, T C [Chemical Ecology Laboratory, Department of Entomology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using an array of live insects to detect concentrated packets of odor and infer the location of an odor source ({approx}15 m away) using a backward Lagrangian dispersion model based on the Langevin equation. Bayesian inference allows uncertainty to be quantified, which is useful for robotic planning. The electroantennogram (EAG) is the biopotential developed between the tissue at the tip of an insect antenna and its base, which is due to the massed response of the olfactory receptor neurons to an odor stimulus. The EAG signal can carry tens of bits per second of information with a rise time as short as 12 ms (K A Justice 2005 J. Neurophiol. 93 2233-9). Here, instrumentation including a GPS with a digital compass and an ultrasonic 2D anemometer has been integrated with an EAG odor detection scheme, allowing the location of an odor source to be estimated by collecting data at several downwind locations. Bayesian inference in conjunction with a Lagrangian dispersion model, taking into account detection errors, has been implemented resulting in an estimate of the odor source location within 0.2 m of the actual location.

  8. Locating a compact odor source using a four-channel insect electroantennogram sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrick, A J; Baker, T C

    2011-01-01

    Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using an array of live insects to detect concentrated packets of odor and infer the location of an odor source (∼15 m away) using a backward Lagrangian dispersion model based on the Langevin equation. Bayesian inference allows uncertainty to be quantified, which is useful for robotic planning. The electroantennogram (EAG) is the biopotential developed between the tissue at the tip of an insect antenna and its base, which is due to the massed response of the olfactory receptor neurons to an odor stimulus. The EAG signal can carry tens of bits per second of information with a rise time as short as 12 ms (K A Justice 2005 J. Neurophiol. 93 2233-9). Here, instrumentation including a GPS with a digital compass and an ultrasonic 2D anemometer has been integrated with an EAG odor detection scheme, allowing the location of an odor source to be estimated by collecting data at several downwind locations. Bayesian inference in conjunction with a Lagrangian dispersion model, taking into account detection errors, has been implemented resulting in an estimate of the odor source location within 0.2 m of the actual location.

  9. Olfactory Receptor Database: a sensory chemoreceptor resource

    OpenAIRE

    Skoufos, Emmanouil; Marenco, Luis; Nadkarni, Prakash M.; Miller, Perry L.; Shepherd, Gordon M.

    2000-01-01

    The Olfactory Receptor Database (ORDB) is a WWW-accessible database that has been expanded from an olfactory receptor resource to a chemoreceptor resource. It stores data on six classes of G-protein-coupled sensory chemoreceptors: (i) olfactory receptor-like proteins, (ii) vomeronasal receptors, (iii) insect olfactory receptors, (iv) worm chemoreceptors, (v) taste papilla receptors and (vi) fungal pheromone receptors. A complementary database of the ligands of these receptors (OdorDB) has bee...

  10. Evaluation of achiral templates with fluxional Brønsted basic substituents in enantioselective conjugate additions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Shinya; Takeda, Norihiko; Sibi, Mukund P

    2014-12-19

    Enantioselective conjugate addition of malononitrile to pyrazolidinone-derived enoates proceeds in excellent yields and high enantioselectivities. A comparison of fluxional substituents with and without a Brønsted basic site and their impact on selectivity is detailed. Molecular sieves as an additive were found to be essential to achieve high enantioselectivity.

  11. Ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin as possible predictors of the hedonic value of odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trellakis, Sokratis; Tagay, Sefik; Fischer, Cornelia; Rydleuskaya, Alena; Scherag, André; Bruderek, Kirsten; Schlegl, Sandra; Greve, Jens; Canbay, Ali E; Lang, Stephan; Brandau, Sven

    2011-02-25

    Several lines of evidence point to a close relationship between the hormones of energy homeostasis and the olfactory system. Examples are the localization of leptin and adiponectin receptors in the olfactory system or increased activation of brain regions related to the palatability and the hedonic value of food in response to food pictures after application of ghrelin. In this preliminary study, we tested in 31 subjects (17 male and 14 female) if and to what extent the peripheral blood concentrations of "satiety" hormones, such as leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin (acyl and total), are correlated with the self-ratings of odor pleasantness and with the objective olfactory and gustatory ability. The hedonic values of some odors were found to be differently rated between donors depending on gender and body weight. The concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and total ghrelin were significantly associated with the hedonic value of pepper black oil, but failed to show significant correlations for 5 other odors tested. Except for a significant association between leptin and odor identification, hormone concentrations were not linked to the abilities of smell and taste. Peripheral adipokines and gut hormones may alter the perception and pleasantness of specific odors, presumably either directly through their receptors in the olfactory system or indirectly through central interfaces between the regulation systems of olfaction, appetite control, memory and motivation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. After oxidation, zinc nanoparticles lose their ability to enhance responses to odorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, Samantha; Daniels, Yasmine; Singletary, Melissa; Pustovyy, Oleg; Globa, Ludmila; MacCrehan, William A; Muramoto, Shin; Stan, Gheorghe; Lau, June W; Morrison, Edward E; Sorokulova, Iryna; Vodyanoy, Vitaly

    2016-12-01

    Electrical responses of olfactory sensory neurons to odorants were examined in the presence of zinc nanoparticles of various sizes and degrees of oxidation. The zinc nanoparticles were prepared by the underwater electrical discharge method and analyzed by atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Small (1.2 ± 0.3 nm) zinc nanoparticles significantly enhanced electrical responses of olfactory neurons to odorants. After oxidation, however, these small zinc nanoparticles were no longer capable of enhancing olfactory responses. Larger zinc oxide nanoparticles (15 nm and 70 nm) also did not modulate responses to odorants. Neither zinc nor zinc oxide nanoparticles produced olfactory responses when added without odorants. The enhancement of odorant responses by small zinc nanoparticles was explained by the creation of olfactory receptor dimers initiated by small zinc nanoparticles. The results of this work will clarify the mechanisms for the initial events in olfaction, as well as to provide new ways to alleviate anosmia related to the loss of olfactory receptors.

  13. Investigation of indoor chemical pollutants and perceived odor in an area with complaints of unpleasant odors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu.; Wu, Tzong-Jer [Graduate Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807 (China); Lan, Cheng-Hang [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chung-Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tai-Nan County 717 (China)

    2009-10-15

    An uncomfortable smell was reported by employees of an IT office (information technological office) in a medical center. This problem started two years ago when the office was refurbished. The objectives of this study are to characterize the indoor air quality of this complaint area in terms of chemical pollutants and odor characteristics, and identify possible sources of this foul smell. Carbonyl chemicals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated in this study, since these two groups are associated with odors and health effects. Additionally, the odor was evaluated by odor assessors (non-smokers) who recorded odor characters that appeared in offices. By comparing chemical measurements between complaint and non-complaint areas, calculating odor indices, and correlating odor and chemical measurements, we got results showing that a higher correlation coefficient is found between odor presence frequencies and VOC concentrations. Further investigating found nonanal and decanal are possible chemicals for malodors. The concentration levels of these two chemicals in the complaint area are higher than those in the non-complaint areas and exceeding odor thresholds. Possible sources of these long-chain aldehydes are formed during the oxidation degradations of fatty acids like linoleic acid, linolenic acid and oleic acid which are ingredients for many building products like linoleum and surface coating. In order to mitigate this malodor problem, extra and effective ventilation flow rate should be provided to reduce the concentrations of odorous chemicals and the precursors for these odorous chemicals. (author)

  14. Functional neuronal processing of body odors differs from that of similar common odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Johan N; Boyle, Julie A; Zatorre, Robert J; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn

    2008-06-01

    Visual and auditory stimuli of high social and ecological importance are processed in the brain by specialized neuronal networks. To date, this has not been demonstrated for olfactory stimuli. By means of positron emission tomography, we sought to elucidate the neuronal substrates behind body odor perception to answer the question of whether the central processing of body odors differs from perceptually similar nonbody odors. Body odors were processed by a network that was distinctly separate from common odors, indicating a separation in the processing of odors based on their source. Smelling a friend's body odor activated regions previously seen for familiar stimuli, whereas smelling a stranger activated amygdala and insular regions akin to what has previously been demonstrated for fearful stimuli. The results provide evidence that social olfactory stimuli of high ecological relevance are processed by specialized neuronal networks similar to what has previously been demonstrated for auditory and visual stimuli.

  15. Functional neuronal processing of human body odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Johan N; Olsson, Mats J

    2010-01-01

    Body odors carry informational cues of great importance for individuals across a wide range of species, and signals hidden within the body odor cocktail are known to regulate several key behaviors in animals. For a long time, the notion that humans may be among these species has been dismissed. We now know, however, that each human has a unique odor signature that carries information related to his or her genetic makeup, as well as information about personal environmental variables, such as diet and hygiene. Although a substantial number of studies have investigated the behavioral effects of body odors, only a handful have studied central processing. Recent studies have, however, demonstrated that the human brain responds to fear signals hidden within the body odor cocktail, is able to extract kin specific signals, and processes body odors differently than other perceptually similar odors. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of how the human brain processes body odors and the potential importance these signals have for us in everyday life. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The neurobiology of infant maternal odor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Raineki

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Infant rats must learn to identify their mother’s diet-dependent odor. Once learned, maternal odor controls pups’ approach to the mother, their social behavior and nipple attachment. Here we present a review of the research from four different laboratories, which suggests that neural and behavioral responses to the natural maternal odor and neonatal learned odors are similar. Together, these data indicate that pups have a unique learning circuit relying on the olfactory bulb for neural plasticity and on the hyperfunctioning noradrenergic locus coeruleus flooding the olfactory bulb with norepinephrine to support the neural changes. Another important factor making this system unique is the inability of the amygdala to become incorporated into the infant learning circuit. Thus, infant rats appear to be primed in early life to learn odors that will evoke approach responses supporting attachment to the caregiver.

  17. Female perception of male body odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Mark J T

    2010-01-01

    Olfaction is one of the most crucial forms of communication among nonhuman animals. Historically, olfaction has been perceived as being of limited importance for humans, but recent research has documented that not only do humans have sensitive olfactory abilities, but also odors have the potential to influence our physiology and behavior. This chapter reviews research on olfactory communication among humans, focusing on the effects of male bodily odors on female physiology and behavior. The process of body odor production and the detection of olfactory signals are reviewed, focusing on potential sex differences in these abilities. The effects of male body odors on female physiological and behavioral effects of body odors are considered. Finally, with specific regard to female mate choice, evidence regarding the influence of the major histocompatibility complex and fluctuating asymmetry on male olfactory cues is reviewed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Minute Impurities Contribute Significantly to Olfactory Receptor Ligand Studies: Tales from Testing the Vibration Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Paoli, M.; M?nch, D.; Haase, A.; Skoulakis, E.; Turin, L.; Galizia, C. G.

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have attempted to test the vibrational hypothesis of odorant receptor activation in behavioral and physiological studies using deuterated compounds as odorants. The results have been mixed. Here, we attempted to test how deuterated compounds activate odorant receptors using calcium imaging of the fruit fly antennal lobe. We found specific activation of one area of the antennal lobe corresponding to inputs from a specific receptor. However, upon more detailed analysis, we disco...

  19. Body odors promote automatic imitation in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma, Valentina; Bulgheroni, Maria; Tirindelli, Roberto; Castiello, Umberto

    2013-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorders comprise a range of neurodevelopmental pathologies characterized, among other symptoms, by impaired social interactions. Individuals with this diagnosis are reported to often identify people by repetitively sniffing pieces of clothing or the body odor of family members. Since body odors are known to initiate and mediate many different social behaviors, smelling the body odor of a family member might constitute a sensory-based action promoting social contact. In light of this, we hypothesized that the body odor of a family member would facilitate the appearance of automatic imitation, an essential social skill known to be impaired in autism. We recruited 20 autistic and 20 typically developing children. Body odors were collected from the children's mothers' axillae. A child observed a model (their mother or a stranger mother) execute (or not) a reach-to-grasp action toward an object. Subsequently, she performed the same action. The object was imbued with the child's mother's odor, a stranger mother's odor, or no odor. The actions were videotaped, and movement time was calculated post hoc via a digitalization technique. Automatic imitation effects-expressed in terms of total movement time reduction-appear in autistic children only when exposed to objects paired with their own mother's odor. The maternal odor, which conveys a social message otherwise neglected, helps autistic children to covertly imitate the actions of others. Our results represent a starting point holding theoretical and practical relevance for the development of new strategies to enhance communication and social behavior among autistic individuals. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lesions that functionally disconnect the anterior and posterodorsal sub-regions of the medial amygdala eliminate opposite-sex odor preference in male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras, Pamela M.; Petrulis, Aras

    2009-01-01

    In many rodent species, such as Syrian hamsters, reproductive behavior requires neural integration of chemosensory information and steroid hormone cues. The medial amygdala processes both of these signals through anatomically distinct sub-regions; the anterior region (MeA) receives substantial chemosensory input, but contains few steroid receptor-labeled neurons, whereas the posterodorsal region (MePD) receives less chemosensory input, but contains a dense population of steroid receptors. Importantly, these sub-regions have considerable reciprocal connections, and the goal of this experiment was therefore to determine whether interactions between MeA and MePD are required for male hamsters’ preference to investigate female over male odors. To functionally disconnect MeA and MePD, males received unilateral lesions of MeA and MePD within opposite brain hemispheres. Control males received either unilateral lesions of MeA and MePD within the same hemisphere or sham surgery. Odor preferences were measured using a 3-choice apparatus, which simultaneously presented female, male and clean odor stimuli; all tests were done under conditions that either prevented or allowed contact with the odor sources. Under non-contact conditions, males with asymmetrical lesions investigated female and male odors equally, whereas males in both control groups preferred to investigate female odors. Under contact conditions, all groups investigated female odors longer than male odors, although males with asymmetrical lesions displayed decreased investigation of female odors compared to sham males. These data suggest that MeA-MePD interactions are critical for processing primarily the volatile components of social odors and highlight the importance of input from the main olfactory system to these nuclei in the regulation of reproductive behavior. More broadly, these results support the role of the medial amygdala in integrating chemosensory and hormone information, a process that may

  1. An odor interaction model of binary odorant mixtures by a partial differential equation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Luchun; Liu, Jiemin; Wang, Guihua; Wu, Chuandong

    2014-07-09

    A novel odor interaction model was proposed for binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes by a partial differential equation (PDE) method. Based on the measurement method (tangent-intercept method) of partial molar volume, original parameters of corresponding formulas were reasonably displaced by perceptual measures. By these substitutions, it was possible to relate a mixture's odor intensity to the individual odorant's relative odor activity value (OAV). Several binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes were respectively tested to establish the PDE models. The obtained results showed that the PDE model provided an easily interpretable method relating individual components to their joint odor intensity. Besides, both predictive performance and feasibility of the PDE model were proved well through a series of odor intensity matching tests. If combining the PDE model with portable gas detectors or on-line monitoring systems, olfactory evaluation of odor intensity will be achieved by instruments instead of odor assessors. Many disadvantages (e.g., expense on a fixed number of odor assessors) also will be successfully avoided. Thus, the PDE model is predicted to be helpful to the monitoring and management of odor pollutions.

  2. Do Valenced Odors and Trait Body Odor Disgust Affect Evaluation of Emotion in Dynamic Faces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrjänen, Elmeri; Liuzza, Marco Tullio; Fischer, Håkan; Olofsson, Jonas K

    2017-12-01

    Disgust is a core emotion evolved to detect and avoid the ingestion of poisonous food as well as the contact with pathogens and other harmful agents. Previous research has shown that multisensory presentation of olfactory and visual information may strengthen the processing of disgust-relevant information. However, it is not known whether these findings extend to dynamic facial stimuli that changes from neutral to emotionally expressive, or if individual differences in trait body odor disgust may influence the processing of disgust-related information. In this preregistered study, we tested whether a classification of dynamic facial expressions as happy or disgusted, and an emotional evaluation of these facial expressions, would be affected by individual differences in body odor disgust sensitivity, and by exposure to a sweat-like, negatively valenced odor (valeric acid), as compared with a soap-like, positively valenced odor (lilac essence) or a no-odor control. Using Bayesian hypothesis testing, we found evidence that odors do not affect recognition of emotion in dynamic faces even when body odor disgust sensitivity was used as moderator. However, an exploratory analysis suggested that an unpleasant odor context may cause faster RTs for faces, independent of their emotional expression. Our results further our understanding of the scope and limits of odor effects on facial perception affect and suggest further studies should focus on reproducibility, specifying experimental circumstances where odor effects on facial expressions may be present versus absent.

  3. Segregation of odor identity and intensity during odor discrimination in Drosophila mushroom body.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouzhen Xia

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular and cellular studies have begun to unravel a neurobiological basis of olfactory processing, which appears conserved among vertebrate and invertebrate species. Studies have shown clearly that experience-dependent coding of odor identity occurs in "associative" olfactory centers (the piriform cortex in mammals and the mushroom body [MB] in insects. What remains unclear, however, is whether associative centers also mediate innate (spontaneous odor discrimination and how ongoing experience modifies odor discrimination. Here we show in naïve flies that Galphaq-mediated signaling in MB modulates spontaneous discrimination of odor identity but not odor intensity (concentration. In contrast, experience-dependent modification (conditioning of both odor identity and intensity occurs in MB exclusively via Galphas-mediated signaling. Our data suggest that spontaneous responses to odor identity and odor intensity discrimination are segregated at the MB level, and neural activity from MB further modulates olfactory processing by experience-independent Galphaq-dependent encoding of odor identity and by experience-induced Galphas-dependent encoding of odor intensity and identity.

  4. Segregation of odor identity and intensity during odor discrimination in Drosophila mushroom body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shouzhen; Tully, Tim

    2007-10-02

    Molecular and cellular studies have begun to unravel a neurobiological basis of olfactory processing, which appears conserved among vertebrate and invertebrate species. Studies have shown clearly that experience-dependent coding of odor identity occurs in "associative" olfactory centers (the piriform cortex in mammals and the mushroom body [MB] in insects). What remains unclear, however, is whether associative centers also mediate innate (spontaneous) odor discrimination and how ongoing experience modifies odor discrimination. Here we show in naïve flies that Galphaq-mediated signaling in MB modulates spontaneous discrimination of odor identity but not odor intensity (concentration). In contrast, experience-dependent modification (conditioning) of both odor identity and intensity occurs in MB exclusively via Galphas-mediated signaling. Our data suggest that spontaneous responses to odor identity and odor intensity discrimination are segregated at the MB level, and neural activity from MB further modulates olfactory processing by experience-independent Galphaq-dependent encoding of odor identity and by experience-induced Galphas-dependent encoding of odor intensity and identity.

  5. Enantioselective Copper-Catalyzed Oxy-Alkynylation of Diazo Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Durga Prasad; Waser, Jerome

    2017-06-28

    Enantioselective catalytic methods allowing the addition of both a nucleophile and an electrophile onto diazo compounds give a fast access into important building blocks. Herein, we report the highly enantioselective oxyalkynylation of diazo compounds using ethynylbenziodoxol-(on)e reagents and a simple copper bisoxazoline catalyst. The obtained α-benzoyloxy propargylic esters are useful building blocks, which are difficult to synthesize in enantiopure form using other methods. The obtained products could be efficiently transformed into vicinal diols and α-hydroxy propargylic esters without loss in enantiopurity.

  6. Pentanidium-catalyzed enantioselective phase-transfer conjugate addition reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Ting

    2011-03-09

    A new chiral entity, pentanidium, has been shown to be an excellent chiral phase-transfer catalyst. The enantioselective Michael addition reactions of tert-butyl glycinate-benzophenone Schiff base with various α,β- unsaturated acceptors provide adducts with high enantioselectivities. A successful gram-scale experiment at a low catalyst loading of 0.05 mol % indicates the potential for practical applications of this methodology. Phosphoglycine ester analogues can also be utilized as the Michael donor, affording enantioenriched α-aminophosphonic acid derivatives and phosphonic analogues of (S)-proline. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  7. Positive implicit attitudes toward odor words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulsing, Patricia J; Smeets, Monique A M; van den Hout, Marcel A

    2007-07-01

    Associations between certain odors and for instance health effects may lead to positive or negative attitudes toward these odors. However, in experiments we conducted using the Implicit Association Test (IAT), we encountered attitudes even to odor "words." The IAT is based on the principle that reaction times measuring the association between words from a target dimension (in this case, odor vs. a neutral reference category) and an attribute dimension (i.e., positive or negative words) reflect the attitude to the target, where attitude-congruent associations between target and attribute are reflected by shorter reaction times. In a first experiment, we found distinctly positive attitudes to the concept odor in a student sample, which was replicated in a second experiment. In the main experiment, subjects in the aromatherapy group, who prefer using scented consumer products for relaxation purposes, showed a significantly more positive attitude toward odor words in the IAT than a control group, who did not have such a preference. The fact that results from the implicit test were not always associated with explicitly stated attitudes toward the odor words attests to the fact that the IAT measures the attitude of interest in a different way. As such, the IAT has added value in circumstances where explicit tests can be biased.

  8. Unpleasant odors increase aversion to monetary losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancak, Andrej; Xie, Yuxin; Fallon, Nicholas; Bulsing, Patricia; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Pantelous, Athanasios A

    2015-04-01

    Loss aversion is the tendency to prefer avoiding losses over acquiring gains of equal nominal values. Unpleasant odors not only influence affective state but have also been shown to activate brain regions similar to those mediating loss aversion. Therefore, we hypothesized a stronger loss aversion in a monetary gamble task if gambles were associated with an unpleasant as opposed to pleasant odor. In thirty human subjects, unpleasant (methylmercaptan), pleasant (jasmine), and neutral (clean air) odors were presented for 4 s. At the same time, uncertain gambles offering an equal chance of gain or loss of a variable amount of money, or a prospect of an assured win were displayed. One hundred different gambles were presented three times, each time paired with a different odor. Loss aversion, risk aversion, and logit sensitivity were evaluated using non-linear fitting of individual gamble decisions. Loss aversion was larger when prospects were displayed in the presence of methylmercaptan compared to jasmine or clean air. Moreover, individual differences in changes in loss aversion to the unpleasant as compared to pleasant odor correlated with odor pleasantness but not with odor intensity. Skin conductance responses to losses during the outcome period were larger when gambles were associated with methylmercaptan compared to jasmine. Increased loss aversion while perceiving an unpleasant odor suggests a dynamic adjustment of loss aversion toward greater sensitivity to losses. Given that odors are biological signals of hazards, such adjustment of loss aversion may have adaptive value in situations entailing threat or danger. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An odor-specific threshold deficit implicates abnormal intracellular cyclic AMP signaling in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turetsky, Bruce I; Moberg, Paul J

    2009-02-01

    Although olfactory deficits are common in schizophrenia, their underlying pathophysiology remains unknown. Recent evidence has suggested that cAMP signaling may be disrupted in schizophrenia. Since cAMP mediates signal transduction in olfactory receptor neurons, this could contribute to the etiology of observed olfactory deficits. This study was designed to test this hypothesis by determining odor detection threshold sensitivities to two odorants that differ in their relative activations of this intracellular cAMP signaling cascade. Thirty schizophrenia patients, 25 healthy comparison subjects, and 19 unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients were studied. Odor detection threshold sensitivities were measured for the two odorants citralva and lyral. Although both have fruity/floral scents, citralva strongly activates adenylyl cyclase to increase cAMP levels, while lyral is a very weak activator of adenylyl cyclase. There was a significant group-by-odor interaction. Both schizophrenia patients and unaffected first-degree relatives were impaired in their ability to detect lyral versus citralva. Comparison subjects were equally sensitive to both odorants. This selective deficit could not be explained by differences in age, sex, smoking, clinical symptom profile, or medication use. This study establishes the presence of an odor-specific hyposmia that may denote a disruption of cAMP-mediated signal transduction in schizophrenia. The presence of a parallel deficit in the patients' unaffected first-degree relatives suggests that this deficit is genetically mediated. Although additional physiological studies are needed to confirm the underlying mechanism, these results offer strong inferential support for the hypothesis that cAMP signaling is dysregulated in schizophrenia.

  10. Enhancement of Retronasal Odors by Taste

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Barry G.; Nachtigal, Danielle; Hammond, Samuel; Lim, Juyun

    2011-01-01

    Psychophysical studies of interactions between retronasal olfaction and taste have focused most often on the enhancement of tastes by odors, which has been attributed primarily to a response bias (i.e., halo dumping). Based upon preliminary evidence that retronasal odors could also be enhanced by taste, the present study measured both forms of enhancement using appropriate response categories. In the first experiment, subjects rated taste (“sweet,” “sour,” “salty,” and “bitter”) and odor (“ot...

  11. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: part 1 - project overview, collection methods, and quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock facilities have historically generated public concerns due to their emissions of odorous air and various chemical pollutants. Odor emission factors and identification of principal odorous chemicals are needed to better understand the problem. Applications of odor emission factors include i...

  12. Altered Olfactory Processing of Stress Related Body Odors and Artificial Odors in Patients with Panic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Wintermann, Gloria-Beatrice; Donix, Markus; Joraschky, Peter; Gerber, Johannes; Petrowski, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with Panic Disorder (PD) direct their attention towards potential threat, followed by panic attacks, and increased sweat production. Onés own anxiety sweat odor influences the attentional focus, and discrimination of threat or non-threat. Since olfactory projection areas overlap with neuronal areas of a panic-specific fear network, the present study investigated the neuronal processing of odors in general and of stress-related sweat odors in particular in patients with PD...

  13. Odor composition analysis and odor indicator selection during sewage sludge composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan-Li; Zheng, Guo-di; Gao, Ding; Chen, Tong-Bin; Wu, Fang-Kun; Niu, Ming-Jie; Zou, Ke-Hua

    2016-09-01

    On the basis of total temperature increase, normal dehydration, and maturity, the odor compositions of surface and internal piles in a well-run sewage sludge compost plant were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with a liquid nitrogen cooling system and a portable odor detector. Approximately 80 types of substances were detected, including 2 volatile inorganic compounds, 4 sulfur organic compounds, 16 benzenes, 27 alkanes, 15 alkenes, and 19 halogenated compounds. Most pollutants were mainly produced in the mesophilic and pre-thermophilic periods. The sulfur volatile organic compounds contributed significantly to odor and should be controlled primarily. Treatment strategies should be based on the properties of sulfur organic compounds. Hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, ammonia, and carbon disulfide were selected as core indicators. Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethylbenzene, phenylpropane, and isopentane were designated as concentration indicators. Benzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, dimethylbenzene, dichloromethane, toluene, chlorobenzene, trichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, and ethylbenzene were selected as health indicators. According to the principle of odor pollution indicator selection, dimethyl disulfide was selected as an odor pollution indicator of sewage sludge composting. Monitoring dimethyl disulfide provides a highly scientific method for modeling and evaluating odor pollution from sewage sludge composting facilities. Composting is one of the most important methods for sewage sludge treatment and improving the low organic matter content of many agricultural soils. However, odors are inevitably produced during the composting process. Understanding the production and emission patterns of odors is important for odor control and treatment. Core indicators, concentration indicators, and health indicators provide an index system to odor evaluation

  14. Odor composition analysis and odor indicator selection during sewage sludge composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan-li; Zheng, Guo-di; Gao, Ding; Chen, Tong-bin; Wu, Fang-kun; Niu, Ming-jie; Zou, Ke-hua

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT On the basis of total temperature increase, normal dehydration, and maturity, the odor compositions of surface and internal piles in a well-run sewage sludge compost plant were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry with a liquid nitrogen cooling system and a portable odor detector. Approximately 80 types of substances were detected, including 2 volatile inorganic compounds, 4 sulfur organic compounds, 16 benzenes, 27 alkanes, 15 alkenes, and 19 halogenated compounds. Most pollutants were mainly produced in the mesophilic and pre-thermophilic periods. The sulfur volatile organic compounds contributed significantly to odor and should be controlled primarily. Treatment strategies should be based on the properties of sulfur organic compounds. Hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, ammonia, and carbon disulfide were selected as core indicators. Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethylbenzene, phenylpropane, and isopentane were designated as concentration indicators. Benzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, dimethylbenzene, dichloromethane, toluene, chlorobenzene, trichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, and ethylbenzene were selected as health indicators. According to the principle of odor pollution indicator selection, dimethyl disulfide was selected as an odor pollution indicator of sewage sludge composting. Monitoring dimethyl disulfide provides a highly scientific method for modeling and evaluating odor pollution from sewage sludge composting facilities. Implications: Composting is one of the most important methods for sewage sludge treatment and improving the low organic matter content of many agricultural soils. However, odors are inevitably produced during the composting process. Understanding the production and emission patterns of odors is important for odor control and treatment. Core indicators, concentration indicators, and health indicators provide an index

  15. Presence of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels in chemosensory cilia support a role in odor transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ricardo; Saavedra, M Veronica; Schmachtenberg, Oliver; Sierralta, Jimena; Bacigalupo, Juan

    2003-09-01

    Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) respond to odorants with changes in the action potential firing rate. Excitatory responses, consisting of firing increases, are mediated by a cyclic AMP cascade that leads to the activation of cationic nonselective cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels and Ca2+-dependent Cl- (ClCa) channels. This process takes place in the olfactory cilia, where all protein components of this cascade are confined. ORNs from various vertebrate species have also been shown to generate inhibitory odor responses, expressed as decreases in action potential discharges. Odor inhibition appears to rely on Ca2+-dependent K+ (KCa) channels, but the underlying transduction mechanism remains unknown. If these channels are involved in odor transduction, they are expected to be present in the olfactory cilia. We found that a specific antibody against a large conductance KCa recognized a protein of approximately 116 kDa in Western blots of purified rat olfactory ciliary membranes. Moreover, the antibody labeled ORN cilia in isolated ORNs from rat and toad (Caudiverbera caudiverbera). In addition, single-channel recordings from inside-out membrane patches excised from toad chemosensory cilia showed the presence of 4 different types of KCa channels, with unitary conductances of 210, 60, 12, and 29 and 60 pS, high K+-selectivity, and Ca2+ sensitivities in the low micromolar range. Our work demonstrates the presence of K+ channels in the ORN cilia and supports their participation in odor transduction.

  16. Maternal programming of sex-specific responses to predator odor stress in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Cyr, Sophie; Abuaish, Sameera; Sivanathan, Shathveekan; McGowan, Patrick O

    2017-08-01

    Prenatal stress mediated through the mother can lead to long-term adaptations in stress-related phenotypes in offspring. This study tested the long-lasting effect of prenatal exposure to predator odor, an ethologically relevant and psychogenic stressor, in the second half of pregnancy. As adults, the offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers showed increased anxiety-like behaviors in commonly used laboratory tasks assessing novelty-induced anxiety, increased defensive behavior in males and increased ACTH stress reactivity in females in response to predator odor. Female offspring from predator odor-exposed dams showed increased transcript abundance of glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) on the day of birth and FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) in adulthood in the amygdala. The increase in FKBP5 expression was associated with decreased DNA methylation in Fkbp5 intron V. These results indicate a sex-specific response to maternal programming by prenatal predator odor exposure and a potential epigenetic mechanism linking these responses with modifications of the stress axis in females. These results are in accordance with the mismatch hypothesis stating that an animal's response to cues within its life history reflects environmental conditions anticipated during important developmental periods and should be adaptive when these conditions are concurring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Odor-Reducing Commercial Products for Animal Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Shuchi S.

    1997-01-01

    Six odor-reducing commercial products were tested for their efficacy in reducing odors from dairy and swine wastes. A sensory panel method was utilized for odor evaluations, in which the panel played an important part. Comparisons between products were made for agitated and unagitated conditions and effect of storage time (three weeks in which experiments were performed). Cotton pieces tied to the mouth of the sample jars were useful in absorbing the odors. Odor-treated jars were observed and...

  18. Influence of the Chemical Structure on Odor Qualities and Odor Thresholds of Halogenated Guaiacol-Derived Odorants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Juhlke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlorinated guaiacol derivatives are found in waste water of pulp mills using chlorine in the bleaching process of wood pulp. They can also be detected in fish tissue, possibly causing off-odors. To date, there is no systematic investigation on the odor properties of halogenated guaiacol derivatives. To close this gap, odor thresholds in air and odor qualities of 14 compounds were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry. Overall, the investigated compounds elicited smells that are characteristic for guaiacol, namely smoky, sweet, vanilla-like, but also medicinal and plaster-like. Their odor thresholds in air were, however, very low, ranging from 0.00072 to 23 ng/Lair. The lowest thresholds were found for 5-chloro- and 5-bromoguaiacol, followed by 4,5-dichloro- and 6-chloroguaiacol. Moreover, some inter-individual differences in odor threshold values could be observed, with the highest variations having been recorded for the individual values of 5-iodo- and 4-bromoguaiacol.

  19. An Odor Interaction Model of Binary Odorant Mixtures by a Partial Differential Equation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchun Yan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel odor interaction model was proposed for binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes by a partial differential equation (PDE method. Based on the measurement method (tangent-intercept method of partial molar volume, original parameters of corresponding formulas were reasonably displaced by perceptual measures. By these substitutions, it was possible to relate a mixture’s odor intensity to the individual odorant’s relative odor activity value (OAV. Several binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes were respectively tested to establish the PDE models. The obtained results showed that the PDE model provided an easily interpretable method relating individual components to their joint odor intensity. Besides, both predictive performance and feasibility of the PDE model were proved well through a series of odor intensity matching tests. If combining the PDE model with portable gas detectors or on-line monitoring systems, olfactory evaluation of odor intensity will be achieved by instruments instead of odor assessors. Many disadvantages (e.g., expense on a fixed number of odor assessors also will be successfully avoided. Thus, the PDE model is predicted to be helpful to the monitoring and management of odor pollutions.

  20. Odor Perception by Dogs: Evaluating Two Training Approaches for Odor Learning of Sniffer Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Tenhagen, Carola; Johnen, Dorothea; Heuwieser, Wolfgang; Becker, Roland; Schallschmidt, Kristin; Nehls, Irene

    2017-06-01

    In this study, a standardized experimental set-up with various combinations of herbs as odor sources was designed. Two training approaches for sniffer dogs were compared; first, training with a pure reference odor, and second, training with a variety of odor mixtures with the target odor as a common denominator. The ability of the dogs to identify the target odor in a new context was tested. Six different herbs (basil, St. John's wort, dandelion, marjoram, parsley, ribwort) were chosen to produce reference materials in various mixtures with (positive) and without (negative) chamomile as the target odor source. The dogs were trained to show 1 of 2 different behaviors, 1 for the positive, and 1 for the negative sample as a yes/no task. Tests were double blind with one sample presented at a time. In both training approaches, dogs were able to detect chamomile as the target odor in any presented mixture with an average sensitivity of 72% and a specificity of 84%. Dogs trained with odor mixture containing the target odor had more correct indications in the transfer task. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Influence of Body Odors and Gender on Perceived Genital Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Oliveira, Patrícia; Carvalho, Joana; Ferreira, Jacqueline; Alho, Laura; Nobre, Pedro; Olsson, Mats J; Soares, Sandra C

    2018-04-01

    Olfaction is often linked to mating behavior in nonhumans. Additionally, studies in mating behavior have shown that women seem to be more affected by odor cues than men. However, the relationship between odor cues and sexual response-specifically, sexual arousal-has not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the exposure to human body odors (from individuals of the opposite gender) on perceived genital arousal, while these were presented concomitantly to sexually explicit video clips. Eighty university students (40 women) rated their perceived genital arousal (perceived degree of erection/genital lubrication) in response to an audiovisual sexual stimulus, while simultaneously exposed to a body odor from an opposite-gender donor or no odor. Participants also rated each odor sample's (body odor and no odor) perceived pleasantness, intensity, and familiarity. Findings indicated that odor condition had an effect on women's (but not men's) perceived genital arousal, with women showing higher levels of perceived genital arousal in the no odor condition. Also, results showed that women rated body odors as less pleasant than no odor. Notwithstanding, the odor ratings do not seem to explain the association between body odor and perceived genital arousal. The current results support the hypothesis that women, rather than men, are sensitive to odors in the context of sexual response. The findings of this study have relevance for the understanding of human sexuality with respect to chemosensory communication.

  2. Enantioselective cycloadditions with alpha,beta-disubstituted acrylimides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Ma, Zhihua; Itoh, Kennosuke; Prabagaran, Narayanasamy; Jasperse, Craig P

    2005-06-09

    [reaction: see text] The use of N-H imide templates provides a solution to the problem of rotamer control in Lewis acid catalyzed reactions of alpha,beta-disubstituted acryloyl imides. Reactions proceed through the s-cis rotamer and with improved reactivity because A(1,3) strain is avoided. Enantioselective nitrone, nitrile oxide, and Diels-Alder cycloadditions demonstrate the principle.

  3. Pyrones to pyrans: enantioselective radical additions to acyloxy pyrones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Zimmerman, Jake

    2006-10-18

    This paper describes a highly site-, diastereo-, and enantioselective intermolecular radical addition/hydrogen atom transfer to hydroxypyrone pyromeconic and kojic acids. The methodology can be extended to the formation of chiral quaternary centers. The products obtained are densely functionalized pyran moieties. The products contain structural features amenable for the introduction of additional substituents.

  4. Lanthanide Lewis acid-mediated enantioselective conjugate radical additions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Manyem, Shankar

    2002-08-22

    [reaction: see text] Lanthanide triflates along with proline-derived ligands have been found to be efficient catalysts for enantioselective conjugate addition of nucleophilic radicals to enoates. N-Acyl oxazolidinones, when used as achiral additives, gave meaningful enhancements in the ees for the product.

