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Sample records for enanthic caprylic pelargonic

  1. Preparation of ω-hydroxy pelargonic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Siti Faieza Abd; Salimon, Jumat

    2018-04-01

    Utilization of plant oil as renewable raw material for monomers and polymers in bioplastic industry has a great potential to replace conventional petroleum-based plastic usage especially in packaging and adhesive applications. One of useful monomer is ω-hydroxy pelargonic acid that can be polymerizing as biodegradable polyester. In this study, the aim is to synthesis ω-hydroxy pelargonic acid from oleic acid based on oxidation/ esterification/ saponification and reduction methodology. The yield obtained after aqueous workup is 53% and the compound structure is determined by FT-IR and 1H and 13C NMR.

  2. Polycystic Ovary Induction in Mouse by Testosterone Enanthate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Kalhori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objective: Polycystic ovary is the most common cause of infertility in Women. Animal models are required for understanding the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary. The objective of this study then was to develop an animal model for inducing the polycystic ovaries using testosterone enanthate.Materials & Methods: In this study, for inducing the polycystic ovary phenotype, female rats about12-14 days-old were injected daily with testosterone enanthate for 2 and 4 weeks (experiment groups: 1 and 2, while the control groups (1 and 2 were injected only with vehicle.The ovaries from both groups were fixed and then were used for histological studies.Results: Testosterone enanthate treatment causes the histological changes in mouse ovary and significantly increased the percentage of preantral and cystic follicles and decreased the percentage of antral follicles in the experiment group, comparing with the control group (P<0.05.Conclusion: It concluded that testosterone enanthate can induces polycystic ovary in mouse.

  3. Solvent free lipase catalyzed synthesis of butyl caprylate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MEERA T SOSE

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga (E), ... study for the synthesis of butyl caprylate in presence of bio-catalyst. ..... −1 with Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase.26 The relation.

  4. Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of gallic and pelargonic acids on the zebrafish Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techer, Didier; Milla, Sylvain; Fontaine, Pascal; Viot, Sandrine; Thomas, Marielle

    2015-04-01

    Gallic and pelargonic acids are naturally found in a variety of plants and food products. Despite their extensive use in man-made applications, little is known regarding their potential risks to aquatic vertebrates. The aim of this work was to assess the acute toxicity of these polyphenolic and fatty acid compounds to the zebrafish. In order to get insights into sublethal effects, the enzyme activity of usual biomarkers related to oxidative stress and biotransformation were also assessed in fish. These latter included total superoxide dismutase, catalase as well as total glutathione peroxidase for antioxidant defence mechanisms and glutathione S-transferase for biotransformation related enzyme. Gallic acid was practically non-toxic (96-h lethal concentration (LC50) > 100 mg/L) whereas pelargonic acid was slightly toxic (96-h LC50 of 81.2 mg/L). Moreover, biomarker analyses indicated enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in fish exposed to 20, 40 and 100 mg/L of gallic acid compared to control. A dose-dependent induction of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase was reported following gallic acid exposure at the tested concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 mg/L, with the exception of 100 mg/L of substance where basal activity levels were reported. In the case of pelargonic acid, there was no change in antioxidant enzyme activity while an inhibition of glutathione S-transferase was observed from organisms exposed to 45, 58 and 76 mg/L of test solution. The results concerning sublethal effects on biological parameters of zebrafish highlighted thereby the need for further investigations following chronic exposure to both organic acids.

  5. Influence of waterborne gallic and pelargonic acid exposures on biochemical and reproductive parameters in the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techer, Didier; Milla, Sylvain; Fontaine, Pascal; Viot, Sandrine; Thomas, Marielle

    2017-01-01

    Gallic and pelargonic acids are biologically derived substances receiving a growing interest as eco-friendly biocides with potential applications in freshwater system management. However, some data gaps remain to address their chronic ecotoxicity issue, particularly for fish. This work aimed at investigating the sublethal effects of a long-term waterborne exposure of zebrafish to these compounds. Mature fish were exposed to gallic or pelargonic acid at the concentrations of 0, 0.05, 0.5 and 5 mg/L during one month under semi-static conditions. Fecundity, hatching rate and median hatching time were regularly evaluated. Circulating sex hormone levels (11 ketotestosterone -11 KT, 17 βestradiol -E2-), plasma vitellogenin (Vtg), and gonad histology were monitored in males and females after exposure. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total glutathione peroxydase (GPx) and glutathione-S transferase (GST) activities were assessed as enzymatic biomarkers of exposure in fish liver. Significant increases of GPx activity were reported in females exposed to both type of chemicals regardless the contamination level. Moreover, 5 mg/L gallic acid induced a decrease in 11-KT levels for males. For fish exposed to pelargonic acid, decreases in circulating hormone levels were reported respectively at 0.05 and 5 mg/L for 11-KT in males, and at 0.5 mg/L for E2 in females. However, no histological alteration in gonads neither significant variation in reproductive performances were detected following zebrafish exposure to gallic or pelargonic acid. Additional investigations concerning the mode of application and the environmental fate of these substances may warrant their further use in freshwater systems at concentrations compatible with biocidal/allelochemical effects. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 227-240, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Caprylate Salts Based on Amines as Volatile Corrosion Inhibitors for Metallic Zinc: Theoretical and Experimental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Marco A. G.; Teixeira, Deiver A.; Azevedo, David L.; Feliciano, Gustavo T.; Benedetti, Assis V.; Fugivara, Cecílio S.

    2017-01-01

    The interaction of volatile corrosion inhibitors (VCI), caprylate salt derivatives from amines, with zinc metallic surfaces is assessed by density functional theory (DFT) computer simulations, electrochemical impedance (EIS) measurements and humid chamber tests. The results obtained by the different methods were compared, and linear correlations were obtained between theoretical and experimental data. The correlations between experimental and theoretical results showed that the molecular size is the determining factor in the inhibition efficiency. The models used and experimental results indicated that dicyclohexylamine caprylate is the most efficient inhibitor. PMID:28620602

  7. Kinetics of catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl caprylate (MUCAP) salmonella reagent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kady, Ahmed S.; Ahmed, El-Sadat I.; Gaber, M.; Hussein, Mohamed M.; Ebeid, El-Zeiny M.

    2011-09-01

    The kinetics of chemical hydrolysis including neutral, acid- and base-catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl caprylate (MUCAP) salmonella reagent were studied at different temperatures. The rate constants and activation parameters were determined by following the build-up of fluorescence peak of the hydrolysis product 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU). The time scale of esterase enzyme hydrolysis caused by salmonella was compared with chemical hydrolysis as a background process.

  8. Effect of perphenazine enanthate on open-field test behaviour and stress-induced hyperthermia in domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedernera-Romano, Cecilia; Ruiz de la Torre, José L; Badiella, Llorenç; Manteca, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    The open-field test (OFT) and stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) have been used to measure individual differences in fear. The present study has been designed as a pharmacological validation of OFT and SIH as indicators of fear in sheep using perphenazine enanthate (PPZ), a long-acting neuroleptic. Twenty four ewes of two breeds, Lacaune and Ripollesa, were tested in an arena measuring 5mx2.5m. Treatment group received one dose of 1.5mg/kg of PPZ and control group received sterile sesame oil. All animals were tested for 10min and behaviours were recorded. Rectal temperature was measured at the beginning (T1) and at the end (T2) of the test. SIH was defined as the difference between T2 and T1. Sheep were tested on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7 and 9 after PPZ injection. Variables were analysed using a mixed model. PPZ decreased bleats on days 2, 3, 4 and the SIH response on days 2 and 3. Breed differences were observed. Treated animals showed positive correlations between SIH and bleats; squares entered; attempts to escape and negative correlation between SIH and visits to the food bucket. Our results suggest that behaviour and SIH on the OFT are useful measures of fear in sheep.

  9. The distribution of n-caprylic acid between organic solvents and aqueous sodium sulfate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloe, K.; Muehl, P.; Kholkin, A.I.; Gindin, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of 14 C-labelled n-caprylic acid between n-decane, benzene, isoamyl acetate, diisopropyl ketone, isoamyl alcohol and an aqueous 0.6 molar sodium sulfate solution was studied. The distribution constants and the dimerisation constants were determined for the reactions HRsub((w)) reversible HRsub((org)) and 2 HRsub((org)) reversible (HR)sub(2(org)), respectively. Both the effect of the solvent on the acid distribution and the importance of such studies for the interpretation of liquid-liquid extraction equilibria are discussed. (author)

  10. Catalytic hydroconversion of tricaprylin and caprylic acid as model reaction for biofuel production from triglycerides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boda, L.; Thernesz, A. [MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Co. Plc., Szazhalombatta (Hungary); Onyestyak, G.; Solt, H.; Lonyi, F.; Valyon, J. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Inst. of Nanochemistry and Catalysis

    2010-07-01

    Palladium/activated carbon (Pd/C) and non-sulfided Ni,Mo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts were used. The hydroconversion was found to proceed in consecutive steps of tricaprylin (TC) hydrogenolysis (HYS) to caprylic acid (CA) and propane, and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the acid intermediate to get hydrocarbon. Two HDO routes were distinguished: (i) over Pd/C the prevailing reaction route was the decarbonylation, whereas (ii) over molybdena-alumina catalysts the main reaction was the reduction of oxygen to get water. (orig.)

  11. Oxidative stability during storage of structured lipids produced from fish oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Xu, Xuebing; Timm Heinrich, Maike

    2004-01-01

    Structured lipids produced by enzymatic or chemical methods for different applications have been receiving considerable attention. The oxidative stability of a randomized structured lipid (RFO), produced by chemical interesterification from fish oil (FO) and tricaprylin, and a specific structured...... lipid (SFO), produced by enzymatic interesterification from the same oil and caprylic acid, was compared with the stability of FO. Oils were stored at 2degreesC for 11 wk followed by storage at 20degreesC for 6 wk. In addition, the antioxidative effect of adding the metal chelators EDTA or citric acid...

  12. Oxidative stability of structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) and specific structured lipid (SL), both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid, respectively, were stored for up to 12 wk to compare their oxidative stabilities by chemical and sensory analyses. Furthermore, the effect of adding...... a commercial antioxidant blend Grindox 117 (propyl gallate/citric acid/ascorbyl palmitate) or gallic acid to the SL was investigated. The lipid type affected the oxidative stability: SL was less stable than SO and RL. The reduced stability was most likely caused by both the structure of the lipid...

  13. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Mayonnaise based on enzymatically produced specific structured lipid (SL) from sunflower oil and caprylic acid was compared with mayonnaise based on traditional sunflower oil (SO) or chemically randomized lipid (RL) with respect to their oxidative stability, sensory and rheological properties......, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid, the lower tocopherol content and the higher initial levels of lipid hydroperoxides and secondary volatile oxidation compounds in the SL itself compared with the RL and traditional sunflower oil employed. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while propyl...

  14. The binary (solid + liquid) phase diagrams of (caprylic or capric acid) + (1-octanol or 1-decanol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carareto, Natália D.D.; Castagnaro, Thamires; Costa, Mariana C.; Meirelles, Antonio J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SLE of mixtures of caprylic acid, (capric acid + 1-octanol), 1-decanol were studied. • Experimental data were obtained through DSC and Stepscan DSC. • Systems presented eutectic and peritectic points. • Liquidus line was modeled using Margules and NRTL models. • Solid phase was modeled using the Slaughter and Doherty approach. - Abstract: In the present study the phase diagrams of four (fatty acid + fatty alcohol) binary mixtures composed of caprylic (C8O2) or capric acid (C10O2) + 1-octanol (C8OH) or 1-decanol (C10OH) were obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Eutectic and peritectic reactions occurred in the systems. In standard DSC analyses of the (C8O2 + C10OH) and (C10O2 + C8OH) systems, an exothermic transition occurs in association with the melting of a metastable phase. A Stepscan DSC method was used in order to avoid the formation of this metastable phase during the heating of the mixtures. The approach suggested by Slaughter and Doherty (1995) [24] was used for modeling the solid phase, and the Margules 2-suffix, Margules 3-suffix and NRTL models were applied for calculating the activity coefficients of the liquid phase. The best modeling results were obtained using the Margules-3-suffix with an average deviation between experimental and calculated values ranging from T = (0.3 to 0.9) K

  15. Oxidative stability of milk drinks containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Milk drinks containing 5% traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) or specific structured lipid (SL) (both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid) were compared with respect to their particle size, viscosity and oxidative stability during storage. Furthermore, the effect...... drink could not be ascribed was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid and to a single factor, differences in the process applied to produce and purify the lipids. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the milk drink based on SL....... of adding potential antioxidants EDTA or gallic acid to the milk drink based on SL was investigated. The lipid type significantly affected the oxidative stability of the milk drinks: Milk drink based on SL oxidized faster than milk drink based on RL or SO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SL milk...

  16. Synergistic antimicrobial activity of caprylic acid in combination with citric acid against both Escherichia coli O157:H7 and indigenous microflora in carrot juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S A; Rhee, M S

    2015-08-01

    The identification of novel, effective, and non-thermal decontamination methods is imperative for the preservation of unpasteurized and fresh vegetable juices. The aim of this study was to examine the bactericidal effects of caprylic acid + citric acid against the virulent pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 and the endogenous microflora in unpasteurized fresh carrot juice. Carrot juice was treated with either caprylic acid, citric acid, or a combination of caprylic acid + citric acid at mild heating temperature (45 °C or 50 °C). The color of the treated carrot juice as well as microbial survival was examined over time. Combined treatment was more effective than individual treatment in terms of both color and microbial survival. Caprylic acid + citric acid treatment (each at 5.0 mM) at 50 °C for 5 min resulted in 7.46 and 3.07 log CFU/ml reductions in the E. coli O157:H7 and endogenous microflora populations, respectively. By contrast, there was no apparent reduction in either population following individual treatment. A validation assay using a low-density E. coli O157:H7 inoculum (3.31 log CFU/ml) showed that combined treatment with caprylic acid (5.0 mM) + citric acid (2.5 mM) at 50 °C for >5 min or with caprylic acid + citric acid (both at 5.0 mM) at either 45 °C or 50 °C for >5 min completely destroyed the bacteria. Combined treatment also increased the redness of the juice, which is a perceived indication of quality. Taken together, these results indicate that combined treatment with low concentrations of caprylic acid and citric acid, which are of biotic origin, can eliminate microorganisms from unpasteurized carrot juice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fractionation of equine antivenom using caprylic acid precipitation in combination with cationic ion-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raweerith, Rutai; Ratanabanangkoon, Kavi

    2003-11-01

    A combined process of caprylic acid (CA) precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose was studied as a means to fractionate pepsin-digested horse antivenom F(ab')(2) antibody. In the CA precipitation, the optimal concentration for fractionation of F(ab')(2) from pepsin-digested horse plasma was 2%, in which 89.61% of F(ab')(2) antibody activity was recovered in the supernatant with 1.5-fold purification. A significant amount of pepsin was not precipitated and remained active under these conditions. An analytical cation exchanger Protein-Pak SP 8HR HPLC column was tested to establish optimal conditions for the effective separation of IgG, albumin, pepsin and CA from the F(ab')(2) product. From these results, the supernatant from CA precipitation of pepsin-digested plasma was subjected to a SP-Sepharose column chromatography using a linear salt gradient. With stepwise elution, a peak containing F(ab')(2) antibody could be obtained by elution with 0.25 M NaCl. The total recovery of antibody was 65.56% with 2.91-fold purification, which was higher than that achieved by ammonium sulfate precipitation. This process simultaneously and effectively removed residual pepsin, high molecular weight aggregates and CA in the final F(ab')(2) product, and should be suitable for large-scale fractionation of therapeutic equine antivenoms.

  18. Caprylic triglyceride as a novel therapeutic approach to effectively improve the performance and attenuate the symptoms due to the motor neuron loss in ALS disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Varghese, Merina; Vempati, Prashant; Dzhun, Anastasiya; Cheng, Alice; Wang, Jun; Lange, Dale; Bilski, Amanda; Faravelli, Irene; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder of motor neurons causing progressive muscle weakness, paralysis, and finally death. ALS patients suffer from asthenia and their progressive weakness negatively impacts quality of life, limiting their daily activities. They have impaired energy balance linked to lower activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzymes in ALS spinal cord, suggesting that improving mitochondrial function may present a therapeutic approach for ALS. When fed a ketogenic diet, the G93A ALS mouse shows a significant increase in serum ketones as well as a significantly slower progression of weakness and lower mortality rate. In this study, we treated SOD1-G93A mice with caprylic triglyceride, a medium chain triglyceride that is metabolized into ketone bodies and can serve as an alternate energy substrate for neuronal metabolism. Treatment with caprylic triglyceride attenuated progression of weakness and protected spinal cord motor neuron loss in SOD1-G93A transgenic animals, significantly improving their performance even though there was no significant benefit regarding the survival of the ALS transgenic animals. We found that caprylic triglyceride significantly promoted the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate in vivo. Our results demonstrated that caprylic triglyceride alleviates ALS-type motor impairment through restoration of energy metabolism in SOD1-G93A ALS mice, especially during the overt stage of the disease. These data indicate the feasibility of using caprylic acid as an easily administered treatment with a high impact on the quality of life of ALS patients.

  19. Caprylic triglyceride as a novel therapeutic approach to effectively improve the performance and attenuate the symptoms due to the motor neuron loss in ALS disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disorder of motor neurons causing progressive muscle weakness, paralysis, and finally death. ALS patients suffer from asthenia and their progressive weakness negatively impacts quality of life, limiting their daily activities. They have impaired energy balance linked to lower activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzymes in ALS spinal cord, suggesting that improving mitochondrial function may present a therapeutic approach for ALS. When fed a ketogenic diet, the G93A ALS mouse shows a significant increase in serum ketones as well as a significantly slower progression of weakness and lower mortality rate. In this study, we treated SOD1-G93A mice with caprylic triglyceride, a medium chain triglyceride that is metabolized into ketone bodies and can serve as an alternate energy substrate for neuronal metabolism. Treatment with caprylic triglyceride attenuated progression of weakness and protected spinal cord motor neuron loss in SOD1-G93A transgenic animals, significantly improving their performance even though there was no significant benefit regarding the survival of the ALS transgenic animals. We found that caprylic triglyceride significantly promoted the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate in vivo. Our results demonstrated that caprylic triglyceride alleviates ALS-type motor impairment through restoration of energy metabolism in SOD1-G93A ALS mice, especially during the overt stage of the disease. These data indicate the feasibility of using caprylic acid as an easily administered treatment with a high impact on the quality of life of ALS patients.

  20. Retrospective case studies of the efficacy of caprylic triglyceride in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maynard SD

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Steven Douglas Maynard,1,2 Jeff Gelblum31Union Associated Physicians Clinic, 2Indiana University School of Medicine, Terre Haute, IN, 3Mt Sinai Medical Center of Miami, Aventura Hospital, Aventura, FL, USAAbstract: Under normal conditions, the adult human brain is fueled primarily by glucose. A prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD is region-specific decreases in cerebral glucose metabolism. Ketone bodies are a group of compounds produced from fat stores during periods of low glucose availability that can provide an alternative to glucose for brain metabolism. Consumption of sufficient quantities of caprylic triglyceride (CT increases plasma concentrations of ketone bodies and may be beneficial in conditions of compromised glucose metabolism, such as AD. The present study describes the use of CT in mild-to-moderate AD in routine clinical practice. Case records from eight patients with extensive monitoring of cognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and who had received CT for ≥6 months were reviewed. All were outpatients aged ≥50 years, cared for in standard practice, had a diagnosis of probable AD of mild-to-moderate severity (MMSE 14–24, and had received CT for at least 6 months in addition to other approved pharmacotherapy for AD. Response to CT administration as measured by MMSE scores varied by patient. However, the rate of decline in MMSE scores appeared slower than previously published reports for patients treated with pharmacotherapy alone. Profiling of individual patients may provide insight regarding those most likely to benefit from addition of CT to currently approved AD pharmacotherapy.Keywords: ketosis, cognition, Alzheimer's disease, metabolism, glucose

  1. Single-reagent one-step procedures for the purification of ovine IgG, F(ab')2 and Fab antivenoms by caprylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdulla, Ibrahim; Casewell, Nicholas R; Landon, John

    2014-01-15

    Antivenoms are typically produced in horses or sheep and often purified using salt precipitation of immunoglobulins or F(ab')2 fragments. Caprylic (octanoic) acid fractionation of antiserum has the advantage of not precipitating the desired antibodies, thereby avoiding potential degradation that can lead to the formation of aggregates, which may be the cause of some adverse reactions to antivenoms. Here we report that when optimising the purification of immunoglobulins from ovine antiserum raised against snake venom, caprylic acid was found to have no effect on the activity of the enzymes pepsin and papain, which are employed in antivenom manufacturing to digest immunoglobulins to obtain F(ab')2 and Fab fragments, respectively. A "single-reagent" method was developed for the production of F(ab')2 antivenom whereby whole ovine antiserum was mixed with both caprylic acid and pepsin and incubated for 4h at 37°C. For ovine Fab antivenom production from whole antiserum, the "single reagent" comprised of caprylic acid, papain and l-cysteine; after incubation at 37°C for 18-20h, iodoacetamide was added to stop the reaction. Caprylic acid facilitated the precipitation of albumin, resulting in a reduced protein load presented to the digestion enzymes, culminating in substantial reductions in processing time. The ovine IgG, F(ab')2 and Fab products obtained using these novel caprylic acid methods were comparable in terms of yield, purity and specific activity to those obtained by multi-step conventional salt fractionation with sodium sulphate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Minipool Caprylic Acid Fractionation of Plasma Using Disposable Equipment: A Practical Method to Enhance Immunoglobulin Supply in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ekiaby, Magdy; Vargas, Mariángela; Sayed, Makram; Gorgy, George; Goubran, Hadi; Radosevic, Mirjana; Burnouf, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Background Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is an essential plasma-derived medicine that is lacking in developing countries. IgG shortages leave immunodeficient patients without treatment, exposing them to devastating recurrent infections from local pathogens. A simple and practical method for producing IgG from normal or convalescent plasma collected in developing countries is needed to provide better, faster access to IgG for patients in need. Methodology/Principal Findings IgG was purified from 10 consecutive minipools of 20 plasma donations collected in Egypt using single-use equipment. Plasma donations in their collection bags were subjected to 5%-pH5.5 caprylic acid treatment for 90 min at 31°C, and centrifuged to remove the precipitate. Supernatants were pooled, then dialyzed and concentrated using a commercial disposable hemodialyzer. The final preparation was filtered online by gravity, aseptically dispensed into storage transfusion bags, and frozen at 5 logs reduction of HIV, BVDV, and PRV infectivity in less than 15 min of caprylic acid treatment. Conclusions/Significance 90% pure, virally-inactivated immunoglobulins can be prepared from plasma minipools using simple disposable equipment and bag systems. This easy-to-implement process could be used to produce immunoglobulins from local plasma in developing countries to treat immunodeficient patients. It is also relevant for preparing hyperimmune IgG from convalescent plasma during infectious outbreaks such as the current Ebola virus episode. PMID:25719558

  3. Minipool caprylic acid fractionation of plasma using disposable equipment: a practical method to enhance immunoglobulin supply in developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy El-Ekiaby

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin G (IgG is an essential plasma-derived medicine that is lacking in developing countries. IgG shortages leave immunodeficient patients without treatment, exposing them to devastating recurrent infections from local pathogens. A simple and practical method for producing IgG from normal or convalescent plasma collected in developing countries is needed to provide better, faster access to IgG for patients in need.IgG was purified from 10 consecutive minipools of 20 plasma donations collected in Egypt using single-use equipment. Plasma donations in their collection bags were subjected to 5%-pH5.5 caprylic acid treatment for 90 min at 31°C, and centrifuged to remove the precipitate. Supernatants were pooled, then dialyzed and concentrated using a commercial disposable hemodialyzer. The final preparation was filtered online by gravity, aseptically dispensed into storage transfusion bags, and frozen at 5 logs reduction of HIV, BVDV, and PRV infectivity in less than 15 min of caprylic acid treatment.90% pure, virally-inactivated immunoglobulins can be prepared from plasma minipools using simple disposable equipment and bag systems. This easy-to-implement process could be used to produce immunoglobulins from local plasma in developing countries to treat immunodeficient patients. It is also relevant for preparing hyperimmune IgG from convalescent plasma during infectious outbreaks such as the current Ebola virus episode.

  4. Estimate of serum immunoglobulin G concentration using refractometry with or without caprylic acid fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, K M; Polo, J; Lago, A; Campbell, J; Quigley, J; Tyler, H

    2013-07-01

    Objectives of this study were to develop a rapid calf-side test to determine serum IgG concentrations using caprylic acid (CA) fractionation, followed by refractometry of the IgG-rich supernatant and compare the accuracy of this method with results obtained using refractometry using raw serum. Serum samples (n=200) were obtained from 1-d-old calves, frozen (-20°C), and shipped to the laboratory. Samples were allowed to thaw for 1h at room temperature. Fractionation with CA was conducted by adding 1mL of serum to a tube containing 45, 60, or 75µL of CA and 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5mL of 0.06 M acetic acid. The tube contents were mixed well, allowed to react for 1 min, and then centrifuged at 3,300 × g for 0, 10, or 20 min at 25°C. The %Brix and refractive index of the fractionated supernatant were determined using a digital refractometer. Nonfractionated serum was analyzed for %Brix (BRn), refractive index (nDn), and IgG concentration by radial immunodiffusion. The mean serum IgG concentration was 19.0 mg/mL [standard deviation (SD)=9.7], with a range of 3.5 to 47.0 mg/mL. The mean serum BRn was 8.6 (SD=0.91), with a range of 6.8 to 11.0. The mean serum nDn was 1.34566 (SD=0.00140), with a range of 1.34300 to 1.34930. Serum nDn was positively correlated with IgG concentration (correlation coefficient=0.86; n=185). Fractionated samples treated with 1mL 0.6 M acetic acid and 60µL of CA and not centrifuged before analysis resulted in a strong relationship between the refractive index of the fractionated supernatant and IgG (correlation coefficient=0.80; n=45). Regression was used to determine cut points indicative of 10, 12, and 14 mg of IgG/mL to determine the sensitivity and specificity of refractometry to identify failure of passive transfer (serum IgG refractometry of nonfractionated calf serum provides a strong estimate of IgG concentration and 7.8% Brix may be used as the cut point to identify failure of passive transfer in 1-d-old calves. Copyright © 2013 American

  5. Estimate of colostral immunoglobulin G concentration using refractometry without or with caprylic acid fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, K M; Conrad, E; Polo, J; Lago, A; Campbell, J; Quigley, J; Tyler, H

    2012-07-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate the use of refractometry as a means of estimating immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration of bovine maternal colostrum (MC) and determine if fractionation of MC using caprylic acid (CA) improved estimates of IgG. Samples (n=85) of MC were collected from a single dairy in California and used to determine the method of CA fraction that produced the best prediction of IgG based on CA fractionation followed by refractometry. Subsequently, samples of MC (n=827) were collected from 67 farms in 12 states to compare refractometry with or without CA fractionation as methods to estimate IgG concentration. Samples were collected from the feeding pool and consisted of fresh (n=196), previously frozen (n=479), or refrigerated (n=152) MC. Samples were further classified by the number freeze-thaw cycles before analysis. Fractionation with CA was conducted by adding 1 mL of MC to a tube containing 75 μL of CA and 1 mL of 0.06 M acetic acid. The tube was shaken and allowed to react for 1 min. Refractive index of the IgG-rich supernatant (nDf) was determined using a digital refractometer. Whole, nonfractionated MC was analyzed for IgG by radial immunodiffusion (RID) and refractive index (nDw). The relationship between nDf and IgG (r=0.53; n=805) was weak, whereas that between nDw and IgG was stronger (r=0.73; n=823). Fresh samples analyzed by refractometry that subsequently went through 1 freeze-thaw cycle before RID analysis resulted in the strongest relationship between IgG and nDf or nDw (r=0.93 and 0.90, respectively). The MC samples collected fresh on the farm but frozen 2 or more times before analysis by refractometry or RID had low correlations between IgG and nDf and nDw (r=0.09 and 0.01). Samples refrigerated or frozen on the farm before analysis had weaker relationships between RID and nDf or nDw (r=0.38 to 0.80), regardless of the number of freeze-thaw cycles. Breed and lactation number did not affect the accuracy of either test. These

  6. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of canola oil with caprylic acid to produce medium-, long- and medium-chain-type structured lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yingyao; Xia, Luan; Xu, Xuebing

    2012-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of canola oil with caprylic acid was performed to produce structured lipids (SLs) containing medium-chain fatty acid (M) at position sn-1,3 and long-chain fatty acid (L) at the sn-2 position in a solvent-free system. Six commercial lipases from different sources were...

  7. Site-specific immunosuppression using a new formulation of topical cyclosporine A with polyethylene glycol-8 glyceryl caprylate/caprate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, H S; Malli, D; Chrzanowski, F A; Puc, M M; Matthews, M S; Hewitt, C W

    1999-05-15

    Dermal application of immunosuppressants can be an effective means of achieving site-specific immunosuppression (SITE) on skin allografts in burn wound management and in the treatment of various immune skin disorders. We have previously reported success with topical cyclosporine A (tCsA) in the treatment of skin allograft rejection in rats. Using a new tCsA formulation with a penetration enhancer (PE), polyethylene glycol-8 (PEG-8) glyceryl caprylate/caprate (Labrasol, Gattefossé, St. Priest, France), in a trinary drug delivery system, we hypothesized that we would induce SITE and significantly delay rejection of dual skin allografts in rats. Dual rat skin allografts from Lewis x Brown-Norway (LBN) donors were grafted to Lewis (Lew) recipients. Experimental animals (EXP, n = 7) received a 10-day course of systemic cyclosporine (sCsA, 8 mg/kg/day) followed by topical application. One of the two allografts on each experimental animal received tCsA/PE application (5 mg/kg/day) until sacrifice (tCsA/PE-treated). The other allograft received vehicle only (vehicle-treated). Allogeneic controls (ALLO-CON, n = 9) received no sCsA or tCsA. First signs of rejection were determined based on the initial observation of erythema, hair loss, flakiness, and/or scabs. The mean time to rejection for ALLO-CON allografts was 6.3 +/- 0.7 days (t test, P = 0.0013); for vehicle-treated allografts, 12.3 +/- 3.8 days (paired t test, P = 0.0146); and for tCsA/PE-treated allografts, 25.6 +/- 5.4 days. The disparity of days to rejection between dual allografts in the ALLO-CON group was 0.0 +/- 0.0 day and that between the tCsA/PE- and vehicle-treated dual allografts was 13.3 +/- 3.9 days (t test, P = 0.0016). A new formulation of tCsA in a trinary drug delivery system is successful at delaying the onset of rejection in dual skin allografts in rats by SITE, and PEG-8 glyceryl caprylate/caprate may represent a potentially effective transdermal penetration enhancer. Copyright 1999 Academic

  8. Waste conversion into n-caprylate and n-caproate: resource recovery from wine lees using anaerobic reactor microbiomes and in-line extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo A. Kucek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To convert wastes into sustainable liquid fuels and chemicals, new resource recovery technologies are required. Chain elongation is a carboxylate-platform bioprocess that converts short-chain carboxylates (SCCs (e.g., acetate C2 and n-butyrate C4 into medium-chain carboxylates (MCCs (e.g., n-caprylate C8 and n-caproate C6 with hydrogen gas as a side product. Ethanol or another electron donor (e.g., lactate, carbohydrate is required. Competitive MCC productivities, yields (product vs. substrate fed, and specificities (product vs. all products were only achieved previously from an organic waste material when exogenous ethanol had been added. Here, we converted a real organic waste, which inherently comprised of ethanol, into MCCs with n-caprylate as the target product. We used wine lees, which consisted primarily of settled yeast cells and ethanol from wine fermentation, and produced MCCs with a reactor microbiome. We operated the bioreactor at a pH of 5.2 and with continuous in-line extraction and achieved a MCC productivity of 3.9 g COD/L-d at an organic loading rate of 5.8 g COD/L-d, resulting in a promising MCC yield of 67% and specificities of 36% for each n-caprylate and n-caproate (72% for both. Compared to all other studies that used complex organic substrates, we achieved the highest n-caprylate-to-n-caproate product ratio of 1.0 (COD basis, because we used increased broth-recycle rates through the forward membrane contactor, which improved in-line extraction rates. Increased recycle rates also allowed us to achieve the highest reported MCC production flux per membrane surface area thus far (20.1 g COD/m2-d. Through microbial community analyses, we determined that an operational taxonomic unit (OTU for Bacteroides spp. was dominant and was positively correlated with increased MCC productivities. Our data also suggested that the microbiome may have been shaped for improved MCC production by the high broth-recycle rates. Comparable abiotic

  9. Monitoring of monooctanoyl phosphatidylcholine synthesis by enzymatic acidolysis between soybean phosphatidylcholine and caprylic acid by thin-layer chromatography with a flame ionization detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikbjerg, Anders Falk; Mu, Huiling; Xu, Xuebing

    2005-01-01

    Thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detector (TLC-FID) method was used for monitoring the production of structured phospholipids (ML-type: L-long chain fatty acids; M-medium chain fatty acids) by enzyme-catalyzed acidolysis between soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC) and caprylic acid....... It was found that the structured PC fractionated into 2-3 distinct bands on both plate thin layer chromatography (TLC) and Chromarod TLC. These 3 bands represented PC of LL-type, ML-type and MM-type, respectively. The TLC-FID method was applied in the present study to examine the influence of enzyme dosage...

  10. Acidolysis of terebinth fruit oil with palmitic and caprylic acids in a recirculating packed bed reactor: optimization using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koçak, D.; Keskin, H.; Fadiloglu, S.; Gögüs, F.

    2016-07-01

    The acidolysis reaction of terebinth fruit oil with caprylic and palmitic acid has been investigated. The reaction was catalyzed by lipase (Lipozyme IM from Rhizomucormiehei) and carried out in recirculating packed bed reactor. The effects of reaction parameters have been analyzed using response surface methodology. Reaction time (3.5–6.5 h), enzyme load (10–20%), substrate flow rate (4–8 mL·min−1 ) and substrate mole ratios (Terebinth oil : Palmitic acid : Caprylic acid, 1:1.83:1.22–1:3.07:2.05) were evaluated. The optimum reaction conditions were 5.9 h reaction time, 10% enzyme load, 4 mL·min−1 substrate flow rate and 1:3.10:2.07 substrate mole ratio. The structured lipid obtained at these optimum conditions had 52.23% desired triacylglycerols and a lower caloric value than that of terebinth fruit oil. The melting characteristics and microstructure of the structured lipid were similar to those of commercial margarine fat extracts. The results showed that the structured lipid had the highest oxidative stability among the studied fats. (Author)

  11. Structured triglycerides containing caprylic (8:0) and oleic (18:1) fatty acids reduce blood cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol accumulation in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas A; Kritchevsky, David; Kotyla, Timothy; Nicolosi, Robert J

    2006-03-01

    The effects of structured triglycerides containing one long chain fatty acid (oleic acid, C18:1) and one short chain saturated fatty acid (caprylic acid, 8:0) on lipidemia, liver and aortic cholesterol, and fecal neutral sterol excretion were investigated in male Golden Syrian hamsters fed a hypercholesterolemic regimen consisting of 89.9% commercial ration to which was added 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol (w/w). After 2 weeks on the HCD diet, the hamsters were bled, following an overnight fast (16 h) and placed into one of three dietary treatments of eight animals each based on similar plasma cholesterol levels. The hamsters either continued on the HCD diet or were placed on diets in which the coconut oil was replaced by one of two structured triglycerides, namely, 1(3),2-dicaproyl-3(1)-oleoylglycerol (OCC) or 1,3-dicaproyl-2-oleoylglycerol (COC) at 10% by weight. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) in hamsters fed the OCC and COC compared to the HCD were reduced 40% and 49%, respectively (Pstructured triglyceride oils had lower blood cholesterol levels and lower aortic accumulation of cholesterol compared to the control fed hamsters.

  12. Transport of C-13-labelled linoleic and C-13-labelled caprylic acid in rat plasma after administration of specific structured triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Bodil; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    the transport of dietary C-13-labelled fatty acids in rat plasma to compare the chylomicron fatty acid metabolism after administration of specific structured, long chain and medium chain triacylglycerols. Rats were fed ML*M, M*LM*, L*L*L* or M*M*M* (L=linoleic acid, 18:2n-6, M=caprylic acid, 8:0, * = C-13......-labelled fatty acid) by gavage. A maximum transport of 0.5% of the administered C-13-labelled 18:2n-6 was observed in 1mL rat plasma both after administration of L*L*L* and ML*M, while approximately 0.04% of the administered C-13-labelled 8:0 was detected in 1mL plasma following administration of M......*M*M* or M*LM*. After L*L*L* administration C-13-labelled 20:4n-6 was observed in plasma, probably formed by elongation and desaturation of 18:2n-6 in the enterocyte or liver cells. Furthermore, C-13-labelled 16:0, 48:0, 18: 1n-9 and 20:4n-6 were observed in plasma of rats fed M*M*M* and M*LM* due...

  13. Effect of chitosan-carvacrol coating on the quality of Pacific white shrimp during iced storage as affected by caprylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianyun; Lei, Jun; Ma, Junjie; Yuan, Gaofeng; Sun, Haiyan

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of chitosan-carvacrol coating with or without caprylic acid (CAP) on the quality of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) during 10days of iced storage. The result showed that chitosan-carvacrol coating significantly inhibited the increase in total aerobic plate count (TPC), pH and total volatile basic nitrogen content (TVB-N) of shrimp in comparison with the control. Chitosan-carvacrol coating also delayed the melanosis formation and changes of ΔE values, and improved the texture and sensory properties of shrimp. Moreover, incorporation of CAP potentiated the efficacy of chitosan-carvacrol coating in retarding the increase of TPC and TVB-N. Incorporation of CAP into chitosan-carvacrol coating also enabled the texture characteristics of shrimp to be retained greater degrees. These results suggested that chitosan-carvacrol coating may be promising to be used as active packaging for extending the shelf life, and incorporation of CAP may enhance the efficacy of the coating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Acidolysis of terebinth fruit oil with palmitic and caprylic acids in a recirculating packed bed reactor: optimization using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koçak Yanık, D.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The acidolysis reaction of terebinth fruit oil with caprylic and palmitic acid has been investigated. The reaction was catalyzed by lipase (Lipozyme IM from Rhizomucormiehei and carried out in recirculating packed bed reactor. The effects of reaction parameters have been analyzed using response surface methodology. Reaction time (3.5–6.5 h, enzyme load (10–20%, substrate flow rate (4–8 mL·min-1 and substrate mole ratios (Terebinth oil : Palmitic acid : Caprylic acid, 1:1.83:1.22–1:3.07:2.05 were evaluated. The optimum reaction conditions were 5.9 h reaction time, 10% enzyme load, 4 mL·min-1 substrate flow rate and 1:3.10:2.07 substrate mole ratio. The structured lipid obtained at these optimum conditions had 52.23% desired triacylglycerols and a lower caloric value than that of terebinth fruit oil. The melting characteristics and microstructure of the structured lipid were similar to those of commercial margarine fat extracts. The results showed that the structured lipid had the highest oxidative stability among the studied fats.Se ha investigado la reacción de acidolisis del aceite de pistacho con los ácidoscaprílico y palmítico. La reacción fue catalizada por la lipasa Lipozyme IM de Rhizomucormiehei y realizada mediante recirculación del reactor de lecho compacto. Los efectos de los parámetros de la reacción han sido analizados mediante el uso de la metodología de superficie de respuesta. El tiempo de reacción (3.5 hasta 6.5 h, la carga de enzima (10–20%, el caudal de sustrato (4–8 mL·min-1 relaciones molares de los sustrato (aceite de pistacho: ácido palmítico: ácido caprílico, 1: 1,83: 1,22–1: 3,07: 2,05 fueron evaluados. Las condiciones óptimas de reacción fueron 5,9 h de tiempo de reacción, el 10% de carga de la enzima, 4 mL·min-1 de caudal de sustrato y 1: 3,10: 2,07 de relación molar de sustratos. Los lípidos estructurados obtenidos en las condiciones óptimas tenías 52,23% de triacilgliceroles

  15. Preclinical evaluation of caprylic acid-fractionated IgG antivenom for the treatment of Taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus envenoming in Papua New Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariángela Vargas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Snake bite is a common medical emergency in Papua New Guinea (PNG. The taipan, Oxyuranus scutellatus, inflicts a large number of bites that, in the absence of antivenom therapy, result in high mortality. Parenteral administration of antivenoms manufactured in Australia is the current treatment of choice for these envenomings. However, the price of these products is high and has increased over the last 25 years; consequently the country can no longer afford all the antivenom it needs. This situation prompted an international collaborative project aimed at generating a new, low-cost antivenom against O. scutellatus for PNG.A new monospecific equine whole IgG antivenom, obtained by caprylic acid fractionation of plasma, was prepared by immunising horses with the venom of O. scutellatus from PNG. This antivenom was compared with the currently used F(ab'(2 monospecific taipan antivenom manufactured by CSL Limited, Australia. The comparison included physicochemical properties and the preclinical assessment of the neutralisation of lethal neurotoxicity and the myotoxic, coagulant and phospholipase A(2 activities of the venom of O. scutellatus from PNG. The F(ab'(2 antivenom had a higher protein concentration than whole IgG antivenom. Both antivenoms effectively neutralised, and had similar potency, against the lethal neurotoxic effect (both by intraperitoneal and intravenous routes of injection, myotoxicity, and phospholipase A(2 activity of O. scutellatus venom. However, the whole IgG antivenom showed a higher potency than the F(ab'(2 antivenom in the neutralisation of the coagulant activity of O. scutellatus venom from PNG.The new whole IgG taipan antivenom described in this study compares favourably with the currently used F(ab'(2 antivenom, both in terms of physicochemical characteristics and neutralising potency. Therefore, it should be considered as a promising low-cost candidate for the treatment of envenomings by O. scutellatus in PNG, and is

  16. In vitro combined effect of oregano essential oil and caprylic acid against Salmonella serovars, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Hulánková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro inhibition of foodborne pathogens via action of natural antimicrobials – caprylic acid (CA and essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. (OEO with high carvacrol content (72% was evaluated. For 15 Salmonella strains the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC determined by broth microdilution method ranged between 3.67–4.33 μl·ml-1 for CA and between 0.48–0.57 μl·ml-1 for OEO. For 7 Listeria monocytogenes strains the MIC ranged between 2.17–2.83 μl·ml-1 for CA and between 0.52–0.58 μl·ml-1 for OEO. Type strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus were tested, too, with MIC of CA 3.60 μl·ml-1 and 3.20 μl·ml-1 and MIC of OEO 0.51 μl·ml-1 and 0.48 μl·ml-1, respectively. Furthermore, it was found that the MIC of CA can be decreased by even low addition (0.05% of citric or acetic acid and to a lesser extent by lactic acid, whereas the MICs of OEO did not notably decrease. Combined application of CA and OEO determined by FIC index led only to an additive effect (0.5 ≤ FIC ≤ 1. Combination of natural additives OEO, CA and eventually acetic or citric acid seems to have the potential to be an effective mixture for inhibition of foodborne pathogens, predominantly Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes, even in only slightly acidic food.

  17. Human plasma-derived immunoglobulin G fractionated by an aqueous two-phase system, caprylic acid precipitation, and membrane chromatography has a high purity level and is free of detectable in vitro thrombogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, M; Segura, Á; Wu, Y-W; Herrera, M; Chou, M-L; Villalta, M; León, G; Burnouf, T

    2015-02-01

    Instituto Clodomiro Picado has developed an immunoglobulin G (IgG) plasma fractionation process combining a polyethylene glycol/phosphate aqueous two-phase system (ATPS), caprylic acid precipitation and anion-exchange membrane chromatography. We evaluated the purity and in vitro thrombogenicity of such IgG, in line with current international requirements. Contributions of the different production steps to reduce thrombogenicity were assessed at 0·2 l-scale, and then the methodology was scaled-up to a 10 l-scale and final products (n = 3) were analysed. Purity, immunoglobulin composition, and subclass distribution were determined by electrophoretic and immunochemical methods. The in vitro thrombogenic potential was determined by a thrombin generation assay (TGA) using a Technothrombin fluorogenic substrate. Prekallikrein activator (PKA), plasmin, factor Xa, thrombin and thrombin-like activities were assessed using S-2302, S-2251, S-2222, S-2238 and S-2288 chromogenic substrates, respectively, and FXI by an ELISA. The thrombogenicity markers were reduced mostly during the ATPS step and were found to segregate mostly into the discarded liquid upper phase. The caprylic acid precipitation eliminated the residual procoagulant activity. The IgG preparations made from the 10 l-batches contained 100% gamma proteins, low residual IgA and undetectable IgM. The IgG subclass distribution was not substantially affected by the process. TGA and amidolytic activities revealed an undetectable in vitro thrombogenic risk and the absence of proteolytic enzymes in the final product. Fractionating human plasma by an ATPS combined with caprylic acid and membrane chromatography resulted in an IgG preparation of high purity and free of a detectable in vitro thrombogenic risk. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  18. Bio-Catalytic Structural Transformation of Anti-cancer Steroid, Drostanolone Enanthate with Cephalosporium aphidicola and Fusarium lini, and Cytotoxic Potential Evaluation of Its Metabolites against Certain Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iqbal Choudhary

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In search of selective and effective anti-cancer agents, eight metabolites of anti-cancer steroid, drostanolone enanthate (1, were synthesized via microbial biotransformation. Enzymes such as reductase, oxidase, dehydrogenase, and hydrolase from Cephalosporium aphidicola, and Fusarium lini were likely involved in the biotransformation of 1 into new metabolites at pH 7.0 and 26°C, yielding five new metabolites, 2α-methyl-3α,14α,17β-trihydroxy-5α-androstane (2, 2α-methyl-7α-hydroxy-5α-androstan-3,17-dione (3, 2-methylandrosta-11α-hydroxy-1, 4-diene-3,17-dione (6, 2-methylandrosta-14α-hydroxy-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (7, and 2-methyl-5α-androsta-7α-hydroxy-1-ene-3,17-dione (8, along with three known metabolites, 2α-methyl-3α,17β-dihydroxy-5α-androstane (4, 2-methylandrosta-1, 4-diene-3,17-dione (5, and 2α-methyl-5α-androsta-17β-hydroxy-3-one (9, on the basis of NMR, and HREI-MS data, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. Interestingly, C. aphidicola and F. lini were able to catalyze hydroxylation only at alpha positions of 1. Compounds 1–9 showed a varying degree of cytotoxicity against HeLa (human cervical carcinoma, PC3 (human prostate carcinoma, H460 (human lung cancer, and HCT116 (human colon cancer cancer cell lines. Interestingly, metabolites 4 (IC50 = 49.5 ± 2.2 μM, 5 (IC50 = 39.8 ± 1.5 μM, 6 (IC50 = 40.7 ± 0.9 μM, 7 (IC50 = 43.9 ± 2.4 μM, 8 (IC50 = 19.6 ± 1.4 μM, and 9 (IC50 = 25.1 ± 1.6 μM were found to be more active against HeLa cancer cell line than the substrate 1 (IC50 = 54.7 ± 1.6 μM. Similarly, metabolites 2 (IC50 = 84.6 ± 6.4 μM, 3 (IC50 = 68.1 ± 1.2 μM, 4 (IC50 = 60.4 ± 0.9 μM, 5 (IC50 = 84.0 ± 3.1 μM, 6 (IC50 = 58.4 ± 1.6 μM, 7 (IC50 = 59.1 ± 2.6 μM, 8 (IC50 = 51.8 ± 3.4 μM, and 9 (IC50 = 57.8 ± 3.2 μM were identified as more active against PC-3 cancer cell line than the substrate 1 (IC50 = 96.2 ± 3.0 μM. Metabolite 9 (IC50 = 2.8 ± 0.2 μM also showed potent anticancer

  19. Use of caprylic acid to control pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium) in apple juice at mild heat temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S A; Rhee, M S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of caprylic acid (CA) on pathogens in apple juice having intrinsic organic acids, and to determine any synergistic effects. Bactericidal effects of CA were examined against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium present in apple juice at mild heating temperatures. Apple juice containing each of the pathogens was treated with CA (0·1, 0·2, 0·4, 0·6 or 0·8 mmol l(-1)) at 50 or 55°C. Treatment with 0·8 mmol l(-1) (0·013%) CA at 50°C for 5 min or with 0·6 mmol l(-1) (0·010%) CA at 55°C for 5 min resulted in the complete eradication of E. coli O157:H7 (initial population: 7·25-7·34 log CFU ml(-1)). Salmonella Typhimurium were more sensitive than E. coli O157:H7: all bacteria (7·81-7·55 log CFU ml(-1)) were eradicated by treatment with 0·2 mmol l(-1) (0·0032%) CA at 55°C for 5 min or with 0·6 mmol l(-1) CA at 50°C for 5 min. By contrast, when pH-adjusted apple juice (pH 7·0) was treated with 0·8 mmol l(-1) CA, there was no significant difference in bactericidal effects between CA-treated samples and controls (heat treatment alone or heat + 0·1% ethanol treatment). This result suggested that acidic pH in the apple juice boost the antibacterial effects of CA. CA treatment did not affect (P > 0·05) the pH, colour or °Brix of the apple juice. This study highlights the utility of CA as a natural antibacterial agent that can eliminate micro-organisms from apple juice at very low concentrations (≤0·013%) and temperatures (≤55°C) within a short time (≤10 min). The results of our study may contribute to the development of an efficient method for improving the microbiological safety of apple juice. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Dietary Caprylic Acid (C8:0) Does Not Increase Plasma Acylated Ghrelin but Decreases Plasma Unacylated Ghrelin in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarié, Fanny; Beauchamp, Erwan; Dayot, Stéphanie; Duby, Cécile; Legrand, Philippe; Rioux, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on the caprylic acid (C8:0), this study aimed at investigating the discrepancy between the formerly described beneficial effects of dietary medium chain fatty acids on body weight loss and the C8:0 newly reported effect on food intake via ghrelin octanoylation. During 6 weeks, Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed with three dietary C8:0 levels (0, 8 and 21% of fatty acids) in three experimental conditions (moderate fat, caloric restriction and high fat). A specific dose-response enrichment of the stomach tissue C8:0 was observed as a function of dietary C8:0, supporting the hypothesis of an early preduodenal hydrolysis of medium chain triglycerides and a direct absorption at the gastric level. However, the octanoylated ghrelin concentration in the plasma was unchanged in spite of the increased C8:0 availability. A reproducible decrease in the plasma concentration of unacylated ghrelin was observed, which was consistent with a decrease in the stomach preproghrelin mRNA and stomach ghrelin expression. The concomitant decrease of the plasma unacylated ghrelin and the stability of its acylated form resulted in a significant increase in the acylated/total ghrelin ratio which had no effect on body weight gain or total dietary consumption. This enhanced ratio measured in rats consuming C8:0 was however suspected to increase (i) growth hormone (GH) secretion as an increase in the GH-dependent mRNA expression of the insulin like growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) was measured (ii) adipocyte diameters in subcutaneous adipose tissue without an increase in the fat pad mass. Altogether, these results show that daily feeding with diets containing C8:0 increased the C8:0 level in the stomach more than all the other tissues, affecting the acylated/total ghrelin plasma ratio by decreasing the concentration of circulating unacylated ghrelin. However, these modifications were not associated with increased body weight or food consumption. PMID:26196391

  1. Production of structured lipids by acidolysis of an EPA-enriched fish oil and caprylic acid in a packed bed reactor: analysis of three different operation modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Moreno, P A; Robles Medina, A; Camacho Rubio, F; Camacho Páez, B; Molina Grima, E

    2004-01-01

    Structured triacylglycerols (ST) enriched in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in position 2 of the triacylglycerol (TAG) backbone were synthesized by acidolysis of a commercially available EPA-rich oil (EPAX4510, 40% EPA) and caprylic acid (CA), catalyzed by the 1,3-specific immobilized lipase Lipozyme IM. The reaction was carried out in a packed bed reactor (PBR) operating in two ways: (1) by recirculating the reaction mixture from the exit of the bed to the substrate reservoir (discontinuous mode) and (2) in continuous mode, directing the product mixture leaving the PBR to a product reservoir. By operating in these two ways and using a simple kinetic model, representative values for the apparent kinetic constants (kX) for each fatty acid (native, Li or odd, M) were obtained. The kinetic model assumes that the rate of incorporation of a fatty acid into TAG per amount of enzyme, rX (mole/(h g lipase)) is proportional to the extent of the deviation from the equilibrium for each fatty acid (i.e., the difference of concentration between the fatty acid in the triacylglycerol and the concentration of the same fatty acid in the triacylglycerol once the equilibrium of the acidolysis reaction is reached). The model allows comparing the two operating modes through the processing intensity, defined as mLt/(V[TG]0) and mL/(q[TG]0), for the discontinuous and continuous operation modes, respectively. In discontinuous mode, ST with 59.5% CA and 9.6% EPA were obtained. In contrast, a ST with 51% CA and 19.6% EPA were obtained when using the continuous operation mode. To enhance the CA incorporation when operating in continuous mode, a two-step acidolysis reaction was performed (third operation mode). This continuous two-step process yields a ST with a 64% CA and a 15% EPA. Finally, after purifying the above ST in a preparative silica gel column, impregnated with boric acid, a ST with 66.9% CA and 19.6% EPA was obtained. The analysis by reverse phase and Ag+ liquid chromatography of

  2. Efficacy and safety of two whole IgG polyvalent antivenoms, refined by caprylic acid fractionation with or without beta-propiolactone, in the treatment of Bothrops asper bites in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Rafael; León, Guillermo; Gutiérrez, José María; Rojas, Gustavo; Toro, María Fabiola; Barona, Jacqueline; Rodríguez, Verónica; Díaz, Abel; Núñez, Vitelbina; Quintana, Juan Carlos; Ayala, Shirley; Mosquera, Diana; Conrado, Lesdy L; Fernández, Diego; Arroyo, Yobana; Paniagua, Carlos A; López, Mercedes; Ospina, Carlos E; Alzate, Claudia; Fernández, Jorge; Meza, Jazmín J; Silva, Juan F; Ramírez, Patricia; Fabra, Patricia E; Ramírez, Eugenio; Córdoba, Elkin; Arrieta, Ana B; Warrell, David A; Theakston, R David G

    2006-12-01

    The efficacy and safety of two whole IgG polyvalent antivenoms (A and B) were compared in a randomised, blinded clinical trial in 67 patients systemically envenomed by Bothrops asper in Colombia. Both antivenoms were fractionated by caprylic acid precipitation and had similar neutralising potencies, protein concentrations and aggregate contents. Antivenom B was additionally treated with beta-propiolactone to lower its anticomplementary activity. Analysing all treatment regimens together, there were no significant differences between the two antivenoms (A=34 patients; B=33 patients) in the time taken to reverse venom-induced bleeding and coagulopathy, to restore physiological fibrinogen concentrations and to clear serum venom antigenaemia. Blood coagulability was restored within 6-24 h in 97% of patients, all of whom had normal coagulation and plasma fibrinogen levels 48 h after the start of antivenom treatment. Two patients (3.0%) had recurrent coagulopathy and eight patients suffered recurrence of antigenaemia within 72 h of treatment. None of the dosage regimens of either antivenom used guaranteed resolution of venom-induced coagulopathy within 6 h, nor did they prevent recurrences. A further dose of antivenom at 6 h also did not guarantee resolution of coagulopathy within 12-24 h in all patients. The incidence of early adverse reactions (all mild) was similar for both antivenoms (15% and 24%; P>0.05).

  3. Eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) envenomation in dogs and cats: Clinical signs, coagulation changes, brown snake venom antigen levels and treatment with a novel caprylic acid fractionated bivalent whole IgG equine antivenom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, A M; Leister, E

    2017-11-01

    This report describes the diagnosis and treatment of 16 confirmed cases of snakebite from the Australian eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) in dogs and cats. The clinical signs, brown snake venom antigen concentrations, coagulation parameters, and treatment outcomes following administration of an experimental caprylic acid fractionated bivalent whole IgG antivenom are documented. A brown snake venom antigen specific sandwich ELISA was used to retrospectively quantify venom levels in serum and urine. The characteristic clinical signs of envenomation in all cases were neurotoxicity to a variable extent and coagulation disturbances. The median serum venom concentration at presentation was 122 ng/mL and ranged from 1.9 to 3607 ng/mL. The median urine venom concentration at presentation was 55 ng/mL and ranged from 3.3 to 2604 ng/mL. Mechanical ventilation was used to successfully support respiration in three severely paralysed cases for 1-30 h. In four cases where serum samples were available post-antivenom treatment, venom was no longer detectable. Coagulation parameters measured on citrated plasma samples collected prior to antivenom from each case were abnormally prolonged to variable degrees in all cases. Three cases (2 dogs; 1 cat) were euthanized within four hours of presentation for either cost based reasons (2) or poor prognosis (1). One dog developed massive and potentially fatal pulmonary haemorrhage and was euthanazed. In vitro testing of the venom procoagulant neutralising efficacy of the experimental antivenom demonstrated it was 9.6-72 times more effective when compared to two other commercial veterinary antivenom products. This is the first detailed report of a case series of P. textilis envenomation in dogs and cats. The envenomation syndrome in dogs and cats differed to that reported humans, dominated by neurotoxicity and coagulopathy; unlike in humans, where coagulopathy is of primary clinical significance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  4. 21 CFR 184.1025 - Caprylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific... as defined in § 170.3(n)(38) of this chapter; 0.016 percent for snack foods as defined in § 170.3(n...

  5. Adjuvants affect duckweed (Lemna minor) control with pelargonic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckweeds (Lemna spp.) are small, free floating, aquatic plants that flourish on stagnant or slow-moving water surfaces throughout the world. Members of the genus are among the smallest flowering plants, providing food for fish and fowl, but their aggressive growth and invasive tendencies make them ...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1159 - Pelargonic acid; exemption from the requirement of tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., vats, fillers, evaporators, pasteurizers and aseptic equipment in restaurants, food service operations, dairies, breweries, wineries, beverage and food processing plants. [62 FR 28364, May 23, 1997, as amended... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions...

  7. Potential organic herbicides for squash production: Pelargonic acid herbicides AXXE (registered trademark) and Scythe (registered trademark)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide season- long weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of potential organic herbicides on weed control efficacy, crop injury, and y...

  8. Pelargonic acid for weed control in organic Vidalia sweet onion production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivation using a tine weeder is a proven means to manage weeds in organic Vidalia® sweet onion production. If the initial cultivation is delayed, emerged weeds are not controlled by the tine weeder. In these cases, herbicides derived from natural products could be used to control the emerged we...

  9. Dose-response effect of Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on benign prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone enanthate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasco, M; Villegas, L; Yucra, S; Rubio, J; Gonzales, G F

    2007-08-01

    The main goal of this study was to determine the effect of a freeze-dried aqueous extract of the red variety of Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca) on testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in adult rats of the Holtzman strain. Rats were treated with freeze-dried aqueous extract of Red Maca at doses of 0, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 g/kg body wt. A positive control group received Finasteride (0.6 mg/kg body wt.). After treatment, the animals were sacrificed, and the ventral prostate was extracted, and weighed. HPLC was used to determine the presence of glucosinolates in Red Maca. The prostate weight diminished in a dose-dependent fashion in rats treated with Red Maca. The effect of Red Maca was better than that observed with Finasteride. Finasteride, but not Red Maca, reduced seminal vesicles weight. Analysis of the HPLC indicated the presence of benzyl glucosinolate (Glucotropaeolin) with a content of 0.639%. Serum testosterone levels were not affected by Red Maca. Moreover, serum testosterone levels were not related to prostate or seminal vesicles weight in rats treated with vehicle and Red Maca. In conclusion, Red Maca administered orally in rats seems to exert an inhibitory effect at a level post DHT conversion, on the BPH-induced experimentally, although a direct measure of reductase action would still be required.

  10. Effects of caprylic acid on performance and mortality of growing rabbits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marounek, Milan; Skřivanová, V.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 71, - (2002), s. 435-439 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/02/0460; GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Keywords : Antibiotics alternative * fatty acid * growth Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 0.370, year: 2002

  11. Bioelectrochemical production of caproate and caprylate from acetate by mixed cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerten-Jansen, van M.C.A.A.; Heijne, ter A.; Grootscholten, T.I.M.; Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Sleutels, T.H.J.A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    The use of mixed cultures to convert waste biomass into medium chain fatty acids, precursors for renewable fuels or chemicals, is a promising route. To convert waste biomass into medium chain fatty acids, an external electron donor in the form of hydrogen or ethanol needs to be added. This study

  12. Human Effectiveness and Risk Characterization of Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) and Pelargonic Acid Vanillylamide (PAVA or Nonivamide) Hand-Held Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    observation time was too late to observe any effect , or the rabbit is not a good model for the skin irritating effect of PAVA. In an irritation study...exposures to OC, including effects on the skin of workers handling chili peppers, did not report any cases of sensitization (Stopford, 2004). This...Capsaicinoids No studies evaluating GI tract effects were identified for PAVA. Ingestion of OC (in the context of natural pepper products, such as chili

  13. Hepatic-portal oleic acid inhibits feeding more potently than hepatic-portal caprylic acid in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jambor de Sousa, Ulrike L.; Benthem, Lambertus; Arsenijevic, Denis; Scheurink, Anton J. W.; Langhans, Wolfgang; Geary, Noni; Leonhardt, Monika; Geary, Nori

    2006-01-01

    In several human and animal studies, medium-chain triglycerides decreased food intake more than did long-chain triglycerides. It is possible that faster uptake and metabolism of medium-chain fatty acids in the liver is responsible for this difference. To test this hypothesis we compared the feeding

  14. Paralogous gene analysis reveals a highly enantioselective 1,2-O-isopropylideneglycerol caprylate esterase of Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droge, MJ; Bos, R; Quax, WJ

    Carboxylesterase NP of Bacillus subtilis Thai 1-8, characterized in 1992 as a very enantioselective (S)-naproxen esterase, was found to show no enantiopreference towards (S)-1,2-O-isopropylideneglycerol (IPG) esters. The ybfK gene was identified by the B. subtilis genome project as an unknown gene

  15. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise and milk drink produced with structured lipids based on fish oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2004-01-01

    The oxidative stabilities of traditional fish oil (FO), randomized lipids (RFO), or specific structured lipids (SFO) produced from fish oil were compared when incorporated into either milk drink or mayonnaise. Furthermore, the effect of adding the potential antioxidants EDTA (240 mg...... not be ascribed to a single factor, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipids and differences in the processes used to produce and purify the lipids. In milk drinks based on SFO, EDTA slightly reduced oxidation, while lactoferrin did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect....../kg) or lactoferrin (1000 mg/kg) to the milk drink based on SFO was investigated. The lipid type significantly affected the oxidative stability of both mayonnaises and milk drinks: The oxidative stability decreased in the order RFO>FO>SFO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SFO food emulsions could...

  16. Caprylic Triglyceride as a Novel Therapeutic Approach to Effectively Improve the Performance and Attenuate the Symptoms Due to the Motor Neuron Loss in ALS Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Wei; Varghese, Merina; Vempati, Prashant; Dzhun, Anastasiya; Cheng, Alice; Wang, Jun; Lange, Dale; Bilski, Amanda; Faravelli, Irene; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder of motor neurons causing progressive muscle weakness, paralysis, and finally death. ALS patients suffer from asthenia and their progressive weakness negatively impacts quality of life, limiting their daily activities. They have impaired energy balance linked to lower activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzymes in ALS spinal cord, suggesting that improving mitochondrial function may present a therapeutic approac...

  17. A note on the effect of triacylglycerols of caprylic and capric acid on performance, mortality, and digestibility of nutrients in young rabbits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skřivanová, V.; Marounek, Milan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 127, 1 (2006), s. 161-168 ISSN 0377-8401 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5045317 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : rabbit * lipid supplement * fatty acids Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.290, year: 2006

  18. Using GC-combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry for confirming steroid administration from urinary metabolites in humans and animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, A.; Churchman, D.; Davis, S.

    2000-01-01

    Gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) was used to study the incorporation of exogenous testosterone enanthate into excreted urinary 5α- and 5β-androstane-3α, 17β-diols

  19. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ester, butyl caprylate has wide applications in commercial market and it also possesses characteristic fruity flavor. The work exhibits the effect of various reaction parameters and the optimization study for the synthesis of butyl caprylate in presence of bio-catalyst. To achieve maximum conversion theoptimum parameters ...

  20. Protein Exposed Hydrophobicity Reduces the Kinetic Barrier for Adsorption of Ovalbumin to the Air-Water Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, P.A.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Egmond, M.R.; Voragen, F.A.G.J.; Jongh, H.H.J. de

    2003-01-01

    Using native and caprylated ovalbumin, the role of exposed hydrophobicity on the kinetics of protein adsorption to the air - water interface is studied. First, changes in the chemical properties of the protein upon caprylation were characterized followed by measurement of the changes in adsorption

  1. Protein exposed hydrophobicity reduces the kinetic barrier for adsoption of ovalbumin to the air-water interface.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, P.A.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Egmond, M.R.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Using native and caprylated ovalbumin, the role of exposed hydrophobicity on the kinetics of protein adsorption to the air-water interface is studied. First, changes in the chemical properties of the protein upon caprylation were characterized followed by measurement of the changes in adsorption

  2. 21 CFR 176.180 - Components of paper and paperboard in contact with dry food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the.... Monoethyl maleate. 5-Norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, mono-n-butyl ester. Styrene. Vinyl acetate. Vinyl butyrate. Vinyl chloride. Vinyl crotonate. Vinyl hexoate. Vinylidene chloride. Vinyl pelargonate. Vinyl...

  3. Broadcast application of scythe for broadleaf weed control in spring-transplanted onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producers using organic methods for onion production need organic herbicides that will effectively provide post-emergent weed control. In 2008, a second year of field research was conducted to determine the effect of broadcast over-the-top application of Scythe (57% pelargonic acid) on weed control...

  4. PDE7B is involved in nandrolone decanoate hydrolysis in liver cytosol and its transcription is up-regulated by androgens in HepG2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eStrahm

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most androgenic drugs are available as esters for a prolonged depot action. However the enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the esters have not been identified. There is one study indicating that PDE7B may be involved in the activation of testosterone enanthate. The aims are to identify the cellular compartments where the hydrolysis of testosterone enanthate and nandrolone decanoate occurs, and to investigate the involvement of PDE7B in the activation. We also determined if testosterone and nandrolone affect the expression of the PDE7B gene. The hydrolysis studies were performed in isolated human liver cytosolic and microsomal preparations with and without specific PDE7B inhibitor. The gene expression was studied in human hepatoma cells (HepG2 exposed to testosterone and nandrolone. We show that PDE7B serves as a catalyst of the hydrolysis of testosterone enanthate and nandrolone decanoate in liver cytosol. The gene expression of PDE7B was significantly induced 3- and 5- fold after 2 hours exposure to 1 µM testosterone enanthate and nandrolone decanoate, respectively. These results show that PDE7B is involved in the activation of esterified nandrolone and testosterone and that the gene expression of PDE7B is induced by supra-physiological concentrations of androgenic drugs.

  5. Attitude of Nigerian women to abnormal menstrual bleeding from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Depot Medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and Norethisterone Enanthate (Net-En) are frequently used progestogen-only injectable contraceptives in many developing countries including Nigeria. Their use is often complicated by abnormal and unpredictable menstrual bleeding patterns. This has often been ...

  6. Increased survivorship of testosterone-treated female house mice (Mus musculus) in high-density field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.J. Zielinski; J.G. Vandenbergh

    1991-01-01

    Differences in hormone levels influence sexual differences in aggression. survival, home-range size and dispcrsal in rodents. The role oftestosterone in establishing some of these differences in wild house mice was examined. Females treated with either 0·5 mg of testosterone enanthate (TE-treated) or oil (control), and an...

  7. High rate heptanoate production from propionate and ethanol using chain elongation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootscholten, T.I.M.; Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    Heptanoate (or enanthate), a saturated mono-carboxylate with seven carbon atoms, is a commercially produced biochemical building block with versatile applications. Currently, heptanoate is mainly derived from the oxidation of heptaldehyde, which can be obtained after pyrolysis of castor oil. The

  8. Sarmentine, a natural herbicide from Piper species with multiple herbicide mechanisms of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Emmanuel Dayan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarmentine, 1-(1-pyrrolidinyl-(2E,4E-2,4-decadien-1-one, is a natural amide isolated from the fruits of Piper species. The compound has a number of interesting biological properties, including its broad-spectrum activity on weeds as a contact herbicide. Initial studies highlighted a similarity in response between plants treated with sarmentine and herbicidal soaps such as pelargonic acid (nonanoic acid. However, little was known about the mechanism of action leading to the rapid desiccation of foliage treated by sarmentine. In cucumber cotyledon disc-assays, sarmentine induced rapid light-independent loss of membrane integrity at 100 µM or higher concentration, whereas 3 mM pelargonic acid was required for a similar effect. Sarmentine was between 10 and 30 times more active than pelargonic acid on wild mustard, velvetleaf, redroot pigweed and crabgrass. Additionally, the potency of 30 µM sarmentine was greatly stimulated by light, suggesting that this natural product may also interfere with photosynthetic processes. This was confirmed by observing a complete inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport at that concentration. Sarmentine also acted as an inhibitor of photosystem II on isolated thylakoid membranes by competing for the binding site of plastoquinone. This can be attributed in part to structural similarities between herbicides like sarmentine and diuron. While this mechanism of action accounts for the light stimulation of the activity of sarmentine, it does not account for its ability to destabilize membranes in darkness. In this respect, sarmentine has some structural similarity to crotonoyl-CoA, the substrate of enoyl-ACP reductase, a key enzyme in the early steps of fatty acid synthesis. Inhibitors of this enzyme, such as triclosan, cause rapid loss of membrane integrity in the dark. Sarmentine inhibited the activity of enoyl-ACP reductase, with an I50app of 18.3 µM. Therefore, the herbicidal activity of sarmentine appears to

  9. The sudden and unexpected death of a female-to-male transsexual patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiromasa; Nishida, Naoki; Ikeda, Noriaki; Tsuji, Akiko; Kudo, Keiko; Hanagama, Masakazu; Nata, Masayuki

    2007-08-01

    A 32-year-old woman, who was intramuscularly injected with testosterone enanthate (125 mg) once or twice a month over a two-year period for female-to-male transsexualism, died suddenly. A forensic autopsy was performed to investigate the cause of death. Concentric cardiac hypertrophy was macroscopically observed. In the left and right coronary arteries, atherosclerosis was generally observed within the endothelium. In particular, there was severe stenosis (>90%) at the start of the left descending branch. In the myocardium, both coagulation necrosis and contraction band necrosis were microscopically observed. Moreover, myocardial fibrosis and myocardial calcification were diffusely detected, respectively. The cause of death was diagnosed as ischemic heart disease due to coronary stenosis. There is some debate as to whether cross-hormone replacement is related to the occurrence of coronary artery disease or not, however, it is possible that the development of ischemic heart disease was aggravated by the administration of testosterone enanthate in the current case.

  10. Dietary inclusion of diallyl disulfide, yucca powder, calcium fumarate, an extruded linseed product, or medium-chain fatty acids does not affect methane production in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Dijkstra, J.; Perdok, H.B.; Newbold, J.R.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Two similar experiments were conducted to assess the effect of diallyl disulfide (DADS), yucca powder (YP), calcium fumarate (CAFU), an extruded linseed product (UNSAT), or a mixture of capric and caprylic acid (MCFA) on methane production, energy balance, and dairy cow performance. In experiment 1,

  11. The importance of 1,2-dithiolane structure in α-lipoic acid for the downregulation of cell surface β1-integrin expression of human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Masao; Soda, Shozen; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Nishiyama, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Here, we show that cell surface β1-integrin expression, cell adhesion to fibronectin, migration, and invasion were all significantly inhibited by α-lipoic acid. These effects were not observed when cells were treated with dihydrolipoic acid or caprylic acid. These data reveal that the 1,2-dithiolane structure plays an important role in the action of α-lipoic acid.

  12. Lipase-catalyzed acyl exchange of soybean phosphatidylcholine in n-hexane: a critical evaluation of both acyl incorporation and product recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikbjerg, Anders Falk; Mu, Huiling; Xu, Xuebing

    2005-01-01

    by hydrolysis, which led to the low yields. The biocatalyst used was the commercial immobilized lipase Lipozyme TL IM and substrates used were phosphatidylcholine (PC) from soybean and caprylic acid. A response surface design was used to evaluate the influence of selected parameters and their relationships...

  13. Application of antioxidants during short-path distillation of structured lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm-Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2007-01-01

    A specific structured lipid was produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid. The antioxidative effect of adding alpha-tocopherol, ascorbyl palmitate or citric acid (each in three different concentrations) was investigated before and after the purification process (short-path distillation...

  14. Dgroup: DG01584 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01584 DGroup Estrogen receptor agonist -estr- ... DG00461 ... Ethinylestradiol ... D00554... ... Ethinyl estradiol (USP); Ethinylestradiol (JP17/INN) ... D07928 ... Ethinylestradiol propanesulfonate DG00462 ... Estradiol ... D00105 ... Estr...adiol (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01413 ... Estradiol valerate (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01617 ... Estrad...iol dipropionate (JAN) ... D01953 ... Estradiol benzoate (JP17) ... D04061 ... Estradiol a...cetate (USAN) ... D04063 ... Estradiol cypionate (USP) ... D04064 ... Estradiol enanthate (USAN) ... D04065 ... Estradio

  15. Drug: D04064 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04064 Drug Estradiol enanthate (USAN) ... C25H36O3 D04064.gif ... Other ... DG01584 ... Estr...ogen receptor agonist ... DG01986 ... Estrogen Cyp substrate ... DG01892 ... CYP1A2 substrate ... DG01633 ... CYP3A substrate... ATC code: G03CA03 Chemical group: DG00462 ... Estrogen NR3A1 (ESR1) [HSA:2099] [KO:K08550]; NR3A2 (ESR2) [HSA

  16. Management of Vegetation by Alternative Practices in Fields and Roadsides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen V. Barker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In attempts to reduce the amounts of conventional herbicides used, alternative practices are sought in the management of roadside vegetation. In this investigation, alternative herbicides (citric-acetic acids, clove oil, corn gluten meal, limonene, and pelargonic acid, flaming, and mulching were assessed in management of annual and perennial, herbaceous vegetation in field and roadside plots. Several formulations of alternative herbicides applied singly or repeatedly during the growing season were evaluated and compared with conventional herbicides (glyphosate and glufosinate ammonium or with flaming or mulching. Citric-acetic acid formulations, clove oil, limonene, or pelargonic acid applied as foliar sprays immediately desiccated foliage, but the efficacy lasted for no longer than five weeks. Repeated applications were better than single applications of these herbicides in suppressing plant vegetative growth. Corn gluten meal imparted little or no early control and stimulated late-season growth of vegetation. A single flaming of vegetation gave no better control than the alternative herbicides, but repeated flaming strongly restricted growth. Mulching with wood chips or bark gave season-long suppression of vegetation. Glyphosate gave season-long inhibition of vegetation, but the efficacy of glufosinate ammonium waned as the growing season progressed. For season-long suppression of vegetation with alternative herbicides or flaming repeated applications will be required.

  17. From crops to products for crops: preserving the ecosystem through the use of bio-based molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godard Anaïs

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In a context of dwindling oil reserves and environmental pressures, the chemical industry needs to innovate by developing new processes for producing bioproducts from raw plant materials. Unsaturated fatty acids from vegetable oils constitute a highly promising renewable resource that can be used to diversify productions, decreasing reliance on petroleum. A starting material rich in oleic acid has been obtained through the selection of high-oleic sunflower varieties and enzymatic hydrolysis of the oil they produce. The double bonds of this unsaturated raw material have been cleaved in green oxidizing conditions involving a biphasic lipophilic-aqueous system including hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant and a peroxo-tungsten complex Q3 {PO2[WO(O22]4} as a phase-transfer catalyst (PTC and co-oxidant. This PTC efficiently transferred oxygen to the substrate in the lipophilic phase. A mono-acid (pelargonic acid and a di-acid (azelaic acid, with shorter, unusual hydrocarbon chains not present in the natural state, were synthesized and purified through an intensive process. Pelargonic acid was then formulated as an environmentally friendly biocontrol agent for weeds. We extended this green process of oxidative scission to other fatty acids and derivatives, to obtain other short-chain acids with diverse potential applications. This production chain (crops, reaction and purification processes, products, applications is based on a sustainable development strategy.

  18. Conductometric investigations on samarium soaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrotra, K.N.; Chauhan, Mithlesh; Shukla, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    The critical micelle concentration (CMC), degree of dissociation and dissociation constant of samarium soaps (valerate, caproate, caprylate and caprate) in a mixture of 60 per cent benzene and 40 per cent methanol were determined by using conductometric measurements. The soaps behaved as simple electrolyte in dilute solutions and the CMC was found to decrease with increasing chainlength of the fatty acid constituent of the soap. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs

  19. The ultrasound-assisted oxidative scission of monoenic fatty acids by ruthenium tetroxide catalysis: influence of the mixture of solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rup, Sandrine; Zimmermann, François; Meux, Eric; Schneider, Michel; Sindt, Michele; Oget, Nicolas

    2009-02-01

    Carboxylic acids and diacids were synthesized from monoenic fatty acids by using RuO4 catalysis, under ultrasonic irradiation, in various mixtures of solvents. Ultrasound associated with Aliquat 336 have promoted in water, the quantitative oxidative cleavage of the CH=CH bond of oleic acid. A design of experiment (DOE) shows that the optimal mixture of solvents (H2O/MeCN, ratio 1/1, 2.2% RuCl3/4.1 eq. NaIO4) gives 81% azelaic acid and 97% pelargonic acid. With the binary heterogeneous mixture H2O/AcOEt, the oxidation of the oleic acid leads to a third product, the alpha-dione 9,10-dioxostearic acid.

  20. Survey of chemical compounds tested in vitro against rumen protozoa for possible control of bloat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, F L; Kodras, R

    1967-09-01

    Over 170 chemical agents were screened for antiprotozoal action in bovine ruminal fluid. Compounds were tested at 0.1 and 0.05% concentrations. Tested compounds included inorganic compounds, antibiotics, biocides, neuromuscular agents, arsenicals, plant and animal hormones, antimalarials, surface-active agents, anthelmintics, and many others. The most active compounds were cupric sulfate, nickel sulfate, nitrofurazone, hydrogen peroxide, dodecyl sodium sulfate, pelargonic acid, iodoacetic acid, 1-diethylaminoethylamino-4-methylthiaxanthrone, sodium arsanilate, sodium arsenate, bismuth glycolyl arsanilate, 1-beta-hydroxyethyl-2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole, and p-nitroaniline. Copper ion was not particularly effective against entodinia; nickel ion had no effect on holotrichs. Hydrogen peroxide and iodoacetic acid were effective at a concentration of 0.005%. Anionic surface-active agents were very effective, especially long-chain sulfates and phosphates. These antiprotozoal agents warrant further in vivo studies for possible use in treating or curing bloat in ruminants.

  1. The discovery of bioisoster compound for plumbagin using the knowledge-based rational method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seo Hee; Choi, Jung Sup; Ko, Young Kwan; Kang, Nam Sook

    2015-04-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana 7-Keto-8-AminoPelargonic Acid Synthase (AtKAPAS) is a crucial herbicide target, and AtKAPAS inhibitors are widely available in the agrochemical market. The herbicide plumbagin is known as a potent inhibitor for AtKAPAS but it is extremely toxic. In this study, we identified the metabolic site of plumbagin and also performed a similarity-based library analysis using 2D fingerprints and a docking study. Four compounds as virtual hits were derived from plumbagin. Treatment of Digitaria ciliaris with compound 2, one of four hit compounds, stunted the growth of leaves and the leaf tissue was desiccated or burned within three days. Thus, we expect that compound 2 will be developed as a new herbicide and additionally our strategy will provide helpful information for optimizing lead compounds.

  2. Alkyl polyglucoside vs. ethoxylated surfactant-based microemulsions as vehicles for two poorly water-soluble drugs: physicochemical characterization and in vivo skin performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajić Nataša Z. Bubić

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two types of biocompatible surfactants were evaluated for their capability to formulate skin-friendly/non-irritant microemulsions as vehicles for two poorly water-soluble model drugs differing in properties and concentrations: alkyl polyglucosides (decyl glucoside and caprylyl/capryl glucoside and ethoxylated surfactants (glycereth-7-caprylate/ caprate and polysorbate 80. Phase behavior, structural inversion and microemulsion solubilization potential for sertaconazole nitrate and adapalene were found to be highly dependent on the surfactants structure and HLB value. Performed characterization (polarized light microscopy, pH, electrical conductivity, rheological, FTIR and DSC measurements indicated a formulation containing glycereth- 7-caprylate/caprate as suitable for incorporation of both drugs, whereas alkyl polyglucoside-based systems did not exhibit satisfying solubilization capacity for sertaconazole nitrate. Further, monitored parameters were strongly affected by sertaconazole nitrate incorporation, while they remained almost unchanged in adapalene-loaded vehicles. In addition, results of the in vivo skin performance study supported acceptable tolerability for all investigated formulations, suggesting selected microemulsions as promising carriers worth exploring further for effective skin delivery of model drugs.

  3. Antibacterial properties of biosurfactants against selected Gram-positive and -negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz De Rienzo, Mayri A; Stevenson, Paul; Marchant, Roger; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial properties and ability to disrupt biofilms of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids, sophorolipids) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) in the presence and absence of selected organic acids were investigated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was inhibited by sophorolipids and SDS at concentrations >5% v/v, and the growth of Escherichia coli NCTC 10418 was also inhibited by sophorolipids and SDS at concentrations >5% and 0.1% v/v, respectively. Bacillus subtilis NCTC 10400 was inhibited by rhamnolipids, sophorolipids and SDS at concentrations >0.5% v/v of all three; the same effect was observed with Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144. The ability to attach to surfaces and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa PAO1, E. coli NCTC 10418 and B. subtilis NCTC 10400 was inhibited by sophorolipids (1% v/v) in the presence of caprylic acid (0.8% v/v). In the case of S. aureus ATCC 9144, the best results were obtained using caprylic acid on its own. It was concluded that sophorolipids are promising compounds for the inhibition/disruption of biofilms formed by Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms and this activity can be enhanced by the presence of booster compounds such as caprylic acid. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Alkyl polyglucoside vs. ethoxylated surfactant-based microemulsions as vehicles for two poorly water-soluble drugs: physicochemical characterization and in vivo skin performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajić, Nataša Z Bubić; Todosijević, Marija N; Vuleta, Gordana M; Cekić, Nebojša D; Dobričić, Vladimir D; Vučen, Sonja R; Čalija, Bojan R; Lukić, Milica Ž; Ilić, Tanja M; Savić, Snežana D

    2017-12-20

    Two types of biocompatible surfactants were evaluated for their capability to formulate skin-friendly/non-irritant microemulsions as vehicles for two poorly water-soluble model drugs differing in properties and concentrations: alkyl polyglucosides (decyl glucoside and caprylyl/capryl glucoside) and ethoxylated surfactants (glycereth-7-caprylate/ caprate and polysorbate 80). Phase behavior, structural inversion and microemulsion solubilization potential for sertaconazole nitrate and adapalene were found to be highly dependent on the surfactants structure and HLB value. Performed characterization (polarized light microscopy, pH, electrical conductivity, rheological, FTIR and DSC measurements) indicated a formulation containing glycereth- 7-caprylate/caprate as suitable for incorporation of both drugs, whereas alkyl polyglucoside-based systems did not exhibit satisfying solubilization capacity for sertaconazole nitrate. Further, monitored parameters were strongly affected by sertaconazole nitrate incorporation, while they remained almost unchanged in adapalene-loaded vehicles. In addition, results of the in vivo skin performance study supported acceptable tolerability for all investigated formulations, suggesting selected microemulsions as promising carriers worth exploring further for effective skin delivery of model drugs.

  5. Dgroup: DG00462 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00462 Chemical ... DGroup Estradiol ... D00105 ... Estradiol (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01413 ... Estr...adiol valerate (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01617 ... Estradiol dipropionate (JAN) ... D01953 ... Estradiol benzoate (JP17) D04061 ... Estr...adiol acetate (USAN) ... D04063 ... Estradiol cypionate (USP) ... D04064 ... Estradiol enanthate (USAN) D04065 ... Estr...adiol undecylate (USAN/INN) D07918 ... Estradiol hemihydrate D07919 ... Estr...adiol 17 beta-hemisuccinate Other ... DG01584 ... Estrogen receptor agonist ... DG01986 ... Estrogen Cyp substrate ... DG0

  6. Dgroup: DG01986 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01986 DGroup Estrogen ... DG00461 ... Ethinylestradiol ... D00554 ... Ethinyl estradiol (US...P); Ethinylestradiol (JP17/INN) ... D07928 ... Ethinylestradiol propanesulfonate DG00462 ... Estradiol ... D00105 ... Estr...adiol (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01413 ... Estradiol valerate (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01617 ... Estradiol dipropionate (JAN) ... D01953 ... Estr...adiol benzoate (JP17) ... D04061 ... Estradiol acetate (USAN) ... D04063 ... Estr...adiol cypionate (USP) ... D04064 ... Estradiol enanthate (USAN) ... D04065 ... Estradiol undecylate (USAN/INN) ... D07918 ... Estr

  7. [Studies on the oxidation reaction of octanol-2 with nitric acid by infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G; Zhao, G; Wang, Y; Zhang, Q; Zhang, S; Lu, F

    1998-04-01

    In this paper, the reaction process of oxidation of octanol-2 with nitric acid has been studied by IR spectroscopy. It is found that the main components of non-sapoifiable matter are different in different oxidation degrees. The relation between oxidation products and the amount of nitric acid are investigated,the reaction mechanism has also been studied. Experimental results show that the oxidation process of octanol-2 is as follows: first, octanol-2 is oxidated to octanone-2, or to nitrate, nitrite and nitrile copmpounds, then these compounds are reoxidated to caproic acid in the meantime some by-products, such as valeric, enanthic acids are also found in oxidated products.