  5. Guanidine-catalyzed enantioselective desymmetrization of meso-aziridines

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    An amino-indanol derived chiral guanidine was developed as an efficient Brønsted base catalyst for the desymmetrization of meso-aziridines with both thiols and carbamodithioic acids as nucleophiles, which provided 1,2-difunctionalized ring-opened products in high yields and enantioselectivities. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Ontogeny of Odor-LiCl vs. Odor-Shock Learning: Similar Behaviors but Divergent Ages of Functional Amygdala Emergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineki, Charlis; Shionoya, Kiseko; Sander, Kristin; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2009-01-01

    Both odor-preference and odor-aversion learning occur in perinatal pups before the maturation of brain structures that support this learning in adults. To characterize the development of odor learning, we compared three learning paradigms: (1) odor-LiCl (0.3M; 1% body weight, ip) and (2) odor-1.2-mA shock (hindlimb, 1sec)--both of which…

  7. Cross-Cultural Color-Odor Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Levitan, Carmel A.; Ren, Jiana; Woods, Andy T.; Boesveldt, Sanne; Chan, Jason S.; McKenzie, Kirsten J.; Dodson, Michael; Levin, Jai A.; Leong, Christine X. R.; van den Bosch, Jasper J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor), statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience), and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language). The present study probed th...

  8. Cross-cultural color-odor associations

    OpenAIRE

    Levitan, C.A.; Ren, J.; Boesveldt, S.; Chan, J.; McKenzie, K.J.; Levin, J.A.; Leong, C.X.; Bosch, van den, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor), statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience), and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language). The present study probed th...

  9. Graphene-based hybrid for enantioselective sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zor, Erhan; Morales-Narváez, Eden; Alpaydin, Sabri; Bingol, Haluk; Ersoz, Mustafa; Merkoçi, Arben

    2017-01-15

    Chirality is a major field of research of chemical biology and is essential in pharmacology. Accordingly, approaches for distinguishing between different chiral forms of a compound are of great interest. We report on an efficient and generic enantioselective sensor that is achieved by coupling reduced graphene oxide with γ-cyclodextrin (rGO/γ-CD). The enantioselective sensing capability of the resulting structure was operated in both electrical and optical mode for of tryptophan enantiomers (D-/L-Trp). In this sense, voltammetric and photoluminescence measurements were conducted and the experimental results were compared to molecular docking method. We gain insight into the occurring recognition mechanism with selectivity toward D- and L-Trp as shown in voltammetric, photoluminescence and molecular docking responses. As an enantioselective solid phase on an electrochemical transducer, thanks to the different dimensional interaction of enantiomers with hybrid material, a discrepancy occurs in the Gibbs free energy leading to a difference in oxidation peak potential as observed in electrochemical measurements. The optical sensing principle is based on the energy transfer phenomenon that occurs between photoexcited D-/L-Trp enantiomers and rGO/γ-CD giving rise to an enantioselective photoluminescence quenching due to the tendency of chiral enantiomers to form complexes with γ-CD in different molecular orientations as demonstrated by molecular docking studies. The approach, which is the first demonstration of applicability of molecular docking to show both enantioselective electrochemical and photoluminescence quenching capabilities of a graphene-related hybrid material, is truly new and may have broad interest in combination of experimental and computational methods for enantiosensing of chiral molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A natural odor attraction between lactic acid bacteria and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Im; Yoon, Kyoung-Hye; Subbammal Kalichamy, Saraswathi; Yoon, Sung-Sik; Il Lee, Jin

    2016-03-01

    Animal predators can track prey using their keen sense of smell. The bacteriovorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans employs sensitive olfactory sensory neurons that express vertebrate-like odor receptors to locate bacteria. C. elegans displays odor-related behaviors such as attraction, aversion and adaptation, but the ecological significance of these behaviors is not known. Using a combination of food microbiology and genetics, we elucidate a possible predator-prey relationship between C. elegans and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in rotting citrus fruit. LAB produces the volatile odor diacetyl as an oxidized by-product of fermentation in the presence of citrate. We show that C. elegans is attracted to LAB when grown on citrate media or Citrus medica L, commonly known as yuzu, a citrus fruit native to East Asia, and this attraction is mediated by the diacetyl odor receptor, ODR-10. We isolated a wild LAB strain and a wild C. elegans-related nematode from rotten yuzu, and demonstrate that the wild nematode was attracted to the diacetyl produced by LAB. These results not only identify an ecological function for a C. elegans olfactory behavior, but contribute to the growing understanding of ecological relationships between the microbial and metazoan worlds.

  11. A natural odor attraction between lactic acid bacteria and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Im; Yoon, Kyoung-hye; Subbammal Kalichamy, Saraswathi; Yoon, Sung-Sik; Il Lee, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Animal predators can track prey using their keen sense of smell. The bacteriovorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans employs sensitive olfactory sensory neurons that express vertebrate-like odor receptors to locate bacteria. C. elegans displays odor-related behaviors such as attraction, aversion and adaptation, but the ecological significance of these behaviors is not known. Using a combination of food microbiology and genetics, we elucidate a possible predator–prey relationship between C. elegans and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in rotting citrus fruit. LAB produces the volatile odor diacetyl as an oxidized by-product of fermentation in the presence of citrate. We show that C. elegans is attracted to LAB when grown on citrate media or Citrus medica L, commonly known as yuzu, a citrus fruit native to East Asia, and this attraction is mediated by the diacetyl odor receptor, ODR-10. We isolated a wild LAB strain and a wild C. elegans-related nematode from rotten yuzu, and demonstrate that the wild nematode was attracted to the diacetyl produced by LAB. These results not only identify an ecological function for a C. elegans olfactory behavior, but contribute to the growing understanding of ecological relationships between the microbial and metazoan worlds. PMID:26241504

  12. The olfactory tubercle encodes odor valence in behaving mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadziola, Marie A; Tylicki, Kate A; Christian, Diana L; Wesson, Daniel W

    2015-03-18

    Sensory information acquires meaning to adaptively guide behaviors. Despite odors mediating a number of vital behaviors, the components of the olfactory system responsible for assigning meaning to odors remain unclear. The olfactory tubercle (OT), a ventral striatum structure that receives monosynaptic input from the olfactory bulb, is uniquely positioned to transform odor information into behaviorally relevant neural codes. No information is available, however, on the coding of odors among OT neurons in behaving animals. In recordings from mice engaged in an odor discrimination task, we report that the firing rate of OT neurons robustly and flexibly encodes the valence of conditioned odors over identity, with rewarded odors evoking greater firing rates. This coding of rewarded odors occurs before behavioral decisions and represents subsequent behavioral responses. We predict that the OT is an essential region whereby odor valence is encoded in the mammalian brain to guide goal-directed behaviors. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354515-13$15.00/0.

  13. Insights into structural features determining odorant affinities to honey bee odorant binding protein 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaighofer, Andreas; Pechlaner, Maria; Oostenbrink, Chris; Kotlowski, Caroline; Araman, Can; Mastrogiacomo, Rosa; Pelosi, Paolo; Knoll, Wolfgang; Nowak, Christoph; Larisika, Melanie

    2014-04-18

    Molecular interactions between odorants and odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are of major importance for understanding the principles of selectivity of OBPs towards the wide range of semiochemicals. It is largely unknown on a structural basis, how an OBP binds and discriminates between odorant molecules. Here we examine this aspect in greater detail by comparing the C-minus OBP14 of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) to a mutant form of the protein that comprises the third disulfide bond lacking in C-minus OBPs. Affinities of structurally analogous odorants featuring an aromatic phenol group with different side chains were assessed based on changes of the thermal stability of the protein upon odorant binding monitored by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Our results indicate a tendency that odorants show higher affinity to the wild-type OBP suggesting that the introduced rigidity in the mutant protein has a negative effect on odorant binding. Furthermore, we show that OBP14 stability is very sensitive to the position and type of functional groups in the odorant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Recovery of agricultural odors and odorous compounds from polyvinyl fluoride film bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate sampling methods are necessary when quantifying odor and volatile organic compound emissions at agricultural facilities. The commonly accepted methodology in the U.S. has been to collect odor samples in polyvinyl fluoride bags (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) and, subsequently, analyze with human ...

  15. Assessment of odor activity value coefficient and odor contribution based on binary interaction effects in waste disposal plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuandong; Liu, Jiemin; Yan, Luchun; Chen, Haiying; Shao, Huiqi; Meng, Tian

    2015-02-01

    Odor activity value (OAV) has been widely used for the assessment of odor pollution from various sources. However, little attention has been paid to the extreme OAV variation and potential inaccuracies of odor contribution assessment caused by odor interaction effects. The objective of this study is to assess the odor interaction effect for precise assessment of odor contribution. In this paper, samples were collected from a food waste disposal plant, and analyzed by instrumental and olfactory method to conclude odorants' occurrence and OAV. Then odor activity value coefficient (γ) was first proposed to evaluate the type and the level of binary interaction effects based on determination of OAV variation. By multiplying OAV and γ, odor activity factor (OAF) was used to reflect the real OAV. Correlation between the sum of OAF and odor concentration reached 80.0 ± 5.7%, which was 10 times higher than the sum of OAV used before. Results showed that hydrogen sulfide contributed most (annual average 66.4 ± 15.8%) to odor pollution in the waste disposal plant. However, as odor intensity of samples in summer rising, odor contribution of trimethylamine increased to 48.3 ± 3.7% by the strong synergistic interaction effect, while odor contribution of phenol decreased to 0.1 ± 0.02% for the increasing antagonistic interaction effect.

  16. Three amino acid residues bind corn odorants to McinOBP1 in the polyembryonic endoparasitoid of Macrocentrus cingulum Brischke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofael Ahmed

    Full Text Available Odorant binding proteins (OBPs play a central role in transporting odorant molecules from the sensillum lymph to olfactory receptors to initiate behavioral responses. In this study, the OBP of Macrocentrus cingulum McinOBP1 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni ion affinity chromatography. Real-time PCR experiments indicate that the McinOBP1 is expressed mainly in adult antennae, with expression levels differing by sex. Ligand-binding experiments using N-phenyl-naphthylamine (1-NPN as a fluorescent probe demonstrated that the McinOBP1 can bind green-leaf volatiles, including aldehydes and terpenoids, but also can bind aliphatic alcohols with good affinity, in the order trans-2-nonenal>cis-3-hexen-1-ol>trans-caryophelle, suggesting a role of McinOBP1 in general odorant chemoreception. We chose those three odorants for further homology modeling and ligand docking based on their binding affinity. The Val58, Leu62 and Glu130 are the key amino acids in the binding pockets that bind with these three odorants. The three mutants, Val58, Leu62 and Glu130, where the valine, leucine and glutamic residues were replaced by alanine, proline and alanine, respectively; showed reduced affinity to these odorants. This information suggests, Val58, Leu62 and Glu130 are involved in the binding of these compounds, possibly through the specific recognition of ligands that forms hydrogen bonds with the ligands functional groups.

  17. Illuminating odors: when optogenetics brings to light unexpected olfactory abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Julien; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2016-06-01

    For hundreds of years, the sense of smell has generated great interest in the world literature, oenologists, and perfume makers but less of scientists. Only recently this sensory modality has gained new attraction in neuroscience when original tools issued from physiology, anatomy, or molecular biology were available to decipher how the brain makes sense of olfactory cues. However, this move was promptly dampened by the difficulties of developing quantitative approaches to study the relationship between the physical characteristics of stimuli and the sensations they create. An upswing of olfactory investigations occurred when genetic tools could be used in combination with devices borrowed from the physics of light (a hybrid technique called optogenetics) to scrutinize the olfactory system and to provide greater physiological precision for studying olfactory-driven behaviors. This review aims to present the most recent studies that have used light to activate components of the olfactory pathway, such as olfactory receptor neurons, or neurons located further downstream, while leaving intact others brain circuits. With the use of optogenetics to unravel the mystery of olfaction, scientists have begun to disentangle how the brain makes sense of smells. In this review, we shall discuss how the brain recognizes odors, how it memorizes them, and how animals make decisions based on odorants they are capable of sensing. Although this review deals with olfaction, the role of light will be central throughout. © 2016 Grimaud and Lledo; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. Illuminating odors: when optogenetics brings to light unexpected olfactory abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Julien

    2016-01-01

    For hundreds of years, the sense of smell has generated great interest in the world literature, oenologists, and perfume makers but less of scientists. Only recently this sensory modality has gained new attraction in neuroscience when original tools issued from physiology, anatomy, or molecular biology were available to decipher how the brain makes sense of olfactory cues. However, this move was promptly dampened by the difficulties of developing quantitative approaches to study the relationship between the physical characteristics of stimuli and the sensations they create. An upswing of olfactory investigations occurred when genetic tools could be used in combination with devices borrowed from the physics of light (a hybrid technique called optogenetics) to scrutinize the olfactory system and to provide greater physiological precision for studying olfactory-driven behaviors. This review aims to present the most recent studies that have used light to activate components of the olfactory pathway, such as olfactory receptor neurons, or neurons located further downstream, while leaving intact others brain circuits. With the use of optogenetics to unravel the mystery of olfaction, scientists have begun to disentangle how the brain makes sense of smells. In this review, we shall discuss how the brain recognizes odors, how it memorizes them, and how animals make decisions based on odorants they are capable of sensing. Although this review deals with olfaction, the role of light will be central throughout. PMID:27194792

  19. Innate recognition of pheromone and food odors in moths: a common mechanism in the antennal lobe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua P Martin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The survival of an animal often depends on an innate response to a particular sensory stimulus. For an adult male moth, two categories of odors are innately attractive: pheromone released by conspecific females, and the floral scents of certain, often co-evolved, plants. These odors consist of multiple volatiles in characteristic mixtures. Here, we review evidence that both categories of odors are processed as sensory objects, and we suggest a mechanism in the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL, that encodes the configuration of these mixtures and may underlie recognition of innately attractive odors. In the pheromone system, mixtures of two or three volatiles elicit upwind flight. Peripheral changes are associated with behavioral changes in speciation, and suggest the existence of a pattern recognition mechanism for pheromone mixtures in the AL. Moths are similarly innately attracted to certain floral scents. Though floral scents consist of multiple volatiles that activate a broad array of receptor neurons, only a smaller subset, numerically comparable to pheromone mixtures, is necessary and sufficient to elicit behavior. Both pheromone and floral scent mixtures that produce attraction to the odor source elicit synchronous action potentials in particular populations of output (projection neurons (PNs in the AL. We propose a model in which the synchronous output of a population of PNs encodes the configuration of an innately attractive mixture, and thus comprises an innate mechanism for releasing odor-tracking behavior. The particular example of olfaction in moths may inform the general question of how sensory objects trigger innate responses.

  20. Imaging of odor perception delineates functional disintegration of the limbic circuits in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciumas, Carolina; Lindström, Per; Aoun, Bernard; Savic, Ivanka

    2008-01-15

    Metabolic and neuro-receptor abnormalities within the extrafocal limbic circuits are established in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). However, very little is known about how these circuits process external stimuli. We tested whether odor activation can help delineate limbic functional disintegration in MTLE, and measured cerebral blood flow with PET during birhinal smelling of familiar and unfamiliar odors, using smelling of odorless air as the baseline condition. Patients with MTLE (13 left-sided, 10 right-sided) and 21 controls were investigated. In addition to odor activation, the analysis included functional connectivity, using right and left piriform cortex as seed regions. Healthy controls activated the amygdala, piriform, anterior insular, and cingulate cortices on both sides. Smelling of familiar odors engaged, in addition, the right parahippocampus, and the left Brodmann Area (BA) 44, 45, 47. Patients failed to activate the amygdala, piriform and the anterior insular cortex in the epileptogenic hemisphere. Furthermore, those with left MTLE did not activate the left BA 44, 45 and 47 with familiar odors, which they perceived as less familiar than controls. Congruent with the activation data each seed region was in patients functionally disconnected with the contralateral amygdala+piriform+insular cortex. The functional disintegration in patients exceeded the reduced activation, and included the contralateral temporal neocortex, and in subjects with right MTLE also the right orbitofrontal cortex. Imaging of odor perception may be used to delineate functional disintegration of the limbic networks in MTLE. It shows an altered response in several regions, which may underlie some interictal behavioral problems associated with this condition.

  1. Enantioselective conjugate addition of diethylzinc to chalcone catalyzed by Co(acac)2 and chiral amino alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, André H.M. de; Feringa, Bernard

    1997-01-01

    Co(acac)2 in the presence of chiral ligands has been employed as catalyst for the enantioselective conjugate addition of diethylzinc to chalcone. With chiral amino alcohols derived from (+)-camphor, enantioselectivities up to 83% were achieved.

  2. Development switch in neural circuitry underlying odor-malaise learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shionoya, Kiseko; Moriceau, Stephanie; Lunday, Lauren; Miner, Cathrine; Roth, Tania L; Sullivan, Regina M

    2006-01-01

    Fetal and infant rats can learn to avoid odors paired with illness before development of brain areas supporting this learning in adults, suggesting an alternate learning circuit. Here we begin to document the transition from the infant to adult neural circuit underlying odor-malaise avoidance learning using LiCl (0.3 M; 1% of body weight, ip) and a 30-min peppermint-odor exposure. Conditioning groups included: Paired odor-LiCl, Paired odor-LiCl-Nursing, LiCl, and odor-saline. Results showed that Paired LiCl-odor conditioning induced a learned odor aversion in postnatal day (PN) 7, 12, and 23 pups. Odor-LiCl Paired Nursing induced a learned odor preference in PN7 and PN12 pups but blocked learning in PN23 pups. 14C 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) autoradiography indicated enhanced olfactory bulb activity in PN7 and PN12 pups with odor preference and avoidance learning. The odor aversion in weanling aged (PN23) pups resulted in enhanced amygdala activity in Paired odor-LiCl pups, but not if they were nursing. Thus, the neural circuit supporting malaise-induced aversions changes over development, indicating that similar infant and adult-learned behaviors may have distinct neural circuits.

  3. Infusions of muscimol into the lateral septum do not reduce rats' defensive behaviors toward a cat odor stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, San-San A; Patel, Ronak; Menard, Janet L

    2015-01-01

    The lateral septum (LS) is implicated in behavioral defense. We tested whether bilateral infusions of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol into the LS suppress rats' defensive responses to cat odor. Rats received intra-LS infusions of either saline or muscimol (40 ng/rat) and were exposed to either a piece of a cat collar that had been previously worn by a cat or to a control (cat odor free) collar. Rats exposed to the cat odor collar displayed more head-out postures, while intra-LS application of muscimol reduced the number of head-out postures. However, this reduction was also present in rats exposed to a control (cat odor free) collar. This latter finding suggests that despite its involvement in other defensive behaviors (e.g., open arm avoidance in the elevated plus maze), the LS does not selectively regulate rats' receptor defensive responding to the olfactory cues present in our cat odor stimulus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enantioselective Epoxide Polymerization Using a Bimetallic Cobalt Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Thomas, Renee M.

    2010-11-24

    A highly active enantiopure bimetallic cobalt complex was explored for the enantioselective polymerization of a variety of monosubstituted epoxides. The polymerizations were optimized for high rates and stereoselectivity, with s-factors (kfast/kslow) for most epoxides exceeding 50 and some exceeding 300, well above the threshold for preparative utility of enantiopure epoxides and isotactic polyethers. Values for mm triads of the resulting polymers are typically greater than 95%, with some even surpassing 98%. In addition, the use of a racemic catalyst allowed the preparation of isotactic polyethers in quantitative yields. The thermal properties of these isotactic polyethers are presented, with many polymers exhibiting high T m values. This is the first report of the rapid synthesis of a broad range of highly isotactic polyethers via the enantioselective polymerization of racemic epoxides. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. Enantioselective Epoxide Polymerization Using a Bimetallic Cobalt Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Thomas, Renee M.; Widger, Peter C. B.; Ahmed, Syud M.; Jeske, Ryan C.; Hirahata, Wataru; Lobkovsky, Emil B.; Coates, Geoffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    A highly active enantiopure bimetallic cobalt complex was explored for the enantioselective polymerization of a variety of monosubstituted epoxides. The polymerizations were optimized for high rates and stereoselectivity, with s-factors (kfast/kslow) for most epoxides exceeding 50 and some exceeding 300, well above the threshold for preparative utility of enantiopure epoxides and isotactic polyethers. Values for mm triads of the resulting polymers are typically greater than 95%, with some even surpassing 98%. In addition, the use of a racemic catalyst allowed the preparation of isotactic polyethers in quantitative yields. The thermal properties of these isotactic polyethers are presented, with many polymers exhibiting high T m values. This is the first report of the rapid synthesis of a broad range of highly isotactic polyethers via the enantioselective polymerization of racemic epoxides. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  6. Postnatal odorant exposure induces peripheral olfactory plasticity at the cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadiou, Hervé; Aoudé, Imad; Tazir, Bassim; Molinas, Adrien; Fenech, Claire; Meunier, Nicolas; Grosmaitre, Xavier

    2014-04-02

    Mammalian olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) form the primary elements of the olfactory system. Inserted in the olfactory mucosa lining of the nasal cavity, they are exposed to the environment and their lifespan is brief. Several reports say that OSNs are regularly regenerated during the entire life and that odorant environment affects the olfactory epithelium. However, little is known about the impact of the odorant environment on OSNs at the cellular level and more precisely in the context of early postnatal olfactory exposure. Here we exposed MOR23-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and M71-GFP mice to lyral or acetophenone, ligands for MOR23 or M71, respectively. Daily postnatal exposure to lyral induces plasticity in the population of OSNs expressing MOR23. Their density decreases after odorant exposure, whereas the amount of MOR23 mRNA and protein remain stable in the whole epithelium. Meanwhile, quantitative PCR indicates that each MOR23 neuron has higher levels of olfactory receptor transcripts and also expresses more CNGA2 and phosphodiesterase 1C, fundamental olfactory transduction pathway proteins. Transcript levels return to baseline after 4 weeks recovery. Patch-clamp recordings reveal that exposed MOR23 neurons respond to lyral with higher sensitivity and broader dynamic range while the responses' kinetics were faster. These effects are specific to the odorant-receptor pair lyral-MOR23: there was no effect of acetophenone on MOR23 neurons and no effect of acetophenone and lyral on the M71 population. Together, our results clearly demonstrate that OSNs undergo specific anatomical, molecular, and functional adaptation when chronically exposed to odorants in the early stage of life.

  7. Primary odorants of naturally soiled laundry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Signe Munk; Münch, Petra; Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    2000-01-01

    Odorants still attached to laundry soiled with human axillary sweat and sebum, after a mild washing procedure, were extracted and analysed by aroma extract dilution analysis. Esters (ethyl-2-methylpropanoate and ethylbutanoate), ketones (1-hexen-3-one and 1-octen-3-one) and, in particular......, aldehydes ((Z)-4-heptenal, octanal, (E)-2-octenal, methional, (Z)-2-nonenal, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, (E,Z)-2,4-nonadienal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and 4-methoxybenzaldehyde) were identified as primary odorants. Organic acids, which are dominating, characteristic odorants in human axillary sweat, were...... ranking analysis prior to the analytical odour analysis. Swatches selected for the subsequent odour analysis possessed greater odour intensity, when washed in the presence of lipase than the corresponding swatches washed in the absence of lipase. The aroma extract dilution analysis revealed that generally...

  8. Enhancing the potential of enantioselective organocatalysis with light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvi, Mattia; Melchiorre, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    Organocatalysis—catalysis mediated by small chiral organic molecules—is a powerful technology for enantioselective synthesis, and has extensive applications in traditional ionic, two-electron-pair reactivity domains. Recently, organocatalysis has been successfully combined with photochemical reactivity to unlock previously inaccessible reaction pathways, thereby creating new synthetic opportunities. Here we describe the historical context, scientific reasoning and landmark discoveries that were essential in expanding the functions of organocatalysis to include one-electron-mediated chemistry and excited-state reactivity.

  9. Enantioselective synthesis of alpha,beta-disubstituted-beta-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Prabagaran, Narayanasamy; Ghorpade, Sandeep G; Jasperse, Craig P

    2003-10-01

    Highly diastereoselective and enantioselective addition of N-benzylhydroxylamine to imides 17 and 20-30 produces alpha,beta-trans-disubstituted N-benzylisoxazolidinones 19 and 31-41. These reactions proceed in 60-96% ee with 93-99% de's using 5 mol % of Mg(NTf2)2 and ligand 18. The product isoxazolidinones can be hydrogenolyzed directly to provide alpha,beta-disubstituted-beta-amino acids.

  10. Enantioselective conjugate radical addition to alpha'-hydroxy enones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunggi; Lim, Chae Jo; Kim, Sunggak; Subramaniam, Rajesh; Zimmerman, Jake; Sibi, Mukund P

    2006-09-14

    Enantioselective conjugate radical addition to alpha'-hydroxy alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones, compounds containing bidentate donors, has been investigated. It has been found that radical additions to alpha'-hydroxy alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones in the presence of Mg(NTf2)2 and bisoxazoline ligand 5a proceeded cleanly, yielding the addition products in high chemical yields and good enantiomeric excesses.

  11. Catalytic enantioselective alkene aminohalogenation/cyclization involving atom transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, Michael T; Chemler, Sherry R

    2012-04-16

    Problem solved: the title reaction was used for the synthesis of chiral 2-bromo, chloro, and iodomethyl indolines and 2-iodomethyl pyrrolidines. Stereocenter formation is believed to occur by enantioselective cis aminocupration and C-X bond formation is believed to occur by atom transfer. The ultility of the products as versatile synthetic intermediates was demonstrated, as was a radical cascade cyclization sequence. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The functional neuroanatomy of odor evoked autobiographical memories cued by odors and words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshamian, Artin; Iannilli, Emilia; Gerber, Johannes C; Willander, Johan; Persson, Jonas; Seo, Han-Seok; Hummel, Thomas; Larsson, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral evidence indicates that odor evoked autobiographical memories (OEAMs) are older, more emotional, less thought of and induce stronger time traveling characteristics than autobiographical memories (AMs) evoked by other modalities. The main aim of this study was to explore the neural correlates of AMs evoked by odors as a function of retrieval cue. Participants were screened for specific OEAMs and later presented with the odor cue and its verbal referent in an fMRI paradigm. Because the same OEAM was retrieved across both cue formats (odor and word), potential cue dependent brain activations were investigated. The overall results showed that odor and word cued OEAMs activated regions typically associated with recollection of autobiographical information. Although no odors were presented, a verbal cuing of the OEAMs activated areas associated with olfactory perception (e.g., piriform cortex). However, relative to word cuing, an odor cuing of OEAMs resulted in more activity in MTL regions such as the parahippocampus, and areas involved in visual vividness (e.g., occipital gyrus and precuneus). Furthermore, odor cues activated areas related to emotional processing, such as limbic and tempopolar regions significantly more. In contrast, word cues relative to odor cues recruited a more widespread and bilateral prefrontal activity. Hippocampus activity did not vary as function of the remoteness of the memory, but recollection of OEAMs from the 1(st) vs the 2(nd) decade of life showed specific activation in the right OFC, whereas the 2(nd) reflected a higher activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enantiomerization and enantioselective bioaccumulation of metalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongxin; Wang, Huili; Qin, Fang; Xu, Peng; Lv, Xiaotian; Li, Jianzhong; Guo, Baoyuan

    2014-02-01

    The enantiomerization and enantioselective bioaccumulation of metalaxyl by a single dose of exposure to Tenebrio molitor larvae under laboratory condition were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS) based on a ChiralcelOD-3R [cellulosetris-tris-(3, 5-dichlorophenyl-carbamate)] column. Exposure of enantiopure R-metalaxyl and S-metalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae exhibited significant enantiomerization, with formation of the R enantiomers from the S enantiomers, and vice versa, which might be attributed to the chiral pesticide catalyzed by a certain enzyme in Tenebrio molitor larvae. Enantiomerization was not observed in wheat bran during the period of 21 d. In addition, bioaccumulation of rac-metalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae was enantioselective with a preferential accumulation of S-metalaxyl. These results showed that enantioselectivity was caused not only by actual degradation and metabolism but also by enantiomerization, which was an important process in the environmental fate and behavior of metalaxyl enantiomers. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. 2,2',3,3',6,6'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) is Enantioselectively Oxidized to Hydroxylated Metabolites by Rat Liver Microsomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianai; Pramanik, Ananya; Duffel, Michael W.; Hrycay, Eugene G.; Bandiera, Stelvio M.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Kania-Korwel, Izabela

    2011-01-01

    Developmental exposure to multiple-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in laboratory animals and humans by mechanisms involving the sensitization of Ryanodine receptors (RyRs). In the case of PCB 136, the sensitization of RyR is enantiospecific, with only (-)-PCB 136 being active. However, the role of enantioselective metabolism in the developmental neurotoxicity of PCB 136 is poorly understood. The present study employed hepatic microsomes from phenobarbital (PB-), dexamethasone (DEX-) and corn oil (VEH-)treated male Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate the hypothesis that PCB 136 atropisomers are enantioselectively metabolized by P450 enzymes to potentially neurotoxic, hydroxylated PCB 136 metabolites. The results demonstrated the time- and isoform-dependent formation of three metabolites, with 5-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol) being the major metabolite. The formation of 5-OH-PCB 136 increased with the activity of P450 2B enzymes in the microsomal preparation, which is consistent with PCB 136 metabolism by rat P450 2B1. The minor metabolite 4-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-4-ol) was produced by a currently unidentified P450 enzymes. An enantiomeric enrichment of (-)-PCB 136 was observed in microsomal incubations due to the preferential metabolism of (+)-PCB 136 to the corresponding 5-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol) atropisomer. 4-OH-PCB 136 displayed an enrichment of the atropisomer formed from (-)-PCB 136; however, the enrichment of this metabolite atropisomer didn't affect the enantiomeric enrichment of the parent PCB because 4-OH-PCB 136 is only a minor metabolite. Although the formation of 5- and 4-OH-PCB 136 atropisomers increased with time, the enantioselective formation of the OH-PCB metabolites resulted in constant enantiomeric enrichment, especially at later incubation times. These observations not only demonstrate that the chiral signatures of

  15. Odor recognition memory is not idepentently impaired in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveldt, S.; Muinck Keizer, de R.J.O.; Wolters, E.C.H.; Berendse, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    The results of previous studies in small groups of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are inconclusive with regard to the presence of an odor recognition memory impairment in PD. The aim of the present study was to investigate odor recognition memory in PD in a larger group of patients. Odor

  16. Olfactory Imagination and Odor Processing: Three Same-Different Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, E.P.; Stelt, van der O.; Nixdorf, R.R.; Linschoten, M.R.I.; Mojet, J.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Do people who claim to have olfactory imagination process odors more efficiently? In three same–different experiments, using all possible combinations of odors and odor names as primes and targets, selected high imagers (n¿=¿12) were faster (±230 ms; P¿

  17. Contribution of DA Signaling to Appetitive Odor Perception in a Drosophila Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yuhan; Palombo, Melissa Megan Masserant; Shen, Ping

    2018-04-13

    Understanding cognitive processes that translate chemically diverse olfactory stimuli to specific appetitive drives remains challenging. We have shown that food-related odors arouse impulsive-like feeding of food media that are palatable and readily accessible in well-nourished Drosophila larvae. Here we provide evidence that two assemblies of four dopamine (DA) neurons, one per brain hemisphere, contribute to perceptual processing of the qualitative and quantitative attributes of food scents. These DA neurons receive neural representations of chemically diverse food-related odors, and their combined neuronal activities become increasingly important as the chemical complexity of an appetizing odor stimulus increases. Furthermore, in each assembly of DA neurons, integrated odor signals are transformed to one-dimensional DA outputs that have no intrinsic reward values. Finally, a genetic analysis has revealed a D1-type DA receptor (Dop1R1)-gated mechanism in neuropeptide Y-like neurons that assigns appetitive significance to selected DA outputs. Our findings suggest that fly larvae provide a useful platform for elucidation of molecular and circuit mechanisms underlying cognitive processing of olfactory and possibly other sensory cues.

  18. Behavioral responses to mammalian blood odor and a blood odor component in four species of large carnivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Nilsson

    Full Text Available Only little is known about whether single volatile compounds are as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in animals as the whole complex mixture of a behaviorally relevant odor. Recent studies analysing the composition of volatiles in mammalian blood, an important prey-associated odor stimulus for predators, found the odorant trans-4,5-epoxy-(E-2-decenal to evoke a typical "metallic, blood-like" odor quality in humans. We therefore assessed the behavior of captive Asian wild dogs (Cuon alpinus, African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus, South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus, and Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica when presented with wooden logs that were impregnated either with mammalian blood or with the blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E-2-decenal, and compared it to their behavior towards a fruity odor (iso-pentyl acetate and a near-odorless solvent (diethyl phthalate as control. We found that all four species displayed significantly more interactions with the odorized wooden logs such as sniffing, licking, biting, pawing, and toying, when they were impregnated with the two prey-associated odors compared to the two non-prey-associated odors. Most importantly, no significant differences were found in the number of interactions with the wooden logs impregnated with mammalian blood and the blood odor component in any of the four species. Only one of the four species, the South American bush dogs, displayed a significant decrease in the number of interactions with the odorized logs across the five sessions performed per odor stimulus. Taken together, the results demonstrate that a single blood odor component can be as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in large carnivores as the odor of real blood, suggesting that trans-4,5-epoxy-(E-2-decenal may be perceived by predators as a "character impact compound" of mammalian blood odor. Further, the results suggest that odorized wooden logs are a suitable manner of environmental

  19. Enantioselective carbenoid insertion into C(sp3–H bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. Santiago

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The enantioselective carbenoid insertion into C(sp3–H bonds is an important tool for the synthesis of complex molecules due to the high control of enantioselectivity in the formation of stereogenic centers. This paper presents a brief review of the early issues, related mechanistic studies and recent applications on this chemistry area.

  20. Application of enantioselective radical reactions: synthesis of (+)-ricciocarpins A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; He, Liwen

    2004-05-27

    Enantioselective synthesis of (+)-ricciocarpins A and B has been achieved in 41 and 45% overall yields, respectively, starting from a beta-substituted oxazolidinone. The key steps in the strategy are an enantioselective conjugate radical addition and the addition of a furyl organometallic to a key aldehyde intermediate. [reaction--see text

  1. Copper(II)-catalyzed exo and enantioselective cycloadditions of azomethine imines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Rane, Digamber; Stanley, Levi M; Soeta, Takahiro

    2008-07-17

    A strategy for exo and enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine imines to 2-acryloyl-3-pyrazolidinone is described. The corresponding cycloadducts are isolated with high diastereoselectivities (up to >96:4 exo/endo) and enantioselectivities (up to 98% ee).

  2. Enantioselective rhodium enolate protonations. A new methodology for the synthesis of beta2-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Tatamidani, Hiroto; Patil, Kalyani

    2005-06-23

    [reaction: see text] Rhodium-catalyzed conjugate addition of an aryl boronic acid to alpha-methylamino acrylates followed by enantioselective protonation of the oxa-pi-allylrhodium intermediate provides access to aryl-substituted beta(2)-amino acids. The impact of the different variables of the reaction on the levels of enantioselectivity has been assessed.

  3. Enantioselective H-atom transfer reaction: a strategy to synthesize formaldehyde aldol products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Patil, Kalyani

    2005-04-14

    [reaction: see text] Enantioselective radical alkylation of Baylis-Hillman adducts furnished aldol products in good yield and selectivity. The results illustrate that the selectivity in the hydrogen atom transfer is dependent on the size of the ester substituent, with smaller substituents providing better enantioselectivity.

  4. Enantioselective Rhodium Enolate Protonations. A New Methodology for the Synthesis of β2-Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P.; Tatamidani, Hiroto; Patil, Kalyani

    2008-01-01

    Rhodium catalyzed conjugate addition of an aryl boronic acid to α-methylamino acrylates followed by enantioselective protonation of the oxa-π-allylrhodium intermediate provides access to aryl substituted β2-amino acids. The impact of the different variables of the reaction on the levels of enantioselectivity has been assessed. PMID:15957893

  5. DNA-based catalytic enantioselective intermolecular oxa-Michael addition reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Megens, Rik P.; Roelfes, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Using the DNA-based catalysis concept, a novel Cu(II) catalyzed enantioselective oxa-Michael addition of alcohols to enones is reported. Enantioselectivities of up to 86% were obtained. The presence of water is important for the reactivity, possibly by reverting unwanted side reactions such as

  6. Odor management in petroleum refining units; Gerenciamento de odores em refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierres, Ricardo; Evangelho, Mauro Rocha; Moreira, Andrea Cristina de Castro Araujo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). P e D de Energia e Desenvolvimento Sustentavel (PDEDS)

    2004-07-01

    Odor emissions can cause serious annoyance in the neighbourhood of the emissions sources related to industrial processes and effluent and wastewater treatments. Jointly with the industrial control for reducing the odor, the emissions monitoring becomes convenient for identification and quantification of compounds responsible for the odors. To reach this objective, they are proposed analytical and olfactometric methodologies. The analytical procedures are based on the application of methods of sampling and analysis in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, accepted for environmental agencies. The olfactometric methodology is based on the use of procedures that consider the subjective manner with that the odors are felt and evaluated by the people. This work describes as these methodologies can be applied in petroleum refining units. (author)

  7. Recovery of Agricultural Odors and Odorous Compounds from Polyvinyl Fluoride Film Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David B.; Perschbacher-Buser, Zena L.; Cole, N. Andy; Koziel, Jacek A.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate sampling methods are necessary when quantifying odor and volatile organic compound emissions at agricultural facilities. The commonly accepted methodology in the U.S. has been to collect odor samples in polyvinyl fluoride bags (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) and, subsequently, analyze with human panelists using dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry. The purpose of this research was to simultaneously quantify and compare recoveries of odor and odorous compounds from both commercial and homemade PVF sampling bags. A standard gas mixture consisting of p-cresol (40 μg m−3) and seven volatile fatty acids: acetic (2,311 μg m−3), propionic (15,800 μg m−3), isobutyric (1,686 μg m−3), butyric (1,049 μg m−3), isovaleric (1,236 μg m−3), valeric (643 μg m−3), and hexanoic (2,158 μg m−3) was placed in the PVF bags at times of 1 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, and 7 d prior to compound and odor concentration analyses. Compound concentrations were quantified using sorbent tubes and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Odor concentration, intensity, and hedonic tone were measured using a panel of trained human subjects. Compound recoveries ranged from 2 to 40% after 1 h and 0 to 14% after 7 d. Between 1 h and 7 d, odor concentrations increased by 45% in commercial bags, and decreased by 39% in homemade bags. Minimal changes were observed in intensity and hedonic tone over the same time period. These results suggest that PVF bags can bias individual compound concentrations and odor as measured by dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry. PMID:22163671

  8. The perception of odor objects in everyday life: a review on the processing of odor mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry eThomas-Danguin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Smelling monomolecular odors hardly ever occurs in everyday life, and the daily functioning of the sense of smell relies primarily on the processing of complex mixtures of volatiles that are present in the environment (e.g., emanating from food or conspecifics. Such processing allows for the instantaneous recognition and categorization of smells and also for the discrimination of odors among others to extract relevant information and to adapt efficiently in different contexts. The neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning this highly efficient analysis of complex mixtures of odorants is beginning to be unraveled and support the idea that olfaction, as vision and audition, relies on odor-objects encoding. This configural processing of odor mixtures, which is empirically subject to important applications in our societies (e.g., the art of perfumers, flavorists, and wine makers, has been scientifically studied only during the last decades. This processing depends on many individual factors, among which are the developmental stage, lifestyle, physiological and mood state, and cognitive skills; this processing also presents striking similarities between species. The present review gathers the recent findings, as observed in animals, healthy subjects, and/or individuals with affective disorders, supporting the perception of complex odor stimuli as odor objects. It also discusses peripheral to central processing, and cognitive and behavioral significance. Finally, this review highlights that the study of odor mixtures is an original window allowing for the investigation of daily olfaction and emphasizes the need for knowledge about the underlying biological processes, which appear to be crucial for our representation and adaptation to the chemical environment.