  8. Testosterone Replacement Therapy in Adolescents With Sickle Cell Disease Reverses Hypogonadism Without Promoting Priapism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda F. Morrison

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Delayed puberty secondary to hypogonadism is commonly seen in sickle cell disease (SCD, affecting normal growth and development. The condition is rarely treated in SCD for fear of inducing priapism episodes. We present a case report of an Afro-Jamaican adolescent male at 16 years of age who presented with symptoms of delayed puberty as well as frequent stuttering priapism episodes. Endocrinological assessment revealed low serum total testosterone levels. Treatment was commenced monthly with testosterone enanthate which resulted in improved symptoms of delayed puberty, improvement in anthropometric parameters while apparently ameliorating priapism episodes.

  9. A jaundiced bodybuilder Cholestatic hepatitis as side effect of injectable anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boks, Marije N; Tiebosch, Anton T; van der Waaij, Laurens A

    2017-11-01

    The use of anabolic steroids is prevalent in recreational athletes. This case report describes a young amateur bodybuilder who was referred to our outpatient clinic with jaundice and loss of appetite due to cholestatic hepatitis. Additional tests including a liver biopsy made it likely that the hepatitis was caused by the injectable anabolic steroid trenbolone enanthate. Cholestatic hepatitis may not be limited to the use of oral anabolic-androgenic steroids, as is widely assumed. Therefore, and because of other side effects, the recreational use of all forms of anabolic steroids should be discouraged.

  10. Hepatocellular adenoma in a woman who was undergoing testosterone treatment for gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Keizo; Abe, Hiroshi; Hanawa, Noriko; Fukuzawa, Junya; Matsuo, Ryota; Yonezawa, Takeshi; Itoh, Sadahiro; Sato, Yoshiyuki; Ika, Makiko; Shimizu, Shohei; Endo, Shinji; Hano, Hiroshi; Izu, Asami; Sugitani, Masahiko; Tsubota, Akihito

    2018-03-27

    A 32-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital for the diagnosis and treatment of multiple liver tumors. She had been receiving 125 mg testosterone enanthate every 2 weeks following female-to-male gender identity disorder (GID) diagnosis at 20 years of age. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging showed 11 hepatic nodular tumors with a maximum diameter of 28 mm. Liver tumors with hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) were diagnosed with needle biopsy. Segmentectomy of the left lateral lobe including two lesions, subsegmentectomy of S6 including two lesions, enucleation of each tumor in S5 and S7, and open surgical radiofrequency ablation for each tumor in S4 and S7 were performed. Immunohistochemical specimens showed that the tumor cells were diffusely and strongly positive for glutamine synthetase and that the nuclei were ectopically positive for β-catenin. Thus, the tumors were diagnosed as β-catenin-activated HCA (b-HCA). Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization plus subsequent radiofrequency ablation was performed for the 3 residual lesions in S4 and S8. Although testosterone enanthate was being continued for GID, no recurrence was observed until at least 22 months after the intensive treatments. HCA development in such patients receiving testosterone should be closely monitored using image inspection.

  11. Parameters affecting incorporation and by-product formation during the production of structured phospholipids by lipase-catalyzed acidolysis in solvent free system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikbjerg, Anders Falk; Mu, Huiling; Xu, Xuebing

    2005-01-01

    By-product formation is a serious problem in the lipase-catalyzed acyl exchange of phospholipids (PL). By-products are formed due to parallel hydrolysis reactions and acyl migration in the reaction system. A clear elucidation of these side reactions is important for practical operation in order...... to minimize by-products during reaction. In the present study we examined the Lipozyme RM IM-catalyzed acidolysis for the production of structured phospholipids between phosphatidylcholine (PC) and caprylic acid in the solvent free system. A five-factor response surface design was used to evaluate...

  12. Ultrasonic and viscometric studies of yttrium soaps in mixed organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrotra, K.N.; Tandon, K.; Rawat, M.K.

    1992-01-01

    The ultrasonic and viscosity measurements of yttrium soaps (caprylate, caprate and laurate) in a mixture of benzene and dimethyl formamide (3:2) have been carried out with a view to determine the critical micellar concentration soap-solvent interaction and other allied parameters. The various acoustic parameters (intermolecular free-length adiabatic compressibility, apparent molar compressibility, specific acoustic impedance, molar sound velocity, solvation number available volume and relative association) have been evaluated by ultrasonic velocity measurements. The results of viscosity measurement have been explained in terms of well known equations. (author). 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Experimental vapor pressures (from 1 Pa to 100 kPa) of six saturated Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs): Methyl hexanoate, methyl octanoate, methyl decanoate, methyl dodecanoate, methyl tetradecanoate and methyl hexadecanoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahraoui, Lakhdar; Khimeche, Kamel; Dahmani, Abdallah; Mokbel, Ilham; Jose, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: • Vapor-liquid equilibria, Enthalpy of Vaporization, saturated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of six saturated Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs), methyl hexanoate (or methyl caproate), methyl octanoate (or methyl caprylate), Methyl decanoate (or methyl caprate), methyl dodecanoate (or methyl laurate), methyl tetradecanoate (or methyl myristate), and methyl hexadecanoate (or methyl palmitate) were measured from 1 Pa to 100 kPa and at temperature range between 262 and 453 K using a static apparatus. The experimental data (P-T) were compared with the available literature data.

  14. Chemical Decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni on Chicken Skin and Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Brøndsted, Lone; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of 11 chemical compounds to reduce Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat samples dipped in chemical solutions. Treatment of skin samples for 1 min using tartaric acid (2%) and caprylic acid sodium salt (5%) caused reductions of C. jejuni NCTC11168...... effective, indicating that some cells may recover after a 1-min treatment with these chemicals. An increase in treatment time to 15 min resulted in higher effectiveness of trisodium phosphate and formic acid. Interestingly, when reduction of the C. jejuni population was compared on chicken skin and meat...

  15. Studies on mushroom flavours 2. Flavour compounds in coprinus comatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, F Y; Wikén, T O

    1976-01-01

    In an aqueous extract of fruit bodies of Coprinus comatus 3-octanone, 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octanol, 2-methyl-2-penten-4-olide, 1-dodecanol and caprylic acid were identified conclusively and n-butyric and isobutyric acids preliminarily. Amino-acids, nucleotides and sugars were also determined. A mixture of 37 compounds found in the extract had a stronger flavour than the natural extract. 3-Octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octanol and 2-methyl-2-penten-4-olide were the volatiles with the strongest flavour. Mass and IR spectra of 2-methyl-2-penten-4-olide are presented.

  16. Applications of immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase in interesterification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Tiankui; Fruekilde, Maj-Britt; Xu, Xuebing

    2003-01-01

    (RSM). Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase had an activity similar to that of immobilized Rhizomucor miehei lipase (Lipozyme RM IM) in the glycerolysis of sunflower oil, but the former had higher activity at a low reaction temperature (5degreesC). Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase was found to have much lower...... catalytic activity than Lipozyme RM IM in the acidolysis of sunflower oil with caprylic acid. However, the activity of T. lanuginosa lipase was only slightly lower than that of Lipozyme RM IM in the ester-ester exchange between tripalmitin (PPP) and the ethyl esters of EPA and DHA (EE). For this reason...

  17. Isolation and purification of G immunoglobulin from guinea-pig for the production of a second antibody for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.R.; Borghi, V.C.; Bellini, M.H.; Wajchenberg, W.A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The IgG of guinea-pig was isolated and purified by precipitation with caprylic acid and the batch absorption with DEAE-cellulose. The efficiency of the operating was verified by the determination of total proteins, during the purification stages. The purity of the end product was proved by immuno electrophoresis face to rabbit serum total antiserum of guinea-pig. it was obtained 240 mg of purity IgG to be used in the production of second specific antibody for radioimmunoassay. (C.G.C.)

  18. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs do not influence the urinary testosterone/epitestosterone glucuronide ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eLundmark

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The UDP Glucuronosyl Transferase (UGT enzymes are important in the pharmacokinetics, and conjugation, of a variety of drugs including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs as well as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS. Testosterone glucuronidation capacity is strongly associated with a deletion polymorphism in the UGT2B17 gene. As the use of high doses of NSAIDs has been observed in athletes there is a risk for a drug-drug interaction that may influence the doping tests for AAS. In-vitro studies show inhibitory potential on UGT2B7, 2B15 and 2B17 enzymes by NSAIDs. The aim of this study was to investigate if concomitant use of NSAIDs and a single dose of testosterone enanthate would affect the excretion rate of testosterone and epitestosterone glucuronide (TG and EG as well as the T/E ratio, thereby affecting the outcome of the testosterone doping test.The study was designed as an open, randomized, cross-over study with subjects being their own control. The 23 healthy male volunteers, with either two, one or no allele (ins/ins, ins/del or del/del of the UGT2B17 gene, received the maximum recommended dose of NSAID (Ibuprofen or Diclofenac for six days. On day three, 500 mg of testosterone enanthate was administered. Spot urine samples were collected for 17 days. After a wash out period of four months the volunteers received 500 mg testosterone enanthate only, with subsequent spot urine collection for 14 days. The glucuronides of testosterone and epitestosterone were quantified. NSAIDs did not affect the excretion of TG or EG before the administration of testosterone. The concomitant use of NSAIDs and testosterone slightly increased the TG excretion while the EG excretion was less suppressed compared to testosterone use only. The effects of the NSAIDs on the TG and EG excretion did not differ between the UGT2B17 genotype groups. In conclusion, the outcome of testosterone doping tests does not seem to be affected by the use of NSAIDs.

  19. Restoration and maintenance of spermatogenesis by HCG therapy in patients with hypothalamo-hypophyseal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levalle, O; Bokser, L; Pacenza, N; Aszenmil, G; Fiszlejder, L; Chervin, A; Guitelman, A

    1984-01-01

    Both gonadotropins are necessary to induce spermatogenesis in man and to recover hypophysectomized males. The patients who suffer from tumoral or traumatic hypothalamo-hypophyseal lesion use to have low endogenous gonadotropins (opposite to hypophysectomized patients), which can produce a minor involution of spermatogenesis. Three patients with postpubertal hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and oligozoospermia were studied. Two of them were operated on for chromophobous adenoma of pituitary, and the other patient had traumatic hypothalamo-hypophyseal lesion. The three patients were treated with 5000 IU HCG/week, associated with testosterone enanthate, in two cases and with bromocryptine in the remaining one. All the patients had normalized spermiogram, but when HCG was interrupted, the sperm count regressed to pretreatment levels in spite of the maintenance of treatment with testosterone or bromocryptine. Minimal amounts of FSH together the testosterone supplied by Leydig cell under the HCG stimulus, are able to recover and maintain the spermatogenesis in these patients.

  20. Safety concerns over the use of intestinal permeation enhancers: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Fiona; Gleeson, John P; Brayden, David J

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal permeation enhancers (PEs) are key components in ∼12 oral peptide formulations in clinical trials for a range of molecules, primarily insulin and glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogs. The main PEs comprise medium chain fatty acid-based systems (sodium caprate, sodium caprylate, and N-[8-(2-hydroxybenzoyl) amino] caprylate (SNAC)), bile salts, acyl carnitines, and EDTA. Their mechanism of action is complex with subtle differences between the different molecules. With the exception of SNAC and EDTA, most PEs fluidize the plasma membrane causing plasma membrane perturbation, as well as enzymatic and intracellular mediator changes that lead to alteration of intestinal epithelial tight junction protein expression. The question arises as to whether PEs can cause irreversible epithelial damage and tight junction openings sufficient to permit co-absorption of payloads with bystander pathogens, lipopolysaccharides and its fragment, or exo- and endotoxins that may be associated with sepsis, inflammation and autoimmune conditions. Most PEs seem to cause membrane perturbation to varying extents that is rapidly reversible, and overall evidence of pathogen co-absorption is generally lacking. It is unknown however, whether the intestinal epithelial damage-repair cycle is sustained during repeat-dosing regimens for chronic therapy.

  1. The impact of vehicles on the mucoadhesive properties of orally administrated nanoparticles: a case study with chitosan-4-thiobutylamidine conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakloetsakun, Duangkamon; Perera, Glen; Hombach, Juliane; Millotti, Gioconda; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of various vehicles on mucoadhesive properties of thiolated chitosan nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo. Nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by in situ gelation technique followed by labeling with fluorescein diacetate. Comparative studies on mucoadhesion were done with these thiolated chitosan NPs and unmodified chitosan NPs (control). The obtained nanoparticles displayed a mean diameter of 164.2 ± 6.9 nm and a zeta potential of 21.5 ± 5 mV. In an in vitro adhesion study, unhydrated thiolated NPs adhered strongly to freshly excised porcine small intestine, which was more than threefold increase compared to the control. In contrast, in the presence of various vehicles (PEG 300, miglyol 840, PEG 6000, cremophor EL, and caprylic triglyceride), the mucoadhesive properties of thiolated NPs were comparatively weak. Thiolated NPs suspended in caprylic triglyceride, for example, had a percent mucoadhesion of 22.50 ± 5.35% on the mucosa. Furthermore, results from in vivo mucoadhesion studies revealed that the dry form of nanoparticles exhibits the strongest mucoadhesion, followed by nanoparticles suspended in PEG 300, miglyol, and 100 mM phosphate buffer, in that order. Three hours after administration, the gastrointestinal residence time of the dry form of thiolated NPs was up to 3.6-fold prolonged. These findings should contribute to the design of highly effective oral mucoadhesive nanoparticulate drug delivery systems.

  2. Pharmacokinetic characteristics of formulated alendronate transdermal delivery systems in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ahyoung; Gang, Hyesil; Whang, Jiae; Gwak, Hyesun

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the absorption of alendronate from formulated transdermal delivery systems in rats and humans. When alendronate was applied to rats by transdermal delivery systems (7.2 mg) and oral administration (30 mg/kg), a statistically significant difference was found in the amount remaining to be excreted at time t (Ae(t)) and the amount remaining to be excreted at time 0 (Ae(infinity)) (p transdermal delivery systems. There was a linear relationship (r(2) = 0.9854) between the drug loading dose and Ae(infinity). The Ae(infinity) values from the transdermal delivery system containing 6% caprylic acid (53.8 mg as alendronate) and an oral product (Fosamax), 70 mg as alendronate) in humans were 127.0 +/- 34.2 microg and 237.2 +/- 56.3 microg, respectively. The dose-adjusted relative Ae(infinity) ratio of the transdermal delivery system to oral product was calculated to be 69.7%. The long half-life of alendronate in the transdermal delivery system (50.6 +/- 6.4 h), compared to that of the oral product (3.5 +/- 1.1 h) could allow less-frequent dosing. In conclusion, this study showed that a transdermal delivery system containing 6% caprylic acid in PG could be a favorable alternative for alendronate administration.

  3. Protective efficacy of immunoglobulins Y prepared against Cerastes cerastes snake venom in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Ihab M; Hessan, Ashgan M; Aleisa, Abdulaziz M; Al-Arfaj, Abdullah A; Salem-Bekhit, Mounier M; AlRejai, Salim A

    2012-08-01

    To prepare and evaluate the protective efficacy of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) prepared against local Saudi Cerastes cerastes snake venom. The study was conducted between October 2009 and October 2011 at the Center of Excellence in Biotechnology Research, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study designed as follow; 4 groups of 8 chickens were immunized intramuscularly with Cerastes cerastes snake venoms mixed with Freund's complete adjuvant. Three weeks later, the injections were repeated with the venoms with incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Three boosters were given with the venoms at 3 weeks intervals. The IgY was extracted by ammonium sulphate-caprylic acid method, the antibody titer were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbant assay, and the protective efficacies of the extracted immunoglobulins were performed. Immunoglobulin Y preparation extracted by ammonium sulphate-caprylic acid method showed lack of low molecular weight bands. The bands representing IgY-antibodies, which have molecular weights ranged from 180-200 KD, appeared sharp and clear. Furthermore, evaluation of the prepared protective value of IgY-antibodies revealed one ml of extracted IgY-antibodies containing 15 mg/ml anti Cerastes cerastes; specific IgY could produce 100% protection against 50 LD50. Laying hens could be used as an alternative source of polyclonal antibodies against Cerastes cerastes snake venoms due to several advantages as compared with mammals.

  4. Progesterone lipid nanoparticles: Scaling up and in vivo human study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Elisabetta; Sguizzato, Maddalena; Drechsler, Markus; Mariani, Paolo; Carducci, Federica; Nastruzzi, Claudio; Cortesi, Rita

    2017-10-01

    This investigation describes a scaling up study aimed at producing progesterone containing nanoparticles in a pilot scale. Particularly hot homogenization techniques based on ultrasound homogenization or high pressure homogenization have been employed to produce lipid nanoparticles constituted of tristearin or tristearin in association with caprylic-capric triglyceride. It was found that the high pressure homogenization method enabled to obtain nanoparticles without agglomerates and smaller mean diameters with respect to ultrasound homogenization method. X-ray characterization suggested a lamellar structural organization of both type of nanoparticles. Progesterone encapsulation efficiency was almost 100% in the case of high pressure homogenization method. Shelf life study indicated a double fold stability of progesterone when encapsulated in nanoparticles produced by the high pressure homogenization method. Dialysis and Franz cell methods were performed to mimic subcutaneous and skin administration. Nanoparticles constituted of tristearin in mixture with caprylic/capric triglyceride display a slower release of progesterone with respect to nanoparticles constituted of pure tristearin. Franz cell evidenced a higher progesterone skin uptake in the case of pure tristearin nanoparticles. A human in vivo study, based on tape stripping, was conducted to investigate the performance of nanoparticles as progesterone skin delivery systems. Tape stripping results indicated a decrease of progesterone concentration in stratum corneum within six hours, suggesting an interaction between nanoparticle material and skin lipids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of the impact of solvent/detergent treatment on the quality and potency of a whole IgG equine antivenom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Alvaro; León, Guillermo; Su, Chen-Yao; Gutiérrez, José-María; Burnouf, Thierry

    2009-10-01

    We have evaluated for the first time the impact of a solvent/detergent (S/D) treatment on the quality and in vivo neutralization potency of horse-derived whole IgG antivenom used in the treatment of viperid snake bite envenoming in Central America. The S/D treatment by 1% tri (n-butyl) phosphate (TnBP) - 1% Triton X-45 at 22-25 degrees C was applied either on starting plasma or on purified immunoglobulins. The S/D agents were removed from both fractions by extractions with oil. S/D-treated plasma was subjected to caprylic acid precipitation to purify the immunoglobulins. Products were formulated, sterile-filtered, and filled into 10-mL vials, stored at 5+/-3 degrees C, and subjected to routine quality controls, SDS-PAGE, determination of anti-Bothrops asper venom antibody titre by ELISA, in vivo B. asper venom-neutralization potency tests, and safety test, comparatively with an antivenom manufactured by caprylic acid fractionation without S/D treatment. Results indicate that these conditions of S/D treatment on purified immunoglobulin yielded an antivenom of high turbidity that induced weight loss in animals. In contrast, antivenom fractionated from the S/D-treated plasma had physico-chemical and biological characteristics indistinguishable from those of the non-S/D-treated antivenom. S/D treatment of horse plasma may be considered to increase the viral safety of antivenoms.

  6. Anticarcinogenic properties of medium chain fatty acids on human colorectal, skin and breast cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Amoolya; Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2015-03-05

    Colorectal cancer, breast cancer and skin cancer are commonly-reported cancer types in the U.S. Although radiation and chemotherapy are routinely used to treat cancer, they produce side effects in patients. Additionally, resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs has been noticed in cancers. Thus, there is a need for effective and safe bioprophylactics and biotherapeutics in cancer therapy. The medicinal value of goat milk has been recognized for centuries and is primarily attributed to three fatty acids, namely capric, caprylic and caproic acids. This research investigates the anticancer property of these fatty acids on human colorectal, skin and mammary gland cancer cells. The cancer cells were treated with various concentrations of fatty acids for 48 h, and cell viability was monitored by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay. Additionally, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed to elucidate the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of the three fatty acids under investigation. Capric, caprylic and caproic acids reduced cancer cell viability by 70% to 90% (p acids in an appropriate in vivo model.

  7. N-Butanol and Aqueous Fractions of Red Maca Methanolic Extract Exerts Opposite Effects on Androgen and Oestrogens Receptors (Alpha and Beta in Rats with Testosterone-Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH affects, worldwide, 50% of 60-year-old men. The Peruvian plant red maca (Lepidium meyenii inhibits BPH in rodents. This study aimed to determine the effects of methanolic red maca extract and its n-butanol and aqueous fractions on expression of androgen and oestrogen receptors in rats with testosterone enanthate-induced BPH. Thirty-six rats in six groups were studied. Control group received 2 mL of vehicle orally and 0.1 mL of propylene glycol intramuscularly. The second group received vehicle orally and testosterone enanthate (TE (25 mg/0.1 mL intramuscularly in days 1 and 7. The other four groups were BPH-induced with TE and received, during 21 days, 3.78 mg/mL of finasteride, 18.3 mg/mL methanol extract of red maca, 2 mg/mL of n-butanol fraction, or 16.3 mg/mL of aqueous fraction from red maca. Treatments with red maca extract and its n-butanol but not aqueous fraction reduced prostate weight similar to finasteride. All maca treated groups restored the expression of ERβ, but only the aqueous fraction increased androgen receptors and ERα. In conclusion, butanol fraction of red maca reduced prostate size in BPH by restoring expression of ERβ without affecting androgen receptors and ERα. This effect was not observed with aqueous fraction of methanolic extract of red maca.

  8. N-Butanol and Aqueous Fractions of Red Maca Methanolic Extract Exerts Opposite Effects on Androgen and Oestrogens Receptors (Alpha and Beta) in Rats with Testosterone-Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fano, Diego; Vásquez-Velásquez, Cinthya; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia; Guajardo-Correa, Emanuel; Orihuela, Pedro A; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2017-01-01

    Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) affects, worldwide, 50% of 60-year-old men. The Peruvian plant red maca (Lepidium meyenii) inhibits BPH in rodents. This study aimed to determine the effects of methanolic red maca extract and its n-butanol and aqueous fractions on expression of androgen and oestrogen receptors in rats with testosterone enanthate-induced BPH. Thirty-six rats in six groups were studied. Control group received 2 mL of vehicle orally and 0.1 mL of propylene glycol intramuscularly. The second group received vehicle orally and testosterone enanthate (TE) (25 mg/0.1 mL) intramuscularly in days 1 and 7. The other four groups were BPH-induced with TE and received, during 21 days, 3.78 mg/mL of finasteride, 18.3 mg/mL methanol extract of red maca, 2 mg/mL of n-butanol fraction, or 16.3 mg/mL of aqueous fraction from red maca. Treatments with red maca extract and its n-butanol but not aqueous fraction reduced prostate weight similar to finasteride. All maca treated groups restored the expression of ER β , but only the aqueous fraction increased androgen receptors and ER α . In conclusion, butanol fraction of red maca reduced prostate size in BPH by restoring expression of ER β without affecting androgen receptors and ER α . This effect was not observed with aqueous fraction of methanolic extract of red maca.

  9. N-Butanol and Aqueous Fractions of Red Maca Methanolic Extract Exerts Opposite Effects on Androgen and Oestrogens Receptors (Alpha and Beta) in Rats with Testosterone-Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Velásquez, Cinthya

    2017-01-01

    Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) affects, worldwide, 50% of 60-year-old men. The Peruvian plant red maca (Lepidium meyenii) inhibits BPH in rodents. This study aimed to determine the effects of methanolic red maca extract and its n-butanol and aqueous fractions on expression of androgen and oestrogen receptors in rats with testosterone enanthate-induced BPH. Thirty-six rats in six groups were studied. Control group received 2 mL of vehicle orally and 0.1 mL of propylene glycol intramuscularly. The second group received vehicle orally and testosterone enanthate (TE) (25 mg/0.1 mL) intramuscularly in days 1 and 7. The other four groups were BPH-induced with TE and received, during 21 days, 3.78 mg/mL of finasteride, 18.3 mg/mL methanol extract of red maca, 2 mg/mL of n-butanol fraction, or 16.3 mg/mL of aqueous fraction from red maca. Treatments with red maca extract and its n-butanol but not aqueous fraction reduced prostate weight similar to finasteride. All maca treated groups restored the expression of ERβ, but only the aqueous fraction increased androgen receptors and ERα. In conclusion, butanol fraction of red maca reduced prostate size in BPH by restoring expression of ERβ without affecting androgen receptors and ERα. This effect was not observed with aqueous fraction of methanolic extract of red maca. PMID:29375645

  10. Dose-dependent testosterone sensitivity of the steroidal passport and GC-C-IRMS analysis in relation to the UGT2B17 deletion polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahm, Emmanuel; Mullen, Jenny E; Gårevik, Nina; Ericsson, Magnus; Schulze, Jenny J; Rane, Anders; Ekström, Lena

    2015-01-01

    The newly implemented Steroid Module of the Athlete Biological Passport has improved doping tests for steroids. A biomarker included in this passport is the urinary testosterone glucuronide to epitestosterone glucuronide (T/E) ratio, a ratio greatly affected by a deletion polymorphism in UGT2B17. Suspect urine doping tests are further analyzed with gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) to determine the origin of the androgen. In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of the steroidal module and the IRMS analysis, in subjects administered with three doses of testosterone enanthate (500, 250, and 125 mg), in relation to the UGT2B17 polymorphism. All subjects carrying the UGT2B17 enzyme reached the traditionally used threshold, a T/E ratio of 4, after all three administered doses, whereas none of the subjects devoid of this enzyme reached a T/E of 4. On the other hand, using the athlete biological passport and IRMS analysis, all three doses could be detected to a high degree of sensitivity. The concentrations of all steroids included in the steroidal module were dose dependently increased, except for epitestosterone which decreased independent of dose. The decrease in epitestosterone was significantly associated with circulatory levels of testosterone post dose (rs =0.60 and p=0.007). In conclusion, these results demonstrate that administration of a single dose of 125-500 mg testosterone enanthate could be detected using the athlete biological passport, together with IRMS. Since IRMS is sensitive to testosterone doping independent of UGT2B17 genotype, also very small changes in the steroidal passport should be investigated with IRMS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Effects of short-term testosterone replacement on areal bone mineral density and bone turnover in young hypogonadal males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasun Deb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Effect of parenteral testosterone esters administration on bone-mineral density (BMD and bone turnover in young age onset male hypogonadism is not studied in Indian subjects. Aims: To prospectively study the effect of short-term (6 months replacement therapy with parenteral testosterone enanthate-propionate combination on BMD and bone turnover markers in hypogonadal adult patients. Settings and Design: Prospective, tertiary care academic center. Materials and Methods: Thirteen young, otherwise healthy hypogonadal males (age 25.5 ± 4.9 yrs, serum testosterone 2.56 ± 4.29 nmol/l were subjected to BMD measurements (DXA and estimation of urinary Crosslaps™ and serum osteocalcin at baseline. Twelve healthy age and BMI-matched males served as controls for BMD measurements. The hypogonadal patients were administered parenteral testosterone esters (as mixed enanthate and propionate 250 mg i.m. every 2-3 weeks, and prospectively followed for 6 months. BMD and bone markers were studied at the end of 6 months. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann-Whitney nonparametric test, paired t-test and Pearson′s test of two-tail significance. Results: At baseline, BMD was significantly lower in hypogonadal males as compared to that in controls. With testosterone replacement, there was significant improvement in BMD, both at trabecular and cortical sites, There was a decline in bone turnover with treatment (Ur Crosslaps™:creatinine ratio: pretreatment 72.8 ± 40.4, post-treatment 35.5 ± 23.8 μg/mmol, P = 0.098; serum osteocalcin: pre-treatment 41.0 ± 16.8, post-treatment 31.7 ± 2.1 ng/ml, P = 0.393. Conclusions: Short-term parenteral testosterone replacement significantly improves BMD at the hip, lumbar spine and forearm in hypogonadal young males.

  12. On catalysis of the initial period of methylcyclohexane oxidation by salts of nontransition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, P.A.; Syroezhko, A.M.; Potekhin, V.M.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to study the influence of salts formed by alkali and alkaline-earth metals with aliphatic acids on chain initiation during the initial period of methylcyclohexane oxidation by air. The oxidation was carried out in an autoclave under 10 kg/cm 2 pressure in the temperature range 120-150 0 C, at catalyst concentrations in the range 0.0-2.36.10 -2 M. The inhibitor concentration was varied in the range 0.0-9.5.10 -4 M. Sodium, cesium, barium lithium and calcium stearates and sodium pelargonate (Pe) were used as catalysts. It was found that salts formed by nontransition metals with aliphatic acids having acid radicals with 9-16 carbon atoms are active catalysts of chain initiation. The catalytic activity of the salts increases with the ionic radius of the cation in the series LiSt 2 2 < CsSt. Radical formation is a first-order process with respect to the catalyst and is due to the polar group of the salt

  13. Khellin and Visnagin, Furanochromones from Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam., as Potential Bioherbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaini, Maria L; Sosa, Gustavo M; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A; Walter, Helmut; Cantrell, Charles L; Carrillo, Nestor J; Dayan, Franck E; Meepagala, Kumudini M; Duke, Stephen O

    2016-12-21

    Plants constitute a source of novel phytotoxic compounds to be explored in searching for effective and environmentally safe herbicides. From a previous screening of plant extracts for their phytotoxicity, a dichloromethane extract of Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam. was selected for further study. Phytotoxicity-guided fractionation of this extract yielded two furanochromones, khellin and visnagin, for which herbicidal activity had not been described before. Khellin and visnagin were phytotoxic to model species lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and duckweed (Lemna paucicostata), with IC 50 values ranging from 110 to 175 μM. These compounds also inhibited the growth and germination of a diverse group of weeds at 0.5 and 1 mM. These weeds included five grasses [ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), barnyardgrass (Echinocloa crus-galli), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), foxtail (Setaria italica), and millet (Panicum sp.)] and two broadleaf species [morningglory (Ipomea sp.) and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti)]. During greenhouse studies visnagin was the most active and showed significant contact postemergence herbicidal activity on velvetleaf and crabgrass at 2 kg active ingredient (ai) ha -1 . Moreover, its effect at 4 kg ai ha -1 was comparable to the bioherbicide pelargonic acid at the same rate. The mode of action of khellin and visnagin was not a light-dependent process. Both compounds caused membrane destabilization, photosynthetic efficiency reduction, inhibition of cell division, and cell death. These results support the potential of visnagin and, possibly, khellin as bioherbicides or lead molecules for the development of new herbicides.

  14. Fast atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometry of carotenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Breeman, R.B. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Schmitz, H.H.; Schwartz, S.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Positive ion fast atom bombardment (FAB) tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) using a double-focusing mass spectrometer with linked scanning at constant B/E and high-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) was used to differentiate 17 different cartenoids, including {beta}-apo-8{prime}- carotenal, astaxanthin, {alpha}-carotene, {beta}-carotene, {gamma}-carotene, {zeta}-carotene, canthaxanthin, {beta}-cryptoxanthin, isozeaxanthin bis (pelargonate), neoxanthin, neurosporene, nonaprene, lutein, lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, and zeaxanthin. The carotenoids were either synthetic or isolated from plant tissues. The use of FAB ionization minimized degradation or rearrangement of the carotenoid structures due to the inherent thermal instability generally ascribed to these compounds. Instead of protonated molecules, both polar xanthophylls and nonpolar carotenes formed molecular ions, M{sup {center_dot}+}, during FAB ionization. Following collisionally activated dissociation, fragment ions of selected molecular ion precursors showed structural features indicative of the presence of hydroxyl groups, ring systems, ester groups, and aldehyde groups and the extent of aliphatic polyene conjugation. The fragmentation patterns observed in the mass spectra herein may be used as a reference for the structural determination of carotenoids isolated from plant and animal tissues. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Simultaneous determination of kolliphor HS15 and miglyol 812 in microemulsion formulation by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with nano quantity analyte detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honggen Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for simultaneous determination of kolliphor HS15 and miglyol 812 in microemulsion formulation was developed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a nano quantitation analytical detector (UHPLC–NQAD. All components in kolliphor HS15 and miglyol 812 were well separated on an Acquity BEH C18 column. Mobile phase A was 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA in water and mobile phase B was acetonitrile. A gradient elution sequence was programed initially with 60% organic solvent, slowly increased to 100% within 8 min. The flow rate was 0.7 mL/min. Good linearity (r>0.95 was obtained in the range of 27.6–1381.1 μg/mL for polyoxyl 15 hydroxystearate in kolliphor HS15, 0.8–202.0 μg/mL for caprylic acid triglyceride and 2.7–221.9 μg/mL for capric acid triglyceride in miglyol 812. The relative standard deviations (RSD ranged from 0.6% to 1.7% for intra-day precision and from 0.4% to 2.7% for inter-day precision. The overall recoveries (accuracy were 99.7%–101.4% for polyoxyl 15 hydroxystearate in kolliphor HS15, 96.7%–99.6% for caprylic acid triglyceride, and 94.1%–103.3% for capric acid triglyceride in miglyol 812. Quantification limits (QL were determined as 27.6 μg/mL for polyoxyl 15 hydroxystearate in kolliphor HS15, 0.8 μg/mL for caprylic acid triglyceride, and 2.7 μg/mL for capric acid triglyceride in miglyol 812. No interferences were observed in the retention time ranges of kolliphor HS15 and miglyol 812. The method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, QL, and robustness. The proposed method has been applied to microemulsion formulation analyses with good recoveries (82.2%–103.4%.

  16. Simultaneous determination of kolliphor HS15 and miglyol 812 in microemulsion formulation by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with nano quantity analyte detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honggen; Wang, Zhenyu; Liu, Oscar

    2016-02-01

    A novel method for simultaneous determination of kolliphor HS15 and miglyol 812 in microemulsion formulation was developed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a nano quantitation analytical detector (UHPLC-NQAD). All components in kolliphor HS15 and miglyol 812 were well separated on an Acquity BEH C 18 column. Mobile phase A was 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in water and mobile phase B was acetonitrile. A gradient elution sequence was programed initially with 60% organic solvent, slowly increased to 100% within 8 min. The flow rate was 0.7 mL/min. Good linearity ( r >0.95) was obtained in the range of 27.6-1381.1 μg/mL for polyoxyl 15 hydroxystearate in kolliphor HS15, 0.8-202.0 μg/mL for caprylic acid triglyceride and 2.7-221.9 μg/mL for capric acid triglyceride in miglyol 812. The relative standard deviations (RSD) ranged from 0.6% to 1.7% for intra-day precision and from 0.4% to 2.7% for inter-day precision. The overall recoveries (accuracy) were 99.7%-101.4% for polyoxyl 15 hydroxystearate in kolliphor HS15, 96.7%-99.6% for caprylic acid triglyceride, and 94.1%-103.3% for capric acid triglyceride in miglyol 812. Quantification limits (QL) were determined as 27.6 μg/mL for polyoxyl 15 hydroxystearate in kolliphor HS15, 0.8 μg/mL for caprylic acid triglyceride, and 2.7 μg/mL for capric acid triglyceride in miglyol 812. No interferences were observed in the retention time ranges of kolliphor HS15 and miglyol 812. The method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, QL, and robustness. The proposed method has been applied to microemulsion formulation analyses with good recoveries (82.2%-103.4%).

  17. Activity of microemulsion-based nanoparticles at the human bio-nano interface: concentration-dependent effects on thrombosis and hemolysis in whole blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morey, Timothy E.; Varshney, Manoj; Flint, Jason A.; Seubert, Christoph N.; Smith, W. Brit; Bjoraker, David G.; Shah, Dinesh O.; Dennis, Donn M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Although microemulsion-based nanoparticles (MEs) may be useful for drug delivery or scavenging, these benefits must be balanced against potential nanotoxicological effects in biological tissue (bio-nano interface). We investigated the actions of assembled MEs and their individual components at the bio-nano interface of thrombosis and hemolysis in human blood.Methods: Oil-in-water MEs were synthesized using ethylbutyrate, sodium caprylate, and pluronic F-68 (ME4) or F-127 (ME6) in 0.9% NaCl w/v . The effects of MEs or components on thrombosis were determined using thrombo-elastography, platelet contractile force, clot elastic modulus, and platelet counting. For hemolysis, ME or components were incubated with erythrocytes, centrifuged, and washed for measurement of free hemoglobin by spectroscopy.Results and conclusions: The mean particle diameters (polydispersity index) for ME6 and ME4 were 23.6 ± 2.5 nm (0.362) and 14.0 ± 1.0 nm (0.008), respectively. MEs (0, 0.03, 0.3, 3 mM) markedly reduced the thromboelastograph maximal amplitude in a concentration-dependent manner (49.0 ± 4.2, 39.0 ± 5.6, 15.0 ± 8.7, 3.8 ± 1.3 mm, respectively), an effect highly correlated (r2 = 0.94) with similar changes caused by pluronic surfactants (48.7 ± 10.9, 30.7 ± 15.8, 20.0 ± 11.3, 2.0 ± 0.5) alone. Neither oil nor sodium caprylate alone affected the thromboelastograph. The clot contractile force was reduced by ME (27.3 ± 11.1-6.7 ± 3.4 kdynes/cm 2 , P = 0.02, n = 5) whereas the platelet population not affected (175 ± 28-182 ± 23 10 6 /ml, P = 0.12, n = 6). This data suggests that MEs reduced platelet activity due to associated pluronic surfactants, but caused minimal changes in protein function necessary for coagulation. Although pharmacological concentrations of sodium caprylate caused hemolysis (EC 50 = 213 mM), MEs and pluronic surfactants did not disrupt erythrocytes. Knowledge of nanoparticle activity and potential associated nanotoxicity at this bio

  18. Activity of microemulsion-based nanoparticles at the human bio-nano interface: concentration-dependent effects on thrombosis and hemolysis in whole blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morey, Timothy E.; Varshney, Manoj; Flint, Jason A.; Seubert, Christoph N.; Smith, W. Brit; Bjoraker, David G.; Shah, Dinesh O.; Dennis, Donn M. [University of Florida, Departments of Anesthesiology, Chemical Engineering, and Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Engineering Research Center for Particle Science and Technology (United States)], E-mail: DDennis@ufl.edu

    2004-06-15

    Background: Although microemulsion-based nanoparticles (MEs) may be useful for drug delivery or scavenging, these benefits must be balanced against potential nanotoxicological effects in biological tissue (bio-nano interface). We investigated the actions of assembled MEs and their individual components at the bio-nano interface of thrombosis and hemolysis in human blood.Methods: Oil-in-water MEs were synthesized using ethylbutyrate, sodium caprylate, and pluronic F-68 (ME4) or F-127 (ME6) in 0.9% NaCl{sub w/v}. The effects of MEs or components on thrombosis were determined using thrombo-elastography, platelet contractile force, clot elastic modulus, and platelet counting. For hemolysis, ME or components were incubated with erythrocytes, centrifuged, and washed for measurement of free hemoglobin by spectroscopy.Results and conclusions: The mean particle diameters (polydispersity index) for ME6 and ME4 were 23.6 {+-} 2.5 nm (0.362) and 14.0 {+-} 1.0 nm (0.008), respectively. MEs (0, 0.03, 0.3, 3 mM) markedly reduced the thromboelastograph maximal amplitude in a concentration-dependent manner (49.0 {+-} 4.2, 39.0 {+-} 5.6, 15.0 {+-} 8.7, 3.8 {+-} 1.3 mm, respectively), an effect highly correlated (r2 = 0.94) with similar changes caused by pluronic surfactants (48.7 {+-} 10.9, 30.7 {+-} 15.8, 20.0 {+-} 11.3, 2.0 {+-} 0.5) alone. Neither oil nor sodium caprylate alone affected the thromboelastograph. The clot contractile force was reduced by ME (27.3 {+-} 11.1-6.7 {+-} 3.4 kdynes/cm{sup 2}, P = 0.02, n = 5) whereas the platelet population not affected (175 {+-} 28-182 {+-} 23 10{sup 6}/ml, P = 0.12, n = 6). This data suggests that MEs reduced platelet activity due to associated pluronic surfactants, but caused minimal changes in protein function necessary for coagulation. Although pharmacological concentrations of sodium caprylate caused hemolysis (EC{sub 50} = 213 mM), MEs and pluronic surfactants did not disrupt erythrocytes. Knowledge of nanoparticle activity and

  19. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.

    2002-01-01

    ) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement......The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2...

  20. Composition of volatile aromatic compounds and minerals of tarhana enriched with cherry laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Hasan; Tarakçı, Zekai

    2017-03-01

    Different concentrations of cherry laurel pulp (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) were used to produce tarhana samples. Volatile aromatic compounds and minor mineral content were investigated. Volatile aromatic compounds were analyzed by using GC-MS with SPME fiber and minor mineral values were evaluated with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. The statistical analysis showed that addition of pulp affected volatile aromatic compounds and minor mineral content significantly. Thirty five volatile aromatic compounds were found in tarhana samples. The octanoic acid from acids, benzaldehyde (CAS) phenylmethanal from aldehydes, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one from ketones, octadecane (CAS) n -octadecane form terpenes, ethyl caprylate from esters and benzenemethanol (CAS) benzyl alcohol from alcohols had the highest percentage of volatile aromatic compounds. Tarhana samples were rich source of Mn, Cu and Fe content.

  1. Synthesis activity-based zymography for detection of lipases and esterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min-A; Kim, Hyun Suk; Hahm, Dae-Hyun; Song, Jae Kwang

    2011-04-01

    A new zymography method for lipases and esterases was developed on the basis of the esterification reaction between fatty acids and alcohols. The enzymes were separated by SDS-PAGE and native PAGE. The gel was washed and then incubated in an aqueous solution containing fatty acids (oleic acid 18:1 or caprylic acid 8:0) and dodecanol. Synthesis was visualized by in situ precipitation of water-insoluble and non-diffusible fatty acid esters, such as dodecyl oleate and dodecyl octanoate. The synthesis activity-based zymography was confirmed with different enzyme samples, including commercial lipase preparations, purified recombinant lipase and cutinase, and crude culture supernatants of lipolytic enzyme-producing soil bacteria.