  9. receptores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Regina Daronco Benetti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio etnográfico, que tuvo lo objetivo de interpretar el sistema de conocimiento y del significado atribuidos a la sangre referente a la transfusión sanguínea por los donadores y receptores de un banco de sangre. Para la colecta de las informaciones se observaron los participantes y la entrevista etnográfica se realizó el análisis de dominio, taxonómicos y temáticos. Los dominios culturales fueron: la sangre es vida: fuente de vida y alimento valioso; creencias religiosas: fuentes simbólicas de apoyos; donación sanguínea: un gesto colaborador que exige cuidarse, gratifica y trae felicidad; donación sanguínea: fuente simbólica de inseguridad; estar enfermo es una condición para realizar transfusión sanguínea; transfusión sanguínea: esperanza de vida; Creencias populares: transfusión sanguínea como riesgo para la salud; donadores de sangre: personas benditas; donar y recibir sangre: como significado de felicidad. Temática: “líquido precioso que origina, sostiene, modifica la vida, provoca miedo e inseguridad”.

  10. Cross-cultural color-odor associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levitan, C.A.; Ren, J.; Boesveldt, S.; Chan, J.; McKenzie, K.J.; Levin, J.A.; Leong, C.X.; Bosch, van den J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons

  11. Neuroendocrine changes upon exposure to predator odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegab, Ibrahim M; Wei, Wanhong

    2014-05-28

    Predator odors are non-intrusive and naturalistic stressors of high ethological relevance in animals. Upon exposure to a predator or its associated cues, robust physiological and molecular anti-predator defensive strategies are elicited thereby allowing prey species to recognize, avoid and defend against a possible predation threat. In this review, we will discuss the nature of neuroendocrine stress responses upon exposure to predator odors. Predator odors can have a profound effect on the endocrine system, including activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and induction of stress hormones such as corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone. On a neural level, short-term exposure to predator odors leads to induction of the c-fos gene, while induction of ΔFosB in a different brain region is detected under chronic predation stress. Future research should aim to elucidate the relationships between neuroendocrine and behavioral outputs to gage the different levels of anti-predator responses in prey species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Primary trimethylaminuria: the fish odor syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya Alvarez, T.; Guardiola, P.; Roldan, J.O.; Elviro, R.; Wevers, R.A.; Guijarro, G.

    2009-01-01

    Primary trimethylaminuria, or fish odor syndrome, is a congenital metabolic disorder characterized by a failure in the hepatic trimethylamine (TMA) oxidation route to trimethylamine N-oxide (TMANO). TMA is mostly derived from dietary precursors such as choline, carnitine and TMANO. The presence of

  13. Odor identification: perceptual and semantic dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, W S; de Wijk, R; Lulejian, C; Schiet, F; See, L C

    1998-06-01

    Five studies explored identification of odors as an aspect of semantic memory. All dealt in one way or another with the accessibility of acquired olfactory information. The first study examined stability and showed that, consistent with personal reports, people can fail to identify an odor one day yet succeed another. Failure turned more commonly to success than vice versa, and once success occurred it tended to recur. Confidence ratings implied that subjects generally knew the quality of their answers. Even incorrect names, though, often carried considerable information which sometimes reflected a semantic and sometimes a perceptual source of errors. The second study showed that profiling odors via the American Society of Testing and Materials list of attributes, an exercise in depth of processing, effected no increment in the identifiability/accessibility beyond an unelaborated second attempt at retrieval. The third study showed that subjects had only a weak ability to predict the relative recognizability of odors they had failed to identify. Whereas the strength of the feeling that they would 'know' an answer if offered choices did not associate significantly with performance for odors, it did for trivia questions. The fourth study demonstrated an association between ability to discriminate among one set of odors and to identify another, but this emerged only after subjects had received feedback about identity, which essentially changed the task to one of recognition and effectively stabilized access. The fifth study illustrated that feedback improves performance dramatically only for odors involved with it, but that mere retrieval leads to some improvement. The studies suggest a research agenda that could include supplemental use of confidence judgments both retrospectively and prospectively in the same subjects to indicate the amount of accessible semantic information; use of second and third guesses to examine subjects' simultaneously held hypotheses about

  14. Circuit oscillations in odor perception and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Leslie M

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory system neural oscillations as seen in the local field potential have been studied for many decades. Recent research has shown that there is a functional role for the most studied gamma oscillations (40-100Hz in rats and mice, and 20Hz in insects), without which fine odor discrimination is poor. When these oscillations are increased artificially, fine discrimination is increased, and when rats learn difficult and highly overlapping odor discriminations, gamma is increased in power. Because of the depth of study on this oscillation, it is possible to point to specific changes in neural firing patterns as represented by the increase in gamma oscillation amplitude. However, we know far less about the mechanisms governing beta oscillations (15-30Hz in rats and mice), which are best associated with associative learning of responses to odor stimuli. These oscillations engage every part of the olfactory system that has so far been tested, plus the hippocampus, and the beta oscillation frequency band is the one that is most reliably coherent with other regions during odor processing. Respiratory oscillations overlapping with the theta frequency band (2-12Hz) are associated with odor sniffing and normal breathing in rats. They also show coupling in some circumstances between olfactory areas and rare coupling between the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. The latter occur in specific learning conditions in which coherence strength is negatively or positively correlated with performance, depending on the task. There is still much to learn about the role of neural oscillations in learning and memory, but techniques that have been brought to bear on gamma oscillations (current source density, computational modeling, slice physiology, behavioral studies) should deliver much needed knowledge of these events. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nurse odor perception in various Japanese hospital settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Horiguchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Because unpleasant hospital odors affect the nursing environment, we investigated nurses' perceptions of the odors of various hospital settings: hospital rooms, nurse stations, and human waste disposal rooms to discard the urine, stools and diapers. A questionnaire based on the Japanese Ministry of the Environment's guidelines on odor index regulation was used to assess nurses' perceptions of odor intensity, comfort, tolerability, and description in the aforementioned settings. Questionnaires were distributed to nursing department directors at three Japanese hospitals, who then disseminated the questionnaires to nursing staff. Of the 1,151 questionnaires distributed, 496 nurses participated. Human waste disposal rooms had greater odor intensity and were perceived as more uncomfortable than the other settings. Unpleasant odors in disposal rooms, hospital rooms, and nurse stations were rated as slightly intolerable in comparison. Hospital and disposal rooms were mainly described as having a “pungent odor such as of urine and stool.” In contrast, nurse stations were described as having other unpleasant odors, such as chemical, human-body-related, or sewage-like odors. Given that nurses spend much of their time in hospital rooms and nurse stations, odor management in these two settings would likely improve nurses' working conditions at hospitals. Improving odors at nurse stations is feasible. Such improvements could have indirect effects on nurse turnover and burnout.

  16. The effect of meat consumption on body odor attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlicek, Jan; Lenochova, Pavlina

    2006-10-01

    Axillary body odor is individually specific and potentially a rich source of information about its producer. Odor individuality partly results from genetic individuality, but the influence of ecological factors such as eating habits are another main source of odor variability. However, we know very little about how particular dietary components shape our body odor. Here we tested the effect of red meat consumption on body odor attractiveness. We used a balanced within-subject experimental design. Seventeen male odor donors were on "meat" or "nonmeat" diet for 2 weeks wearing axillary pads to collect body odor during the final 24 h of the diet. Fresh odor samples were assessed for their pleasantness, attractiveness, masculinity, and intensity by 30 women not using hormonal contraceptives. We repeated the same procedure a month later with the same odor donors, each on the opposite diet than before. Results of repeated measures analysis of variance showed that the odor of donors when on the nonmeat diet was judged as significantly more attractive, more pleasant, and less intense. This suggests that red meat consumption has a negative impact on perceived body odor hedonicity.

  17. The insular taste cortex contributes to odor quality coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G Veldhuizen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite distinct peripheral and central pathways, stimulation of both the olfactory and the gustatory systems may give rise to the sensation of sweetness. Whether there is a common central mechanism producing sweet quality sensations or two discrete mechanisms associated independently with gustatory and olfactory stimuli is currently unknown. Here we used fMRI to determine whether odor sweetness is represented in the piriform olfactory cortex, which is thought to code odor quality, or in the insular taste cortex, which is thought to code taste quality. Fifteen participants sampled two concentrations of a pure sweet taste (sucrose, two sweet food odors (chocolate and strawberry, and two sweet floral odors (lilac and rose. Replicating prior work we found that olfactory stimulation activated the piriform, orbitofrontal and insular cortices. Of these regions, only the insula also responded to sweet taste. More importantly, the magnitude of the response to the food odors, but not to the non-food odors, in this region of insula was positively correlated with odor sweetness rating. These findings demonstrate that insular taste cortex contributes to odor quality coding by representing the taste-like aspects of food odors. Since the effect was specific to the food odors, and only food odors are experienced with taste, we suggest this common central mechanism develops as a function of experiencing flavors.

  18. Lateralized odor preference training in rat pups reveals an enhanced network response in anterior piriform cortex to olfactory input that parallels extended memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Christine J; Harley, Carolyn W; Yuan, Qi

    2013-09-18

    The present study examines synaptic plasticity in the anterior piriform cortex (aPC) using ex vivo slices from rat pups given lateralized odor preference training. In the early odor preference learning model, a brief 10 min training session yields 24 h memory, while four daily sessions yield 48 h memory. Odor preference memory can be lateralized through naris occlusion as the anterior commissure is not yet functional. AMPA receptor-mediated postsynaptic responses in the aPC to lateral olfactory tract input, shown to be enhanced at 24 h, are no longer enhanced 48 h after a single training session. Following four spaced lateralized trials, the AMPA receptor-mediated fEPSP is enhanced in the trained aPC at 48 h. Calcium imaging of aPC pyramidal cells within 48 h revealed decreased firing thresholds in the pyramidal cell network. Thus multiday odor preference training induced increased odor input responsiveness in previously weakly activated aPC cells. These results support the hypothesis that increased synaptic strength in olfactory input networks mediates odor preference memory. The increase in aPC network activation parallels behavioral memory.

  19. Evaluation method of offensive odor. Shuki no hyoka hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, Y [The Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection, Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-06-01

    As the evaluation method of offensive odor, two kinds of methods were outlined, a concentration measurement method for compounds emitting offensive odors and a sensory method by human olfactory organ. On the former, the method for measuring separately odors of twelve compounds controlled by the regulation act such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide was outlined as well as the method for measuring odors of compound groups such as total reduced sulfur and total hydrocarbon. On the later, the evaluation scale of essential properties of odor such as quality, intensity, acceptability and pervasiveness was discussed. As typical sensory techniques, a scentometer, syringe method, odorless chamber method and olfactometer were outlined, and a triangle odor bag method widely used for the evaluation at present was described in detail which was developed to reduce demerits of a syringe method such as adsorption of odorants on a syringe surface. 24 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Degradation of pheromone and plant volatile components by a same odorant-degrading enzyme in the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Durand

    Full Text Available Odorant-Degrading Enzymes (ODEs are supposed to be involved in the signal inactivation step within the olfactory sensilla of insects by quickly removing odorant molecules from the vicinity of the olfactory receptors. Only three ODEs have been both identified at the molecular level and functionally characterized: two were specialized in the degradation of pheromone compounds and the last one was shown to degrade a plant odorant.Previous work has shown that the antennae of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, a worldwide pest of agricultural crops, express numerous candidate ODEs. We focused on an esterase overexpressed in males antennae, namely SlCXE7. We studied its expression patterns and tested its catalytic properties towards three odorants, i.e. the two female sex pheromone components and a green leaf volatile emitted by host plants.SlCXE7 expression was concomitant during development with male responsiveness to odorants and during adult scotophase with the period of male most active sexual behaviour. Furthermore, SlCXE7 transcription could be induced by male exposure to the main pheromone component, suggesting a role of Pheromone-Degrading Enzyme. Interestingly, recombinant SlCXE7 was able to efficiently hydrolyze the pheromone compounds but also the plant volatile, with a higher affinity for the pheromone than for the plant compound. In male antennae, SlCXE7 expression was associated with both long and short sensilla, tuned to sex pheromones or plant odours, respectively. Our results thus suggested that a same ODE could have a dual function depending of it sensillar localisation. Within the pheromone-sensitive sensilla, SlCXE7 may play a role in pheromone signal termination and in reduction of odorant background noise, whereas it could be involved in plant odorant inactivation within the short sensilla.

  1. Effect of fragrance use on discrimination of individual body odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Caroline; Havlíček, Jan; Roberts, S. Craig

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that artificial fragrances may be chosen to complement or enhance an individual’s body odor, rather than simply masking it, and that this may create an odor blend with an emergent quality that is perceptually distinguishable from body odor or fragrance alone. From this, it can be predicted that a new emergent odor might be more easily identified than an individual’s body odor in isolation. We used a triangle test paradigm to assess whether fragrance affects people’s ability to distinguish between individual odors. Six male and six female donors provided axillary odor samples in three conditions (without fragrance, wearing their own fragrance, and wearing an assigned fragrance). In total, 296 female and 131 male participants selected the odd one from three odor samples (two from one donor, one from another; both of the same sex). We found that participants could discriminate between the odors at above chance levels in all three odor conditions. Olfactory identification ability (measured using Sniffin’ Sticks) positively predicted discrimination performance, and sex differences in performance were also observed, with female raters being correct more often than men. Success rates were also higher for odors of male donors. Additionally, while performance was above chance in all conditions, individual odor discrimination varied across the three conditions. Discrimination rate was significantly higher in the “no fragrance” condition than either of the fragranced conditions. Importantly, however, discrimination rate was also significantly higher in the “own fragrance” condition than the “assigned fragrance” condition, suggesting that naturally occurring variance in body odor is more preserved when blended with fragrances that people choose for themselves, compared with other fragrances. Our data are consistent with the idea that fragrance choices are influenced by fragrance interactions with an individual’s own body odor

  2. Identification of odor-processing genes in the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamidala, Praveen; Wijeratne, Asela J; Wijeratne, Saranga; Poland, Therese; Qazi, Sohail S; Doucet, Daniel; Cusson, Michel; Beliveau, Catherine; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2013-01-01

    Insects rely on olfaction to locate food, mates, and suitable oviposition sites for successful completion of their life cycle. Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (emerald ash borer) is a serious invasive insect pest that has killed tens of millions of North American ash (Fraxinus spp) trees and threatens the very existence of the genus Fraxinus. Adult A. planipennis are attracted to host volatiles and conspecifics; however, to date no molecular knowledge exists on olfaction in A. planipennis. Hence, we undertook an antennae-specific transcriptomic study to identify the repertoire of odor processing genes involved in A. planipennis olfaction. We acquired 139,085 Roche/454 GS FLX transcriptomic reads that were assembled into 30,615 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs), including 3,249 isotigs and 27,366 non-isotigs (contigs and singletons). Intriguingly, the majority of the A. planipennis antennal transcripts (59.72%) did not show similarity with sequences deposited in the non-redundant database of GenBank, potentially representing novel genes. Functional annotation and KEGG analysis revealed pathways associated with signaling and detoxification. Several odor processing genes (9 odorant binding proteins, 2 odorant receptors, 1 sensory neuron membrane protein and 134 odorant/xenobiotic degradation enzymes, including cytochrome P450s, glutathione-S-transferases; esterases, etc.) putatively involved in olfaction processes were identified. Quantitative PCR of candidate genes in male and female A. planipennis in different developmental stages revealed developmental- and sex-biased expression patterns. The antennal ESTs derived from A. planipennis constitute a rich molecular resource for the identification of genes potentially involved in the olfaction process of A. planipennis. These findings should help in understanding the processing of antennally-active compounds (e.g. 7-epi-sesquithujene) previously identified in this serious invasive pest.

  3. Endogenous oxytocin is necessary for preferential Fos expression to male odors in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in female Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Luis A; Levy, Marisa J; Petrulis, Aras

    2013-09-01

    Successful reproduction in mammals depends on proceptive or solicitational behaviors that enhance the probability of encountering potential mates. In female Syrian hamsters, one such behavior is vaginal scent marking. Recent evidence suggests that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) may be critical for regulating this behavior. Blockade of OT receptors in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) or the medial preoptic area (MPOA) decreases vaginal marking responses to male odors; lesion data suggest that BNST, rather than MPOA, mediates this effect. However, how OT interacts with sexual odor processing to drive preferential solicitation is not known. To address this issue, intact female Syrian hamsters were exposed to male or female odors and their brains processed for immunohistochemistry for Fos, a marker of recent neuronal activation, and OT. Additional females were injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV) with an oxytocin receptor antagonist (OTA) or vehicle, and then tested for vaginal marking and Fos responses to sexual odors. Colocalization of OT and Fos in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus was unchanged following exposure to male odors, but decreased following exposure to female odors. Following injections of OTA, Fos expression to male odors was decreased in BNST, but not in MPOA or the medial amygdala (MA). Fos expression in BNST may be functionally relevant for vaginal marking, given that there was a positive correlation between Fos expression and vaginal marking for BNST, but not MPOA or MA. Together, these data suggest that OT facilitation of neuronal activity in BNST underlies the facilitative effects of OT on solicitational responses to male odors. © 2013.

  4. Enantioselective Copper-Catalyzed Carboetherification of Unactivated Alkenes**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, Michael T.; Liwosz, Timothy W.; Kendel, Nicole E.; Miller, Yan; Tyminska, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Chiral saturated oxygen heterocycles are important components of bioactive compounds. Cyclization of alcohols onto pendant alkenes is a direct route to their synthesis, but few catalytic enantioselective methods enabling cyclization onto unactivated alkenes exist. Herein is reported a highly efficient copper-catalyzed cyclization of γ-unsaturated pentenols that terminates in C-C bond formation, a net alkene carboetherification. Both intra- and intermolecular C-C bond formations are demonstrated, yielding functionalized chiral tetrahydrofurans as well as fused-ring and bridged-ring oxabicyclic products. Transition state calculations support a cis-oxycupration stereochemistry-determining step. PMID:24798697

  5. The Swipe Card Model of Odorant Recognition 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Brookes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Just how we discriminate between the different odours we encounter is notcompletely understood yet. While obviously a matter involving biology, the core issue isa matter for physics: what microscopic interactions enable the receptors in our noses-smallprotein switches—to distinguish scent molecules? We survey what is and is not known aboutthe physical processes that take place when we smell things, highlighting the difficultiesin developing a full understanding of the mechanics of odorant recognition. The maincurrent theories, discussed here, fall into two major groups. One class emphasises thescent molecule's shape, and is described informally as a "lock and key" mechanism. Butthere is another category, which we focus on and which we call "swipe card" theories:the molecular shape must be good enough, but the information that identifies the smellinvolves other factors. One clearly-defined "swipe card" mechanism that we discuss hereis Turin's theory, in which inelastic electron tunnelling is used to discern olfactant vibrationfrequencies. This theory is explicitly quantal, since it requires the molecular vibrations totake in or give out energy only in discrete quanta. These ideas lead to obvious experimentaltests and challenges. We describe the current theory in a form that takes into accountmolecular shape as well as olfactant vibrations. It emerges that this theory can explainmany observations hard to reconcile in other ways. There are still some important gapsin a comprehensive physics-based description of the central steps in odorant recognition. We also discuss how far these ideas carry over to analogous processes involving other smallbiomolecules, like hormones, steroids and neurotransmitters. We conclude with a discussionof possible quantum behaviours in biology more generally, the case of olfaction being justone example. This paper is presented in honour of Prof. Marshall Stoneham who passedaway unexpectedly during its writing. 

  6. Development of Environment-Friendly Insecticides Based on Enantioselectivity: Bifenthrin as a Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yi; Zhou, Peixue; Zhang, Quan

    2017-01-01

    Chiral insecticides significantly contribute to the environmental pollutions recently. As the development of industry and agriculture, increasing number of chiral insecticides are to be introduced into the market. However, their enantioselective toxicology to ecosystem still remains uncertain. In this review, we embarked on a structured search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed articles regarding the enantioselective effects of bifenthrin, a typical chiral insecticide, on both target and non-target species. With this enantioselective property of chiral insecticides, they often exhibit adverse effects on non-target species enantioselectively. Specifically, the enantioselective effects of bifenthrin on target and non-target organisms were discussed. In target species, R-bifenthrin exerts more significant activities in deinsectization, compared with S-bifenthrin. On the other hand, Sbifenthrin is more toxic to non-target species than R-bifenthrin, which suggests that the application of sole enantiomer is more efficient and environment-friendly than that of racemate. This review confirms the choice of environment-friendly insecticides from the perspective of the enantioselectivity of chiral insecticides. To make insecticides more efficient to target species and less toxic to non-target species, further research should be done to investigated the potential effects of targetactive enantiomers on non-target organisms as well as the enantioselective fate of enantiomers in multiple environmental matrix.

  7. Identification of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant odors in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Vidyulata; Turetsky, Bruce I; Moberg, Paul J

    2011-05-15

    Recent work on odor hedonics in schizophrenia has indicated that patients display abnormalities in hedonic judgments of odors in comparison to healthy comparison participants. In the current study, identification accuracy for pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant odors in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls was examined. Thirty-three schizophrenia patients (63% male) and thirty-one healthy volunteers (65% male) were recruited. The groups were well matched on age, sex, and smoking status. Participants were administered the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test, which was subsequently divided into 16 pleasant, 15 neutral, and 9 unpleasant items. Analysis of identification z-scores for pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant odors revealed a significant diagnosis by valence interaction. Post-hoc analysis revealed that schizophrenia participants made more identification errors on pleasant and neutral odors compared to healthy controls, with no differences observed for unpleasant odors. No effect was seen for sex. The findings from the current investigation suggest that odor identification accuracy in patients is influenced by odor valence. This pattern of results parallels a growing body of literature indicating that patients display aberrant pleasantness ratings for pleasant odors and highlights the need for additional research on the influence of odor valence on olfactory identification performance in individuals with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Recognition of Bread Key Odorants by Using Polymer Coated QCMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Takashi; Kouno, Shinji; Hiruma, Naoya; Shuzo, Masaki; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Yamada, Ichiro

    Polyisobutylene (PIB) polymer and methylphenylsiloxane (25%) diphenylsiloxane (75%) copolymer (OV25) were coated on Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensors and used in recognition of bread key odorants. Representative compounds of key roasty odorants of bread were taken as 3-acetylpyridine and benzaldehyde, and representative key fatty odorants were hexanal and (E)-2-nonenal. Both OV25- and PIB-coated QCM fabricated sensors could detect concentration as low as 0.9 ppm of 3-acetylpyridine and 1.2 ppm of (E)-2-nonenal. The sensitivity to 3-acetylpyridine of the OV25-coated QCM was about 1000 times higher than that of ethanol, the major interference compound in bread key odorant analysis. Further, the OV25-coated QCM response was 5-6 times and 2-3 times larger than that of the PIB-coated QCM when exposed to roasty odorants and to fatty odorants, respectively. The difference in sensitivity of the OV25- and PIB-coated QCMs we fabricated made possible to discriminate roasty from fatty odorants as was evidenced by the odor recognition map representing the frequency shifts of the OV25-coated QCM against the frequency shift of the PIB-coated QCM. In conclusion, we found that the combination of an OV25-coated QCM and a PIB-coated QCM was successful in discriminating roasty odorants from fatty odorants at the ppm level.

  9. Body odor based personality judgments: The effect of fragranced cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka eSorokowska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available People can accurately assess various personality traits of others based on body odor alone. Previous studies have shown that correlations between odor ratings and self-assessed personality dimensions are evident for assessments of neuroticism and dominance. Here, we tested differences between assessments based on natural body odor alone, without the use of cosmetics and assessments based on the body odor of people who were allowed to use cosmetics following their daily routine. Sixty-seven female observers assessed samples of odors from 113 odor donors (each odor donor provided two samples – one with and one without cosmetic use; the donors provided their personality ratings, and the raters judged personality characteristics of the donors based on the provided odor samples. Correlations between observers’ ratings and self-rated neuroticism were stronger when raters assessed body odor in the natural body odor condition (natural BO condition; rs = .20 than in the cosmetics use condition (BO+cosmetics condition; rs = .15. Ratings of dominance significantly predicted self-assessed dominance in both conditions (rs = .34 for natural BO and rs = .21 for BO+cosmetics, whereas ratings of extraversion did not predict self-assessed extraversion in either condition. In addition, ratings of body odor attractiveness and pleasantness were significantly lower in natural BO condition than in BO+cosmetics condition, although the intensity of donors’ body odors was similar under both conditions. Our findings suggest that although olfaction seems to contribute to accurate first impression judgments of certain personality traits, cosmetic use can affect assessments of others based on body odor.

  10. Effect of fragrance use on discrimination of individual body odor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eAllen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that artificial fragrances may be chosen to complement or enhance an individual’s body odor, rather than simply masking it, and that this may create an odor blend with an emergent quality that is perceptually distinguishable from body odor or fragrance alone. From this, it can be predicted that a new emergent odor might be more easily identified than an individual’s body odor in isolation. We used a triangle test paradigm to assess whether fragrance affects people’s ability to distinguish between individual odors. Six male and six female donors provided axillary odor samples in three conditions (without fragrance, wearing their own fragrance, and wearing an assigned fragrance. In total, 296 female and 131 male participants selected the odd one out from three odor samples (two from one donor, one from another; both of the same sex. We found that participants could discriminate between the odors at above chance levels in all three odour conditions. Olfactory identification ability (measured using Sniffin’ Sticks positively predicted discrimination performance, and sex differences in performance were also observed, with female raters being correct more often than men. Success rates were also higher for odors of male donors. Additionally, while performance was above chance in all conditions, individual odor discrimination varied across the three conditions. Discrimination rate was significantly higher in the ‘no fragrance’ condition than either of the fragranced conditions. Importantly, however, discrimination rate was also significantly higher in the ‘own fragrance’ condition than the ‘assigned fragrance’ condition, suggesting that naturally occurring variance in body odor is more preserved when blended with fragrances that people choose for themselves, compared with other fragrances. Our data are consistent with the idea that fragrance choices are influenced by fragrance interactions with an

  11. On the Communicative Function of Body Odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Jasper H B; Semin, Gün R; Smeets, Monique A M

    2017-03-01

    Humans use multiple senses to navigate the social world, and the sense of smell is arguably the most underestimated one. An intriguing aspect of the sense of smell is its social communicative function. Research has shown that human odors convey information about a range of states (e.g., emotions, sickness) and traits (e.g., individuality, gender). Yet, what underlies the communicability of these states and traits via smell? We fill this explanatory gap with a framework that highlights the dynamic and flexible aspects of human olfactory communication. In particular, we explain how chemical profiles, associative learning (i.e., the systematic co-occurrence of chemical profiles with state- or trait-related information), and top-down contextual influences could interact to shape human odor perception. Our model not only helps to integrate past research on human olfactory communication but it also opens new avenues for future research on this fascinating, yet to date poorly understood, field.

  12. Enantioselective synthesis of α-oxy amides via Umpolung amide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighty, Matthew W; Shen, Bo; Johnston, Jeffrey N

    2012-09-19

    α-Oxy amides are prepared through enantioselective synthesis using a sequence beginning with a Henry addition of bromonitromethane to aldehydes and finishing with Umpolung Amide Synthesis (UmAS). Key to high enantioselection is the finding that ortho-iodo benzoic acid salts of the chiral copper(II) bis(oxazoline) catalyst deliver both diastereomers of the Henry adduct with high enantiomeric excess, homochiral at the oxygen-bearing carbon. Overall, this approach to α-oxy amides provides an innovative complement to alternatives that focus almost entirely on the enantioselective synthesis of α-oxy carboxylic acids.

  13. Highly Enantioselective Rhodium-Catalyzed Addition of Arylboroxines to Simple Aryl Ketones: Efficient Synthesis of Escitalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Linwei; Zhu, Jinbin; Jiao, Guangjun; Wang, Zheng; Yu, Xingxin; Deng, Wei-Ping; Tang, Wenjun

    2016-03-24

    Highly enantioselective additions of arylboroxines to simple aryl ketones have been achieved for the first time with a Rh/(R,R,R,R)-WingPhos catalyst, thus providing a range of chiral diaryl alkyl carbinols with excellent ee values and yields. (R,R,R,R)-WingPhos has been proven to be crucial for the high reactivity and enantioselectivity. The method has enabled a new, concise, and enantioselective synthesis of the antidepressant drug escitalopram. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Nickel-catalyzed regio- and enantioselective aminolysis of 3,4-epoxy alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2015-04-08

    The first catalytic regio- and enantioselective aminolysis of 3,4-epoxy alcohols has been accomplished. Under the catalysis of Ni(ClO4)2·6H2O, the C4 selective ring opening of various 3,4-epoxy alcohols proceeded in a stereospecific manner with high regioselectivities. Furthermore, with the Ni-BINAM catalytic system the enantioselective ring opening of 3,4-epoxy alcohols furnished various γ-hydroxy-δ-amino alcohols as products with complete regiocontrol and high enantioselectivities (up to 94% ee).

  15. Infrared-thermographic screening of the activity and enantioselectivity of enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reetz, M T; Hermes, M; Becker, M H

    2001-05-01

    The infrared radiation caused by the heat of reaction of an enantioselective enzyme-catalyzed transformation can be detected by modern photovoltaic infrared (IR)-thermographic cameras equipped with focal-plane array detectors. Specifically, in the lipase-catalyzed enantioselective acylation of racemic 1-phenylethanol, the (R)- and (S)-substrates are allowed to react separately in the wells of microtiter plates, the (R)-alcohol showing hot spots in the IR-thermographic images. Thus, highly enantioselective enzymes can be identified at kinetic resolution.

  16. Dual Enantioselective Control using D-phenylglycine-L-proline-derived Catalysts for the Enantioselective Addition of Diethylzinc to Aldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seock Yong; Park, Yong Sun

    2016-01-01

    Dipeptide-derived catalysts are of great interest in various asymmetric transformations because of their short and simple preparation and easy modification of their modular structure by using different α-amino acids. We recently reported the first example of dipeptide-catalyzed enantioselective addition of dialkylzinc to aldehydes. We have developed a novel D-Phg-L-Pro dipeptide-derived catalyst for the addition of diethylzinc to aromatic aldehydes. We also disclosed an effective chiral switching by simply modifying nonchiral part of D-Phg-L-Pro dipeptide.

  17. Quantitative method to determine the regional drinking water odorant regulation goals based on odor sensitivity distribution: illustrated using 2-MIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianwei; An, Wei; Cao, Nan; Yang, Min; Gu, Junong; Zhang, Dong; Lu, Ning

    2014-07-01

    Taste and odor (T/O) in drinking water often cause consumer complaints and are thus regulated in many countries. However, people in different regions may exhibit different sensitivities toward T/O. This study proposed a method to determine the regional drinking water odorant regulation goals (ORGs) based on the odor sensitivity distribution of the local population. The distribution of odor sensitivity to 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) by the local population in Beijing, China was revealed by using a normal distribution function/model to describe the odor complaint response to a 2-MIB episode in 2005, and a 2-MIB concentration of 12.9 ng/L and FPA (flavor profile analysis) intensity of 2.5 was found to be the critical point to cause odor complaints. Thus the Beijing ORG for 2-MIB was determined to be 12.9 ng/L. Based on the assumption that the local FPA panel can represent the local population in terms of sensitivity to odor, and that the critical FPA intensity causing odor complaints was 2.5, this study tried to determine the ORGs for seven other cities of China by performing FPA tests using an FPA panel from the corresponding city. ORG values between 12.9 and 31.6 ng/L were determined, showing that a unified ORG may not be suitable for drinking water odor regulations. This study presents a novel approach for setting drinking water odor regulations. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Assessment and remediation of odor emissions from a complex industrial facility (Ambient air odor regulations in Canada and the United States)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boose, T.; Reusing, G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of a review and presents examples of ambient air odor regulations in Canada and the United States. State and provincial odor regulations were reviewed and other metropolitan cities or counties (regions) that have separate odor regulations were also included. The key topics addressed in this paper include an assessment of the methods used for odor regulation and the methods used to evaluate the odor impact to determine compliance with the regulation. Three types of ambient air odor regulations were identified: 1. 28 States, Provinces and regions (jurisdictions) have specific odor regulations. These regulations generally define what constitutes an odor impact and typically provide requirements for remedial measures; 2. 25 jurisdictions regulate odors by a general prohibition regulation. These regulations define odor in ambient air as a condition of air pollution, nuisance or objectionable odor that would typically prevent persons from the enjoyment of life and property; and 3. 13 jurisdictions do not have specific or general prohibition regulations regarding odors. For the jurisdictions that have specific or general prohibition odor regulations, there are a number of different techniques used to define what constitutes an odor impact. Odor impacts are typically defined in a regulation by one (or more) of the following techniques: dilution to threshold, or odor unit limit; determination of odor emission rates; odor concentration limits for selected chemicals (ppm); comparison with the n-butanol intensity scale (1 to 8); and investigation by an agency investigator. Compliance with odor regulations is typically determined using one (or more) of the following field methods: odor stack testing and dispersion modelling; odor panel analysis of stack or ambient air samples; chemical monitoring (ppm); odor school certified / agency investigator; and scentometer. (author)

  19. Diastereoselective and enantioselective reduction of tetralin-1,4-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe chemistry of tetralin-1,4-dione, the stable tautomer of 1,4-dihydroxynaphthalene, has not been explored previously. It is readily accessible and offers interesting opportunities for synthesis.ResultsThe title reactions were explored. L-Selectride reduced the diketone to give preferentially the cis-diol (d.r. 84 : 16. Red-Al gave preferentially the trans-diol (d.r. 13 : 87. NaBH4, LiAlH4, and BH3 gave lower diastereoselectivities (yields: 76–98%. Fractional crystallization allowed isolation of the cis-diol and the trans-diol (55% and 66% yield, respectively. Borane was used to cleanly give the mono-reduction product. Highly enantioselective CBS reductions afforded the trans-diol (72% yield, 99% ee and the mono-reduction product (81%, 95% ee.ConclusionDiastereoselective and enantioselective reductions of the unexplored tetralin-1,4-dione provides a very convenient entry into a number of synthetically highly attractive 1,4-tetralindiols and 4-hydroxy-1-tetralone.

  20. Diastereoselective and enantioselective reduction of tetralin-1,4-dione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kündig, E Peter; Enriquez-Garcia, Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    The chemistry of tetralin-1,4-dione, the stable tautomer of 1,4-dihydroxynaphthalene, has not been explored previously. It is readily accessible and offers interesting opportunities for synthesis. The title reactions were explored. L-Selectride reduced the diketone to give preferentially the cis-diol (d.r. 84 : 16). Red-Al gave preferentially the trans-diol (d.r. 13 : 87). NaBH(4), LiAlH(4), and BH(3) gave lower diastereoselectivities (yields: 76-98%). Fractional crystallization allowed isolation of the cis-diol and the trans-diol (55% and 66% yield, respectively). Borane was used to cleanly give the mono-reduction product. Highly enantioselective CBS reductions afforded the trans-diol (72% yield, 99% ee) and the mono-reduction product (81%, 95% ee). Diastereoselective and enantioselective reductions of the unexplored tetralin-1,4-dione provides a very convenient entry into a number of synthetically highly attractive 1,4-tetralindiols and 4-hydroxy-1-tetralone.

  1. Enantioselective degradation and enantiomerization of indoxacarb in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dali; Pang, Junxiao; Qiu, Jing; Li, Li; Liu, Chenglan; Jiao, Bining

    2013-11-27

    In this study, the enantioselective degradation and enantiomerizaton of indoxacarb were investigated in two soils under nonsterilized and sterilized conditions using a chiral OD-RH column on a reversed-phase HPLC. Under nonsterilized conditions, the degradation of indoxacarb in two soils was enantioselective. In acidic soil, the half-lives of R-(-)- and S-(+)-indoxacarb were 10.43 and 14.00 days, respectively. Acidic soil was preferential to the degradation of R-(-)-indoxacarb. In alkaline soil, the half-lives of R-(-)- and S-(+)-indoxacarb were 12.14 and 4.88 days, respectively. S-(+)-Indoxacarb was preferentially degraded. Under sterilized conditions, approximately 5-10% of the initial concentration degraded after 75 days of incubation in acidic soil, whereas in alkaline soil, approximately half of the initial concentration degraded due to chemical hydrolysis under alkaline conditions. Enantiomerization was also discovered in acidic and alkaline soils. The results showed that mutual transformation existed between two enantiomers and that S-(+)-indoxacarb had a significantly higher inversion rate to R-(-)-indoxacarb than its antipode.

  2. Chiral separation and enantioselective degradation of vinclozolin in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Liu, Donghui; Shen, Zhigang; Sun, Mingjing; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Peng

    2014-03-01

    Vinclozolin is a chiral fungicide with potential environmental problems. The chiral separation of the enantiomers and enantioselective degradation in soil were investigated in this work. The enantiomers were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on Chiralpak IA, IB, and AZ-H chiral columns under normal phase and the influence of the mobile phase composition on the separation was also studied. Complete resolutions were obtained on all three chiral columns under optimized conditions with the same elution order of (+)/(-). The residual analysis of the enantiomers in soil was conducted using accelerate solvent extraction followed by HPLC determination. The recoveries of the enantiomers ranged from 85.7-105.7% with relative standard deviation (SD) of 0.12-3.83%, and the limit of detection (LOD) of the method was 0.013 µg/g. The results showed that the degradations of vinclozolin enantiomers in the soils followed first-order kinetics. Preferential degradation of the (-)-enantiomer was observed only in one soil with the largest |ES| value of 0.047, and no obvious enantioselective degradation was observed in other soils. It was found that the persistence of vinclozolin in soil was related to pH values based on the half-lives. The two enantiomers disappeared about 8 times faster in basic soils than that in neutral or acidic soils. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Emotion experienced during encoding enhances odor retrieval cue effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, R S

    1997-01-01

    Emotional potentiation may be a key variable in the formation of odor-associated memory. Two experiments were conducted in which a distinctive ambient odor was present or absent during encoding and retrieval sessions and subjects were in an anxious or neutral mood during encoding. Subjects' mood at retrieval was not manipulated. The laboratory mood induction used in Experiment 1 suggested that anxiety might increase the effectiveness of an odor retrieval cue. This trend was confirmed in Experiment 2 by capturing a naturally stressful situation. Subjects who had an ambient odor cue available and were in a preexam state during encoding recalled more words than subjects in any other group. These data are evidence that heightened emotion experienced during encoding with an ambient odor can enhance the effectiveness of an odor as a cue to memory.

  4. A specialized odor memory buffer in primary olfactory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelano, Christina; Montag, Jessica; Khan, Rehan; Sobel, Noam

    2009-01-01

    The neural substrates of olfactory working memory are unknown. We addressed the questions of whether olfactory working memory involves a verbal representation of the odor, or a sensory image of the odor, or both, and the location of the neural substrates of these processes. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure activity in the brains of subjects who were remembering either nameable or unnameable odorants. We found a double dissociation whereby remembering nameable odorants was reflected in sustained activity in prefrontal language areas, and remembering unnameable odorants was reflected in sustained activity in primary olfactory cortex. These findings suggest a novel dedicated mechanism in primary olfactory cortex, where odor information is maintained in temporary storage to subserve ongoing tasks.

  5. Blue petrels recognize the odor of their egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclaire, Sarah; Bourret, Vincent; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    Most studies on avian olfactory communication have focused on mate choice, and the importance of olfaction in subsequent nesting stages has been poorly explored. In particular, the role of olfactory cues in egg recognition has received little attention, despite eggs potentially being spread with parental odorous secretions known to elicit individual discrimination. Here, we used behavioral choice tests to determine whether female blue petrels ( Halobaena caerulea ) can discriminate the odor of their own egg from the odor of a conspecific egg. Females preferentially approached the odor of their own egg, suggesting that blue petrels can recognize their own egg using odor cues. This finding raises the question of the adaptive value of this mechanism, and may inspire further research on odor-based egg discrimination in species suffering brood parasitism. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Insect Repellents: Modulators of Mosquito Odorant Receptor Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Laboratory, Henry A. Wallace Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Plant Sciences Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department...origin. 2-U is a naturally occurring compound produced by the glandular trichomes of wild tomato plants as part of a plant defense mechanism against...antennal OSNs responding to carboxylic acids and monoterpenes [23]. In our study, we investigate the action of 4 insect repellents on the activities of

  7. Child Odors and Parenting: A Survey Examination of the Role of Odor in Child-Rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Masako; Shirasu, Mika; Fujita, Rei; Hirasawa, Yukei; Touhara, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    Parental caregiving is critical for the survival of our young and continuation of our species. In humans, visual and auditory signals from offspring have been shown to be potent facilitators of parenting. However, whether odors emitted by our young also influence human parenting remains unclear. To explore this, we conducted a series of questionnaire surveys targeting parents with children under 6 years old. First, we collected episodes on experiencing odors/sniffing various parts of a child's body (n = 507). The prevalence of experiencing events described in those episodes was examined in a separate survey (n = 384). Based on those results, the Child Odor in Parenting scale (COPs) was developed, and subsequently used in the main survey (n = 888). We found COPs to have adequate content validity, concurrent validity, and reliability. Responses to the COPs demonstrated that parents, especially mothers with infants, are aware of odors from their offspring, and actively seek them in daily child-rearing. The factor structure and content of the COPs items indicated that child odors have both affective and instrumental roles. Affective experiences induce loving feeling and affectionate sniffing, while instrumental experiences pertain to specific hygienic needs. The head was the most frequent source of affective experiences, and the child's bottom of instrumental. Each was experienced by more than 90% of the mothers with a child below 1 year of age. Affective experiences significantly declined as the child grew older, possibly associated with the decline of physical proximity between parents and child. This age-related decline was not prominent for instrumental experiences, except for the bottom, which significantly declined after 3 years of age. The present findings suggest that child odors play roles in human parenting, and that their nature and significance change during the course of a child's development.

  8. Child Odors and Parenting: A Survey Examination of the Role of Odor in Child-Rearing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Okamoto

    Full Text Available Parental caregiving is critical for the survival of our young and continuation of our species. In humans, visual and auditory signals from offspring have been shown to be potent facilitators of parenting. However, whether odors emitted by our young also influence human parenting remains unclear. To explore this, we conducted a series of questionnaire surveys targeting parents with children under 6 years old. First, we collected episodes on experiencing odors/sniffing various parts of a child's body (n = 507. The prevalence of experiencing events described in those episodes was examined in a separate survey (n = 384. Based on those results, the Child Odor in Parenting scale (COPs was developed, and subsequently used in the main survey (n = 888. We found COPs to have adequate content validity, concurrent validity, and reliability. Responses to the COPs demonstrated that parents, especially mothers with infants, are aware of odors from their offspring, and actively seek them in daily child-rearing. The factor structure and content of the COPs items indicated that child odors have both affective and instrumental roles. Affective experiences induce loving feeling and affectionate sniffing, while instrumental experiences pertain to specific hygienic needs. The head was the most frequent source of affective experiences, and the child's bottom of instrumental. Each was experienced by more than 90% of the mothers with a child below 1 year of age. Affective experiences significantly declined as the child grew older, possibly associated with the decline of physical proximity between parents and child. This age-related decline was not prominent for instrumental experiences, except for the bottom, which significantly declined after 3 years of age. The present findings suggest that child odors play roles in human parenting, and that their nature and significance change during the course of a child's development.

  9. Towards structural models of molecular recognition in olfactory receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, M; Hubbard, R E; Demaille, J

    1998-02-01

    The G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) are an important class of proteins that act as signal transducers through the cytoplasmic membrane. Understanding the structure and activation mechanism of these proteins is crucial for understanding many different aspects of cellular signalling. The olfactory receptors correspond to the largest family of GPCRs. Very little is known about how the structures of the receptors govern the specificity of interaction which enables identification of particular odorant molecules. In this paper, we review recent developments in two areas of molecular modelling: methods for modelling the configuration of trans-membrane helices and methods for automatic docking of ligands into receptor structures. We then show how a subset of these methods can be combined to construct a model of a rat odorant receptor interacting with lyral for which experimental data are available. This modelling can help us make progress towards elucidating the specificity of interactions between receptors and odorant molecules.

  10. Odor Signals of Immune Activation and CNS Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    inflammation results in detectable alteration of body odor and that traumatic brain injury (TBI) might similarly produce volatile metabolites specific to...Because both LPS and TBI elicit inflammatory processes and LPS-induced inflammation induces body odor changes, we hypothesized that (1) TBI would...induce a distinct change in body odor and (2) this change would resemble the change induced by LPS. Mice receiving surgery and lateral fluid percussion

  11. Identification of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant odors in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kamath, Vidyulata; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Moberg, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work on odor hedonics in schizophrenia has indicated that patients display abnormalities in hedonic judgments of odors in comparison to healthy comparison participants. In the current study, identification accuracy for pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant odors in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls was examined. Thirty-three schizophrenia patients (63% male) and thirty-one healthy volunteers (65% male) were recruited. The groups were well matched on age, sex, and smoking ...

  12. A Specialized Odor Memory Buffer in Primary Olfactory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Zelano, Christina; Montag, Jessica; Khan, Rehan; Sobel, Noam

    2009-01-01

    Background The neural substrates of olfactory working memory are unknown. We addressed the questions of whether olfactory working memory involves a verbal representation of the odor, or a sensory image of the odor, or both, and the location of the neural substrates of these processes. Methodology/Principal Findings We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure activity in the brains of subjects who were remembering either nameable or unnameable odorants. We found a double dissociat...

  13. Avian influenza infection alters fecal odor in mallards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A Kimball

    Full Text Available Changes in body odor are known to be a consequence of many diseases. Much of the published work on disease-related and body odor changes has involved parasites and certain cancers. Much less studied have been viral diseases, possibly due to an absence of good animal model systems. Here we studied possible alteration of fecal odors in animals infected with avian influenza viruses (AIV. In a behavioral study, inbred C57BL/6 mice were trained in a standard Y-maze to discriminate odors emanating from feces collected from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza virus compared to fecal odors from non-infected controls. Mice could discriminate odors from non-infected compared to infected individual ducks on the basis of fecal odors when feces from post-infection periods were paired with feces from pre-infection periods. Prompted by this indication of odor change, fecal samples were subjected to dynamic headspace and solvent extraction analyses employing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify chemical markers indicative of AIV infection. Chemical analyses indicated that AIV infection was associated with a marked increase of acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone in feces. These experiments demonstrate that information regarding viral infection exists via volatile metabolites present in feces. Further, they suggest that odor changes following virus infection could play a role in regulating behavior of conspecifics exposed to infected individuals.

  14. A physiological increase of insulin in the olfactory bulb decreases detection of a learned aversive odor and abolishes food odor-induced sniffing behavior in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascaline Aimé

    Full Text Available Insulin is involved in multiple regulatory mechanisms, including body weight and food intake, and plays a critical role in metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. An increasing body of evidence indicates that insulin is also involved in the modulation of olfactory function. The olfactory bulb (OB contains the highest level of insulin and insulin receptors (IRs in the brain. However, a role for insulin in odor detection and sniffing behavior remains to be elucidated. Using a behavioral paradigm based on conditioned olfactory aversion (COA to isoamyl-acetate odor, we demonstrated that an intracerebroventricular (ICV injection of 14 mU insulin acutely decreased olfactory detection of fasted rats to the level observed in satiated animals. In addition, whereas fasted animals demonstrated an increase in respiratory frequency upon food odor detection, this effect was absent in fasted animals receiving a 14 mU insulin ICV injection as well as in satiated animals. In parallel, we showed that the OB and plasma insulin levels were increased in satiated rats compared to fasted rats, and that a 14 mU insulin ICV injection elevated the OB insulin level of fasted rats to that of satiated rats. We further quantified insulin receptors (IRs distribution and showed that IRs are preferentially expressed in the caudal and lateral parts of the main OB, with the highest labeling found in the mitral cells, the main OB projection neurons. Together, these data suggest that insulin acts on the OB network to modulate olfactory processing and demonstrate that olfactory function is under the control of signals involved in energy homeostasis regulation and feeding behaviors.

  15. Rhodium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Cyclopropanation of Olefins with N-Sulfonyl 1,2,3-Triazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuprakov, Stepan; Kwok, Sen Wai; Zhang, Li; Lercher, Lukas; Fokin, Valery V.

    2009-01-01

    N-Sulfonyl 1,2,3-triazoles readily form rhodium(II) azavinyl carbenes, which react with olefins to produce cyclopropanes with excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivity and in high yield. PMID:19928917

  16. Optimisation of stabilised carboxylesterase NP for enantioselective hydrolysis of naproxen methyl ester

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steenkamp, Lucia H

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the enantioselective kinetic resolution of ester racemates of the non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug naproxen ([2-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl) propionic acid]) is a common demonstration for biocatalysis, the enantiomeric excess of the reactions...

  17. Asymmetric Synthesis of Optically Active Spirocyclic Indoline Scaffolds through an Enantioselective Reduction of Indoles

    KAUST Repository

    Borrmann, Ruediger; Knop, Nils; Rueping, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    An enantioselective synthesis of spirocyclic indoline scaffolds was achieved by applying an asymmetric iridium-catalyzed hydrogenation of 3H-indoles. Low catalyst loadings and mild reaction conditions provide a broad range of differently substituted

  18. BIOACCUMULATION AND ENANTIOSELECTIVE BIOTRANSFORMATION OF FIPRONIL BY RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary accumulation and enantioselective biotransformation was determined for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to fipronil, a widely used chiral pesticide. Measurement of the fish carcass tissue (whole fish minus GI tract and liver) showed a rapid accumulation of fip...

  19. Purification and characterisation of a novel enantioselective epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger M200

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotík, Michael; Kyslík, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 1760, - (2006), s. 245-252 ISSN 0006-3002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : epoxide hydrolase * enantioselectivity * aspergillus niger Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  20. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from dairy and swine facilities: Part 5-Simultaneous chemical and sensory analysis with Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry - Olfactometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O) for air samples collected at barn exhaust fans were used for quantification and ranking of odor impact of target odorous gases. Fifteen target odorous VOCs (odorants) were selected. Air sampl...

  1. Altered olfactory processing of stress-related body odors and artificial odors in patients with panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintermann, Gloria-Beatrice; Donix, Markus; Joraschky, Peter; Gerber, Johannes; Petrowski, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Panic Disorder (PD) direct their attention towards potential threat, followed by panic attacks, and increased sweat production. Onés own anxiety sweat odor influences the attentional focus, and discrimination of threat or non-threat. Since olfactory projection areas overlap with neuronal areas of a panic-specific fear network, the present study investigated the neuronal processing of odors in general and of stress-related sweat odors in particular in patients with PD. A sample of 13 patients with PD with/ without agoraphobia and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent an fMRI investigation during olfactory stimulation with their stress-related sweat odors (TSST, ergometry) as well as artificial odors (peach, artificial sweat) as non-fearful non-body odors. The two groups did not differ with respect to their olfactory identification ability. Independent of the kind of odor, the patients with PD showed activations in fronto-cortical areas in contrast to the healthy controls who showed activations in olfaction-related areas such as the amygdalae and the hippocampus. For artificial odors, the patients with PD showed a decreased neuronal activation of the thalamus, the posterior cingulate cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Under the presentation of sweat odor caused by ergometric exercise, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus, and the cingulate cortex which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology. For the sweat odor from the anxiety condition, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the gyrus frontalis inferior, which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology. The results suggest altered neuronal processing of olfactory stimuli in PD. Both artificial odors and stress-related body odors activate specific parts of a fear-network which is associated with an increased severity of the psychopathology.

  2. Altered olfactory processing of stress-related body odors and artificial odors in patients with panic disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria-Beatrice Wintermann

    Full Text Available Patients with Panic Disorder (PD direct their attention towards potential threat, followed by panic attacks, and increased sweat production. Onés own anxiety sweat odor influences the attentional focus, and discrimination of threat or non-threat. Since olfactory projection areas overlap with neuronal areas of a panic-specific fear network, the present study investigated the neuronal processing of odors in general and of stress-related sweat odors in particular in patients with PD.A sample of 13 patients with PD with/ without agoraphobia and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent an fMRI investigation during olfactory stimulation with their stress-related sweat odors (TSST, ergometry as well as artificial odors (peach, artificial sweat as non-fearful non-body odors.The two groups did not differ with respect to their olfactory identification ability. Independent of the kind of odor, the patients with PD showed activations in fronto-cortical areas in contrast to the healthy controls who showed activations in olfaction-related areas such as the amygdalae and the hippocampus. For artificial odors, the patients with PD showed a decreased neuronal activation of the thalamus, the posterior cingulate cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Under the presentation of sweat odor caused by ergometric exercise, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus, and the cingulate cortex which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology. For the sweat odor from the anxiety condition, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the gyrus frontalis inferior, which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology.The results suggest altered neuronal processing of olfactory stimuli in PD. Both artificial odors and stress-related body odors activate specific parts of a fear-network which is associated with an increased severity of the

  3. Asymmetric Synthesis of Optically Active Spirocyclic Indoline Scaffolds through an Enantioselective Reduction of Indoles

    KAUST Repository

    Borrmann, Ruediger

    2016-11-30

    An enantioselective synthesis of spirocyclic indoline scaffolds was achieved by applying an asymmetric iridium-catalyzed hydrogenation of 3H-indoles. Low catalyst loadings and mild reaction conditions provide a broad range of differently substituted products with excellent yields and enantioselectivities. The developed methodology allows an efficient synthesis of this important spirocyclic structural motif, which is present in numerous biologically active molecules and privileged structures in medicinal chemistry.

  4. A New Mn–Salen Micellar Nanoreactor for Enantioselective Epoxidation of Alkenes in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco P. Ballistreri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A new chiral Mn–salen catalyst, functionalized with a long aliphatic chain and a choline group, able to act as surfactant catalyst for green epoxidation in water, is here described. This catalyst was employed with a commercial surfactant (CTABr leading to a nanoreactor for the enantioselective epoxidation of some selected alkenes in water, using NaClO as oxidant. This is the first example of a nanoreactor for enantioselective epoxidation of non-functionalized alkenes in water.

  5. Direct enantioselective conjugate addition of carboxylic acids with chiral lithium amides as traceless auxiliaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Jackson, Jeffrey J; Eickhoff, John A; Zakarian, Armen

    2015-01-21

    Michael addition is a premier synthetic method for carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bond formation. Using chiral dilithium amides as traceless auxiliaries, we report the direct enantioselective Michael addition of carboxylic acids. A free carboxyl group in the product provides versatility for further functionalization, and the chiral reagent can be readily recovered by extraction with aqueous acid. The method has been applied in the enantioselective total synthesis of the purported structure of pulveraven B.

  6. Enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of diazoacetates with electron-deficient olefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Stanley, Levi M; Soeta, Takahiro

    2007-04-12

    [reaction: see text] A general strategy for highly enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of diazoesters to beta-substituted, alpha-substituted, and alpha,beta-disubstituted alpha,beta-unsaturated pyrazolidinone imides is described. Cycloadditions utilizing less reactive alpha,beta-disubstituted dipolarophiles require elevated reaction temperatures, but still provide the corresponding pyrazolines with excellent enantioselectivities. Finally, an efficient synthesis of (-)-manzacidin A employing this cycloaddition methodology as a key step is illustrated.

  7. Formal total syntheses of classic natural product target molecules via palladium-catalyzed enantioselective alkylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyang Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pd-catalyzed enantioselective alkylation in conjunction with further synthetic elaboration enables the formal total syntheses of a number of “classic” natural product target molecules. This publication highlights recent methods for setting quaternary and tetrasubstituted tertiary carbon stereocenters to address the synthetic hurdles encountered over many decades across multiple compound classes spanning carbohydrate derivatives, terpenes, and alkaloids. These enantioselective methods will impact both academic and industrial settings, where the synthesis of stereogenic quaternary carbons is a continuing challenge.

  8. Enantioselective Addition of Allyltin Reagents to Amino Aldehydes Catalyzed with Bis(oxazolinylphenylrhodium(III Aqua Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Nishiyama

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bis(oxazolinylphenylrhodium(III aqua complexes, (PheboxRhX2(H2O [X = Cl, Br], were found to be efficient Lewis acid catalysts for the enantioselective addition of allyl- and methallyltributyltin reagents to amino aldehydes. The reactions proceed smoothly in the presence of 5–10 mol % of (PheboxRhX2(H2O complex at ambient temperature to give the corresponding amino alcohols with modest to good enantioselectivity (up to 94% ee.

  9. Direct Enantioselective Conjugate Addition of Carboxylic Acids with Chiral Lithium Amides as Traceless Auxiliaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Michael addition is a premier synthetic method for carbon–carbon and carbon–heteroatom bond formation. Using chiral dilithium amides as traceless auxiliaries, we report the direct enantioselective Michael addition of carboxylic acids. A free carboxyl group in the product provides versatility for further functionalization, and the chiral reagent can be readily recovered by extraction with aqueous acid. The method has been applied in the enantioselective total synthesis of the purported structure of pulveraven B. PMID:25562717

  10. Do terrestrial hermit crabs sniff? Air flow and odorant capture by flicking antennules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Lindsay D; Koehl, M A R

    2016-01-01

    Capture of odorant molecules by olfactory organs from the surrounding fluid is the first step of smelling. Sniffing intermittently moves fluid across sensory surfaces, increasing delivery rates of molecules to chemosensory receptors and providing discrete odour samples. Aquatic malacostracan crustaceans sniff by flicking olfactory antennules bearing arrays of chemosensory hairs (aesthetascs), capturing water in the arrays during downstroke and holding the sample during return stroke. Terrestrial malacostracans also flick antennules, but how their flicking affects odour capture from air is not understood. The terrestrial hermit crab, Coenobita rugosus, uses antennules bearing shingle-shaped aesthetascs to capture odours. We used particle image velocimetry to measure fine-scale fluid flow relative to a dynamically scaled physical model of a flicking antennule, and computational simulations to calculate diffusion to aesthetascs by odorant molecules carried in that flow. Air does not flow into the aesthetasc array during flick downstrokes or recovery strokes. Odorants are captured from air flowing around the outside of the array during flick downstrokes, when aesthetascs face upstream and molecule capture rates are 21% higher than for stationary antennules. Bursts of flicking followed by pauses deliver discrete odour samples to olfactory sensors, causing intermittency in odour capture by a different mechanism than aquatic crustaceans use. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Flexible Enantioselectivity of Tryptophanase Attributable to Benzene Ring in Heterocyclic Moiety of D-Tryptophan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Shimada

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The invariance principle of enzyme enantioselectivity must be absolute because it is absolutely essential to the homochiral biological world. Most enzymes are strictly enantioselective, and tryptophanase is one of the enzymes with extreme absolute enantioselectivity for L-tryptophan. Contrary to conventional knowledge about the principle, tryptophanase becomes flexible to catalyze D-tryptophan in the presence of diammonium hydrogenphosphate. Since D-amino acids are ordinarily inert or function as inhibitors even though they are bound to the active site, the inhibition behavior of D-tryptophan and several inhibitors involved in this process was examined in terms of kinetics to explain the reason for this flexible enantioselectivity in the presence of diammonium hydrogenphosphate. Diammonium hydrogenphosphate gave tryptophanase a small conformational change so that D-tryptophan could work as a substrate. As opposed to other D-amino acids, D-tryptophan is a very bulky amino acid with a benzene ring in its heterocyclic moiety, and so we suggest that this structural feature makes the catalysis of D-tryptophan degradation possible, consequently leading to the flexible enantioselectivity. The present results not only help to understand the mechanism of enzyme enantioselectivity, but also shed light on the origin of homochirality.

  12. Semantic networks for odors and colors in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razani, Jill; Chan, Agnes; Nordin, Steven; Murphy, Claire

    2010-05-01

    Impairment in odor-naming ability and in verbal and visual semantic networks raised the hypothesis of a breakdown in the semantic network for odors in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The current study addressed this hypothesis. Twenty-four individuals, half patients with probable AD and half control participants, performed triadic-similarity judgments for odors and colors, separately, which, utilizing the multidimensional scaling (MDS) technique of individual difference scaling analysis (INDSCAL), generated two-dimensional configurations of similarity. The abilities to match odors and colors with written name labels were assessed to investigate disease-related differences in ability to identify and conceptualize the stimuli. In addition, responses on attribute-sorting tasks, requiring the odor and color perceptions to be categorized as one polarity of a certain dimension, were obtained to allow for objective interpretation of the MDS spatial maps. Whereas comparison subjects generated spatial maps based predominantly on relatively abstract characteristics, patients with AD classified odors on perceptual characteristics. The maps for patients with AD also showed disorganized groupings and loose associations between odors. Their normal configurations for colors imply that the patients were able to comprehend the task per se. The data for label matching and for attribute sorting provide further evidence for a disturbance in semantic odor memory in AD. The patients performed poorer than controls on both these odor tasks, implying that the ability to identify and/or conceptualize odors is impaired in AD. The results provide clear evidence for deterioration of the structure of semantic knowledge for odors in AD.

  13. Characteristic vibration patterns of odor compounds from bread-baking volatiles upon protein binding: density functional and ONIOM study and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treesuwan, Witcha; Hirao, Hajime; Morokuma, Keiji; Hannongbua, Supa

    2012-05-01

    As the mechanism underlying the sense of smell is unclear, different models have been used to rationalize structure-odor relationships. To gain insight into odorant molecules from bread baking, binding energies and vibration spectra in the gas phase and in the protein environment [7-transmembrane helices (7TMHs) of rhodopsin] were calculated using density functional theory [B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)] and ONIOM [B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p):PM3] methods. It was found that acetaldehyde ("acid" category) binds strongly in the large cavity inside the receptor, whereas 2-ethyl-3-methylpyrazine ("roasted") binds weakly. Lys296, Tyr268, Thr118 and Ala117 were identified as key residues in the binding site. More emphasis was placed on how vibrational frequencies are shifted and intensities modified in the receptor protein environment. Principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that the frequency shifts of C-C stretching, CH(3) umbrella, C = O stretching and CH(3) stretching modes have a significant effect on odor quality. In fact, the frequency shifts of the C-C stretching and C = O stretching modes, as well as CH(3) umbrella and CH(3) symmetric stretching modes, exhibit different behaviors in the PCA loadings plot. A large frequency shift in the CH(3) symmetric stretching mode is associated with the sweet-roasted odor category and separates this from the acid odor category. A large frequency shift of the C-C stretching mode describes the roasted and oily-popcorn odor categories, and separates these from the buttery and acid odor categories.

  14. Body position-dependent shift in odor percept present only for perithreshold odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Johan N; Boyle, Julie A; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that a supine position causes a decrease in olfactory sensitivity compared with an upright position. We pursued that initial finding in 3 separate experiments in which we explored the extent of, and mechanism underlying, this phenomenon. In Experiment 1, we replicated the decrease in olfactory sensitivity when in a supine compared with an upright position. In Experiment 2, we measured body position-dependent shifts in physiological variables and sniff measures while smelling suprathreshold odorants and performing a perithreshold odor intensity discrimination task. Olfactory performances were reduced while supine. However, no relationships between the shift in olfactory performances and either the physiological variables or sniff measures were found. In Experiment 3, we determined that there were no position-dependent shifts in ability to discriminate or identify suprathreshold odors or rate them for pleasantness, intensity, or familiarity. However, a drop in scores was observed, and performance was slowed, on a cognitive skill while supine. These results demonstrate a body position-dependent shift in olfactory sensitivity only for perithreshold odors that appears to be mediated by cognitive rather than physiological factors. Implications for olfactory imaging studies are discussed.

  15. The link between odors and illness : how health cognitions affect odor perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulsing, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Some people report health effects after exposure to relatively low levels of odorous chemicals, levels which are often well tolerated by the majority of the population. The research in this thesis was aimed at investigating the role of cognitive influences in this phenomenon. Could it be possible

  16. Catalytic Enantioselective Alkylation of β-Keto Esters with Xanthydrol in the Presence of Chiral Palladium Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Dae Young [Soonchunhyang Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Our research interest has been directed toward the development of synthetic methods for the enantioselective construction of stereogenic carbon centers. Recently, we explored the catalytic enantioselective functionalization of active methines in the presence of chiral palladium(II) complexes. In conclusion, we have accomplished the efficient catalytic enantioselective alkylation of β-keto esters 1 with xanthydrol 2 with high yields and excellent enantioselectivity (up to 98% ee). It should be noted that this alkyaltion reaction proceeds well using air- and moisture-stable chiral palladium com- plexes with low loading (1 mol%)

  17. Light-weight analyzer for odor recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vass, Arpad A; Wise, Marcus B

    2014-05-20

    The invention provides a light weight analyzer, e.g., detector, capable of locating clandestine graves. The detector utilizes the very specific and unique chemicals identified in the database of human decompositional odor. This detector, based on specific chemical compounds found relevant to human decomposition, is the next step forward in clandestine grave detection and will take the guess-work out of current methods using canines and ground-penetrating radar, which have historically been unreliable. The detector is self contained, portable and built for field use. Both visual and auditory cues are provided to the operator.

  18. Change of odor characteristics of fuel gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, J.-M.

    2006-01-01

    For safety reasons, very small amounts of tetrahydrothiophene (THT) are added to the natural gas distributed through pipelines in Switzerland. The aim is to give the naturally odorless gas a strong smell of mineral coal gas so that inhabitants will be warned of gas leaks. However, experts suspected that this typical smell would be lost when natural gas flows through soils that are polluted with mineral oils and that the nauseous odor would be replaced by a pleasant one. This suspicion was confirmed by flow tests carried out with different types of soil (organic substances' share: 6.6 - 11.4%; various pollutants). (author)

  19. Enantioselective behaviour of tetraconazole during strawberry wine-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Pan, Xinglu; Zhang, Shuang; Ji, Mingshan; Zhang, Zhihong

    2018-05-01

    The fate of tetraconazole enantiomers in strawberries during wine-making process was studied. The residues were determined by ultra-performance convergence chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry after each process steps. Results indicated that there was significant enantioselective dissipation of tetraconazole enantiomers during the fermentation process. And (-)-tetraconazole degraded faster than (+)-tetraconazole. The half-lives of (-)-tetraconazole and (+)-tetraconazole were 3.12, 3.76 days with washing procedure and 3.18, 4.05 days without washing procedure. The processing factors of strawberry wine samples after each step were generally less than 1. In particular, the processing factors of the fermentation process were the lowest. The results could help facilitate more accurate risk assessments of tetraconazole during wine-making process. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Enantioselective organo-photocatalysis mediated by atropisomeric thiourea derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallavoju, Nandini; Selvakumar, Sermadurai; Jockusch, Steffen; Sibi, Mukund P; Sivaguru, Jayaraman

    2014-05-26

    Can photocatalysis be performed without electron or energy transfer? To address this, organo-photocatalysts that are based on atropisomeric thioureas and display lower excited-state energies than the reactive substrates have been developed. These photocatalysts were found to be efficient in promoting the [2+2] photocycloaddition of 4-alkenyl-substituted coumarins, which led to the corresponding products with high enantioselectivity (77-96% ee) at low catalyst loading (1-10 mol%). The photocatalytic cycle proceeds by energy sharing via the formation of both static and dynamic complexes (exciplex formation), which is aided by hydrogen bonding. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Enantioselective copper-catalyzed carboetherification of unactivated alkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, Michael T; Liwosz, Timothy W; Kendel, Nicole E; Miller, Yan; Tyminska, Nina; Zurek, Eva; Chemler, Sherry R

    2014-06-16

    Chiral saturated oxygen heterocycles are important components of bioactive compounds. Cyclization of alcohols onto pendant alkenes is a direct route to their synthesis, but few catalytic enantioselective methods enabling cyclization onto unactivated alkenes exist. Herein reported is a highly efficient copper-catalyzed cyclization of γ-unsaturated pentenols which terminates in C-C bond formation, a net alkene carboetherification. Both intra- and intermolecular C-C bond formations are demonstrated, thus yielding functionalized chiral tetrahydrofurans as well as fused-ring and bridged-ring oxabicyclic products. Transition-state calculations support a cis-oxycupration stereochemistry-determining step. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Chemo- and Enantioselective Intramolecular Silver-Catalyzed Aziridinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Minsoo; Weatherly, Cale D; Guzei, Ilia A; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2017-08-07

    Asymmetric nitrene-transfer reactions are a powerful tool for the preparation of enantioenriched amine building blocks. Reported herein are chemo- and enantioselective silver-catalyzed aminations which transform di- and trisubstituted homoallylic carbamates into [4.1.0]-carbamate-tethered aziridines in good yields and with ee values of up to 92 %. The effects of the substrate, silver counteranion, ligand, solvent, and temperature on both the chemoselectivity and ee value were explored. Stereochemical models were proposed to rationalize the observed absolute stereochemistry of the aziridines, which undergo nucleophilic ring opening to yield enantioenriched amines with no erosion in stereochemical integrity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Food-Related Odors Activate Dopaminergic Brain Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Sorokowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Food-associated cues of different sensory categories have often been shown to be a potent elicitor of cerebral activity in brain reward circuits. Smells influence and modify the hedonic qualities of eating experience, and in contrast to smells not associated with food, perception of food-associated odors may activate dopaminergic brain areas. In this study, we aimed to verify previous findings related to the rewarding value of food-associated odors by means of an fMRI design involving carefully preselected odors of edible and non-edible substances. We compared activations generated by three food and three non-food odorants matching in terms of intensity, pleasantness and trigeminal qualities. We observed that for our mixed sample of 30 hungry and satiated participants, food odors generated significantly higher activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (right and left, insula (right, and putamen (right than non-food odors. Among hungry subjects, regardless of the odor type, we found significant activation in the ventral tegmental area in response to olfactory stimulation. As our stimuli were matched in terms of various perceptual qualities, this result suggests that edibility of an odor source indeed generates specific activation in dopaminergic brain areas.

  4. Odors and incontinence: What does the nose know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Pamela; Maute, Christopher

    2018-06-01

    The fear of producing malodors that can be detected by others is a daily cause of anxiety for millions of people with incontinence. For many, the risk-whether real or imagined-that leaked waste products will be detectable by odor is sufficiently concerning to result in limitations on many types of activities. However, worry about personal odors can sensitize our olfactory system and cause us to be more aware of odors that may otherwise not be perceptible. In addition, heightened olfactory attention can often lead to odor misattributions, such as when we erroneously identify our body as the source of an odor that may simply be present in the environment. Odors produced by our bodies (endogenous odors) do enjoy a greater access to emotional brain centers and are processed faster than general odors. Here we provide examples from both everyday life and laboratory studies to explain how and why the olfactory system is unique among our sensory systems and how this knowledge can provide insights to our concerns about smell and incontinence and inform the development of products and solutions for incontinence.

  5. Odor control in swine buildings: recycle flush vs. automated scraper

    Science.gov (United States)

    A research project was conducted to compare odor concentrations in exhaust of traditional flush barns and barns equipped with automated scrapers. The study was conducted at commercial tunnel-ventilated swine barns in northwest Missouri. Odor samples were collected from the barn exhaust in polyvinyl ...

  6. Psychological and physiological responses to odor-evoked autobiographic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko; Yamakawa, Kaori; Kawanishi, Yoko; Tsuboi, Hirohito; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Sadato, Norihiro; Oshida, Akiko; Katayama, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mitsuyoshi; Ohira, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    The "Proust phenomenon" occurs when a certain smell evokes a specific memory. Recent studies have demonstrated that odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli because of the direct neural communication between the olfactory system and the amygdala. The amygdala is known to regulate various physiological activities including the endocrine and immune systems; therefore, odor-evoked autobiographic memory may trigger various psychological and physiological responses; however, the responses elicited by this memory remains obscure. In this study, we aimed to investigate the psychological and physiological responses accompanying odor-evoked autobiographic memory. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated changes in their mood states and autonomic nervous, endocrine, and immune activities when autobiographic memory was evoked in the participants by asking them to smell an odor(s) that was nostalgic to them. The autobiographic memories associated with positive emotion resulted in increased positive mood states, such as comfort and happiness, and decreased negative mood states, such as anxiety. Furthermore, heart rate was decreased, skin-conductance level was increased, and peripheral interleukin-2 level was decreased after smelling the nostalgic odor. These psychological and physiological responses were significantly correlated. The present study suggests that odor-evoked autobiographic memory along with a positive feeling induce various physiological responses, including the autonomic nervous and immune activities. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to observe an interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memories and immune function.

  7. Odors as triggering and worsening factors for migraine in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Lima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of odors in triggering or worsening migraine in men. METHOD: Ninety-eight male migraineurs from the general population were assessed individually through questionnaires. Environmental factors relating to their migraine were reported, with special focus on the role of odors. RESULTS: Odors were the second most frequent triggering factor for migraine attacks (48%, behind stressful situations (59%. Likewise, odors were the second most frequent worsening factor (73%, just behind excessive light (74%. Thirty-three individuals (33.4% stated that odors were both triggering and worsening factors for their migraine attacks. Perfume, cigarette smoke and cleaning products were the most frequent migraine-related odors reported by these male migraineurs. CONCLUSION: This was the first study to assess the role of odors in migraine exclusively in men. There was a high degree of odor-related migraine among these men, thus suggesting that patient education could alert such individuals to gender-related factors, since different triggering and worsening factors have been reported by males and females.