  2. Characterization of cider apples on the basis of their fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Gomis, Domingo; Mangas Alonso, Juan J; Margolles Cabrales, Inmaculada; Arias Abrodo, Pilar

    2002-02-27

    In the current study, the fatty acids composition of 30 monovarietal apple juices from six cider apple varieties belonging to two categories was analyzed. The different apple juices were obtained from three consecutive harvests (1997, 1998, and 1999). The fatty acids concentration in apple juice together with chemometric techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), allowed us to differentiate apple juices on the basis of the sweet or sharp category to which the cider apple variety belongs. Fatty acids such as the unsaturated oleic and linoleic acids, and saturated caprylic, capric, stearic, and palmitic acids were related to the sweet cider apple category, while pentadecanoic acid is related to the sharp class.

  3. Iron Fibers Arrays Prepared by Electrodepositing in Reverse Liquid Crystalline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Suling; LIN Dong; GUAN Jianguo; ZHANG Lianmeng

    2006-01-01

    Ordered iron fiber arrays were electrodeposited on the surface of zinc foils using "FeSO4 solution-sodium caprylate-Decanol" 3-component reverse hexagonal liquid crystal as soft templates. The structure of the soft templates and the synthesized iron fibers were characterized by polarizing microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis etc. The experimental results show that the synthesized iron fibers with α crystal phase grew up in the form of fiber clusters of about 200 nm along the direction perpendicular to the cathode surface. Each cluster was composed of several tens of fibers. The fibers had almost the same length of more than 10 μm with a diameter of about 50 nm.

  4. Intercalation of vanadate in Ni, Zn layered hydroxyacetates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Ricardo; Barriga, Cristobalina; Ulibarri, M.A.; Rives, Vicente

    2004-01-01

    Interlayer acetate anions in layered double hydroxyacetates of Ni 2+ and Zn 2+ have been exchanged by oxovanadates following three synthetic routes (at 60 deg. C, under hydrothermal conditions and after preswelling with caprylate anions) and different pH; direct exchange at room temperature was not successful. Complete exchange was achieved under adequated conditions, and the precise nature of the interlayer anion depends on the pH during exchange: at low pH (4.5), the presence of α-VO 3 chains, with anchoring (grafting) of the species to the hydroxide layers, is proposed. At higher pH (9.5) V 2 O 7 4- species are present in the interlayer. Thermal decomposition of these vanadate-intercalated products leads to formation of orthorhombic Ni 2+ and Zn 2+ vanadates, together with NiO

  5. Synthesis of medium-chain length capsinoids from coconut oil catalyzed by Candida rugosa lipases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trbojević Ivić, Jovana; Milosavić, Nenad; Dimitrijević, Aleksandra; Gavrović Jankulović, Marija; Bezbradica, Dejan; Kolarski, Dušan; Veličković, Dušan

    2017-03-01

    A commercial preparation of Candida rugosa lipases (CRL) was tested for the production of capsinoids by esterification of vanillyl alcohol (VA) with free fatty acids (FA) and coconut oil (CO) as acyl donors. Screening of FA chain length indicated that C8-C12 FA (the most common FA found in CO triglycerides) are the best acyl-donors, yielding 80-85% of their specific capsinoids. Hence, when CO, which is rich in these FA, was used as the substrate, a mixture of capsinoids (vanillyl caprylate, vanillyl decanoate and vanillyl laurate) was obtained. The findings presented here suggest that our experimental method can be applied for the enrichment of CO with capsinoids, thus giving it additional health promoting properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Oxidative stability of structured lipids containing C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 or CLA in sn 2-position - as bulk lipids and in milk drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Xu, Xuebing

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we compared the oxidative stability of a specific structured lipid (SL) containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the sn2-position with SL containing other C18 fatty acids of different degree of unsaturation (stearic, oleic, linoleic or linolenic acid). SL was produced...... by enzymatic interesterification with caprylic acid. Oxidative stability was compared in the five lipids themselves and in milk drinks containing 5% of the different SL. During storage, samples were taken for chemical and physical analyses. Moreover, sensory assessments were performed on milk drinks....... The oxidative stability of our SL was very different when comparing (a) bulk lipids and milk drink and (b) the five different batches of each product. SL based on oleic acid was the most unstable as bulk lipid, while SL based on linoleic acid was the most unstable in milk drink. SL based on CLA was the second...

  7. Effect of Surfactants on Mechanical, Thermal, and Photostability of a Monoclonal Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarkhed, Meera; O'Dell, Courtney; Hsieh, Ming-Ching; Zhang, Jingming; Goldstein, Joel; Srivastava, Arvind

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of commonly used surfactants (at 0.01% w/v concentration) on mechanical, thermal, and photostability of a monoclonal antibody (MAb1) of IgG1 sub-class and to evaluate the minimum concentration of surfactant (Polysorbate 80) required in protecting MAb1 from mechanical stress. Surfactants evaluated were non-ionic surfactants, Polysorbate 80, Polysorbate 20, Pluronic F-68 (polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block polymer), Brij 35 (polyoxyethylene lauryl ether), Triton X-100, and an anionic surfactant, Caprylic acid (1-Heptanecarboxylic acid). After evaluating effect of surfactants and determining stabilizing effect of Polysorbate 80 against mechanical stress without compromising thermal and photostability of MAb1, the minimum concentration of Polysorbate 80 required for mechanical stability was further examined. Polysorbate 80 concentration was varied from 0 to 0.02%. Mechanical stability was evaluated by agitation of MAb1 at 300 rotations per minute at room temperature for 72 h. Samples were analyzed for purity by SEC-HPLC, turbidity by absorbance at 350 nm, visible particles by visual inspection, and sub-visible particles by light obscuration technique on a particle analyzer. All non-ionic surfactants tested showed a similar effect in protecting against mechanical stress and did not exhibit any significant negative effect on thermal and photostability. However, Caprylic acid had a slightly negative effect on mechanical and photostability when compared to the non-ionic surfactants or sample without surfactant. This work demonstrated that polysorbate 80 is better than other surfactants tested and that a concentration of at least 0.005% (w/v) Polysorbate 80 is needed to protect MAb1 against mechanical stress.

  8. Lecithin-linker formulations for self-emulsifying delivery of nutraceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jacquelene; Cheng, Yu-Ling; Rao, A Venketeshwer; Nouraei, Mehdi; Zarate-Muñoz, Silvia; Acosta, Edgar J

    2014-08-25

    Lecithin-linker microemulsions are formulations produced with soybean lecithin in combination with a highly lipophilic (lipophilic linker) and highly hydrophilic (hydrophilic linkers) surfactant-like additives. In this work, lecithin-linker systems were formulated to produce self-emulsifying delivery systems for β-carotene and β-sitosterol. The concentration of the lipophilic linker, sorbitan monooleate, was adjusted to minimize the formation of liquid crystals. The concentration of hydrophilic linkers, decaglyceryl caprylate/caprate and PEG-6-caprylic/capric glycerides, was gradually increased (scanned) until single phase clear microemulsions were obtained. For these scans, the oil (ethyl caprate) to water ratio was set to 1. The single phase, clear microemulsions were diluted with fed-state simulated intestinal fluid (FeSSIF) and produced stable emulsions, with drop sizes close to 200 nm. Using pseudo-ternary phase diagrams to evaluate the process of dilution of microemulsion preconcentrates (mixtures of oil, lecithin and linkers with little or no water) with FeSSIF, it was determined that self-emulsifying systems are obtained when the early stages of the dilution produce single phase microemulsions. If liquid crystals or multiple phase systems are obtained during those early stages, then the emulsification yields unstable emulsions with large drop sizes. An in vitro permeability study conducted using a Flow-Thru Dialyzer revealed that stable emulsions with drop sizes of 150-300 nm produce large and irreversible permeation of β-carotene to sheep intestine. On the other hand, unstable emulsions produced without the linker combination separated in the dialyzer chamber. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fatty acid effects on fibroblast cholesterol synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shireman, R.B.; Muth, J.; Lopez, C.

    1987-01-01

    Two cell lines of normal (CRL 1475, GM5565) and of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) (CM 486,488) fibroblasts were preincubated with medium containing the growth factor ITS, 2.5 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA, or 35.2 μmol/ml of these fatty acids complexed with 2.5 mg BSA/ml: stearic (18:0), caprylic (8:0), oleic (18:1;9), linoleic (18:2;9,12), linolenic (18:3;9,12,15), docosahexaenoic (22:6;4,7,10,13,16,19)(DHA) or eicosapentaenoic (20:5;5,8,11,14,17)(EPA). After 20 h, cells were incubated for 2 h with 0.2 μCi [ 14 C]acetate/ml. Cells were hydrolyzed; an aliquot was quantitated for radioactivity and protein. After saponification and extraction with hexane, radioactivity in the aqueous and organic phases was determined. The FH cells always incorporated 30-90% more acetate/mg protein than normal cells but the pattern of the fatty acid effects was similar in both types. When the values were normalized to 1 for the BSA-only group, cells with ITS had the greatest [ 14 C]acetate incorporation (1.45) followed by the caprylic group (1.14). Cells incubated with 18:3, 20:6 or 22:6 incorporated about the same amount as BSA-only. Those preincubated with 18:2, 18:1, 18:0 showed the least acetate incorporation (0.87, 0.59 and 0.52, respectively). The percentage of total 14 C counts which extracted into hexane was much greater in FH cells; however, these values varied with the fatty acid, e.g., 1.31(18:0) and 0.84(8:0) relative to 1

  10. Nanoemulsions produced with varied type of emulsifier and oil content: An influence of formulation and process parameters on the characteristics and physical stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Sanela M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to prepare oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized with a novel natural alkyl polyglucoside surfactant and to compare them with corresponding lecithin/polysorbate 80 - based nanoemulsions in terms of physicochemical properties and physical stability. Nanoemulsions were prepared by high pressure homogenization, using 20, 30 and 40% (w/w medium chain triglyceride as oil phase, and 4, 6 and 8% (w/w lecithin/polysorbate 80 mixture (1/1 or caprylyl/capryl glucoside as emulsifiers. The influence of emulsifier type, emulsifier concentration and oil content was investigated with respect to changes in particle size, particle size distribution, surface charge and physical stability. The influence of production parameters (number of homogenization cycles, type of homogenization process, homogenization pressure on particle size was also investigated. Analysis was performed by photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffraction, zeta potential, pH and electrical conductivity measurements. All formulations produced revealed a small droplet size ranging from 147 to 228 nm and a very narrow size distribution (polydispersity index range 0,072-0,124. Zeta potentials were about -20 mV and -50 mV for nanoemulsions stabilized with lecithin/polysorbate 80 and caprylyl/capryl glucoside, respectively. The results obtained during the stability studies (6 months at 25°C and 1 month at 40°C indicated that nanoemulsion stability was influenced by their composition. Acquired results also suggested the most appropriate production parameters: 9 homogenization cycles, homogenization pressure of 500 bar and discontinuous process of homogenization.

  11. Preparation of Salicylic Acid Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers Using Box-Behnken Design: Optimization, Characterization and Physicochemical Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantub, Ketrawee; Wongtrakul, Paveena; Janwitayanuchit, Wicharn

    2017-01-01

    Nanostructured lipid carriers loaded salicylic acid (NLCs-SA) were developed and optimized by using the design of experiment (DOE). Box-Behnken experimental design of 3-factor, 3-level was applied for optimization of nanostructured lipid carriers prepared by emulsification method. The independent variables were total lipid concentration (X 1 ), stearic acid to Lexol ® GT-865 ratio (X 2 ) and Tween ® 80 concentration (X 3 ) while the particle size was a dependent variable (Y). Box-Behnken design could create 15 runs by setting response optimizer as minimum particle size. The optimized formulation consists of 10% of total lipid, a mixture of stearic acid and capric/caprylic triglyceride at a 4:1 ratio, and 25% of Tween ® 80 which the formulation was applied in order to prepare in both loaded and unloaded salicylic acid. After preparation for 24 hours, the particle size of loaded and unloaded salicylic acid was 189.62±1.82 nm and 369.00±3.37 nm, respectively. Response surface analysis revealed that the amount of total lipid is a main factor which could affect the particle size of lipid carriers. In addition, the stability studies showed a significant change in particle size by time. Compared to unloaded nanoparticles, the addition of salicylic acid into the particles resulted in physically stable dispersion. After 30 days, sedimentation of unloaded lipid carriers was clearly observed. Absolute values of zeta potential of both systems were in the range of 3 to 18 mV since non-ionic surfactant, Tween ® 80, providing steric barrier was used. Differential thermograms indicated a shift of endothermic peak from 55°C for α-crystal form in freshly prepared samples to 60°C for β´-crystal form in storage samples. It was found that the presence of capric/caprylic triglyceride oil could enhance encapsulation efficiency up to 80% and facilitate stability of the particles.

  12. Ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with magnetic solid-phase extraction for the determination of aflatoxins B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 in animal feeds by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiao; Zhu, Yan; Jiao, Yang; Ning, Jinyan; Yang, Yaling

    2016-10-01

    A novel two-step extraction technique combining ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with magnetic solid-phase extraction was developed for the preconcentration and separation of aflatoxins in animal feedstuffs before high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. In this work, ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate was used as the extractant in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, and hydrophobic pelargonic acid modified Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles as an efficient adsorbent were applied to retrieve the aflatoxins-containing ionic liquid. Notably, the target of magnetic nanoparticles was the ionic liquid rather than the aflatoxins. Because of the rapid mass transfer associated with the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and magnetic solid phase steps, fast extraction could be achieved. The main parameters affecting the extraction recoveries of aflatoxins were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, vortexing at 2500 rpm for 1 min in the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and magnetic solid-phase extraction and then desorption by sonication for 2 min with acetonitrile as eluent. The recoveries were 90.3-103.7% with relative standard deviations of 3.2-6.4%. Good linearity was observed with correlation coefficients ranged from 0.9986 to 0.9995. The detection limits were 0.632, 0.087, 0.422 and 0.146 ng/mL for aflatoxins B 1 , B2, G1, and G2, respectively. The results were also compared with the pretreatment method carried out by conventional immunoaffinity columns. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Determination of oil and fatty acids concentration in seeds of coastal halophytic Sueada aegyptica plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Assadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suaeda aegyptica (S. aegyptica species belong to the Chenepodiaceae family, the second largest family in the world of plants kingdom. It is indigenous to arid and semi-arid regions of the world and salty coastal zones Persian Gulf of Iran. It is an annual succulent halophyte plant which is characterized by producing oily seeds, high growth rate and large number of biomass. The aim of this study was analysis and determination of oil and fatty acids concentration in the S. aegyptica seed. Material and Methods: The seeds of S. aegyptica were collected form coastal zones of Persian Gulf in Bushehr province, washed and dried. The fatty acids content of the dried seeds were extracted in n-hexane solvent by soxhellet apparatus. The residue of n-hexane in oily phase was evaporated by rotary evaporator and remaining oil was collected for fatty acids analysis. In the presence of potassium hydroxide and BF3 by refluxing for 30 minutes, the methyl ester derivative of fatty acids were produced. Then the resulted derivatives were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC-FID. Results: The seeds of S. aegyptica contains eight fatty acids as: Pelargonic (C9, Capric (C10, Undecylic (C11, Tridecylic (C13, Myristic (C14, Palmitic (C16, Stearic (C18, Linoleic (18:2 and Linolenic (18:3. Average oil content in seeds 014/0 ± 87 / percent. Conclusion: The ratio of unsaturated fatty acids was higher than the saturated ones. Linoleic and Palmitic acids are major unsaturated and saturated fatty acids of S. aegyptica seed respectively.

  14. Anti-inflammatory evaluation and characterization of leaf extract of Ananas comosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargutkar, Samira; Brijesh, S

    2018-04-01

    Ananas comosus (L.) Merr (Pineapple) is a tropical plant with an edible fruit. In the present study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of A. comosus leaf extract (ALE) was studied. ALE prepared using soxhlet apparatus was subjected to preliminary qualitative phytochemical analysis and quantitative estimations of flavonoids and tannins. The components present in ALE were identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Inhibitory effects of ALE on protein denaturation, and proteinase activity were assessed. Its effect on secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages was also analyzed. Further, its anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced inflammatory rat model was examined. The preliminary qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed presence of flavonoids, phenols, tannins, carbohydrates, glycosides, and proteins in the extract. Total flavonoids and total tannins were 0.17 ± 0.006 mg equivalent of quercetin/g of ALE and 4.04 ± 0.56 mg equivalent of gallic acid/g of ALE. LC-MS analysis identified the presence of 4-hydroxy pelargonic acid, 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic and 4-methoxycinnamic acid, whereas GC-MS analysis identified the presence of campesterol and ethyl isoallocholate that have been previously reported for anti-inflammatory activity. ALE showed significant inhibition of protein denaturation and proteinase activity and also controlled secretion of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and prostaglandins, as well as the generation of reactive oxygen species by activated macrophages. ALE also significantly decreased carrageenan-induced acute paw edema. The study, therefore, identified the components present in ALE that may be responsible for its anti-inflammatory activity and thus demonstrated its potential use against acute inflammatory diseases.

  15. Low doses of six toxicants change plant size distribution in dense populations of Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Regina G; Patama, Marjo; Sinkkonen, Aki

    2018-08-01

    Toxicants are known to have negligible or stimulatory, i.e. hormetic, effects at low doses below those that decrease the mean response of a plant population. Our earlier observations indicated that at such low toxicant doses the growth of very fast- and slow-growing seedlings is selectively altered, even if the population mean remains constant. Currently, it is not known how common these selective low-dose effects are, whether they are similar among fast- and slow-growing seedlings, and whether they occur concurrently with hormetic effects. We tested the response of Lactuca sativa in complete dose-response experiments to six different toxicants at doses that did not decrease population mean and beyond. The tested toxicants were IAA, parthenin, HHCB, 4-tert-octylphenol, glyphosate, and pelargonic acid. Each experiment consisted of 14,400-16,800 seedlings, 12-14 concentrations, 24 replicates per concentration and 50 germinated seeds per replicate. We analyzed the commonness of selective low-dose effects and explored if toxic effects and hormetic stimulation among fast- and slow-growing individuals occurred at the same concentrations as they occur at the population level. Irrespective of the observed response pattern and toxicant, selective low-dose effects were found. Toxin effects among fast-growing individuals usually started at higher doses compared to the population mean, while the opposite was found among slow-growing individuals. Very low toxin exposures tended to homogenize plant populations due to selective effects, while higher, but still hormetic doses tended to heterogenize plant populations. Although the extent of observed size segregation varied with the specific toxin tested, we conclude that a dose-dependent alteration in size distribution of a plant population may generally apply for many toxin exposures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Current status of and prospects for contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolari, E; Parisi, C

    1989-01-01

    It is estimated that at the current rate of growth the world's population will reach 8.5 billion by the year 2025 and 10-11 billion by the end of the 21st century. 90% of this population increase would occur in developing countries, where only 38% of couples used contraceptives during 1980-81 compared to 68% in developed countries. About 300 million couples in the Third World do not use contraceptives, although they do not want more children. Some of these contraceptives include natural steroids, such as progesterone and 17 beta-estradiol that is used for treatment of menopause (1-2 mg daily po). Medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone enanthate depot injections have long-acting properties with low failure rates (3.6% + 0.7 pregnancies/100 women years) if given every 3 months, amenorrhea may occur. RU-486, substance with antiprogesterone activity, inhibits hormonal metabolism during ovulation in a dose of 100 mg/day, just like norgestimate. HRP 102 consists of 50 mg norethisterone enanthate and 5 mg estradiol valerate and cycloprovera contains 25 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate with 5 mg of estradiol cypionate. Both of these agents are effective contraceptives for 2 months. Norplant is implanted subcutaneously in capsule forms. It releases levonorgestrel/LNG for 6-7 years, and in a study of 992 women 2.6 pregnancies occurred for 100 women in the course of 5 years. Vaginal suppositories can release 20 mg/day LNG, or 5-10 mg progesterone/day, and they are considered ideal for nursing mothers. The IUD has been used by 60 million women, however, pelvic inflammatory disease may be associated with its use. Sulprostone and RU-486 (mifepristone) are post ovulatory agents with effectiveness of up to 90 day. Female sterilization has problems of reversibility, male sterilization is less accepted, and other male endocrine approaches producing azoospermia are in the testing phase. The ideal contraceptive with properties of wide acceptability, reversibility, and

  17. Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on prostate zinc levels in rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, C; Leiva-Revilla, J; Rubio, J; Gasco, M; Gonzales, G F

    2012-05-01

    Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a plant that grows exclusively above 4000 m in the Peruvian central Andes. Red maca (RM) extract significantly reduced prostate size in rats with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone enanthate (TE). Zinc is an important regulator of prostate function. This study aimed to determine the effect of RM on prostate zinc levels in rats with BPH induced by TE. Also, the study attempted to determine the best marker for the effect of RM on sex accessory glands. Rats treated with RM extract from day 1 to day 14 reversed the effect of TE administration on prostate weight and zinc levels. However, RM administered from day 7 to day 14 did not reduce the effect of TE on all studied variables. Finasteride (FN) reduced prostate, seminal vesicle and preputial gland weights in rats treated with TE. Although RM and FN reduced prostate zinc levels, the greatest effect was observed in TE-treated rats with RM from day 1 to day 14. In addition, prostate weight and zinc levels showed the higher diagnosis values than preputial and seminal vesicle weights. In conclusion, RM administered from day 1 to day 14 reduced prostate size and zinc levels in rats where prostatic hyperplasia was induced with TE. Also, this experimental model could be used as accurately assay to determine the effect of maca obtained under different conditions and/or the effect of different products based on maca. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. New once-a-month injectable contraceptives, with particular reference to Cyclofem/Cyclo-Provera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, P E

    1998-08-01

    Once-a-month injectable contraceptives containing a progestogen and an estrogen have been developed that disrupt vaginal bleeding patterns less than the widely used progestogen-only preparations. Pharmacokinetic studies were undertaken of dosages and ratios of the progestogens and the respective estrogens. In Phase III clinical trials, annual pregnancy rates were below 0.4% for Mesigyna (norethisterone enanthate/estradiol valerate, Schering AG, Berlin, Germany) and below 0.2% for Cyclofem (MPA/E2C) (medroxyprogesterone acetate/estradiol cypionate, Aplicaciones Farmaceuticas, SA, Mexico and PT Tunggal, Indonesia). More than two-thirds of women had predictable, regular cycles, and discontinuation due to bleeding-related problems occurred less than half as often as with progestogen-only injectables. With MPA/E2C, return to fertility is similar to that observed with other hormonal or intrauterine methods, and both products have little effect on lipids or hemostasis. Introductory trials of MPA/E2C in 12000 women with 100000 woman-months of experience confirmed the high efficacy of the product in routine use. The use of MPA/E2C in a non-reusable injection device, Uniject (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ) is discussed. Once-a-month hormonal contraceptives have been shown to provide a safe contraceptive option for all women and an alternative for women who wish to use injectable formulations that cause less disruption in vaginal bleeding and minimal side effects.

  19. Alterations in Lipids and Adipocyte Hormones in Female-to-Male Transsexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Chandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone therapy in men and women results in decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL and increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL. We sought to determine whether testosterone therapy has this same effect on lipid parameters and adipocyte hormones in female-to-male (FTM transsexuals. Twelve FTM transsexuals provided a fasting lipid profile including serum total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides prior to and after 1 year of testosterone therapy (testosterone enanthate or cypionate 50–125 mg IM every two weeks. Subjects experienced a significant decrease in mean serum HDL (52±11 to 40±7 mg/dL (P<.001. The mean LDL (P=.316, triglyceride (P=.910, and total cholesterol (P=.769 levels remained unchanged. In a subset of subjects, we measured serum leptin levels which were reduced by 25% but did not reach statistical significance (P=.181 while resistin levels remained unchanged. We conclude that testosterone therapy in FTM transsexuals can promote an increased atherogenic lipid profile by lowering HDL and possibly reduce serum leptin levels. However, long-term studies are needed to determine whether decreases in HDL result in adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

  20. Testosterone replacement elevates the serum uric acid levels in patients with female to male gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Masami; Sugimoto, Morito; Ariyoshi, Yuichi; Mahmood, Sabina; Araki, Motoo; Ishii, Kazushi; Nasu, Yasutomo; Nagai, Atsushi; Kumon, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) results from a disagreement between a person's biological sex and the gender to which he or she identifies. With respect to the treatment of female to male GID, testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is available. The uric acid (UA) level can be influenced by testosterone; however, the early effects and dose-dependency of TRT on the serum UA concentration have not been evaluated in this population. We herein conducted a dose-response analysis of TRT in 160 patients with female to male GID. The TRT consisted of three treatment groups who received intramuscular injections of testosterone enanthate: 125 mg every two weeks, 250 mg every three weeks and 250 mg every two weeks. Consequently, serum UA elevation was observed after three months of TRT and there was a tendency toward testosterone dose-dependency. The onset of hyperuricemia was more prevalent in the group who received the higher dose. We also demonstrated a positive correlation between increased levels of serum UA and serum creatinine. Since the level of serum creatinine represents an individual's muscle volume and the muscle is a major source of purine, which induces UA upregulation, the serum UA elevation observed during TRT is at least partially attributed to an increase in muscle mass. This is the first study showing an association between serum UA elevation and a TRT-induced increase in muscle mass. The current study provides important information regarding TRT for the follow-up and management of the serum UA levels in GID patients.

  1. Decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at puberty in boys with delayed adolescence: correlation with plasma testosterone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkland, R.T.; Keenan, B.S.; Probstfield, J.L.; Patsch, W.; Lin, T.L.; Clayton, G.W.; Insull, W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A three-phase study tested the hypothesis that the decrease in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level observed in boys at puberty is related to an increase in the plasma testosterone concentration. In phase I, 57 boys aged 10 to 17 years were categorized into four pubertal stages based on clinical parameters and plasma testosterone levels. These four groups showed increasing plasma testosterone values and decreasing HDL-C levels. In phase II, 14 boys with delayed adolescence were treated with testosterone enanthate. Plasma testosterone levels during therapy were in the adult male range. Levels of HDL-C decreased by a mean of 7.4 mg/dL (0.20 mmol/L) and 13.7 mg/dL (0.35 mmol/L), respectively, after the first two doses. In phase III, 13 boys with delayed adolescence demonstrated increasing plasma testosterone levels and decreasing HDL-C levels during spontaneous puberty. Levels of HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-1 were correlated during induced and spontaneous puberty. Testosterone should be considered a significant determinant of plasma HDL-C levels during pubertal development

  2. Tamoxifen treatment for pubertal gynecomastia in two siblings with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Reiko; Yamamoto, Yukiyo; Goto, Motohide; Araki, Shunsuke; Kubo, Kazuyasu; Kawagoe, Rinko; Kawada, Yasusada; Kusuhara, Koichi; Igarashi, Maki; Fukami, Maki

    2014-01-01

    Although tamoxifen has been shown to be fairly safe and effective for idiopathic pubertal gynecomastia, it remains unknown whether it is also beneficial for gynecomastia associated with endocrine disorders. Here, we report the effect of tamoxifen on pubertal gynecomastia in 2 siblings with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS). Cases 1 and 2 presented with persistent pubertal gynecomastia at 13 and 16 years of age, respectively. Physical examinations revealed breast of Tanner stage 3 and normal male-type external genitalia in both cases. Clinical features such as female-type pubic hair and borderline small testis indicated mildly impaired masculinization. Molecular analysis identified a previously reported p.Arg789Ser mutation in the androgen receptor gene (AR) in the 2 cases. Two months of oral administration of tamoxifen ameliorated gynecomastia to Tanner stage 2 with no adverse events. Additional treatment with testosterone enanthate showed negligible effects on body hair and penile length. Hormone values of the 2 cases during tamoxifen treatment remained similar to those in previously reported untreated patients with PAIS. The results indicate that tamoxifen was effective in treating pubertal gynecomastia in these 2 patients with PAIS and may be considered as a therapeutic option in this situation pending further studies.

  3. Multi-Institutional Survey of Medical Treatment for Late-Onset Hypogonadism in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hisanori; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2017-03-01

    The adequate criteria for late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) diagnosis, including serum testosterone levels, type (total or free testosterone) and duration of androgen replacement therapy, and evaluations of treatment effectiveness remain controversial. To evaluate the current status of medical treatment for LOH in Japan, the first nationwide survey were performed. A total of 35 questionnaires answered by urologists in high-volume facilities were analyzed. The median numbers of patients with hypogonadism-related symptoms per month were 10. Aging Male Symptom Score, International Index of Erectile Function, and International Prostate Symptom Score questionnaires were widely used for questionnaires. The diagnostic criteria for LOH varied. Among the patients who presented with hypogonadism-related symptoms, the mean proportion of patients undergoing treatment for LOH was 62.3%. In Japan, LOH was treated not only with testosterone enanthate injections or testosterone ointment but also with Kampo medicine. In many facilities, LOH treatment effectiveness was assessed after a 3-month period. Efficacy was assessed in different ways. Treatment effectiveness rate ranged from 30% to 80%. The duration of LOH treatment was not fixed and was established individually by both the patient and treating physician. This study showed that the real clinical practices for LOH are very diverse, and a general consensus is needed.

  4. Change in cytokine levels after administration of saikokaryuukotsuboreito or testosterone in patients with symptoms of late-onset hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Akira; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Okuda, Hidenobu; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Nakayama, Jiro; Takao, Tetsuya; Nonomura, Norio; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate plasma cytokine levels after treatment with saikokaryukotsuboreito (SKRBT), which is a herbal medicine, or androgen replacement treatment (ART), for patients with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH)-related symptoms. Thirty-one patients over 40 years of age with LOH-related symptoms were included in this study. SKRBT was given orally three times daily to a total of 7.5 g/day for 15 eugonadal patients and ART was give to 16 hypogonadal patients by intramuscular injection of testosterone enanthate at 125 mg each time every 2 weeks. Plasma levels of testosterone and 18 cytokines, as well as LOH-related symptoms scored according to the Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scale, were compared before and more than 2 months after treatment. In the ART group, the total AMS score was decreased and testosterone was increased significantly after treatment. No cytokine variables were altered significantly after the treatment. In the SKRBT group, although the total AMS score was significantly decreased, testosterone did not change. From the evaluation of cytokines, a significant increase was found in interleukin (IL)- 8, IL-13, interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha. We conclude that SKRBT might improve LOH-related symptoms in eugonadal patients through the beneficial effect of cytokines, a mechanism that is quite different from ART.

  5. Anterior pituitary failure (panhypopituitarism) with balanced chromosome translocation 46,XY,t(11;22)(q24;q13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C Y; Chou, C W; Chen, S Y; Cheng, H M

    2001-04-01

    Hypopituitarism is the clinical syndrome that results from failure of the anterior pituitary gland to produce its hormones. Hypopituitarism can result from: (1) intrinsic or primary pituitary disease; (2) intrinsic hypothalamic or secondary pituitary disease; or (3) extrinsic extrasellar or parasellar disease. The etiologies of primary hypopituitarism are miscellaneous. The dominant clinical picture of hypopituitarism in the adult is that of hypogonadism. Reports have associated hypopituitarism with anti-pituitary-antibodies, hereditary syndrome and chromosome defects, but hypopituitarism has rarely been associated with balanced chromosome translocation (11;22)(q24;q13). Here, we describe a case of anterior pituitary failure with balanced chromosome translocation. A 19-year-old Chinese teenager presented with failure of pubertal development and sexual infantilism. On examination, the patient had the classic appearance of hypogonadism. Endocrine studies and three combined pituitary function tests revealed panhypopituitarism. A chromosomal study revealed 46,XY,t(11;22)(q24;q13), a balanced translocation between 11q24 and 22q13. Chest films showed delayed fusion of bilateral humeral head epiphyses and bilateral acromions. Scrotal sonography revealed testes were small bilaterally. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the sella revealed pituitary dwarfism. The patient received 19 months replacement therapy, including steroids (prednisolone 5 mg each day), L-thyroxine (Eltroxin 100 ug each day), and testosterone enanthate 250 mg every two weeks. His height increased 4 cm with secondary sexual characteristics developed, and muscle power increased.

  6. Inactivation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in rumen content- or feces-contaminated drinking water for cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong; Zhao, Ping; West, Joe W; Bernard, John K; Cross, Heath G; Doyle, Michael P

    2006-05-01

    Cattle drinking water is a source of on-farm Escherichia coli O157:H7 transmission. The antimicrobial activities of disinfectants to control E. coli O157:H7 in on-farm drinking water are frequently neutralized by the presence of rumen content and manure that generally contaminate the drinking water. Different chemical treatments, including lactic acid, acidic calcium sulfate, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, caprylic acid, ozone, butyric acid, sodium benzoate, and competing E. coli, were tested individually or in combination for inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 in the presence of rumen content. Chlorine (5 ppm), ozone (22 to 24 ppm at 5 degrees C), and competing E. coli treatment of water had minimal effects (rumen content at water-to-rumen content ratios of 50:1 (vol/wt) and lower. Four chemical-treatment combinations, including (i) 0.1% lactic acid, 0.9% acidic calcium sulfate, and 0.05% caprylic acid (treatment A); (ii) 0.1% lactic acid, 0.9% acidic calcium sulfate, and 0.1% sodium benzoate (treatment B); (iii) 0.1% lactic acid, 0.9% acidic calcium sulfate, and 0.5% butyric acid (treatment C); and (iv) 0.1% lactic acid, 0.9% acidic calcium sulfate, and 100 ppm chlorine dioxide (treatment D); were highly effective (>3 log CFU/ml reduction) at 21 degrees C in killing E. coli O157:H7, O26:H11, and O111:NM in water heavily contaminated with rumen content (10:1 water/rumen content ratio [vol/wt]) or feces (20:1 water/feces ratio [vol/wt]). Among them, treatments A, B, and C killed >5 log CFU E. coli O157:H7, O26:H11, and O111:NM/ml within 30 min in water containing rumen content or feces, whereas treatment D inactivated approximately 3 to 4 log CFU/ml under the same conditions. Cattle given water containing treatment A or C or untreated water (control) ad libitum for two 7-day periods drank 15.2, 13.8, and 30.3 liters/day, respectively, and cattle given water containing 0.1% lactic acid plus 0.9% acidic calcium sulfate (pH 2.1) drank 18.6 liters/day. The

  7. PLANT RAW MATERIAL EXTRACTS AS COMPONENTS OF COSMETIC PRODUCTS AND FORMULATIONS FOR TOPICAL ADMINISTRATION: THE PRODUCT RANGE, THE PRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Evseeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary pharmaceutical practice extracts are used as a separate cosmetic product and as an intermediate for external medicinal forms (ointments, gels, liniments and cosmetic forms. Their range is highly diverse.The aim is an overview of the scientific and technical information concerning plant  raw materials extracts using in the external drug and cosmetic products.Methods. To describe the range of extracts proposed for external use the analysis of the proposals of Russian and foreign producers submitted their official websites and online trading platforms was used. The specificity of extraction of biologically active substances of plant extracting agents: water, ethyl alcohol, glycols, vegetable oils, carbon dioxide used to obtain extracts was described on the basis of available scientific literature (eLIBRARY, PubMed, Cyberleninca, Google Books. Results. Examples of external drugs and cosmetic products based on plant raw materials extracts from a range of pharmaceutical organizations are given. It was found that from the extracting solvent used the range is presented by hydrophilic, such as glycol (propylene glycol, glycerin, water, alcoholic extracts; lipophilic (oil, CO2-extracts, and two-phase (caprylic/caprate triglyceride/water extracts. The main features of the extracting solvent used for this category of extracts: the specifics of the use in cosmetics (the skin specific effect, in particular selectivity to groups of biologically active plant substances, microbiological purity, are noted. Results of research data on the study of the prospects for the use of cosmetic ingredients – silicones, caprylic/ capric triglyceride, isopropyl myristate both solvents. The extraction techniques: classical (maceration, percolation and intensified (electro-plasma dynamic extraction, vacuum extraction circulation, CO2 supercritical extraction used in industry to produce cosmetic extracts are described

  8. Synthesis of 2-monoacylglycerols and structured triacylglycerols rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids by enzyme catalyzed reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Esteban, Luis; Martín, Lorena; Jiménez, María José; Hita, Estrella; Castillo, Beatriz; González, Pedro A; Robles, Alfonso

    2012-08-10

    This paper studies the synthesis of structured triacylglycerols (STAGs) by a four-step process: (i) obtaining 2-monoacylglycerols (2-MAGs) by alcoholysis of cod liver oil with several alcohols, catalyzed by lipases Novozym 435, from Candida antartica and DF, from Rhizopus oryzae, (ii) purification of 2-MAGs, (iii) formation of STAGs by esterification of 2-MAGs with caprylic acid catalyzed by lipase DF, from R. oryzae, and (iv) purification of these STAGs. For the alcoholysis of cod liver oil, absolute ethanol, ethanol 96% (v/v) and 1-butanol were compared; the conditions with ethanol 96% were then optimized and 2-MAG yields of around 54-57% were attained using Novozym 435. In these 2-MAGs, DHA accounted for 24-31% of total fatty acids. In the operational conditions this lipase maintained a stable level of activity over at least 11 uses. These results were compared with those obtained with lipase DF, which deactivated after only three uses. The alcoholysis of cod liver oil and ethanol 96% catalyzed by Novozym 435 was scaled up by multiplying the reactant amounts 100-fold and maintaining the intensity of treatment constant (IOT=3g lipase h/g oil). In these conditions, the 2-MAG yield attained was about 67%; these 2-MAGs contained 36.6% DHA. The synthesized 2-MAGs were separated and purified from the alcoholysis reaction products by solvent extraction using solvents of low toxicity (ethanol and hexane); 2-MAG recovery yield and purity of the target product were approximately 96.4% and 83.9%, respectively. These 2-MAGs were transformed to STAGs using the optimal conditions obtained in a previous work. After synthesis and purification, 93% pure STAGs were obtained, containing 38% DHA at sn-2 position and 60% caprylic acid (CA) at sn-1,3 positions (of total fatty acids at these positions), i.e. the major TAG is the STAG with the structure CA-DHA-CA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of increased yeast alcohol acetyltransferase activity on flavor profiles of wine and distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, M; Lambrechts, M G; Pretorius, I S

    2000-02-01

    The distinctive flavor of wine, brandy, and other grape-derived alcoholic beverages is affected by many compounds, including esters produced during alcoholic fermentation. The characteristic fruity odors of the fermentation bouquet are primarily due to a mixture of hexyl acetate, ethyl caproate (apple-like aroma), iso-amyl acetate (banana-like aroma), ethyl caprylate (apple-like aroma), and 2-phenylethyl acetate (fruity, flowery flavor with a honey note). The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of improving the aroma of wine and distillates by overexpressing one of the endogenous yeast genes that controls acetate ester production during fermentation. The synthesis of acetate esters by the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation is ascribed to at least three acetyltransferase activities, namely, alcohol acetyltransferase (AAT), ethanol acetyltransferase, and iso-amyl AAT. To investigate the effect of increased AAT activity on the sensory quality of Chenin blanc wines and distillates from Colombar base wines, we have overexpressed the alcohol acetyltransferase gene (ATF1) of S. cerevisiae. The ATF1 gene, located on chromosome XV, was cloned from a widely used commercial wine yeast strain of S. cerevisiae, VIN13, and placed under the control of the constitutive yeast phosphoglycerate kinase gene (PGK1) promoter and terminator. Chromoblot analysis confirmed the integration of the modified copy of ATF1 into the genome of three commercial wine yeast strains (VIN7, VIN13, and WE228). Northern blot analysis indicated constitutive expression of ATF1 at high levels in these yeast transformants. The levels of ethyl acetate, iso-amyl acetate, and 2-phenylethyl acetate increased 3- to 10-fold, 3.8- to 12-fold, and 2- to 10-fold, respectively, depending on the fermentation temperature, cultivar, and yeast strain used. The concentrations of ethyl caprate, ethyl caprylate, and hexyl acetate only showed minor changes, whereas the acetic acid

  10. Optimized mixed oils remarkably reduce the amount of surfactants in microemulsions without affecting oral bioavailability of ibuprofen by simultaneously enlarging microemulsion areas and enhancing drug solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yizhen; Tuo, Jue; Huang, Huizhi; Liu, Dan; You, Xiuhua; Mai, Jialuo; Song, Jiaqi; Xie, Yanqi; Wu, Chuanbin; Hu, Haiyan

    2015-06-20

    The toxicity and irritation associated with high amounts of surfactants restrict the extensive utilization of microemulsions. To address these shortcomings, employing mixed oils to enlarge microemulsion areas therefore reducing surfactant contents is a promising strategy. However, what kinds of mixed oils are more efficient in enlarging microemulsion areas still remains unclear. In this research, we found that the chain length and degree of unsaturation of oils play a key role in enlarging microemulsion areas. The combination of moderate chain saturated oil caprylic/capric triglyceride (GTCC) with long chain unsaturated oil glycerol trioleate significantly increased the microemulsion areas. Solubility of ibuprofen in the mixed oils was unexpectedly and remarkably increased (almost 300mg/mL) compared with that (around 100mg/mL) of the single oil (GTCC), which also resulted in greatly increased solubility of ibuprofen in mixed oils-containing microemulsions. By optimizing the mixed oil formulation, the absolute amount of surfactant in drug-loaded microemulsions was reduced but increased drug oral bioavailability in rats was maintained. It could be concluded that the combined use of moderate chain oils and long chain unsaturated oils could not only acquire enlarged microemulsion areas but also enhanced drug solubility, therefore doubly reducing surfactant amount, which is extremely beneficial for developing safe microemulsions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Parameters for Novel Production of Fruity Floral Fragrance Ester (Geranyl Butyrate) by Locally Isolated Lipase Geobacillus thermodenitrificans nr68 (LGT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik Raikhan, N. H.

    2018-05-01

    Geranyl butyrate has been synthesized successfully using our locally isolated lipase Geobacillus thermodenitrificans nr68 (LGT) as the fragrance ester with aim to be used in a nanotechnology fragrance application. We have used and modified few parameters from the previous research and then, continued with optimization of the synthesis by looking into degree of esterification and water content in the system. Butyric acid (C4), stearic acid (C18: 0), caprylic acid (C8), linolenic acid (C18: 3), myristic acid (C14), linoleic acid (C18: 2) and oleic acid (C18: 1) were used in the substrate selection. The yield of geranyl butyrate before the optimization was 31.68±0.01%. The optimum parameters for the synthesis of geranyl butyrate were recorded as temperature of 65°C, shaking rate at 200 rpm, 5.0 ml of geraniol and 0.40 ml of butyric acid and 4.0 ml of n-butanol and 0.40 ml of oleic acid. After the optimization, geranyl butyrate synthesis was increased by 297% as to compare with the value before the parameters were optimized. We also have significantly reduced water content as a byproduct of the esterification and managed to run the system a success. The ability thermotolerant lipase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans (LGT) in this synthesis is novel to Malaysian fragrance industry.