  8. Enantioselective bioaccumulation of diniconazole in Tenebrio molitor larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; LV, Xiao Tian; Zhu, Wen Xue; QU, Hao Yang; Gao, Yong Xin; Guo, Bao Yuan; Wang, Hui Li

    2013-12-01

    The enantioselective bioaccumulation of diniconazole in Tenebrio molitor Linne larva was investigated with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry based on the ChiralcelOD-3R[cellulose tri-(3,5-dimethylphenyl carbamate)] column. In this study we documented the effects of dietary supplementation with wheat bran contaminated by racemic diniconazole at two dose levels of 20 mg kg(-1) and 2 mg kg(-1) (dry weight) in Tenebrio molitor. The results showed that both doses of diniconazole were taken up by Tenebrio molitor rapidly in the first few days, the concentrations of R-enantiomer and S-enantiomer at high doses reached the highest level of 0.55 mg kg(-1) and 0.48 mg kg(-1) , respectively, on the 1(st) d, and the concentrations of them obtained a maxima of 0.129 mg kg(-1) and 0.128 mg kg(-1) at low dose, respectively, on the 3(rd) d, which means that the concentration of diniconazole was proportional to the time of achieving the highest accumulated level. It afterwards attained equilibrium after a sharp decline at both 20 mg kg(-1) and 2 mg kg(-1) of diniconazole. The determination results from the feces of Tenebrio molitor demonstrated that the extraction recovery (ER) values of the high dose group were higher than that of the low dose group and the values were all above 1; therefore, it could be inferred that enantiomerization existed in Tenebrio molitor. Additionally, the biota accumulation factor was used to evaluate the bioaccumulation of diniconazole enantiomers, showing that the bioaccumulation of diniconazole in Tenebrio molitor was enantioselective with preferential accumulation of S-enantiomer. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Asymmetric NHC-catalyzed aza-Diels-Alder reactions: Highly enantioselective route to α-amino acid derivatives and DFT calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Limin; Wang, Fei; Lee, Richmond; Lv, Yunbo; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Zhong, Guofu

    2014-01-01

    A facile N-heterocyclic carbene catalytic enantioselective aza-Diels-Alder reaction of oxodiazenes with α-chloroaldehydes as dienophile precursors is reported, with excellent enantioselectivity (ee > 99%) and excellent yield (up to 93%). DFT study

  10. Enantioselective γ-Alkylation of α,β-Unsaturated Malonates and Ketoesters by a Sequential Ir-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation/Cope Rearrangement

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wen-Bo; Okamoto, Noriko; Alexy, Eric J.; Hong, Allen Y.; Tran, Kristy; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    A catalytic, enantioselective ? -alkylation of ?,?-unsaturated malonates and ketoesters is reported. This strategy entails a highly regio- and enantioselective iridium-catalyzed ?-alkylation of an extended enolate, and a subsequent translocation of chirality to the ?-position via a Cope rearrangement.

  11. Odor memory stability after reinnervation of the olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Blanco-Hernández

    Full Text Available The olfactory system, particularly the olfactory epithelium, presents a unique opportunity to study the regenerative capabilities of the brain, because of its ability to recover after damage. In this study, we ablated olfactory sensory neurons with methimazole and followed the anatomical and functional recovery of circuits expressing genetic markers for I7 and M72 receptors (M72-IRES-tau-LacZ and I7-IRES-tau-GFP. Our results show that 45 days after methimazole-induced lesion, axonal projections to the bulb of M72 and I7 populations are largely reestablished. Furthermore, regenerated glomeruli are re-formed within the same areas as those of control, unexposed mice. This anatomical regeneration correlates with functional recovery of a previously learned odorant-discrimination task, dependent on the cognate ligands for M72 and I7. Following regeneration, mice also recover innate responsiveness to TMT and urine. Our findings show that regeneration of neuronal circuits in the olfactory system can be achieved with remarkable precision and underscore the importance of glomerular organization to evoke memory traces stored in the brain.

  12. Body Odor Trait Disgust Sensitivity Predicts Perception of Sweat Biosamples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzza, Marco Tullio; Olofsson, Jonas K; Sabiniewicz, Agnieszka; Sorokowska, Agnieszka

    2017-07-01

    Body odors are potent triggers of disgust and regulate social behaviors in many species. The role of olfaction in disgust-associated behaviors has received scant attention in the research literature, in part because olfactory disgust assessments have required laboratory testing with odors. We have devised the "Body Odor Disgust Scale" (BODS) to facilitate research on olfactory disgust. In this study, we evaluated whether individual differences in BODS scores would be associated with the perception of disgust for sweat samples in a laboratory setting. Results show that BODS was a strong predictor of disgust ratings of sweat samples even when controlling for general disgust sensitivity. In contrast, odor intensity ratings were unrelated to BODS scores. Our findings suggest that the BODS scores reflect body odor disgust perception. The BODS scale might facilitate research on olfactory disgust responses and associated behaviors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Nuisance Odors: Is there a Concern - 12340

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brounstein, Robert A. [TerranearPMC, Los Alamos New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Nuisance odors are generally thought of as just being annoying or unpleasant and not causing any physiological harm to our internal organs or other biologic systems. Yet during an excavation of buried animal remains, field workers experienced a multitude of symptoms that are associated with exposures to toxic materials. An examination of the decomposition process revealed that there is a potential off-gassing of a number of common, yet harmful chemicals including ammonia, mercaptans, hydrogen sulfide, butyric acid and phenol. In addition, other compounds, that have limited information such as established health data and occupational exposure limits, were also potential contaminants-of-concern. While a variety of monitoring and sampling techniques were used to assess worker exposures, all results indicated non-detectable airborne concentrations. Nevertheless, workers were experiencing such symptoms as nausea and headaches. As such, protective measures were necessary for field personnel to continue work while having confidence that the project was instituting sincere steps to ensure their health and safety. Researching the possible reasons for the causes of workers exhibiting adverse health effects from nuisance odors revealed that such exposures initiate electrochemical pathways, starting from the olfactory bulb to the brain, followed by a transfer of information to such biologic systems as the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. These systems, in turn, secrete hormones that cause a number of involuntary reactions; many of which are observed as typical adverse health effects, when in fact, they are merely reactions caused by the brain's memory; most likely created from previous experiences to unpleasant odors. The concern then focuses of how the Occupational Safety and Health community shall respond to such workplace exposures. Future work in this area may need to focus on the viability of current occupational exposure limits and the possibility of revising these

  14. Odor and odorous compound emissions from manure of swine fed standard and dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) supplemented diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the impact diets containing dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) have on emissions of odor and odorous compounds from swine manure storage. Twenty-four pigs were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet containing 35% DDGS. Pigs were fed ...

  15. Effects of visual priming on taste-odor interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije van Beilen

    Full Text Available Little is known about the influence of visual characteristics other than colour on flavor perception, and the complex interactions between more than two sensory modalities. This study focused on the effects of recognizability of visual (texture information on flavor perception of odorized sweet beverages. Participants rated the perceived sweetness of odorized sucrose solutions in the presence or absence of either a congruent or incongruent visual context. Odors were qualitatively reminiscent of sweet foods (strawberry and caramel or not (savoury. Visual context was either an image of the same sweet foods (figurative context or a visual texture derived from this product (non-figurative context. Textures were created using a texture synthesis method that preserved perceived food qualities while removing object information. Odor-taste combinations were rated sweeter within a figurative than a non-figurative context. This behaviour was exhibited for all odor-taste combinations, even in trials without images, indicating sustained priming by figurative visual context. A non-figurative context showed a transient sweetening effect. Sweetness was generally enhanced most by the strawberry odor. We conclude that the degree of recognizability of visual information (figurative versus non-figurative, influences flavor perception differently. Our results suggest that this visual context priming is mediated by separate sustained and transient processes that are differently evoked by figurative and non-figurative visual contexts. These components operate independent of the congruency of the image-odor-taste combinations.

  16. Odors as effective retrieval cues for stressful episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemers, Uta S; Sauvage, Magdalena M; Wolf, Oliver T

    2014-07-01

    Olfactory information seems to play a special role in memory due to the fast and direct processing of olfactory information in limbic areas like the amygdala and the hippocampus. This has led to the assumption that odors can serve as effective retrieval cues for autobiographic memories, especially emotional memories. The current study sought to investigate whether an olfactory cue can serve as an effective retrieval cue for memories of a stressful episode. A total of 95 participants were exposed to a psychosocial stressor or a well matching but not stressful control condition. During both conditions were visual objects present, either bound to the situation (central objects) or not (peripheral objects). Additionally, an ambient odor was present during both conditions. The next day, participants engaged in an unexpected object recognition task either under the influence of the same odor as was present during encoding (congruent odor) or another odor (non-congruent odor). Results show that stressed participants show a better memory for all objects and especially for central visual objects if recognition took place under influence of the congruent odor. An olfactory cue thus indeed seems to be an effective retrieval cue for stressful memories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Aversive learning of odor-heat associations in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmedt, Lucie; Baracchi, David; Devaud, Jean-Marc; Giurfa, Martin; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2017-12-15

    Ants have recently emerged as useful models for the study of olfactory learning. In this framework, the development of a protocol for the appetitive conditioning of the maxilla-labium extension response (MaLER) provided the possibility of studying Pavlovian odor-food learning in a controlled environment. Here we extend these studies by introducing the first Pavlovian aversive learning protocol for harnessed ants in the laboratory. We worked with carpenter ants Camponotus aethiops and first determined the capacity of different temperatures applied to the body surface to elicit the typical aversive mandible opening response (MOR). We determined that 75°C is the optimal temperature to induce MOR and chose the hind legs as the stimulated body region because of their high sensitivity. We then studied the ability of ants to learn and remember odor-heat associations using 75°C as the unconditioned stimulus. We studied learning and short-term retention after absolute (one odor paired with heat) and differential conditioning (a punished odor versus an unpunished odor). Our results show that ants successfully learn the odor-heat association under a differential-conditioning regime and thus exhibit a conditioned MOR to the punished odor. Yet, their performance under an absolute-conditioning regime is poor. These results demonstrate that ants are capable of aversive learning and confirm previous findings about the different attentional resources solicited by differential and absolute conditioning in general. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. The mere exposure effect depends on an odor?s initial pleasantness

    OpenAIRE

    Delplanque, Sylvain; Coppin, G?raldine; Bloesch, Laur?ne; Cayeux, Isabelle; Sander, David

    2015-01-01

    The mere exposure phenomenon refers to improvement of one’s attitude toward an a priori neutral stimulus after its repeated exposure. The extent to which such a phenomenon influences evaluation of a priori emotional stimuli remains under-investigated. Here we investigated this question by presenting participants with different odors varying in a priori pleasantness during different sessions spaced over time. Participants were requested to report each odor’s pleasantness, intensity, and famili...

  19. Molecular modeling of ligand-receptor interactions in the OR5 olfactory receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, M S; Shepherd, G M

    1994-06-02

    Olfactory receptors belong to the superfamily of seven transmembrane domain, G protein-coupled receptors. In order to begin analysis of mechanisms of receptor activation, a computer model of the OR5 olfactory receptor has been constructed and compared with other members of this superfamily. We have tested docking of the odor molecule lyral, which is known to activate the OR5 receptor. The results point to specific ligand-binding residues on helices III through VII that form a binding pocket in the receptor. Some of these residues occupy sequence positions identical to ligand-binding residues conserved among other superfamily members. The results provide new insights into possible molecular mechanisms of odor recognition and suggest hypotheses to guide future experimental studies using site-directed mutagenesis.

  20. Research on odor interaction between aldehyde compounds via a partial differential equation (PDE) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Luchun; Liu, Jiemin; Qu, Chen; Gu, Xingye; Zhao, Xia

    2015-01-28

    In order to explore the odor interaction of binary odor mixtures, a series of odor intensity evaluation tests were performed using both individual components and binary mixtures of aldehydes. Based on the linear relation between the logarithm of odor activity value and odor intensity of individual substances, the relationship between concentrations of individual constituents and their joint odor intensity was investigated by employing a partial differential equation (PDE) model. The obtained results showed that the binary odor interaction was mainly influenced by the mixing ratio of two constituents, but not the concentration level of an odor sample. Besides, an extended PDE model was also proposed on the basis of the above experiments. Through a series of odor intensity matching tests for several different binary odor mixtures, the extended PDE model was proved effective at odor intensity prediction. Furthermore, odorants of the same chemical group and similar odor type exhibited similar characteristics in the binary odor interaction. The overall results suggested that the PDE model is a more interpretable way of demonstrating the odor interactions of binary odor mixtures.

  1. Age-Related Changes in Children's Hedonic Response to Male Body Odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Repacholi, Betty M.

    2003-01-01

    Examined children's and adolescents' ability to identify male sweat and other odors and their rating of odors for liking. Found that only female adolescents could identify and disliked male sweat. When cued about odor identity, both male and female adolescents disliked male sweat more than children. Concluded that dislike for male sweat odor may…

  2. Enantioselective radical addition/trapping reactions with alpha,beta-disubstituted unsaturated imides. Synthesis of anti-propionate aldols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Petrovic, Goran; Zimmerman, Jake

    2005-03-02

    This manuscript describes a highly diastereo- and enantioselective intermolecular radical addition/hydrogen atom transfer to alpha,beta-disubstituted enoates. Additionally, we show that anti-propionate aldol-like products can be easily prepared from alpha-methyl-beta-acyloxyenoates in good yields and high diastereo- and enantioselectivities.

  3. Enantioselective conjugate addition of diethylzinc to chalcone catalyzed by Co(acac)(2) and chiral amino alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.H.M.; Feringa, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    Co(acac)(2) in the presence of chiral ligands has been employed as catalyst for the enantioselective conjugate addition of diethylzinc to chalcone. With chiral amino alcohols derived from (+)-camphor, enantioselectivities up to 83% were achieved. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  4. Cu(I)-Catalyzed Enantioselective Friedel-Crafts Alkylation of Indoles with 2-Aryl-N-sulfonylaziridines as Alkylating Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Chen; Liu, Ren-Rong; Gao, Jian-Rong; Jia, Yi-Xia

    2016-07-01

    A highly enantioselective Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indoles with N-sulfonylaziridines as alkylating agents has been developed by utilizing the complex of Cu(CH3CN)4BF4/(S)-Segphos as a catalyst. A range of optically active tryptamine derivatives are obtained in good to excellent yields and enantioselectivities (up to >99% ee) via a kinetic resolution process.

  5. Numerical simulations of odorant detection by biologically inspired sensor arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuech, R; Stacey, M T; Barad, M F; Koehl, M A R

    2012-01-01

    The antennules of many marine crustaceans enable them to rapidly locate sources of odorant in turbulent environmental flows and may provide biological inspiration for engineered plume sampling systems. A substantial gap in knowledge concerns how the physical interaction between a sensing device and the chemical filaments forming a turbulent plume affects odorant detection and filters the information content of the plume. We modeled biological arrays of chemosensory hairs as infinite arrays of odorant flux-detecting cylinders and simulated the fluid flow around and odorant flux into the hair-like sensors as they intercepted a single odorant filament. As array geometry and sampling kinematics were varied, we quantified distortion of the flux time series relative to the spatial shape of the original odorant filament as well as flux metrics that may be important to both organisms and engineered systems attempting to measure plume structure and/or identify chemical composition. The most important predictor of signal distortion is the ratio of sensor diameter to odorant filament width. Achieving high peak properties (e.g. sharpness) of the flux time series and maximizing the total number of odorant molecules detected appear to be mutually exclusive design goals. Sensor arrays inspired specifically by the spiny lobster Panulirus argus and mantis shrimp Gonodactylaceus falcatus introduce little signal distortion but these species' neural systems may not be able to resolve plume structure at the level of individual filaments via temporal properties of the odorant flux. Current chemical sensors are similarly constrained. Our results suggest either that the spatial distribution of flux across the aesthetasc array is utilized by P. argus and G. falcatus, or that such high spatiotemporal resolution is unnecessary for effective plume tracking.

  6. Unravelling important odorants in horseradish (Armoracia rusticana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroener, Eva-Maria; Buettner, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is a plant well known for its roots' spicy aroma. The present study investigates the main aroma constituents of horseradish roots in general by analysing the aroma profiles of six different horseradish varieties, with one variety grown in two different soils. Odorants were characterised by means of gas chromatography-olfactometry and identified via their mass spectra, retention indices on two columns with different polarity, and their characteristic odour. A series of new aroma compounds from different substance groups were identified that have hitherto not been described in horseradish. Moreover, several of these constituents were successfully shown to exhibit high odour potency, alongside a high potential to influence the overall aroma of horseradish roots, like (3S,3aS,7aR)-wine lactone and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Odor and the Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, H.N.

    1993-01-01

    The case described in this paper involves the interpretation of language contained in the Texas Clean Air Act Texas Health and Safety Code Ann. Sections 382.001-382.141. The State of Texas, on behalf of the Texas Air Control Board, brought suit in the District Court of Erath County, Texas against the F/R Cattle Company, Inc., alleging that, because of odors emanating from the company's cattle feeding facility, the company was violating the Clean Air Act. The Board is granted the power and duty to administer the Clean Air Act and is directed to accomplish the purposes of the Act through the control of air contaminants by all practical and economically feasible methods. Described here is the evidence presented at and proceedings of the trial

  8. Enantioselective Cytotoxicity Profile of o,p’-DDT in PC 12 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunlong; Wen, Yuezhong; Liu, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    Background The continued uses of dichlordiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) for indoor vector control in some developing countries have recently fueled intensive debates toward the global ban of this persistent legacy contaminant. Current approaches for ecological and health risk assessment has ignored the chiral nature of DDT. In this study by employing an array of cytotoxicity related endpoints, we investigated the enantioselective cytotoxicity of o,p’-DDT. Principal Findings we demonstrated for the first time that R-(−)-o,p’-DDT caused more neuron cell death by inducing more severe oxidative stress, which selectively imbalanced the transcription of stress-related genes (SOD1, SOD2, HSP70) and enzyme (superoxide dismutase and lactate dehydrogenase) activities, and greater cellular apoptosis compared to its enantiomer S-(+)-o,p’-DDT at the level comparable to malaria area exposure (parts per million). We further elucidated enantioselective modes of action using microarray combined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The enantioselective apoptosis might involve three signaling pathways via caspase 3, tumor protein 53 (p53) and NFkB. Conclusions Based on DDT stereochemistry and results reported for other chiral pesticides, our results pointed to the same directional enantioselectivity of chiral DDT toward mammalian cells. We proposed that risk assessment on DDT should consider the enantiomer ratio and enantioselectivities. PMID:22937105

  9. Effect of aging on hedonic appreciation of pleasant and unpleasant odors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Joussain

    Full Text Available Does hedonic appreciation evolve differently for pleasant odors and unpleasant odors during normal aging? To answer this question we combined psychophysics and electro-encephalographic recordings in young and old adults. A first study showed that pleasant odorants (but not unpleasant ones were rated as less pleasant by old adults. A second study validated this decrease in hedonic appreciation for agreeable odors and further showed that smelling these odorants decreased beta event-related synchronization in aged participants. In conclusion, the study offers new insights into the evolution of odor hedonic perception during normal aging, highlighting for the first time a change in processing pleasant odors.

  10. Odorants could elicit repair processes in melanized neuronal and skin cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pavan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of ectopic olfactory receptors (ORs in melanized cells, such as the human brain nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and skin melanocytes, is here pointed out. ORs are recognized to regulate skin melanogenesis, whereas OR expression in the dopaminergic neurons, characterized by accumulation of pigment neuromelanin, is downregulated in Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, the correlation between the pigmentation process and the dopamine pathway through α-synuclein expression is also highlighted. Purposely, these ORs are suggested as therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases related to the pigmentation disorders. Based on this evidence, a possible way of turning odorants into drugs, acting on three specific olfactory receptors, OR51E2, OR2AT4 and VN1R1, is thus introduced. Various odorous molecules are shown to interact with these ORs and their therapeutic potential against melanogenic and neurodegenerative dysfunctions, including melanoma and Parkinson's disease, is suggested. Finally, a direct functional link between olfactory and endocrine systems in human brain through VN1R1 is proposed, helping to counteract female susceptibility to Parkinson's disease in quiescent life.

  11. Aversive olfactory associative memory loses odor specificity over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Christian; Antwi-Adjei, Emmanuel; Ganesan, Mathangi; Kilonzo, Kasyoka; Viswanathan, Vignesh; Durairaja, Archana; Voigt, Anne; Yarali, Ayse

    2017-05-01

    Avoiding associatively learned predictors of danger is crucial for survival. Aversive memories can, however, become counter-adaptive when they are overly generalized to harmless cues and contexts. In a fruit fly odor-electric shock associative memory paradigm, we found that learned avoidance lost its specificity for the trained odor and became general to novel odors within a day of training. We discuss the possible neural circuit mechanisms of this effect and highlight the parallelism to over-generalization of learned fear behavior after an incubation period in rodents and humans, with due relevance for post-traumatic stress disorder. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. AMisfit Theory of Spontaneous Conscious Odor Perception (MITSCOP: reflections on the role and function of odor memory in everyday life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egon P Köster

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Our senses have developed as an answer to the world we live in (Gibson, 1966 and so have the forms of memory that accompany them. All senses serve different purposes and do so in different ways. In vision, where orientation and object recognition are important, memory is strongly linked to identification. In olfaction, the guardian of vital functions such as breathing and food ingestion, perhaps the most important (and least noticed and researched role of odor memory is to help us not to notice the well-known odors or flavors in our everyday surroundings, but to react immediately to the unexpected ones. At the same time it provides us with a feeling of safety when our expectancies are met. All this happens without any smelling intention or conscious knowledge of our expectations. Identification by odor naming is not involved in this and people are notoriously bad at it. Odors are usually best identified via the episodic memory of the situation in which they once occurred. Spontaneous conscious odor perception normally only occurs in situations where attention is demanded, either because the inhaled air or the food smell is particularly good or particularly bad and people search for its source or because people want to actively enjoy the healthiness and pleasantness of their surroundings or food. Odor memory is concerned with novelty detection rather than with recollection of odors. In this paper, these points are illustrated with experimental results and their consequences for doing ecologically valid odor memory research are drawn. Furthermore, suggestions for ecologically valid research on everyday odor memory and some illustrative examples are given.

  13. Large-scale production and study of a synthetic G protein-coupled receptor: Human olfactory receptor 17-4

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Brian L.; Steuerwald, Dirk; Kaiser, Liselotte; Graveland-Bikker, Johanna; Vanberghem, Melanie; Berke, Allison P.; Herlihy, Kara; Pick, Horst; Vogel, Horst; Zhang, Shuguang

    2009-01-01

    Although understanding of the olfactory system has progressed at the level of downstream receptor signaling and the wiring of olfactory neurons, the system remains poorly understood at the molecular level of the receptors and their interaction with and recognition of odorant ligands. The structure and functional mechanisms of these receptors still remain a tantalizing enigma, because numerous previous attempts at the large-scale production of functional olfactory receptors (ORs) have not been...

  14. Visualizing mushroom body response to a conditioned odor in honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Till; Menzel, Randolf

    2001-11-01

    Combining differential conditioning with optophysiological recordings of bee brain activity allows the investigation of learning-related changes in complex neural systems. In this study we focused on the mushroom bodies of the bee brain. Presenting different odors to the animal leads to significant activation of the mushroom body lips. After differential conditioning, the rewarded odor leads to stronger activation than it did before training. Activation by the unrewarded odor remains unchanged. These results resemble findings in the bee's antennal lobes, which are the first olfactory relay station in the insect brain. As an integrative neural network, enhanced activation of the mushroom body lip may carry additional information, i.e., for processing odor concentrations.

  15. Evaluation of γ-radiation on green tea odor volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanaro, G.B.; Duarte, R.C.; Araujo, M.M.; Purgatto, E.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the gamma radiation effects on green tea odor volatiles in green tea at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The volatile organic compounds were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The green tea had a large influence on radiation effects, increasing the identified volatiles in relation to control samples. The dose of 10 kGy was responsible to form the majority of new odor compounds following by 5 and 20 kGy. However, the dose of 5 kGy was the dose that degraded the majority of volatiles in non-irradiated samples, following by 20 kGy. The dose of 15 kGy showed has no effect on odor volatiles. The gamma radiation, at dose up to 20 kGy, showed statistically no difference between irradiated and non irradiated green tea on odors compounds.

  16. Hydrodynamic Interactions Between Olfactory Appendages and Odor Plumes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koseff, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    .... A model lobster was then placed in the laboratory flume and we measured the odor concentration distribution around the olfactory appendage using high-speed video and laser-induced fluorescence techniques...

  17. Enantioselective Effect of Flurbiprofen on Lithium Disposition in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwai, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Masashi; Kawasaki, Tatsuya; Nabekura, Tomohiro

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is administered for treating bipolar disorders and is mainly excreted into urine. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit this process. In this study, we examined the enantioselective effect of flurbiprofen on the disposition of lithium in rats. Pharmacokinetic experiments with lithium were performed. Until 60 min after the intravenous administration of lithium chloride at 30 mg/kg as a bolus, 17.8% of lithium injected was recovered into the urine. Its renal clearance was calculated to be 1.62 mL/min/kg. Neither creatinine clearance (Ccr) nor pharmacokinetics of lithium was affected by the simultaneous injection of (R)-flurbiprofen at 20 mg/kg. (S)-flurbiprofen impaired the renal function and interfered with the urinary excretion of lithium. The ratio of renal clearance of lithium to Ccr was decreased by the (S)-enantiomer. This study clarified that the (S)-flurbiprofen but not (R)-flurbiprofen inhibited the renal excretion of lithium in rats. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Direct, enantioselective α-alkylation of aldehydes using simple olefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capacci, Andrew G; Malinowski, Justin T; McAlpine, Neil J; Kuhne, Jerome; MacMillan, David W C

    2017-11-01

    Although the α-alkylation of ketones has already been established, the analogous reaction using aldehyde substrates has proven surprisingly elusive. Despite the structural similarities between the two classes of compounds, the sensitivity and unique reactivity of the aldehyde functionality has typically required activated substrates or specialized additives. Here, we show that the synergistic merger of three catalytic processes-photoredox, enamine and hydrogen-atom transfer (HAT) catalysis-enables an enantioselective α-aldehyde alkylation reaction that employs simple olefins as coupling partners. Chiral imidazolidinones or prolinols, in combination with a thiophenol, iridium photoredox catalyst and visible light, have been successfully used in a triple catalytic process that is temporally sequenced to deliver a new hydrogen and electron-borrowing mechanism. This multicatalytic process enables both intra- and intermolecular aldehyde α-methylene coupling with olefins to construct both cyclic and acyclic products, respectively. With respect to atom and step-economy ideals, this stereoselective process allows the production of high-value molecules from feedstock chemicals in one step while consuming only photons.

  19. History dependence in insect flight decisions during odor tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Rich; van Breugel, Floris; Dickinson, Michael; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Fairhall, Adrienne

    2018-02-01

    Natural decision-making often involves extended decision sequences in response to variable stimuli with complex structure. As an example, many animals follow odor plumes to locate food sources or mates, but turbulence breaks up the advected odor signal into intermittent filaments and puffs. This scenario provides an opportunity to ask how animals use sparse, instantaneous, and stochastic signal encounters to generate goal-oriented behavioral sequences. Here we examined the trajectories of flying fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) navigating in controlled plumes of attractive odorants. While it is known that mean odor-triggered flight responses are dominated by upwind turns, individual responses are highly variable. We asked whether deviations from mean responses depended on specific features of odor encounters, and found that odor-triggered turns were slightly but significantly modulated by two features of odor encounters. First, encounters with higher concentrations triggered stronger upwind turns. Second, encounters occurring later in a sequence triggered weaker upwind turns. To contextualize the latter history dependence theoretically, we examined trajectories simulated from three normative tracking strategies. We found that neither a purely reactive strategy nor a strategy in which the tracker learned the plume centerline over time captured the observed history dependence. In contrast, "infotaxis", in which flight decisions maximized expected information gain about source location, exhibited a history dependence aligned in sign with the data, though much larger in magnitude. These findings suggest that while true plume tracking is dominated by a reactive odor response it might also involve a history-dependent modulation of responses consistent with the accumulation of information about a source over multi-encounter timescales. This suggests that short-term memory processes modulating decision sequences may play a role in

  20. Food-Related Odors Activate Dopaminergic Brain Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Sorokowska; Agnieszka Sorokowska; Katherina Schoen; Cornelia Hummel; Pengfei Han; Jonathan Warr; Thomas Hummel

    2017-01-01

    Food-associated cues of different sensory categories have often been shown to be a potent elicitor of cerebral activity in brain reward circuits. Smells influence and modify the hedonic qualities of eating experience, and in contrast to smells not associated with food, perception of food-associated odors may activate dopaminergic brain areas. In this study, we aimed to verify previous findings related to the rewarding value of food-associated odors by means of an fMRI design involving careful...

  1. Wild western lowland gorillas signal selectively using odor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Klailova

    Full Text Available Mammals communicate socially through visual, auditory and chemical signals. The chemical sense is the oldest sense and is shared by all organisms including bacteria. Despite mounting evidence for social chemo-signaling in humans, the extent to which it modulates behavior is debated and can benefit from comparative models of closely related hominoids. The use of odor cues in wild ape social communication has been only rarely explored. Apart from one study on wild chimpanzee sniffing, our understanding is limited to anecdotes. We present the first study of wild gorilla chemo-communication and the first analysis of olfactory signaling in relation to arousal levels and odor strength in wild apes. If gorilla scent is used as a signaling mechanism instead of only a sign of arousal or stress, odor emission should be context specific and capable of variation as a function of the relationships between the emitter and perceiver(s. Measured through a human pungency scale, we determined the factors that predicted extreme levels of silverback odor for one wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla group silverback. Extreme silverback odor was predicted by the presence and intensity of inter-unit interactions, silverback anger, distress and long-calling auditory rates, and the absence of close proximity between the silverback and mother of the youngest infant. Odor strength also varied according to the focal silverback's strategic responses during high intensity inter-unit interactions. Silverbacks appear to use odor as a modifiable form of communication; where odor acts as a highly flexible, context dependent signaling mechanism to group members and extra-group units. The importance of olfaction to ape social communication may be especially pertinent in Central African forests where limited visibility may necessitate increased reliance on other senses.

  2. Brain-immune interaction accompanying odor-evoked autobiographic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Bai, Yu; Yamakawa, Kaori; Toyama, Asako; Kashiwagi, Mitsuyoshi; Fukuda, Kazuyuki; Oshida, Akiko; Sanada, Kazue; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Sadato, Norihiro; Ohira, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon in which a certain smell evokes a specific memory is known as the Proust phenomenon. Odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli. The results of our previous study indicated that odor-evoked autobiographic memory accompanied by positive emotions has remarkable effects on various psychological and physiological activities, including the secretion of cytokines, which are immune-signaling molecules that modulate systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to clarify the neural substrates associated with the interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memory and peripheral circulating cytokines. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated the association between brain responses and the concentration of several cytokines in the plasma by using positron emission tomography (PET) recordings when an autographic memory was evoked in participants by asking them to smell an odor that was nostalgic to them. Participants experienced positive emotions and autobiographic memories when nostalgic odors were presented to them. The levels of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines, such as the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), were significantly reduced after experiencing odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Subtraction analysis of PET images indicated that the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were significantly activated during experiences of odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Furthermore, a correlation analysis indicated that activities of the mOFC and precuneus/PCC were negatively correlated with IFN-γ concentration. These results indicate that the neural networks including the precuneus/PCC and mOFC might regulate the secretion of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines during the experience of odor-evoked autobiographic memories accompanied with positive emotions.

  3. Brain–Immune Interaction Accompanying Odor-Evoked Autobiographic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Bai, Yu; Yamakawa, Kaori; Toyama, Asako; Kashiwagi, Mitsuyoshi; Fukuda, Kazuyuki; Oshida, Akiko; Sanada, Kazue; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Sadato, Norihiro; Ohira, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon in which a certain smell evokes a specific memory is known as the Proust phenomenon. Odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli. The results of our previous study indicated that odor-evoked autobiographic memory accompanied by positive emotions has remarkable effects on various psychological and physiological activities, including the secretion of cytokines, which are immune-signaling molecules that modulate systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to clarify the neural substrates associated with the interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memory and peripheral circulating cytokines. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated the association between brain responses and the concentration of several cytokines in the plasma by using positron emission tomography (PET) recordings when an autographic memory was evoked in participants by asking them to smell an odor that was nostalgic to them. Participants experienced positive emotions and autobiographic memories when nostalgic odors were presented to them. The levels of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines, such as the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), were significantly reduced after experiencing odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Subtraction analysis of PET images indicated that the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were significantly activated during experiences of odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Furthermore, a correlation analysis indicated that activities of the mOFC and precuneus/PCC were negatively correlated with IFN-γ concentration. These results indicate that the neural networks including the precuneus/PCC and mOFC might regulate the secretion of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines during the experience of odor-evoked autobiographic memories accompanied with positive emotions. PMID:23977312

  4. Brain-immune interaction accompanying odor-evoked autobiographic memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Matsunaga

    Full Text Available The phenomenon in which a certain smell evokes a specific memory is known as the Proust phenomenon. Odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli. The results of our previous study indicated that odor-evoked autobiographic memory accompanied by positive emotions has remarkable effects on various psychological and physiological activities, including the secretion of cytokines, which are immune-signaling molecules that modulate systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to clarify the neural substrates associated with the interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memory and peripheral circulating cytokines. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated the association between brain responses and the concentration of several cytokines in the plasma by using positron emission tomography (PET recordings when an autographic memory was evoked in participants by asking them to smell an odor that was nostalgic to them. Participants experienced positive emotions and autobiographic memories when nostalgic odors were presented to them. The levels of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines, such as the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interferon-γ (IFN-γ, were significantly reduced after experiencing odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Subtraction analysis of PET images indicated that the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC were significantly activated during experiences of odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Furthermore, a correlation analysis indicated that activities of the mOFC and precuneus/PCC were negatively correlated with IFN-γ concentration. These results indicate that the neural networks including the precuneus/PCC and mOFC might regulate the secretion of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines during the experience of odor-evoked autobiographic memories accompanied with positive emotions.

  5. Investigation about Role of Algae in Kazeroon Sasan Spring Odor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hamzeian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As odor for potable water is unpleasant for costumers, it needs to do researches for finding the reasons of odorous water. Sasan spring that is located in, near kazeroon city, Fars, Iran, is potable water resource for Kazeroon and Booshehr city and many other villages. Water in Sasan spring has the odor problem. With regards to important   role of algae on ado r problems in this study the role of algae on   odor was investigated. Methods: After regular sampling, the TON (threshold odor number was indicated and algae species was distinguished and the number of total algae and any species  of algae was numbers by microscopic direct numbering method .as the algae mass  is related to nitrogen and phosphor concentration, results of concentration Of nitrogen and phosphor in this spring that was examined regularity by water company was investigated and compared to concentration of these component that are need for algae growing.   Results: results shows that TON was in range  of 4.477 to 6.2 that indicated  oderous limit . Regression and diagram between TON and number of total algae showed the linear relationship. The concentration of nitrogen and phosphor, showed adequate condition for algal grow. Result of determination of algae species showed high population of Oscilatoria and Microcystis species, which are known as essential case of mold odor in water resources. Investigation on geological maps in the region around the Sasan spring, show alluvium source and is effected by surface part of it’s around land. Conclusion: because of the algae was determined as the essential cause of odor   in the spring, and algal growth is related to nutrients, and because of the surface pollution can penetrate in the alluvium lands around the spring, and effect the water in spring, so nutrient control and management is the essential way for odor control in the spring.

  6. Olfactory systems and neural circuits that modulate predator odor fear

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Lorey K.

    2014-01-01

    When prey animals detect the odor of a predator a constellation of fear-related autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral responses rapidly occur to facilitate survival. How olfactory sensory systems process predator odor and channel that information to specific brain circuits is a fundamental issue that is not clearly understood. However, research in the last 15 years has begun to identify some of the essential features of the sensory detection systems and brain structures that underlie predator ...

  7. Silica-Supported Catalyst for Enantioselective Arylation of Aldehydes under Batch and Continuous-Flow Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Nakaya, Naoyuki; Akai, Junichiro; Kanaori, Kenji; Harada, Toshiro

    2018-05-04

    A silica-supported 3-aryl H 8 -BINOL-derived titanium catalyst exhibited high performance in the enantioselective arylation of aromatic aldehydes using Grignard and organolithium reagents not only under batch conditions but also under continuous-flow conditions. Even with a simple pipet reactor packed with the heterogeneous catalyst, the enantioselective production of chiral diarylmethanols could be achieved through a continuous introduction of aldehydes and mixed titanium reagents generated from the organometallic precursors. The pipet reactor could be used repeatedly in different reactions without appreciable deterioration of the activity.

  8. Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Seven-Membered C=N-containing Heterocycles and Rationalization of the Enantioselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishna, Bugga; Bauzá, Antonio; Frontera, Antonio; Vidal-Ferran, Anton

    2016-07-18

    Iridium(I) complexes with phosphine-phosphite ligands efficiently catalyze the enantioselective hydrogenation of diverse seven-membered C=N-containing heterocyclic compounds (eleven examples; up to 97 % ee). The P-OP ligand L3, which incorporates an ortho-diphenyl substituted octahydrobinol phosphite fragment, provided the highest enantioselectivities in the hydrogenation of most of the heterocyclic compounds studied. The observed stereoselection was rationalized by means of DFT calculations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Application of Phosphine-Phosphite Ligands in the Iridium Catalyzed Enantioselective Hydrogenation of 2-Methylquinoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Rubio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogenation of 2-methylquinoline with Ir catalysts based on chiral phosphine-phosphites has been investigated. It has been observed that the reaction is very sensitive to the nature of the ligand. Optimization of the catalyst, allowed by the highly modular structure of these phosphine-phosphites, has improved the enantioselectivity of the reaction up to 73% ee. The influence of additives in this reaction has also been investigated. Contrary to the beneficial influence observed in related catalytic systems, iodine has a deleterious effect in the present case. Otherwise, aryl phosphoric acids produce a positive impact on catalyst activity without a decrease on enantioselectivity.

  10. Influence of biochar on the enantioselective behavior of the chiral fungicide metalaxyl in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámiz, Beatriz; Pignatello, Joseph J.; Hermosín, María Carmen; Cox, Lucía; Celis, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Chiral pesticides comprise an emerging and important class of organic pollutants currently, accounting for more than a quarter of used pesticides. Consequently, the contamination problems caused by chiral pesticides are concern matter and factors affecting enantioselective processes of chiral pesticides in soil need to be understood. For example, certain soil management practices, such as the use of organic amendments, can affect the enantioselective behavior of chiral pesticides in soils. Recently, biochar (BC), i.e. organic matter subjected to pyrolysis, has been proposed as organic amendment due to beneficial properties such as its high stability against decay in soil environments and its apparent ability to influence the availability of nutrients. BC is considered to be more biologically inert as compared to otherforms of organic carbon. However, its side-effects on the enantioselectivity of processes affecting the fate of chiral pesticides is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of biochar (BC) on the enantioselectivity of sorption, degradation, and leaching of the chiral fungicide metalaxyl in an agricultural soil. Amending the soil with BC (2% w/w) resulted in 3 times higher sorption of metalaxyl enantiomers compared to unamended soil, but no enantioselectivity in the process was observed. Moreover, both enantiomers showed some resistance to be desorbed in BC-amended soil compared to unamended soil. Dissipation studies revealed that the degradation of metalaxylwas more enantioselective in the unamended soil than in BC-amended soil. In unamended soil, R-metalaxyl(biologically active) and S- metalaxyl had half-lives (t1/2) of 3 and 34 days, respectively. BC enhanced the persistence of both enantiomers in the soil, with R-metalaxyl being degraded faster (t1/2=43 days) than S-metalaxyl (t1/2= 100 days). The leaching of both S-and R-metalaxyl was almost suppressed after amending the soil with BC; less than 10% of the fungicide applied to soil

  11. Pleasant and unpleasant odors influence hedonic evaluations of human faces: an event-related potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Jane Cook

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Odors can alter hedonic evaluations of human faces, but the neural mechanisms of such effects are poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze the neural underpinning of odor-induced changes in evaluations of human faces in an odor-priming paradigm, using event-related potentials (ERPs. Healthy, young participants (N = 20 rated neutral faces presented after a three second pulse of a pleasant odor (jasmine, unpleasant odor (methylmercaptan, or no-odor control (clean air. Neutral faces presented in the pleasant odor condition were rated more pleasant than the same faces presented in the no-odor control condition, which in turn were rated more pleasant than faces in the unpleasant odor condition. Analysis of face-related potentials revealed four clusters of electrodes significantly affected by odor condition at specific time points during long-latency epochs (600−950 ms. In the 620−640 ms interval, two scalp-time clusters showed greater negative potential in the right parietal electrodes in response to faces in the pleasant odor condition, compared to those in the no-odor and unpleasant odor conditions. At 926 ms, face-related potentials showed greater positivity in response to faces in the pleasant and unpleasant odor conditions at the left and right lateral frontal-temporal electrodes, respectively. Our data shows that odor-induced shifts in evaluations of faces were associated with amplitude changes in the late (> 600 and ultra-late (> 900 ms latency epochs. The observed amplitude changes during the ultra-late epoch are consistent with a left/right hemisphere bias towards pleasant/unpleasant odor effects. Odors alter evaluations of human faces, even when there is a temporal lag between presentation of odors and faces. Our results provide an initial understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying effects of odors on hedonic evaluations.

  12. Olfactory fingerprints for major histocompatibility complex-determined body odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, M L; Young, D A; Restrepo, D

    2001-04-01

    Recognition of individual body odors is analogous to human face recognition in that it provides information about identity. Individual body odors determined by differences at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC or H-2) have been shown to influence mate choice, pregnancy block, and maternal behavior in mice. Unfortunately, the mechanism and extent of the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) involvement in the discrimination of animals according to H-2-type has remained ambiguous. Here we study the neuronal activation patterns evoked in the MOB in different individuals on exposure to these complex, biologically meaningful sensory stimuli. We demonstrate that body odors from H-2 disparate mice evoke overlapping but distinct maps of neuronal activation in the MOB. The spatial patterns of odor-evoked activity are sufficient to be used like fingerprints to predict H-2 identity using a novel computer algorithm. These results provide functional evidence for discrimination of H-2-determined body odors in the MOB, but do not preclude a role for the AOB. These data further our understanding of the neural strategies used to decode socially relevant odors.

  13. Proust nose best: odors are better cues of autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Simon; Downes, John J

    2002-06-01

    The Proust phenomenon is an enduring piece of folk wisdom that asserts that odors are particularly powerful autobiographical memory cues. We provide a more formal exposition of this phenomenon and test it in two experiments, using a novel double-cuing methodology designed to negate less interesting explanations. In both studies, recall of an autobiographical event was initially cued by a verbal label (an odor name) for a fixed period, following which a second, extended recall attempt was cued by the same verbal label, the relevant odor, an irrelevant odor, or a visual cue. The focus of Experiment 1 was participants' ratings of the emotional quality of their autobiographical memories. In Experiment 2, content analysis was employed to determine the quantity of information in participants' recollections. Results revealed that odor-cued autobiographical memories were reliably different in terms of qualitative ratings and reliably superior in the amount of detail yielded. Moreover, visual cues and incongruent olfactory cues appeared to have a detrimental effect on the amount of detail recalled. These results support the proposal that odors are especially effective as reminders of past experience.

  14. Identification of character impact odorants of different soybean lecithins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, A; Steinhart, H

    1999-07-01

    The potent odorants of standardized, enzymatically hydrolyzed, and deoiled soybean lecithins were characterized systematically by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and olfactometry. Sixty-one odorants were identified; 53 of these odor-active compounds have not previously been reported as odorants of soybean lecithin flavor. By aroma extract dilution analysis and modified combined hedonic and response measurement the following odorants showed the highest flavor dilution factors and CHARM values: (E,E)-2, 4-decadienal (deep-fried), (E)-beta-damascenone (apple-like), 2, 3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (roasty, earthy), (E)-2-nonenal (cardboard-like), trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (metallic), 1-nonen-3-one (mushroom-like), 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (roasty, earthy), and 1-octen-3-one (mushroom-like). Enzymatic hydrolysis intensified especially the roasty sensation of 2, 3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, whereas deoiling effected a general significant decrease in olfactory perception on the nitrogen-containing compounds. In addition, sensory profiles of nasal and retronasal lecithin odor were performed.

  15. The mere exposure effect depends on an odor's initial pleasantness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delplanque, Sylvain; Coppin, Géraldine; Bloesch, Laurène; Cayeux, Isabelle; Sander, David

    2015-01-01

    The mere exposure phenomenon refers to improvement of one's attitude toward an a priori neutral stimulus after its repeated exposure. The extent to which such a phenomenon influences evaluation of a priori emotional stimuli remains under-investigated. Here we investigated this question by presenting participants with different odors varying in a priori pleasantness during different sessions spaced over time. Participants were requested to report each odor's pleasantness, intensity, and familiarity. As expected, participants became more familiar with all stimuli after the repetition procedure. However, while neutral and mildly pleasant odors showed an increase in pleasantness ratings, unpleasant and very pleasant odors remained unaffected. Correlational analyses revealed an inverse U-shape between the magnitude of the mere exposure effect and the initial pleasantness of the odor. Consequently, the initial pleasantness of the stimuli appears to modulate the impact of repeated exposures on an individual's attitude. These data underline the limits of mere exposure effect and are discussed in light of the biological relevance of odors for individual survival.

  16. Apolipoprotein e4 Is Associated with More Rapid Decline in Odor Identification than in Odor Threshold or Dementia Rating Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun-Haney, R.; Murphy, C.

    2005-01-01

    Individuals with the apolipoprotein E e4 genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) show deficits in olfactory function. The purpose of the present study was to examine longitudinally odor identification (odor ID), odor threshold, picture identification, and global cognitive status in allele positive (e4+) and negative (e4-) persons.…

  17. Robust and Rapid Air-Borne Odor Tracking without Casting1,2,3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Urvashi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Casting behavior (zigzagging across an odor stream) is common in air/liquid-borne odor tracking in open fields; however, terrestrial odor localization often involves path selection in a familiar environment. To study this, we trained rats to run toward an odor source in a multi-choice olfactory arena with near-laminar airflow. We find that rather than casting, rats run directly toward an odor port, and if this is incorrect, they serially sample other sources. This behavior is consistent and accurate in the presence of perturbations, such as novel odors, background odor, unilateral nostril stitching, and turbulence. We developed a model that predicts that this run-and-scan tracking of air-borne odors is faster than casting, provided there are a small number of targets at known locations. Thus, the combination of best-guess target selection with fallback serial sampling provides a rapid and robust strategy for finding odor sources in familiar surroundings. PMID:26665165

  18. Odor of the muskox : A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, P F; Abrams, S R; Muir, G D; Rowell, J E

    1989-08-01

    The behavior of captive male muskoxen was observed closely during their characteristic superiority display, the anatomy of the preputial region was studied in two adults and three calves, and preputial washings and preorbital gland secretion were subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. During the superiority display, the prepuce was everted to form a pendulous tube tipped with a fringe of matted hair. Owing to the movement of the animal, the urine that dribbled from the preputial opening was liberally applied to the long guard hairs of the belly. The superiority display was almost exclusively confined to dominant males and apparently accounted for their odor. In the quiescent state, the hair seen around the preputial opening was drawn inside and formed an 8 cm-wide band on the lining of the prepuce. The preputial washings contained large amounts of benzoic acid andp-cresol. The infraorbital gland secretion contained cholesterol, benzaldehyde, and a homologous series of saturated γ-lactones ranging from 8 to 12 carbons. The latter compounds and the natural secretion smell similar to the human nose.

  19. Microbial survival and odor in laundry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Signe Munk; Johansen, Charlotte; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2001-01-01

    The survival and distribution of microflora during laundering at 30 or 40 degreesC in commercial U.S. and European Union (E.U.) detergents were determined in laboratory wash experiments. Four test strains-Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa-were eva......The survival and distribution of microflora during laundering at 30 or 40 degreesC in commercial U.S. and European Union (E.U.) detergents were determined in laboratory wash experiments. Four test strains-Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa......-were evaluated on cotton textile. A significant survival and transfer between textiles were found for all four test strains washed in E.U. and U.S. color detergents (without bleach), whereas no survival was observed in bleach-containing detergents. Gram-negative strains generally survived in greater numbers than...... Gram-positive strains. A greater survival was observed in U.S. detergents at U.S. conditions (30 degreesC, 12 min) than in E.U. detergents at E.U. conditions (40 degreesC, 30 min). The adhesion of odorants to cotton and polyester textiles during washing and drying was studied using six previously...

  20. Quinine-Promoted, Enantioselective Boron-Tethered Diels-Alder Reaction by Anomeric Control of Transition State Conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Katie; Dillashaw, John; Timpy, Evan; Lam, Yu-Hong; DeRatt, Lindsey; Benton, Tyler R; Powell, Jacqueline P; Houk, Kendall N; Morgan, Jeremy B

    2018-05-01

    Diels-Alder reactions of tethered vinyl-metal species offer the opportunity to fashion highly functionalized diol intermediates for synthesis. We have developed the first enantioselective boron-tethered Diels-Alder reaction using quinine as a chiral promoter. Quinine recovery, enantioselectivity enhancement, and manipulation of the cyclohexene core are also investigated. DFT modeling calculations confirm the role of quinine as a bidentate ligand enhancing reaction rates. The enantioselectivity of the cycloaddition is proposed to originate from a boron-centered anomeric effect.

  1. Enantioselective Alkylation of 2-Oxindoles Catalyzed by a Bifunctional Phase-Transfer Catalyst: Synthesis of (-)-Debromoflustramine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Ryan; Sorrentino, Emiliano; Connon, Stephen J

    2018-03-26

    A new bifunctional phase-transfer catalyst that employs hydrogen bonding as a control element was developed to promote efficient enantioselective S N 2 reactions for the construction all-carbon quaternary stereocenters in high yield and excellent enantioselectivity (up to 97 % ee) utilizing the alkylation of a malleable oxindole substrate. The utility of the methodology was demonstrated through a concise and highly enantioselective synthesis of (-)-debromoflustramine B. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Palladium-Catalyzed Enantioselective C-H Olefination of Diaryl Sulfoxides through Parallel Kinetic Resolution and Desymmetrization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu-Chao; Li, Yan; Zhang, Bo-Chao; Zhang, Feng-Xu; Yang, Yi-Nuo; Wang, Xi-Sheng

    2018-03-07

    The first example of Pd II -catalyzed enantioselective C-H olefination with non-chiral or racemic sulfoxides as directing groups was developed. A variety of chiral diaryl sulfoxides were synthesized with high enantioselectivity (up to 99 %) through both desymmetrization and parallel kinetic resolution (PKR). This is the first report of Pd II -catalyzed enantioselective C(sp 2 )-H functionalization through PKR, and it represents a novel strategy to construct sulfur chiral centers. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Odors bias time perception in visual and auditory modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhu eYue

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that emotional states alter our perception of time. However, attention, which is modulated by a number of factors, such as emotional events, also influences time perception. To exclude potential attentional effects associated with emotional events, various types of odors (inducing different levels of emotional arousal were used to explore whether olfactory events modulated time perception differently in visual and auditory modalities. Participants were shown either a visual dot or heard a continuous tone for 1000 ms or 4000 ms while they were exposed to odors of jasmine, lavender, or garlic. Participants then reproduced the temporal durations of the preceding visual or auditory stimuli by pressing the spacebar twice. Their reproduced durations were compared to those in the control condition (without odor. The results showed that participants produced significantly longer time intervals in the lavender condition than in the jasmine or garlic conditions. The overall influence of odor on time perception was equivalent for both visual and auditory modalities. The analysis of the interaction effect showed that participants produced longer durations than the actual duration in the short interval condition, but they produced shorter durations in the long interval condition. The effect sizes were larger for the auditory modality than those for the visual modality. Moreover, by comparing performance across the initial and the final blocks of the experiment, we found odor adaptation effects were mainly manifested as longer reproductions for the short time interval later in the adaptation phase, and there was a larger effect size in the auditory modality. In summary, the present results indicate that odors imposed differential impacts on reproduced time durations, and they were constrained by different sensory modalities, valence of the emotional events, and target durations. Biases in time perception could be accounted for by a

  4. Odors Bias Time Perception in Visual and Auditory Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhenzhu; Gao, Tianyu; Chen, Lihan; Wu, Jiashuang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that emotional states alter our perception of time. However, attention, which is modulated by a number of factors, such as emotional events, also influences time perception. To exclude potential attentional effects associated with emotional events, various types of odors (inducing different levels of emotional arousal) were used to explore whether olfactory events modulated time perception differently in visual and auditory modalities. Participants were shown either a visual dot or heard a continuous tone for 1000 or 4000 ms while they were exposed to odors of jasmine, lavender, or garlic. Participants then reproduced the temporal durations of the preceding visual or auditory stimuli by pressing the spacebar twice. Their reproduced durations were compared to those in the control condition (without odor). The results showed that participants produced significantly longer time intervals in the lavender condition than in the jasmine or garlic conditions. The overall influence of odor on time perception was equivalent for both visual and auditory modalities. The analysis of the interaction effect showed that participants produced longer durations than the actual duration in the short interval condition, but they produced shorter durations in the long interval condition. The effect sizes were larger for the auditory modality than those for the visual modality. Moreover, by comparing performance across the initial and the final blocks of the experiment, we found odor adaptation effects were mainly manifested as longer reproductions for the short time interval later in the adaptation phase, and there was a larger effect size in the auditory modality. In summary, the present results indicate that odors imposed differential impacts on reproduced time durations, and they were constrained by different sensory modalities, valence of the emotional events, and target durations. Biases in time perception could be accounted for by a framework of

  5. Scent marking behavior as an odorant communication in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Hiroyuki; Blanchard, D. Caroline; Arakawa, Keiko; Dunlap, Christopher; Blanchard, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    In rodents, where chemical signals play a particularly important role in determining intraspecies interactions including social dominance and intersexual relationships, various studies have shown that behavior is sensitive to conspecific odor cues. Mice use urinary scent marks for communication with individual conspecifics in many social contexts. Urinary scent involves genetic information about individuals such as species, sex, and individual identity as well as metabolic information such as social dominance, and reproductive and health status, which are mediated by chemical proteins in scent marks including the major histocompatibility complex and the major urinary proteins. The odor of the predator which can be considered to be a threatening signal for the prey also modulate mouse behavior in which scent marking is suppressed in response to the cat odor exposure in mice. These odorant chemicals are detected and recognized through two olfactory bulbs, the role of which in detection of chemosignals with biological relevant appears to be differential, but partly overlapped. Mice deposit scent marks toward conspecifics to maintain their social relationships, and inhibit scent marking in a context where natural predator, cat odor is contained. This suppression of scent marking is long-lasting (for at least 7 days) and context-dependent, while the odorant signaling to conspecifics tends to appear frequently (over 24 hrs but less than 7 days intervals) depending on the familiarity of each signal-recipient. It has been discussed that scent marking is a communicative behavior associated with territoriality toward conspecifics, indicating that the social signaling within species are sensitive to predator odor cues in terms of vulnerability to predation risk. PMID:18565582

  6. The differential mice response to cat and snake odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Crisanto, Karen; de Andrade, Wylqui Mikael Gomes; de Azevedo Silva, Kayo Diogenes; Lima, Ramón Hypolito; de Oliveira Costa, Miriam Stela Maris; de Souza Cavalcante, Jeferson; de Lima, Ruthnaldo Rodrigues Melo; do Nascimento, Expedito Silva; Cavalcante, Judney Cley

    2015-12-01

    Studies from the last two decades have pointed to multiple mechanisms of fear. For responding to predators, there is a group of highly interconnected hypothalamic nuclei formed by the anterior hypothalamic nucleus, the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and the dorsal premammillary nucleus—the predator-responsive hypothalamic circuit. This circuit expresses Fos in response to predator presence or its odor. Lesion of any component of this system blocks or reduces the expression of fear and consequently defensive behavior when faced with a predator or its cue. However, most of the knowledge about that circuit has been obtained using the rat as a model of prey and the cat as a source of predator cues. In the present study, we exposed mice to strong cat or snake odors, two known mice predators, and then we used the rat exposure test (RET) to study their behavior when confronted with the same predator's odor. Our data point to a differential response of mice exposed to these odors. When Swiss mice were exposed to the cat odor, they show defensive behavior and the predator-responsive hypothalamic circuit expressed Fos. The opposite was seen when they faced snake's odor. The acute odor exposure was not sufficient to activate the mouse predator-responsive hypothalamic circuit and the mice acted like they were not in a stressful situation, showing almost no sign of fear or defensive posture. This leads us to the conclusion that not all the predator cues are sufficient to activate the predator-responsive hypothalamic circuit of mice and that their response depends on the danger that these predators represent in the natural history of the prey.

  7. Study on off-odor volatiles of irradiated packaged raw pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Ruotai; Geng Shengrong; Liu Yangmin

    2008-01-01

    Analysing the compositions of off-odor volatiles in irradiated refrigerated vacuum-packaged pork and research on its origin. First, the off-odor volatiles were collected by a cooled via in liquid nitrogen, then the main composition of off-odor volatiles were analyzed by gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main composition of off-odor volatiles are dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, methanethiol and S-methyl thioacetate. The off-odor volatiles come from irradiated cystine, methionine and VB1. The main composition of off-odor volatiles are S-containing compounds from irradiated S-containing amino acid and VB1

  8. Enantioselective Synthesis of (-)-Vallesine: Late-Stage C17-Oxidation via Complex Indole Boronation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antropow, Alyssa H; Garcia, Nicholas R; White, Kolby L; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2018-06-04

    The first enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-vallesine via a strategy that features a late-stage regioselective C17-oxidation followed by a highly stereoselective transannular cyclization is reported. The versatility of this approach is highlighted by the divergent synthesis of the archetypal alkaloid of this family, (+)-aspidospermidine, and an A-ring-oxygenated derivative, (+)-deacetylaspidospermine, the precursor to (-)-vallesine, from a common intermediate.

  9. In-silico driven engineering of enantioselectivity of a penicillin G acylase towards active pharmaceutical ingredients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grulich, Michal; Brezovský, J.; Štěpánek, Václav; Palyzová, Andrea; Marešová, Helena; Zahradník, Jiří; Kyslíková, Eva; Kyslík, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 133, Supplement 1 (2016), s. 53-59 ISSN 1381-1177 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Docking experiments * Enantioselectivity * Penicillin G acylase Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.269, year: 2016

  10. Enantioselective polymerization of epoxides using biaryl-linked bimetallic cobalt catalysts: A mechanistic study

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Syud M.; Poater, Albert; Childers, M. Ian; Widger, Peter C B; Lapointe, Anne M.; Lobkovsky, Emil B.; Coates, Geoffrey W.; Cavallo, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The enantioselective polymerization of propylene oxide (PO) using biaryl-linked bimetallic salen Co catalysts was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Five key aspects of this catalytic system were examined: (1) the structural features of the catalyst, (2) the regio- and stereoselectivity of the chain-growth step, (3) the probable oxidation and electronic state of Co during the polymerization, (4) the role of the cocatalyst, and (5) the mechanism of monomer enchainment. Several important insights were revealed. First, density functional theory (DFT) calculations provided detailed structural information regarding the regio- and stereoselective chain-growth step. Specifically, the absolute stereochemistry of the binaphthol linker determines the enantiomer preference in the polymerization, and the interaction between the salen ligand and the growing polymer chain is a fundamental aspect of enantioselectivity. Second, a new bimetallic catalyst with a conformationally flexible biphenol linker was synthesized and found to enantioselectively polymerize PO, though with lower enantioselectivity than the binaphthol linked catalysts. Third, DFT calculations revealed that the active form of the catalyst has two active exo anionic ligands (chloride or carboxylate) and an endo polymer alkoxide which can ring-open an adjacent cobalt-coordinated epoxide. Fourth, calculations showed that initiation is favored by an endo chloride ligand, while propagation is favored by the presence of two exo carboxylate ligands. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  11. Enantioselective functionalization of allylic C-H bonds following a strategy of functionalization and diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ankit; Hartwig, John F

    2013-11-27

    We report the enantioselective functionalization of allylic C-H bonds in terminal alkenes by a strategy involving the installation of a temporary functional group at the terminal carbon atom by C-H bond functionalization, followed by the catalytic diversification of this intermediate with a broad scope of reagents. The method consists of a one-pot sequence of palladium-catalyzed allylic C-H bond oxidation under neutral conditions to form linear allyl benzoates, followed by iridium-catalyzed allylic substitution. This overall transformation forms a variety of chiral products containing a new C-N, C-O, C-S, or C-C bond at the allylic position in good yield with a high branched-to-linear selectivity and excellent enantioselectivity (ee ≤97%). The broad scope of the overall process results from separating the oxidation and functionalization steps; by doing so, the scope of nucleophile encompasses those sensitive to direct oxidative functionalization. The high enantioselectivity of the overall process is achieved by developing an allylic oxidation that occurs without acid to form the linear isomer with high selectivity. These allylic functionalization processes are amenable to an iterative sequence leading to (1,n)-functionalized products with catalyst-controlled diastereo- and enantioselectivity. The utility of the method in the synthesis of biologically active molecules has been demonstrated.

  12. Aziridino Alcohols as Catalysts for the Enantioselective Addition of Diethylzinc to Aldehydes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Kornø, Hanne Tøfting; Guijarro, David

    1998-01-01

    The chiral aziridino alcohols 1 -3 have been prepared either from amino acids (1a from serine; 1b - 1i and 3 from threonine; 2a - 2e from allo-threonine) or via asymmetric synthesis (1j, 1k, 1l and 2f from methyl cinnamate). These easily available ligands act as catalysts for the enantioselective...

  13. Enantioselective radical reactions. Evaluation of nitrogen protecting groups in the synthesis of β2-amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P.; Patil, Kalyani

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of nitrogen protecting groups in radical addition trapping experiments leading to β2-amino acids. Of the three N-protecting groups examined, the phthalimido group was optimal with respect to both yields and enantioselectivity. Additionally, radical additions to more complex acrylates were also investigated, which provided access to functionalized β2-amino acids in modest selectivity. PMID:16799704

  14. Enantioselective radical reactions. Evaluation of nitrogen protecting groups in the synthesis of beta-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Patil, Kalyani

    2006-02-20

    We have investigated the effect of nitrogen protecting groups in radical addition trapping experiments leading to beta(2)-amino acids. Of the three N-protecting groups examined, the phthalimido group was optimal with respect to both yields and enantioselectivity. Additionally, radical additions to more complex acrylates were also investigated, which provided access to functionalized beta(2)-amino acids in modest selectivity.

  15. An entry to a chiral dihydropyrazole scaffold: enantioselective [3 + 2] cycloaddition of nitrile imines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Stanley, Levi M; Jasperse, Craig P

    2005-06-15

    We have developed a versatile strategy to access dihydropyrazoles in highly enantioenriched form. Dipolar cycloaddition of electron-deficient acceptors and in situ-generated nitrile imines proceeds with high regio- and enantioselectivity using 10 mol % chiral Lewis acid catalyst. A variety of dihydropyrazoles that incorporate functionality for further manipulation have been prepared.

  16. Exploiting the enantioselectivity of Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases via boron oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brondani, Patricia B.; Dudek, Hanna; Reis, Joel S.; Fraaije, Marco W.; Andrade, Leandro H.

    2012-01-01

    The enantioselective carbon-boron bond oxidation of several chiral boron-containing compounds by Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases was evaluated. PAMO and M446G PAMO conveniently oxidized 1-phenylethyl boronate into the corresponding 1-(phenyl)ethanol (ee = 82-91%). Cyclopropyl boronic esters were also

  17. Stereospecific nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of alkyl ethers: enantioselective synthesis of diarylethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Buck L H; Swift, Elizabeth C; Waetzig, Joshua D; Jarvo, Elizabeth R

    2011-01-26

    Secondary benzylic ethers undergo stereospecific substitution reactions with Grignard reagents in the presence of nickel catalysts. Reactions proceed with inversion of configuration and high stereochemical fidelity. This reaction allows for facile enantioselective synthesis of biologically active diarylethanes from readily available optically enriched carbinols.

  18. Enantioselective polymerization of epoxides using biaryl-linked bimetallic cobalt catalysts: A mechanistic study

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Syud M.

    2013-12-18

    The enantioselective polymerization of propylene oxide (PO) using biaryl-linked bimetallic salen Co catalysts was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Five key aspects of this catalytic system were examined: (1) the structural features of the catalyst, (2) the regio- and stereoselectivity of the chain-growth step, (3) the probable oxidation and electronic state of Co during the polymerization, (4) the role of the cocatalyst, and (5) the mechanism of monomer enchainment. Several important insights were revealed. First, density functional theory (DFT) calculations provided detailed structural information regarding the regio- and stereoselective chain-growth step. Specifically, the absolute stereochemistry of the binaphthol linker determines the enantiomer preference in the polymerization, and the interaction between the salen ligand and the growing polymer chain is a fundamental aspect of enantioselectivity. Second, a new bimetallic catalyst with a conformationally flexible biphenol linker was synthesized and found to enantioselectively polymerize PO, though with lower enantioselectivity than the binaphthol linked catalysts. Third, DFT calculations revealed that the active form of the catalyst has two active exo anionic ligands (chloride or carboxylate) and an endo polymer alkoxide which can ring-open an adjacent cobalt-coordinated epoxide. Fourth, calculations showed that initiation is favored by an endo chloride ligand, while propagation is favored by the presence of two exo carboxylate ligands. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. Optimisation of the enantioselective biocatalytic hydrolysis of naproxen ethyl ester using ChiroCLEC-CR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brady, D

    2004-03-04

    Full Text Available In a biocatalytic reaction the immobilized lipase ChiroCLEC-CR enantioselectively hydrolysed a naproxen ethyl ester racemate, yielding (S)-naproxen with an enantiomeric excess of more than 98%, an enantiomeric ratio (E) of more than 100...

  20. DNA-based asymmetric catalysis : Sequence-dependent rate acceleration and enantioselectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Arnold J.; Klijn, Jaap E.; Feringa, Ben L.; Roelfes, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    This study shows that the role of DNA in the DNA-based enantioselective Diels-Alder reaction of azachalcone with cyclopentadiene is not limited to that of a chiral scaffold. DNA in combination with the copper complex of 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (Cu-L1) gives rise to a rate acceleration of up to

  1. Equilibrium Studies on Enantioselective Liquid-Liquid Amino Acid Extraction Using a Cinchona Alkaloid Extractant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuur, Boelo; Winkelman, Jozef G. M.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2008-01-01

    The enantioselective extraction of aqueous 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl-R,S-leucine (A(R,S)) by a cinchona alkaloid extractant (C) in 1,2-dichloroethane was studied at room temperature (294 K) in a batch system for a range of intake concentrations (10(-4)-10(-3) mol/L) and pH values (3.8-6.6). The

  2. Iridium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Intramolecular Allylic Amidation : Enantioselective Synthesis of Chiral Tetrahydroisoquinolines and Saturated Nitrogen Heterocycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teichert, Johannes F.; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Feringa, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    For the first time iridium catalysis has been used for the synthesis of chiral tetrahydroisoquinolines with excellent yields and high enantioselectivities (see scheme; cod=1,5-cyclooctadiene, DBU=1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene). These products are important chiral building blocks for the

  3. Improvement of enantioselectivity by immobilized imprinting of epoxide hydrolase from Rhodotorula glutinis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronenburg, N.A.E.; Bont, de J.A.M.; Fischer, L.

    2001-01-01

    The yeast Rhodotorula glutinis contains an enantioselective, membrane-associated epoxide hydrolase (EH). Partially purified EH was immobilized in a two-step procedure. In the first step, the proteins were derivatized with itaconic anhydride. In the second step, the derivatized proteins were

  4. A DFT exploration of the enantioselective rearrangement of cyclohexene oxide to cyclohexenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Peter; Norrby, Per-Ola; Andersson, Pher G.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present computational results for the (1S,3R,4R)-3-(pyrrolidinyl)-methyl-2-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane mediated rearrangement of cyclohexene oxide. The results nicely explain the differences in enantioselectivities between catalytic and stoichiometric mode between different ligands...

  5. Efficient and highly enantioselective formation of the all-carbon quaternary stereocentre of lyngbyatoxin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vital, Paulo J.V.; Tanner, David

    2006-01-01

    Indole 25, an advanced intermediate in a projected enantioselective total synthesis of lyngbyatoxin A 1, was prepared from allylic alcohol 11 in 9 steps and >95% ee, key transformations being the enantiospecific rearrangement of vinyl epoxide 14 and the Hemetsberger-Knittel reaction of azide 24....

  6. Uncovering Key Structural Features of an Enantioselective Peptide-Catalyzed Acylation Utilizing Advanced NMR Techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, Eliška; Kolmer, A.; Ilgen, J.; Schwab, M.; Kaltschnee, L.; Fredersdorf, M.; Schmidts, V.; Wende, R. C.; Schreiner, P. R.; Thiele, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 51 (2016), s. 15754-15759 ISSN 1433-7851 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : conformational analysis * enantioselective acylations * NMR spectroscopy * pure shift NMR * RDCs Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 11.994, year: 2016

  7. Resolution of alpha/beta-amino acids by enantioselective penicillin G acylase from Achromobacter sp

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grulich, Michal; Brezovský, J.; Štěpánek, Václav; Palyzová, Andrea; Kyslíková, Eva; Kyslík, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 122, DEC 2015 (2015), s. 240-247 ISSN 1381-1177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Penicillin G acylase * Enantioselectivity * Homologous model Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.189, year: 2015

  8. Enantioselective analysis of proteinogenic amino acids in cerebrospinal fluid by capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prior, Amir; Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Sastre-Toraño, Javier; Marina, Maria Luisa; de Jong, Gerhardus J.; Somsen, Govert W.

    2016-01-01

    d-Amino acids (AAs) are increasingly being recognized as essential molecules in biological systems. Enantioselective analysis of proteinogenic AAs in biological samples was accomplished by CE–MS employing β-CD as chiral selector and ESI via sheath-liquid (SL) interfacing. Prior to analysis, AAs were

  9. Enantioselective [3+3] atroposelective annulation catalyzed by N-heterocyclic carbenes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Changgui; Guo, Donghui; Munkerup, Kristin; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Li, Fangyi; Wang, Jian

    2018-01-01

    on the transition-metal-catalyzed transformations. Here, we report the enantioselective NHC-catalyzed (NHC: N-heterocyclic carbenes) atroposelective annulation of cyclic 1,3-diones with ynals. In the presence of NHC precatalyst, base, Lewis acid and oxidant, a

  10. Combining silver- and organocatalysis: an enantioselective sequential catalytic approach towards pyrano-annulated pyrazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Daniel; Chauhan, Pankaj; Deckers, Kristina; Mizutani, Yusuke; Raabe, Gerhard; Enders, Dieter

    2015-02-11

    A one-pot asymmetric Michael addition/hydroalkoxylation sequence, catalyzed by a sequential catalytic system consisting of a squaramide and a silver salt, provides a new series of chiral pyrano-annulated pyrazole derivatives in excellent yields (up to 95%) and high enantioselectivities (up to 97% ee).

  11. Simple Aziridino Alcohols as Chiral Ligands. Enantioselective Additions of Diethylzinc to N-Diphenylphosphinoylimines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Andersson, Pher G.; Guijarro, David

    1996-01-01

    Simple chiral aziridino alcohols 2-5, easily available from L-serine, L-threonine or L-allo-threonine, have been used as ligands to promote the addition of Et(2)Zn to the diphenylphosphinoylimine 1 (Ar=Ph). Enantioselectivities of up to 94% could be obtained by proper choice of the substituents...

  12. Pd(II)-Catalyzed Enantioselective C-H Olefination of Diphenylacetic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bing-Feng; Zhang, Yang-Hui; Lam, Jonathan K.; Wang, Dong-Hui; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2009-01-01

    Pd(II)-catalyzed enantioselective C-H olefination of diphenylacetic acid substrates has been achieved through the use of mono-protected chiral amino acid ligands. The absolute configuration of the resulting olefinated products is consistent with that of a proposed C-H insertion intermediate. PMID:20017549

  13. A Green, Enantioselective Synthesis of Warfarin for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Terence C.; Sultana, Camille M.; Vosburg, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of drugs is of fundamental importance in the pharmaceutical industry. In this experiment, students synthesize either enantiomer of warfarin, a widely used anticoagulant, in a single step from inexpensive starting materials. Stereoselectivity is induced by a commercial organocatalyst, ("R","R")- or…

  14. Metabolism of styrene in the human liver in vitro: interindividual variation and enantioselectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenker, M. A.; Kezić, S.; Monster, A. C.; de Wolff, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    1. The interindividual variation and enantioselectivity of the in vitro styrene oxidation by cytochrome P450 have been investigated in 20 human microsomal liver samples. Liver samples were genotyped for the CYP2E1*6 and CYP2E1*5B alleles. 2. Kinetic analysis indicated the presence of at least two

  15. Enantioselective Evans-Tishchenko Reduction of b-Hydroxyketone Catalyzed by Lithium Binaphtholate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Nakajima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithium diphenylbinaphtholate catalyzed the enantioselective Evans-Tishchenko reduction of achiral b-hydroxyketones to afford monoacyl-protected 1,3-diols with high stereoselectivities. In the reaction of racemic b-hydroxyketones, kinetic optical resolution occurred in a highly stereoselective manner.

  16. Electronic Nose Testing Procedure for the Definition of Minimum Performance Requirements for Environmental Odor Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Eusebio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite initial enthusiasm towards electronic noses and their possible application in different fields, and quite a lot of promising results, several criticalities emerge from most published research studies, and, as a matter of fact, the diffusion of electronic noses in real-life applications is still very limited. In general, a first step towards large-scale-diffusion of an analysis method, is standardization. The aim of this paper is describing the experimental procedure adopted in order to evaluate electronic nose performances, with the final purpose of establishing minimum performance requirements, which is considered to be a first crucial step towards standardization of the specific case of electronic nose application for environmental odor monitoring at receptors. Based on the experimental results of the performance testing of a commercialized electronic nose type with respect to three criteria (i.e., response invariability to variable atmospheric conditions, instrumental detection limit, and odor classification accuracy, it was possible to hypothesize a logic that could be adopted for the definition of minimum performance requirements, according to the idea that these are technologically achievable.

  17. Profiling of The Lemongrass Oil Aroma and Their Structure-Odor Relationship: In Silico Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udrika Lailatul Qodri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Structure-odor relationship (SOR has previously studied by semantic numerically in different Fragrance. We hypothesise that in silico method such as molecular dynamics, together with docking of the interaction between human olfactory receptor (OR1G1 and ligands, can offer extremely valuable tools of modelling SOR. Hence, the present study was carried out to express the SOR of citronellal oil fraction compare with reference smelling of floral, musk, green, wood, and fruit by employing docking and multiple discriminant analysis (MDA. Our study reveals that the number dissociation constant (Kd, bond distance, HOMO-LUMO (AE, dipole moment, kind of amino acids, Log P, surface area and hydropathy as the variable SOR from in silico anaysis. Our result has shown ligands and OR1G1 interacted with Van Der Waals and electrostatic model. MDA analysis shown molecule reference floral and fraction of lemongrass oil have similar correlation based on variable SOR with linier regression of all variable SOR to Kd value for every reference odor is R2 = 1.