  12. Evaluation of the efficacy of four weak acids as antifungal preservatives in low-acid intermediate moisture model food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Wilson, Mark; Chapman, Belinda; Hocking, Ailsa D

    2010-02-01

    The potential efficacy of four weak acids as preservatives in low-acid intermediate moisture foods was assessed using a glycerol based agar medium. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC, % wt./wt.) of each acid was determined at two pH values (pH 5.0, pH 6.0) and two a(w) values (0.85, 0.90) for five food spoilage fungi, Eurotium herbariorum, Eurotium rubrum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium roqueforti. Sorbic acid, a preservative commonly used to control fungal growth in low-acid intermediate moisture foods, was included as a reference. The MIC values of the four acids were lower at pH 5.0 than pH 6.0 at equivalent a(w) values, and lower at 0.85 a(w) than 0.90 a(w) at equivalent pH values. By comparison with the MIC values of sorbic acid, those of caprylic acid and dehydroacetic acid were generally lower, whereas those for caproic acid were generally higher. No general observation could be made in the case of capric acid. The antifungal activities of all five weak acids appeared related not only to the undissociated form, but also the dissociated form, of each acid.

  13. Intensification of esterification of acids for synthesis of biodiesel using acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, Mandar A; Gogate, Parag R; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2008-03-01

    Cavitation results in conditions of turbulence and liquid circulation in the reactor which can aid in eliminating mass transfer resistances. The present work illustrates the use of cavitation for intensification of biodiesel synthesis (esterification) reaction, which is mass transfer limited reaction considering the immiscible nature of the reactants, i.e., fatty acids and alcohol. Esterification of fatty acid (FA) odour cut (C(8)-C(10)) with methanol in the presence of concentrated H(2)SO(4) as a catalyst has been studied in hydrodynamic cavitation reactor as well as in the sonochemical reactor. The different reaction operating parameters such as molar ratio of acid to alcohol, catalyst quantity have been optimized under acoustic as well as hydrodynamic cavitating conditions in addition to the optimization of the geometry of the orifice plate in the case of hydrodynamic cavitation reactors. Few experiments have also been carried out with other acid (lower and higher)/methanol combination viz. caprylic acid and capric acids with methanol with an aim of investigating the efficacy of cavitation for giving the desired yields and also to quantify the degree of process intensification that can be achieved using the same. It has been observed that ambient operating conditions of temperature and pressure and reaction times of 90% conversion (mol%). This clearly establishes the efficacy of cavitation as an excellent way to achieve process intensification of the biodiesel synthesis process.

  14. Effect of biosurfactants on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in a BioFlux channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz De Rienzo, M A; Stevenson, P S; Marchant, R; Banat, I M

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies have indicated that biosurfactants play a role both in maintaining channels between multicellular structures in biofilms and in dispersal of cells from biofilms. A combination of caprylic acid (0.01 % v/v) together with rhamnolipids (0.04 % v/v) was applied to biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144 and a mixed culture under BioFlux flowthrough conditions and caused disruption of the biofilms. The biofilms were also treated with a combination of rhamnolipids (0.04 % v/v) and sophorolipids (0.01 %). Control treatments with PBS 1× had no apparent effect on biofilm disruption. The Gram-positive bacterium (S. aureus ATCC 9144) was more sensitive than P. aeruginosa ATCC 15442 in terms of disruption and viability as shown by Live/Dead staining. Disruption of biofilms of P. aeruginosa ATCC 15442 was minimal. Oxygen consumption by biofilms, after different treatments with biosurfactants, confirms that sophorolipid on its own is unable to kill/inhibit cells of P. aeruginosa ATCC 15442, and even when used in combination with rhamnolipids, under static conditions, no decrease in the cell viability was observed. Cells in biofilms exposed to mono-rhamnolipids (0.04 % v/v) showed behaviour typical of exposure to bacteriostatic compounds, but when exposed to di-rhamnolipids (0.04 % v/v), they displayed a pattern characteristic of bactericidal compounds.

  15. Micellar Surfactant Association in the Presence of a Glucoside-based Amphiphile Detected via High-Throughput Small Angle X-ray Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanic, Vesna [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source, Campinas (Brazil); Broadbent, Charlotte [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Engineering Dept.; DiMasi, Elaine [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Photon Sciences Division; Galleguillos, Ramiro [Lubrizol Advanced Materials, Cleveland, OH (United States); Woodward, Valerie [Lubrizol Advanced Materials, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-11-14

    The interactions of mixtures of anionic and amphoteric surfactants with sugar amphiphiles were studied via high throughput small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). The sugar amphiphile was composed of Caprate, Caprylate, and Oleate mixed ester of methyl glucoside, MeGCCO. Optimal surfactant interactions are sought which have desirable physical properties, which must be identified in a cost effective manner that can access the large phase space of possible molecular combinations. X-ray scattering patterns obtained via high throughput SAXS can probe a combinatorial sample space and reveal the incorporation of MeGCCO into the micelles and the molecular associations between surfactant molecules. Such data make it possible to efficiently assess the effects of the new amphiphiles in the formulation. A specific finding of this study is that formulations containing comparatively monodisperse and homogeneous surfactant mixtures can be reliably tuned by addition of NaCl, which swells the surfactant micelles with a monotonic dependence on salt concentration. In contrast, the presence of multiple different surfactants destroys clear correlations with NaCl concentration, even in otherwise similar series of formulations.

  16. Tacrolimus loaded biocompatible lecithin-based microemulsions with improved skin penetration: Structure characterization and in vitro/in vivo performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Vedrana; Todosijević, Marija; Ilić, Tanja; Lukić, Milica; Mitsou, Evgenia; Papadimitriou, Vassiliki; Avramiotis, Spyridon; Marković, Bojan; Cekić, Nebojša; Savić, Snežana

    2017-08-30

    In order to improve skin penetration of tacrolimus we aimed to develop potentially non-irritant, lecithin-based microemulsions containing ethanol, isopropanol and/or propylene glycol as cosurfactants, varying caprylic/capric triglycerides and propylene glycol monocaprylate as oil phase. The influence of excipients on the size of microemulsion region in pseudo-ternary phase diagrams and their ability to form different types of microemulsions was evaluated. The comprehensive physicochemical characterization of microemulsions and the evaluation of their structure was performed, while the localization of tacrolimus in microemulsions was further investigated using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Moreover, stability studies proved no change in tacrolimus content during one year of storage at room temperature. In addition, in vivo skin performance indicated no skin irritation potential of blank microemulsions, whereas in vitro release testing using Franz diffusion cells showed superior release rate of tacrolimus from microemulsions (0.98±0.10 and 0.92±0.11μg/cm 2 /h for two bicontinuous and 1.00±0.24μg/cm 2 /h for oil-in-water microemulsion) compared to referent Protopic ointment (0.15±0.08μg/cm 2 /h). Furthermore, ex vivo penetration assessed through porcine ear skin using tape stripping, confirmed superiority of two microemulsions related to the reference, implying developed microemulsions as promising carriers for dermal delivery of tacrolimus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of lycopene-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules: physicochemical characterization and stability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Priscilla Pereira dos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos (Brazil); Paese, Karina; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Faculdade de Farmácia (Brazil); Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Departamento de Química Orgânica, Instituto de Química (Brazil); Costa, Tania Hass [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Departamento de Química, Instituto de Química (Brazil); Jablonski, André [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Departamento de Engenharia de Minas (Brazil); Flôres, Simone Hickmann; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira, E-mail: alessandro.rios@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    The objective of this study was to develop lycopene-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (Lyc-LNCs) by the interfacial deposition of preformed poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). Lyc extract (93.9 %) was obtained from tomatoes, and the organic phase was prepared with polymer (PCL), caprylic/capric triglycerides, sorbitan monostearate, and Lyc in a mixture of acetone and ethanol under magnetic stirring at 40 °C. The organic phase was injected into an aqueous phase containing polysorbate 80, and the suspension was concentrated under reduced pressure. The formulation with a Lyc concentration of 85 µg/mL was characterized in terms of size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, pH, viscosity, and color. The Lyc-LNC formulation presented stable values for the z-average (193 ± 4.7 nm) and zeta potential (−11.5 ± 0.40 mV). Despite the lower pH, Lyc content, and color change of the suspension, the nanocapsules showed satisfactory stability, presenting around 50 % Lyc content after 14 days of storage at room temperature (25 °C)

  18. Purification and Characterization of Organic Solvent and Detergent Tolerant Lipase from Thermotolerant Bacillus sp. RN2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiko Kajiwara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the organic solvent and detergent tolerant properties of recombinant lipase isolated from thermotolerant Bacillus sp. RN2 (Lip-SBRN2. The isolation of the lipase-coding gene was achieved by the use of inverse and direct PCR. The complete DNA sequencing of the gene revealed that the lip-SBRN2 gene contains 576 nucleotides which corresponded to 192 deduced amino acids. The purified enzyme was homogeneous with the estimated molecular mass of 19 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. The Lip-SBRN2 was stable in a pH range of 9–11 and temperature range of 45–60 °C. The enzyme was a non metallo-monomeric protein and was active against pNP-caprylate (C8 and pNP-laurate (C12 and coconut oil. The Lip-SBRN2 exhibited a high level of activity in the presence of 108% benzene, 102.4% diethylether and 112% SDS. It is anticipated that the organic solvent and detergent tolerant enzyme secreted by Bacillus sp. RN2 will be applicable as catalysts for reaction in the presence of organic solvents and detergents.

  19. The effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile components of desiccated coconut during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, T.P.; Azanza, M.P.

    1989-11-01

    Flavor volatiles of desiccated and irradiated desiccated coconut stored for 24 weeks at room temperature were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Chromatograms of fresh coconut meat revealed sone esters, ketones, aldehydes and alcohols which were responsible for its fruity odor. The oily odor of fresh coconut meat was attributed to minimal amount of delta lactones. Freshly desiccated coconut contained the same volatiles responsible for the fresh fruity odor but the concentration of the delta lactones was considerably higher. The newly irradiated desiccated coconut had the highest concentration of the delta lactones with other volatiles such as ethyl caproate, 1-hexanol, and caprylic aldehyde being also present. With storage, development of oily odor to rancid odor was noted due to increasing amount of delta lactones. Corresponding decrease of volatiles responsible for the fresh fruity odor was noted as shown by the chromatographic profiles of both irradiated and unirradiated samples. Odor deterioration was more pronounced in the irradiated sample. Significant changes in moisture content, peroxide and iodine values, and free acid were observed during storage. No significant changes, however were noted in percent oil, pH and water activity. Significant difference in color, taste and general acceptability were noted at the start of storage with odor changes becoming more evident only after 4 weeks of storage. (Auth.). 69 refs.; 15 figs.; 14 tabs.; Appendix p. 90-205

  20. Fatty Acid Mixtures from Nigella sativa Protects PC12 Cells from Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis Induced by Doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hosseinzadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatty acids (FAs, the key structural elements of dietary lipids, are notable in the nutritional value of plants. Black cumin, a popular anti-inflammatory and antioxidant food seasoning, contains nonpolar constituents such as FAs. Methods: Seeds were extracted using hexane and their cytoprotective activity was assessed against doxorubicin (DOX-mediated oxidative stress and apoptosis in PC12 cell line. Results: In spite of the cellular death induced by DOX toward PC12 cells, bioassay-guided purification showed that pretreatment with FAs mixtures (24h attenuated DOX-mediated apoptosis, which could be attributed to the inhibited caspase 3 activity and enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential. Palmitic acid, caprylic acid and oleic acid each 1/3 in the mixture, also suppressed DOX-induced ROS generation. Conclusion: Our observation indicated that the subtoxic concentration of FAs from Nigella sativa could effectively protect the cells against oxidative stress, due to their antioxidant activity, and could be regarded as a dietary supplement.

  1. Characterization of neutral lipase BT-1 isolated from the labial gland of Bombus terrestris males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Brabcová

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In addition to their general role in the hydrolysis of storage lipids, bumblebee lipases can participate in the biosynthesis of fatty acids that serve as precursors of pheromones used for sexual communication. RESULTS: We studied the temporal dynamics of lipolytic activity in crude extracts from the cephalic part of Bombus terrestris labial glands. Extracts from 3-day-old males displayed the highest lipolytic activity. The highest lipase gene expression level was observed in freshly emerged bumblebees, and both gene expression and lipase activity were lower in bumblebees older than 3 days. Lipase was purified from labial glands, further characterized and named as BT-1. The B. terrestris orthologue shares 88% sequence identity with B. impatiens lipase HA. The molecular weight of B. terrestris lipase BT-1 was approximately 30 kDa, the pH optimum was 8.3, and the temperature optimum was 50°C. Lipase BT-1 showed a notable preference for C8-C10 p-nitrophenyl esters, with the highest activity toward p-nitrophenyl caprylate (C8. The Michaelis constant (Km and maximum reaction rate (Vmax for p-nitrophenyl laurate hydrolysis were Km = 0.0011 mM and Vmax = 0.15 U/mg. CONCLUSION: This is the first report describing neutral lipase from the labial gland of B. terrestris. Our findings help increase understanding of its possible function in the labial gland.

  2. Comparison of sunscreens Containing Titanium Dioxide Alone Or In Association With Cocoa, Murumuru Or Cupuaçu Butters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Marronato

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ingredients of natural origin may represent alternatives for formulating sunscreens, without compromising their effectiveness. The literature has shown the antioxidant potential of compounds existing in murumuru (Astrocaryum murmuru, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum and cocoa (Theobroma cacao butters that recommends further investigation. The objectives of this research were: (1 to develop bioactive photoprotective formulations containing cocoa, murmuru or cupuaçu butters in association with a physical sunscreen (titanium dioxide (TiO2 and (2 determine the possible photoprotective activity of butters and their interactions with the sunscreen. Cocoa, cupuaçu and murumuru butter were individually associated to TiO2 in O / W emulsions. The anti-UVA and UVB efficacy in vitro was estimated by diffuse transmittance analysis in a Labsphere® UV2000S, using quartz plates and Transpore® tape to obtain the SPF (sun protection factor and critical wavelength. Photoprotective formulations containing titanium dioxide and bioactive butters were obtained using Aristoflex® AVC and triglycerides of caprylic capric acid (GTCC. The SPF of the samples containing only TiO2 and formulations containing cocoa, murumuru or cupuassu butters associated with TiO2 ranged from 4 to 5. The critical wavelength values for these formulations ranged from 383.0 to 386.7 nm. The results indicated no increase in the SPF value for formulations containing vegetable butters. The critical wavelength values indicated their potential to absorb part of the UVA radiation.

  3. Significant enhancement by biochar of caproate production via chain elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuhao; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Zhang, Hua; Lü, Fan

    2017-08-01

    In this study, biochar was introduced into a chain elongation system to enhance the bioproduction of caproate and caprylate. The concentration of caproate increased to 21.1 g/L upon the addition of biochar, which is the highest level of caproate reported for such a system to date when ethanol was used as electron donor. The addition of biochar created a tougher system with more stable microorganism community structure for chain elongation, in which no obvious inhibition by products or substrates was observed, moreover, the lag phase was reduced 2.3-fold compared to the system without biochar. These reinforcement effect of biochar are attributed to the enhanced conductivity due to the significant enrichment of functional microorganisms via the microbial network surrounding smaller biochar particles, and via the adsorption on the rough surfaces or pores of larger particles, which facilitated electron transfer. Higher amounts of extracellular polymer substances and higher conductivity induced by biochar could contribute to the reinforcement effect in chain elongation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Interactions of human serum albumin with doxorubicin in different media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gun'ko, Vladimir M.; Turov, Vladimir V.; Krupska, Tetyana V.; Tsapko, Magdalina D.

    2017-02-01

    Interactions of human serum albumin (10 wt% H2O and 0.3 wt% sodium caprylate) with doxorubicin hydrochloride (1 wt%) were studied alone or with addition of HCl (3.6 wt% HCl) using 1H NMR spectroscopy. A model of hydrated HSA/12DOX was calculated using PM7 method with COSMO showing large variations in the binding constant depending on structural features of DOX/HSA complexes. DOX molecules/ions displace bound water from narrow intramolecular voids in HSA that leads to diminution of freezing-melting point depression of strongly bound water (SBW). Structure of weakly bound water (WBW) depends much weaker on the presence of DOX than SBW because a major fraction of DOX is bound to adsorption sites of HSA. Addition of HCl results in strong changes in structure of macromolecules and organization of water in hydration shells of HSA (i.e., mainly SBW) and in the solution (i.e., WBW + non-bound bulk water).

  5. Capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV detection for the determination of stabilizers and citrates present in human albumin solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Małgorzata; Cygan, Paulina; Wilk, Małgorzata; Anuszewska, Elzbieta

    2009-08-15

    Sodium caprylate and N-acetyltryptophan are the most frequently used stabilizers that protect the albumin from aggregation or heat induced denaturation. In turn citrates - excipients remaining after fractionation process - can be treated as by-product favoring leaching aluminum out of glass containers whilst albumin solution is stored. With ionic nature these substances have all the markings of a subject for capillary electrophoresis analysis. Thus CE methods were proposed as new approach for quality control of human albumin solution in terms of determination of stabilizers and citrates residue. Human albumin solutions both 5% and 20% from various manufacturers were tested. Indirect detection mode was set to provide sufficient detectability of analytes lacking of chromophores. As being anions analytes were separated with reversed electroosmotic flow. As a result of method optimization two background electrolytes based on p-hydroxybenzoic acid and 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid were selected for stabilizers and citrates separation, respectively. The optimized methods were successfully validated. For citrates that require quantification below 100microM the method demonstrated the precision less than 4% and the limit of detection at 4microM. In order to check the new methods accuracy and applicability the samples were additionally tested with selected reference methods. The proposed methods allow reliable quantification of stabilizers and citrates in human albumin solution that was confirmed by method validation as well as result comparison with reference methods. The CE methods are considered to be suitable for quality control yet simplifying and reducing cost of analysis.

  6. Changes in the Chemical Composition of Plum Distillate During Maturation with Oak Chips under Different Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerek, Maria; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Patelski, Piotr; Strąk, Ewelina

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the effect of ageing on the qualitative and quantitative composition of plum distillate in contact with oak wood chips. Maturation was performed with lightly toasted French oak ( Quercus sessiflora and Quercus robur ) chips or oak chips made from fragments of empty barrels that had been used for ageing cognac. The effects of oak chip dose, process temperature, ageing system (static or circulatory) and ultrasound treatment were assessed. Maturation of plum distillate samples with oak chips resulted in higher levels of extractable organics (including tannins) and colour changes, which were correlated with the type and dose of oak chips, and the conditions of maturation. The content of sugars such as glucose, xylose and arabinose also increased, depending on the conditions and type of oak chips. Degradation of lignin resulted in liberation of sinapaldehyde, syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and vanillin, with intensities depending on the applied parameters. In terms of volatiles, decreases in the concentration of higher alcohols and aliphatic aldehydes were observed in the majority of maturation experiments, while concentrations of furanic aldehydes increased depending on the type and dose of oak chips, as well as on the conditions of maturation. The quantities of esters such as ethyl acetate decreased in the majority of experimental variants, whereas concentrations of ethyl caproate, ethyl caprylate and ethyl caprate increased gradually. Some phenols and lactones were detected in all matured samples, with the lowest levels found in the samples aged with oak chips made from cognac barrels.

  7. Changes in the Chemical Composition of Plum Distillate During Maturation with Oak Chips under Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Balcerek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the eff ect of ageing on the qualitative and quantitative composition of plum distillate in contact with oak wood chips. Maturation was performed with lightly toasted French oak (Quercus sessifl ora and Quercus robur chips or oak chips made from fragments of empty barrels that had been used for ageing cognac. The eff ects of oak chip dose, process temperature, ageing system (static or circulatory and ultrasound treatment were assessed. Maturation of plum distillate samples with oak chips resulted in higher levels of extractable organics (including tannins and colour changes, which were correlated with the type and dose of oak chips, and the conditions of maturation. The content of sugars such as glucose, xylose and arabinose also increased, depending on the conditions and type of oak chips. Degradation of lignin resulted in liberation of sinapaldehyde, syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and vanillin, with intensities depending on the applied parameters. In terms of volatiles, decreases in the concentration of higher alcohols and aliphatic aldehydes were observed in the majority of maturation experiments, while concentrations of furanic aldehydes increased depending on the type and dose of oak chips, as well as on the conditions of maturation. The quantities of esters such as ethyl acetate decreased in the majority of experimental variants, whereas concentrations of ethyl caproate, ethyl caprylate and ethyl caprate increased gradually. Some phenols and lactones were detected in all matured samples, with the lowest levels found in the samples aged with oak chips made from cognac barrels.

  8. Glycosylceramide modifies the flavor and metabolic characteristics of sake yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannatul Ferdouse

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the manufacture of sake, Japanese traditional rice wine, sake yeast is fermented with koji, which is steamed rice fermented with the non-pathogenic fungus Aspergillus oryzae. During fermentation, sake yeast requires lipids, such as unsaturated fatty acids and sterols, in addition to substances provided by koji enzymes for fermentation. However, the role of sphingolipids on the brewing characteristics of sake yeast has not been studied. In this study, we revealed that glycosylceramide, one of the sphingolipids abundant in koji, affects yeast fermentation. The addition of soy, A. oryzae, and Grifola frondosa glycosylceramide conferred a similar effect on the flavor profiles of sake yeast. In particular, the addition of A. oryzae and G. frondosa glycosylceramide were very similar in terms of the decreases in ethyl caprylate and ethyl 9-decenoate. The addition of soy glycosylceramide induced metabolic changes to sake yeast such as a decrease in glucose, increases in ethanol and glycerol and changes in several amino acids and organic acids concentrations. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, pyruvate metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, and glycerolipid metabolism were overrepresented in the cultures incubated with sake yeast and soy glycosylceramide. This is the first study of the effect of glycosylceramide on the flavor and metabolic profile of sake yeast.

  9. Effect of fermentation conditions on lipase production by Candida utilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANJA Z. GRBAVCIC

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A wild yeast strain isolated from spoiled soybean oil and identified as Candida utilis initially presented rather low lipase activity (approximately 4 IU dm-3 in submerged culture in a universal yeast medium containing 2 % malt extract. Stu­dies were undertaken to improve the lipase production. The best yields of lipase were obtained with a medium supplemented with caprylic and oleic acids as indu­cers, but higher concentrations of the former (> 0.5 % had a negative effect on the lipase production and cell growth. The type of nitrogen source seemed also to be very important. The highest lipolytic activity of 284 IU dm-3 was achieved after 5 days of fermentation in a medium containing oleic acid and hydrolyzed casein as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, and supplemented with Tween 80®. It was shown that optimization of the fermentation conditions can lead to a significant improvement in the lipase production (more than 70-fold higher compared to the initial value obtained in the non-optimized medium.

  10. Penetration enhancer-containing vesicles (PEVs) as carriers for cutaneous delivery of minoxidil: in vitro evaluation of drug permeation by infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Simona; Manconi, Maria; Fadda, Anna Maria; Sala, Maria Chiara; Perricci, Jacopo; Pini, Elena; Sinico, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we carried out a research on new liposomal systems prepared by using in their composition a few penetration enhancers which differ for chemical structure and physicochemical properties. The penetration enhancer-containing vesicles (PEVs) were prepared by using soy lecithin and different amounts of three penetration enhancers, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy) ethanol (Transcutol(®)), capryl-caproyl macrogol 8-glyceride (Labrasol(®)), and cineole.To study the influence of the PEVs on (trans)dermal delivery of minoxidil, in vitro diffusion experiments were performed through new born pig skin and the results were compared with that obtained applying the vesicular system without enhancer (control) after pretreatment of the skin with the various enhancers. In this study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), attenuated total reflectance FTIR (ATR-FTIR) and FTIR imaging were used to evaluate the effective penetration of minoxidil in the skin layers and to discover the influence of the enhancer on the drug topical delivery. These analytical studies allowed us to characterize the drug formulations and to evaluate the vesicle distribution into the skin. Recorded spectra confirmed that the vesicle formulations with penetration enhancers promoted drug deposition into the skin.

  11. Construction of an Immobilized Thermophilic Esterase on Epoxy Support for Poly(ε-caprolactone Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ren

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Developing an efficient immobilized enzyme is of great significance for improving the operational stability of enzymes in poly(ε-caprolactone synthesis. In this paper, a thermophilic esterase AFEST from the archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus was successfully immobilized on the epoxy support Sepabeads EC-EP via covalent attachment, and the immobilized enzyme was then employed as a biocatalyst for poly(ε-caprolactone synthesis. The enzyme loading and recovered activity of immobilized enzyme was measured to be 72 mg/g and 10.4 U/mg using p-nitrophenyl caprylate as the substrate at 80 °C, respectively. Through the optimization of reaction conditions (enzyme concentration, temperature, reaction time and medium, poly(ε-caprolactone was obtained with 100% monomer conversion and low number-average molecular weight (Mn < 1300 g/mol. Further, the immobilized enzyme exhibited excellent reusability, with monomer conversion values exceeding 75% during 15 batch reactions. Finally, poly(ε-caprolactone was enzymatically synthesized with an isolated yield of 75% and Mn value of 3005 g/mol in a gram-scale reaction.

  12. Construction of an Immobilized Thermophilic Esterase on Epoxy Support for Poly(ε-caprolactone) Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hui; Xing, Zhen; Yang, Jiebing; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Gang; Tang, Jun; Li, Quanshun

    2016-06-18

    Developing an efficient immobilized enzyme is of great significance for improving the operational stability of enzymes in poly(ε-caprolactone) synthesis. In this paper, a thermophilic esterase AFEST from the archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus was successfully immobilized on the epoxy support Sepabeads EC-EP via covalent attachment, and the immobilized enzyme was then employed as a biocatalyst for poly(ε-caprolactone) synthesis. The enzyme loading and recovered activity of immobilized enzyme was measured to be 72 mg/g and 10.4 U/mg using p-nitrophenyl caprylate as the substrate at 80 °C, respectively. Through the optimization of reaction conditions (enzyme concentration, temperature, reaction time and medium), poly(ε-caprolactone) was obtained with 100% monomer conversion and low number-average molecular weight (Mn enzyme exhibited excellent reusability, with monomer conversion values exceeding 75% during 15 batch reactions. Finally, poly(ε-caprolactone) was enzymatically synthesized with an isolated yield of 75% and Mn value of 3005 g/mol in a gram-scale reaction.

  13. Detection of Giardia duodenalis antigen in human fecal eluates by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using polyclonal antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Duque-Beltrán

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study developed and standardized an enzime-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect Giardia antigen in feces using rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Giardia cysts were purified from human fecal samples by sucrose and percoll gradients. Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus were infected to obtain trophozoites. Rabbits were inoculated with either cyst or trophozoite antigens of 14 Colombian Giardia isolates to develop antibodies against the respective stages. The IgG anti-Giardia were purified by sequential caprylic acid and ammonium sulfate precipitation. A portion of these polyclonal antibodies was linked to alkaline phosphatase (conjugate. One hundred and ninety six samples of human feces, from different patients, were tested by parasitologic diagnosis: 69 were positive for Giardia cysts, 56 had no Giardia parasites, and 71 revealed parasites other than Giardia. The optimal concentration of polyclonal antibodies for antigen capture was 40 µg/ml and the optimal conjugate dilution was 1:100. The absorbance cut-off value was 0.24. The parameters of the ELISA test for Giardia antigen detection were: sensitivity, 100% (95% CI: 93.4-100%; specificity, 95% (95% CI: 88.6-97.6%; positive predictive value, 91% (95% CI: 81.4-95.9%; and negative predictive value, 100% (95% CI: 96.1-100%. This ELISA will improve the diagnosis of Giardia infections in Colombia and will be useful in following patients after treatment.

  14. A novel 3D Ag(I)-MOF: Surfactant-directed syntheses and catalytic degradation of o/m/p-Nitrophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xue-Qian [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hubei Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for New Energy Microgrid, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Wen, Guo-Xuan [College of Science, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Wu, Ya-Pan; Dong, Wen-Wen; Zhao, Jun [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hubei Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for New Energy Microgrid, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Li, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: lidongsheng1@126.com [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hubei Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for New Energy Microgrid, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China)

    2016-10-15

    For the first time, sodium caprylate has been investigated to direct the crystal growth of 3D Ag-MOF, [Ag{sub 2}(ddcba)(4,4′-bipy){sub 2}] (1), constructing from 3,5-(di(2′,5′-dicarboxylphenyl)benozoic acid and 4,4′-bipy. The single crystal diffraction analyses shows that complex 1 possess 3D neutral framework with a three-connected ThSi{sub 2} (10{sup 3}-b) topology. Compound 1 exhibits predominant catalytic activity towards the degradation of o-Nitrophenol (ONP), m-Nitrophenol (MNP) and p-Nitrophenol (PNP) in aqueous solution. The kinetics of such catalytic degradation reactions was also studied. - Graphical abstract: A novel 3D Ag(I)-MOF with ThSi{sub 2} (10{sup 3}-b) topology exhibits predominant catalytic activity towards the degradation of o-Nitrophenol (ONP), m-Nitrophenol (MNP) and p-Nitrophenol (PNP) in aqueous solution. - Highlights: • A novel 3D Ag(I)-MOF with ThSi{sub 2} (10{sup 3}-b) topology. • Surfactant as additive for directing the crystal growth. • Predominant catalytic activities for the degradation of o/m/p-nitrophenol.

  15. Controlled production of camembert-type cheeses: part III role of the ripening microflora on free fatty acid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq-Perlat, Marie-Noëlle; Corrieu, Georges; Spinnler, Henry-Eric

    2007-05-01

    Phenomena generating FFAs, important flavour precursors, are significant in cheese ripening. In Camembert-like cheeses, it was intended to establish the relationships between the dynamics of FFA concentrations changes and the succession of ripening microflora during ripening. Experimental Camembert-type cheeses were prepared in duplicate from pasteurised milk inoculated with Kluyveromyces lactis, Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium camemberti, and Brevibacterium aurantiacum under aseptic conditions. For each cheese and each cheesy medium, concentrations of FFAs with odd-numbered carbons, except for 9:0 and 13:0, did not change over time. For long-chain FFAs, concentrations varied with the given cheese part (rind or core). K. lactis produced only short or medium-chain FFAs during its growth and had a minor influence on caproic, caprylic, capric, and lauric acids in comparison with G. candidum, the most lipolytic of the strains used here. It generated all short or medium-chain FFAs (4:0-12:0) during its exponential and slowdown growth periods and only long-chain ones (14:0-18:0) during its stationary phase. Pen. camemberti produced more long-chain FFAs (14:0-18:0) during its sporulation. Brev. aurantiacum did not generate any FFAs. The evidence of links between specific FFAs and the growth of a given microorganism is shown.

  16. In Silico and Wet Lab Studies Reveal the Cholesterol Lowering Efficacy of Lauric Acid, a Medium Chain Fat of Coconut Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekshmi Sheela, Devi; Nazeem, Puthiyaveetil Abdulla; Narayanankutty, Arunaksharan; Manalil, Jeksy Jos; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C

    2016-12-01

    The coconut oil (CO) contains 91 % of saturated fatty acids in which 72 % are medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) like lauric, capric and caprylic acids. In contrast to animal fat, coconut oil has no cholesterol. Despite this fact, CO is sidelined among other vegetable oils due to the health hazards attributed to the saturated fatty acids. Though various medicinal effects of CO have been reported including the hypolipidemic activity, people are still confused in the consumption of this natural oil. In silico analyses and wet lab experiments have been carried out to identify the hypolipidemic properties of MCFAs and phenolic acids in CO by using different protein targets involved in cholesterol synthesis. The molecular docking studies were carried out using CDOCKER protocol in Accelery's Discovery Studio, by taking different proteins like HMG- CoA reductase and cholesterol esterase as targets and the different phytocompounds in coconut as ligands. Molecular docking highlighted the potential of lauric acid in inhibiting the protein targets involved in hyperlipidemics. Further, validation of in silico results was carried out through in vivo studies. The activity of key enzymes HMG- CoA reductase and lipoprotein lipase were found reduced in animals fed with lauric acid and CO.

  17. Development of lycopene-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules: physicochemical characterization and stability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Priscilla Pereira dos; Paese, Karina; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Costa, Tania Hass; Jablonski, André; Flôres, Simone Hickmann; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop lycopene-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (Lyc-LNCs) by the interfacial deposition of preformed poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). Lyc extract (93.9 %) was obtained from tomatoes, and the organic phase was prepared with polymer (PCL), caprylic/capric triglycerides, sorbitan monostearate, and Lyc in a mixture of acetone and ethanol under magnetic stirring at 40 °C. The organic phase was injected into an aqueous phase containing polysorbate 80, and the suspension was concentrated under reduced pressure. The formulation with a Lyc concentration of 85 µg/mL was characterized in terms of size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, pH, viscosity, and color. The Lyc-LNC formulation presented stable values for the z-average (193 ± 4.7 nm) and zeta potential (−11.5 ± 0.40 mV). Despite the lower pH, Lyc content, and color change of the suspension, the nanocapsules showed satisfactory stability, presenting around 50 % Lyc content after 14 days of storage at room temperature (25 °C)

  18. Development of lycopene-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules: physicochemical characterization and stability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Priscilla Pereira; Paese, Karina; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Costa, Tania Hass; Jablonski, André; Flôres, Simone Hickmann; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop lycopene-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (Lyc-LNCs) by the interfacial deposition of preformed poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL). Lyc extract (93.9 %) was obtained from tomatoes, and the organic phase was prepared with polymer (PCL), caprylic/capric triglycerides, sorbitan monostearate, and Lyc in a mixture of acetone and ethanol under magnetic stirring at 40 °C. The organic phase was injected into an aqueous phase containing polysorbate 80, and the suspension was concentrated under reduced pressure. The formulation with a Lyc concentration of 85 µg/mL was characterized in terms of size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, pH, viscosity, and color. The Lyc-LNC formulation presented stable values for the z-average (193 ± 4.7 nm) and zeta potential (-11.5 ± 0.40 mV). Despite the lower pH, Lyc content, and color change of the suspension, the nanocapsules showed satisfactory stability, presenting around 50 % Lyc content after 14 days of storage at room temperature (25 °C).

  19. Assesment of spineless safflower (Carthamus tinctorius, L.) mutant lines for seed oil content and fatty acid profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragab, A.I.; Kassem, M.; Moustafa, H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the new spineless mutants that previously induced through gamma radiation and hybridization techniques in the advanced generation for seed oil content and fatty acid profiles The obtained results cleared that oil percentages of all seven safflower mutants were increased than local variety Giza (1) and the new mutant hybrid 2 line (white petals) had the highest increase value of oil percentage (10%) but the mutant line M14 (dark red petals) had the lowest increase value of oil percentage (3.1 %) The mutant line M7 (yellow petals) had the highest value of total saturated fatty acid (40.38%), because it had the highest value of palmitic fatty acid (25.16%), comparing to 10.01% value for local variety Giza (1), followed by mutant line hybrid 2 (white petals) which had (39.88%) because it had the highest value of caprylic, capric, lauric, myristic and stearic fatty acids. All safflower mutant lines had higher value of oleic fatty acid than that of the local variety Giza (1) the two new safflower mutant lines M7 (yellow petals) and hybrid 2 (white petal) had the highest value of oleic fatty acid 41.22% and 39.88% respectively in comparison with 13.5% for local variety Giza (1), the obtained results are indicating to seed oil content negative correlation between oleic and linoleic acids

  20. In vitro and in vivo enhancement of adipogenesis by Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum in 3T3-L1 cells and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariadhas Valan Arasu

    Full Text Available Adipogenesis is very much important in improving the quality of meat in animals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo adipogenesis regulation properties of Lolium multiflorum on 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and mice. Chemical composition of petroleum ether extract of L. multiflorum (PET-LM confirmed the presence of fatty acids, such as α-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, docosatetraenoic acid, and caprylic acid, as the major compounds. PET-LM treatment increased viability, lipid accumulation, lipolysis, cell cycle progression, and DNA synthesis in the cells. PET-LM treatment also augmented peroxysome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR-γ2, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α, adiponectin, adipocyte binding protein, glucose transporter-4, fatty acid synthase, and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 expression at mRNA and protein levels in differentiated adipocytes. In addition, mice administered with 200 mg/kg body weight PET-LM for 8 weeks showed greater body weight than control mice. These findings suggest that PET-LM facilitates adipogenesis by stimulating PPARγ-mediated signaling cascades in adipocytes which could be useful for quality meat development in animals.

  1. Anaerobic bacterium that degrades fatty acids in syntrophic association with methanogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, M J [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana; Bryant, M P; Pfennig, N

    1979-01-01

    A new species of anaerobic bacterium that degrades the even-numbered carbon fatty acids, butyrate, caproate and caprylate, to acetate and H/sub 2/ and the odd-numbered carbon fatty acids, valerate and heptanoate, to acetate, propionate and H/sub 2/ was obtained in coculture with either an H/sub 2/-utilizing methanogen or H/sub 2/-utilizing desulfovibrio. The organism could be grown only in syntrophic association with the H/sub 2/-utilizer and no other energy sources or combination of electron donor and acceptors were utilized. It was a Gram-negative helical rod with 2 to 8 flagella, about 20 nm in diameter, inserted in a linear fashion about 130 nm or more apart along the concave side of the cell. It grew with a generation time of 84 h in co-culture with Methanospirillum hungatii and was present in numbers of at least 4.5 x 10/sup -6/ per g of anaerobic digest or sludge.

  2. Potential use of avocado oil on structured lipids MLM-type production catalysed by commercial immobilised lipases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Eduardo; Soto, Carmen; Olivares, Araceli; Altamirano, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Structured Lipids are generally constituents of functional foods. Growing demands for SL are based on a fuller understanding of nutritional requirements, lipid metabolism, and improved methods to produce them. Specifically, this work was aimed to add value to avocado oil by producing dietary triacylglycerols (TAG) containing medium-chain fatty acids (M) at positions sn-1,3 and long-chain fatty acids (L) at position sn-2. These MLM-type structured lipids (SL) were produced by interesterification of caprylic acid (CA) (C8:0) and avocado oil (content of C18:1). The regiospecific sn-1,3 commercial lipases Lipozyme RM IM and TL IM were used as biocatalysts to probe the potential of avocado oil to produce SL. Reactions were performed at 30-50°C for 24 h in solvent-free media with a substrate molar ratio of 1∶2 (TAG:CA) and 4-10% w/w enzyme content. The lowest incorporation of CA (1.1% mol) resulted from Lipozyme RM IM that was incubated at 50°C. The maximum incorporation of CA into sn-1,3 positions of TAG was 29.2% mol. This result was obtained at 30°C with 10% w/w Lipozyme TL IM, which is the highest values obtained in solvent-free medium until now for structured lipids of low-calories. This strategy opens a new market to added value products based on avocado oil.

  3. Glycosylceramide modifies the flavor and metabolic characteristics of sake yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdouse, Jannatul; Yamamoto, Yuki; Taguchi, Seiga; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Takamine, Kazunori; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    In the manufacture of sake, Japanese traditional rice wine, sake yeast is fermented with koji, which is steamed rice fermented with the non-pathogenic fungus Aspergillus oryzae . During fermentation, sake yeast requires lipids, such as unsaturated fatty acids and sterols, in addition to substances provided by koji enzymes for fermentation. However, the role of sphingolipids on the brewing characteristics of sake yeast has not been studied. In this study, we revealed that glycosylceramide, one of the sphingolipids abundant in koji, affects yeast fermentation. The addition of soy, A. oryzae , and Grifola frondosa glycosylceramide conferred a similar effect on the flavor profiles of sake yeast. In particular, the addition of A. oryzae and G. frondosa glycosylceramide were very similar in terms of the decreases in ethyl caprylate and ethyl 9-decenoate. The addition of soy glycosylceramide induced metabolic changes to sake yeast such as a decrease in glucose, increases in ethanol and glycerol and changes in several amino acids and organic acids concentrations. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, pyruvate metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, and glycerolipid metabolism were overrepresented in the cultures incubated with sake yeast and soy glycosylceramide. This is the first study of the effect of glycosylceramide on the flavor and metabolic profile of sake yeast.

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on phenol content, antioxidant activity and biological activity of black maca and red maca extracts (Lepidium meyenii walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevallos-Concha, A; Nuñez, D; Gasco, M; Vasquez, C; Quispe, M; Gonzales, G F

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on UV spectrum on maca, total content of polyphenols, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities and in vivo biological activities of red and black maca extracts (Lepidium meyenii). Adult mice of the strain Swiss aged 3 months and weighing 30-35 g in average were used to determine biological activities. Daily sperm production, effect on testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia and forced swimming test were used to determine the effect of irradiation on biological activities of maca extracts. Irradiation did not show differences in UV spectrum but improves the amount of total polyphenols in red maca as well as in black maca extracts. In both cases, black maca extract has more content of polyphenols than red maca extract (p maca extract were administered to mice (p > 0.05). Black maca extract but not red maca extract has more swimming endurance capacity in the forced swimming test. Irradiation of black maca extract increased the swimming time to exhaustion (p maca extract (p > 0.05). Testosterone enanthate (TE) increased significantly the ventral prostate weight. Administration of red maca extract in animals treated with TE prevented the increase in prostate weight. Irradiation did not modify effect of red maca extract on prostate weight (p > 0.05). In conclusion, irradiation does not alter the biological activities of both black maca and red maca extracts. It prevents the presence of microorganisms in the extracts of black or red maca, but the biological activities were maintained.

  5. Effect of two different extracts of red maca in male rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Vasquez, Vanessa; Rodriguez, Daniella; Maldonado, Carmen; Mormontoy, Juliet; Portella, Jimmy; Pajuelo, Monica; Villegas, León; Gasco, Manuel

    2007-03-01

    To determine the effect of two different extracts of red maca in male rats. Prostatic hyperplasia was induced in male rats with testosterone enanthate (TE). The study comprised six groups: one control group (group 1), one group treated with TE (group 2), two groups treated with TE and aqueous extract of red maca (groups 3 and 4), one group treated with hydroalcoholic extract of red maca (group 5) and one group treated with finasteride (0.1 mg, group 6). Differences in the aqueous extract dependent on the length of time of boiling, whether for 2 or 3 hours, for groups 3 and 4 was assessed. Extracts of red maca contained 0.1 mg of benzylglucosinolate. Thereafter, a dose-response effect of different doses of benzylglucosinolates (0.02-0.08 mg) in red maca extracts was assessed. Prostate weight was similar in rats treated with freeze-dried aqueous extract of red maca prepared after 2 and 3 hours of boiling. Freeze-dried aqueous extract of red maca, hydroalcoholic extract of red maca and finasteride reduced prostate weight in rats with prostatic hyperplasia. No difference was observed between the data obtained from aqueous extract or hydroalcoholic extract of red maca. A dose dependent reduction of prostate weight was observed with the increase of the dose of benzylglucosinolates in red maca extracts. The present study showed that hydroalcoholic or aqueous extract of red maca containing 0.1 mg of benzylglucosinolate can reduce prostate size in male rats in which prostatic hyperplasia had been induced by TE.

  6. Lepidium meyenii (Maca): a plant from the highlands of Peru--from tradition to science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales, Carla; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia

    2009-12-01

    This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on Lepidium meyenii (maca), a cruciferous plant (Brassicaceae family) which is cultivated exclusively at an altitude of 4,000-4,500 m in the Peruvian Central Andes. Maca is traditionally used for its nutritional and presumed medicinal properties. Over the past 20 years, interest in maca has increased in many parts of the world, and since 2005 maca is considered one of the seven Peruvian flag products. Maca is exported as powder, capsules, pills, flour, liquor, and extracts. There are different types of maca with differ-ent colors ranging from white to black. We have studied the pharmacological effects of 3 types; yellow, black, and red maca. Evidence from experimental studies indicates effects of maca on nutrition, fertility, memory, and mood. Black maca has better effects on sperm production than yellow maca which has only moderate effects. Red maca, however, has no effect on sperm production. However, red maca has been shown to reduce prostate size in rats in which prostate hyperplasia had been induced with testosterone enanthate; yellow maca has shown moderate effects here, whereas black maca has not shown any effects. Randomized clinical trials have shown that maca has favorable effects on energy and mood, may decrease anxiety and improve sexual desire. Maca has also been shown to improve sperm production, sperm motility, and semen volume. Serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, LH, FSH, and prolactin were not affected. The exact mechanisms of action are still unclear, but so far research clearly indicates that various bioactive constituents contribute to the clinical effects reported.

  7. Red maca (Lepidium meyenii reduced prostate size in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio Julio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have found that consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. This effect seems to be due to aromatic glucosinolate content. Glucosinolates are known for have both antiproliferative and proapoptotic actions. Maca is a cruciferous cultivated in the highlands of Peru. The absolute content of glucosinolates in Maca hypocotyls is relatively higher than that reported in other cruciferous crops. Therefore, Maca may have proapoptotic and anti-proliferative effects in the prostate. Methods Male rats treated with or without aqueous extracts of three ecotypes of Maca (Yellow, Black and Red were analyzed to determine the effect on ventral prostate weight, epithelial height and duct luminal area. Effects on serum testosterone (T and estradiol (E2 levels were also assessed. Besides, the effect of Red Maca on prostate was analyzed in rats treated with testosterone enanthate (TE. Results Red Maca but neither Yellow nor Black Maca reduced significantly ventral prostate size in rats. Serum T or E2 levels were not affected by any of the ecotypes of Maca assessed. Red Maca also prevented the prostate weight increase induced by TE treatment. Red Maca administered for 42 days reduced ventral prostatic epithelial height. TE increased ventral prostatic epithelial height and duct luminal area. These increases by TE were reduced after treatment with Red Maca for 42 days. Histology pictures in rats treated with Red Maca plus TE were similar to controls. Phytochemical screening showed that aqueous extract of Red Maca has alkaloids, steroids, tannins, saponins, and cardiotonic glycosides. The IR spectra of the three ecotypes of Maca in 3800-650 cm (-1 region had 7 peaks representing 7 functional chemical groups. Highest peak values were observed for Red Maca, intermediate values for Yellow Maca and low values for Black Maca. These functional groups correspond among others to benzyl

  8. The effect of resveratrol on oxidative stress in the liver and serum of a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome: An experimental study

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    Mahnaz Ghowsi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of oxidative status in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS patients are limited with inconsistent results. The effects of resveratrol as a natural antioxidant on oxidative status in PCOS aren’t clear. Objective: This study evaluated effects of resveratrol on oxidative stress in the liver and serum of the PCOS rats. Materials and Methods: Fifteen female Wistar rats (3 wk old were divided into 3 groups (n=5/each e: Control group, PCO-Control group, and PCO-Resveratrol group. For induction of polycystic ovary phenotype, testosterone enanthate 10 mg/kg was injected for 35 days subcutaneously. Then, resveratrol 10 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally for 28 days to rats of the PCO-Resveratrol group. Ovarian sections were stained with hematoxylin/eosin. The serum glucose and insulin and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in serum and liver were measured. Results: Control animals showed normal ovarian morphology and PCO-Control animals exhibited cystic follicles. There were no significant differences in liver TAC between groups. The serum MDA (p=0.034, and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (p=0.014 levels in PCO-Control rats were higher than the controls. The liver MDA in PCO-Control rats was more than that of controls (p=0.001. The HOMA-IR (p=0.008 and serum MDA (p=0.006 levels in PCO-Control rats were more than those of PCO-Resveratrol rats (p=0.008. In PCO-Resveratrol group, serum TAC was higher than that of PCO-Control group (p=0.022 and liver MDA was more than controls (p=0.01. Conclusion: Results indicated that the induction of PCOS in rats increased lipid peroxidation and insulin resistance and resveratrol improved these complications.

  9. Doping test results dependent on genotype of uridine diphospho-glucuronosyl transferase 2B17, the major enzyme for testosterone glucuronidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Jenny Jakobsson; Lundmark, Jonas; Garle, Mats; Skilving, Ilona; Ekström, Lena; Rane, Anders

    2008-07-01

    Testosterone abuse is conventionally assessed by the urinary testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio, levels above 4.0 being considered suspicious. The large variation in testosterone glucuronide (TG) excretion and its strong association with a deletion polymorphism in the uridine diphospho-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) 2B17 gene challenge the accuracy of the T/E ratio test. Our objective was to investigate whether genotype-based cutoff values will improve the sensitivity and specificity of the test. This was an open three-armed comparative study. A total of 55 healthy male volunteers with either two, one, or no allele [insertion/insertion, insertion/deletion, or deletion/deletion (del/del)] of the UGT2B17 gene was included in the study. A single im dose of 500 mg testosterone enanthate was administered. Urinary excretion of TG after dose and the T/E ratio during 15 d were calculated. The degree and rate of increase in the TG excretion rate were highly dependent on the UGT2B17 genotype with a 20-fold higher average maximum increase in the insertion/insertion group compared with the del/del group. Of the del/del subjects, 40% never reached the T/E ratio of 4.0 on any of the 15 d after the dose. When differentiated cutoff levels for the del/del (1.0) and the other genotypes (6.0) were applied, the sensitivity increased substantially for the del/del group, and false positives in the other genotypes were eliminated. Consideration of the genetic variation in disposition of androgens will improve the sensitivity and specificity of the testosterone doping test. This is of interest not only for combating androgen doping in sports, but also for detecting and preventing androgen abuse in society.

  10. Substantial advantage of a combined Bayesian and genotyping approach in testosterone doping tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Jenny Jakobsson; Lundmark, Jonas; Garle, Mats; Ekström, Lena; Sottas, Pierre-Edouard; Rane, Anders

    2009-03-01

    Testosterone abuse is conventionally assessed by the urinary testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio, levels above 4.0 being considered suspicious. A deletion polymorphism in the gene coding for UGT2B17 is strongly associated with reduced testosterone glucuronide (TG) levels in urine. Many of the individuals devoid of the gene would not reach a T/E ratio of 4.0 after testosterone intake. Future test programs will most likely shift from population based- to individual-based T/E cut-off ratios using Bayesian inference. A longitudinal analysis is dependent on an individual's true negative baseline T/E ratio. The aim was to investigate whether it is possible to increase the sensitivity and specificity of the T/E test by addition of UGT2B17 genotype information in a Bayesian framework. A single intramuscular dose of 500mg testosterone enanthate was given to 55 healthy male volunteers with either two, one or no allele (ins/ins, ins/del or del/del) of the UGT2B17 gene. Urinary excretion of TG and the T/E ratio was measured during 15 days. The Bayesian analysis was conducted to calculate the individual T/E cut-off ratio. When adding the genotype information, the program returned lower individual cut-off ratios in all del/del subjects increasing the sensitivity of the test considerably. It will be difficult, if not impossible, to discriminate between a true negative baseline T/E value and a false negative one without knowledge of the UGT2B17 genotype. UGT2B17 genotype information is crucial, both to decide which initial cut-off ratio to use for an individual, and for increasing the sensitivity of the Bayesian analysis.

  11. Dose-response analysis of testosterone replacement therapy in patients with female to male gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Aya; Watanabe, Masami; Sugimoto, Morito; Sako, Tomoko; Mahmood, Sabina; Kaku, Haruki; Nasu, Yasutomo; Ishii, Kazushi; Nagai, Atsushi; Kumon, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) is a conflict between a person's actual physical gender and the one they identify him or herself with. Testosterone is the key agent in the medical treatment of female to male GID patients. We conducted a dose-response analysis of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in 138 patients to determine the onset of the therapeutic effects. The TRT consisted of intramuscular injection of testosterone enanthate and patients were divided into three groups; 250 mg every two weeks, 250 mg every three weeks and 125 mg every two weeks. The onset of deepening of voice, increase in facial hair and cessation of menses was evaluated in each group. At one month after the start of TRT, the onset of these physical changes was more prevalent in the group receiving the higher dose of testosterone, and there were dose-dependent effects observed between the three treatment groups. On the other hand, at six months after the start of TRT, most of the patients had achieved treatment responses and there were no dose-dependent effects with regard to the percentage of patients with therapeutic effects. No significant side effects were observed in any of the treatment groups. We demonstrated that the early onset of the treatment effects of TRT is dose-dependent, but within six months of starting TRT, all three doses were highly effective. Current study provides useful information to determine the initial dose of TRT and to suggest possible changes that should be made in the continuous dosage for long term TRT.

  12. The Effects of Annatto Tocotrienol on Bone Biomechanical Strength and Bone Calcium Content in an Animal Model of Osteoporosis Due to Testosterone Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis reduces the skeletal strength and increases the risk for fracture. It is an underdiagnosed disease in men. Annatto tocotrienol has been shown to improve bone structural indices and increase expression of bone formation genes in orchidectomized rats. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of annatto tocotrienol on biomechanical strength and calcium content of the bone in orchidectomized rats. Thirty three-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups. The baseline control (BC group was sacrificed at the onset of the study. The sham-operated group (SHAM received olive oil (the vehicle of tocotrienol orally daily and peanut oil (the vehicle of testosterone intramuscularly weekly. The remaining rats were orchidectomized and treated with three different regimens, i.e., (1 daily oral olive oil plus weekly intramuscular peanut oil injection; (2 daily oral annatto tocotrienol at 60 mg/kg plus weekly intramuscular peanut oil injection; (3 daily oral olive oil plus weekly intramuscular testosterone enanthate injection at 7 mg/kg. Blood, femur and tibia of the rats were harvested at the end of the two-month treatment period for the evaluation of serum total calcium and inorganic phosphate levels, bone biomechanical strength test and bone calcium content. Annatto-tocotrienol treatment improved serum calcium level and tibial calcium content (p < 0.05 but it did not affect femoral biomechanical strength (p > 0.05. In conclusion, annatto-tocotrienol at 60 mg/kg augments bone calcium level by preventing calcium mobilization into the circulation. A longer treatment period is needed for annatto tocotrienol to exert its effects on bone strength.

  13. Testosterone may increase selective attention to threat in young male macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacreuse, Agnès; King, Hanna M; Kurdziel, Laura B; Partan, Sarah R; Caldwell, Kaelyn M; Chiavetta, Margaret R; Millette, Matthew M; Meyer, Jerrold S; Grow, Daniel R

    2010-11-01

    Animal studies indicate that sex hormones have widespread effects on the brain, cognition and emotion, but findings in humans are inconsistent. Well-controlled studies in nonhuman primates are crucial to resolve these discrepancies. In this study, we examined the effects of testosterone (T) on emotion in male rhesus monkeys. Six young adult males were tested on two emotional tasks during three hormonal conditions in a crossover design: when intact at baseline and when pharmacologically hypogonadal with add-back of T or placebo. The emotional tasks were the Approach-Avoidance task, which tested behavioral responses to three categories of objects (familiar, novel, and negative) and a Social Playback task which tested behavioral responses to scenes of unfamiliar conspecifics engaged in three types of social activities (neutral, positive, or negative). Following a 4-week baseline period, monkeys were treated with Depot Lupron, 200μg/kg before being randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: Depot Lupron+Testosterone Enanthate (TE, 20mg/kg) or Depot Lupron+oil vehicle. In each treatment group, monkeys received one injection of Lupron and one injection of TE or one injection of Lupron and one injection of oil at the onset of a 4-week testing period, before crossing over to the alternate treatment for an additional 4weeks of testing. TE treatment had no effect on behavioral measures in the Approach-Avoidance task. For the Social Playback task, however, TE significantly increased watching time of video clips which depicted fights between unfamiliar conspecifics. The enhancing effect of T on watching time for negative social scenes is consistent with human data suggesting that T decreases aversion or facilitates approach to threatening social stimuli. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms by which T may mediate responsiveness to social threat in male primates. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Androgen-dependent somatotroph function in a hypogonadal adolescent male: evidence for control of exogenous androgens on growth hormone release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauras, N.; Blizzard, R.M.; Rogol, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    A 14(10/12)-year-old white male with primary gonadal failure following testicular irradiation for acute lymphocytic leukemia was evaluated for poor growth. He had received 2400 rad of prophylactic cranial irradiation. The growth velocity had decelerated from 7 to 3.2 cm/yr over 3 years. His bone age was 12(0/12) years (by TW2-RUS), and his peak growth hormone (GH) response to provocative stimuli was 1.4 ng/mL. The 24-hour GH secretion was studied by drawing blood every 20 minutes for 24 hours. The resulting GH profile was analyzed by a computerized pulse detection algorithm, CLUSTER. Timed serum GH samples were also obtained after a 1 microgram/kg IV bolus injection of the GH releasing factor (GRH). The studies showed a flat 24-hour profile and a peak GH response to GRH of 3.9 ng/ml. Testosterone enanthate treatment was started, 100 mg IM every 4 weeks. Ten months after the initiation of therapy the calculated growth rate was 8.6 cm/yr. The 24-hour GH study and GRH responses were repeated at the time, showing a remarkably normal 24-hour GH secretory pattern and a peak GH response to GRH of 14.4 ng/mL. Testosterone therapy was discontinued, and 4 months later similar studies were repeated. A marked decrease in the mean 24-hour GH secretion and mean peak height occurred, but with maintenance of the GH pulse frequency. The GH response to GRH was intermediate, with a peak of 8 ng/mL. There was no further growth during those 4 months despite open epiphyses

  15. Brief Report: Dapivirine Vaginal Ring Use Does Not Diminish the Effectiveness of Hormonal Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkus, Jennifer E; Palanee-Phillips, Thesla; Reddy, Krishnaveni; Siva, Samantha; Harkoo, Ishana; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Kintu, Kenneth; Nair, Gonasangrie; Chappell, Catherine; Kiweewa, Flavia Matovu; Kabwigu, Samuel; Naidoo, Logashvari; Jeenarain, Nitesha; Marzinke, Mark; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Brown, Elizabeth R; Baeten, Jared M

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the potential for a clinically relevant drug-drug interaction with concomitant use of a dapivirine vaginal ring, a novel antiretroviral-based HIV-1 prevention strategy, and hormonal contraception by examining contraceptive efficacies with and without dapivirine ring use. A secondary analysis of women participating in MTN-020/ASPIRE, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the dapivirine vaginal ring for HIV-1 prevention. Use of a highly effective method of contraception was an eligibility criterion for study participation. Urine pregnancy tests were performed monthly. Pregnancy incidence by arm was calculated separately for each hormonal contraceptive method and compared using an Andersen-Gill proportional hazards model stratified by site and censored at HIV-1 infection. Of 2629 women enrolled, 2310 women returned for follow-up and reported using a hormonal contraceptive method at any point during study participation (1139 in the dapivirine arm and 1171 in the placebo arm). Pregnancy incidence in the dapivirine arm versus placebo among women using injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate was 0.43% vs. 0.54%, among women using injectable norethisterone enanthate was 1.15% vs. 0%, among women using hormonal implants was 0.22% vs. 0.69%, and among women using oral contraceptive pills was 32.26% vs. 28.01%. Pregnancy incidence did not differ by study arm for any of the hormonal contraceptive methods. Use of the dapivirine ring does not reduce the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives for pregnancy prevention. Oral contraceptive pill use was associated with high pregnancy incidence, potentially because of poor pill adherence. Injectable and implantable methods were highly effective in preventing pregnancy.

  16. Penile growth in response to hormone treatment in children with micropenis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra B Nerli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Micropenis is defined as a stretched penile length 2.5 standard deviations less than the mean for age without the presence of any other penile anomalies, such as hypospadias. The term refers to a specific disorder that has a known set of causative factors and defined treatment modalities. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of hormonal therapy on the gonadal response and penile growth in children who presented with micropenis. Materials and Methods: Children (<18 years who met the criteria for micropenis were included in this study. Children more than 11 years old were treated using a standard protocol of 1,500 to 2,000 IU human chorionic gonadotrophin administrated intramuscularly, once per week, for 6 weeks. Children less than 11 years old were treated with parenteral testosterone enanthate 25 mg once a month for 3 months. Response was evaluated in terms of change in testosterone levels and size of penis. Results: Serum testosterone levels at baseline and after 8 weeks of hormonal treatment were <20 and 449.4 ng/mL, respectively (P < 0.0001 in all children more than 11 years old. Stretched penile length after hormonal treatment increased from 15.54 to 37.18 mm in children less than 11 years old and from 26.42 to 64.28 mm in children more than 11 years old (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Management of isolated micropenis revolves around testosterone (direct administration or encouraging the patient′s body to make its own, and results with respect to increase in penile length are promising.

  17. Family planning and the controversial contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Saxena, F

    1995-01-01

    India was one of the first countries in the world to launch a national family planning program in an apparent effort to help women gain access to birth control measures and reduce population growth. Family planning acquired a different meaning and emphasis in the 1960s, however, when a clause in the US PL480 wheat import policy demanded that India speed its implementation of birth control measures if the country wanted food aid. Women in India were therefore expected to consume contraceptives with dangerous and unknown side effects in order to quality the country for food aid. Women rejected this stipulation. By the 1980s, it was acknowledged that family planning programs in India had failed to produce a decline in the birth rate and that no sign of change was on the horizon despite the investment of substantial funds to that end, the input of expert assistance, and the establishment of appropriate infrastructure in the country. Experts and policy makers blamed women for having misused the pill and sought alternative methods which would not require user compliance. Norplant and norethisterone enanthate (Net-en) were subsequently developed. Policymakers, experts, and the press have now been clamoring for the right to conduct Norplant trials despite reported side effects. The drug's ability to prevent pregnancy is more important for family planning experts. The author notes that the emphasis has been upon contraceptive methods for women instead of men because men were not expected to take responsibility for family planning. She also notes that feminists are opposed to Norplant and Net-en, and hopes that the government withdraws them from the market.

  18. Long-term follow-up on Cushing disease patient after transsphenoidal surgery

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    Insook Jeong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cushing disease is caused by excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH production by the pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery is its first-line treatment. The incidence of Cushing disease in children and adolescents is so rare that long-term prognoses have yet to be made in most cases. We followed-up on a 16-year-old male Cushing disease patient who presented with rapid weight gain and growth retardation. The laboratory findings showed increased 24-hour urine free cortisol and lack of overnight cortisol suppression by low-dose dexamethasone test. The serum cortisol and 24-hour urine free cortisol, by high-dose dexamethasone test, also showed a lack of suppression, and a bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling suggested lateralization of ACTH secretion from the right-side pituitary gland. However, after a right hemihypophysectomy by the transsphenoidal approach, the 24-hour urine free cortisol levels were persistently high. Thus the patient underwent a total hypophysectomy, since which time he has been treated with hydrocortisone, levothyroxine, recombinant human growth hormone, and testosterone enanthate. Intravenous bisphosphonate for osteoporosis had been administered for three years. At his current age of 26 years, his final height had attained the target level range; his bone mineral density was normal, and his pubic hair was Tanner stage 4. This report describes the long-term treatment course of a Cushing disease patient according to growth profile, pubertal status, and responses to hormone replacement therapy. The clinical results serve to emphasize the importance of growth optimization, puberty, and bone health in the treatment management of Cushing disease patients who have undergone transsphenoidal surgery.

  19. Long-term follow-up on Cushing disease patient after transsphenoidal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Insook; Oh, Moonyeon; Kim, Ja Hye; Cho, Ja Hyang; Choi, Jin-Ho; Yoo, Han-Wook

    2014-09-01

    Cushing disease is caused by excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production by the pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery is its first-line treatment. The incidence of Cushing disease in children and adolescents is so rare that long-term prognoses have yet to be made in most cases. We followed-up on a 16-year-old male Cushing disease patient who presented with rapid weight gain and growth retardation. The laboratory findings showed increased 24-hour urine free cortisol and lack of overnight cortisol suppression by low-dose dexamethasone test. The serum cortisol and 24-hour urine free cortisol, by high-dose dexamethasone test, also showed a lack of suppression, and a bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling suggested lateralization of ACTH secretion from the right-side pituitary gland. However, after a right hemihypophysectomy by the transsphenoidal approach, the 24-hour urine free cortisol levels were persistently high. Thus the patient underwent a total hypophysectomy, since which time he has been treated with hydrocortisone, levothyroxine, recombinant human growth hormone, and testosterone enanthate. Intravenous bisphosphonate for osteoporosis had been administered for three years. At his current age of 26 years, his final height had attained the target level range; his bone mineral density was normal, and his pubic hair was Tanner stage 4. This report describes the long-term treatment course of a Cushing disease patient according to growth profile, pubertal status, and responses to hormone replacement therapy. The clinical results serve to emphasize the importance of growth optimization, puberty, and bone health in the treatment management of Cushing disease patients who have undergone transsphenoidal surgery.

  20. Effects of growth hormone and testosterone therapy on aerobic and anaerobic fitness , body composition and lipoprotein profile in middle-aged men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zając

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Andropause and aging are associated with neuroendocrine dysfunctions. Growth hormone and testosterone play a significant role in several processes affecting adaptation and thereby also everyday functioning. The aim of this research project was to evaluate the effects of recombinant human growth hormone and testosterone enanthate injections on body mass and body composition, aerobic and anaerobic fitness and lipid profile in middle-aged men. Materials and method. The research group was comprised of 14 men aged 45 – 60 years. Two series of laboratory analyses were performed. Independent tests were carried out at baseline and after 12 weeks of the experiment. The data were analyzed using Statistica 9.1 software. Results. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed a statistically significant effect of the intervention programme on fat-free mass (η2=0.34, total body fat (η2=0.79, total cholesterol (η2=0.30, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (η2=0.31, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (η2=0.42, triglyceride (η2=0.28, testosterone (η2=0.52, insulin-like growth factor 1 (η2=0.47 and growth hormone (η2=0.63. Furthermore, ANOVA revealed a statistically significant effect of the rhGH and T treatment on maximal oxygen uptake (η2=0.63, anaerobic threshold (η2=0.61 and maximal work rate (η2=0.53. Conclusion. It should be emphasized that the lipid profile was affected not only by rhGH+T replacement therapy, but also by the prescribed physical activity programme. The strength and endurance fitness programme alone did not cause significant changes in body mass and composition, nor the anaerobic and aerobic capacity. On the other hand, the rhGH=T treatment stimulated these changes significantly.

  1. Liquid biofuel production from volatile fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.

    2010-03-19

    The production of renewable fuels and chemicals reduces the dependency on fossil fuels and limits the increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere only if a sustainable feedstock and an energy efficient process are used. The thesis assesses the possibility to use municipal and industrial waste as biomass feedstock to have little of no competition with food production, and to save greenhouse gasses emissions. Waste is a complex substrate with a diverse composition and high water content. It can be homogenized without losing its initial energy value by anaerobic conversion to volatile fatty acids (VFA). Using VFA gives the opportunity to process cheap and abundantly present biomass residues to a fuel and chemical instead of sugar containing crops or vegetable oil. This thesis describes the feasibility to convert VFA to compounds with a higher energy content using mixed culture fermentations by eliminating of oxygen and/or increasing the carbon and hydrogen content. At high hydrogen pressure, protons and electrons release via the reduction of organic products such as VFA becomes thermodynamically more attractive. Three VFA reduction reactions were studied: hydrogenation to an alcohol with (1) hydrogen and (2) an electrode as electron donor, and (3) by chain elongation with hydrogen and ethanol. Based on concentration, production rate and efficiency, elongation of acetate with hydrogen and/or ethanol was the best technique to convert VFA into a fuel. In a CSTR (Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor), 10.5 g L{sup -1} caproic acid and 0.48 g L{sup -1} caprylic acid were produced with ethanol and/or hydrogen at a specific MCFA (medium-chain fatty acids) production activity of 2.9 g caproate and 0.09 g caprylate per gram VSS d{sup -1} (volatile suspended solids). The products were selectively removed by calcium precipitation and solvent extraction with ethyl hexanoate and petroleum ether. Microbial characterization revealed that the microbial populations were stable and

  2. [The isolation of organic compounds from hydrosulfuric mineral waters with the use of the extractive freezing-out technique with centrifugation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhterev, V N; Kabina, E A

    The mineral waters, enriched with organic substances find extensive application in balneotherapy. The fast and efficient methods for the identification and quantitative measurement of organic compounds (in the first place, organic acids) in such waters need to be developed for the estimation of their quality and biological activity. The objective of the present study was to elaborate a gas chromatographic method for the determination of monobasic carbonic acids in sulfide-containing mineral waters by means of extractive freezing-out in combination with the application of the centrifugal forces for the elucidation of the metrological characteristics of the compounds of interest. The secondary objective was to estimate the prospects for the application of the method of interest for determining the dissolved organic compounds in mineral waters. The following carbonic acids were used for the purposes of the study: acetic acid (analytical grade), Russia; propionic grade (extra pure), Ferak, Germany; butyric acid (pure), Russia; valeric acid (pure), Russia; caproic acid (pure), Russia; oenanthic acid (pure), Russia; and caprylic acid (pure), Russia). Acetonitrile («O» grade), Russia, was used as the extracting agent. The LV-210 analytical balance (Russia) was used to prepare the model and standard solutions of the organic compounds and to determine their mass. The extracts and standard mixture were investigated by the gas chromatographic technique with the use of the Kristallyuks apparatus («Meta-Khrom», Russia) equipped with the flame ionization detector and the capillary column. Extractive freezing-out in the combination with centrifugation was performed with the laboratory installation for this purpose. Under the model conditions, a single extractive freezing-out procedure with the centrifugation of the sample made it possible to reach the 22-37-fold concentration of C2-C8 monobasic carbonic acids during their transfer from water into acetonitrile. The

  3. Stabilizing effect of cetostearyl alcohol and glyceryl monostearate as co-emulsifiers on hydrocarbon-free O/W glyceride creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmann, C; Mueller, B W

    2008-01-01

    The structure of a stable O/W cream is characterized by a more or less pronounced mixed crystal bilayer. The addition of co-emulsifiers in order to achieve a soft formulation often leads to a mixed crystal bilayer network of high viscosity and even phase separation. In order to ovoid this components of different chemical identities are used which often are not inert or harmless if they are absorbed. For this reason it seems to be interesting to use only components from one chemical family, e.g. to use only glycerides and their derivatives because in the case of absorption they are metabolized. The disadvantages of glyceride creams are, however, their low viscosity. The aim of this investigation was to find the optimum amount of co-emulsifier as consistency excipient for the basic formulation of an O/W glyceride cream. This was achieved by using differential scanning calorimetry; thermogravimetry, oscillation rheology and various stress tests. The amount of co-emulsifier used should not be too high, as it would crystallize increasingly during storage which gives the preparation an optical inhomogenity and a lack in softness which is needed for a suitable cosmetic acceptance. A slightly higher concentration than is necessary for the mixed emulsifier system can be advantageous, as the formation of a separate crystalline lipophilic network in the preparation increases its viscosity which will lead to a higher physico-chemical stability of the formulation. These results were obtained with the co-emulsifiers glyceryl monostearate (Imwitor 900), cetylstearyl alcohol (Lanette O), and PEG-20-glycerolstearate (Tagat S2) as O/W emulsifier. As oil phase a mixture of Miglyol 812 (caprylic/capric triglyceride) and Avocado oil was used.

  4. Characterisation and Skin Distribution of Lecithin-Based Coenzyme Q10-Loaded Lipid Nanocapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huafeng; Yue, Yang; Liu, Guanlan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Yan, Zemin; Duan, Mingxing

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the inner lipid ratio on the physicochemical properties and skin targeting of surfactant-free lecithin-based coenzyme Q10-loaded lipid nanocapsules (CoQ10-LNCs). The smaller particle size of CoQ10-LNCs was achieved by high pressure and a lower ratio of CoQ10/GTCC (Caprylic/capric triglyceride); however, the zeta potential of CoQ10-LNCs was above /- 60 mV/ with no distinct difference among them at different ratios of CoQ10/GTCC. Both the crystallisation point and the index decreased with the decreasing ratio of CoQ10/GTCC and smaller particle size; interestingly, the supercooled state of CoQ10-LNCs was observed at particle size below about 200 nm, as verified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in one heating-cooling cycle. The lecithin monolayer sphere structure of CoQ10-LNCs was investigated by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM). The skin penetration results revealed that the distribution of Nile red-loaded CoQ10-LNCs depended on the ratio of inner CoQ10/GTCC; moreover, epidermal targeting and superficial dermal targeting were achieved by the CoQ10-LNCs application. The highest fluorescence response was observed at a ratio of inner CoQ10/GTCC of 1:1. These observations suggest that lecithin-based LNCs could be used as a promising topical delivery vehicle for lipophilic compounds.

  5. Effect of surfactant chain length on drug release kinetics from microemulsion-laden contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulvi, Furqan A; Desai, Ankita R; Choksi, Harsh H; Patil, Rahul J; Ranch, Ketan M; Vyas, Bhavin A; Shah, Dinesh O

    2017-05-30

    The effect of surfactant chain lengths [sodium caprylate (C 8 ), Tween 20 (C 12 ), Tween 80 (C 18 )] and the molecular weight of block copolymers [Pluronic F68 and Pluronic F 127] were studied to determine the stability of the microemulsion and its effect on release kinetics from cyclosporine-loaded microemulsion-laden hydrogel contact lenses in this work. Globule size and dilution tests (transmittance) suggested that the stability of the microemulsion increases with increase in the carbon chain lengths of surfactants and the molecular weight of pluronics. The optical transmittance of direct drug-laden contact lenses [DL-100] was low due to the precipitation of hydrophobic drugs in the lenses, while in microemulsion-laden lenses, the transmittance was improved when stability of the microemulsion was achieved. The results of in vitro release kinetics revealed that drug release was sustained to a greater extent as the stability of microemulsion was improved as well. This was evident in batch PF127-T80, which showed sustained release for 15days in comparison to batch DL-100, which showed release up to 7days. An in vivo drug release study in rabbit tear fluid showed significant increase in mean residence time (MRT) and area under curve (AUC) with PF-127-T80 lenses (stable microemulsion) in comparison to PF-68-SC lenses (unstable microemulsion) and DL-100 lenses. This study revealed the correlation between the stability of microemulsion and the release kinetics of drugs from contact lenses. Thus, it was inferred that the stable microemulsion batches sustained the release of hydrophobic drugs, such as cyclosporine from contact lenses for an extended period of time without altering critical lens properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of cyclosporine A microemulsion for parenteral delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yue; Che, Xin; Zhao, Mingyi; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yajun; Schwendeman, Anna; Li, Sanming

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a parenteral microemulsion formulation of cyclosporine A (CyA). The CyA solubility in caprylic capric triglyceride (GTCC), ethyl oleate and soybean oil were determined. The pseudo-ternary diagrams of oil (GTCC), surfactant (Solutol® HS-15), cosurfactants (ethanol/polyethylene glycol 400 [PEG 400] mixture) and water were constructed to identify boundaries for microemulsion existence. The CyA was added at 3, 6 and 9% w/w to the optimal microemulsion composition. Microemulsion particle size, solution viscosity and conductivity were examined. The microemulsion stability and haemolytic potential were examined after dilution in 5% dextrose solution for injection to 1 mg/mL CyA. Microemulsion stability was examined after a three-month storage at 4 and 25 °C. The GTCC was selected as an oil phase for CyA microemulsion based on solubility results. The optimum CyA microemulsion formulation consisted of 2.5% CyA, 9% GTCC, 24% Solutol® HS 15, 8% PEG 400, 4% ethanol and 52.5% water based on weight percent. The average particle sizes of the optimized blank and drug-loaded microemulsions were 68.7 nm and 71.6 nm, respectively and remained unchanged upon 25-fold dextrose dilution. The results of microemulsion physical and CyA chemical were confirmed by a three-month stability study at 4 and 25 °C. In vitro haemolysis studies indicated that CyA microemulsions were well tolerated by erythrocytes. The novel microemulsion formulation of CyA was developed that is suitable for parenteral administration. This new formulation could potentially have less vehicle-associated side effects that current commercial formulation of CyA based on Cremophor® EL and ethanol solution.

  7. Recent Developments in the Treatment of Uranium Ores from the Elliot Lake District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downes, K W [Extraction Metallurgy Division, Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, Ottawa (Canada)

    1967-06-15

    A summary of the results obtained during investigations on the treatment of uranium ores from the Elliot Lake district in the laboratories of the Mines Branch, and of developments in operating procedures introduced in the uranium mills in the Elliot Lake district, is presented. Concentration of Elliot Lake ore on a pilot-plant scale by a combined gravity-flotation procedure yielded a 90% recovery of uranium at a ratio of concentration of 2.4 to 1.0. The mineralogical composition of the ore, the flow sheet used and the reagents employed are described. An approximate cost estimate indicates that, although the capacity of an existing uranium leaching plant would be doubled by introducing the procedure, the production cost per pound of U{sub 3}0{sub 8} would not be affected. Bacterial leaching of Elliot Lake ore on a laboratory scale yielded, under favourable conditions, extractions of 90 per cent in 5 weeks, and of 95 per cent in 15 weeks. The conditions that were found to influence the leaching results are outlined, and the effects of the leaching solutions are discussed. The purification of ion exchange eluates by liquid-liquid extraction, using tri-n-butyl phosphate, dibutyl butylphosphonate and tri-capryl amine in a continuous process, yielded solutions from which refined ammonium diuranate was precipitated using gaseous ammonia. The effectiveness of the three extractants is discussed, and the effects of the procedures employed on the production costs per pound of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} is estimated. Some improvements in operating procedures introduced in the Elliot Lake district uranium mills are briefly described, and their effects on the operations are indicated. Present methods of controlling radiological pollution of drainage waters by uranium mill tailings are outlined. (author)

  8. Capric acid secreted by S. boulardii inhibits C. albicans filamentous growth, adhesion and biofilm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Murzyn

    Full Text Available Candidiasis are life-threatening systemic fungal diseases, especially of gastro intestinal track, skin and mucous membranes lining various body cavities like the nostrils, the mouth, the lips, the eyelids, the ears or the genital area. Due to increasing resistance of candidiasis to existing drugs, it is very important to look for new strategies helping the treatment of such fungal diseases. One promising strategy is the use of the probiotic microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit. Such a probiotic microorganism is yeast Saccharomyces boulardii, a close relative of baker yeast. Saccharomyces boulardii cells and their extract affect the virulence factors of the important human fungal pathogen C. albicans, its hyphae formation, adhesion and biofilm development. Extract prepared from S. boulardii culture filtrate was fractionated and GC-MS analysis showed that the active fraction contained, apart from 2-phenylethanol, caproic, caprylic and capric acid whose presence was confirmed by ESI-MS analysis. Biological activity was tested on C. albicans using extract and pure identified compounds. Our study demonstrated that this probiotic yeast secretes into the medium active compounds reducing candidal virulence factors. The chief compound inhibiting filamentous C. albicans growth comparably to S. boulardii extract was capric acid, which is thus responsible for inhibition of hyphae formation. It also reduced candidal adhesion and biofilm formation, though three times less than the extract, which thus contains other factors suppressing C. albicans adherence. The expression profile of selected genes associated with C. albicans virulence by real-time PCR showed a reduced expression of HWP1, INO1 and CSH1 genes in C. albicans cells treated with capric acid and S. boulardii extract. Hence capric acid secreted by S. boulardii is responsible for inhibition of C. albicans filamentation and partially also adhesion and

  9. Influence of goats feeding on the fatty acids content in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Klir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated the possibility of modeling the content of fatty acids of milk fat, in order to increase the contents of desirable n-3 unsaturated fatty acids and decrease saturated fatty acid with adequate nutrition of goats. Previous studies showed that the milk of goats on pasture increased content of caproic (C6:0, caprylic (C8:0, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, rumenic acid, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2, linolenic (C18:3, eicosapentaenoic (C20:5 and docosahexaenoic (C22:6 and total content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. In the same group of goats lower content of palmitoleic (C16:1, linoleic (C18:2 and total n-6 unsaturated fatty acids was found, as well as lower n-6/n-3 ratio compared with group of goats kept indoors and fed with alfalfa hay. In milk of goats fed with diets supplemented with safflower oil, content of CLA significantly increased, while goats fed with diets supplement with linseed oil had significantly higher content of C18:3 in milk, compared with group of goats fed without addition of these oils. Goats fed with addition of protected fish oil had significant transfer of eicosapentaenoic-EPA and docosahexaenoic-DHA fatty acids in milk. Protected fish oil reduced the negative impact of long chain fatty acids on the activity of ruminal microorganisms, consumption and digestibility of fiber, as well as inhibition of synthesis of fatty acids in milk gland. When adding unprotected fish oil, increase of stearic (C18:0 and oleic (C18:1 fatty acids occurred, because of the biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in rumen.

  10. The antimicrobial efficacy and structure activity relationship of novel carbohydrate fatty acid derivatives against Listeria spp. and food spoilage microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobmann, Patricia; Smith, Aoife; Dunne, Julie; Henehan, Gary; Bourke, Paula

    2009-01-15

    Novel mono-substituted carbohydrate fatty acid (CFA) esters and ethers were investigated for their antibacterial activity against a range of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria focussing on Listeria monocytogenes. Carbohydrate derivatives with structural differences enable comparative studies on the structure/activity relationship for antimicrobial efficacy and mechanism of action. The antimicrobial efficacy of the synthesized compounds was compared with commercially available compounds such as monolaurin and monocaprylin, as well as the pure free fatty acids, lauric acid and caprylic acid, which have proven antimicrobial activity. Compound efficacy was compared using an absorbance based broth microdilution assay to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), increase in lag phase and decrease in maximum growth rate. Among the carbohydrate derivatives synthesized, lauric ether of methyl alpha-d-glucopyranoside and lauric ester of methyl alpha-d-mannopyranoside showed the highest growth-inhibitory effect with MIC values of 0.04 mM, comparable to monolaurin. CFA derivatives were generally more active against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria. The analysis of both ester and ether fatty acid derivatives of the same carbohydrate, in tandem with alpha and beta configuration of the carbohydrate moiety suggest that the carbohydrate moiety is involved in the antimicrobial activity of the fatty acid derivatives and that the nature of the bond also has a significant effect on efficacy, which requires further investigation. This class of CFA derivatives has great potential for developing antibacterial agents relevant to the food industry, particularly for control of Listeria or other Gram-positive pathogens.

  11. Evaluation of date kernel oils and their effects on wheat flour characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsakr, A. S.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Date kernels constitute about 13% of the whole date fruit, and cotain moderate amounts of oils with relatively high caloric values. Agwa soft and Aprimi dry date kernel oils were used in this work. Results showed that Aprimi date kernel oils have high levels of both caproic acid and stearic acid of 23.04 and 18.40% respectively, while Agwa kernel oils have high levels of caprylic acid and capric acid of 22.31 and 12.20%. Moreover Agwa oils achieved higher amounts of unsaponifiable matters, sterols and tocopherols. The addition of soft and dry date kernel oils did not improve the wheat flour strength but raised its resistance to extensibility.

    Las pepitas de dátiles constituyen alrededor del 13% del fruto entero, y contienen cantidades moderadas de aceite con valores calóricos relativamente altos. En este trabajo se han utilizado aceites de pepitas de dátiles Agwa blandas y Aprimi secas. Los resultados mostraron que los aceites de pepitas de dátiles Aprimi tienen altos niveles de ácidos caproico y esteárico, 23’04 y 18'40% respectivamente, mientras que los aceites de pepitas Agwa tienen niveles altos de ácidos caprílico y cáprico, 22'31 y 12'20%. Por otra parte los aceites Agwa alcanzaron valores elevados de materia insaponificable, esteroles y tocoferoles. La adición de aceites de pepitas de dátiles secas y blandas no mejoró el poder de la harina de trigo pero incrementó su resistencia a la extensibilidad.