  18. Role of a Ubiquitously Expressed Receptor in the Vertebrate Olfactory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaria, Shannon; Berke, Allison P.; Van Name, Eric; Heravian, Anisa; Ferreira, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Odorant cues are recognized by receptors expressed on olfactory sensory neurons, the primary sensory neurons of the olfactory epithelium. Odorant receptors typically obey the “one receptor, one neuron” rule, in which the receptive field of the olfactory neuron is determined by the singular odorant receptor that it expresses. Odor-evoked receptor activity across the population of olfactory neurons is then interpreted by the brain to identify the molecular nature of the odorant stimulus. In the present study, we characterized the properties of a C family G-protein-coupled receptor that, unlike most other odorant receptors, is expressed in a large population of microvillous sensory neurons in the zebrafish olfactory epithelium and the mouse vomeronasal organ. We found that this receptor, OlfCc1 in zebrafish and its murine ortholog Vmn2r1, is a calcium-dependent, low-sensitivity receptor specific for the hydrophobic amino acids isoleucine, leucine, and valine. Loss-of-function experiments in zebrafish embryos demonstrate that OlfCc1 is required for olfactory responses to a diverse mixture of polar, nonpolar, acidic, and basic amino acids. OlfCc1 was also found to promote localization of other OlfC receptor family members to the plasma membrane in heterologous cells. Together, these results suggest that the broadly expressed OlfCc1 is required for amino acid detection by the olfactory system and suggest that it plays a role in the function and/or intracellular trafficking of other olfactory and vomeronasal receptors with which it is coexpressed. PMID:24048853

  19. A unique memory process modulated by emotion underpins successful odor recognition and episodic retrieval in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise eSaive

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We behaviorally explore the link between olfaction, emotion and memory by testing the hypothesis that the emotion carried by odors facilitates the memory of specific unique events. To investigate this idea, we used a novel behavioral approach inspired by a paradigm developed by our team to study episodic memory in a controlled and as ecological as possible way in humans. The participants freely explored three unique and rich laboratory episodes; each episode consisted of three unfamiliar odors (What positioned at three specific locations (Where within a visual context (Which context. During the retrieval test, which occurred 24 to 72 hours after the encoding, odors were used to trigger the retrieval of the complex episodes. The participants were proficient in recognizing the target odors among distractors and retrieving the visuospatial context in which they were encountered. The episodic nature of the task generated high and stable memory performances, which were accompanied by faster responses and slower and deeper breathing. Successful odor recognition and episodic memory were not related to differences in odor investigation at encoding. However, memory performances were influenced by the emotional content of the odors, regardless of odor valence, with both pleasant and unpleasant odors generating higher recognition and episodic retrieval than neutral odors. Finally, the present study also suggested that when the binding between the odors and the spatio-contextual features of the episode was successful, the odor recognition and the episodic retrieval collapsed into a unique memory process that began as soon as the participants smelled the odors.

  20. Walking patterns induced by learned odors in the honeybee, Apis mellifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Toshiya; Haupt, S Shuichi; Ikeno, Hidetoshi; Ai, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The odor localization strategy induced by odors learned via differential conditioning of the proboscis extension response was investigated in honeybees. In response to reward-associated but not non-reward-associated odors, learners walked longer paths than non-learners and control bees. When orange odor reward association was learned, the path length and the body turn angles were small during odor stimulation and greatly increased after stimulation ceased. In response to orange odor, bees walked locally with alternate left and right turns during odor stimulation to search for the reward-associated odor source. After odor stimulation, bees walked long paths with large turn angles to explore the odor plume. For clove odor, learning-related modulations of locomotion were less pronounced, presumably due to a spontaneous preference for orange in the tested population of bees. This study is the first to describe how an odor-reward association modulates odor-induced walking in bees. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. What's that smell? An ecological approach to understanding preferences for familiar odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Karen B; Goldberger, Carolyn S; Palmer, Stephen E; Levitan, Carmel A

    2015-01-01

    How do odor preferences arise? Following Palmer and Schloss's (2010, PNAS, 107, 8877-8882) ecological valence theory of color preferences, we propose that preference for an odor is determined by preferences for all objects and/or entities associated with that odor. The present results showed that preferences for familiar odors were strongly predicted by average preferences for all things associated with the odors (eg people liked the apple odor which was associated with mostly positive things, such as apples, soap, and candy, but disliked the fish odor, which was associated with mostly negative things, such as dead fish, trash, and vomit). The odor WAVEs (weighted affective valence estimates) performed significantly better than one based on preference for only the namesake object (eg predicting preference for the apple odor based on preference for apples). These results suggest that preferences for familiar odors are based on a summary statistic, coding the valence of previous odor-related experiences. We discuss how this account of odor preferences is consistent with the idea that odor preferences exist to guide organisms to approach beneficial objects and situations and avoid harmful ones.

  2. A unique memory process modulated by emotion underpins successful odor recognition and episodic retrieval in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saive, Anne-Lise; Royet, Jean-Pierre; Ravel, Nadine; Thévenet, Marc; Garcia, Samuel; Plailly, Jane

    2014-01-01

    We behaviorally explore the link between olfaction, emotion and memory by testing the hypothesis that the emotion carried by odors facilitates the memory of specific unique events. To investigate this idea, we used a novel behavioral approach inspired by a paradigm developed by our team to study episodic memory in a controlled and as ecological as possible way in humans. The participants freely explored three unique and rich laboratory episodes; each episode consisted of three unfamiliar odors (What) positioned at three specific locations (Where) within a visual context (Which context). During the retrieval test, which occurred 24–72 h after the encoding, odors were used to trigger the retrieval of the complex episodes. The participants were proficient in recognizing the target odors among distractors and retrieving the visuospatial context in which they were encountered. The episodic nature of the task generated high and stable memory performances, which were accompanied by faster responses and slower and deeper breathing. Successful odor recognition and episodic memory were not related to differences in odor investigation at encoding. However, memory performances were influenced by the emotional content of the odors, regardless of odor valence, with both pleasant and unpleasant odors generating higher recognition and episodic retrieval than neutral odors. Finally, the present study also suggested that when the binding between the odors and the spatio-contextual features of the episode was successful, the odor recognition and the episodic retrieval collapsed into a unique memory process that began as soon as the participants smelled the odors. PMID:24936176

  3. Nanocellulose-Zeolite Composite Films for Odor Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Neda; Mashayekhy Rad, Farshid; Mace, Amber; Ansari, Farhan; Akhtar, Farid; Nilsson, Ulrika; Berglund, Lars; Bergström, Lennart

    2015-07-08

    Free standing and strong odor-removing composite films of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) with a high content of nanoporous zeolite adsorbents have been colloidally processed. Thermogravimetric desorption analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy combined with computational simulations showed that commercially available silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 have a high affinity and uptake of volatile odors like ethanethiol and propanethiol, also in the presence of water. The simulations showed that propanethiol has a higher affinity, up to 16%, to the two zeolites compared with ethanethiol. Highly flexible and strong free-standing zeolite-CNF films with an adsorbent loading of 89 w/w% have been produced by Ca-induced gelation and vacuum filtration. The CNF-network controls the strength of the composite films and 100 μm thick zeolite-CNF films with a CNF content of less than 10 vol % displayed a tensile strength approaching 10 MPa. Headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis showed that the CNF-zeolite films can eliminate the volatile thiol-based odors to concentrations below the detection ability of the human olfactory system. Odor removing zeolite-cellulose nanofibril films could enable improved transport and storage of fruits and vegetables rich in odors, for example, onion and the tasty but foul-smelling South-East Asian Durian fruit.

  4. Intranasal localizability of odorants: influence of stimulus volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasnelli, J; Hummel, T; Berg, J; Huang, G; Doty, R L

    2011-05-01

    When an odorant is presented to one side of the nose and air to the other, the ability to localize which side received the odorant depends upon trigeminal nerve stimulation. It has been shown that performance on this lateralization task increases as stimulus concentration increases. In this study, we determined the influences of stimulus volume and sex on the ability to localize each of 8 odorants presented at neat concentrations: anethole, geraniol, limonene, linalool, menthol, methyl salicylate, phenyl ethanol, and vanillin. At a low stimulus volume (11 mL), only menthol was localized at an above-chance level. At a high stimulus volume (21 mL), above-chance localization occurred for all odorants except vanillin. Women were significantly better than men in localizing menthol. Stimuli rated as most intense were those that were most readily localized. The detection performance measures, as well as rated intensity values, significantly correlated with earlier findings of the trigeminal detectability of odorants presented to anosmic and normosmic subjects. This study suggests that differences in stimulus volume may explain some discrepant findings within the trigeminal chemosensory literature and supports the concept that vanillin may be a "relatively pure" olfactory stimulus.

  5. Proposed Objective Odor Control Test Methodology for Waste Containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    The Orion Cockpit Working Group has requested that an odor control testing methodology be proposed to evaluate the odor containment effectiveness of waste disposal bags to be flown on the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. As a standardized "odor containment" test does not appear to be a matter of record for the project, a new test method is being proposed. This method is based on existing test methods used in industrial hygiene for the evaluation of respirator fit in occupational settings, and takes into consideration peer reviewed documentation of human odor thresholds for standardized contaminates, industry stardnard atmostpheric testing methodologies, and established criteria for laboratory analysis. The proposed methodology is quantitative, though it can readily be complimented with a qualitative subjective assessment. Isoamyl acetate (IAA - also known at isopentyl acetate) is commonly used in respirator fit testing, and there are documented methodologies for both measuring its quantitative airborne concentrations. IAA is a clear, colorless liquid with a banana-like odor, documented detectable smell threshold for humans of 0.025 PPM, and a 15 PPB level of quantation limit.

  6. Odorant transfer characteristics of white bread during baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Masanobu; Inoue, Michiko; Araki, Tetsuya; Iwabuchi, Hisakatsu; Sagara, Yasuyuki

    2011-01-01

    The potent odorants in the crust and crumb of white bread were identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/olfactometry. The weight loss ratio of the samples baked at 220 °C was controlled in the range of 0-28%. The odorants were classified into 5 types by the transfer characteristics: i) All amounts of odorant transferred from the crust to external space (type-I). ii) All transferred from the crust to the crumb and external space (type-II). iii) Certain amount remaining in the crust and the rest transferred to the crumb and external space (type-III). iv) All transferred from the crumb to external space (type-IV). v) Certain amount remaining in the crumb and the rest transferred to the crust and external space (type-V). The odorants of type-IV were not apparent after the crust had formed. The results indicate that the crust could be a barrier to prevent the odorants from being transferred to external space.

  7. Taste and odor recognition memory: the emotional flavor of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Maria Isabel

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, our knowledge of the neurobiology of taste and smell has greatly increased; by using several learning models, we now have a better understanding of the behavioral and neurochemical basis of memory recognition. Studies have provided new evidence of some processes that depend on prior experience with the specific combination of sensory stimuli. This review contains recent research related to taste and odor recognition memory, and the goal is to highlight the role of two prominent brain structures, the insular cortex and the amygdala. These structures have an important function during learning and memory and have been associated with the differences in learning induced by the diverse degrees of emotion during taste/odor memory formation, either aversive or appetitive or when taste and odor are combined and/or potentiated.Therefore, this review includes information about certain neurochemical transmitters and their interactions during appetitive or aversive taste memory formation,taste-potentiated odor aversion memory, and conditioned odor aversion, which might be able to maintain the complex processes necessary for flavor recognition memory.

  8. Floral odor learning within the hive affects honeybees' foraging decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Andrés; Fernández, Vanesa M.; Farina, Walter M.

    2007-03-01

    Honeybees learn odor cues quickly and efficiently when visiting rewarding flowers. Memorization of these cues facilitates the localization and recognition of food sources during foraging flights. Bees can also use information gained inside the hive during social interactions with successful foragers. An important information cue that can be learned during these interactions is food odor. However, little is known about how floral odors learned in the hive affect later decisions of foragers in the field. We studied the effect of food scent on foraging preferences when this learning is acquired directly inside the hive. By using in-hive feeders that were removed 24 h before the test, we showed that foragers use the odor information acquired during a 3-day stimulation period with a scented solution during a food-choice situation outside the nest. This bias in food preference is maintained even 24 h after the replacement of all the hive combs. Thus, without being previously collected outside by foragers, food odors learned within the hive can be used during short-range foraging flights. Moreover, correct landings at a dual-choice device after replacing the storing combs suggests that long-term memories formed within the colony can be retrieved while bees search for food in the field.

  9. Dispersion of odorants in natural gas distribution networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, R.; Fontana, E.; Silva, A.; Quadri, M. B.; Souza, S. M. A. G. U.

    2018-03-01

    A numerical modeling analysis of a pulse train diffusion, representing an odorant injection in a natural gas pipeline, was carried out and compared with experimental data from a real pipeline. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate how the odorant dispersion occurs along the pipe. Due to technical limitations, the odorant is injected in the line as a pulse and it is important to find out the point in the pipeline where the oscillating concentration of odorant fits into a range of values that meet both the legislation and the interests of customers who may have the quality of their products affected by this oscillation. Since the natural gas pipelines do not have strong streamline curvatures and the flow is always turbulent, it is relatively easy to determine the velocity and concentration fields using the Computational Fluid Dynamics techniques. In this study the RANS (Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes) equations with the k - ɛ turbulence model was used to build the mathematical model. Comparisons of the experimental data and numerical results show a strong agreement for the studied cases. Based on the results, it was possible to know the minimum and maximum values of odorant concentration along the pipelines.

  10. MouSensor: A Versatile Genetic Platform to Create Super Sniffer Mice for Studying Human Odor Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte D’Hulst

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Typically, ∼0.1% of the total number of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs in the main olfactory epithelium express the same odorant receptor (OR in a singular fashion and their axons coalesce into homotypic glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. Here, we have dramatically increased the total number of OSNs expressing specific cloned OR coding sequences by multimerizing a 21-bp sequence encompassing the predicted homeodomain binding site sequence, TAATGA, known to be essential in OR gene choice. Singular gene choice is maintained in these “MouSensors.” In vivo synaptopHluorin imaging of odor-induced responses by known M71 ligands shows functional glomerular activation in an M71 MouSensor. Moreover, a behavioral avoidance task demonstrates that specific odor detection thresholds are significantly decreased in multiple transgenic lines, expressing mouse or human ORs. We have developed a versatile platform to study gene choice and axon identity, to create biosensors with great translational potential, and to finally decode human olfaction.

  11. MouSensor: A Versatile Genetic Platform to Create Super Sniffer Mice for Studying Human Odor Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hulst, Charlotte; Mina, Raena B; Gershon, Zachary; Jamet, Sophie; Cerullo, Antonio; Tomoiaga, Delia; Bai, Li; Belluscio, Leonardo; Rogers, Matthew E; Sirotin, Yevgeniy; Feinstein, Paul

    2016-07-26

    Typically, ∼0.1% of the total number of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the main olfactory epithelium express the same odorant receptor (OR) in a singular fashion and their axons coalesce into homotypic glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. Here, we have dramatically increased the total number of OSNs expressing specific cloned OR coding sequences by multimerizing a 21-bp sequence encompassing the predicted homeodomain binding site sequence, TAATGA, known to be essential in OR gene choice. Singular gene choice is maintained in these "MouSensors." In vivo synaptopHluorin imaging of odor-induced responses by known M71 ligands shows functional glomerular activation in an M71 MouSensor. Moreover, a behavioral avoidance task demonstrates that specific odor detection thresholds are significantly decreased in multiple transgenic lines, expressing mouse or human ORs. We have developed a versatile platform to study gene choice and axon identity, to create biosensors with great translational potential, and to finally decode human olfaction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an enantioselective halohydrin dehalogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, René M. de; Rozeboom, Henriëtte J.; Kalk, Kor H.; Tang, Lixia; Janssen, Dick B.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2002-01-01

    Halohydrin dehalogenases are key enzymes in the bacterial degradation of vicinal halopropanols and structurally related nematocides. Crystals of the enantioselective halohydrin dehalogenase HheC from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 have been obtained at room temperature from hanging-drop

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an enantioselective halohydrin dehalogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, RM; Rozeboom, HJ; Kalk, KH; Tang, Lixia; Janssen, DB; Dijkstra, BW

    Halohydrin dehalogenases are key enzymes in the bacterial degradation of vicinal halopropanols and structurally related nematocides. Crystals of the enantioselective halohydrin dehalogenase HheC from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 have been obtained at room temperature from hanging-drop

  14. Total syntheses of mitragynine, paynantheine and speciogynine via an enantioselective thiourea-catalysed Pictet-Spengler reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerschgens, I. P.; Claveau, E.; Wanner, M.J.; Ingemann, S.; van Maarseveen, J.H.; Hiemstra, H.

    2012-01-01

    The pharmacologically interesting indole alkaloids (-)-mitragynine, (+)-paynantheine and (+)-speciogynine were synthesised in nine steps from 4-methoxytryptamine by a route featuring (i) an enantioselective thiourea-catalysed Pictet-Spengler reaction, providing the tetrahydro-β-carboline ring and

  15. One pot 'click' reactions : tandem enantioselective biocatalytic epoxide ring opening and [3+2] azide alkyne cycloaddition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campbell-Verduyn, Lachlan S.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Postema, Christiaan P.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Janssen, Dick B.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2010-01-01

    Halohydrin dehalogenase (HheC) can perform enantioselective azidolysis of aromatic epoxides to 1,2-azido alcohols which are subsequently ligated to alkynes producing chiral hydroxy triazoles in a one-pot procedure with excellent enantiomeric excess.

  16. Tuning and Switching Enantioselectivity of Asymmetric Carboligation in an Enzyme through Mutational Analysis of a Single Hot Spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Cindy; Meyer, Danilo; Loschonsky, Sabrina; Funk, Lisa-Marie; Neumann, Piotr; Ficner, Ralf; Brodhun, Florian; Müller, Michael; Tittmann, Kai

    2015-12-01

    Enantioselective bond making and breaking is a hallmark of enzyme action, yet switching the enantioselectivity of the reaction is a difficult undertaking, and typically requires extensive screening of mutant libraries and multiple mutations. Here, we demonstrate that mutational diversification of a single catalytic hot spot in the enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase gives access to both enantiomers of acyloins acetoin and phenylacetylcarbinol, important pharmaceutical precursors, in the case of acetoin even starting from the unselective wild-type protein. Protein crystallography was used to rationalize these findings and to propose a mechanistic model of how enantioselectivity is controlled. In a broader context, our studies highlight the efficiency of mechanism-inspired and structure-guided rational protein design for enhancing and switching enantioselectivity of enzymatic reactions, by systematically exploring the biocatalytic potential of a single hot spot. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The effects of cue distinctiveness on odor-based context-dependent memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, R S

    1997-05-01

    The distinctiveness of an ambient odor was examined in relation to its success as a cue in context-dependent memory. Distinctiveness was examined in terms of both cue novelty and contextual appropriateness. Two experiments were conducted in which three different ambient odors that varied in familiarity and contextual appropriateness were manipulated at an incidental word learning encoding session and at a free recall retrieval session 48 h later. Experiment 1 revealed that when a novel ambient odor (osmanthus) was the available context cue, word recall was better than in any other condition. Further, among familiar odor cues, recall was better with a contextually inappropriate odor (peppermint) than with a contextually appropriate odor (clean fresh pine). Experiment 2 confirmed that superior word recall with osmanthus and peppermint depended on the odor cue's being available at both encoding and retrieval, and that the relation of an odor to the situational context is a key factor for predicting its effectiveness as a retrieval cue.

  18. Multi-Sensor Integration to Map Odor Distribution for the Detection of Chemical Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of mapping odor distribution derived from a chemical source using multi-sensor integration and reasoning system design. Odor localization is the problem of finding the source of an odor or other volatile chemical. Most localization methods require a mobile vehicle to follow an odor plume along its entire path, which is time consuming and may be especially difficult in a cluttered environment. To solve both of the above challenges, this paper proposes a novel algorithm that combines data from odor and anemometer sensors, and combine sensors’ data at different positions. Initially, a multi-sensor integration method, together with the path of airflow was used to map the pattern of odor particle movement. Then, more sensors are introduced at specific regions to determine the probable location of the odor source. Finally, the results of odor source location simulation and a real experiment are presented.

  19. Odor impact of volatiles emitted from marijuana, cocaine, heroin and their surrogate scents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchai Rice

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds emitted into headspace from illicit street drugs have been identified, but until now odor impact of these compounds have not been reported. Data in support of identification of these compounds and their odor impact to human nose are presented. In addition, data is reported on odor detection thresholds for canines highlighting differences with human ODTs and needs to address gaps in knowledge. New data presented here include: (1 compound identification, (2 gas chromatography (GC column retention times, (3 mass spectral data, (4 odor descriptors from 2 databases, (5 human odor detection thresholds from 2 databases, (6 calculated odor activity values, and (7 subsequent ranking of compounds by concentration and ranking of compounds by odor impact (reported as calculated odor activity values. For further interpretation and discussion, see Rice and Koziel [1] and Rice [2].

  20. Electronic Nose Odor Classification with Advanced Decision Tree Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guney

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic nose (e-nose is an electronic device which can measure chemical compounds in air and consequently classify different odors. In this paper, an e-nose device consisting of 8 different gas sensors was designed and constructed. Using this device, 104 different experiments involving 11 different odor classes (moth, angelica root, rose, mint, polis, lemon, rotten egg, egg, garlic, grass, and acetone were performed. The main contribution of this paper is the finding that using the chemical domain knowledge it is possible to train an accurate odor classification system. The domain knowledge about chemical compounds is represented by a decision tree whose nodes are composed of classifiers such as Support Vector Machines and k-Nearest Neighbor. The overall accuracy achieved with the proposed algorithm and the constructed e-nose device was 97.18 %. Training and testing data sets used in this paper are published online.

  1. Differential odor processing in two olfactory pathways in the honeybee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Yamagata

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An important component in understanding central olfactory processing and coding in the insect brain relates to the characterization of the functional divisions between morphologically distinct types of projection neurons (PN. Using calcium imaging, we investigated how the identity, concentration and mixtures of odors are represented in axon terminals (boutons of two types of PNs - lPN and mPN. In lPN boutons we found less concentration dependence, narrow tuning profiles at a high concentration, which may be optimized for fine, concentration-invariant odor discrimination. In mPN boutons, however, we found clear rising concentration dependence, broader tuning profiles at a high concentration, which may be optimized for concentration coding. In addition, we found more mixture suppression in lPNs than in mPNs, indicating lPNs better adaptation for synthetic mixture processing. These results suggest a functional division of odor processing in both PN types.

  2. Odor supported place cell model and goal navigation in rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulvicius, Tomas; Tamosiunaite, Minija; Ainge, James

    2008-01-01

    Experiments with rodents demonstrate that visual cues play an important role in the control of hippocampal place cells and spatial navigation. Nevertheless, rats may also rely on auditory, olfactory and somatosensory stimuli for orientation. It is also known that rats can track odors or self......-generated scent marks to find a food source. Here we model odor supported place cells by using a simple feed-forward network and analyze the impact of olfactory cues on place cell formation and spatial navigation. The obtained place cells are used to solve a goal navigation task by a novel mechanism based on self......-marking by odor patches combined with a Q-learning algorithm. We also analyze the impact of place cell remapping on goal directed behavior when switching between two environments. We emphasize the importance of olfactory cues in place cell formation and show that the utility of environmental and self...

  3. Enantioselective synthesis of chiral 3-aryl-1-indanones through rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric intramolecular 1,4-addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue-Na; Xu, Ming-Hua

    2013-03-15

    Enantioselective synthesis of potentially useful chiral 3-aryl-1-indanones was achieved through a rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric intramolecular 1,4-addition of pinacolborane chalcone derivatives using extraordinary simple MonoPhos as chiral ligand under relatively mild conditions. This novel protocol offers an easy access to a wide variety of enantioenriched 3-aryl-1-indanone derivatives in high yields (up to 95%) with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 95% ee).

  4. L-Threonine-derived novel bifunctional phosphine-sulfonamide catalyst-promoted enantioselective aza-morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Fangrui

    2011-03-18

    A series of novel bifunctional phosphine-sulfonamide organic catalysts were designed and readily prepared from natural amino acids, and they were utilized to promote enantioselective aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reactions. l-Threonine-derived phosphine-sulfonamide 9b was found to be the most efficient catalyst, affording the desired aza-MBH adducts in high yields and with excellent enantioselectivities. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  5. Enantioselective Construction of 3-Hydroxypiperidine Scaffolds by Sequential Action of Light and Rhodium upon N-Allylglyoxylamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Naoki; Nečas, David; Masuda, Yusuke; Murakami, Masahiro

    2015-06-15

    3-Hydroxypiperidine scaffolds were enantioselectively constructed in an atom-economical way by sequential action of light and rhodium upon N-allylglyoxylamides. In a formal sense, the allylic C-H bond was selectively cleaved and enantioselectively added across the ketonic carbonyl group with migration of the double bond (carbonyl-ene-type reaction). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Catalytic Enantioselective Synthesis of 3,4-Unsubstituted Thiochromenes through Sulfa-Michael/Julia-Kocienski Olefination Cascade Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simlandy, Amit Kumar; Mukherjee, Santanu

    2017-05-05

    A highly enantioselective cascade sulfa-Michael/Julia-Kocienski olefination reaction between 2-mercaptobenzaldehydes and β-substituted vinyl PT-sulfones has been realized for the synthesis of 3,4-unsubstituted 2H-thiochromenes. This reaction, catalyzed by diphenylprolinol TMS ether, proceeds through an aromatic iminium intermediate and furnishes a wide range of 2-substiuted 2H-thiochromenes with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99:1 er).

  7. Enantioselective silver nanoclusters: Preparation, characterization and photoluminescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrag, Mostafa, E-mail: mostafafarrag@aun.edu.eg

    2016-09-01

    prepared silver nanoclusters were investigated using nitrogen adsorption-desorption at −196 °C. Specific surface area S{sub BET}, pore volume and average pore diameter were calculated. - Highlights: • New wet chemistry method to prepare mirror image small silver clusters protected by penicillamine. • Preparation enantioselective catalysts by easy wet chemistry method. • The synthesized silver clusters have photoluminescence properties. • The synthesized silver clusters show high Anisotropy factors up to 3 × 10{sup −4}. • The adsorption isotherms of all synthesized clusters are mainly of type II of Brunaue’s classification.

  8. Character impact odorants of fennel fruits and fennel tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Annette; Rychlik, Michael

    2006-05-17

    The flavor of fennel fruits and fennel tea was examined by aroma extract dilution analysis of the respective dichloromethane extracts. In both fennel fruits and tea, trans-anethole, anisaldehyde, and trans-4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decenal showed high flavor dilution (FD) factors followed by fenchone, 1,8-cineole, (R)-alpha-pinene, estragole, and beta-myrcene. On the basis of these results, the odorants showing higher FD factors were quantified in tea as well as in fruits, and odor activity values (OAV) in tea were calculated by dividing the concentration of the compound by its recognition threshold in water. The highest OAV was found for trans-anethole, followed by estragole, fenchone, 1,8-cineole, (R)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and anisaldehyde. From a comparison of the concentrations of odorants in fruits and tea, trans-anethole and estragole showed similar extraction rates of approximately 10-15%, whereas the extraction rates for (R)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and limonene were below 2%. In contrast to this, fenchone, camphor, linalool, and carvone showed higher extraction rates (26-50%), whereas the high apparent extraction rates of anisalcohol (393%) and vanilline (480%) were attributed to the formation from precursors. Sensory studies of aqueous models containing odorants in the amounts quantified in fennel teas revealed high similarity of the models with the tea and proved that all impact odorants had been identified in their correct concentrations. Further sensory experiments showed that estragole had no odor impact on the overall flavor of fennel tea, and, therefore, a reduction of estragole in fennel products would have no negative impact on their sensoric quality. In contrast to this, trans-anethole and fenchone were found to be character impact compounds of fennel.

  9. Epac Activation Initiates Associative Odor Preference Memories in the Rat Pup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Matthew T.; Powell, Maria; Gutierrez, Sandra Mohammed; Darby-King, Andrea; Harley, Carolyn W.; McLean, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Here we examine the role of the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) in ß-adrenergic-dependent associative odor preference learning in rat pups. Bulbar Epac agonist (8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cAMP, or 8-pCPT) infusions, paired with odor, initiated preference learning, which was selective for the paired odor. Interestingly, pairing odor with Epac…

  10. Cyclic aldimines as superior electrophiles for Cu-catalyzed decarboxylative Mannich reaction of β-ketoacids with a broad scope and high enantioselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng-Xia; Nie, Jing; Cai, Hua; Ma, Jun-An

    2014-05-02

    A novel Cu-catalyzed enantioselective decarboxylative Mannich reaction of cyclic aldimines with β-ketoacids is described. The cyclic structure of these aldimines, in which the C═N bond is constrained in the Z geometry, appears to be important, allowing Mannich condensation to proceed in high yields with excellent enantioselectivities. A chiral chroman-4-amine was synthesized from the decarboxylative Mannich product in several steps without loss of enantioselectivity.

  11. Molecular cloning, expression, and sequence analysis of GPRC6A, a novel family C G-protein-coupled receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2004-01-01

    with a significant homology to the human calcium-sensing receptor (CaR, 34% aa sequence identity), the taste receptor 1 (T1R1, 28%), and the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1, 24%), places GPRC6A in family C of the GPCRs. Interestingly, GPRC6A bears the highest resemblance with an odorant goldfish 5...

  12. Noradrenergic Control of Odor Recognition in a Nonassociative Olfactory Learning Task in the Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyrac, Alexandra; Nguyen, Veronique; Marien, Marc; Didier, Anne; Jourdan, Francois

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of pharmacological modulations of the locus coeruleus noradrenergic system on odor recognition in the mouse. Mice exposed to a nonrewarded olfactory stimulation (training) were able to memorize this odor and to discriminate it from a new odor in a recall test performed 15 min later. At longer delays (30 or…

  13. Individually identifiable body odors are produced by the gorilla and discriminated by humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepper, Peter G; Wells, Deborah L

    2010-05-01

    Many species produce odor cues that enable them to be identified individually, as well as providing other socially relevant information. Study of the role of odor cues in the social behavior of great apes is noticeable by its absence. Olfaction has been viewed as having little role in guiding behavior in these species. This study examined whether Western lowland gorillas produce an individually identifiable odor. Odor samples were obtained by placing cloths in the gorilla's den. A delayed matching to sample task was used with human participants (n = 100) to see if they were able to correctly match a target odor sample to a choice of either: 2 odors (the target sample and another, Experiment 1) and 6 odors (the target sample and 5 others, Experiment 2). Participants were correctly able to identify the target odor when given either 2 or 6 matches. Subjects made fewest errors when matching the odor of the silverback, whereas matching the odors of the young gorillas produced most errors. The results indicate that gorillas do produce individually identifiable body odors and introduce the possibility that odor cues may play a role in gorilla social behavior.

  14. Sensory Preconditioning in Newborn Rabbits: From Common to Distinct Odor Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coureaud, Gerard; Tourat, Audrey; Ferreira, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated whether olfactory preconditioning is functional in newborn rabbits and based on joined or independent memory of odorants. First, after exposure to odorants A+B, the conditioning of A led to high responsiveness to odorant B. Second, responsiveness to B persisted after amnesia of A. Third, preconditioning was also functional…

  15. DESIGN MANUAL: ODOR AND CORROSION CONTROL IN SANITARY SEWERAGE SYSTEMS AND TREATMENT PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater is known to the public for its potential to create odor nuisance. Sometimes it is the odors escaping from sewer manholes that cause complaints; more commonly, the odor source is a wastewater treatment facility. Yet there are wastewater treatment facilities that are fr...

  16. The origin of enantioselectivity in the l-threonine-derived phosphine-sulfonamide catalyzed aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction: Effects of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Richmond

    2013-01-01

    l-Threonine-derived phosphine-sulfonamide 4 was identified as the most efficient catalyst to promote enantioselective aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reactions, affording the desired aza-MBH adducts with excellent enantioselectivities. Density functional theory (DFT) studies were carried out to elucidate the origin of the observed enantioselectivity. The importance of the intramolecular N-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding interaction between the sulfonamide and enolate groups was identified to be crucial in inducing a high degree of stereochemical control in both the enolate addition to imine and the subsequent proton transfer step, affording aza-MBH reactions with excellent enantioselectivity. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Gestão de odores: fundamentos do Nariz Eletrônico Odor management: fundamentals of Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Melo Lisboa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Narizes Eletrônicos têm sido desenvolvidos para detecção automática e classificação de odores, vapores e gases. São instrumentos capazes de medir a concentração ou intensidade odorante de modo similar a um olfatômetro, mas sem as limitações inerentes ao uso de painéis humanos, o que é altamente desejável. Um Nariz Eletrônico é geralmente composto por um sistema de sensores químicos e um sistema eletrônico associado à inteligência artificial para reconhecimento. Têm sido aplicados em muitas áreas, tais como análise de alimentos, controles ambientais e diagnósticos médicos. Do ponto de vista ambiental, sistemas de Narizes Eletrônicos vêm sendo usados para monitorar a qualidade do ar, detectar fontes e quantificar emissões odorantes. Este artigo pretende apresentar os fundamentos dos Narizes Eletrônicos.Electronic noses have been developed for automatic detection and classification of odors, vapors and gases. They are instruments capable to identify odors as the human nose does, and measure the odor concentration or intensity according to similar metrics as an olfactometer, but without the inherent limitations of human panels. An Electronic Nose is generally composed of a matrix of chemical sensors and computer based system for odor recognition and classification. It has been applied in many areas, such as food quality analysis, explosives detection, environmental monitoring and medical diagnosis. In the ambient environment, systems of Electronic Noses have been used to monitor the quality of air and to detect and quantify odor sources and emissions. This article intends to present the fundamentals and main characteristics of Electronic Noses.

  18. Enantioselective Analysis in instruments onboard ROSETTA/PHILAE and ExoMars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrik Bredehöft, Jan; Thiemann, Wolfram; Meierhenrich, Uwe; Goesmann, Fred

    It has been suggested a number of times in the past, to look for chirality as a biomarker. So far, for lack of appropriate instrumentation, space missions have never included enantioselective analysis. The distinction between enantiomers is of crucial importance to the question of the origin of the very first (pre)biotic molecules. If molecules detected in situ on another celestial body were found to exhibit a chiral bias, this would mean that at least partial asymmetric synthesis could take place abiotically. If this chiral bias should be found to be near 100For the currently flying ESA mission ROSETTA an enantioselective instrument was built, to try for the first time to detect and separate chiral molecules in situ. This instrument is COSAC, the Cometary Sampling and Acquisition Experiment, an enantioselective GCMS device[1,2], which is included in the lander PHLIAE that will eventually in 2014 land on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. A similar but even more powerful type of enantioselective GC-MS is in preparation for ESA's ExoMars mission. This instrument is part of MOMA, the Mars Organic Molecules Analyser. It has the objective of identifying and quantifying chiral organic molecules in surface and subsurface samples of Mars. Currently ExoMars is scheduled for 2018. The newly developed enantioselective technique utilized by both COSAC and MOMA will be described, including sample acquisition, derivatization, and separation in space-resistant chiral stationary capillary columns with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection. Results of enantioselective analyses of representative test samples with special emphasis on amino acids[3], the building blocks of protein polymers, will be presented and we will discuss potential results of space missions Rosetta and ExoMars. [1] Thiemann W.H.-P., Meierhenrich U.: ESA Mission ROSETTA Will Probe for Chirality of Cometary Amino Acids. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 31 (2001), 199-210. [2

  19. A molecular receptor selective for zwitterionic alanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Omayra H; Taouil, Rachid; Muñiz, Francisco M; Monleón, Laura M; Simón, Luis; Sanz, Francisca; Morán, Joaquín R

    2017-01-04

    A molecular receptor has been synthesized joining an aza-crown ether with a chiral chromane which mimics the oxyanion hole of the enzymes. With this receptor an apolar host-guest complex with zwitterionic alanine has been achieved through the formation of up to seven H-bonds. This complex allows the extraction of aqueous alanine to a chloroform phase, while other natural amino acids are poorly extracted or are not extracted at all. Due to the chiral nature of the receptor, enantioselective extraction from the aqueous alanine solution to a chloroform phase takes place. X-Ray analysis combined with anisotropic effects, NOE and CD studies revealed the absolute configuration of both strong and weak complexes. Modelling studies also support the proposed structures. The presence of an oxyanion-hole motif in this structure was corroborated by X-ray diffraction studies.