  12. Potential Use of Avocado Oil on Structured Lipids MLM-Type Production Catalysed by Commercial Immobilised Lipases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Eduardo; Soto, Carmen; Olivares, Araceli; Altamirano, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Structured Lipids are generally constituents of functional foods. Growing demands for SL are based on a fuller understanding of nutritional requirements, lipid metabolism, and improved methods to produce them. Specifically, this work was aimed to add value to avocado oil by producing dietary triacylglycerols (TAG) containing medium-chain fatty acids (M) at positions sn-1,3 and long-chain fatty acids (L) at position sn-2. These MLM-type structured lipids (SL) were produced by interesterification of caprylic acid (CA) (C8:0) and avocado oil (content of C18:1). The regiospecific sn-1,3 commercial lipases Lipozyme RM IM and TL IM were used as biocatalysts to probe the potential of avocado oil to produce SL. Reactions were performed at 30–50°C for 24 h in solvent-free media with a substrate molar ratio of 1∶2 (TAG:CA) and 4–10% w/w enzyme content. The lowest incorporation of CA (1.1% mol) resulted from Lipozyme RM IM that was incubated at 50°C. The maximum incorporation of CA into sn-1,3 positions of TAG was 29.2% mol. This result was obtained at 30°C with 10% w/w Lipozyme TL IM, which is the highest values obtained in solvent-free medium until now for structured lipids of low-calories. This strategy opens a new market to added value products based on avocado oil. PMID:25248107

  13. Corncob hydrolysate, an efficient substrate for Monascus pigment production through submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongxin; Yin, Zheng; Hu, Xiaoqing

    2014-01-01

    Monascus pigment has traditionally been produced by the fermentation of Monascus using rice powder or glucose as a culture substrate. Submerged fermentation can produce stable Monascus pigment yield and control the accumulation of the by-product, citrinin, which can then be more easily removed. To reduce the cost of Monascus submerged fermentation, the feasibility of corncob hydrolysate as an alternative substrate was investigated. Results showed that, when compared with a conventional glucose medium, the corncob hydrolysate medium produced an equivalent pigment yield without stimulating citrinin accumulation. Furthermore, the corncob hydrolysate medium and cultivation conditions were optimized to enhance pigment production and decrease citrinin synthesis. When Monascus sp. was cultured under dark conditions in the presence of caprylic acid, pigment production was increased to 25.8 ± 0.8 UA500 /mL, which was higher than that achieved in a glucose medium (24.0 ± 0.9 UA500 /mL), and those obtained in previously reported Monascus submerged fermentations using the same yield unit; on the other hand, citrinin accumulation was decreased to 26.2 ± 1.9 µg/L, which was significantly lower than that generated in the glucose control (44.3 ± 2.2 µg/L) and in those previously reported fermentations. Thus, corncob hydrolysate was proved to be an efficient alternative substrate for Monascus pigment production through submerged fermentation, which showed significant advantages over a conventional glucose substrate. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Do oil-in-water (O/W) nano-emulsions have an effect on survival and growth of bacteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Hani El; Devanthi, Putu Virgina Partha; Overton, Tim W; Gkatzionis, Konstantinos

    2017-11-01

    Nano-emulsions (typically droplet diameternano-emulsions even in reference to similar microbial species and formulations. Following up, this study aimed to investigate the effect of nano-emulsions on four bacterial species (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and five Escherichia coli strains) possessing different surface charge and hydrophobicity. Model oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions with different size of oil droplets were prepared with sunflower oil stabilised by polysorbate 80 (Tween80) emulsifier (hydrophilic), using high shear mixing followed by ultrasonication. The viability of bacteria was monitored by culture, membrane integrity was assessed with flow cytometric analysis with propidium iodide (PI) staining and fluorescence microscopy monitored the spatial distribution of cells within the O/W emulsions. The stability of the nano-O/W emulsions in the presence of bacteria was assessed by monitoring the droplet size [D (4, 3)] and creaming height. In contrast to other reports the survival and growth of bacteria was not affected by the size of the oil droplets, no damage to the bacterial membrane was evident with flow cytometry and emulsion stability was not affected by the presence of bacteria during 7days of storage. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of caprylic acid (CA) was compared between O/W coarse and nano-emulsions while varying the concentration of the hydrophilic surfactant Tween80. The activity of CA was similar in nano-emulsion and coarse emulsion; however, it was higher than in bulk oil and was reduced with increasing Tween80 concentration, suggesting that its efficacy is dictated by formulation rather than oil droplet size. The results demonstrated no enhanced antimicrobial activity due to nano-sized oil droplets and that conclusions on nano-emulsions should be taken with caution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems: Design of a novel vaginal delivery system for curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllner, S; Nardin, I; Markt, R; Griesser, J; Prüfert, F; Bernkop-Schnürch, A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a vaginal self-emulsifying delivery system for curcumin being capable of spreading, of permeating the mucus gel layer and of protecting the drug being incorporated in oily nanodroplets towards mucus interactions and immobilization. The emulsifying properties of curcumin loaded SEDDS containing 30% Cremophor RH40, 20% Capmul PG-8, 30% Captex 300, 10% DMSO and 10% tetraglycol (SEDD formulation A) as well as 25% PEG 200, 35% Cremophor RH40, 20% Captex 355, 10% Caprylic acid and 10% Tween 80 (SEDD formulation B) after diluting 1+2 with artificial vaginal fluid were characterized regarding droplet size and zeta potential. Collagen swelling test was used to examine the irritation potential of SEDDS. Additionally to mucus binding studies, permeation studies in the mucus were performed. Furthermore, spreading potential of the novel developed formulations was compared with a commercial available o/w cream (non-ionic hydrophilic cream) on vaginal mucosa. SEDDS displayed a mean droplet size between 38 and 141nm and a zeta potential of -0.3 to -1.6mV. The collagen swelling test indicated no significant irritation potential of both formulations over 24h. An immediate interaction of unformulated curcumin with the mucus was determined, whereas both SEDDS facilitated drug permeation through the mucus layer. Formulation B showed a 2.2-fold improved transport ratio of curcumin compared to SEDD formulation A. In comparison to the vaginal cream, SEDD formulation A and B were able to spread over the vaginal mucosa and cover the tissue to a 17.8- and 14.8-fold higher extent, respectively. According to these results, SEDDS seems to be a promising tool for vaginal application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antimicrobials for reduction of Salmonella contamination in uncooked, surface-browned breaded chicken products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschonas, Galatios; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Stopforth, Jarret D; Wach, Damien; Woerner, Dale R; Belk, Keith E; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N

    2012-06-01

    Surface-browned but uncooked frozen breaded chicken products have been associated with salmonellosis outbreaks due to inadequate or no cooking of the products before consumption. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of three antimicrobials against Salmonella during manufacture of a surface-browned, uncooked frozen breaded chicken meat product. Fresh chicken breast meat portions (5 by 5 by 5 cm) were inoculated (4 to 5 log CFU/g) with Salmonella and mixed with caprylic acid (CAA; 0.5 and 1.0%), carvacrol (CAR; 0.3 and 0.5%), ε-polylysine (POL; 0.125 and 0.25%), or distilled water (control). Sodium chloride (1.2%) and sodium tripolyphosphate (0.3%) were added to all treatments, and the mixtures were ground (5% total moisture enhancement level) and formed into portions (9 by 5 by 3 cm). The products were breaded and surface browned by baking in an oven (208°C for 15 min) or deep frying in vegetable oil (190°C for 15 s), packaged in polyethylene bags, and stored at -20°C for 7 days. Total reductions of inoculated Salmonella in untreated control oven- or fryer-browned products after frozen storage were 1.2 and 0.8 log CFU/g, respectively. In comparison, treatment with CAA, CAR, or POL reduced initial pathogen counts by 3.3 to >4.5, 4.1 to >4.7, and 1.1 to 1.6 log CFU/g, respectively, regardless of the antimicrobial concentration and browning method. Treatment with 1.0% CAA (oven browned) or 0.5% CAR (oven or fryer browned) reduced Salmonella to nondetectable levels (chicken products.

  17. Report and characterization of alternaria alternata (fr.) keissler on avicennia marina (forsk.) vierh forests of industrial yanb'a city, saudi arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeer, H.; Huqail, A.A.; Allah, E.F.A.; Alqarawi, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the leaf spot disease of Avicennia marina (Forski) Vierh in Saudi Arabia. The leaf spot disease is reported for the first time in mangrove plants of SA. The symptoms of leaf spot disease and the morphological characters of the causal organism are also described. The radial growth and sporulation of A. alternata were variable with obvious trend on the different growth media. The optimum pH range for maximum growth was 6.0 to 6.5 and any fluctuation in pH caused significant decrease in linear growth of the mold. The chromatographic (TLC) analysis of chloroform extract of fungal culture broth indicated clearly that the mold was able to produce both alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether. The gas liquid chromatographic analysis of mycelial fatty acids demonstrated the presence of caproic, caprylic, lauric, myristic, palmitic, margaric, stearic, arachidic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, ? linolenic, Cis-11 eicosenoic, eicosatrienoic and arachidonic fatty acids in the mycelia of the causal organism. The analysis of free amino acids in the mycelia of causal organism indicated the presence of 13 amino acids namely, alanine, threonine, valine, proline, methionine, tryptophan, tyrosine, lysin, cystin, glycine, asparatic acid, tyrosine, and phenyl alanine. The PCR product amplified with A. alternata DNA indicates that the 370-bp PCR product is a useful diagnostic tool to identify the causal organism in mangrove leaves. This study demonstrated that the causal organism of leaf spot disease of A. marina was typically similar to Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler via classical, biochemical and molecular characterization. (author)

  18. The influence of the different techniques of maceration on the aromatic and phenolic profile of the Busuioacă de Bohotin wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tartian Alexandru C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study is to evaluate the influence of the maceration techniques on the volatile and phenolic compounds content of the wines obtained from an autochthonous aromatic variety from Romania. For this study, a pink biotype of the Busuioacă de Bohotin variety from the Huşi vineyard was used. The wine samples were obtained by applying five types of maceration: Classic maceration (V1; S1, Thermo-maceration (V2; S2, Microwave maceration (V3; S3, Ultrasound maceration (V4; S4 and Cryo-maceration (V5; S5. The results of the aromatic profile of the wine samples obtained from Busuioacă de Bohotin variety, indicated that the wine samples obtained through cryo-maceration and classic maceration contained a large variety of volatile compounds, namely: alcohols (1-propanol; 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-hexanol, phenethyl alcohol e.g., esters (ethyl octanoate; ethyl caprylate; ethyl lactate; ethyl benzoate; ethyl palmitate e.g. terpenoid compounds (α-terpineol, linalool, hotrienol, citronellol, nerol, geraniol and so an. Among alcohols, phenethyl alcohol, which is responsible for floral aroma of roses and is typical for the Busuioacă de Bohotin wine, was found in large quantities in wine samples V1 (4.3 mmol/L and S5 (5.53 mmol/L. Terpene compounds and their oxides were identified with elevated levels for linalool (cis- and trans- and also nerol- as well as linalool-oxide. Analysing the phenolic compounds, it was observed that the total polyphenol index and Folin-Ciocâlteu index expressed higher values for the wine samples V1 and V3. Concerning the total anthocyanins and tannins content, the wine samples obtained had low amounts of this compounds.

  19. Microbial Quality of and Biochemical Changes in Fresh Soft, Acid-Curd Xinotyri Cheese Made from Raw or Pasteurized Goat's Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Eleni C; Bontinis, Thomas G; Tasioula-Margari, Maria; Samelis, John

    2017-12-01

    The microbiological quality of and changes in the main physicochemical parameters, together with the evolution of proteolysis, lipolysis and volatile profiles of soft Xinotyri, a traditional Greek acid-curd cheese (pH≈4.4, moisture 65%, salt 1%) made from raw (RMC) or pasteurized (PMC) goat's milk without starters, were evaluated during aerobic storage at 4 o C for 60 days. No statistically significant differences between the total nitrogen (TN) and nitrogen fraction (% of TN) contents, the degradation of intact α s - or β-caseins, total free amino acid (FAA) contents, and the ratio of hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptides in the water-soluble fraction of RMC and PMC were found. Threonine, alanine and lysine were the principal FAAs. Oleic, palmitic, capric and caprylic acids, and ethyl hexonate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, ethanol, 3-methyl butanol, phenyl ethyl alcohol and acetone were the most abundant free fatty acids and volatile compounds, respectively. Cheese lipolysis evolved slowly at 4 o C, and milk pasteurization had no significant effect on it. Mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were predominant in fresh cheese samples. PMC samples had significantly lower levels of enterococci and enterobacteria than RMC samples, while yeasts grew at similar levels during storage at 4 o C. All cheese samples (25 g) were free of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes . Coagulase-
-positive staphylococci exceeded the 5-log safety threshold in fresh RMC samples, whereas they were suppressed (pasteurization of raw goat milk's and utilization of commercially defined or natural mesophilic LAB starters are recommended for standardizing the biochemical, microbial and safety qualities of fresh soft Xinotyri cheese.

  20. Tunable polymeric sorbent materials for fractionation of model naphthenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed H; Wilson, Lee D; Headley, John V

    2013-04-04

    The sorption properties are reported for several examples of single-component carboxylic acids representing naphthenic acids (NAs) with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) based polyurethane sorbents. Seven single-component examples of NAs were chosen with variable z values, carbon number, and chemical structure as follows: 2-hexyldecanoic acid (z = 0 and C = 16; S1), n-caprylic acid (z = 0 and C = 8; S2), trans-4-pentylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid (z = -2 and C = 12; S3), 4-methylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid (z = -2 and C = 8; S4), dicyclohexylacetic acid (z = -4; C = 14; S5), 4-pentylbicyclo[2.2.2]octane-1-carboxylic acid (z = -4; C = 14; S6), and lithocholic acid (z = -6; C = 24; S7). The copolymer sorbents were synthesized at three relative β-CD:diisocyanate mole ratios (i.e., 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3) using 4,4'-dicyclohexylmethane diisocyanate (CDI) and 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). The sorption properties of the copolymer sorbents were characterized using equilibrium sorption isotherms in aqueous solution at pH 9.00 with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The equilibrium fraction of the unbound carboxylate anions was monitored in the aqueous phase. The sorption properties of the copolymer sorbents (i.e., Qm) were obtained from the Sips isotherm model. The Qm values generally decrease as the number of accessible β-CD inclusion sites in the copolymer framework decreases. The chemical structure of the adsorbates played an important role in their relative uptake, as evidenced by the adsorbate lipophilic surface area (LSA) and the involvement of hydrophobic effects. The copolymers exhibit molecular selective sorption of the single-component carboxylates in mixtures which suggests their application as sorbents for fractionation of mixtures of NAs. By comparison, granular activated carbon (GAC) and chitosan sorbents did not exhibit any significant molecular selective sorption relative to the copolymer materials; however, evidence of variable sorption capacity was

  1. Rectal microbicides: clinically relevant approach to the design of rectal specific placebo formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezzutti Charlene

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to identify the critical formulation parameters controlling distribution and function for the rectal administration of microbicides in humans. Four placebo formulations were designed with a wide range of hydrophilic characteristics (aqueous to lipid and rheological properties (Newtonian, shear thinning, thermal sensitive and thixotropic. Aqueous formulations using typical polymers to control viscosity were iso-osmotic and buffered to pH 7. Lipid formulations were developed from lipid solvent/lipid gelling agent binary mixtures. Testing included pharmaceutical function and stability as well as in vitro and in vivo toxicity. Results The aqueous fluid placebo, based on poloxamer, was fluid at room temperature, thickened and became shear thinning at 37°C. The aqueous gel placebo used carbopol as the gelling agent, was shear thinning at room temperature and showed a typical decrease in viscosity with an increase in temperature. The lipid fluid placebo, myristyl myristate in isopropyl myristate, was relatively thin and temperature independent. The lipid gel placebo, glyceryl stearate and PEG-75 stearate in caprylic/capric triglycerides, was also shear thinning at both room temperature and 37°C but with significant time dependency or thixotropy. All formulations showed no rectal irritation in rabbits and were non-toxic using an ex vivo rectal explant model. Conclusions Four placebo formulations ranging from fluid to gel in aqueous and lipid formats with a range of rheological properties were developed, tested, scaled-up, manufactured under cGMP conditions and enrolled in a formal stability program. Clinical testing of these formulations as placebos will serve as the basis for further microbicide formulation development with drug-containing products.

  2. Characterisation and Skin Distribution of Lecithin-Based Coenzyme Q10-Loaded Lipid Nanocapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zemin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the inner lipid ratio on the physicochemical properties and skin targeting of surfactant-free lecithin-based coenzyme Q10-loaded lipid nanocapsules (CoQ10-LNCs. The smaller particle size of CoQ10-LNCs was achieved by high pressure and a lower ratio of CoQ10/GTCC (Caprylic/capric triglyceride; however, the zeta potential of CoQ10-LNCs was above /− 60 mV/ with no distinct difference among them at different ratios of CoQ10/GTCC. Both the crystallisation point and the index decreased with the decreasing ratio of CoQ10/GTCC and smaller particle size; interestingly, the supercooled state of CoQ10-LNCs was observed at particle size below about 200 nm, as verified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC in one heating–cooling cycle. The lecithin monolayer sphere structure of CoQ10-LNCs was investigated by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM. The skin penetration results revealed that the distribution of Nile red-loaded CoQ10-LNCs depended on the ratio of inner CoQ10/GTCC; moreover, epidermal targeting and superficial dermal targeting were achieved by the CoQ10-LNCs application. The highest fluorescence response was observed at a ratio of inner CoQ10/GTCC of 1:1. These observations suggest that lecithin-based LNCs could be used as a promising topical delivery vehicle for lipophilic compounds.

  3. Immunological characteristics of outer membrane protein omp31 of goat Brucella and its monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W Y; Wang, Y; Zhang, Z C; Yan, F

    2015-10-05

    We examined the immunological characteristics of outer membrane protein omp31 of goat Brucella and its monoclonal antibody. Genomic DNA from the M5 strain of goat Brucella was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-1. The expression and immunological characteristics of the fusion protein GST-omp31 were subjected to preliminary western blot detection with goat Brucella rabbit immune serum. The Brucella immunized BALB/c mouse serum was detected using purified protein. The high-potency mouse splenocytes and myeloma Sp2/0 cells were fused. Positive clones were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to establish a hybridoma cell line. Mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with hybridoma cells to prepare ascites. The mAb was purified using the n-caprylic acid-ammonium sulfate method. The characteristics of mAb were examined using western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A 680-base pair band was observed after polymerase chain reaction. Enzyme digestion identification and sequencing showed that the pGEX-4T-1-omp31 prokaryotic expression vector was successfully established; a target band of approximately 57 kDa with an apparent molecular weight consistent with the size of the target fusion protein. At 25°C, the expression of soluble expression increased significantly; the fusion protein GST-omp31 was detected by western blotting. Anti-omp31 protein mAb was obtained from 2 strains of Brucella. The antibody showed strong specificity and sensitivity and did not cross-react with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or Bacillus pyocyaneus. The pGEX-4T-1-omp31 prokaryotic expression vector was successfully established and showed good immunogenicity. The antibody also showed strong specificity and good sensitivity.

  4. Penetration enhancer-containing vesicles (PEVs) as carriers for cutaneous delivery of minoxidil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Simona; Manconi, Maria; Sinico, Chiara; Valenti, Donatella; Fadda, Anna Maria

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of a few different penetration enhancers to produce elastic vesicles with soy lecithin and the influence of the obtained vesicles on in vitro (trans)dermal delivery of minoxidil. To this purpose, so-called Penetration Enhancer-containing Vesicles (PEVs) were prepared as dehydrated-rehydrated vesicles by using soy lecithin and different amounts of three penetration enhancers, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethanol (Transcutol), capryl-caproyl macrogol 8-glyceride (Labrasol), and cineole. Soy lecithin liposomes, without penetration enhancers, were used as control. Prepared formulations were characterized in terms of size distribution, morphology, zeta potential, and vesicle deformability. The influence of PEVs on (trans)dermal delivery of minoxidil was studied by in vitro diffusion experiments through newborn pig skin in comparison with traditional liposomes and ethanolic solutions of the drug also containing each penetration enhancer. A skin pre-treatment study using empty PEVs and conventional liposomes was also carried out. Results showed that all the used penetration enhancers were able to give more deformable vesicles than conventional liposomes with a good drug entrapment efficiency and stability. In vitro skin penetration data showed that PEVs were able to give a statistically significant improvement of minoxidil deposition in the skin in comparison with classic liposomes and penetration enhancer-containing drug ethanolic solutions without any transdermal delivery. Moreover, the most deformable PEVs, prepared with Labrasol and cineole, were also able to deliver to the skin a higher total amount of minoxidil than the PE alcoholic solutions thus suggesting that minoxidil delivery to the skin was strictly correlated to vesicle deformability, and therefore to vesicle composition.

  5. Antimicrobial treatments to control Listeria monocytogenes in queso fresco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, António; Kamnetz, Mary B; Gadotti, Camila; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2017-06-01

    Queso fresco, is a Hispanic non-fermented cheese highly susceptible to contamination with L. monocytogenes. This research was aimed to determine the effect of GRAS antimicrobial ingredients to control L. monocytogenes. Antimicrobials included caprylic acid (CA), Nisaplin ® (N, 2.5% nisin), a mixture of sodium lactate and sodium diacetate (SL/SD), Lactococcus lactis sbp. lactis DPC 3147, monolaurin, and lactic acid (LA). Batches of queso fresco curds were inoculated with 10 4  CFU/g and stored at 4 °C for three weeks. During storage the count of L. monocytogenes reached 7 to 8 Log CFU/g in control samples. Most individual antimicrobial treatments resulted in less than 1 Log CFU/g reductions in final counts, with the exception of N (0.5 g/kg) and CA (2.9 g/kg) that caused more than 3 and 5 Log CFU/g differences with controls, respectively. Mixtures of ingredients were more effective in inhibiting L. monocytogenes growth, and treatments with N and CA consistently delivered 6 Log CFU/g less counts than controls. Supplementation of 12 g/kg LA to treatments with SL/SD (3%/0.22%) caused differences of more than 4 Log CFU/g in final Listeria populations. Samples treated with the binary mixtures of N and CA (0.5 and 0.7 g/kg, respectively) were evaluated in a consumer panel (n = 67). Panelists slightly preferred control and commercial over treated samples, but all samples were in average rated between "slightly liking" and "moderately liking." These experiments indicated that combined use of antimicrobial ingredients may be an effective way to control the population of Listeria monocytogenes in queso fresco. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Purification and Characterization of Lipases from Lasiodiplodia theobromae, and Their Immobilization and Use for Biodiesel Production from Coconut Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesagowda, Balaji; Ponugupaty, Ebenezer; Barbosa-Dekker, Aneli M; Dekker, Robert F H

    2017-12-18

    The coconut kernel-associated fungus, Lasiodiplodia theobromae VBE1, was grown on coconut cake with added coconut oil as lipase inducer under solid-state fermentation conditions. The extracellular-produced lipases were purified and resulted in two enzymes: lipase A (68,000 Da)-purified 25.41-fold, recovery of 47.1%-and lipase B (32,000 Da)-purified 18.47-fold, recovery of 8.2%. Both lipases showed optimal activity at pH 8.0 and 35 °C, were activated by Ca 2+ , exhibited highest specificity towards coconut oil and p-nitrophenyl palmitate, and were stable in iso-octane and hexane. Ethanol supported higher lipase activity than methanol, and n-butanol inactivated both lipases. Crude lipase immobilized by entrapment within 4% (w/v) calcium alginate beads was more stable than the crude-free lipase preparation within the range pH 2.5-10.0 and 20-80 °C. The immobilized lipase preparation was used to catalyze the transesterification/methanolysis of coconut oil to biodiesel (fatty acyl methyl esters (FAMEs)) and was quantified by gas chromatography. The principal FAMEs were laurate (46.1%), myristate (22.3%), palmitate (9.9%), and oleate (7.2%), with minor amounts of caprylate, caprate, and stearate also present. The FAME profile was comparatively similar to NaOH-mediated transesterified biodiesel from coconut oil, but distinctly different to petroleum-derived diesel. This study concluded that Lasiodiplodia theobromae VBE1 lipases have potential for biodiesel production from coconut oil.

  7. Drug Solubility in Fatty Acids as a Formulation Design Approach for Lipid-Based Formulations: A Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-Chi; Dalton, Chad; Regler, Brian; Harris, David

    2018-06-06

    Lipid-based drug delivery systems have been intensively investigated as a means of delivering poorly water-soluble drugs. Upon ingestion, the lipases in the gastrointestinal tract digest lipid ingredients, mainly triglycerides, within the formulation into monoglycerides and fatty acids. While numerous studies have addressed the solubility of drugs in triglycerides, comparatively few publications have addressed the solubility of drugs in fatty acids, which are the end product of digestion and responsible for the solubility of drug within mixed micelles. The objective of this investigation was to explore the solubility of a poorly water-soluble drug in fatty acids and raise the awareness of the importance of drug solubility in fatty acids. The model API (active pharmaceutical ingredient), a weak acid, is considered a BCS II compound with an aqueous solubility of 0.02 μg/mL and predicted partition coefficient >7. The solubility of API ranged from 120 mg/mL to over 1 g/mL in fatty acids with chain lengths across the range C18 to C6. Hydrogen bonding was found to be the main driver of the solubilization of API in fatty acids. The solubility of API was significantly reduced by water uptake in caprylic acid but not in oleic acid. This report demonstrates that solubility data generated in fatty acids can provide an indication of the solubility of the drug after lipid digestion. This report also highlights the importance of measuring the solubility of drugs in fatty acids in the course of lipid formulation development.

  8. Thermoresponsive latexes for fragrance encapsulation and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popadyuk, N; Popadyuk, A; Kohut, A; Voronov, A

    2016-04-01

    To synthesize cross-linked latex particles protecting the encapsulated fragrance at ambient temperatures and facilitating the release of cargo at the temperature of the surface of the skin that varies in different regions of the body between 33.5 and 36.9°C. Poly(stearyl acrylate) (PSA), a polymer with long crystallizable alkyl side chains (undergoes order-disorder transitions at 45°C), was chosen as the main component of the polymer particles. As a result, new thermoresponsive polymer particles for fragrance encapsulation were synthesized and characterized, including assessing the performance of particles in triggered release by elevated temperature. To obtain network domains of various crystallinity, stearyl acrylate was copolymerized with dipropylene glycol acrylate caprylate (DGAC) (comonomer) in the presence of a dipropylene glycol diacrylate sebacate (cross-linker) using the miniemulsion process. Comonomers and a cross-linker were mixed directly in a fragrance during polymerization. Fragrance release was evaluated at 25, 31, 35 and 39°C to demonstrate a new material potential in personal/health care skin-related applications. Particles protect the fragrance from evaporation at 25°C. The fragrance release rate gradually increases at 31, 35 and 39°C. Two slopes were found on release plots. The first slope corresponds to a rapid fragrance release. The second slope indicates a subsequent reduction in the release rate. Crystalline-to-amorphous transition of PSA triggers the release of fragrances from cross-linked latex particles at elevated temperatures. The presence of the encapsulated fragrance, as well as the inclusion of amorphous fragments in the polymer network, reduces the particle crystallinity and enhances the release. Release profiles can be tuned by temperature and controlled by the amount of loaded fragrance and the ratio of comonomers in the feed mixture. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  9. Capric Acid Secreted by S. boulardii Inhibits C. albicans Filamentous Growth, Adhesion and Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murzyn, Anna; Krasowska, Anna; Stefanowicz, Piotr; Dziadkowiec, Dorota; Łukaszewicz, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    Candidiasis are life-threatening systemic fungal diseases, especially of gastro intestinal track, skin and mucous membranes lining various body cavities like the nostrils, the mouth, the lips, the eyelids, the ears or the genital area. Due to increasing resistance of candidiasis to existing drugs, it is very important to look for new strategies helping the treatment of such fungal diseases. One promising strategy is the use of the probiotic microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit. Such a probiotic microorganism is yeast Saccharomyces boulardii, a close relative of baker yeast. Saccharomyces boulardii cells and their extract affect the virulence factors of the important human fungal pathogen C. albicans, its hyphae formation, adhesion and biofilm development. Extract prepared from S. boulardii culture filtrate was fractionated and GC-MS analysis showed that the active fraction contained, apart from 2-phenylethanol, caproic, caprylic and capric acid whose presence was confirmed by ESI-MS analysis. Biological activity was tested on C. albicans using extract and pure identified compounds. Our study demonstrated that this probiotic yeast secretes into the medium active compounds reducing candidal virulence factors. The chief compound inhibiting filamentous C. albicans growth comparably to S. boulardii extract was capric acid, which is thus responsible for inhibition of hyphae formation. It also reduced candidal adhesion and biofilm formation, though three times less than the extract, which thus contains other factors suppressing C. albicans adherence. The expression profile of selected genes associated with C. albicans virulence by real-time PCR showed a reduced expression of HWP1, INO1 and CSH1 genes in C. albicans cells treated with capric acid and S. boulardii extract. Hence capric acid secreted by S. boulardii is responsible for inhibition of C. albicans filamentation and partially also adhesion and biofilm formation. PMID

  10. The effect of increased yeast alcohol acetyltransferase and esterase activity on the flavour profiles of wine and distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Mariska; Bauer, Florian F; Lambrechts, Marius G; Swiegers, Jan H; Cozzolino, Daniel; Pretorius, Isak S

    2006-07-15

    The fruity odours of wine are largely derived from the synthesis of esters and higher alcohols during yeast fermentation. The ATF1- and ATF2-encoded alcohol acetyltransferases of S. cerevisiae are responsible for the synthesis of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate esters, while the EHT1-encoded ethanol hexanoyl transferase is responsible for synthesizing ethyl caproate. However, esters such as these might be degraded by the IAH1-encoded esterase. The objectives of this study were: (a) to overexpress the genes encoding ester-synthesizing and ester-degrading enzymes in wine yeast; (b) to prepare Colombard table wines and base wines for distillation using these modified strains; and (c) to analyse and compare the ester concentrations and aroma profiles of these wines and distillates. The overexpression of ATF1 significantly increased the concentrations of ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, 2-phenylethyl acetate and ethyl caproate, while the overexpression of ATF2 affected the concentrations of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate to a lesser degree. The overexpression of IAH1 resulted in a significant decrease in ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, hexyl acetate and 2-phenylethyl acetate. The overexpression of EHT1 resulted in a marked increase in ethyl caproate, ethyl caprylate and ethyl caprate. The flavour profile of the wines and distillates prepared using the modified strains were also significantly altered as indicated by formal sensory analysis. This study offers prospects for the development of wine yeast starter strains with optimized ester-producing capability that could assist winemakers in their effort to consistently produce wine and distillates such as brandy to definable flavour specifications and styles.

  11. Permeability enhancers dramatically increase zanamivir absolute bioavailability in rats: implications for an orally bioavailable influenza treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Holmes

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that simple formulations composed of the parent drug in combination with generally regarded as safe (GRAS permeability enhancers are capable of dramatically increasing the absolute bioavailability of zanamivir. This has the advantage of not requiring modification of the drug structure to promote absorption, thus reducing the regulatory challenges involved in conversion of an inhaled to oral route of administration of an approved drug. Absolute bioavailability increases of up to 24-fold were observed when Capmul MCM L8 (composed of mono- and diglycerides of caprylic/capric acids in glycerol was mixed with 1.5 mg of zanamivir and administered intraduodenally to rats. Rapid uptake (t(max of 5 min and a C(max of over 7200 ng/mL was achieved. Variation of the drug load or amount of enhancer demonstrated a generally linear variation in absorption, indicating an ability to optimize a formulation for a desired outcome such as a targeted C(max for enzyme saturation. No absorption enhancement was observed when the enhancer was given 2 hr prior to drug administration, indicating, in combination with the observed tmax, that absorption enhancement is temporary. This property is significant and aligns well with therapeutic applications to limit undesirable drug-drug interactions, potentially due to the presence of other poorly absorbed polar drugs. These results suggest that optimal human oral dosage forms of zanamivir should be enteric-coated gelcaps or softgels for intraduodenal release. There continues to be a strong need and market for multiple neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza treatment. Creation of orally available formulations of inhibitor drugs that are currently administered intravenously or by inhalation would provide a significant improvement in treatment of influenza. The very simple GRAS formulation components and anticipated dosage forms would require low manufacturing costs and yield enhanced convenience. These results

  12. Vegetable Oil-Loaded Nanocapsules: Innovative Alternative for Incorporating Drugs for Parenteral Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturinil, C G; Bruinsmann, A; Oliveira, C P; Contri, R V; Pohlmann, A R; Guterres, S S

    2016-02-01

    An innovative nanocapsule formulation for parenteral administration using selected vegetable oils (mango, jojoba, pequi, oat, annatto, calendula, and chamomile) was developed that has the potential to encapsulate various drugs. The vegetable oil-loaded nanocapsules were prepared by interfacial deposition and compared with capric/caprylic triglyceride-loaded lipid core nanocapsules. The major objective was to investigate the effect of vegetable oils on particle size distribution and physical stability and to determine the hemolytic potential of the nanocapsules, considering their applicability for intravenous administration. Taking into account the importance of accurately determining particle size for the selected route of administration, different size characterization techniques were employed, such as Laser Diffraction, Dynamic Light Scattering, Multiple Light Scattering, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and Transmission Electronic Microscopy. Laser diffraction studies indicated that the mean particle size of all nanocapsules was below 300 nm. For smaller particles, the laser diffraction and multiple light scattering data were in agreement (D[3,2]-130 nm). Dynamic light scattering and nanoparticle tracking analysis, two powerful techniques that complement each other, exhibited size values between 180 and 259 nm for all nanoparticles. Stability studies demonstrated a tendency of particle creaming for jojoba-nanocapsules and sedimentation for the other nanoparticles; however, no size variation occurred over 30 days. The hemolysis test proved the hemocompatibility of all nanosystems, irrespective of the type of oil. Although all developed nanocapsules presented the potential for parenteral administration, jojoba oil-loaded nanocapsules were selected as the most promising nanoformulation due to their low average size and high particle size homogeneity.

  13. Improvement of hydration and epidermal barrier function in human skin by a novel compound isosorbide dicaprylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, R K; Bojanowski, K

    2017-10-01

    The study involved the synthesis of a novel derivative of caprylic acid - isosorbide dicaprylate (IDC) - and the evaluation of its potential in improving water homoeostasis and epidermal barrier function in human skin. The effect of IDC on gene expression was assayed in skin organotypic cultures by DNA microarrays. The results were then confirmed for a few key genes by quantitative PCR, immuno- and cytochemistry. Final validation of skin hydration properties was obtained by four separate clinical studies. Level of hydration was measured by corneometer either by using 2% IDC lotion alone vs placebo or in combination with 2% glycerol lotion vs 2% glycerol only. A direct comparison in skin hydration between 2% IDC and 2% glycerol lotions was also carried out. The epidermal barrier function improvement was assessed by determining changes in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) on the arms before and after treatment with 2% IDC lotion versus placebo. IDC was found to upregulate the expression of AQP3, CD44 and proteins involved in keratinocyte differentiation as well as the formation and function of stratum corneum. A direct comparison between 2% IDC versus 2% glycerol lotions revealed a three-fold advantage of IDC in providing skin hydration. Severely dry skin treated with 2% IDC in combination with 2% glycerol showed 133% improvement, whereas 35% improvement was observed with moderately dry human skin. Topical isosorbide dicaprylate favourably modulates genes involved in the maintenance of skin structure and function, resulting in superior clinical outcomes. By improving skin hydration and epidermal permeability barrier, it offers therapeutic applications in skin ageing. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. Potential use of avocado oil on structured lipids MLM-type production catalysed by commercial immobilised lipases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caballero

    Full Text Available Structured Lipids are generally constituents of functional foods. Growing demands for SL are based on a fuller understanding of nutritional requirements, lipid metabolism, and improved methods to produce them. Specifically, this work was aimed to add value to avocado oil by producing dietary triacylglycerols (TAG containing medium-chain fatty acids (M at positions sn-1,3 and long-chain fatty acids (L at position sn-2. These MLM-type structured lipids (SL were produced by interesterification of caprylic acid (CA (C8:0 and avocado oil (content of C18:1. The regiospecific sn-1,3 commercial lipases Lipozyme RM IM and TL IM were used as biocatalysts to probe the potential of avocado oil to produce SL. Reactions were performed at 30-50°C for 24 h in solvent-free media with a substrate molar ratio of 1∶2 (TAG:CA and 4-10% w/w enzyme content. The lowest incorporation of CA (1.1% mol resulted from Lipozyme RM IM that was incubated at 50°C. The maximum incorporation of CA into sn-1,3 positions of TAG was 29.2% mol. This result was obtained at 30°C with 10% w/w Lipozyme TL IM, which is the highest values obtained in solvent-free medium until now for structured lipids of low-calories. This strategy opens a new market to added value products based on avocado oil.

  15. Microbial Quality of and Biochemical Changes in Fresh Soft, Acid-Curd Xinotyri Cheese Made from Raw or Pasteurized Goat’s Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni C. Pappa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological quality of and changes in the main physicochemical parameters, together with the evolution of proteolysis, lipolysis and volatile profiles of soft Xinotyri, a traditional Greek acid-curd cheese (pH≈4.4, moisture 65 %, salt 1 % made from raw (RMC or pasteurized (PMC goat’s milk without starters, were evaluated during aerobic storage at 4 °C for 60 days. No statistically significant differences between the total nitrogen (TN and nitrogen fraction (% of TN contents, the degradation of intact αs- or β-caseins, total free amino acid (FAA contents, and the ratio of hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptides in the water-soluble fraction of RMC and PMC were found. Threonine, alanine and lysine were the principal FAAs. Oleic, palmitic, capric and caprylic acids, and ethyl hexonate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, ethanol, 3-methyl butanol, phenyl ethyl alcohol and acetone were the most abundant free fatty acids and volatile compounds, respectively. Cheese lipolysis evolved slowly at 4 °C, and milk pasteurization had no significant effect on it. Mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB were predominant in fresh cheese samples. PMC samples had significantly lower levels of enterococci and enterobacteria than RMC samples, while yeasts grew at similar levels during storage at 4 °C. All cheese samples (25 g were free of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. Coagulase-positive staphylococci exceeded the 5-log safety threshold in fresh RMC samples, whereas they were suppressed (<100 CFU/g in all PMC samples. Consequently, pasteurization of raw goat milk’s and utilization of commercially defined or natural mesophilic LAB starters are recommended for standardizing the biochemical, microbial and safety qualities of fresh soft Xinotyri cheese.

  16. Short-term testosterone manipulations modulate visual recognition memory and some aspects of emotional reactivity in male rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Gore, Heather E; Chang, Jeemin; Kaplan, Emily R

    2012-05-15

    The role of testosterone (T) in modulating cognitive function and emotion in men remains unclear. The paucity of animal studies has likely contributed to the slow progress in this area. In particular, studies in nonhuman primates have been lacking. Our laboratory has begun to address this issue by pharmacologically manipulating T levels in intact male rhesus monkeys, using blind, placebo-controlled, crossover designs. We previously found that T-suppressed monkeys receiving supraphysiological T for 4 weeks had lower visual recognition memory for long delays and enhanced attention to videos of negative social stimuli (Lacreuse et al., 2009, 2010) compared to when treated with oil. To further delineate the conditions under which T affects cognition and emotion, the present study focused on the short-term effects of physiological T. Six intact males were treated with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist degarelix (3 mg/kg) for 7 days and received one injection of T enanthate (5 mg/kg) followed by one injection of oil vehicle 7 days later (n=3), or the reverse treatment (n=3). Performance on two computerized tasks, the Delayed-non-matching-to-sample (DNMS) with random delays and the object-Delayed Recognition Span test (object-DRST) and one task of emotional reactivity, an approach/avoidance task of negative, familiar and novel objects, was examined at baseline and 3-5 days after treatment. DNMS performance was significantly better when monkeys were treated with T compared to oil, independently of the delay duration or the nature (emotional or neutral) of the stimuli. Performance on the object-DRST was unaffected. Interestingly, subtle changes in emotional reactivity were also observed: T administration was associated with fewer object contacts, especially on negative objects, without overt changes in anxious behaviors. These results may reflect increased vigilance and alertness with high T. Altogether, the data suggest that changes in general arousal may

  17. Bipolar Androgen Therapy for Men With Androgen Ablation Naïve Prostate Cancer: Results From the Phase II BATMAN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Michael T; Wang, Hao; Luber, Brandon; Nadal, Rosa; Spitz, Avery; Rosen, D Marc; Cao, Haiyi; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S; Eisenberger, Mario A; Carducci, Michael A; Paller, Channing; Denmeade, Samuel R

    2016-09-01

    We have previously documented a paradoxical anti-tumor effect when castration-resistant prostate cancer patients were treated with intermittent, high-dose testosterone (i.e., Bipolar Androgen Therapy; BAT). Because, an adaptive increase in androgen receptor expression following chronic androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) may underlie this effect, we tested whether men with hormone-sensitive (HS) prostate cancer (PC) would also respond to BAT if given following a 6-month ADT lead-in. Asymptomatic HS PC patients with low metastatic burden or non-metastatic biochemically recurrent disease were enrolled. Following 6-month of ADT, those with a PSA <4 ng/ml went on to receive alternating 3-month cycles of BAT and ADT. BAT was administered as intramuscular testosterone (T) cypionate or enanthate 400 mg on Days (D) 1, 29, and 57. ADT was continued throughout the study to allow rapid cycling from near castrate to supraphysiologic range T following T injections. The primary endpoint was the percent of patients with a PSA <4 ng/ml after 18 months. Secondary endpoints included radiographic response and quality of life (QoL). Twenty-nine of 33 patients received BAT following the ADT lead-in. The primary endpoint was met, with 17/29 men (59%, 90% confidence interval: 42-74%) having a PSA <4 ng/ml at 18 months. Ten patients receiving BAT had RECIST evaluable disease, and eight (80%) objective responses were observed (four complete; four partial). Three patients progressed per RECIST criteria and three had unconfirmed progression on bone scan. Men treated with 6-month of ADT had improved QoL following the first cycle of BAT as measured by the SF-36, FACT-P, and IIEF surveys. BAT demonstrated preliminary efficacy in men with HS PC following 6-month of ADT. BAT may improve QoL in men treated with ADT. Prostate 76:1218-1226, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Hormonal Contraception and the Risk of HIV Acquisition: An Individual Participant Data Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Charles S.; Chen, Pai-Lien; Kwok, Cynthia; Baeten, Jared M.; Brown, Joelle; Crook, Angela M.; Van Damme, Lut; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Francis, Suzanna C.; Friedland, Barbara A.; Hayes, Richard J.; Heffron, Renee; Kapiga, Saidi; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Karpoff, Stephanie; Kaul, Rupert; McClelland, R. Scott; McCormack, Sheena; McGrath, Nuala; Myer, Landon; Rees, Helen; van der Straten, Ariane; Watson-Jones, Deborah; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.; Stalter, Randy; Low, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Background Observational studies of a putative association between hormonal contraception (HC) and HIV acquisition have produced conflicting results. We conducted an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of studies from sub-Saharan Africa to compare the incidence of HIV infection in women using combined oral contraceptives (COCs) or the injectable progestins depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) or norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN) with women not using HC. Methods and Findings Eligible studies measured HC exposure and incident HIV infection prospectively using standardized measures, enrolled women aged 15–49 y, recorded ≥15 incident HIV infections, and measured prespecified covariates. Our primary analysis estimated the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) using two-stage random effects meta-analysis, controlling for region, marital status, age, number of sex partners, and condom use. We included 18 studies, including 37,124 women (43,613 woman-years) and 1,830 incident HIV infections. Relative to no HC use, the aHR for HIV acquisition was 1.50 (95% CI 1.24–1.83) for DMPA use, 1.24 (95% CI 0.84–1.82) for NET-EN use, and 1.03 (95% CI 0.88–1.20) for COC use. Between-study heterogeneity was mild (I2 HIV acquisition compared with COC use (aHR 1.43, 95% CI 1.23–1.67) and NET-EN use (aHR 1.32, 95% CI 1.08–1.61). Effect estimates were attenuated for studies at lower risk of methodological bias (compared with no HC use, aHR for DMPA use 1.22, 95% CI 0.99–1.50; for NET-EN use 0.67, 95% CI 0.47–0.96; and for COC use 0.91, 95% CI 0.73–1.41) compared to those at higher risk of bias (pinteraction = 0.003). Neither age nor herpes simplex virus type 2 infection status modified the HC–HIV relationship. Conclusions This IPD meta-analysis found no evidence that COC or NET-EN use increases women’s risk of HIV but adds to the evidence that DMPA may increase HIV risk, underscoring the need for additional safe and effective contraceptive options for women at

  19. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Nieschlag

    2014-02-01

    Kallmann, DelCastillo and Pasqualini. In the 1950s longer-acting injectable testosterone enanthate became the preferred therapeutic modality. In the 1950s and 1960s, research concentrated on the chemical modification of androgens in order to emphasize their anabolic effects. Although anabolic steroids have largely disappeared from clinical medicine, they continue to live an illegal life for doping in athletics. In the 1970s the orally effective testosterone undecanoate was added to the spectrum of preparations. Recent transdermal gels and long-acting injectable preparations provide options for physiological testosterone substitution therapy.

  20. Effects of testosterone on attention and memory for emotional stimuli in male rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Hanna M; Kurdziel, Laura B; Meyer, Jerrold S; Lacreuse, Agnès

    2012-03-01

    Increasing evidence in humans and other animals suggests that testosterone (T) plays an important role in modulating emotion. We previously reported that T treatment in rhesus monkeys undergoing chemically induced hypogonadism results in increased watching time of videos depicting fights between unfamiliar conspecifics (Lacreuse et al., 2010). In the current study, we aimed to further investigate the effect of T manipulations on attention and memory for emotional stimuli in male rhesus monkeys. Six males (7 years old) were administered Depot Lupron to suppress endogenous T levels and treated with either testosterone enanthate (TE, 5 mg/kg) or oil, before crossing over to the alternate treatment. Animals were tested for 16 weeks on two computerized touchscreen tasks with both social and nonsocial emotional and neutral stimuli. The Dot-Probe task was used to measure attention, and the Delayed-Non-Matching-to-Sample task with a 1s delay (DNMS) was used to measure recognition memory for these stimuli. Performance on the two tasks was examined during each of four month-long phases: Baseline, Lupron alone, Lupron+TE and Lupron+oil. It was predicted that T administration would lead to increased attention to negative social stimuli (i.e., negative facial expressions of unfamiliar conspecifics) and would improve memory for such stimuli. We found no evidence to support these predictions. In the Dot-Probe task, an attentional bias towards negative social stimuli was observed at baseline, but T treatment did not enhance this bias. Instead, monkeys had faster response times when treated with T compared to oil, independently of the emotional valence or social relevance of stimuli, perhaps reflecting an enhancing effect of T on reward sensitivity or general arousal. In the DNMS, animals had better memory for nonsocial compared to social stimuli and showed the poorest performance in the recognition of positive facial expressions. However, T did not affect performance on the task

  1. Randomised controlled double-blind non-inferiority trial of two antivenoms for saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus envenoming in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa S Abubakar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In West Africa, envenoming by saw-scaled or carpet vipers (Echis ocellatus causes great morbidity and mortality, but there is a crisis in supply of effective and affordable antivenom (ISRCTN01257358. METHODS: In a randomised, double-blind, controlled, non-inferiority trial, "EchiTAb Plus-ICP" (ET-Plus equine antivenom made by Instituto Clodomiro Picado was compared to "EchiTAb G" (ET-G ovine antivenom made by MicroPharm, which is the standard of care in Nigeria and was developed from the original EchiTAb-Fab introduced in 1998. Both are caprylic acid purified whole IgG antivenoms. ET-G is monospecific for Echis ocellatus antivenom (initial dose 1 vial and ET-Plus is polyspecific for E. ocellatus, Naja nigricollis and Bitis arietans (initial dose 3 vials. Both had been screened by pre-clinical and preliminary clinical dose-finding and safety studies. Patients who presented with incoagulable blood, indicative of systemic envenoming by E. ocellatus, were recruited in Kaltungo, north-eastern Nigeria. Those eligible and consenting were randomly allocated with equal probability to receive ET-Plus or ET-G. The primary outcome was permanent restoration of blood coagulability 6 hours after the start of treatment, assessed by a simple whole blood clotting test repeated 6, 12, 18, 24 and 48 hr after treatment. Secondary (safety outcomes were the incidences of anaphylactic, pyrogenic and late serum sickness-type antivenom reactions. FINDINGS: Initial doses permanently restored blood coagulability at 6 hours in 161/194 (83.0% of ET-Plus and 156/206 (75.7% of ET-G treated patients (Relative Risk [RR] 1.10 one-sided 95% CI lower limit 1.01; P = 0.05. ET-Plus caused early reactions on more occasions than did ET-G [50/194 (25.8% and 39/206 (18.9% respectively RR (1.36 one-sided 95% CI 1.86 upper limit; P = 0.06. These reactions were classified as severe in 21 (10.8% and 11 (5.3% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: At these doses, ET-Plus was

  2. Polyhydroxy surfactants for the formulation of lipid nanoparticles (SLN and NLC): effects on size, physical stability and particle matrix structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, A; Savic, S; Vuleta, G; Müller, R H; Keck, C M

    2011-03-15

    The two polyhydroxy surfactants polyglycerol 6-distearate (Plurol(®)Stearique WL1009 - (PS)) and caprylyl/capryl glucoside (Plantacare(®) 810 - (PL)) are a class of PEG-free stabilizers, made from renewable resources. They were investigated for stabilization of aqueous solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) dispersions. Production was performed by high pressure homogenization, analysis by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), laser diffraction (LD), zeta potential measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Particles were made from Cutina CP as solid lipid only (SLN) and its blends with Miglyol 812 (NLC, the blends containing increasing amounts of oil from 20% to 60%). The obtained particle sizes were identical for both surfactants, about 200 nm with polydispersity indices below 0.20 (PCS), and unimodal size distribution (LD). All dispersions with both surfactants were physically stable for 3 months at room temperature, but Plantacare (PL) showing a superior stability. The melting behaviour and crystallinity of bulk lipids/lipid blends were compared to the nanoparticles. Both were lower for the nanoparticles. The crystallinity of dispersions stabilized with PS was higher, the zeta potential decreased with storage time associated with this higher crystallinity, and leading to a few, but negligible larger particles. The lower crystallinity particles stabilized with PL remained unchanged in zeta potential (about -50 mV) and in size. These data show that surfactants have a distinct influence on the particle matrix structure (and related stability and drug loading), to which too little attention was given by now. Despite being from the same surfactant class, the differences on the structure are pronounced. They are attributed to the hydrophobic-lipophilic tail structure with one-point anchoring in the interface (PL), and the loop conformation of PS with two hydrophobic anchor points, i.e. their molecular structure and its

  3. Metabolic therapy with Deanna Protocol supplementation delays disease progression and extends survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csilla Ari

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, is a neurodegenerative disorder of motor neurons causing progressive muscle weakness, paralysis, and eventual death from respiratory failure. There is currently no cure or effective treatment for ALS. Besides motor neuron degeneration, ALS is associated with impaired energy metabolism, which is pathophysiologically linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and glutamate excitotoxicity. The Deanna Protocol (DP is a metabolic therapy that has been reported to alleviate symptoms in patients with ALS. In this study we hypothesized that alternative fuels in the form of TCA cycle intermediates, specifically arginine-alpha-ketoglutarate (AAKG, the main ingredient of the DP, and the ketogenic diet (KD, would increase motor function and survival in a mouse model of ALS (SOD1-G93A. ALS mice were fed standard rodent diet (SD, KD, or either diets containing a metabolic therapy of the primary ingredients of the DP consisting of AAKG, gamma-aminobutyric acid, Coenzyme Q10, and medium chain triglyceride high in caprylic triglyceride. Assessment of ALS-like pathology was performed using a pre-defined criteria for neurological score, accelerated rotarod test, paw grip endurance test, and grip strength test. Blood glucose, blood beta-hydroxybutyrate, and body weight were also monitored. SD+DP-fed mice exhibited improved neurological score from age 116 to 136 days compared to control mice. KD-fed mice exhibited better motor performance on all motor function tests at 15 and 16 weeks of age compared to controls. SD+DP and KD+DP therapies significantly extended survival time of SOD1-G93A mice by 7.5% (p = 0.001 and 4.2% (p = 0.006, respectively. Sixty-three percent of mice in the KD+DP and 72.7% of the SD+DP group lived past 125 days, while only 9% of the control animals survived past that point. Targeting energy metabolism with metabolic therapy produces a therapeutic effect in ALS mice which

  4. Pengaruh Pemanasan Kelapa Parut dan Teknik Pengunduhan Terhadap Rendemen dan Mutu Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO

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    Sutardi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO was produced from green variety ofnon-hybride coconut type. Grated coconut was heated at 500, 70°, and 90°C for 20, 30 and 40 minutes, respectively. Harvesting technique of VCO were done by conventional, utilization of stainless steel screen, and filter paper laminated stainless steel screen methods, respectively. Produced VCO was subsequently analyzed their productivity and quality parameters consisting of moisture content, acid number, free fatty acid (FFA, peroxide number, iodine number, saponification number, clearness and fatty acid profile of VCO. Statistical analysis was also conducted by using Analysis of Variance and Duncan Multiple Range Test with 5% significancy. The results showed that heating ofgrated coconut at 900C for 40 minutes produced 29.65 ±0.38% VCO, and it was the highest productivity.-Heating temperature ofgrated coconut and with any harvesting technique didn't statistitically have significant effect on productivity and quality of VCO. While, combination of heating temperature at 90°C and it was followed by harvesting technique using stainless steel screen produced the highest VCO i.e. 31.54 ± 0.58%. The best quality of VCO was characterized by 0.09 ± 0.01% moisture content, 0.20 ± 0.02 mg KOH/g oil of acid number, 0.12 ± 0.01% free fatty acid (FFA, 0.37 ± 0.01 meq/kg oil ofperoxide number, 5. 11 ± 0.01 g iod/100 g oil ofiodine number, 244. 12 ± 0.01 mg KOH/g oil saponification number and the VCO was clear and transparant. Fatty acid profile of selected VCO was dominated by medium chain fatty acid (C12:0 particularly lauric acid i.e. 50.26% and followed by 8.65% caprylic and 5,73% capric acids, respectively. "The quality parameters of VCO was able to meet the quality standard of VCO that was issued by APCC (Asia Pacific Coconut Community quality grade.

  5. Structural and binding properties of two paralogous fatty acid binding proteins of Taenia solium metacestode.

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    Seon-Hee Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fatty acid (FA binding proteins (FABPs of helminths are implicated in acquisition and utilization of host-derived hydrophobic substances, as well as in signaling and cellular interactions. We previously demonstrated that secretory hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs of Taenia solium metacestode (TsM, a causative agent of neurocysticercosis (NC, shuttle FAs in the surrounding host tissues and inwardly transport the FAs across the parasite syncytial membrane. However, the protein molecules responsible for the intracellular trafficking and assimilation of FAs have remained elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated two novel TsMFABP genes (TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2, which encoded 133- and 136-amino acid polypeptides with predicted molecular masses of 14.3 and 14.8 kDa, respectively. They shared 45% sequence identity with each other and 15-95% with other related-members. Homology modeling demonstrated a characteristic β-barrel composed of 10 anti-parallel β-strands and two α-helices. TsMFABP2 harbored two additional loops between β-strands two and three, and β-strands six and seven, respectively. TsMFABP1 was secreted into cyst fluid and surrounding environments, whereas TsMFABP2 was intracellularly confined. Partially purified native proteins migrated to 15 kDa with different isoelectric points of 9.2 (TsMFABP1 and 8.4 (TsMFABP2. Both native and recombinant proteins bound to 11-([5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl]aminoundecannoic acid, dansyl-DL-α-amino-caprylic acid, cis-parinaric acid and retinol, which were competitively inhibited by oleic acid. TsMFABP1 exhibited high affinity toward FA analogs. TsMFABPs showed weak binding activity to retinol, but TsMFABP2 showed relatively high affinity. Isolation of two distinct genes from an individual genome strongly suggested their paralogous nature. Abundant expression of TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2 in the canal region of worm matched well with the histological distributions

  6. Treatment of an isolated high-grade, low-tonnage uranium orebody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajuria-Garza, S.

    1976-01-01

    A completely integrated process leading to a commercial-grade uranium concentrate has been developed for the El Nopal orebody which contains 115000t of ore with an average grade of 0.283%, equivalent to 325t of U 3 O 8 . The process consists of crushing (from -12 in to -1.5in), heap leaching with recirculation, a special type of countercurrent washing (also in the heap), solvent extraction to give an exceptionally high uranium concentration, re-extraction, precipitation with ammonium hydroxide, filtration and calcining. The main factors that influence heap leaching are analysed in detail: heap geometry, crushed ore size distribution, base design and construction, method of heaping, acid feeding method, flow of liquors through the heap and washing procedures. Leaching efficiencies range from 80 to 85% and washing efficiencies from 96 to almost 100% with an overall extraction efficiency of 77 to 85%. Acid consumption is usually less than 25kg/t of ore. The leaching and washing processes described are designed to use an overall solid-to-liquid ratio of about 3:1 thus producing very concentrated liquors with a U 3 O 8 content of about 7g/l. These liquors are filtered and fed directly to a solvent extraction system using Alamine 336 (tri-capryl amine) and isodecanol in kerosene. The high feed concentration makes it possible to use a high concentration of amine. The organic solvent contains 120g/l of Alamine and 98g/l of isodecanol. Re-extraction can be with a saline solution containing 100g/lNH 4 Cl and 250g/l(NH 4 )SO 4 . The strong liquor obtained from re-extraction contains 70-75g/lU 3 O 8 . The remaining steps of precipitation, filtration and calcining can then follow general practice and lead to a product which meets currently accepted commercial specifications. As an alternative, nitrate re-extraction has been shown to produce a solution of about 70g/l which will feed directly to tributyl phosphate (TBP) refining without the necessity of ever producing a

  7. Benefits of use, and tolerance of, medium-chain triglyceride medical food in the management of Japanese patients with Alzheimer’s disease: a prospective, open-label pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnuma T

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tohru Ohnuma, Aiko Toda, Ayako Kimoto, Yuto Takebayashi, Ryoko Higashiyama, Yuko Tagata, Masanobu Ito, Tsuneyoshi Ota, Nobuto Shibata, Heii Arai Department of Psychiatry, Juntendo University Alzheimer’s Disease Project, Faculty of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan Objectives: This is the first clinical trial of this type in Japan, designed to analyze two important aspects of Alzheimer’s disease (AD management using medium-chain triglycerides. Axona was administered for 3 months (40 g of powder containing 20 g of caprylic triglycerides. We used an indurating, four-step dose-titration method (from 10 to 40 g per day for 7 days before the trial, and examined the tolerance and adverse effects of this intervention. We also investigated its effect on cognitive function in mild-to-moderate AD patients.Patients and methods: This was a clinical intervention in 22 Japanese patients with sporadic AD at a mild-to-moderate stage (ten females, 12 males, mean age (± standard deviation 63.9 (±8.5 years, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score, 10–25, seven patients were ApoE4-positive. During Axona administration, we examined changes in cognitive function by obtaining MMSE and AD assessment-scale scores. Intolerance and serum ketone concentrations were also examined.Results: The tolerance of Axona was good, without severe gastrointestinal adverse effects. Axona did not improve cognitive function in our sample of AD patients, even in those patients without the ApoE4 allele. However, some ApoE4-negative patients with baseline MMSE score ≥14 showed improvement in their cognitive functions.Conclusion: The modified dose-titration method, starting with a low dose of Axona, decreased gastrointestinal adverse effects in Japanese patients. Axona might be effective for some relatively mildly affected patients with AD (with cognitive function MMSE score of ≥14 and lacking the ApoE4 allele. Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, medium-chain triglycerides

  8. Physicochemical composition and sensory quality evaluation of capon and rooster meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, André; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of caponization on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of rooster and capon meat (2 Portuguese autochthonous chicken breeds of roosters:Amarela and Pedrês), raised under the same production. The birds were castrated at 9 wk of age and bred until 140 d of age. Forty Amarela (20 roosters and 20 capons-castrated male) and 40 Pedrês Portuguesa (20 roosters and 20 capons) breed chickens, 5 free-range chickens, and 5 broilers were used. From the breast, leg, and wing muscles, physicochemical parameters such as pH, water activity (aw), physical color, moisture content, ash, CP, pigments, collagen, and total fat and fatty acids profile, were analyzed according to standard procedures. Caponization did not affect pH, aw, lightness (L*), yellowness (b*), ash, protein, collagen, saturated fatty acids (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA)/SFA. Results show that caponization decreased (P≤0.05) moisture content and increased (P≤0.05) pigments and intramuscular fat content. Capons showed higher (P≤0.001) redness (a*) and chroma (C*), and lower (P≤0.001) hue (H*) compared to roosters. Caponization increased (P≤0.05) monounsaturated fatty acids content and PUFA/SFA. The main fatty acids found were oleic (C18:1), palmitic (C16:0), and linoleic (C18:2). Capons had greater (P≤ 0.05) C18:1 content but lower (P≤0.01) butyric acid (C4:0), caprylic acid (C8:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and (P≤0.05) arachidonic acid (C20.4) content than roosters. The objective of sensory analysis was making the comparison of the Amarela and Pedrêsmeat with a free-range chicken and a broiler. Panelists classified the capon meat (Amarela and Pedrês) as juicier and less tough and fibrous than rooster meat. Broilers were in general juicier, tenderer, and less fibrous than the other chickens in this study. The results of sensory evaluation complement those obtained in

  9. Oral calcitonin

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    Hamdy RC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald C Hamdy,1,2 Dane N Daley11Osteoporosis Center, College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, 2Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Johnson City, TN, USAAbstract: Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through β-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ. Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis failed to

  10. PEMANFAATAN FRAKSI KAYA ASAM LAURAT HASIL HIDROLISIS DARI ENDOSPERM KELAPA MENGGUNAKAN LIPASE ENDOGENEUS SEBAGAI PENGAWET SUSU KEDELAI KEMASAN (Utilization of High Lauric Fraction that Produced from Coconut Endosperm Using Lipase Endogenous as Preservation of Soybean Milk Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Su'i

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of previous studies show that the high lauric fraction isolated from coconut endosperm is able to inhibit pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. This research aims to study the addition of high lauric fraction that hydrolysed of coconut endosperm of the storability of soy milk packaging. High lauric fraction isolated from coconut milk, then the fraction analized of the fatty acid composition with gas chromatography (GC and then used as a preservative soy milk. The fraction is added to the soy milk with concentrations of 0, 10, 15 and 20%, then stored for 3 days. Every day is observed until soy milk damaged. The results showed that the fraction isolated from coconut milk contains 50.45% lauric acid, 17.52% myristic acid, 7.02% palmitic acid, 6.46% capric acid, 5.52% caprylic acid, 5.12% linoleic acid, 1.89% oleic acid, and 0.11% caproic acid. The addition of lauric acid-rich fraction of 20% were able to preserve soy milk for 2 days with a total microbe 1.00 x 104 cfu/ml, free fatty acids 0.12 m mol/ml, pH 5.05 and a balanced aroma 4 (nice. Keywords: Coconut, lauric acid, soy milk, storage ABSTRAK Hasil penelitian sebelumnya menunjukkan bahwa fraksi kaya asam laurat hasil isolasi dari endosperm kelapa mampu menghambat bakteri patogen dan non patogen. Penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari penambahan fraksi kaya asam laurat hasil hidrolisis dari endosperm kelapa terhadap daya simpan susu kedelai kemasan. Fraksi yang kaya asam laurat diisolasi dari santan kelapa kemudian fraksi tersebut diuji komposisi asam lemaknya menggunakan chromatografi gas (GC dan selanjutnya digunakan sebagai bahan pengawet susu kedelai. Fraksi kaya asam laurat ditambahkan ke dalam susu kedelai dengan konsentrasi 0, 10, 15 dan 20%, kemudian disimpan selama 3 hari. Setiap hari dilakukan pengamatan hingga susu mengalami kerusakan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa fraksi hasil isolasi dari santan kelapa mengandung asam laurat 50,45%, asam miristat 17,52%, asam palmitat

  11. Metabolic therapy with Deanna Protocol supplementation delays disease progression and extends survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari, Csilla; Poff, Angela M; Held, Heather E; Landon, Carol S; Goldhagen, Craig R; Mavromates, Nicholas; D'Agostino, Dominic P

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, is a neurodegenerative disorder of motor neurons causing progressive muscle weakness, paralysis, and eventual death from respiratory failure. There is currently no cure or effective treatment for ALS. Besides motor neuron degeneration, ALS is associated with impaired energy metabolism, which is pathophysiologically linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and glutamate excitotoxicity. The Deanna Protocol (DP) is a metabolic therapy that has been reported to alleviate symptoms in patients with ALS. In this study we hypothesized that alternative fuels in the form of TCA cycle intermediates, specifically arginine-alpha-ketoglutarate (AAKG), the main ingredient of the DP, and the ketogenic diet (KD), would increase motor function and survival in a mouse model of ALS (SOD1-G93A). ALS mice were fed standard rodent diet (SD), KD, or either diets containing a metabolic therapy of the primary ingredients of the DP consisting of AAKG, gamma-aminobutyric acid, Coenzyme Q10, and medium chain triglyceride high in caprylic triglyceride. Assessment of ALS-like pathology was performed using a pre-defined criteria for neurological score, accelerated rotarod test, paw grip endurance test, and grip strength test. Blood glucose, blood beta-hydroxybutyrate, and body weight were also monitored. SD+DP-fed mice exhibited improved neurological score from age 116 to 136 days compared to control mice. KD-fed mice exhibited better motor performance on all motor function tests at 15 and 16 weeks of age compared to controls. SD+DP and KD+DP therapies significantly extended survival time of SOD1-G93A mice by 7.5% (p = 0.001) and 4.2% (p = 0.006), respectively. Sixty-three percent of mice in the KD+DP and 72.7% of the SD+DP group lived past 125 days, while only 9% of the control animals survived past that point. Targeting energy metabolism with metabolic therapy produces a therapeutic effect in ALS mice which may prolong

  12. Method developments approaches in supercritical fluid chromatography applied to the analysis of cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesellier, E; Mith, D; Dubrulle, I

    2015-12-04

    Analyses of complex samples of cosmetics, such as creams or lotions, are generally achieved by HPLC. These analyses are often multistep gradients, due to the presence of compounds with a large range of polarity. For instance, the bioactive compounds may be polar, while the matrix contains lipid components that are rather non-polar, thus cosmetic formulations are usually oil-water emulsions. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) uses mobile phases composed of carbon dioxide and organic co-solvents, allowing for good solubility of both the active compounds and the matrix excipients. Moreover, the classical and well-known properties of these mobile phases yield fast analyses and ensure rapid method development. However, due to the large number of stationary phases available for SFC and to the varied additional parameters acting both on retention and separation factors (co-solvent nature and percentage, temperature, backpressure, flow rate, column dimensions and particle size), a simplified approach can be followed to ensure a fast method development. First, suited stationary phases should be carefully selected for an initial screening, and then the other operating parameters can be limited to the co-solvent nature and percentage, maintaining the oven temperature and back-pressure constant. To describe simple method development guidelines in SFC, three sample applications are discussed in this paper: UV-filters (sunscreens) in sunscreen cream, glyceryl caprylate in eye liner and caffeine in eye serum. Firstly, five stationary phases (ACQUITY UPC(2)) are screened with isocratic elution conditions (10% methanol in carbon dioxide). Complementary of the stationary phases is assessed based on our spider diagram classification which compares a large number of stationary phases based on five molecular interactions. Secondly, the one or two best stationary phases are retained for further optimization of mobile phase composition, with isocratic elution conditions or, when

  13. Short-term testosterone manipulations do not affect cognition or motor function but differentially modulate emotions in young and older male rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian; Maguire-Herring, Vanessa; Rose, Christian M; Gore, Heather E; Ferrigno, Stephen; Novak, Melinda A; Lacreuse, Agnès

    2014-11-01

    Human aging is characterized by declines in cognition and fine motor function as well as improved emotional regulation. In men, declining levels of testosterone (T) with age have been implicated in the development of these age-related changes. However, studies examining the effects of T replacement on cognition, emotion and fine motor function in older men have not provided consistent results. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are excellent models for human cognitive aging and may provide novel insights on this issue. We tested 10 aged intact male rhesus monkeys (mean age=19, range 15-25) on a battery of cognitive, motor and emotional tasks at baseline and under low or high T experimental conditions. Their performance was compared to that of 6 young males previously tested in the same paradigm (Lacreuse et al., 2009; Lacreuse et al., 2010). Following a 4-week baseline testing period, monkeys were treated with a gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (Depot Lupron, 200 μg/kg) to suppress endogenous T and were tested on the task battery under a 4-week high T condition (injection of Lupron+T enanthate, 20 mg/kg, n=8) or 4-week low T condition (injection of Lupron+oil vehicle, n=8) before crossing over to the opposite treatment. The cognitive tasks consisted of the Delayed Non-Matching-to-Sample (DNMS), the Delayed Response (DR), and the Delayed Recognition Span Test (spatial-DRST). The emotional tasks included an object Approach-Avoidance task and a task in which monkeys were played videos of unfamiliar conspecifics in different emotional context (Social Playbacks). The fine motor task was the Lifesaver task that required monkeys to remove a Lifesaver candy from rods of different complexity. T manipulations did not significantly affect visual recognition memory, working memory, reference memory or fine motor function at any age. In the Approach-Avoidance task, older monkeys, but not younger monkeys, spent more time in proximity of novel objects in the high T condition

  14. Gonadotropin suppression in men leads to a reduction in claudin-11 at the Sertoli cell tight junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, M J; Tarulli, G A; Laven-Law, G; Matthiesson, K L; Meachem, S J; McLachlan, R I; Dinger, M E; Stanton, P G

    2016-04-01

    Are Sertoli cell tight junctions (TJs) disrupted in men undergoing hormonal contraception? Localization of the key Sertoli cell TJ protein, claudin-11, was markedly disrupted by 8 weeks of gonadotropin suppression, the degree of which was related to the extent of adluminal germ cell suppression. Sertoli cell TJs are vital components of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) that sequester developing adluminal meiotic germ cells and spermatids from the vascular compartment. Claudin-11 knockout mice are infertile; additionally claudin-11 is spatially disrupted in chronically gonadotropin-suppressed rats coincident with a loss of BTB function, and claudin-11 is disorganized in various human testicular disorders. These data support the Sertoli cell TJ as a potential site of hormonal contraceptive action. BTB proteins were assessed by immunohistochemistry (n = 16 samples) and mRNA (n = 18 samples) expression levels in available archived testis tissue from a previous study of 22 men who had undergone 8 weeks of gonadotropin suppression and for whom meiotic and post-meiotic germ cell numbers were available. The gonadotropin suppression regimens were (i) testosterone enanthate (TE) plus the GnRH antagonist, acyline (A); (ii) TE + the progestin, levonorgestrel, (LNG); (iii) TE + LNG + A or (iv) TE + LNG + the 5α-reductase inhibitor, dutasteride (D). A control group consisted of seven additional men, with three archived samples available for this study. Immunohistochemical localization of claudin-11 (TJ) and other junctional type markers [ZO-1 (cytoplasmic plaque), β-catenin (adherens junction), connexin-43 (gap junction), vinculin (ectoplasmic specialization) and β-actin (cytoskeleton)] and quantitative PCR was conducted using matched frozen testis tissue. Claudin-11 formed a continuous staining pattern at the BTB in control men. Regardless of gonadotropin suppression treatment, claudin-11 localization was markedly disrupted and was broadly associated with the extent of meiotic

  15. Effect of Protein Intake on Lean Body Mass in Functionally Limited Older Men: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Shalender; Apovian, Caroline M; Travison, Thomas G; Pencina, Karol; Moore, Lynn L; Huang, Grace; Campbell, Wayne W; Li, Zhuoying; Howland, Andrew S; Chen, Ruo; Knapp, Philip E; Singer, Martha R; Shah, Mitali; Secinaro, Kristina; Eder, Richard V; Hally, Kathleen; Schram, Haley; Bearup, Richelle; Beleva, Yusnie M; McCarthy, Ashley C; Woodbury, Erin; McKinnon, Jennifer; Fleck, Geeta; Storer, Thomas W; Basaria, Shehzad

    2018-04-01

    The Institute of Medicine set the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein at 0.8 g/kg/d for the entire adult population. It remains controversial whether protein intake greater than the RDA is needed to maintain protein anabolism in older adults. To investigate whether increasing protein intake to 1.3 g/kg/d in older adults with physical function limitations and usual protein intake within the RDA improves lean body mass (LBM), muscle performance, physical function, fatigue, and well-being and augments LBM response to a muscle anabolic drug. This randomized clinical trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design was conducted in a research center. A modified intent-to-treat analytic strategy was used. Participants were 92 functionally limited men 65 years or older with usual protein intake less thanor equal to 0.83 g/kg/d within the RDA. The first participant was randomized on September 21, 2011, and the last participant completed the study on January 19, 2017. Participants were randomized for 6 months to controlled diets with 0.8 g/kg/d of protein plus placebo, 1.3 g/kg/d of protein plus placebo, 0.8 g/kg/d of protein plus testosterone enanthate (100 mg weekly), or 1.3 g/kg/d of protein plus testosterone. Prespecified energy and protein contents were provided through custom-prepared meals and supplements. The primary outcome was change in LBM. Secondary outcomes were muscle strength, power, physical function, health-related quality of life, fatigue, affect balance, and well-being. Among 92 men (mean [SD] age, 73.0 [5.8] years), the 4 study groups did not differ in baseline characteristics. Changes from baseline in LBM (0.31 kg; 95% CI, -0.46 to 1.08 kg; P = .43) and appendicular (0.04 kg; 95% CI, -0.48 to 0.55 kg; P = .89) and trunk (0.24 kg; 95% CI, -0.17 to 0.66 kg; P = .24) lean mass, as well as muscle strength and power, walking speed and stair-climbing power, health-related quality of life, fatigue, and well-being, did not differ between men

  16. Testosterone replacement alters the cell size in visceral fat but not in subcutaneous fat in hypogonadal aged male rats as a late-onset hypogonadism animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamed A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Amr Abdelhamed,1,2 Shin-ichi Hisasue,1 Masato Shirai,3 Kazuhito Matsushita,1 Yoshiaki Wakumoto,1 Akira Tsujimura,1 Taiji Tsukamoto,4 Shigeo Horie1 1Department of Urology, Juntendo University, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Andrology, Sohag University, Graduate School of Medicine, Sohag, Egypt; 3Department of Urology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu, Japan; 4Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Japan Background: Patients with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH benefit from testosterone replacement by improvement in the parameters of the metabolic syndrome, but fat cell morphology in these patients is still unclear. This study aims to determine the effect of testosterone replacement on the morphology of fat cells in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and on erectile function in hypogonadal aged male rats as a model of LOH. Methods: Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 20–22 months were randomly allocated to two groups, ie, aged male controls (control group, n=5 and aged males treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT group, n=5. Testosterone enanthate 25 mg was injected subcutaneously every 2 weeks for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the intracavernous pressure (ICP and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP ratio was assessed. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue specimens were collected and analyzed using Image-J software. Results: Body weight at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after TRT was 800.0±35.4 g, 767.5±46.3 g, and 780±40.4 g, respectively (not statistically significant. The ICP/MAP ratio was 0.341±0.015 in the TRT group and 0.274±0.049 in the control group (not statistically significant. The median subcutaneous fat cell size was 4.85×103 (range 0.85–12.53×103 µm2 in the control group and 4.93×103 (range 6.42–19.7×103 µm2 in the TRT group (not statistically significant. In contrast, median visceral fat cell size was significantly

  17. Oleochemicals I: Studies on the preparation and the structure of lithium soaps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoeb, Zein E.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithium stéarate, palmitate, myristate, laurate, caprate and caprylate were prepared by means of fusion method. Elementary analysis and the infrared absorptions spectra of the prepared lithium soaps as well as their X-ray diffractions and the thermogravimetric analyses were carried out. The anhydrous lithium salts of fatty acids with 12 carbon atoms or less showed thermal stability up to ca. 300 ± 78 °C depending on the chain length. On other hand the salts with 14 carbon atoms or more were decomposed at 126 ± 4 °C leading to formation of lithium carbonate. The homologous lithium soaps had very similar crystal structure among them and their metal -to- oxygen bonds were similar for the acyl chains between 8 and 18 carbons. However the angle of inclination of the molecular axes to the basal plane increased with the decreasing of the number of carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain, as determined by X-ray diffraction. In addition, the ionic character of the metal -to- oxygen bond was enhanced with the decrease of the number of carbon atoms as shown by infrared spectroscopy.

    Se han preparado estearato, palmitato, miristato, laurato, caprato y caprilato de litio por fusión. Se ha realizado el análisis elemental, los espectros de absorción en el infrarrojo y las difracciones de rayos X de los Jabones de litio preparados, además del análisis termogravimétrico de los mismos. Las sales de litio anhidra de los ácidos con 12 átomos de carbono o menos mostraron una estabilidad térmica hasta los 300 ± 78 °C dependiendo de la longitud de la cadena. Por otro lado las sales con 14 átomos de carbono o más se descompusieron a 126 ± 4 °C formándose carbonato de litio. Los jabones homólogos de litio mostraron una estructura cristalina similar, siendo los enlaces metal-oxígeno del mismo tipo para los ácidos grasos de número de átomos de carbono entre 8 y 18. Sin embargo el ángulo de inclinación que forma la molécula con el plano

  18. Investigation of surfactant/cosurfactant synergism impact on ibuprofen solubilization capacity and drug release characteristics of nonionic microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djekic, Ljiljana; Primorac, Marija; Filipic, Slavica; Agbaba, Danica

    2012-08-20

    The current study investigates the performances of the multicomponent mixtures of nonionic surfactants regarding the microemulsion stabilisation, drug solubilization and in vitro drug release kinetic. The primary surfactant was PEG-8 caprylic/capric glycerides (Labrasol). The cosurfactants were commercially available mixtures of octoxynol-12 and polysorbate 20 without or with the addition of PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil (Solubilisant gamma 2421 and Solubilisant gamma 2429, respectively). The oil phase of microemulsions was isopropyl myristate. Phase behaviour study of the pseudo-ternary systems Labrasol/cosurfactant/oil/water at surfactant-to-cosurfactant weight ratios (K(m)) 40:60, 50:50 and 60:40, revealed a strong synergism in the investigated tensides mixtures for stabilisation of microemulsions containing up to 80% (w/w) of water phase at surfactant +cosurfactant-to-oil weight ratio (SCoS/O) 90:10. Solubilization of a model drug ibuprofen in concentration common for topical application (5%, w/w) was achieved at the water contents below 50% (w/w). Drug free and ibuprofen-loaded microemulsions M1-M6, containing 45% (w/w) of water phase, were prepared and characterized by polarized light microscopy, conductivity, pH, rheological and droplet size measurements. In vitro ibuprofen release kinetics from the microemulsions was investigated using paddle-over-enhancer cell method and compared with the commercial 5% (w/w) ibuprofen hydrogel product (Deep Relief, Mentholatum Company Ltd., USA). The investigated microemulsions were isotropic, low viscous Bingham-type liquids with the pH value (4.70-6.61) suitable for topical application. The different efficiency of the tensides mixtures for microemulsion stabilisation was observed, depending on the cosurfactant type and K(m) value. Solubilisant gamma 2429 as well as higher K(m) (i.e., lower relative content of the cosurfactant) provided higher surfactant/cosurfactant synergism. The drug molecules were predominantly

  19. EFFECT OF SOME PLANT OILS ON THE FATTY ACIDS OF HUMP BEETLE GIBBIUM PSYLLOIDES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABBASY, S.A.; ALY, W.M.; REZK, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of some plant oils (sesame oil, camphor oil, castor oil and camomile oil) as insecticides were studied on newly emerged males and females Gibbium psylloids and also the effect of LC50 of each plant oils on fatty acids composition and relative concentration were determined. The obtained results showed that sesame oil had proved to be more effective with it's advantage over other tested oils of being used at lower concentration and it followed by chamomile oil then camphor oil and finally castor oil. The susceptibility of the males and females to plant oils was the same. There were differences in the number and relative concentration of fatty acids between males and females. Nine fatty acids were detected by the analysis of the whole body of untreated males , these fatty acids are capric (C10) , lauric (C12) , myristic (C14), palmiloleic (C16), margic (C17), stearic (C18) , oleic (C18:1) , linoleic (C18:2) and linolenic (C18:3) . Treatments of males with LC50 sesame oil lead to the appearance of ten fatty acids with increase of caprylic acid (C8) while LC50 chamomile oil lead to the appearance of six fatty acids and fatty acid with C10 , C18:1 and C18:2 were disappeared as compared to control. LC50 of camphor oil lead to the appearance of ten fatty acids and castor oil lead to the appearance of six fatty acids. In untreated females, five fatty acids with C12 , C16 , C17 , C18 and C18:1 were detected. Treatments with sesame oil lead to the appearance of new fatty acid with C18:2 and chamomile oil lead to the appearance of nine fatty acids with increase of C8 , C10 , C14 and C18:2 as compared with untreated females. Camphor oil treatment lead to the appearance of nine fatty acids with increase of four fatty acids with C6 , C8 , C10 and C18:2 as compared to untreated females and fatty acid with C18:1 was disappeared in the treatments. Castor oil leads to the appearance of seven fatty acids. The relative concentration of C12 was the highest fatty acid in

  20. Comparación entre dos métodos de producción para la elaboración de antivenenos ofídicos Snake Antivenin: Comparison Between Two Production Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Rafael de Roodt

    2010-06-01

    . Nevertheless, the treatment of venomous snakebites in domestic animals can turn diffcult due several problems among which, the conspicuous, is the low availability or lack of antivenoms for veterinary use. As commercial pressures on the pharmaceutical industry have led to a reduction in the production of antivenins in several parts of the world, their availability is sometimes rather limited and sometimes these products are impossible to obtain. In this work, we immunized horses with venom of South American vipers to obtain hyperimmune plasma. The plasma was processed to separate whole IgG of F(ab´2 fragments using two conventional methods (caprylic acid fractionation or double saline precipitation and pepsin digestion. The obtained antivenins were tested for their biochemical and immunochemical characteristics and neutralizing potency. The SDS-PAGE of the antivenins showed, in the processed antivenin, bands in the order of 150 and 100 kDa in the whole IgG or F(ab´2 fragments, respectively. The presence of albumin or contaminants of high or low molecular weight was not detected in any of the preparations. No important differences were observed in the neutralizing potency of the antivenins, although production cost was very low with the method used to obtain pure IgG. The low production cost makes the production of antivenins for veterinary use proftable when the production of F(ab´2 fragments is not possible.

  1. Project SAFE. Complexing agents in SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanger, G.; Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    which effects on sorption of radionuclides is apparent (>10{sup -4} M) is exceeded mainly in three waste types in BMA (F.17, F.23/steel and S.21) and in one waste type in the Silo (S.22). The relatively high level of ISA is in part due to the fact that these waste types are not conditioned in cement (F.17 is bituminized), thus there is no sorption to cement. Both bi- tri- and tetravalent elements will probably be affected (S.21 and S.22). It should be pointed out that ISA will only be produced in these waste types if the integrity of the moulds is not maintained and alkaline water enters. Degradation of ISA has not been regarded in the calculations. Other conservative approaches have been adopted in the calculations, thus the concentration of ISA may be somewhat overestimated. Calculations assuming a higher yield of ISA, corresponding to 1000 years of degradation (about 2.5%), lead to relatively small changes in concentration. Calculations using a yet higher yield (10%), which corresponds to about 10 000 years of degradation, showed that critical levels of ISA may arise in all waste types. This is however a highly conservative approach. Due to the presence of NTA, citric acid, sodium capryl iminodipropionate and gluconate emanating from decontamination chemicals, critical concentrations may arise in some waste types in BMA, the Silo and BTF (e.g. F.17, B.05 and F.05). Elements probably to be affected is Mn and in some cases Ni and Pb. Na-gluconate may be present in such quantities that critical concentrations are obtained in waste packages containing unconditioned or bituminized waste (F.17, F.18, F.05 and O.07). Na-gluconate affects the sorption of Eu and potentially also other elements, but current knowledge is limited to Eu. For waste types where the waste is stabilised in cement, sorption of Na-gluconate on the cement will reduce the concentration below critical levels. EDTA will be present at relatively low concentrations but may exceed critical levels in a limited

  2. Project SAFE. Complexing agents in SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanger, G.; Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M.

    2001-01-01

    which effects on sorption of radionuclides is apparent (>10 -4 M) is exceeded mainly in three waste types in BMA (F.17, F.23/steel and S.21) and in one waste type in the Silo (S.22). The relatively high level of ISA is in part due to the fact that these waste types are not conditioned in cement (F.17 is bituminized), thus there is no sorption to cement. Both bi- tri- and tetravalent elements will probably be affected (S.21 and S.22). It should be pointed out that ISA will only be produced in these waste types if the integrity of the moulds is not maintained and alkaline water enters. Degradation of ISA has not been regarded in the calculations. Other conservative approaches have been adopted in the calculations, thus the concentration of ISA may be somewhat overestimated. Calculations assuming a higher yield of ISA, corresponding to 1000 years of degradation (about 2.5%), lead to relatively small changes in concentration. Calculations using a yet higher yield (10%), which corresponds to about 10 000 years of degradation, showed that critical levels of ISA may arise in all waste types. This is however a highly conservative approach. Due to the presence of NTA, citric acid, sodium capryl iminodipropionate and gluconate emanating from decontamination chemicals, critical concentrations may arise in some waste types in BMA, the Silo and BTF (e.g. F.17, B.05 and F.05). Elements probably to be affected is Mn and in some cases Ni and Pb. Na-gluconate may be present in such quantities that critical concentrations are obtained in waste packages containing unconditioned or bituminized waste (F.17, F.18, F.05 and O.07). Na-gluconate affects the sorption of Eu and potentially also other elements, but current knowledge is limited to Eu. For waste types where the waste is stabilised in cement, sorption of Na-gluconate on the cement will reduce the concentration below critical levels. EDTA will be present at relatively low concentrations but may exceed critical levels in a limited

  3. Evaluation the Effect of some Vegetable Oils on Pinoxaden (Axial® Efficacy in Little Canarygrass (Phalaris minor Retz. Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rastgoo

    2016-03-01

    , increasing the amount of herbicide enhanced herbicide concentration gradient and resulted in the effectiveness of pinoxaden herbicide on littleseed canary grass. In all treatments, concentration of 45 g active ingredient had the greatest effect. Results of adjuvant main effects also showed that the use of vegetable oils had significant positive impact on pinoxaden herbicides. Coconut, sesame and almond oils respectively had the best performance in increasing the efficacy of pinoxaden herbicide compared to control without the adjuvants. The average amount of biomass for coconut, sesame, almond oils and control without adjuvants were 1.21, 1.41, 1.48 and 1.65 grams, respectively. Based on results of the regression analysis and comparison of the mean (P≥ 0.05, all adjuvants increased pinoxaden herbicide efficacy. The amount of ED50 decreased and relative potency (R increased. Data analysis showed that coconut oil increased pinoxaden herbicide efficacy more than other Adjuvants and ranking of other treatment was such as sesame oil> peanut oil> herbicide without additive. ED50 of usage coconut oil, sesame seeds, almonds and pinoxaden alone was 29.98, 35.62, 45.93 and 57.80 g a.i.h-1 respectively. Average dry weight for pinoxaden alone, peanut, sesame, coconut oil was 1.65, 1.48, 1.41 and 1.12 grams, respectively. Probably high ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids is reason greater efficiency of coconut oil than other adjuvants. In addition to the above reasons, It seems to abundant of shorter fatty acids in sesame oil and particularly coconut oil (Caprylic 8:0, Capric 10:0 and Lauric 12:0 compared with almond oil enhanced efficacy of herbicides. Vegetable oils that have more saturate/un-saturate fatty acids ratio were more effective in increasing the performance of herbicides. Instance, coconut oil with highest amount of this ratio (11.8 had the most impact on performance of herbicides. A positive relationship existed between lack of oleic acid and effectiveness of