  20. Evaluation of reversible interconversion in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography using enantioselective columns in first and second dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Sabrina; Wong, Yong Foo; Chin, Sung-Tong; Grant, Jacob; Lupton, David; Marriott, Philip J

    2015-07-24

    The reversible molecular interconversion behaviour of a synthesised oxime (2-phenylpropanaldehyde oxime; (C6H5)CH(CH3)CHN(OH)) was investigated by both, single dimensional gas chromatography (1D GC) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). Previous studies on small molecular weight oximes were extended to this larger aromatic oxime (molar mass 149.19gmol(-1)) with interest in the extent of interconversion, enantioselective resolution, and retention time. On a polyethylene glycol (PEG; wax-type) column, a characteristic interconversion zone between two antipodes of E and Z isomers was formed by molecules which have undergone isomerisation on the column (E⇌Z). The extent of interconversion was investigated by varying chromatographic conditions (oven temperature and carrier flow rate) to understand the nature of the behaviour observed. The extent of interconversion was negligible in both enantioselective and methyl-phenylpolysiloxane phase-columns, correlating with the low polarity of the stationary phase. In order to obtain isomerisation along with enantio-resolution, a wax-type and an enantioselective column were coupled in either enantioselective-wax or wax-enantioselective order. The most appropriate column arrangement was selected for study by using a GC×GC experiment with either a wax-phase or phenyl-methylpolysiloxane phase as (2)D column. In addition to evaluation of these fast elution columns, a long narrow-bore enantioselective column (10m) was introduced as (2)D, providing an enantioselective-PEG (coupled-column ensemble: (1)D1+(1)D2)×enantioselective ((2)D) column combination. In this instance, the (1)D1 enantioselective column provides enantiomeric separation of the corresponding enantiomers ((R) and (S)) of (E)- and (Z)-2-phenylpropanaldehyde oxime, followed by E/Z isomerisation in the coupled (1)D2 PEG (reactor) column. The resulting chromatographic interconversion region was modulated and separated into either E/Z isomers

  1. Topological reorganization of odor representations in the olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Yaksi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Odors are initially represented in the olfactory bulb (OB by patterns of sensory input across the array of glomeruli. Although activated glomeruli are often widely distributed, glomeruli responding to stimuli sharing molecular features tend to be loosely clustered and thus establish a fractured chemotopic map. Neuronal circuits in the OB transform glomerular patterns of sensory input into spatiotemporal patterns of output activity and thereby extract information about a stimulus. It is, however, unknown whether the chemotopic spatial organization of glomerular inputs is maintained during these computations. To explore this issue, we measured spatiotemporal patterns of odor-evoked activity across thousands of individual neurons in the zebrafish OB by temporally deconvolved two-photon Ca(2+ imaging. Mitral cells and interneurons were distinguished by transgenic markers and exhibited different response selectivities. Shortly after response onset, activity patterns exhibited foci of activity associated with certain chemical features throughout all layers. During the subsequent few hundred milliseconds, however, MC activity was locally sparsened within the initial foci in an odor-specific manner. As a consequence, chemotopic maps disappeared and activity patterns became more informative about precise odor identity. Hence, chemotopic maps of glomerular input activity are initially transmitted to OB outputs, but not maintained during pattern processing. Nevertheless, transient chemotopic maps may support neuronal computations by establishing important synaptic interactions within the circuit. These results provide insights into the functional topology of neural activity patterns and its potential role in circuit function.

  2. Context odor presentation during sleep enhances memory in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaka, Hanna; Bartels, Ruth; Gora, Jacob; Franck, Vivien; Culo, Ana; Götsch, Moritz; Menzel, Randolf

    2015-11-02

    Sleep plays an important role in stabilizing new memory traces after learning [1-3]. Here we investigate whether sleep's role in memory processing is similar in evolutionarily distant species and demonstrate that a context trigger during deep-sleep phases improves memory in invertebrates, as it does in humans. We show that in honeybees (Apis mellifera), exposure to an odor during deep sleep that has been present during learning improves memory performance the following day. Presentation of the context odor during wake phases or novel odors during sleep does not enhance memory. In humans, memory consolidation can be triggered by presentation of a context odor during slow-wave sleep that had been present during learning [3-5]. Our results reveal that deep-sleep phases in honeybees have the potential to prompt memory consolidation, just as they do in humans. This study provides strong evidence for a conserved role of sleep-and how it affects memory processes-from insects to mammals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does gently clearing the nasal passage affect odor identification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell G. Spring

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying scents in a wine’s bouquet is considered one of the most important steps in the process of wine tasting. An individual’s ability to successfully do this is dependent on the sense of smell; thus, altering the nasal microenvironment could have a powerful effect on the wine tasting experience. In the present study, we examined olfactory performance in healthy participants who cleared their nasal cavity before odorant presentations. Fifty undergraduate participants were assessed with a standardized test of olfaction requiring the recognition of a battery of odors. Half of these participants cleared mucus from their nasal cavities (by gently blowing their noses prior to the assessment. No difference was found in performance between those who cleared their nasal passages and those who did not. Further, data were not different than known population data from the test. These data suggest that gently clearing the nasal cavity before presentation of odorants bears no effect on the ability to perceive those odor qualities.

  4. Odors and Air Pollution: A Bibliography with Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air Programs.

    The annotated bibliography presents a compilation of abstracts which deal with odors as they relate to air pollution. The abstracts are arranged within the following categories: Emission sources; Control methods; Measurement methods; Air quality measurements; Atmospheric interaction; Basic science and technology; Effects-human health;…

  5. 77 FR 22381 - Odorant Fade in Railroad Tank Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ..., it is standard industry practice to exceed the established regulatory minimums and add 1.5 pounds of... community, of the potential consequences of having LPG reach end-users as under-odorized or essentially non... laws and regulations, as well as by accepted industry standards and practices. In accordance with the...

  6. The effects of odor and body posture on perceived duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, E.; Hoeksma, M.R.; Smeets, M.A.M.; Semin, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports an examination of the internal clock model, according to which subjective time duration is influenced by attention and arousal state. In a time production task, we examine the hypothesis that an arousing odor and an upright body posture affect perceived duration. The experimental

  7. Activation analysis of selenium in odorous vegetable foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shogo; Hirai, Shoji; Noda, Katsuhiko.

    1981-01-01

    The selenium in odorous vegetables was analyzed by nondestructive neutron activation analysis using 75 Se, by the γ-ray coincidence method with a Ge(Li) and a NaI(Tl) detectors of definite energy ranges. By means of the coincidence counting, the background spectrum in 75 Se in the vicinity of 265 KeV was able to be reduced to about 1/20 of that by the former detector alone, so that the 75 Se detection sensitivity was raised over fourfold. Thus the selenium in odorous vegetables was able to be determined down to the content as low as 0.02 μg/g. The selenium content in garlic bulbs was 0.02 - 0.31 μg/g, and in onion bulbs 0.02 - 0.05 μg/g, both of which agreed well with those by fluorometry. In other odorous vegetables, the selenium content was as little as 0.1 μg/g or lower. It has been said that the selenium content is relatively large along with sulfur because of the same group, but it was found to be fairly small in the odorous vegetables. (Mori, K.)

  8. Methods of human body odor sampling: the effect of freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenochova, Pavlina; Roberts, S Craig; Havlicek, Jan

    2009-02-01

    Body odor sampling is an essential tool in human chemical ecology research. However, methodologies of individual studies vary widely in terms of sampling material, length of sampling, and sample processing. Although these differences might have a critical impact on results obtained, almost no studies test validity of current methods. Here, we focused on the effect of freezing samples between collection and use in experiments involving body odor perception. In 2 experiments, we tested whether axillary odors were perceived differently by raters when presented fresh or having been frozen and whether several freeze-thaw cycles affected sample quality. In the first experiment, samples were frozen for 2 weeks, 1 month, or 4 months. We found no differences in ratings of pleasantness, attractiveness, or masculinity between fresh and frozen samples. Similarly, almost no differences between repeatedly thawed and fresh samples were found. We found some variations in intensity; however, this was unrelated to length of storage. The second experiment tested differences between fresh samples and those frozen for 6 months. Again no differences in subjective ratings were observed. These results suggest that freezing has no significant effect on perceived odor hedonicity and that samples can be reliably used after storage for relatively long periods.

  9. Evaluation of γ-radiation on oolong tea odor volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanaro, G.B.; Duarte, R.C.; Santillo, A.G.; Pinto e Silva, M.E.M.; Purgatto, E.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the gamma radiation effects on odor volatiles in oolong tea at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The volatile organic compounds were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The irradiation has a large influence on oolong tea odor profile, once it was identified 40% of new compounds after this process, the 5 kGy and 20 kGy were the doses that degraded more volatiles found naturally in this kind of tea and the dose of 10 kGy was the dose that formed more new compounds. Statistical difference was found between the 5 kGy and 15 kGy volatile profiles, however the sensorial analysis showed that the irradiation at dose up 20 kGy did not interfere on consumer perception. - Highlights: ► Forty percent of compounds identified with odor were formed after irradiation. ► Dose of 5 kGy and 20 kGy were the radiation dose that degraded more odors compounds. ► Gamma radiation showed has a direct influence on volatile compounds in oolong tea.

  10. VOCs and odors: key factors in selecting `green` building materials?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, C. [Steven Winter Associates Inc., Norwalk, CT and Washington DC (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The current state of knowledge available for selecting building materials on the basis of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and odors is reviewed. The significance of VOCs and odors in building materials is related to their role in influencing indoor air quality. As far as toxicity is concerned, many of the VOCs detected in indoor air are relatively inert when considered singly. They are not however, unimportant because in actual fact they are invariably found in mixtures some of which can be toxic. Although knowledge of VOCs is incomplete, it is important to specify ozone-resistant polymeric building products, i.e. those that are chemically stable and inert to oxidation. In addition to VOCs, attention should also be focused on semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) since they are even more persistent than VOCs and tend to offgas for prolonged periods of time. Similarly, it is reasonable to specify low-odor materials. Inclusion of issues related to complex indoor chemistry, less volatile emissions, in addition to VOCs and odor, should in time result in expanded choices of building materials that promote indoor air quality. 16 refs.,2 tabs.

  11. Evaluation of Food Freshness and Locality by Odor Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Takayuki; Shimada, Koji; Kamimura, Hironobu; Kaneki, Noriaki

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food freshness and locality can be classified using a food evaluation system consisting four SnO2-semiconductor gas sensors and a solid phase column, into which collecting aroma materials. The temperature of sensors was periodically changed to be in unsteady state and thus, the sensor information was increased. The parameters (in quefrency band) were extracted from sensor information using cepstrum analysis that enable to separate superimposed information on sinusoidal wave. The quefrency was used as parameters for principal component and discriminant analyses (PCA and DCA) to detect food freshness and food localities. We used three kinds of strawberries, people can perceive its odors, passed from one to three days after harvest, and kelps and Ceylon tea, people are hardly to perceive its odor, corrected from five areas as sample. Then, the deterioration of strawberries and localities of kelps and Ceylon teas were visually evaluated using the numerical analyses. While the deteriorations were classified using PCA or DCA, the localities were classified only by DCA. The findings indicate that, although odorant intensity influenced the method detecting food quality, the quefrency obtained from odorant information using cepstrum analysis were available to detect the difference in the freshness and the localities of foods.

  12. Implicit and Explicit Measurements of Affective Responses to Food Odors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Wei; Wijk, de R.A.; Graaf, de C.; Boesveldt, S.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main functions of olfaction is to activate approach/avoidance behavior, toward or away from people, foods, or other odor sources. These behaviors are partly automated and therefore poorly accessible via introspection. Explicit tests need therefore be complemented by implicit tests to

  13. Smell your way back to childhood: autobiographical odor memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willander, Johan; Larsson, Maria

    2006-04-01

    This study addressed age distributions and experiential qualities of autobiographical memories evoked by different sensory cues. Ninety-three older adults were presented with one of three cue types (word, picture, or odor) and were asked to relate any autobiographical event for the given cue. The main aims were to explore whether (1) the age distribution of olfactory-evoked memories differs from memories cued by words and pictures and (2) the experiential qualities of the evoked memories vary over the different cues. The results showed that autobiographical memories triggered by olfactory information were older than memories associated with verbal and visual information. Specifically, most odor-cued memories were located to the first decade of life (memories associated with verbal and visual cues peaked in early adulthood (11-20 years). Also, odor-evoked memories were associated with stronger feelings of being brought back in time and had been thought of less often than memories evoked by verbal and visual information. This pattern of findings suggests that odor-evoked memories may be different from other memory experiences.

  14. Body odor quality predicts behavioral attractiveness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S Craig; Kralevich, Alexandra; Ferdenzi, Camille; Saxton, Tamsin K; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Little, Anthony C; Havlicek, Jan

    2011-12-01

    Growing effort is being made to understand how different attractive physical traits co-vary within individuals, partly because this might indicate an underlying index of genetic quality. In humans, attention has focused on potential markers of quality such as facial attractiveness, axillary odor quality, the second-to-fourth digit (2D:4D) ratio and body mass index (BMI). Here we extend this approach to include visually-assessed kinesic cues (nonverbal behavior linked to movement) which are statistically independent of structural physical traits. The utility of such kinesic cues in mate assessment is controversial, particularly during everyday conversational contexts, as they could be unreliable and susceptible to deception. However, we show here that the attractiveness of nonverbal behavior, in 20 male participants, is predicted by perceived quality of their axillary body odor. This finding indicates covariation between two desirable traits in different sensory modalities. Depending on two different rating contexts (either a simple attractiveness rating or a rating for long-term partners by 10 female raters not using hormonal contraception), we also found significant relationships between perceived attractiveness of nonverbal behavior and BMI, and between axillary odor ratings and 2D:4D ratio. Axillary odor pleasantness was the single attribute that consistently predicted attractiveness of nonverbal behavior. Our results demonstrate that nonverbal kinesic cues could reliably reveal mate quality, at least in males, and could corroborate and contribute to mate assessment based on other physical traits.

  15. Major Odorants Released as Urinary Volatiles by Urinary Incontinent Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Young Sa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, volatile urinary components were collected using three different types of samples from patients suffering from urinary incontinence (UI: (1 urine (A; (2 urine + non-used pad (B; and (3 urine + used pad (C. In addition, urine + non-used pad (D samples from non-patients were also collected as a reference. The collection of urinary volatiles was conducted with the aid of a glass impinger-based mini-chamber method. Each of the four sample types (A through D was placed in a glass impinger and incubated for 4 hours at 37 °C. Ultra pure air was then passed through the chamber, and volatile urine gas components were collected into Tedlar bags at the other end. These bag samples were then analyzed for a wide range of VOCs and major offensive odorants (e.g., reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs, carbonyls, trimethylamine (TMA, ammonia, etc.. Among the various odorants, sulfur compounds (methanethiol and hydrogen sulfide and aldehydes (acetaldehyde, butylaldehyde, and isovaleraldehyde were detected above odor threshold and predicted to contribute most effectively to odor intensity of urine incontinence.

  16. The major histocompatibility complex and perfumers' descriptions of human body odors

    OpenAIRE

    Wedekind, C.; Escher, S.; Van de Waal, M.; Frei, E.

    2007-01-01

    The MHC (major histocompatibility complex) is a group of genes that play a crucial role in immune recognition and in tolerance of tissue grafting. The MHC has also been found to influence body odors, body odor preferences, and mate choice in mice and humans. Here we test whether verbal descriptions of human body odors can be linked to the MHC. We asked 45 male students to live as odor neutral as possible for two consecutive days and to wear a T-shirt during the nights. The odors of these T-sh...

  17. Are olfactory receptors really olfactive?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Maggio, Roberto; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2011-01-01

    environmental conditions. By adopting this standpoint, the functional attribution as olfactory or chemotactic sensors to these receptors should not be seen neither as a cause conditioning receptor gene expression, nor as a final effect resulting from genetically predetermined programs, but as a direct...... and odor-decoding processes. However, this type of explanation does not entirely justify the role olfactory receptors have played during evolution, since they are also expressed ectopically in different organs and/or tissues. Homologous olfactory genes have in fact been found in such diverse cells and....../or organs as spermatozoa, testis and kidney where they are assumed to act as chemotactic sensors or renin modulators. To justify their functional diversity, homologous olfactory receptors are assumed to share the same basic role: that of conferring a self-identity to cells or tissues under varying...

  18. Enantioselective desymmetrization of prochiral cyclohexanones by organocatalytic intramolecular Michael additions to α,β-unsaturated esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammack Yamagata, Adam D; Datta, Swarup; Jackson, Kelvin E; Stegbauer, Linus; Paton, Robert S; Dixon, Darren J

    2015-04-13

    A new catalytic asymmetric desymmetrization reaction for the synthesis of enantioenriched derivatives of 2-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane, a key motif common to many alkaloids, has been developed. Employing a cyclohexanediamine-derived primary amine organocatalyst, a range of prochiral cyclohexanone derivatives possessing an α,β-unsaturated ester moiety linked to the 4-position afforded the bicyclic products, which possess three stereogenic centers, as single diastereoisomers in high enantioselectivity (83-99% ee) and in good yields (60-90%). Calculations revealed that stepwise C-C bond formation and proton transfer via a chair-shaped transition state dictate the exclusive endo selectivity and enabled the development of a highly enantioselective primary amine catalyst. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Enantioselective apoptosis induced by individual isomers of bifenthrin in Hep G2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huigang; Li, Juan

    2015-03-01

    Bifenthrin (BF) has been used in racemate for agricultural purposes against soil insects, leading to increased inputs into soil environments. However, most of the studies about the toxicology research on BF were performed in its racemic form. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the enantiomer-specific cis-BF-induced apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation on human hepatocarcinoma cells (Hep G2). The results of cell viability assay and cytoflow assay indicated an obvious enantioselective hepatocyte toxicity of 1S-cis-BF in Hep G2 cells. 1S-cis-BF also induced ROS production, up-regulated Bax protein expression and down-regulated Bcl-2 expression levels. The present study suggested that enantioselective toxicity should be evaluated on currently used chiral pesticides, such as synthetic pyrethroids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrasound-Assisted Enantioselective Esterification of Ibuprofen Catalyzed by a Flower-Like Nanobioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiyi An

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A flower-like nanobioreactor was prepared for resolution of ibuprofen in organic solvents. Ultrasound irradiation has been used to improve the enzyme performance of APE1547 (a thermophilic esterase from the archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1 in the enantioselective esterification. Under optimum reaction conditions (ultrasound power, 225 W; temperature, 45 °C; water activity, 0.21, the immobilized APE1547 showed an excellent catalytic performance (enzyme activity, 13.26 μmol/h/mg; E value, 147.1. After ten repeated reaction batches, the nanobioreactor retained almost 100% of its initial enzyme activity and enantioselectivity. These results indicated that the combination of the immobilization method and ultrasound irradiation can enhance the enzyme performance dramatically.

  1. Enantioselective Decarboxylative Alkylation Reactions: Catalyst Development, Substrate Scope, and Mechanistic Studies

    KAUST Repository

    Behenna, Douglas C.; Mohr, Justin T.; Sherden, Nathaniel H.; Marinescu, Smaranda C.; Harned, Andrew M.; Tani, Kousuke; Seto, Masaki; Ma, Sandy; Nová k, Zoltá n; Krout, Michael R.; McFadden, Ryan M.; Roizen, Jennifer L.; Enquist, John A.; White, David E.; Levine, Samantha R.; Petrova, Krastina V.; Iwashita, Akihiko; Virgil, Scott C.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2011-01-01

    α-Quaternary ketones are accessed through novel enantioselective alkylations of allyl and propargyl electrophiles by unstabilized prochiral enolate nucleophiles in the presence of palladium complexes with various phosphinooxazoline (PHOX) ligands. Excellent yields and high enantiomeric excesses are obtained from three classes of enolate precursor: enol carbonates, enol silanes, and racemic β-ketoesters. Each of these substrate classes functions with nearly identical efficiency in terms of yield and enantioselectivity. Catalyst discovery and development, the optimization of reaction conditions, the exploration of reaction scope, and applications in target-directed synthesis are reported. Experimental observations suggest that these alkylation reactions occur through an unusual inner-sphere mechanism involving binding of the prochiral enolate nucleophile directly to the palladium center.

  2. Enantioselective construction of quaternary N-heterocycles by palladium-catalysed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of lactams

    KAUST Repository

    Behenna, Douglas C.

    2011-12-18

    The enantioselective synthesis of nitrogen-containing heterocycles (N-heterocycles) represents a substantial chemical research effort and resonates across numerous disciplines, including the total synthesis of natural products and medicinal chemistry. In this Article, we describe the highly enantioselective palladium-catalysed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of readily available lactams to form 3,3-disubstituted pyrrolidinones, piperidinones, caprolactams and structurally related lactams. Given the prevalence of quaternary N-heterocycles in biologically active alkaloids and pharmaceutical agents, we envisage that our method will provide a synthetic entry into the de novo asymmetric synthesis of such structures. As an entry for these investigations we demonstrate how the described catalysis affords enantiopure quaternary lactams that intercept synthetic intermediates previously used in the synthesis of the Aspidosperma alkaloids quebrachamine and rhazinilam, but that were previously only available by chiral auxiliary approaches or as racemic mixtures. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  3. Enantioselective [3+3] atroposelective annulation catalyzed by N-heterocyclic carbenes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Changgui

    2018-02-05

    Axially chiral molecules are among the most valuable substrates in organic synthesis. They are typically used as chiral ligands or catalysts in asymmetric reactions. Recent progress for the construction of these chiral molecules is mainly focused on the transition-metal-catalyzed transformations. Here, we report the enantioselective NHC-catalyzed (NHC: N-heterocyclic carbenes) atroposelective annulation of cyclic 1,3-diones with ynals. In the presence of NHC precatalyst, base, Lewis acid and oxidant, a catalytic C–C bond formation occurs, providing axially chiral α-pyrone−aryls in moderate to good yields and with high enantioselectivities. Control experiments indicated that alkynyl acyl azoliums, acting as active intermediates, are employed to atroposelectively assemble chiral biaryls and such a methodology may be creatively applied to other useful NHC-catalyzed asymmetric transformations.

  4. Enantioselective Decarboxylative Alkylation Reactions: Catalyst Development, Substrate Scope, and Mechanistic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behenna, Douglas C.; Mohr, Justin T.; Sherden, Nathaniel H.; Marinescu, Smaranda C.; Harned, Andrew M.; Tani, Kousuke; Seto, Masaki; Ma, Sandy; Novák, Zoltán; Krout, Michael R.; McFadden, Ryan M.; Roizen, Jennifer L.; Enquist, John A.; White, David E.; Levine, Samantha R.; Petrova, Krastina V.; Iwashita, Akihiko; Virgil, Scott C.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    α-Quaternary ketones are accessed through novel enantioselective alkylations of allyl and propargyl electrophiles by unstabilized prochiral enolate nucleophiles in the presence of palladium complexes with various phosphinooxazoline (PHOX) ligands. Excellent yields and high enantiomeric excesses are obtained from three classes of enolate precursors: enol carbonates, enol silanes, and racemic β-ketoesters. Each of these substrate classes functions with nearly identical efficiency in terms of yield and enantioselectivity. Catalyst discovery and development, the optimization of reaction conditions, the exploration of reaction scope, and applications in target-directed synthesis are reported. Experimental observations suggest that these alkylation reactions occur through an unusual inner-sphere mechanism involving binding of the prochiral enolate nucleophile directly to the palladium center. PMID:22083969

  5. Enantioselective Decarboxylative Alkylation Reactions: Catalyst Development, Substrate Scope, and Mechanistic Studies

    KAUST Repository

    Behenna, Douglas C.

    2011-11-14

    α-Quaternary ketones are accessed through novel enantioselective alkylations of allyl and propargyl electrophiles by unstabilized prochiral enolate nucleophiles in the presence of palladium complexes with various phosphinooxazoline (PHOX) ligands. Excellent yields and high enantiomeric excesses are obtained from three classes of enolate precursor: enol carbonates, enol silanes, and racemic β-ketoesters. Each of these substrate classes functions with nearly identical efficiency in terms of yield and enantioselectivity. Catalyst discovery and development, the optimization of reaction conditions, the exploration of reaction scope, and applications in target-directed synthesis are reported. Experimental observations suggest that these alkylation reactions occur through an unusual inner-sphere mechanism involving binding of the prochiral enolate nucleophile directly to the palladium center.

  6. Complex Odor from Plants under Attack: Herbivore's Enemies React to the Whole, Not Its Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Michiel; de Bruijn, Paulien J. A.; Sabelis, Maurice W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Insect herbivory induces plant odors that attract herbivores' natural enemies. Assuming this attraction emerges from individual compounds, genetic control over odor emission of crops may provide a rationale for manipulating the distribution of predators used for pest control. However, studies on odor perception in vertebrates and invertebrates suggest that olfactory information processing of mixtures results in odor percepts that are a synthetic whole and not a set of components that could function as recognizable individual attractants. Here, we ask if predators respond to herbivore-induced attractants in odor mixtures or to odor mixture as a whole. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied a system consisting of Lima bean, the herbivorous mite Tetranychus urticae and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. We found that four herbivore-induced bean volatiles are not attractive in pure form while a fifth, methyl salicylate (MeSA), is. Several reduced mixtures deficient in one component compared to the full spider-mite induced blend were not attractive despite the presence of MeSA indicating that the predators cannot detect this component in these odor mixtures. A mixture of all five HIPV is most attractive, when offered together with the non-induced odor of Lima bean. Odors that elicit no response in their pure form were essential components of the attractive mixture. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the predatory mites perceive odors as a synthetic whole and that the hypothesis that predatory mites recognize attractive HIPV in odor mixtures is unsupported. PMID:21765908

  7. Complex odor from plants under attack: herbivore's enemies react to the whole, not its parts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Wijk

    Full Text Available Insect herbivory induces plant odors that attract herbivores' natural enemies. Assuming this attraction emerges from individual compounds, genetic control over odor emission of crops may provide a rationale for manipulating the distribution of predators used for pest control. However, studies on odor perception in vertebrates and invertebrates suggest that olfactory information processing of mixtures results in odor percepts that are a synthetic whole and not a set of components that could function as recognizable individual attractants. Here, we ask if predators respond to herbivore-induced attractants in odor mixtures or to odor mixture as a whole.We studied a system consisting of Lima bean, the herbivorous mite Tetranychus urticae and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. We found that four herbivore-induced bean volatiles are not attractive in pure form while a fifth, methyl salicylate (MeSA, is. Several reduced mixtures deficient in one component compared to the full spider-mite induced blend were not attractive despite the presence of MeSA indicating that the predators cannot detect this component in these odor mixtures. A mixture of all five HIPV is most attractive, when offered together with the non-induced odor of Lima bean. Odors that elicit no response in their pure form were essential components of the attractive mixture.We conclude that the predatory mites perceive odors as a synthetic whole and that the hypothesis that predatory mites recognize attractive HIPV in odor mixtures is unsupported.

  8. The smell of age: perception and discrimination of body odors of different ages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Mitro

    Full Text Available Our natural body odor goes through several stages of age-dependent changes in chemical composition as we grow older. Similar changes have been reported for several animal species and are thought to facilitate age discrimination of an individual based on body odors, alone. We sought to determine whether humans are able to discriminate between body odor of humans of different ages. Body odors were sampled from three distinct age groups: Young (20-30 years old, Middle-age (45-55, and Old-age (75-95 individuals. Perceptual ratings and age discrimination performance were assessed in 41 young participants. There were significant differences in ratings of both intensity and pleasantness, where body odors from the Old-age group were rated as less intense and less unpleasant than body odors originating from Young and Middle-age donors. Participants were able to discriminate between age categories, with body odor from Old-age donors mediating the effect also after removing variance explained by intensity differences. Similarly, participants were able to correctly assign age labels to body odors originating from Old-age donors but not to body odors originating from other age groups. This experiment suggests that, akin to other animals, humans are able to discriminate age based on body odor alone and that this effect is mediated mainly by body odors emitted by individuals of old age.

  9. The smell of age: perception and discrimination of body odors of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitro, Susanna; Gordon, Amy R; Olsson, Mats J; Lundström, Johan N

    2012-01-01

    Our natural body odor goes through several stages of age-dependent changes in chemical composition as we grow older. Similar changes have been reported for several animal species and are thought to facilitate age discrimination of an individual based on body odors, alone. We sought to determine whether humans are able to discriminate between body odor of humans of different ages. Body odors were sampled from three distinct age groups: Young (20-30 years old), Middle-age (45-55), and Old-age (75-95) individuals. Perceptual ratings and age discrimination performance were assessed in 41 young participants. There were significant differences in ratings of both intensity and pleasantness, where body odors from the Old-age group were rated as less intense and less unpleasant than body odors originating from Young and Middle-age donors. Participants were able to discriminate between age categories, with body odor from Old-age donors mediating the effect also after removing variance explained by intensity differences. Similarly, participants were able to correctly assign age labels to body odors originating from Old-age donors but not to body odors originating from other age groups. This experiment suggests that, akin to other animals, humans are able to discriminate age based on body odor alone and that this effect is mediated mainly by body odors emitted by individuals of old age.

  10. Stressors impair odor recognition memory via an olfactory bulb-dependent noradrenergic mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C Manella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-associative habituation and odor recognition tasks have been widely used to probe questions social recognition, odor memory duration, and odor memory specificity. Among others, these paradigms have provided valuable insight into how neuromodulation, and specifically norepinephrine/noradrenaline (NE influences odor memory. In general, NE levels are modulated by arousal, stress, and behavioral state, and there is sparse evidence of a direct relationship between NE and odor memory in adult rodents. The present study uses simple mild psychological stressors (bright light and sound, to modulate NE levels physiologically in order to probe its effect on olfactory memory. In rats with bilateral bulbar cannulations, we show that these stressors modulate olfactory memory and that this effect is at least partially mediated by olfactory bulb. Specifically, we show that the presence of stressors during the acquisition of odor memory suppresses memory for an odor when tested 30 minutes after the acquisition. This suppression is blocked by infusing NE antagonists into the olfactory bulb prior to odor acquisition. Additionally, we find that infusion of bulbar NE is sufficient to suppress odor memory in a manner mimicking that of our stressors. These effects are unlikely to be solely mediated by locomotor/exploratory changes produced by stressors, although these stressors influence certain behaviors not directly related to odor investigation. This study provides important information about how behaviorally relevant changes in NE can influence top-down sensory processing and odor memory.

  11. Recruits of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona pectoralis learn food odors from the nest atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Christian; Jarau, Stefan; Aguilar, Ingrid; Ayasse, Manfred

    2010-05-01

    The ability to learn food odors inside the nest and to associate them with food sources in the field is of essential importance for the recruitment of nestmates in social bees. We investigated odor learning by workers within the hive and the influence of these odors on their food choice in the field in the stingless bee Scaptotrigona pectoralis. During the experiments, recruited bees had to choose between two feeders, one with an odor that was present inside the nest during the recruitment process, and one with an unknown odor. In all experiments with different odor combinations (linalool/phenylacetaldehyde, geraniol/eugenol) a significant majority of bees visited the feeder with the odor they had experienced in their nest ( χ 2-tests; p bees showed no preference for one of two feeders when they were either baited with the same odor (linalool) or contained no odor. Our results clearly show that naïve workers of S. pectoralis can learn the odor of a food source during the recruitment process from the nest atmosphere and that their subsequent food search in the field is influenced by the learned odor.

  12. The Major Histocompatibility Complex and Perfumers' Descriptions of Human Body Odors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Wedekind

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The MHC (major histocompatibility complex is a group of genes that play a crucial role in immune recognition and in tolerance of tissue grafting. The MHC has also been found to influence body odors, body odor preferences, and mate choice in mice and humans. Here we test whether verbal descriptions of human body odors can be linked to the MHC. We asked 45 male students to live as odor neutral as possible for two consecutive days and to wear a T-shirt during the nights. The odors of these T-shirts were then described by five evaluators: two professional perfumers and three laymen. One of the perfumers was able to describe the T-shirt odors in such a way that some of the allelic specificity of the MHC was significantly revealed (after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. This shows that, although difficult, some people are able to describe MHC-correlated body odor components.

  13. Modeling the generation and dispersion of odors from mushroom composting facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemann, P.; Wahanik, D.

    1998-01-01

    An odor source generation model and an odor dispersion model were developed to predict the local distribution of odors emanating from mushroom composting facilities. The odor source generation model allowed for simulation of various composting wharf configurations and odor source strengths. This model was linked to a Gaussian plume diffusion model that predicted odor dispersion. Dimethyl disulfide production at a rate of 1760 micrograms/h was simulated by the source generation model and six different atmospheric conditions were analyzed to demonstrate the effect of wind speed, atmospheric stability, and source generation on the dispersion of this odor producing compound. Detectable levels of dimethyl disulfide were predicted to range from less than 100 m from the source during very unstable conditions to almost 5000 m during very stable conditions

  14. Long-term memory for odors: influences of familiarity and identification across 64 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell Kärnekull, Stina; Jönsson, Fredrik U; Willander, Johan; Sikström, Sverker; Larsson, Maria

    2015-05-01

    Few studies have investigated long-term odor recognition memory, although some early observations suggested that the forgetting rate of olfactory representations is slower than for other sensory modalities. This study investigated recognition memory across 64 days for high and low familiar odors and faces. Memory was assessed in 83 young participants at 4 occasions; immediate, 4, 16, and 64 days after encoding. The results indicated significant forgetting for odors and faces across the 64 days. The forgetting functions for the 2 modalities were not fundamentally different. Moreover, high familiar odors and faces were better remembered than low familiar ones, indicating an important role of semantic knowledge on recognition proficiency for both modalities. Although odor recognition was significantly better than chance at the 64 days testing, memory for the low familiar odors was relatively poor. Also, the results indicated that odor identification consistency across sessions, irrespective of accuracy, was positively related to successful recognition. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Enantioselective cytotoxicity of the insecticide bifenthrin on a human amnion epithelial (FL) cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huigang; Zhao Meirong; Zhang Cong; Ma Yun; Liu Weiping

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) are used in preference to organochlorines and organophosphates due to their high efficiency, low toxicity to mammals, and ready biodegradability. Previous studies reported that enantioselective toxicity of SPs occurs in aquatic toxicity. Several studies have indicated that SPs could lead to oxidative damage in humans or animals which was associated with their toxic effects. Little is known about the differences in the effects of chronic toxicity induced by individual stereoisomers of chiral SPs. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the enantioselectivity in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity caused by bifenthrin (BF) on human amnion epithelial (FL) cell lines and pesticidal activity on target organism. The cell proliferation and cytoflow analysis indicated that 1S-cis-BF presented more toxic effects than 1R-cis-BF above the concentration of 7.5 mg L -1 (p > 0.05). FL cells incubated with 1S-cis-BF exhibited a dose-dependent accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the comet assay, the number of cells with damaged DNA incubated with 1S-cis-BF was more than that with 1R-cis-BF (p 50 values of enantiomer to the target pest on Pieris rapae L. show that 1R-cis-BF was 300 times more active than 1S-cis-BF. These results indicate that the enantioselective toxicity and activity of BF between non-target organism and target organism was reversal. These implications together suggest that assessment of the environmental safety and new pesticides development with chiral centers should consider enantioselectivity

  16. Synthesis of 3-fluoro-3-aryl oxindoles: Direct enantioselective α arylation of amides

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Linglin; Falivene, Laura; Drinkel, Emma E.; Grant, Sharday; Linden, Anthony; Cavallo, Luigi; Dorta, Reto

    2012-01-01

    Modus operandi: Catalytic access to the title compounds through a new asymmetric α-arylation protocol is reported (see scheme). These products are formed in good yields and excellent enantioselectivities by using a new and easily synthesized chiral N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand. Advanced DFT calculations reveal the properties of the NHC ligand and the mode of operation of the catalyst. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Effects of metals on enantioselective toxicity and biotransformation of cis-bifenthrin in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Ji, Dapeng; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Jianyun; Liu, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Co-occurrence of pyrethroids and metals in watersheds previously has been reported to pose great risk to aquatic species. Pyrethroids are a class of chiral insecticides that have been shown to have enantioselective toxicity and biotransformation. However, the influence of metals on enantioselectivity of pyrethroids has not yet been evaluated. In the present study, the effects of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) on the enantioselective toxicity and metabolism of cis-bifenthrin (cis-BF) were investigated in zebrafish at environmentally relevant concentrations. The addition of Cd, Cu, or Pb significantly increased the mortality of zebrafish in racemate and R-enantiomer of cis-BF-treated groups. In rac-cis-BF- or 1R-cis-BF-treated groups, the addition of Cd, Cu, or Pb caused a decrease in enantiomeric fraction (EF) and an increased ratio of R-enantiomer residues in zebrafish. In 1S-cis-BF-treated groups, coexposure to Cd led to a lower EF and decreased residue levels of S-enantiomer. In addition, coexposure to the 3 metals resulted in different biodegradation characteristics of each enantiomer accompanied with differential changes in the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP)1, CYP2, and CYP3 genes, which might be responsible for the enantioselective biodegradation of cis-BF in zebrafish. These results suggest that the influence of coexistent metals should be considered in the ecological risk assessment of chiral pyrethroids in aquatic environments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2139-2146. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  18. Continuous-flow enantioselective α-aminoxylation of aldehydes catalyzed by a polystyrene-immobilized hydroxyproline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xacobe C. Cambeiro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of polystyrene-immobilized proline-based catalysts in packed-bed reactors for the continuous-flow, direct, enantioselective α-aminoxylation of aldehydes is described. The system allows the easy preparation of a series of β-aminoxy alcohols (after a reductive workup with excellent optical purity and with an effective catalyst loading of ca. 2.5% (four-fold reduction compared to the batch process working at residence times of ca. 5 min.

  19. A combined continuous microflow photochemistry and asymmetric organocatalysis approach for the enantioselective synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erli Sugiono

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A continuous-flow asymmetric organocatalytic photocyclization–transfer hydrogenation cascade reaction has been developed. The new protocol allows the synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines from readily available 2-aminochalcones using a combination of photochemistry and asymmetric Brønsted acid catalysis. The photocylization and subsequent reduction was performed with catalytic amount of chiral BINOL derived phosphoric acid diester and Hantzsch dihydropyridine as hydrogen source providing the desired products in good yields and with excellent enantioselectivities.

  20. Enantioselective analysis of drugs: contributions of high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Bonato, Pierina Sueli; Jabor, Valquíria Aparecida Polisel; Gaitani, Cristiane Masetto de

    2005-01-01

    The demand for analytical methods suitable for accurate and reproducible determination of drug enantiomers has increased significantly in the last years. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using chiral stationary phases and capillary electrophoresis (CE) are the most important techniques used for this purpose. In this paper, the fundamental aspects of chiral separations using both techniques are presented. Some important aspects for the development of enantioselective methods, part...